"Geography / Geology" Essays

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Physical Geology the 'Indian Ocean Tsunami Thesis

Thesis  |  9 pages (2,629 words)
Bibliography Sources: 9


Physical Geology

The 'Indian Ocean tsunami' which happened on December 26, 2004 was one of the worst natural disasters to have taken place in recent times. This disaster which ravaged the coastlines of the Indian Ocean resulted in a staggering number of victims, both dead and missing. Indonesia, which was the worst affected, recorded around 160,000 victims followed by Sri… [read more]

Geology You Are Watching Friends Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (580 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Explain to your friends in the car what you've learned about how this particular area formed.

Calderas form as the result of volcanic eruptions. The most massive volcanic eruptions can eject hundreds of cubic kilometers of magma onto the Earth's surface. This magma is removed from underneath a volcano, causing the ground to subside or collapse. The resulting depression is called a caldera. The Long Valley Caldera formed in this manner.

4. On a camping trip in northeastern California you're heading into the Modoc Plateau. Your parents notice how much flatter the volcanic hills are than say Mt. Shasta or Lassen Peak. Explain to them why these volcanoes are so much shorter and wider than the one found at Mt. Shasta.

There are several different types of volcanoes. Shield volcanoes like those in the Modoc Plateau are flat and broad. Shield volcanoes are built almost entirely of fluid lava flows, which tend to make them flat and broad as the lava flows downward as it cools. In contrast, composite volcanoes, like Mt. Shasta or Lassen Peak, are tall, symmetrically shaped, with steep sides. They are so large because they are built of alternating layers of lava, ash, cinders, blocks, and bombs.

5. Your neighbor is remodeling her kitchen and she keeps bragging about how her new granite countertops are from the Sierra Nevada Mountains. She then says that she paid extra money for them because this granite is over one billion years old. Explain to her that the granite could not possibly be one billion years old by educating her on when and how the Sierra Nevada Batholith formed.

The granite in her countertop could not possibly be over one billion years old and be from the Sierra… [read more]

Geography of South America Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,372 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Geography of South America

Geography is the study of how people are interacting with the world around them. Where, there is focus on how the impact of human activities will affect the formation of geographic features, the climate and natural resources. ("What Does Geography Mean") in the case of South America, the continent is known for the wide range of geographic features, climates and natural resources. However, over the last several years human activity has been helping to create vast changes within the continent itself. Part of the reason for this is because of the increased demand for a variety of natural resources that can be extracted from the continent, thanks to globalization. As a result, a shift has occurred where the various economic issues are beginning to have a major impact on geography of the continent. What is happening is the forces of globalization have increased the overall amounts of competition for the different natural resources. In order to effectively, extract these resources, means that various ecosystems and geographic features are being destroyed. Where, during the process of searching for various natural resources the total amount of greenhouse gases that are emitted into the atmosphere increases. This has a ripple effect on the geography of the continent as the warmer temperatures; means that that there will be tremendous changes in the various ecosystems and the different geographic features. To fully understand the overall extent that economic forces are having on the geography of the continent; requires examining how globalization is contributing to the problem and how it could affect the continent in the future. Together, these two elements will highlight how contemporary economic issues are vastly changing the geography of South America.

How Globalization is Changing South America

Globalization is when there is increased competition among the different areas of the world. Part of the reason for this is improvements in communications and a variety of government reforms (such as reducing trade barriers / quotas), which have increased the economic opportunity for many nations. This increased opportunity, is pushing many countries on the continent; to encourage economic development of various regions that are known to have large amounts of natural resources. ("Globalization") for example, Venezuela, Ecuador and Columbia all are known as oil exporters. The problem is that extracting oil and natural gas from the Earth can release methane gas into the atmosphere. ("Latin America at Risk") This is considered to be one of the greenhouse gases that are helping to contribute to the problem of global warming. As more of the various natural resources are extracted, other regions of the continent are sought out to extract even more natural resources. Once this takes place, it becomes a self feeding cycle, where the different countries throughout the region are encouraging the development of these natural resources. The problem is extracting and finding them, will often lead to the destruction of ecosystems during the process. Where, large sections of forest are destroyed to be able to reach the different natural… [read more]

Have We Underestimated the Importance of Water to Human Geography? Essay

Essay  |  9 pages (2,379 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 5


¶ … Water

to human geography?

Human Geography is the study of features and phenomena on earth that are human-made features. Geographers monitor these features and record changes and do so through examining the spatial organization or how it is that land features, humans and human-made features are arranged upon the earth. The human being's use of space on the… [read more]

Geology: Ohio Caverns & Cave Formations Thesis

Thesis  |  6 pages (1,798 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 5


Ohio Caverns, Geology, And Cave Formation

The following paper explores the fascinating and natural wonders of Ohio Caverns, the premier cave system in the state of Ohio, the general geology of the state of Ohio, and a basic overview of cave formation related to the various geological features of a limestone-based cavern system such as found in Ohio Caverns. In… [read more]

Geology of California Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (2,676 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 10



Particularly over the past quarter century, California wines have grown in prestige to become among the world's most celebrated, even challenging more historically established wines from the Bordeaux region of France (Marcus). California's Napa Valley region is considered a bit of a geographic wonder in the wine-making industry for its ability to produce a wide variety of high-quality red… [read more]

Geology (Stratigraphy) Stratigraphy Practical Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (473 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


3.) Why are some areas more "blocky/spikey" than others.

Some areas display more gamma ray activity than others due to the level of exposure of the sediment layer to the sun's gamma ray. These blocky/spikey areas do reflect the level of gamma ray emitted and the relative level of exposure and absorption of the ray.

4.) Why are some peaks more positive and some peaks more negative.

Some peaks are more positive and others more negative due to the level of exposure and decay of radioactive particles contained within the sediment layers. Layers with coal, for example, show this redaction in gamma ray exposure before showing small increases and then leveling off.

5.) Think about what kind of rock you expect based on the gamma data.

Kezza 1: Quartz

Kezza 2: Quartz, Igneous

Kezza 3: Smectite/Illite shale, Feldspar, Coal

Kezza 4: Coal, Quartz

Kezza 5: Illite shale, Quartz, Coal

Kezza 6: Coal, Feldspar, Quartz

6.) Think about the depositional environment

Kezza 1: Miocene age, fine sands

Kezza 2: Cretaceous age, quartzofeldspathic sands

Kezza 3: Jurassic age, medium sands

Kezza 4: Miocene age, coarse fluvio-deltaic sands

Kezza 5: Miocene age, Coarse…… [read more]

Geology Around Little Killary Thesis

Thesis  |  21 pages (5,866 words)
Style: Harvard  |  Bibliography Sources: 30


Geology of Little Killary, Killary Harbour, Galway, Ireland

Regional Geology. The purpose of this study was to thoroughly examine the regional geology of Little Killary, Killary Harbour, Galway, Ireland located in northwest Galway, which is just south of Killary Harbour and situated on the Atlantic coast (see map in Figure 1 below) with the exception of the Kilbride formation. The… [read more]

Geology of Long Island Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (728 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


Geology of Long Island

Long Island is an Island that runs along the eastern coast of the United States, from New York City in the southwest, to the northeast (parallel to the state of Connecticut). At its longest and widest points, it is almost 120 miles long and just under 25 miles wide, and contains two boroughs of New York City (Queens and Brooklyn) as well as two larger counties, (Nassau and Suffolk) which are mostly suburban. This island is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean on the southeast and Long Island Sound to the northwest, but is connected to Manhattan by a number of bridges and tunnels. Long Island is believed to consist of a layer of bedrock made up of "metamorphic and igneous rocks of the pre-Mesozoic age," (Lewis, 1987) and marked the southern most point of glaciation during the last Ice Age. Because of the effect of glaciation during the last Ice Age, the geology of Long Island was transformed during that time. Therefore, it is interesting to examine the geology of Long Island before, during and after the latest period of glaciation.

As previously stated, Long Island rests on bedrock made up of metamorphic and igneous rocks, but has been covered by deposits of sands and clays from the Cretaceous period some 70 million years ago. ("Geology of Long Island.") This was the geological condition of Long Island prior to the glaciers moving into the area during the Wisconsin stage of the Pleistocene Epoch. The Wisconsin stage "started in Canada about 85,000 years ago, reached Connecticut about 26,000 years ago and began to wane on Long Island about 21,000 years ago." ("Geologic History") The ice sheet extended half way down Long Island and the southernmost point is marked by the accumulation of rocks and other debris carried by the glacier. This point is called a terminal moraine, and there are two terminal moraines on Long Island, the Ronkonkoma and the Harbor Hill, which mark the southernmost point of glaciation during two distinct sub-stages. These moraines currently are the highest points on Long Island.

As the ice sheet retreated, it left behind not only ridges of debris at its edge, but also…… [read more]

Blue Mountain Research Paper

Research Paper  |  7 pages (1,979 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Blue Mountain

Big White on Blue Mountain

Canada's Blue Mountain is defined by its geography: If it were not where it is and what it is than it would be far poorer economically, not to mention also aesthetically. In fact, the economic and the aesthetic are one and the same: The Blue Mountain is a ski resort, something that could… [read more]

Physical Geography Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (490 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+



Uniformitarianism "suggests that continuing uniformity of existing processes were responsible for the present and past conditions of this planet. This theory rejected the idea that catastrophic forces were responsible for the current conditions on the Earth (http://www.physicalgeography.net/fundamentals/contents.html)."

Physical geography relates to studies of environmental issues and science by providing students with important information about the "state of the environment (http://www.physicalgeography.net/fundamentals/contents.html)."

Pattison's four traditions of geography are "Spatial Tradition, which is the investigation of the phenomena of geography from a strictly spatial perspective; Area Studies Tradition, which is the geographical study of an area of the Earth at either the local, regional, or global scale; Human-Land Tradition, which is the geographical study of human interactions with the environment; and Earth Science Tradition, which is the study of natural phenomena from a spatial perspective, best described as theoretical physical geography (http://www.physicalgeography.net/fundamentals/contents.html)."


The study of physical geography has been around four hundreds of years. It is an important aspect of understanding the earth's environment.

Works Cited

(Fundamentals of Physical Geography. (accessed 10 January, 2005).

).… [read more]

Geography - GIS Systems Geographic Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,269 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


This discipline is what enables GIS to become a part of the decision aiding tools. Mathematics is the last discipline of the GIS but is not the least important as it is components of mathematics in geometry, topology and matrix algebra that enable the analysis of spatial data. (What is a GIS and What Does It Do?)

GIS forms a part of the several information technologies that brought about a sea of change in the way geographers go about research and thereby contribute to society. In the last twenty years these information technologies have had a significant impact on the way the research techniques are employed specific to the discipline and also in the manner in which geographers communicate and cooperate around the globe. The discipline specific tools that have contributed to this include Cartography and Computer-Assisted drafting. Just as word-processing soft-wares are a boon to writers, computers give several advantages to cartographers. In today's world automated techniques are more of the rule instead of being the exception in the area of cartographic production. (Geographic Information Systems as an Integrating Technology: Context, Concepts, and Definitions)

Photogrammetry from the air has been used extensively and successfully as a technique for cartographic production and geographic analysis. Aerial photogrammetry today is augmented with the use of remotely sensed information garnered by satellites in outer space. The developments in the field of information technologies have made both these types of information more readily accessible and more easy to use. Statistical analysis and the models of spatial patterns and processes have used the assistance of computer technology for a very long time. The developments in the field of information technology have made these techniques more widely available and have permitted the models to grow in complexity and scale to give more precise depictions of real-world processes. (Geographic Information Systems as an Integrating Technology: Context, Concepts, and Definitions)

The GIS permits geographers to collect and study information faster than was possible with the old methods and techniques. GIS thus is an integrated technology that uses and expands techniques that geographers have been using for a long time in their study of natural and social systems. The general tools include Communication and Collaboration. Today e-mail, discussion lists and computer bulletin board enable geographers around the globe to communicate and share ideas. Interactive classes and workshops at far away locations have been made possible by distance-learning techniques. Networking has made it easy to access both primary and secondary research material and resources found in libraries, government agencies and research institutions worldwide. (Geographic Information Systems as an Integrating Technology: Context, Concepts, and Definitions)

The cost of publishing and dissemination of information has gone down drastically with improved information technologies as also the time required for the circulation of information. (Geographic Information Systems as an Integrating Technology: Context, Concepts, and Definitions) Remote sensing is an example of GIS. Sensors loaded on aircraft or satellite enable remote collection of data about the surface of the earth. The normal technique used by… [read more]

Manhattan Geology Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (804 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


The geology of Manhattan was created by two events. A large volcanic gash opened up between New Jersey and Manhattan, which helped uplift areas along the New Jersey side of the Hudson River, and also helped create the channel between New Jersey and New York. During the Ice Age, glaciers further carved out the channel, helping to create a deep, smooth area for the Hudson River to course through. During the Cambrian period "Manhattan's bedrock of schist was a sedimentary deposit of alien clay and other mineral constituents. Through pressures, infiltrations, and foliation, this amalgam was metamorphosed and recrystallized into its present form and hardness." Thus, the stage was set for modern building and development. Without the base of bedrock and schist in the area, the land would be much more liable to settling and shifting and would not support the weight of the buildings erected throughout the city. It also would be undermined by the infrastructure beneath the surface. Therefore, the bedrock is quite necessary for the entire development of Manhattan, both above and below ground.

