Study "Geography / Geology" Essays 1-53

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Geology You Are Watching Friends Essay

… Explain to your friends in the car what you've learned about how this particular area formed.

Calderas form as the result of volcanic eruptions. The most massive volcanic eruptions can eject hundreds of cubic kilometers of magma onto the Earth's surface. This magma is removed from underneath a volcano, causing the ground to subside or collapse. The resulting depression is called a caldera. The Long Valley Caldera formed in this manner.

4. On a camping trip in northeastern California you're heading into the Modoc Plateau. Your parents notice how much flatter the volcanic hills are than say Mt. Shasta or Lassen Peak. Explain to them why these volcanoes are so much shorter and wider than the one found at Mt. Shasta.

There are several different types of volcanoes. Shield volcanoes like those in the Modoc Plateau are flat and broad. Shield volcanoes are built almost entirely of fluid lava flows, which tend to make them flat and broad as the lava flows downward as it cools. In contrast, composite volcanoes, like Mt. Shasta or Lassen Peak, are tall, symmetrically shaped, with steep sides. They are so large because they are built of alternating layers of lava, ash, cinders, blocks, and bombs.

5. Your neighbor is remodeling her kitchen and she keeps bragging about how her new granite countertops are from the Sierra Nevada Mountains. She then says that she paid extra money for them because this granite is over one billion years old. Explain to her that the granite could not possibly be one billion years old by educating her on when and how the Sierra Nevada Batholith formed.

The granite in her countertop could not possibly be over one billion years old and be from the Sierra… [read more]

Physical Geology the 'Indian Ocean Tsunami Thesis

… Physical Geology

The 'Indian Ocean tsunami' which happened on December 26, 2004 was one of the worst natural disasters to have taken place in recent times. This disaster which ravaged the coastlines of the Indian Ocean resulted in a staggering… [read more]

Geology Term Paper

… These include: the fact that the continents look like their shapes would fit together into a larger whole, that fossils which have been found in regions such as South America and Africa indicate that similar if not indeed the same… [read more]

Blue Mountain Research Paper

… Blue Mountain

Big White on Blue Mountain

Canada's Blue Mountain is defined by its geography: If it were not where it is and what it is than it would be far poorer economically, not to mention also aesthetically. In fact,… [read more]

Geology of Long Island Essay

… Geology of Long Island

Long Island is an Island that runs along the eastern coast of the United States, from New York City in the southwest, to the northeast (parallel to the state of Connecticut). At its longest and widest points, it is almost 120 miles long and just under 25 miles wide, and contains two boroughs of New York City (Queens and Brooklyn) as well as two larger counties, (Nassau and Suffolk) which are mostly suburban. This island is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean on the southeast and Long Island Sound to the northwest, but is connected to Manhattan by a number of bridges and tunnels. Long Island is believed to consist of a layer of bedrock made up of "metamorphic and igneous rocks of the pre-Mesozoic age," (Lewis, 1987) and marked the southern most point of glaciation during the last Ice Age. Because of the effect of glaciation during the last Ice Age, the geology of Long Island was transformed during that time. Therefore, it is interesting to examine the geology of Long Island before, during and after the latest period of glaciation.

As previously stated, Long Island rests on bedrock made up of metamorphic and igneous rocks, but has been covered by deposits of sands and clays from the Cretaceous period some 70 million years ago. ("Geology of Long Island.") This was the geological condition of Long Island prior to the glaciers moving into the area during the Wisconsin stage of the Pleistocene Epoch. The Wisconsin stage "started in Canada about 85,000 years ago, reached Connecticut about 26,000 years ago and began to wane on Long Island about 21,000 years ago." ("Geologic History") The ice sheet extended half way down Long Island and the southernmost point is marked by the accumulation of rocks and other debris carried by the glacier. This point is called a terminal moraine, and there are two terminal moraines on Long Island, the Ronkonkoma and the Harbor Hill, which mark the southernmost point of glaciation during two distinct sub-stages. These moraines currently are the highest points on Long Island.

As the ice sheet retreated, it left behind not only ridges of debris at its edge, but also…… [read more]

Geology Around Little Killary Thesis

… Geology of Little Killary, Killary Harbour, Galway, Ireland

Regional Geology. The purpose of this study was to thoroughly examine the regional geology of Little Killary, Killary Harbour, Galway, Ireland located in northwest Galway, which is just south of Killary Harbour… [read more]

Geology (Stratigraphy) Stratigraphy Practical Essay

… 3.) Why are some areas more "blocky/spikey" than others.