The geology of Manhattan and the surrounding area helped create the development and building that continues today. It helps support some of the world's tallest structures, and it also could create havoc in one of the world's largest cities if a major earthquake occurs there. Much of the underground infrastructure of the city lies along fault lines or crosses them. Manhattan rests on the perfect substance to allow it to grow and develop upward and below ground, too.


Alden, Andrew. "A Tale of Two Favorite Cities." About.com. 1997. 21 June 2005.

< http://geology.about.com/library/weekly/aa052597.htm

Federal Writers' Project (N.Y.). A Comprehensive Guide to the Five Boroughs of the Metropolis: Manhattan, Brooklyn, the Bronx, Queens, and Richmond. New York: Random House, 1939.

Merguerian, Charles. "A Geological Transect From New York City to New Jersey." DukeLabs.com. 2002. 21 June 2005.

< http://www.dukelabs.com/Abstracts%20and%20Papers/1CManual0209.htm

Paige, Sidney. Application of Geology to Engineering Practice: Berkey Volume. Baltimore, MD: Geological Society of America, 1950.

Rodgers, Cleveland, and Rebecca B. Rankin. New York: the World's Capital City: Its Development and Contributions to Progress. New York: Harper, 1948.

Spirn, Anne Whiston. The Granite Garden: Urban Nature and Human Design. New York: Basic Books, 1984.… [read more]

Geology Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (2,427 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


These include: the fact that the continents look like their shapes would fit together into a larger whole, that fossils which have been found in regions such as South America and Africa indicate that similar if not indeed the same types of animals lived on that landscape at one time, that seismic and volcanic activity occur frequently along believed plate… [read more]

Geography's Role the Existence Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (542 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Geography influences boundaries, country, state and nation development, international organizations, diplomacy, internal divisions and voting.

Geography also affects how a nation's economy behaves, with terrain serving as a hindrance or help to trade. Geography plays a major role in the development of a country's economic systems. Economic geography considers a country's resources, climate, politics, physical geography and population as they relate to a country's economy. The separation of a country's population by physical barriers, such as bodies of water or mountains, affects the trade of goods and service. Economic geography affects development and underdevelopment

Cultural geography is another aspect to consider. The many cultural aspects found throughout a country, and how they relate to the spaces and places where they originate and then travel as people move across areas are significant influences. Some of the main cultural phenomena that geography influences include language, religion, different economic and governmental structures, art, and music. Globalization is becoming increasingly important as it allows specific aspects of culture to easily travel across the globe. For both Japan and Portugal, people living in a rural area would be more culturally tied to the natural environment around them than those living in a large metropolitan area.

Additional topics in which to explore the significance of geography with respect to nation development include the following:

Health geography as a factor in considering health, disease and health care from a geographical perspective

Tourism geography with respect to environmental impact, tourism and leisure economies

Population geography as it relates to human populations, their composition, growth, distribution, and migratory movements… [read more]

Geography Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (580 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


S. They soon learned that it was considered vital to the political leaders during that time period.

America is a world power. Our interests are world wide through trade and political agreements. It is important that schools teach the new geography so students learn about all of these interests. The best thing a country can do for its people is to educate them. This is for the now and for the future of our country and that is why geography is so important. Without geography we wouldn't know how to look at a map, or find a particular country, or know that Washington State is on the pacific coast while Washington D.C. is on the east coast.

Geography is more than learning the capitals of the states. It is important to know the resources of states and countries. This is important for world commerce. The knowledge of these resources make trade possible. We can trade with other countries for what we don't have and we can give them what we do. Geography is also important to anyone navigating on land or sea. The measures are latitude and longitude. These are imaginary lines. The imaginary vertical line is longitude and it runs through the Greenwich Observatory in the United Kingdom and measures distance east and west of the Prime Meridian up to 180 degrees. Lines of latitude and longitude cross each other forming a grid. Any point on earth can be located by its precise latitude and longitude.

Geography studies include maps that show the physical boundaries of countries and states. Some maps also include political information. Other indicators are for terrain, landforms…… [read more]

Geography Livingstone's Geographical Tradition Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,314 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Judgments are being made all the time, but they are made within an academic environment carefully structured by the training process." (p. 21)

So the process of discovery and the field f science is not designed for explorers and new thinkers, (which have made the field great over the past centuries). The field is designed for those who can:

Operate within an accepted body of knowledge, ordered and interpreted in a particular way

Consider a group of puzzles which remain to be solved

Who will follow a set procedure for puzzle solving.

Johnston's book examines geographic study since the end of the Great War. At that time, resources were directed into benefiting society that was previously focused on warfare. Geographic studies identified six specific trends of interest at that time:

1. Encyclopedic trend toward cataloging and identifying new information

2. Educational trend toward recording and cataloguing new information so it could be reproduced and taught.

3. Colonial trend toward cataloguing the influence of Britain on colonizing vast parts of the earth.

4. Generalizing trend toward identifying general principles which applied to all geographic studies.

5. Political trend toward evaluating the influence of different political structures and their influence on geographic expansion.

6. Specialization trend which recognizes that no one person or academy could identify all there is to know about a topic.

These trends spanned evolving philosophies, methodologies and ideologies in the field of geographic studies.

As these new paradigms evolved in the field of geographic studies, a change that affected the entire field was the influence of the scientific method. Because the discipline was strongly regimented against the acceptance of new beliefs these changed erupted slowly in individual papers published from different researchers. The apparent dissatisfaction with the current scientific trends which existed after the war was general and far reaching motivation toward these changes. Acceptance of the scientific method's influence was termed a growth in "systematic studies." After the desires for a more systematic approach to geographic studies took hold, geographers searched to identify a focus. Because geography is essentially a study of distance, and the means by which civilizations spanned the distances between them, the study of special systems was applied to the science. According to Haggett's schema for studying special systems, there are 6 elements: movement, channels for the movement to travel, central nodes, hierarchies of nodes, surfaces (geographic relief) and finally diffusion of movement which control the development of social organizations. (p. 95)

To this schema was added the influence of behavioralistic motivations. After all, men are creatures which can be studied on the basis of habit and behavior. The influence of mankind's desires to establish goals and specific behaviors must also be taken into account. Land use decisions, mental maps, and the desire to gain a more universal knowledge ultimately influenced civilization's spread across the globe in specific ways. As man's behavioral tendencies were added into the equation, modern trends became troublesome to geographers.

In the modern era, (from 1960 onward) mankind was in… [read more]

K-5 Geology Lesson Collaborrative Fifth-Grade Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (858 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Another advantage of the less guided version is that it presents a very natural transition to the group selection step.

Group Selection:

It is anticipated that the less guided lesson version will lend itself to a natural gravitation between students sharing similar methodology conceptualizations when they explain their reasoning behind suggesting the various roles and tasks of proposed group members. Likewise, it is anticipated that where the more guided lesson version is appropriate, the instructor will (necessarily) play a more active role in group selection and composition. It should be noted that either way, the instructor may still allow any degree of autonomy along the spectrum from students' selecting their own chosen partners to outright group/role assignment by the instructor. Generally, absolute student latitude will rarely be employed, but neither will rigid assignment often be necessary, either. Ideally, the instructor will assist and supervise group selection to ensure that each group is composed of individual students likely to collaborate smoothly and which includes students enthusiastic about complementary aspects of the lesson (as opposed to groups where every member is primarily enthusiastic over the same individual role, for example).

Monitoring and Facilitating Collaboration:

Once the groups have been established and are ready for the practical lesson module, the instructor should assign a single rock (or set of several rocks) to enable groups to test their individual roles and methodology. Naturally, the instructor can expect to devote more time to this step in the less guided lesson version, because groups employing procedures of their own (approved) design will require more "fine tuning" and adjustment than the more guided lesson version where individual roles within groups and experimental methodology is assigned by the instructor. As a general rule, the educational benefits of allowing greater autonomy in group selection and experimental methodology design (wherever appropriate to the group) greatly outweigh the additional time and guidance required of the less guided lesson version.


Testing is greatly facilitated by providing test rock sets whose breakdown is known to the instructor prior to the practical portion of the lesson. Either way, the instructor has tremendous latitude between allowing groups to retest in order to verify results, retest with different role assignments within groups, or even reassigning each group's rock set to other groups for verification in order to demonstrate the concept of independent verification" or "peer review."… [read more]

Physical Geology Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,460 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Wind, Dust, And Deserts

Deserts represent a third of the landscape on Earth, and are created as a result of the lack of water (Planet Earth 2006, film documentary). Every desert has one thing in common; the intense daytime sun. In Australia, the most arid continent on Earth, and in the daytime temperatures rise five degrees per hour, and by… [read more]

Geology Plate Tectonics and Bedrock Responses Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,384 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3



Plate Tectonics and Bedrock Responses: The Formation of Unconformities, Stress, Strains, Faults, and Joints

Plate tectonics is a relatively recent explanation for many -- arguably most -- of the Earth's geological features. The convergence of two plates of the Earth's crust can cause the thrusting up of mountain ranges, such as the Himalayas and many others, and can also or alternatively result in subduction zones and heavily increased volcanic activity. Where plates diverge, generally in ocean floors, great canyons and more volcanic activity can appear as the molten rock of the underlying mantle bubbles up to produce new crustal material. In addition to these large-scale geological features, more minute -- in geological terms -- changes are also produced by the movements of the tectonic plates, creating an abundance of details in the physical geology in the bedrock of any given area that provide clues as to the progression of geological events and the movements of tectonic plates over the course of the Earth's existence.

Stress and Strain

A basic definition of terms is necessary to understand the ways in which the forces of plate tectonics create the observable geological features identified above and the many others that exist. Stress, as used in geology, refers to the force(s) applied to an object or geological feature/area; in the context of the scope of this paper, it refers to the various forces arising out of and/or causing the movement of the tectonic plates as they act on bedrock (Dutch 1999). Though pressure is actually a unique type of stress, it is a useful general term for understanding stress.

While stress refers to the actual forces affecting certain geological elements, strain basically refers to the effects of these forces (Dutch 1999). That is, measurements and expressions of strain denote the degree to which a geological feature or area -- in this context, again, the bedrock of a particular area -- is affected, shaped, and warped by the stress to which it is subjected. The same types and levels of stress can yield very different strains depending on the material upon which the stress is acting, as well as numerous other factors (Dutch 1999). Though the terms stress and strain are very closely related, then, it is important tor recognize the distinctions and differences that exist between these two terms -- the former is a description of force itself, while the latter is a description of a force's effects (Dutch 1999).

Joints and Faults

Just as stress and strain are very closely related yet distinct terms, the terms joint and fault refer to highly similar yet fundamentally geological features. Both joints and faults are the result of stress, and shows signs of strain; they are fractures that occur in the Earth's crust due to the movement of the Earth's tectonic plates (ISU 2010). There are several different kinds of stress that can produce fractures, and this can in large part affect the eventual outcome of the geological forces -- whether the fracture will become… [read more]

Metamorphism Physical Geology Metamorphism: Causes, Manifestations Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,236 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2



Physical geology

Metamorphism: Causes, manifestations, and varieties

Metamorphism: Causes, manifestations, and varieties

Metamorphic rocks are the result of mineralogical and structural changes to the integrity of existing rock structures. The appearance of metamorphic rocks is as varied as the temperature, pressure, or chemical changes that produce the rock. Both igneous and sedimentary rocks can be changed into metamorphic rocks when subjected to physical and chemical conditions differing from those under which the rocks were originally formed (Jessey & Tarman 2010). "The term metamorphism means to change. Most of us think of the metamorphosis that occurs when a caterpillar becomes a butterfly. While not as dramatic, similar changes can occur in rocks. Rocks will alter their form and appearance to suit new conditions. Unfortunately, metamorphism is a slow process that occurs deep within the Earth. We cannot directly observe the process, but we can see the end result" (Jessey & Tarman 2010).

Metamorphism can be caused by the heat generated when the earth's sliding plates or the compressive force of gravity creates friction. Radioactivity can also be heat-generating. Other structural sources of heat include pressure from lithostatic rock burial as the result of plate tectonics. Chemically active fluids, including water which "circulates in response to heat generated by cooling magmas" can cause ion exchanges between the liquid solution and the rock through which the liquid is traveling and also generate heat (Jessey 2010). Metamorphism "occurs at temperatures and pressures higher than 200oC and 300 MPa" (Mega Pascals) and while rocks subjected to lower temperatures can change in their appearance this is technically not considered metamorphic activity (Nelson 2004). For example, "diagenesis is also a change in form that occurs in sedimentary rocks. In geology, however, we restrict diagenetic processes to those which occur at temperatures below 200oC and pressures below about 300 MPa…equivalent to about 3 kilobars of pressure (1kb = 100 MPa)" (Nelson 2004). So-called low-grade metamorphism occurs at temperatures between 200 -320oC at relatively low pressure while high-grade metamorphism occurs at temperatures above 320oC at high pressure. Low grade metamorphic rocks have abundance of hydrous minerals vs. high-grade rocks that do not, as the level of pressure limits fluid circulation (Nelson 2004).

Metamorphism is classified according to certain types, Contact or thermal metamorphism is the "alteration of rocks at or near the contact of a cooling pluton," in a very narrow area of a rock's surface (Jessey 2010). A pluton is an igneous rock formation like a dike or a batholith. The metamorphosis of the pluton is caused by heat and circulating fluids rather than pressure. The heat produces a series of 'zones' that are "characterized by the presence of one or more diagnostic mineral," a mineral that 'tells' the geologist about the kind of change that has occurred (Jessey 2010). A common visual example of contact metamorphism can be seen in the series of concentric effects "produced adjacent to igneous intrusions where several metamorphic zones represented by changing mineral assemblages reflect the temperature gradient from the high-temperature… [read more]

Geography of Ireland Is an Island Situated Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (2,067 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 8


Geography of Ireland

Ireland is an island situated in the North Atlantic Ocean in northwestern Europe. Ireland is noted for its low central plains, as well the ring of coastal mountains that surrounds the island. Ireland's highest mountain peak is Carrauntoohil, which is elevated 3,414 feet above sea level. The western coast of the Island is particularly rugged; it contains… [read more]

Penokee Range in Wisconsin Research Paper

Research Paper  |  15 pages (4,206 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


¶ … Penokee Range in Wisconsin. We focus our analysis on various areas of the range such as its general geology, formation, surficial geology as well as quandary geology. The paper also focuses on discussions around the major issues surrounding the proposed building of an iron mine on the range. In this paper, we discuss how the mine will affect… [read more]

Nationalism in Geography Classrooms: Challenges and Opportunities Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (582 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Nationalism in Geography Classrooms: Challenges and Opportunities

This journal article begins by stating that political geographers have long been critically engaging with nationalism as a research topic, and it is equally important to continue this engagement in geography classrooms. (Schlosser, 2011) the argument for this belief is the fact that nationalism appeals to students in different ways than simple geography. Nationalism is "intertwined because it is often a deeply emotional, perceptual, and experiential topic for students." It is also a topic that requires critical thinking, and helps students to understand geography and how it may shape the very type of civilization that surrounds it. In order to teach this to students, it must be inferred that national identity is not timeless, but rather shaped by history and where one is culturally situated.

Nationalism is a heated topic in schools, and may seem out of place in a lesson on geography. Proponents believe that stirring nationalistic feelings in an instituted lesson would fuel hostility and xenophobia. This is not necessary true, however, because students tend to understand the ideas that are held closely to them, identity being one. Exposure to nationalism is an attempt to de-emphasize its effect on us, by removing its hold over our own beings.

The journal article continues by teaching how one should approach controversial subjects in the classroom. The concept of nationalism, defined as "the territorial expression of identity," is more of an expression of a group rather than a way of life. It is intimate within a certain geographic setting, regardless of personal identity such as race, ethnicity, religion, or sex. Nationalism can be a concept that is hijacked by the state. When this happens, it is typically through charm campaigns, possibly as propaganda, or in…… [read more]

Geology it Was a Work of Genius Term Paper

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It was a work of genius," author Simon Winchester asserts, "and at the same time a lonely and potentially soul-destroying project. It was the work of one man...bent on the all-encompassing mission of making a geological map of England and Wales," (192). In the eighteenth century, while he dug canals for the burgeoning industries of England, William Smith discovered… [read more]

Rocks Land and Sea Research Paper

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Rocks, Land and Sea

Sea Level: What is relative sea level (RSL)? What is eustatic sea level? How is sea level measured? What are two (2) issues associated with using this (that) method to ascertain changes in sea level over time? What are three (3) potential problems associated with rising sea level (transgressive environment) along a coast? What is transgressive… [read more]

Geography Relates Research Paper

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In regards to the former, there is more access to goods and services, there are various entertainment opportunities, education may be facilitated, job opportunities are more frequent and diverse, etc.

Theoretically and globally we all do belong to the same country, as individuals pertaining to the same race. However, there is no denial that some societal aspects cannot be addressed otherwise but either nationally or internationally.

Research into a civilization should first consider the age of the geographical region where the first inhabitants were registered. However, considering that many groups were nomad, research needs to expand the area and trace the civilization's roots. Based on actual evidence, either archaeological or statistic, when studying a civilization, we should go as far back into history as research allows us.

If we were referring to modern France then it could be suggested that France as a country started to develop with the French Revolution when various elements contributed to its upheaval like the emergence of constitutional features of a secular and democratic country. Moreover, changes of women's role in society would further substantiate modern pattern thinking. However, it is more accurately to draw upon France since the Gaul era. Throughout history, territorial changes occurred as consequences of either wars or agreements. Although the region Gaul encompassed territories that are no longer part of France, it is the ancient Gauls that have given birth to modern France. Because of various cultural connections, information regarding the Gauls can indeed be useful in relation to modern France.

Belonging is as much a cultural term as it is territorial. Someone who is a citizen of America but descends from Italian immigrants may choose to limit his heritage there while it would be more interesting to discover and be able to relate to much older ancestors.… [read more]

Geology Water Is an Important Case Study

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The volcanic emission takes the form of external rock on the surface of earth, after it becomes cool. Areas prone to volcanic emission are not fertile hence people tend to migrate from these areas towards the areas where water is plentiful and farming can be made possible. The migration towards coastal areas gives birth to civilizations. Majority of the civilizations find their roots in the banks of rivers and coastal areas.

Porosity and Permeability of Earth Materials

Porosity refers to the capacity of earth material to hold water contents like a container. In other words, how much is the hollow shape in the material. Permeability, on the other hand, refers to the capacity of material to manage water flow. It refers to the pores, their distances and connectivity.

Both the factors are important to determine the quality of water under the earth's surface. It also determines the level of water in the ground when underground water supplies are planned. Since the natural water resources like rain and oceans also play a major role in spreading water to many areas of the world, the mentioned two factors determine how much water is preserved by the earth so that it can be extracted in the hour of need. These factors vary depending upon the type of land e.g. rocks, sand etc.

It is interesting to mention that water resources like canals, lakes and rivers get water from the underground sources as well. On the other hand, oceans and seas both import and export water from these sources. Hence, level of water in these resources keeps on changing.


Scientus. (2010). Retrieved from http://www.scientus.org/Wegener-Continental-Drift.html

US Department of Energy. (2012). Retrieved from http://www.afdc.energy.gov/fuels/ethanol_production.html… [read more]

Region's Geologic Formation Research Paper

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These processes have resulted in a number of features, including erosional shorelines and depositional shorelines (Gillespie et al., 2010). Other distinct types of shorelines include cliffs of bedrock and drift, wide sandy strands, rocky and rubbly coasts, and swampy and marshy flats. Some of the best wide sand beaches in the world are located in the Great Lakes region. The sands originated as glacial sediments derived from rocks that were ground up by the ice into particles 0.05 to 2mm in diameter, which were then washed out by meltwaters as the ice receded (Larson & Schaetzl, 2001).

Recent shoreline erosion has become a concern over the past century as humans have controlled lake outlets, regulated water flow into and out of the lakes, and changed shore zone characteristics. Recent human interventions in the form of dammed rivers and jetties and engineering structures at river mouths have reduced the supply of sand to the shore zone (Larson & Schaetzl, 2001).

Today, lake level changes occur of approximately 1/3m annually, up to about 2m over 10 to 20-year periods. These changes are mainly caused by climate. Also, various engineering works allow minimal control on lake levels for some of the Great Lakes. Although these changes are not as pronounced as earlier changes, subtle changes in lake level have produced a significant effect on shoreline erosion, which is a major concern of coastal residents (Larson & Schaetzl, 2001). To sum up, the geology of the Great Lakes region, which began its evolution several billion years ago, continues even today .

Reference List

Davis, P. (1998). A simple review of the tectonic evolution of the Great Lakes Region: Outline of tectonic events. University of Minnesota Department of Earth Sciences. Retrieved March 9, 2012 from: http://www.geo.umn.edu/people/grads/davi0919/srthesis/tectonic%20overview.html

Gillespie, R., Harrison, W.B. III, & Grammer, G.M. (2010). Geology of Michigan and the Great Lakes. Cengage Learning. Retrieved March 9, 2012 from: http://custom.cengage.com/regional_geology/data/Geo_Michigan_Watermarked.pdf

Great Lakes Information Network. (2004). Great Lakes shoreline geology. Retrieved March 9, 2012 from: http://www.great-lakes.net/teach/geog/shoreline/shore_1.html

Larson, G. & Schaetzl, R. (2001). Review -- Origin and evolution of the Great Lakes. Journal for Great Lakes Research 27(4): 518-46. Retrieved March 9, 2012 from: http://www.geo.msu.edu/schaetzl/PDFs/Larson-Great_lakes.pdf

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). (2008). Natural processes in the Great Lakes. Retrieved March 9, 2012 from: http://www.epa.gov/greatlakes/atlas/glat-ch2.html… [read more]

French Geography Help to Broaden Research Paper

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Just reply to the below 3 .

Now respond to the below comments.


When I was younger, history and geography were not my favorite subjects. As I watched all the clips and video's, I realized that geography has alot to do with culture (and not that just the French are from France). It was very interesting to me that the different regions had different characteristics which created a different feel for each region and the culture of each was diffferent. While I have always wanted to go to France and visit Paris, I now really like the idea of possiblly visiting Strasbourg or Nice and some of the towns or villages. The more I learn about the geography of France, I realize that when I finally do book tha trip, It will not be for just a week or 10 days, lol. The way the geography of France was presented with the different characteristics of each was actually a really fun way of learning about the different regions and has changed my preconceived notion of what France would be like (I envisioned a large city with lots of people and a "touristy" feel).

As far as my geographic region (the north shore of Hawaii is where I grew up) affecting how I think of myself, I believe it does to a degree. Hawaii is pretty laid back, yet since… [read more]

North Carolina Tsunami Risks Term Paper

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(Neal W. Driscoll et all, 2000) The institution contrasts the frequency of the former events with the relative infrequency of the other. Although WHOI is interested in being able to track the process of costal change over the course of years, of particular and ominous interest is this second risk. When the large-scale events occur, the ocean's bed smoothes out, eliminating the large canyons that typify the places where river basins empty into the ocean.

The reason that North Carolina is particularly susceptible when compared to any given point along the coastline lies in the shape of the deposit thatthe river makes. The deposit from the Susquehanna River and Chesapeake Bay area assumes a funnel-shaped canyon, where deposits are more even and the sea floor is much more static.

Although a major tsunami has not hit the Eastern Seaboard since 1929, simulations have been generated using hydrodynamic shallow water equations. It was found that the most dangerous variety of tsunami, in which a large, single wave inundates a coast, is most likely to result from landslides that occur rapidly and accelerate to a high velocity. Therefore, it is reasoned that a small, fast landslide is much more dangerous than a larger landslide that happens more slowly. The largest waves occur in the direction of the slope failure; they loosely correspond to the shape of the seabed.