Some areas display more gamma ray activity than others due to the level of exposure of the sediment layer to the sun's gamma ray. These blocky/spikey areas do reflect the level of gamma ray emitted and the relative level of exposure and absorption of the ray.

4.) Why are some peaks more positive and some peaks more negative.

Some peaks are more positive and others more negative due to the level of exposure and decay of radioactive particles contained within the sediment layers. Layers with coal, for example, show this redaction in gamma ray exposure before showing small increases and then leveling off.

5.) Think about what kind of rock you expect based on the gamma data.

Kezza 1: Quartz

Kezza 2: Quartz, Igneous

Kezza 3: Smectite/Illite shale, Feldspar, Coal

Kezza 4: Coal, Quartz

Kezza 5: Illite shale, Quartz, Coal

Kezza 6: Coal, Feldspar, Quartz

6.) Think about the depositional environment

Kezza 1: Miocene age, fine sands

Kezza 2: Cretaceous age, quartzofeldspathic sands

Kezza 3: Jurassic age, medium sands

Kezza 4: Miocene age, coarse fluvio-deltaic sands

Kezza 5: Miocene age, Coarse…… [read more]

Geography's Role the Existence Research Paper

… Geography influences boundaries, country, state and nation development, international organizations, diplomacy, internal divisions and voting.

Geography also affects how a nation's economy behaves, with terrain serving as a hindrance or help to trade. Geography plays a major role in the development of a country's economic systems. Economic geography considers a country's resources, climate, politics, physical geography and population as they relate to a country's economy. The separation of a country's population by physical barriers, such as bodies of water or mountains, affects the trade of goods and service. Economic geography affects development and underdevelopment

Cultural geography is another aspect to consider. The many cultural aspects found throughout a country, and how they relate to the spaces and places where they originate and then travel as people move across areas are significant influences. Some of the main cultural phenomena that geography influences include language, religion, different economic and governmental structures, art, and music. Globalization is becoming increasingly important as it allows specific aspects of culture to easily travel across the globe. For both Japan and Portugal, people living in a rural area would be more culturally tied to the natural environment around them than those living in a large metropolitan area.

Additional topics in which to explore the significance of geography with respect to nation development include the following:

Health geography as a factor in considering health, disease and health care from a geographical perspective

Tourism geography with respect to environmental impact, tourism and leisure economies

Population geography as it relates to human populations, their composition, growth, distribution, and migratory movements… [read more]

Geography of South America Essay

… Geography of South America

Geography is the study of how people are interacting with the world around them. Where, there is focus on how the impact of human activities will affect the formation of geographic features, the climate and natural resources. ("What Does Geography Mean") in the case of South America, the continent is known for the wide range of geographic features, climates and natural resources. However, over the last several years human activity has been helping to create vast changes within the continent itself. Part of the reason for this is because of the increased demand for a variety of natural resources that can be extracted from the continent, thanks to globalization. As a result, a shift has occurred where the various economic issues are beginning to have a major impact on geography of the continent. What is happening is the forces of globalization have increased the overall amounts of competition for the different natural resources. In order to effectively, extract these resources, means that various ecosystems and geographic features are being destroyed. Where, during the process of searching for various natural resources the total amount of greenhouse gases that are emitted into the atmosphere increases. This has a ripple effect on the geography of the continent as the warmer temperatures; means that that there will be tremendous changes in the various ecosystems and the different geographic features. To fully understand the overall extent that economic forces are having on the geography of the continent; requires examining how globalization is contributing to the problem and how it could affect the continent in the future. Together, these two elements will highlight how contemporary economic issues are vastly changing the geography of South America.

How Globalization is Changing South America

Globalization is when there is increased competition among the different areas of the world. Part of the reason for this is improvements in communications and a variety of government reforms (such as reducing trade barriers / quotas), which have increased the economic opportunity for many nations. This increased opportunity, is pushing many countries on the continent; to encourage economic development of various regions that are known to have large amounts of natural resources. ("Globalization") for example, Venezuela, Ecuador and Columbia all are known as oil exporters. The problem is that extracting oil and natural gas from the Earth can release methane gas into the atmosphere. ("Latin America at Risk") This is considered to be one of the greenhouse gases that are helping to contribute to the problem of global warming. As more of the various natural resources are extracted, other regions of the continent are sought out to extract even more natural resources. Once this takes place, it becomes a self feeding cycle, where the different countries throughout the region are encouraging the development of these natural resources. The problem is extracting and finding them, will often lead to the destruction of ecosystems during the process. Where, large sections of forest are destroyed to be able to reach the different natural… [read more]

Have We Underestimated the Importance of Water to Human Geography? Essay

… ¶ … Water

to human geography?

Human Geography is the study of features and phenomena on earth that are human-made features. Geographers monitor these features and record changes and do so through examining the spatial organization or how it is… [read more]

Geology: Ohio Caverns and Cave Formations Thesis

… Ohio Caverns, Geology, And Cave Formation

The following paper explores the fascinating and natural wonders of Ohio Caverns, the premier cave system in the state of Ohio, the general geology of the state of Ohio, and a basic overview of… [read more]

Geology of California Term Paper

… Geology-Wines

Particularly over the past quarter century, California wines have grown in prestige to become among the world's most celebrated, even challenging more historically established wines from the Bordeaux region of France (Marcus). California's Napa Valley region is considered a… [read more]

Manhattan Geology Term Paper

… The geology of Manhattan was created by two events. A large volcanic gash opened up between New Jersey and Manhattan, which helped uplift areas along the New Jersey side of the Hudson River, and also helped create the channel between New Jersey and New York. During the Ice Age, glaciers further carved out the channel, helping to create a deep, smooth area for the Hudson River to course through. During the Cambrian period "Manhattan's bedrock of schist was a sedimentary deposit of alien clay and other mineral constituents. Through pressures, infiltrations, and foliation, this amalgam was metamorphosed and recrystallized into its present form and hardness." Thus, the stage was set for modern building and development. Without the base of bedrock and schist in the area, the land would be much more liable to settling and shifting and would not support the weight of the buildings erected throughout the city. It also would be undermined by the infrastructure beneath the surface. Therefore, the bedrock is quite necessary for the entire development of Manhattan, both above and below ground.

The geology of Manhattan and the surrounding area helped create the development and building that continues today. It helps support some of the world's tallest structures, and it also could create havoc in one of the world's largest cities if a major earthquake occurs there. Much of the underground infrastructure of the city lies along fault lines or crosses them. Manhattan rests on the perfect substance to allow it to grow and develop upward and below ground, too.


Alden, Andrew. "A Tale of Two Favorite Cities." 1997. 21 June 2005.


Federal Writers' Project (N.Y.). A Comprehensive Guide to the Five Boroughs of the Metropolis: Manhattan, Brooklyn, the Bronx, Queens, and Richmond. New York: Random House, 1939.

Merguerian, Charles. "A Geological Transect From New York City to New Jersey." 2002. 21 June 2005.


Paige, Sidney. Application of Geology to Engineering Practice: Berkey Volume. Baltimore, MD: Geological Society of America, 1950.

Rodgers, Cleveland, and Rebecca B. Rankin. New York: the World's Capital City: Its Development and Contributions to Progress. New York: Harper, 1948.

Spirn, Anne Whiston. The Granite Garden: Urban Nature and Human Design. New York: Basic Books, 1984.… [read more]

Geography - GIS Systems Geographic Term Paper

… This discipline is what enables GIS to become a part of the decision aiding tools. Mathematics is the last discipline of the GIS but is not the least important as it is components of mathematics in geometry, topology and matrix algebra that enable the analysis of spatial data. (What is a GIS and What Does It Do?)