This is why continental slope failure off the coast of Canada between Nova Scotia and Newfoundland affected the two areas differently; whereas Newfoundland was hit dead-on by the tsunami, which ranged from 4-12 meters, Nova Scotia was only awash in waves that were a meter above their normal height. It is estimated that should a tsunami hit the coast of North Carolina, it would carry the same power as a level 3 to level 4 hurricane. (Neal W. Driscoll et all, 2000)

History has demonstrated to us that these landfall events are rare and usually precipitated by an earthquake. Rather than being constantly subjected to the randomness of geological whim, the Atlantic coast has only produced one tsunami over the course of the last 75 years. Although these tsunamis are deadly, their effects would be indistinguishable from the tidal effects of hurricanes that threaten to strike the eastern seaboard at least once every year. Rather than involve our selves in the costly business of timing tsunamis, the state might consider integrating safeguards into its shoreline infrastructure that would protect the local population against the sea. Because the federal government usually is solicited for help with disaster relief, it would not be beyond its purview in requiring shore communities to ascribe to a strict set of architectural guidelines that would proof the region against calamity. This might include the construction of sturdier homes and subsequent inspections could be administered either at a state level or under the auspices of OSHA or FEMA.

Despite the similarity in tidal resonance between hurricanes and tsunamis, it can be argued that communities should be given warning if a tsunami… [read more]

Social Geography Socially Constructed Term Paper

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Bibliography Sources: 1+


Many have concluded that the "virgin" landscape described during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries was actually one that was "invented" during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries" (Denevan, 1992; Pyne, 1982). This so called "invention" of a geographical landscape of wilderness and raw nature may be perceived as a "deliberate creation" to "ennoble the American Enterprise" (Denevan, 1992).

This change in the environment was necessary to create a "Euro-American landscape" with which people can relate to (Denevan, 1992). Human beings typically learn through experience, interaction and observation. Learning is an integral part of knowledge, and interaction and observation are often utilized as a method for expanding ones cognitive, social and emotional abilities (Bogaards, 2003). People construct and deconstruct idealisms in an attempt to support knowledge acquisition and learning; thus the idea that the nature of geography has been altered and constructed to suit idealisms associated with history makes perfect sense. People in generally are more able to learn and understand via utilization of derived knowledge; knowledge that one can associate with and relate to is more likely to be acquired efficiently and effectively (Bogaards, 2003). The notion for example that within the United States the geographic landscape when tapped into by early explorers was devoid of human interference suggests that early pioneers were truly the first to envision and craft a society that was new, fresh and remarkable. Additionally, the preconceived nature and landscape of the Americas prior to colonization was reflective of the cultural idealisms of the native culture at the time, and this topography may not have suited what Americans associate with cultural norms of today.

People learn best when they can associate with that which with they are familiar. By deconstructing the foundations of geographic knowledge, at least in American society was able to begin with a fresh template with which to build a history, story and societal norms. Thus the geographical landscape was constructed to match a socially adequate idealized notion of how people should interact culturally and socially.


Bogaards, Peter J. "The Underlying thinking of how people learn, acquire knowledge and understand." BogieLand Information. September 2003. {Online}. Available: http://www.bogieland.com/postings/post_construct.htm

Denevan, William M. "The Pristine Myth: The Landscape of the Americas in 1942." Department of Geography, University of Wisconsin. 2004.

Dicken, P. "The Roepke Lecture in Economic Geography." Economic Geography, Vol. 70, 1994

Hanson, S., Lawson, V., McDowell,…… [read more]

Role of Geoinformatics in 21st Century Society Essay

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Role of Geoinformatics in 21st Century Society

Geoinformatics can be defined as a science that addresses the setbacks of geosciences and correlated branches of engineering by developing and making use of information science infrastructure. It brings together geospatial modeling and analysis, design of information systems, improvement of geospatial records, and interaction between human and computer as defined by Laurini &… [read more]

Emergence, Persistence, and Expression of Geographic Variation Article Review

Article Review  |  2 pages (567 words)
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¶ … emergence, persistence, and expression of geographic variation in psychological characteristics," Rentfrow, Gosling & Potter (2008) present an empirical framework for the geography of personality. Working with data gleaned from the United States, the researchers demonstrate the existence and nature of geographic variations in personality and social psychology. Moreover, Rentfrow et al. (2008) present a model that shows how psychological traits vary, where, and why.

Working from the core assumption that geography affects personality in direct and indirect ways, Rentfrow et al. (2008) set out to show which social indicators and specific processes may induce geographic differences. The purpose of the research is to present a model of the geography of personality that bolsters the literature and offers possibilities for practical application. For example, the authors suggest that an understanding of geography of personality can help social workers address issues such as institutionalized racism or public health. Regional differences are described not just in terms of the political boundaries of states . The authors also address geography in terms of climate and other environmental factors.

Noting that the root of research in the field of personality geography rest in anthropology and early psychoanalytic research, Rentfrow et al. (2008) attempt to offer a more detailed and specific understanding of what features in the environment impact what social and psychological characteristics and why. Issues such as selective migration are addressed to acknowledge that many individuals move because they are in search of belonging. In fact, the notion of "fitting in" and its relationship to psychological health and well-being is one that the researchers do take seriously. Social influence and normative behavior as well as environmental influences are also included in the model. For example,…… [read more]

Spain Ranging From the Geographically Strategic Location Essay

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Ranging from the geographically strategic location of a country to its presence along energy transport or key commercial routes to the presence of resources in a country, geography influences the way that the country is likely to act in the international environment, the positions and alliances it will make and the leverage it will benefit from in its relations with other actors. The geography of a country forms the basic characteristics for that country and the profile it can and will adopt in the international arena.

Geography is "the science of place and space" (AAG, 2006) and can be split into two main branches, human geography and physical geography (AAG, 2006). These two branches are strongly interconnected in that the latter is the premise for the first. Indeed, important parts of the physical geography, such as geomorphology, hydrology or landscape ecology will determine relevant aspects of the human geography, such as economic geography, demography or tourism geography. What the Earth offers in a certain country or territory is likely to determine the behavior of the population settling there, the direction of development it is willing to take and the branches of economy it will be able to specialize itself in.

Following on this discussion, geography will play an essential part in international relations and, hence, in international studies. The examples in the 21st century abound. For example, much of the external policy of the Gulf states, as well as the position of other states (notably the United States) towards these countries, is directed by two important issues, both components of human geography: the strategic location of these countries and their natural resources, mainly oil.

The first component mentioned is related to the presence of these countries in an area with a constant potential for conflict: the Middle East. Their presence there assures a participation in the Peace Process, as well as a potential role as a mediator that is likely to increase their country profile, as well as their capacity to use this mediating role as a leverage for ensuring and supporting other national interests.

The second component also increases, to an even higher degree, their profile in the international arena. Their capacity to dictate and regulate oil price and, especially, oil supply, makes other countries seek them as allies. This is an example of how geography dictates international relations and why it should be a part of international studies.

On the other hand, geography also sometimes dictates or helps support the international politics of a country. Russia is perhaps one of the best examples in this sense. Its enormous resources and potential in gas, oil and other natural resources allows it to take a hawkish stand in international politics and often simply use these as a blackmailing tool in the relationship with other countries. The gas crisis in 2006 and 2009 are relevant examples in this case, as is the way that the Russians are trying to hold on to their monopoly over gas transport routes to Europe.… [read more]

New York State Glacier History Term Paper

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¶ … glaciers in the development in New York's present geology. Take a drive around just about any part of New York State and you can find evidence of glacial activity in the past. There is evidence even in New York City's Central Park of this glacial activity that molded and shaped the Empire State into its present geological format.

One way to spot hints of glacial activity is to look at the faces of the rocks and the surrounding landscape. The surface of the rocks will be smooth, almost as if they were sanded with a giant piece of sandpaper (which, in effect, they were). There are often scratches or grooves in the surface of the rocks, as well. The landscape surrounding these features will often be marked by rolling hills, valleys, and even elongated and oddly shaped hills. This occurs because the glaciers, as they moved into and then receded from an area, they acted as giant files against the soil and rock. They push rocks along, acting like sandpaper and smoothing the surface of the surrounding area, and they retreat and return gradually, so the changes are far less pronounced than other types of geologic activity.

There is another way to tell an area has been formed or molded by glaciers, and that is to look at the layers of soil in an area. Several geologic experts write to remove the soil, and "[O]bserve a sharp boundary between the soil and the rock, and not a gradational change. This indicates that the soil has not developed from the weathering in situ of the rock, but rather that the soil has been transported to its present location by some transporting agency" (Amos et. al, 1968). The transporting agency in this case is a slow-moving glacier, gradually moving across the landscape and shaping the face of the area for eons to come.

The evidence around the state suggests that glaciers covered the entire area several thousand years ago. Another writer notes, "During the last ice age, which peaked approximately 18,000 years ago, ice in what is now New York City lay as much as a mile thick" ("Explaining Variations in Ice," 9). These glaciers were formed by falling ice and…… [read more]

Alexander Von Humboldt Term Paper

Term Paper  |  13 pages (3,609 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 12



The purpose of the study conducted and reported herein is to research and examine the German Geographer, Alexander Humboldt, and through means of a biographical literature, review to inform this study of the contributions that Humboldt made to, as well as the influence,… [read more]

Gobi Desert Term Paper

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Bibliography Sources: 5



The Gobi Desert: Its Past and Future

The Gobi Desert is one of the most striking natural phenomena in the world. It is the world's northernmost desert, interestingly enough home to the world's southernmost glacier in Gobi's Yol Valley (Spritzer 20). The Gobi Desert is truly an expansive and barren area. It is an arc of desert roughly 1,000 miles in length, which varies from between 300 miles and 600 miles in width. Despite the general conception of a desert as full of sand, much of the Gobi desert is only barren rock. The sand and dirt have been blown eastward into China by ceaseless and powerful winds ("Gobi").

The Gobi Desert is situated across the border between Mongolia and China. Much of it is in southern Mongolia, but parts of the desert stretch into northern China (Wirtanen and Wirtanen 98). Despite being remote and harsh, the Gobi is home to a diverse series of landscapes and geographical features. For instance, rather than existing as a single, monolithic desert, the Gobi actually consists of a series of discrete desert areas bordered by enormous mountain ranges. Of course, since the Gobi Desert covers an area of more than 500,000 square miles, it shouldn't be entirely surprising to learn that it consists of a multitude of geographical features -- albeit most of the extremely arid. The Gobi Desert sits at an average elevation of 5,200 feet, roughly one mile above sea level, a fact that contributes to the harshness of the environment and the terrain (Sadler 76).

Many of the geographical features of the Gobi Desert were formed because of the effects of plate tectonics over millions of years. At one time, the Gobi Desert region was at the convergence of two tectonic plates, a fact that helped shape the unique geographic features of the region. More recently in geological terms, the Gobi Desert region has felt the effect of the Indian subcontinent tectonic plate moving northward into Asia. While this movement has had the immediate effect of driving the Himalayas upward, the pressure of this convergence has consistently spilled to the east and west. It has fractured the Gobi landscape and helped drive much of the region up into higher elevations (Sadler 76-79). When we consider the major geologic and geographic features of the region, plate tectonics must be seen as a primary cause in their formation.

But there are other, more immediate, forces that have shaped the geographic features of the Gobi Desert over time. These include the ceaseless winds and seasonal streams that shape the terrain. The winds are powerful enough to prevent dirt from settling through the Gobi, making…… [read more]

Earth Science Info Age and Technology Essay

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Bibliography Sources: 5


Earth Science, Information Age, And Technology

General Earth Science WA-2

General Earth Science WA-3

General Earth Science WA-4

General Earth Science WA-5

Living in the Information Age WA-2

Living in the Information Age WA-3

Living in the Information Age WA-4

Living in the Information Age WA-5

Living in the Information Age WA-6

Living in the Information Age WA-7

American History… [read more]

Earthquakes Shaking: Condition of Tremors and Jostling Term Paper

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Shaking: condition of tremors and jostling that occurs during an earthquake

The initial shaking was reported to have lasted more than a minute and aftershocks were reported to have continued into the next month (Destruction 1868).

The massive shaking was preceded and followed by strong movement. The earthquake itself lasted 45 seconds.

Liquefaction: occurs when the ground becomes water-saturated; damages foundations of buildings and other structures

Liquefaction at the time of the earthquake was reported to be substantial enough to have damaged several important structures.

Liquefaction caused much of the damage following the quake. Most of the damage caused by liquefaction occurred in "reclaimed areas" which has once been bay or marshland.

Rupture: a tear in the rocks moves along the fault plane until it dies out

1868: Earthquake ruptured the southern segment of the Hayward Fault, from Berkeley to Fremont, CA; a distance of 20 miles (Berkeley 2005).

1906: The earthquake was approximately 8 on the Richter scale, creating severe rupture damage from San Francisco and outside the city.

Landslide: condition where large masses of land move from one location to another

1868: Landslide damage unknown; all damage to buildings attributed to shaking…… [read more]

William Renwick. The Content of the Book Term Paper

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¶ … William Renwick. The content of the book is constructed around three central themes: the belief in the interrelationship between humans and their natural environment; the philosophy that many basic principles of geography can be demonstrated and studied on a local levels; and the idea that geography is a dynamic field. The book presents readers with the tools they… [read more]

California, Located in the Western Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,714 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


California, located in the western part of the United States, is the third largest state in the nation. It is best described as a region of extremes, stretching 825 miles from its northwest corner on the 42nd parallel on the Pacific Ocean to its southeast corner on the 32nd parallel at the junction of the Gila and Colorado Rivers (Early… [read more]

Geological Model for Jackfield Location Research Paper

Research Paper  |  5 pages (1,320 words)
Style: Harvard  |  Bibliography Sources: 7


In this region, the groundwater levels are 5m bgl on the lower slope of the Salthouse Road sub-unit and 2m to 3m bgl outside this unit. This suggests that given the slopes are currently active; slope stability is very sensitive to increases in the groundwater level. The sensitivity of groundwater was analyzed using slope stability software and found that areas of the slope are prone to failure with a rising water table.

Furthermore, perched water tables may occur above the in situ clay material within the relatively more permeable made ground which will further reduce the strength of the material.

According to survey monitoring has identified up to 5m NNW movement since 1994 and almost 850mm of settlement in the slipped area. The average rate of movement is ~0.5m / year. The principle cause of ground instability is considered the erosion of the slopes by river action and the high groundwater levels following periods of heavy or prolonged rainfall. The consequences of mining in the area may also be affecting the site.

The movement of the debris slide in the area of the Salthouse Road sub-unit is slow with accelerated periods of movement following high water infiltration. Survey monitoring, during 2003, has identified lateral ground movement to the NE (towards the river) of up to 0.2m and settlement of up to 15mm. Inclinometer monitoring (CP 14) identifies made ground to be slipping on in situ material, which may be subject to sub-artesian water pressures. Ground displacement is ~20mm downslope; all other boreholes show negligible displacements.

A further area of concern is in the Jackfield site, where a section of slope previously failed in 1952-53. The major failure zone lies within 5m of the surface where the slope materials comprise weathered clay and mine spoil (Wolman & Gerson, 1978). Although, the slope is relatively gentle in inclination, erosion at the toe of the river bank by river flow is removing downslope support.

This combined along with prolonged periods of rainfall, because the material in the upper part of the slope to become weaker and failure of the slope occurs as a reactivation of the previously failed slope. The slopes at Jackfield, in the Salthouse Road area, are likely to continue moving downslope. Although movement is slow, the constant motion of the ground will continue to damage structures and the road.

Near Woodhouse Farm, an area of gently sloping surfaces separated by low steep scarps and tension cracks of moderate relief. The downslope edge is formed by a steep continuous scarp some 5 to 10m high, which is considered to be the main backscarp of the Jackfield landslide. The broad fissured scarp is believed to represent an incipient retrogressive extension of the landslide by relatively deep rotational displacements within the bedrock.

Figure 3 -- The geology and debris flows of Severn River.


Landslide activity is widespread in Britain. The causes are variable and there is a range of impacts. It is likely that the nature of the landslide hazard will change… [read more]

Geology Identify Term Paper

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C. Answer these questions about dating techniques and event ages:

(1) Describe how the radiometric dating techniques can be used to measure the absolute numerical age of the youngest rock on this diagram.

Radiometric dating offers a reliable method of measuring the absolute numerical age of the youngest rock, by measuring the decay rates relative to radioactive isotopes.

(2) What principles of stratigraphy could we use to measure the relative age of the youngest rock on this diagram? Give at least two (2) principles.

Several principles of stratigraphy can be used to measure the relative age of the youngest rock in the diagram. The most apparent include lithologic, which would measure the age based on the surrounding layers and their placement: showing the sequence in which each layer was formed. However, this layer is young enough that it would be beneficial to use biostratiagraphy because of the possible presence of biological material like fossils. Also, chronostratiagraphy can be used to propose an exact time for this layer based on the rock composition.

(3) What type of dating technique should be used to give a numerical date the largest igneous intrusion in this diagram?

The largest igneous intrusion in the diagram is very old, meaning that it would be best to avoid the use of biostratiagraphy. It would be best to use a combination of lithologic and chronostratiagraphy, which compare the layer to surrounding layers and also treat the composition of the rock independentlhy.

(4) What principles of stratigraphy should be used to determine the relative age of the Tapeats Sandstone (you can refer to the diagram we used in class)?

Part of the Tonto Group, the Tapeats Sandstone could be measured using a number of different stratigraphic techniques including biostratiagraphy. This is because this layer is heavily impacted by the ocean deposits, and might…… [read more]

Role of Geography in Human Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (586 words)
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Half of the characterizing chromosomes, or alleles, come from the father parent and the other half from the mother of the offspring. These alleles will also be affected by the environment that the human being exists in. For example, impurities within the environment of that individual can mutate chromosomes and alter the genealogy of a being within a single generation. However, other forms of genetic mutation which result in evolution of the species takes many generations. For this reason, researchers cannot determine conclusively which factors within the geography of a location will impact genealogy and thus subsequent generations.

The final determination of scientists was that geography almost certainly had an important part in the creation of adaptations of peoples from their original nomadic tribes. However, it is as yet difficult to tell if certain geographical alterations will lead to a direct alteration in the genealogical alleles of human beings. The conclusion being that it takes some severe trauma in order to create a human evolution. So, if there is to be a visible change in human adaptation because of geographical change, the change in topography and climate will have to be so dramatic and sudden that it creates an immediate need with the human population to adapt.

The findings of the researchers involved in this study make logical sense. It is also difficult to disregard or disbelieve their assertion considering past genealogical change. Other scientists have proven that people have adapted to their geography in the past because if they did not then the species would die out, as is the basis for all adaptation.

Works Cited:

Coop, Graham et. Al. (2009). "The Role of Geography in Human Adaptation." PLoS Genetics.

Public…… [read more]

Leopold, Luna Bergere. Fluvial Processes Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (579 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


The impressive 2000 entries include information on GIS, remote sensing, human impact, pedology, hydrology, zoogeography, climatography and geomorphology, among many others. Entries range from short descriptions to short and self-contained essays on numerous important themes.

Overall, The Dictionary of Physical Geography is well-written and concise. Entries are helpfully cross-referenced with further reading suggestions. The book is obviously intended for those with some previous knowledge of physical geography, as many entries are written for those with existing knowledge.

Hess, Darrel and McKnight, Tom L. Study Guide Physical Geography: A Landscape Appreciation. Pearson, 2001.

Hess and McKnight's textbook is a highly readable and engaging work geared to beginning undergraduates. It is easily understood by entry-level students, and contains a level of detail that will make it useful for teaching. Topics include soil creep, the ozone layer, plate tectonics, weather satellites and volcanic hazards as well as more traditional areas of physical geography.

This undergraduate textbook by Hess and McKnight has a highly visual appeal. It includes over 70 color photographs, and 50 maps.

Photographs are helpfully associated with maps to allow easy location of the picture. It contains helpful boxes for further explanation of key concepts, and the accompanying CD-ROM is full of exercises and videos helpful to the beginning student of physical geography.

Ultimately, this is a highly recommended text. Hess and McKnight's numerous illustrations and photographs are never overused, and they always serve to illustrate an important concept. Further, the writing itself is concise and full of information geared to a beginning audience.

Works Cited

Goudie, A. And Thomas, D., eds. The Dictionary of Physical Geography. Blackwell Publishers, 2000.

Hess, Darrel and McKnight, Tom L. Study Guide Physical Geography: A Landscape Appreciation. Pearson, 2001.…… [read more]

Ancient Michigan Basin Area Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (3,084 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


This theory is particularly true of mammoths and mastodons. There is clear archeological evidence for human hunting to be the only cause of the disappearance of mammoths and mastodons, both elephant-like creatures.

It is equally as important to note that climactic changes also impacted the survival of these animals. Mammoths had teeth ideal for chewing grasses, while mastodons had molars… [read more]

Groundwater & Hydrology Water Term Paper

Term Paper  |  12 pages (4,470 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


The volume of water supply available in your well is dependent on your choice regarding the structure of the well prepared. There are two categories of aquifers viz. unbounded or unbounded. Unbounded aquifers are water aquifers that remain at atmospheric pressure. Bound aquifers are covered by a resistant stratum like clay or shale that restricts the reverse flow of water.… [read more]

Mountain Elbrus Research Paper

Research Paper  |  5 pages (1,417 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


¶ … Elbrus

Geologic Formation and History

Elbrus itself is a huge volcanic cone with two summits that lies just off the main Caucasus Mountains ridgeline. The mountain's highest summit stands at 18,456 feet and its main ridge is made of crystalline rocks like shale, gneiss, and granite (Helman, 2005). Over the millennia, heavy amounts of glaciation have resulted in… [read more]

Carleton Emmons Watkins Research Paper

Research Paper  |  5 pages (1,628 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3



Carleton Emmons Watkins

Carleton Emmons Watkins was a prominent San Francisco-based photographer who first visited and photographed Oregon and the Columbia River Gorge in 1867. He traveled the upper Willamette River and the Columbia River Gorge, taking pictures of its landscapes, early settlements, and the growing railroad and steamship industry that was along the river. His photographs are the… [read more]

Volcanoes in the United States or Other Geographical Areas Research Paper

Research Paper  |  4 pages (1,730 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


Mount Rainier, Washington, is one of the few active volcanoes in the continental United States. It is classified as a stratovolcano, or composite volcano, meaning that it is a tall, more conical volcano built up over the years with numerous layers of strata that includes hardened lava, pumice, and volcanic ash. Unlike shield volcanoes, the more typical look shown in… [read more]

Plate Tectonics Thesis

Thesis  |  5 pages (1,521 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 5



The objective of this work is to identify a specific scientific concept of phenomenon for which the understanding has changed over time. For the purpose of this specific work plate tectonics will be examined.

The work of Mian (1993) entitled: "Understanding Why Earth is a Planet with Plate Tectonics" states that… [read more]

Caesar Cesar's Work "The Gallic Wars" Abounds Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (985 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1



Cesar's work "The Gallic Wars" abounds in characterizations of the two people that he encounters during his campaigns: the Gauls and the Germans. The descriptions for these two people are, however, antithetical: on one hand, Cesar has a positive characterization of the Gauls, while, on the other hand, his description of the Germans is more centered on their negative characteristics that include brigandage, their appetence for destruction and willingness to plunder. The focus of the books is on Gaul, so reference to Germany, both in terms of its geography and of its people is scarce and generally related, in some way or another, to the Gauls.

In this general antithetical approach, Cesar uses an antithesis of the landscape and geographic descriptions as well, both to match the character of the people with the land they live in and to partially explain how a people's character is formed through such a match between geography and human development. This paper will aim to argue that geographical description plays an essential role in the characterization of the Germans that Caesar does in his work and will also provide relevant examples in that sense.

First of all, Caesar insists on the fact that deserted, unpopulated land is part of the Germans' existence and, in fact, their preference for the land surrounding their territory. This point is emphasized in several places throughout his work. Most notably, he states that "to have a vast desert of unpopulated land lying around their frontiers is to them an object of much complacency" and, further on, "there is no more coveted distinction than to live in the centre of a vast wilderness that has been carved out along each and all their frontiers"

This is a first example of the way that Cesar blends characteristics of the German people with the geography and interconnects them. The relationship is quite clear: their inclination towards violence and towards devastation leads, in fact, to a deserted region bordering German territories. As always in his work, the reality may not necessarily be so, but it helps him show the character of the German and provide useful arguments from the geographical elements surrounding them.

There are additional mentions about the geography of Germany throughout the book. In book VI, for example, Caesar refers to the "Hercynian forest, (which, I perceive, was known by report to Eratosthenes and some other Greeks, and which they call Orcynia)"

. The respective paragraph appears, however, in relation with the settlement in that region of the Volcae Tectosages.