GIS forms a part of the several information technologies that brought about a sea of change in the way geographers go about research and thereby contribute to society. In the last twenty years these information technologies have had a significant impact on the way the research techniques are employed specific to the discipline and also in the manner in which geographers communicate and cooperate around the globe. The discipline specific tools that have contributed to this include Cartography and Computer-Assisted drafting. Just as word-processing soft-wares are a boon to writers, computers give several advantages to cartographers. In today's world automated techniques are more of the rule instead of being the exception in the area of cartographic production. (Geographic Information Systems as an Integrating Technology: Context, Concepts, and Definitions)

Photogrammetry from the air has been used extensively and successfully as a technique for cartographic production and geographic analysis. Aerial photogrammetry today is augmented with the use of remotely sensed information garnered by satellites in outer space. The developments in the field of information technologies have made both these types of information more readily accessible and more easy to use. Statistical analysis and the models of spatial patterns and processes have used the assistance of computer technology for a very long time. The developments in the field of information technology have made these techniques more widely available and have permitted the models to grow in complexity and scale to give more precise depictions of real-world processes. (Geographic Information Systems as an Integrating Technology: Context, Concepts, and Definitions)

The GIS permits geographers to collect and study information faster than was possible with the old methods and techniques. GIS thus is an integrated technology that uses and expands techniques that geographers have been using for a long time in their study of natural and social systems. The general tools include Communication and Collaboration. Today e-mail, discussion lists and computer bulletin board enable geographers around the globe to communicate and share ideas. Interactive classes and workshops at far away locations have been made possible by distance-learning techniques. Networking has made it easy to access both primary and secondary research material and resources found in libraries, government agencies and research institutions worldwide. (Geographic Information Systems as an Integrating Technology: Context, Concepts, and Definitions)

The cost of publishing and dissemination of information has gone down drastically with improved information technologies as also the time required for the circulation of information. (Geographic Information Systems as an Integrating Technology: Context, Concepts, and Definitions) Remote sensing is an example of GIS. Sensors loaded on aircraft or satellite enable remote collection of data about the surface of the earth. The normal technique used by… [read more]

Physical Geography Term Paper


Uniformitarianism "suggests that continuing uniformity of existing processes were responsible for the present and past conditions of this planet. This theory rejected the idea that catastrophic forces were responsible for the current conditions on the Earth ("

Physical geography relates to studies of environmental issues and science by providing students with important information about the "state of the environment ("

Pattison's four traditions of geography are "Spatial Tradition, which is the investigation of the phenomena of geography from a strictly spatial perspective; Area Studies Tradition, which is the geographical study of an area of the Earth at either the local, regional, or global scale; Human-Land Tradition, which is the geographical study of human interactions with the environment; and Earth Science Tradition, which is the study of natural phenomena from a spatial perspective, best described as theoretical physical geography ("


The study of physical geography has been around four hundreds of years. It is an important aspect of understanding the earth's environment.

Works Cited

(Fundamentals of Physical Geography. (accessed 10 January, 2005).

).… [read more]

K-5 Geology Lesson Collaborrative Fifth-Grade Term Paper

… Another advantage of the less guided version is that it presents a very natural transition to the group selection step.

Group Selection:

It is anticipated that the less guided lesson version will lend itself to a natural gravitation between students sharing similar methodology conceptualizations when they explain their reasoning behind suggesting the various roles and tasks of proposed group members. Likewise, it is anticipated that where the more guided lesson version is appropriate, the instructor will (necessarily) play a more active role in group selection and composition. It should be noted that either way, the instructor may still allow any degree of autonomy along the spectrum from students' selecting their own chosen partners to outright group/role assignment by the instructor. Generally, absolute student latitude will rarely be employed, but neither will rigid assignment often be necessary, either. Ideally, the instructor will assist and supervise group selection to ensure that each group is composed of individual students likely to collaborate smoothly and which includes students enthusiastic about complementary aspects of the lesson (as opposed to groups where every member is primarily enthusiastic over the same individual role, for example).

Monitoring and Facilitating Collaboration:

Once the groups have been established and are ready for the practical lesson module, the instructor should assign a single rock (or set of several rocks) to enable groups to test their individual roles and methodology. Naturally, the instructor can expect to devote more time to this step in the less guided lesson version, because groups employing procedures of their own (approved) design will require more "fine tuning" and adjustment than the more guided lesson version where individual roles within groups and experimental methodology is assigned by the instructor. As a general rule, the educational benefits of allowing greater autonomy in group selection and experimental methodology design (wherever appropriate to the group) greatly outweigh the additional time and guidance required of the less guided lesson version.


Testing is greatly facilitated by providing test rock sets whose breakdown is known to the instructor prior to the practical portion of the lesson. Either way, the instructor has tremendous latitude between allowing groups to retest in order to verify results, retest with different role assignments within groups, or even reassigning each group's rock set to other groups for verification in order to demonstrate the concept of independent verification" or "peer review."… [read more]

Geography Livingstone's Geographical Tradition Term Paper

… Judgments are being made all the time, but they are made within an academic environment carefully structured by the training process." (p. 21)

So the process of discovery and the field f science is not designed for explorers and new thinkers, (which have made the field great over the past centuries). The field is designed for those who can:

Operate within an accepted body of knowledge, ordered and interpreted in a particular way

Consider a group of puzzles which remain to be solved

Who will follow a set procedure for puzzle solving.

Johnston's book examines geographic study since the end of the Great War. At that time, resources were directed into benefiting society that was previously focused on warfare. Geographic studies identified six specific trends of interest at that time:

1. Encyclopedic trend toward cataloging and identifying new information

2. Educational trend toward recording and cataloguing new information so it could be reproduced and taught.

3. Colonial trend toward cataloguing the influence of Britain on colonizing vast parts of the earth.

4. Generalizing trend toward identifying general principles which applied to all geographic studies.

5. Political trend toward evaluating the influence of different political structures and their influence on geographic expansion.

6. Specialization trend which recognizes that no one person or academy could identify all there is to know about a topic.

These trends spanned evolving philosophies, methodologies and ideologies in the field of geographic studies.

As these new paradigms evolved in the field of geographic studies, a change that affected the entire field was the influence of the scientific method. Because the discipline was strongly regimented against the acceptance of new beliefs these changed erupted slowly in individual papers published from different researchers. The apparent dissatisfaction with the current scientific trends which existed after the war was general and far reaching motivation toward these changes. Acceptance of the scientific method's influence was termed a growth in "systematic studies." After the desires for a more systematic approach to geographic studies took hold, geographers searched to identify a focus. Because geography is essentially a study of distance, and the means by which civilizations spanned the distances between them, the study of special systems was applied to the science. According to Haggett's schema for studying special systems, there are 6 elements: movement, channels for the movement to travel, central nodes, hierarchies of nodes, surfaces (geographic relief) and finally diffusion of movement which control the development of social organizations. (p. 95)

To this schema was added the influence of behavioralistic motivations. After all, men are creatures which can be studied on the basis of habit and behavior. The influence of mankind's desires to establish goals and specific behaviors must also be taken into account. Land use decisions, mental maps, and the desire to gain a more universal knowledge ultimately influenced civilization's spread across the globe in specific ways. As man's behavioral tendencies were added into the equation, modern trends became troublesome to geographers.

In the modern era, (from 1960 onward) mankind was in… [read more]

Geography Term Paper

… S. They soon learned that it was considered vital to the political leaders during that time period.

America is a world power. Our interests are world wide through trade and political agreements. It is important that schools teach the new geography so students learn about all of these interests. The best thing a country can do for its people is to educate them. This is for the now and for the future of our country and that is why geography is so important. Without geography we wouldn't know how to look at a map, or find a particular country, or know that Washington State is on the pacific coast while Washington D.C. is on the east coast.

Geography is more than learning the capitals of the states. It is important to know the resources of states and countries. This is important for world commerce. The knowledge of these resources make trade possible. We can trade with other countries for what we don't have and we can give them what we do. Geography is also important to anyone navigating on land or sea. The measures are latitude and longitude. These are imaginary lines. The imaginary vertical line is longitude and it runs through the Greenwich Observatory in the United Kingdom and measures distance east and west of the Prime Meridian up to 180 degrees. Lines of latitude and longitude cross each other forming a grid. Any point on earth can be located by its precise latitude and longitude.

Geography studies include maps that show the physical boundaries of countries and states. Some maps also include political information. Other indicators are for terrain, landforms…… [read more]

French Geography Help to Broaden Research Paper

… Just reply to the below 3 .

Now respond to the below comments.


When I was younger, history and geography were not my favorite subjects. As I watched all the clips and video's, I realized that geography has alot to do with culture (and not that just the French are from France). It was very interesting to me that the different regions had different characteristics which created a different feel for each region and the culture of each was diffferent. While I have always wanted to go to France and visit Paris, I now really like the idea of possiblly visiting Strasbourg or Nice and some of the towns or villages. The more I learn about the geography of France, I realize that when I finally do book tha trip, It will not be for just a week or 10 days, lol. The way the geography of France was presented with the different characteristics of each was actually a really fun way of learning about the different regions and has changed my preconceived notion of what France would be like (I envisioned a large city with lots of people and a "touristy" feel).