The subsequent paragraphs (6.24 to 6.29) complete the image of this geographic component of Germany by mentioning the overall location (as in most cases, Caesar relies on the location of some of the other tribes to define the boundaries of the forest: "it begins at the frontiers of the Helvetii, Nemetes, and Rauraci, and extends in a right line along the river Danube to the territories of the Daci and the Anartes"…… [read more]

Fluid Inclusions Thesis

Thesis  |  5 pages (1,713 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


Fluid Inclusions

Until the early 1950s, few people in the scientific community had any idea of the practical applications of fluid inclusion research. After all, Fluid inclusions are bubbles of liquid and gas trapped within crystals. Fluid inclusions generally range from.01 to 1mm in size, which means that they are generally only visible when viewed under a microscope, though some… [read more]

Bowers Ridge & Shirshov Rise Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,762 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 2


Bowers Ridge & Shirshov Rise

Are the Shirshov Rise and Bowers Ridge features old subduction zones or hotspot tracks? That is the question this paper will relate to and attempt to answer based on available research. Not all articles used in this research are necessarily scholarly; but there are two articles from scholarly sources that will be reviewed and critiqued… [read more]

Johns Hopkins Geologist Bruce Marsh, Who First Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (654 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


¶ … Johns Hopkins geologist Bruce Marsh, who first suggested a decade ago that, magmatic mush rather than crystal free magma was instrumental in the formation of the earth's crust. This mush consisted of both magma and crystal, and occurred in smaller sheetlike chambers rather than the giant chambers of previous assumption. The smaller chambers are vertically connected, which connections also served as pathways for the magma to reach the earth's crust.

To further investigate his theories, Marsh is now researching the McMurdo Dry Valleys of Antarctica. Because the territory in this location precludes human habitation, little has changed in the crust pattern of this location. For this reason, Marsh and his associates have come to refer to the Valleys as a "walk-in laboratory" or a "relic landscape." According to the article, it is the only place on earth that looks almost exactly like it did millions of years ago.

As such, the Dry Valleys date back nearly 180 million years ago, around the time of the continents splitting. From his study of this location, Marsh has found that the process of magma pressure did not only form the earth's crust, but also fractured what was already in existence of the earth's crust. Marsh explains that this is a process resulting from pressure underneath the crust causing stress fractures. These fractures were in turn sealed by further magma deposits, which created a pattern of weak points on the crust. Finally, these were eroded to form the mountains and valleys currently visible in the area.

Marsh's study is highly significant in the field of geology, as it brings together two widely divergent areas of study: that of deep volcanic activity and that of land surface formation. These have never been studied concomitantly before. Marsh's new discoveries opens up a vast new field of study within the discipline. Furthermore, the results have repercussions for filling currently existing gaps in the study of the earth's formation.

Furthermore, this study also…… [read more]

Yucca Mountain Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (2,153 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 6


¶ … Nuclear waste [...] Yucca Mountain nuclear waste project in Nevada. The Yucca Mountain Repository (often referred to as the "nuclear waste dump") is the nation's "solution" to long-term storage of nuclear waste. Nuclear waste is generated from America's nuclear power plants and other government defense programs, and the waste is currently stored in 126 sites across the nation.… [read more]

Plate Tectonics Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (371 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1



The Ups and Downs of Plate Tectonics

Traditionally, we think of plate tectonics as occurring laterally along the Earth's surface as the crust's plates are pushed back and forth along the top of the mantle. In fact, recent research and computer modeling has illustrated that there are more forces at work within the mantle that have a significant impact on the orientation and characteristics of features on the surface of the planet.

One of the persistent problems in geology has revolved around the African superswell, a plateau in South Africa that is 1,000 miles wide and more than a mile high (Gurnis 40). Unfortunately, classical tectonic theory was unable to account for how the superswell had risen so high above sea level. Other similar issues have cropped up over the decades, including Cretaceous sea levels around Denver, Colorado in North America.

New computer models have demonstrated a solution to this problem. It has long been known that the mantle is semi-liquid in nature and that the crust floats upon the surface of this liquid. However, what is becoming clearer is the extent to which…… [read more]

Volcanic Activity and the Consequent Geological Hazard Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (949 words)
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¶ … volcanic activity and the consequent geological hazard namely debris flow. Before beginning to start our summary and review of the chosen article it would be forthright to discuss briefly the other two articles that were overviewed. These include the 'Indonesian eruption of muddy waters' and the 'Volcano hazard management strategies'. The article about Indonesian muddy eruption is the same phenomenon as the one under review where the focus is on strategies to prevent the mud debris flow from sweeping the surrounding settlement regions. It is apt to point here that it is a current problem as the Luis mud volcano is creating havoc in east java. The disaster due to large debris flow is fairly obvious. Several such incidents in the past where the sudden activity from a dormant volcano triggering large and destructive debris flow have been recorded. Mud eruption at the rate of 7000-150,000 cubic metres per day displacing a population of more than 11,000 people gives us a fair indication of the disastrous proportion of such volcanic phenomenon. [David Cyranoski] the other paper was focussed on technological and strategic management techniques for handling geological hazards triggered by tectonic changes. This included several studies by volcanologists, geologists and other scientific teams. This paper concentrates on devising efficient forewarning and evacuation systems in geologically prone regions in order to minimize damage. In particular, the emphasis is on public education and access control systems in place to limit access to dangerous areas. [Ronald W. Perry]

In this paper we review an article, which considers the strategies use to mitigate the effects of volcanic debris flow, which is a prominent problem. The intention behind the choice of the article is that it discusses a simple and effective damage control solution that could be life saving for thousands of people who live in seismically active riverside areas. This problem is particularly amplified in areas where residential zones are adjacent to volcanic landscapes. The analysis of this study assumes importance in view of the fact that the strategies can be very useful in preventing damage from going out of proportion. The recent mud volcano situation in east java in Indonesia where an entire town was totally destroyed is an ideal example, highlighting the importance of research into such damage control mechanisms. The article under review, by Wang Shige, is basically an interventional strategy aimed to study the debris hazard and mechanical systems that can be put in place to mitigate the force and control the debris flow. The researcher suggests a plan of installing low cost slit trap dams as a controlling feature for the debris flow in the Cerro Grande volcanic region of Venezuela. Since there is a large accumulation of material due to volcanic eruptions in the region it is very important that a debri flow control strategy is implemented to prevent the…… [read more]

Earthquakes and Their Dangers Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,230 words)
Bibliography Sources: 11


Earthquakes and Their Dangers

Earthquakes have always been feared for their catastrophic effects and strike without much of a warning. Many recent earthquakes such as the El Salvador quake and the one that happened in India in 2001, and more recently the earthquake in Indian Ocean that triggered the devastating tsunami in Asia, have all proved that major earthquakes tend to be unpredictable in spite of the advanced scientific equipments used by seismologists. Though scientists now have knowledge about seismic faults and can predict where the next earthquake could occur they do not yet possess the knowledge to predict when the next 'big one will strike" [Sandra Blakeslee] Let us have a brief overview of three major earthquakes of the last century, namely, the 1976 Tangshan earthquake in China, the 1982 New Brunswick quake, and the 1906 quake of San Francisco so that we would get a better idea of the intensity of the damage and how well the situation was handled.

Tangshan China 1976

The 1976, July 28th quake that shattered the Chinese industrial city of Tangshan is considered to date as one of the most devastating earthquakes to have occurred during the last four centuries. The disaster struck in the very early hours of the day at 3:42 A.M when most of the residents were peacefully sleeping. Though the Chinese government was pretty closed and unwilling to reveal data pertaining to human casualties immediately, reports, mainly from western journalists started emerging very soon and the death toll was put at 7,50,000 people in and around the city of Tangshan which happened to be the epicentre. The Tangshan earthquake is estimated to be between the range of 7.8 and 8.2 on the Richter scale, which explains the intensity and the large-scale destruction. Reports indicate that a whole area, four miles long and five miles wide, along the heart of the densely populated city was decimated and for 40 miles on either side of the city villages were destroyed. [Reuters] People who happened to survive the quake reported it as 'a huge jolt from below' and that the factories and other big housing structures instantly collapsed 'as if they were made of cards'. [Andrew H. Malcolm] Aftershocks continued to rock the city for over a year after the quake. The Chinese military undertook the relief measures in full swing and medical teams (called barefoot doctors) operated in Peeking to take care of the refugees from Tangshan. The Chinese premier Hua kuofeng himself toured the affected regions and supervised the relief operations. [New York Times]

Though in some instances as the Lungling and the Haicheng earthquakes the Chinese were able to give imminent prediction (successfully) they were not able to give such a short-term prediction in the case of the Tangshan quake. (Though midterm prediction was issued in January). However, it must be noted that Wang Chengmin, a scientist representing the State Seismological Bureau of north China forewarned the possibility of an earthquake in the Tangshan region. In his words at… [read more]

Geology Volcanic Hazards Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,525 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 7


Volcanoes are one of the most fascinating natural phenomenons that occur. Many regions of the world have active volcanoes; some of which threaten the lives of inhabitants. The purpose of this discussion is to evaluate volcanic hazards as it relates to people and the environment. According to the United States Geological survey Volcano hazards are inclusive of the after effects… [read more]

Rock Cycle Most Processes on the Earth Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (865 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Rock Cycle

Most processes on the earth are cyclic in nature, designed it seems to keep ecological issues in balance. We see this with the water cycle, photosynthesis, and even weather patterns. The Rock Cycle is a basic geological concept that describes the manner in which rocks types (sedimentary, metamorphic, and igneous) evolve and change based on stimuli from the atmosphere, pressure, heat, plate tectonics, water cycle, etc. The basic template is that rocks do not remain in any sort of equilibrium and must change based on new environmental stimuli. The rock cycle also shows us how, over longer periods of geological time, the differing types of rocks are related to one another and how then can go through a differing set of environmental changes. In a way, the rock cycle shows how, like flora and fauna, the diversity of the geological materials on earth also mimic the diversity of life.

The Cycle- The original concept of the cycle is usually attributed to the "father" of geology, James Hutton. The rock cycle is essentially made up of three parts -- just as there are three basic types of rocks: igneous, metamorphic, and sedimentary. The development of the cycle theory was part of Hutton's understanding of uniformitarianism, which dominated geological thought until the 1960s when plate tectonics changed the idea from repetitive to gradually evolving. The parts of the cycle are:

Transition to igneous rock -- as rocks are pushed deeper and deeper into the earth, they often melt into magma. If heat lessens, this magma will cool and solidify into igneous rock. As soon as the rocks begin to cool they change, gasses within magma deposits change the rock and as they are pushed upward they can begin to compose do to weathering (rain, frost, oxygen, etc.). They can also change based on the other minerals that may have been deposited into the magma.

Transition to metamorphic -- rocks that are exposed to both high temperatures and high pressures may be physically changed into metamorphic rock. They typically have banding of types, and are often formed when rock comes into contact with igneous layers that heats up the surrounding rock. In fact, any pre-existing rock may be modified by the process of metamorphism.

Transition to sedimentary -- rocks that are continually exposed to both weathering and erosion (breaking down into smaller fragments) usually accumulate and are buried under additional materials (sand for instance). When these accumulate enough and are subjected to pressure they become sedimentary and are often combined with other organisms and minerals (Rocks and the rock cycle, 2011).

Driving Forces…… [read more]

Environmental Systems Capstone Project

Capstone Project  |  45 pages (12,463 words)
Bibliography Sources: 60


¶ … environmental systems in the past five years. Summarize the techniques used, the assumptions and limitations faced, the potential for error and how it was minimized, and the lessons learned.

Scope/Direction of the Research

The scope of the study extended to a review of relevant studies published within the last 5 years to provide an overview and recapitulation of… [read more]

Geophysics Presentation Summary the Process of Working Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (556 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Geophysics Presentation Summary

The process of working up a prospect generated from seismic data collected entails six principal elements: (1) Acreage lease amount, (2) Acreage price, (3) Drilling location, (4) Platform erection cost-benefit analysis, (5) Platform location, and (6) the number and location of individual wells.

Identifying prospects from seismic lines is typically a matter determined by the apparent presence of bright spots, structural highs, fault or salt traps, nearby well control, prior experience in the same area, and geological knowledge. In prior eras, creating a seismic map was executed by picking a seismic line location on a base map, viewing the seismic line, and zooming in. Then, the interpreter must decide what to map based on bright spots, nearby well control, knowledge of local geology, and continuity and relative ease of mapping. That traditional method relied on event tracing using colored pencils. More specifically, whether by pencil or modern computer mouse, the interpreter perpendicular identifies seismic lines, extending those picks as far as possible in both directions, monitoring progress by a map view, and picking every tenth line while taking care to maintain consistency. Holes must be filled by one of three possible methods: (1) Picking every line, (2) Grid, and (3) Auto-track. Gridding is an algorithmic method based on estimating missing picks according to the known value of actual picks. Among the potential complications are ambiguous data, poor data, and phantom horizons.