As far as my geographic region (the north shore of Hawaii is where I grew up) affecting how I think of myself, I believe it does to a degree. Hawaii is pretty laid back, yet since… [read more]

Geography Relates Research Paper

… In regards to the former, there is more access to goods and services, there are various entertainment opportunities, education may be facilitated, job opportunities are more frequent and diverse, etc.

Theoretically and globally we all do belong to the same country, as individuals pertaining to the same race. However, there is no denial that some societal aspects cannot be addressed otherwise but either nationally or internationally.

Research into a civilization should first consider the age of the geographical region where the first inhabitants were registered. However, considering that many groups were nomad, research needs to expand the area and trace the civilization's roots. Based on actual evidence, either archaeological or statistic, when studying a civilization, we should go as far back into history as research allows us.

If we were referring to modern France then it could be suggested that France as a country started to develop with the French Revolution when various elements contributed to its upheaval like the emergence of constitutional features of a secular and democratic country. Moreover, changes of women's role in society would further substantiate modern pattern thinking. However, it is more accurately to draw upon France since the Gaul era. Throughout history, territorial changes occurred as consequences of either wars or agreements. Although the region Gaul encompassed territories that are no longer part of France, it is the ancient Gauls that have given birth to modern France. Because of various cultural connections, information regarding the Gauls can indeed be useful in relation to modern France.

Belonging is as much a cultural term as it is territorial. Someone who is a citizen of America but descends from Italian immigrants may choose to limit his heritage there while it would be more interesting to discover and be able to relate to much older ancestors.… [read more]

Geology Water Is an Important Case Study

… The volcanic emission takes the form of external rock on the surface of earth, after it becomes cool. Areas prone to volcanic emission are not fertile hence people tend to migrate from these areas towards the areas where water is plentiful and farming can be made possible. The migration towards coastal areas gives birth to civilizations. Majority of the civilizations find their roots in the banks of rivers and coastal areas.

Porosity and Permeability of Earth Materials

Porosity refers to the capacity of earth material to hold water contents like a container. In other words, how much is the hollow shape in the material. Permeability, on the other hand, refers to the capacity of material to manage water flow. It refers to the pores, their distances and connectivity.

Both the factors are important to determine the quality of water under the earth's surface. It also determines the level of water in the ground when underground water supplies are planned. Since the natural water resources like rain and oceans also play a major role in spreading water to many areas of the world, the mentioned two factors determine how much water is preserved by the earth so that it can be extracted in the hour of need. These factors vary depending upon the type of land e.g. rocks, sand etc.

It is interesting to mention that water resources like canals, lakes and rivers get water from the underground sources as well. On the other hand, oceans and seas both import and export water from these sources. Hence, level of water in these resources keeps on changing.


Scientus. (2010). Retrieved from

US Department of Energy. (2012). Retrieved from… [read more]

Rocks Land and Sea Research Paper

… Rocks, Land and Sea

Sea Level: What is relative sea level (RSL)? What is eustatic sea level? How is sea level measured? What are two (2) issues associated with using this (that) method to ascertain changes in sea level over… [read more]

Nationalism in Geography Classrooms: Challenges and Opportunities Term Paper

… Nationalism in Geography Classrooms: Challenges and Opportunities

This journal article begins by stating that political geographers have long been critically engaging with nationalism as a research topic, and it is equally important to continue this engagement in geography classrooms. (Schlosser, 2011) the argument for this belief is the fact that nationalism appeals to students in different ways than simple geography. Nationalism is "intertwined because it is often a deeply emotional, perceptual, and experiential topic for students." It is also a topic that requires critical thinking, and helps students to understand geography and how it may shape the very type of civilization that surrounds it. In order to teach this to students, it must be inferred that national identity is not timeless, but rather shaped by history and where one is culturally situated.

Nationalism is a heated topic in schools, and may seem out of place in a lesson on geography. Proponents believe that stirring nationalistic feelings in an instituted lesson would fuel hostility and xenophobia. This is not necessary true, however, because students tend to understand the ideas that are held closely to them, identity being one. Exposure to nationalism is an attempt to de-emphasize its effect on us, by removing its hold over our own beings.

The journal article continues by teaching how one should approach controversial subjects in the classroom. The concept of nationalism, defined as "the territorial expression of identity," is more of an expression of a group rather than a way of life. It is intimate within a certain geographic setting, regardless of personal identity such as race, ethnicity, religion, or sex. Nationalism can be a concept that is hijacked by the state. When this happens, it is typically through charm campaigns, possibly as propaganda, or in…… [read more]

Region's Geologic Formation Research Paper

… These processes have resulted in a number of features, including erosional shorelines and depositional shorelines (Gillespie et al., 2010). Other distinct types of shorelines include cliffs of bedrock and drift, wide sandy strands, rocky and rubbly coasts, and swampy and marshy flats. Some of the best wide sand beaches in the world are located in the Great Lakes region. The sands originated as glacial sediments derived from rocks that were ground up by the ice into particles 0.05 to 2mm in diameter, which were then washed out by meltwaters as the ice receded (Larson & Schaetzl, 2001).

Recent shoreline erosion has become a concern over the past century as humans have controlled lake outlets, regulated water flow into and out of the lakes, and changed shore zone characteristics. Recent human interventions in the form of dammed rivers and jetties and engineering structures at river mouths have reduced the supply of sand to the shore zone (Larson & Schaetzl, 2001).

Today, lake level changes occur of approximately 1/3m annually, up to about 2m over 10 to 20-year periods. These changes are mainly caused by climate. Also, various engineering works allow minimal control on lake levels for some of the Great Lakes. Although these changes are not as pronounced as earlier changes, subtle changes in lake level have produced a significant effect on shoreline erosion, which is a major concern of coastal residents (Larson & Schaetzl, 2001). To sum up, the geology of the Great Lakes region, which began its evolution several billion years ago, continues even today .

Reference List

Davis, P. (1998). A simple review of the tectonic evolution of the Great Lakes Region: Outline of tectonic events. University of Minnesota Department of Earth Sciences. Retrieved March 9, 2012 from:

Gillespie, R., Harrison, W.B. III, & Grammer, G.M. (2010). Geology of Michigan and the Great Lakes. Cengage Learning. Retrieved March 9, 2012 from:

Great Lakes Information Network. (2004). Great Lakes shoreline geology. Retrieved March 9, 2012 from:

Larson, G. & Schaetzl, R. (2001). Review -- Origin and evolution of the Great Lakes. Journal for Great Lakes Research 27(4): 518-46. Retrieved March 9, 2012 from:

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). (2008). Natural processes in the Great Lakes. Retrieved March 9, 2012 from:… [read more]

Penokee Range in Wisconsin Research Paper

… ¶ … Penokee Range in Wisconsin. We focus our analysis on various areas of the range such as its general geology, formation, surficial geology as well as quandary geology. The paper also focuses on discussions around the major issues surrounding… [read more]

Physical Geology Essay

… Wind, Dust, And Deserts

Deserts represent a third of the landscape on Earth, and are created as a result of the lack of water (Planet Earth 2006, film documentary). Every desert has one thing in common; the intense daytime sun.… [read more]

Geology Plate Tectonics and Bedrock Responses Essay

… Geology

Plate Tectonics and Bedrock Responses: The Formation of Unconformities, Stress, Strains, Faults, and Joints

Plate tectonics is a relatively recent explanation for many -- arguably most -- of the Earth's geological features. The convergence of two plates of the Earth's crust can cause the thrusting up of mountain ranges, such as the Himalayas and many others, and can also or alternatively result in subduction zones and heavily increased volcanic activity. Where plates diverge, generally in ocean floors, great canyons and more volcanic activity can appear as the molten rock of the underlying mantle bubbles up to produce new crustal material. In addition to these large-scale geological features, more minute -- in geological terms -- changes are also produced by the movements of the tectonic plates, creating an abundance of details in the physical geology in the bedrock of any given area that provide clues as to the progression of geological events and the movements of tectonic plates over the course of the Earth's existence.

Stress and Strain

A basic definition of terms is necessary to understand the ways in which the forces of plate tectonics create the observable geological features identified above and the many others that exist. Stress, as used in geology, refers to the force(s) applied to an object or geological feature/area; in the context of the scope of this paper, it refers to the various forces arising out of and/or causing the movement of the tectonic plates as they act on bedrock (Dutch 1999). Though pressure is actually a unique type of stress, it is a useful general term for understanding stress.