Identifying seismic prospects the modern way involves the volume interpretation processes based on computer-based 3-D displays. The primary tool in those processes is auto-tracking, based on one or more initial interpreter picks. The computer extends those picks as far as possible. The cleaner the…… [read more]

Continental Drift and Plate Tectonics Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (2,180 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


When the plates push against each other, mountains are formed; at places where they pull apart, oceans are formed and continents 'fracture.' The continents drift along with the movement of these plates.

The main difference

between Wegener's theory of continental drift and the modern plate tectonics is that Wegener believed that each continent was propelled like a ship through the solid ocean floor, while the theory of plate tectonics explains the movement of the continents by the movement of the earth's surface plates floating on the asthenosphere.

The Still Moving Continents Will Collide Again

It has now been established that the lithosphere plates move at a very slow speed of about two inches per year (slower than the speed of a growing nail) but even this slow speed adds up to 30 miles in one million years. Scientists hypothesize that about 225 million years ago all of the land masses of earth were locked together as a great super-continent called Pangaea

. Then about 225 million years ago the earth's plates began to drift apart and a slight fracture between two parts of the single continent became the great Atlantic Ocean in about the next 150 million years ago. By an extension of the same hypothesis the plates the continents will, about 250 million years from now once again join together to form a single land mass (Pangaea Ultima?) once again. Obviously such a long-term prediction (spread over millions of years) can never be done with absolute conviction but most scientists, e.g., Dr. Christopher Scotese, a geologist at the University of Texas at Arlington believes that this is the most likely scenario about the future of our planet. (Barry, 2004) This collision of the continents into one great continent, however, would not be a final move as the continents on our restless planet are likely to again drift apart in a repeat cycle of what happened about 225 million years ago!


Barry, Patrick L. (2004). "Continents in Collision." First Science.com. Retrieved on November 26, 2004 from http://www.firstscience.com/SITE/ARTICLES/continents.asp

Kious, W.J. And Tilling, R.I. (1999). "Developing the Theory." From the online book

This Dynamic Earth: The Story of Plate Tectonics. USGS Website. Retrieved on November 26, 2004 from http://pubs.usgs.gov/publications/text/developing.html

----------------------- -- . (1999). "Historical perspective." From the online book

This Dynamic Earth: The Story of Plate Tectonics. USGS Website. Retrieved on November 26, 2004 from http://pubs.usgs.gov/publications/text/historical.html

Waggoner, Ben. (1996). "Alfred Wegener (1880-1930)." UCMP Website. Retrieved on November 26, 2004 from http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/history/wegener.html

Weil, Anne. (1997). "Plate Tectonics: The Rocky History of an Idea." UCMP Website. Retrieved on November 26, 2004 from http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/geology/techist.html

---------- -- . (1997). "Plate Tectonics: The Mechanism." University of California Museum of Paleontology (UCMP) Website. Retrieved on November 26, 2004 from http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/geology/tecmech.html

Greek for "all the Earth."

Wegener obtained his doctorate in planetary astronomy, carried out most of his research in meteorology and his most notable theory -- the theory of Continental Drift -- was about geology

According to Wegener, the rotation of the earth created a centrifugal force… [read more]

Continental Drift to the Present Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,711 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


As more scientists study and understand the many dynamics of plate tectonics, they may come to understand how to predict certain events such as earthquakes, and to better understand the evolution and continued survival of the planet.

In conclusion, plate tectonics is one of the most important discoveries in science and geology for a number of reasons. It explains why the continents share many similarities that could not be explained if they had always existed apart, and it explains why even today the Earth is constantly shifting, rearranging, and moving. Plate tectonics continues to be studied and understood, and as scientists understand more about how the Earth moves and shifts, they may be able to better predict earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, and other natural disasters caused with the plates shift and the Earth moves.


Plate Tectonics. 2000. In The Columbia Encyclopedia (6th ed.). New York: Columbia University Press.

Continental Drift. 2000. In The Columbia Encyclopedia (6th ed.). New York: Columbia University Press.

Darling, D. (2001). Life everywhere: The maverick science of astrobiology. New York: Basic Books.

Morton, R.L. (1996). Music of the Earth: volcanoes, earthquakes, and other geological wonders. New…… [read more]

Cartography the Geographic Coordinate System Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (738 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


However, this only works well if the distance between the two points can be measured in a straight line. Opisometers can measure the distances between two points using curved lines.

4. Direction is usually measured in relation to the north and south poles. However, the magnetic poles differ from the geographic poles. A magnetic compass can be used to measure angles relative to magnetic north. Those measures can then be translated to geographic map poles that describe True North or Grid North. The azimuth system depicts direction in terms of degrees on a circle, with north as either 0 or 360 degrees. The bearing system divides directions into quadrants, with north, south, east, and west as major reference points.

5. Standardized time keeping evolved as a result of globalization and improved transportation systems between remote localities. In 1878, a Canadian named Sir Sanford Fleming proposed the system of time zones that is still extant today, albeit with some variations due to national boundaries.

6. Topographic maps represent various three-dimensional structures and objects on a two-dimensional surface. They can depict natural features like land and sea elevations using contour lines. Contour lines distinguish areas of similar elevation on the map. If contour lines are spaced close together, it would indicate a steep elevation gain or loss. Topographic maps also use standardized symbols to represent natural and human-made structures like bridges, roads, and railways as well as swamps and waterfalls.

7. Remote sensing refers to the gathering of information about distant locations. Sophisticated remote sensing technology relies on aircraft and satellites to gather data. Infrared-sensitive cameras, aerial photography, and satellites equipped with infra-red and multi-spectral cameras and scanners are some of the remote sensing tools used by geographers. Object identification is based on shapes, size, color, patterns, shadows, and textures.

8. Geographic information systems (GIS) are types of software used to analyze and display geographical data. GIS activities include the spatial representation of natural and human-made objects emphasizing their elements, attributes and relationships; digital storage of map features; numerical manipulation and modeling of geographical data; and the depiction of geographical data in various output forms from maps to charts to written summaries. Element data refers to specific independent variables, objects…… [read more]

Tsunamis a Succinct Definition Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (2,295 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


A combination of earthquake, fire and tsunami centered around Lisbon, Portugal killed 60,000 people in 1755."( Tsunamis) A further factor that is not often realized is that tsunamis can travel further upstream via costal estuaries and rivers, causing extensive damage further inland.

2. Warnings and Precautions

While there are warning systems in place in regions of the world, yet tsunamis… [read more]

Plate Tectonics Theory the Story Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,238 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


During this same time frame, the displacements caused by rifting totaled approximately 7 m (Understanding pp).

The size of the Earth has not significantly changed during the past 600 million years, and most likely, not since shortly after its formation some 4.6 billion years ago (Understanding pp). The Earth's unchanging size implies that the crust must be destroyed at about the same rate as it is being created, just as Harry Hess surmised (Understanding pp). Such destruction or recycling of the crust takes place along convergent boundaries where plates are moving toward each other, and at times one plate sinks, or is subducted, under another (Understanding pp). The location where sinking of a plate occurs is called a subduction zone (Understanding pp).

The zone between two plate sliding horizontally past one another is called a transform-fault boundary, or simply a transform boundary, a concept originated with Canadian geophysicist J. Tuzo Wilson, who proposed that these large faults or fracture zones connect two spreading centers, called divergent plate boundaries, or, less commonly, trenches, called convergent plate boundaries (Understanding pp). The majority of transform faults are found on the ocean floor and commonly offset the active spreading ridges, producing zig-zag plate margins, and are generally defined by shallow earthquakes (Understanding pp).

A few occur on land, such as the San Andreas fault zone in California, which connect the East pacific Rise, a boundary to the south, with the South Gorda- Juan de Fuca-Explorer Ridge, another divergent boundary to the north (Understanding pp). The Blanco, Mendocino, Murray, and Molokai fracture zones are but a few of the numerous fracture zones, or transform faults, that scar the ocean floor and offset ridges (Understanding pp). The San Andreas is one of the few transform faults that is exposed on land (Understanding pp).

In some regions, the boundaries are not well defined due to the plate-movement deformation that occurs there extends over a broad belt, called a plate-boundary zone (Understanding pp). One of these zones marks the Mediterranean-Alpine region between the Eurasian and African Plates, "within which several smaller fragments of plates, called micro-plates, have been recognized (Understanding pp). Due to the fact that plate-boundary zones "involve at least two large plates and one or more micro-plates caught up between them, they tend to have complicated geological structures and earthquake patterns" (Understanding pp).

Current plate movement can be tracked directly by means of ground-based or space-based geodetic measurements, geodesy being the science of the size and shape of the Earth (Understanding pp). Ground-based measurements are taken with conventional, yet precise, ground-surveying techniques with the use of laser-electronic instruments (Understanding pp). Because plate motions are global in scale, they are measured best by satellite-based methods (Understanding pp). The late 1970's saw the rapid growth of space geodesy, which is a "term applied to space-based techniques for taking precise, repeated measurements of carefully chosen points on the Earth's surface separated by hundreds of thousands of kilometers" (Understanding pp). The three most commonly used space-geodetic techniques are very long… [read more]

Tsunami in Indonesia Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (870 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Tsunami in Indonesia


Tsunami is an ocean wave formed by an underwater earthquake, landslide or volcanic explosion. These waves may attain huge magnitude and have adequate energy to move across whole oceans. (Definitions of Tsunami on the Web) Tsunamis are created by any uproar like earthquake, volcanic eruption, landslide or meteorite impact that quickly shifts a large quantity of water. But the most general reason is an underwater earthquake. An earthquake, which is very small to form a tsunami by itself, may activate an underwater landslide quite able of forming a tsunami. Tsunamis are formed when the sea floor suddenly distorts and perpendicularly moves the overlying water. These huge vertical actions of the earth's layer can take place at plate boundaries. Subduction earthquakes are mainly efficient in forming tsunamis, and take place in areas where thick oceanic plates trip under continental plates in a process known as subduction. Likewise, a fierce submarine volcanic eruption can lift the water column and form a tsunami. Waves are created as the ousted water mass shifts under the influence of gravity to get back its equilibrium and spreads out across the ocean like waves on a pond. (Tsunami: Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia)

This moves across the sea as fast as a jet airplane, and on land it can suck all the water out of a harbor. Then it grows to more than 100 feet tall and overturns the whole village. This sea monster is called tsunami. This is a Japanese word for great harbor wave. Normally an underwater earthquake creates tsunami's waves spinning across the ocean. About four out of five tsunamis occur within the Ring of Fire, a region of recurrent earthquakes and volcanic eruptions almost matching the borders of the Pacific Ocean. Alongside the ring's edges, huge slabs of the earth's layer, called tectonic plates, drudge together. At times the plates get trapped, and pressure is formed. Then, the plates can rapidly move apart and crash into a new position. The jerk creates an earthquake. If an earthquake touches or falls to the ocean floor, the water above it starts moving too. This activates a tsunami. (Killer wave! Tsunami) tsunami can rush across the ocean at 500 miles per hour. Strangely, in deep water its ripples are only a few feet high. But when the waves reach the shore, they rise in energy and height. Usually prior to a tsunami, a huge vacuum is formed, and water is sucked from harbors and beaches. People can see the empty seabed with littered with dead fish and abandoned boats. When a depression strikes the land, the water level…… [read more]

California Water System Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,109 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Southern California Water System

Turn on the tap and fill a glass with water. It's a simple act that most people in developed areas of the world take for granted. But ensuring that the water is pure and getting it to the tap is not simple.

In 1876, Los Angeles' isolation made it unattractive to San Francisco's robber barons, but a spur line finally reached LA just in time to service the upstart southern Californian orange-growing industry. The first commercial grove proved so successful that a second crop was established in what is now Orange County.

By 1889, more than 13,000 acres (5200 hectares) were planted in citrus. LA's population jumped from 2300 in 1860 to more than 100,000 in 1900, despite the fact that there was no natural harbor and the fresh water supply was woefully inadequate.

Construction of a harbor at San Pedro, 25 miles (40km) south of city hall, began in 1899; the first wharf opened in 1914, the year the Panama Canal was completed, and 8000 miles closer to the Atlantic seaboard, San Pedro became the busiest harbor on the West Coast; bringing drinkable water to the growing city required a more complex solution.

In 1904, LA's water bureau superintendent William Mulholland visited the Owens Valley, 230 miles (370km) northeast, and returned with plans to build an aqueduct to carry snowmelt from the mountains to the city. Voters approved the plan, and by November 1913, Owens River water was spilling into the San Fernando Valley at a rate of 26 million gallons (120 million litres) per day.

LA's population soared to one million by 1920, and two million by 1930, which was primarily due to the discovery of oil. During WWI, the Lockheed brothers and Donald Douglas established aerospace plants in the area, and by WWII the aviation industry employed enough people to lift LA out of the Depression.

Today, the daily flow of water has increased to 525 million gallons (2.4 billion litres). The rest of the city's water, as well as Southern California's electricity, come from dams on the Colorado River, 200 miles (320km) east.

Fresh water is one of our most important natural resources because it's needed for survival and there is no substitute for it. Unlike energy, which has many alternative forms there are no alternatives for water. Most of our earth is covered by water, but only a tiny amount is available for fresh water. The amount of accessible fresh water varies from country to country and region to region.

Groundwater originates as water or melting snow that seeps into the soil and finds its way down through cracks and spaces in rock until it is stopped by an impermeable layer of rock, where it forms as groundwater. The porous layers of underground rock in which the groundwater is stored are called aquifers. The overuse of an aquifer near coastal areas can cause salt water intrusion which happens when an aquifer is depleted faster than it can replenish itself, so water… [read more]

Relationship Between Topography Climate and Biogeography in California Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,759 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


¶ … topography, climate, and biogeography in California

Geographically, California may find itself among the few places in the world where climate types, five, to be precise, meet at such a close range from one another. Of course, this may very well happen because the state hosts such a wide variety of geographical features. It is home to such mountains… [read more]

Earthquake Preparedness Budget Discussion Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (848 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


For example, gas lines can pose a significant threat in an urban area and preparation for this must be included in the response plan. Furthermore, water lines and severe weather can also play a role. It has been established that there is sufficient evidence to conclude that there is an association between dampness and mold in buildings and an increased risk of adverse health effects (Mudarri, 2007).

Sample Budget





5,000 Gallons



1,000 Meals



200 Outfits



200 Blankets


Medical Supplies

20 Kits


Cooking Supplies

Kitchen Items



200 Beds/100 Tents



Emergency Tool Kits


All Other Items

Flashlights, Radios, and Others



Preparedness Planning and Training

The office building will have unique challenges in regards to emergency planning due to the fact that it hosts several different organizations. Thus coordinating actions and providing training will be logistically challenging. However, individualized training should be conducted with each organization separately. The organizations that have their office space in the building should designate a representative that can spearhead the training efforts specific to that organization. For example, the organizations representative would be responsible for that organizations specific evacuation plan and ensure the members understand that plan. It is also necessary to coordinate the different divisions and run practice drills on a regular basis.

In some areas, such as the San Fernando Valley, the San Gabriel Valley, and the Los Angeles Basin, simulations have been conducted to estimate damages. Based on the simulation results and available information on the number and distribution of steel buildings, the recommended damage scenario for the "ShakeOut" drill was 5% of the estimated 150 steel moment-frame structures in the 10 -- 30 story range collapsing, 10% red-tagged, 15% with damage serious enough to cause loss of life, and 20% with visible damage requiring building closure (Muto & Krishnan, 2011). With estimates such as these, it is vital that not only do the individual organizations plan and practice preparedness, but it must also be a community effort. If the community is involved on the whole in preparing for a disaster then this can help save countless lives.

Works Cited

FEMA. (2013, January 18). Earthquake Safety at Work. Retrieved from FEMA: http://www.fema.gov/earthquake/earthquake-safety-work

Mudarri, D.F. (2007). Public health and economic impact of dampness in mold. Indoor Air, 226-235.

Muto, M., & Krishnan, S. (2011). Hope for the Best, Prepare for the Worst: Response of Tall Steel Buildings to the ShakeOut Scenario Earthquake. Earthquake Spectra,…… [read more]

8th Grade Science Project From Niagara Falls Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (541 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


¶ … 8th Grade Science Project

From Niagara Falls in America to Victoria Falls in Africa, some of the world's most famous natural wonders are waterfalls. When a flowing river erodes the soft rock of a streambed, this process can create a shelf of hard rock that does not erode. This erosion forces the water to flow over the shelf and fall downward with the force of gravity, and this is known as a waterfall. As time passes, the waterfall's impact on the soil and rock underneath it causes even more erosion, as silt and sand swirls around and breaks the ground up. Over time, a waterfall becomes longer and longer because the ground underneath it is being broken up and washed away. While waterfalls can be found in nearly every ecosystem on planet Earth, from the rainforests to arctic glaciers, the most common setting for waterfalls to exist naturally is the mountains (Encyclopedia Britannica, 2012). The upper reaches of mountain ranges are known to be areas of high precipitation, with snow and rain falling from the nearby clouds, and whenever rain falls the water that results immediately begins to flow downhill. Mountain regions with constant rainfall and snowfall, like those found in the Andes of South America, are home to many of world's most impressive waterfalls. In fact, the world's largest and longest waterfall is the 3,212 ft. Angel Falls in Venezeula, which is created by the area's long rainy season and the especially tall peaks of the Andes Mountains (Encyclopedia Britannica, 2012).

A science project to recreate the action of a mountain waterfall can be created with a…… [read more]

Waste Management Contaminated Land Research Paper

Research Paper  |  5 pages (1,775 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10


Waste Management

(1) Generate a site conceptual model, indicating as much information as possible:

The conceptual model technique is essentially used to model the hydrology, geology, and geochemical situation of a site. It is also essential to understand that historic usage of the land site is also important. The changes observed during various times provide a brief understanding of the… [read more]

Foundation Comparison: Burj Khalifa Research Paper

Research Paper  |  5 pages (1,914 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


The other problem was the high temperature in Dubai thus, the concrete used to build the tower could not be poured in the day during summer because of the heat therefore builders had to put ice and pour the concrete at night when the air was much cooler.

For Taipei 101, the challenge during the construction of the building was the prevalent earthquakes and typhoons. Thus, during the construction, the foundation had to be bored deep into the foundation to make the building more stable in the face of constant quakes. In line with this, the concrete was poured with embedded sensors to monitor the mass concrete temperature. For the foundation, the engineers used 23 layers PE canvas to cure the concrete for three weeks in order to control the face concrete temperature difference with the inner part within 20, to reduce the heat impact of mass concrete hydration.


From the above paragraphs, it is vivid that the soil conditions where the two structures are built on are almost similar. In addition, their foundation designs are similar; both structures are supported by concrete rafts lying on pile foundations. In the Burj Khalifa case the concrete raft is 3.7 m thick and the piles are 50 metres long while for Taipei 101, the foundation slab is 3 meters thick at the edges and 5 meters thick under the largest columns with a depth of 80 metres into the ground. However, the site investigation tests carried out in the Burj Khalifa project covered a wider area than those in the Taipei 101.


Figure1: Taipei 101

Figure2: Foundation Plan for Taipei 101

Figure3: Burj Khalifa

Figure4: Foundation of Burj Khalifa

Figure5: The Y Foundation Design


Baker, W.F., & Pawlikowski, J.J. (2009). The Design and Construction of the World's Tallest Building: Pushing Technology to New Heights. Structural Engineer, 12-19.

Bianchi, S., & Critchlow, A. (2010, January 4). World's Tallest Skyscraper Opens in Dubai. Retrieved December 28, 2012, from www.wsj.com: http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424052748703580904574638111667658806.html

Binder, G. (2008). Taipei 101. Mulgrave, Australia: The Images Publishing Group Pty Ltd.

Bunce, G., & Poulos, H.G. (2008). Foundation Design for the Burj Dubai -- The World's Tallest Building. 6th International Conference on Case Histories in Geotechnical Engineering, (pp. 1-16). Arlington, Vancouver.

C.Y Lee & Partners. (2004). Architects & Planners: Taipei 101. A + U Architecture and Urbanism, 10(421), 110-113.

Lee, H.J., Kuchma, D.A., Baker, W., & Novak, L.C. (2008). Design and Analysis of Heavily Loaded Reinforced…… [read more]

Earth Science. Earth Science Being Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (1,097 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


This helps them obtain in-depth understanding about the problem in the form of testable explanations capable of predicting the future accurately. This allows scientists to gain an understanding of reality, and later use that understanding to intervene in its causal mechanisms. This ensures that the decisions presented by the scientists are better at making accurate predictions and can be easily implemented (Franklin, 2009).

Benefits of the Article

This article acts as an eye opener to the reader. The future predictions though may not be totally correct, they help in making humans aware of what the future holds; time might disappear from our universe, giving us no sense of movement or direction. In reality, nobody is sure how the universe would end and when that would be but, predicting the event can help in finding solution to the problem.

To the individuals who may be religious, this article may make them see how the creator will punish sinners; lakes of fire and brimstones burning them. For this reason, the end is visualized as the deity's way of cleansing our planet; a factor that stirs up the requisite fear and jeopardy among humans. Thus by looking through the lens of science, humans see how the end would be, it becomes much more interesting than just speculating and waiting with false hopes about the end.

Use of Computers in Earth Science

The use of computers has become a normal life trend; always integral in most professions such as medicine, geography as well as other disciplines. As such, computers have become an integral part of modern science. Computers assist scientists in understanding the world around us; computer technology is the driving force of current science. Scientists no longer constrain to just doing experiment-based or theoretical researches, they are able to enter into a computer and the computer, utilizing mathematics and abiding by the physical laws, can recreate a virtual physical world right on the computer screen.

In addition, the use of computers has revolutionized the scientific process from meteorology, molecular biology, astronomy and environmental science. These machines are critical for scientists during recording, analyzing, and capturing experimental data. Scientists use computers to automate calculations, create simulations to test hypotheses and for visualization as well. Moreover, scientists incorporate computer in their work to assists them in their communication with their colleagues.

The major problem faced by scientists when using computers is emotional and social skills detachments. These two factors help scientists in predicting the actions of others, by understanding their motives and emotional states. The computers though are vital in setting and controlling robotics and other machineries, the computers may not be able to give critical evaluation of a particular problem the way a human being would. This may make the use of computers in the field limiting and not well sought after by the scientists.


Franklin, J. (2009). What Science Knows: And how it Knows it. New York: Encounter Books.

Jha, A. (2011, November 20). Is the end of the world really nigh?… [read more]

Plate Tectonics and Landform Research Paper

Research Paper  |  4 pages (1,264 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


The two arms of the Y-shaped fracture are in the Red Sea and the Gulf of Aden, while the stem of the Y is the Great Rift Valley. A deepening and widening rift will permit the surrounding waters to enter the fracture. Eventually a new sea or gulf will form on the land side as the Somalian plate separates from the Nubian plate of Africa.

Because most of the rift activity occurs on the ocean floor, the only two places on earth where the results of two major tectonic plates moving apart can be seen are the Great Rift Valley of eastern Africa and Pingvellir in the Reykjaneshryggur-Langjokull rift system of Iceland in the North Atlantic. The Pingvellir area shows the crustal rifting and volcanism characteristic of sea-floor spreading below.

The Alps, Europe

The development of The European Alps was not a straightforward occurrence, if only because so many different forces were in play over many millions of years. The Alps extend from southern Europe into Asia Minor, northern India, Russia, and China. The Alpine/Himalayan System consists of sediments deformed by convergent margin collisions between continents. The northward movement of the African plate caused collision with the Eurasian plate. This activity partly closed the Tethys Sea and created the Mediterranean Sea. Much of the structure of The Alps consists now of piles of allochthonous (original position) thrust sheets or nappes that were driven against the older landmasses or carried up onto them. A nappe is a large segment of rock that has been thrust far away from its original position by the thrust faulting of plate collisions between continents. The folds of the nappes bend back over themselves, like what is seen in the Jura Mountains of Switzerland -- the open Jura-type decollement folds -- and are sheared or break into large recumbent pieces. A thrust fault is particular kind of low dip-angle fault that forms during the compression and deformation of a region. The actual tectonic transport of the sheets involved both compression and gravity gliding -- some of which was submarine -- off of the raised tectonic welt. Also, there is evidence -- in the form of the presence of nappes and decollement -- of shortening of the crust through subduction. Further folding and deformation occurred by lateral compression (orogeny), beginning in the Late Mesozoic and ending in the Miocene. The High Alps exhibit a ruggedness that is due to the uplift that continues into the present, and also by erosion of Pleistocene glaciers.

The Himalayas is another example of mountains formed by a continent to continent collision. India is embedded in the Indo-Australian plate and it pushes relentlessly into the Tibetan region of the southern edge of the Eurasian plate. The towering sharp peaks of the Himalayas are still thrusting up by the action of the two plates, which has exhibited bending, twisting, and folding at the collision zone.


Aleutian Islands, OceanDots.com (2011). Retrieved http://www.oceandots.com/pacific/aleutian/

Island Arc Formation, Windows to the Universe, National Earth Science Teachers… [read more]

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