While stress refers to the actual forces affecting certain geological elements, strain basically refers to the effects of these forces (Dutch 1999). That is, measurements and expressions of strain denote the degree to which a geological feature or area -- in this context, again, the bedrock of a particular area -- is affected, shaped, and warped by the stress to which it is subjected. The same types and levels of stress can yield very different strains depending on the material upon which the stress is acting, as well as numerous other factors (Dutch 1999). Though the terms stress and strain are very closely related, then, it is important tor recognize the distinctions and differences that exist between these two terms -- the former is a description of force itself, while the latter is a description of a force's effects (Dutch 1999).

Joints and Faults

Just as stress and strain are very closely related yet distinct terms, the terms joint and fault refer to highly similar yet fundamentally geological features. Both joints and faults are the result of stress, and shows signs of strain; they are fractures that occur in the Earth's crust due to the movement of the Earth's tectonic plates (ISU 2010). There are several different kinds of stress that can produce fractures, and this can in large part affect the eventual outcome of the geological forces -- whether the fracture will become… [read more]

Metamorphism Physical Geology Metamorphism: Causes, Manifestations Essay

… Metamorphism

Physical geology

Metamorphism: Causes, manifestations, and varieties

Metamorphism: Causes, manifestations, and varieties

Metamorphic rocks are the result of mineralogical and structural changes to the integrity of existing rock structures. The appearance of metamorphic rocks is as varied as the temperature, pressure, or chemical changes that produce the rock. Both igneous and sedimentary rocks can be changed into metamorphic rocks when subjected to physical and chemical conditions differing from those under which the rocks were originally formed (Jessey & Tarman 2010). "The term metamorphism means to change. Most of us think of the metamorphosis that occurs when a caterpillar becomes a butterfly. While not as dramatic, similar changes can occur in rocks. Rocks will alter their form and appearance to suit new conditions. Unfortunately, metamorphism is a slow process that occurs deep within the Earth. We cannot directly observe the process, but we can see the end result" (Jessey & Tarman 2010).

Metamorphism can be caused by the heat generated when the earth's sliding plates or the compressive force of gravity creates friction. Radioactivity can also be heat-generating. Other structural sources of heat include pressure from lithostatic rock burial as the result of plate tectonics. Chemically active fluids, including water which "circulates in response to heat generated by cooling magmas" can cause ion exchanges between the liquid solution and the rock through which the liquid is traveling and also generate heat (Jessey 2010). Metamorphism "occurs at temperatures and pressures higher than 200oC and 300 MPa" (Mega Pascals) and while rocks subjected to lower temperatures can change in their appearance this is technically not considered metamorphic activity (Nelson 2004). For example, "diagenesis is also a change in form that occurs in sedimentary rocks. In geology, however, we restrict diagenetic processes to those which occur at temperatures below 200oC and pressures below about 300 MPa…equivalent to about 3 kilobars of pressure (1kb = 100 MPa)" (Nelson 2004). So-called low-grade metamorphism occurs at temperatures between 200 -320oC at relatively low pressure while high-grade metamorphism occurs at temperatures above 320oC at high pressure. Low grade metamorphic rocks have abundance of hydrous minerals vs. high-grade rocks that do not, as the level of pressure limits fluid circulation (Nelson 2004).

Metamorphism is classified according to certain types, Contact or thermal metamorphism is the "alteration of rocks at or near the contact of a cooling pluton," in a very narrow area of a rock's surface (Jessey 2010). A pluton is an igneous rock formation like a dike or a batholith. The metamorphosis of the pluton is caused by heat and circulating fluids rather than pressure. The heat produces a series of 'zones' that are "characterized by the presence of one or more diagnostic mineral," a mineral that 'tells' the geologist about the kind of change that has occurred (Jessey 2010). A common visual example of contact metamorphism can be seen in the series of concentric effects "produced adjacent to igneous intrusions where several metamorphic zones represented by changing mineral assemblages reflect the temperature gradient from the high-temperature… [read more]

Geography of Ireland Is an Island Situated Term Paper

… Geography of Ireland

Ireland is an island situated in the North Atlantic Ocean in northwestern Europe. Ireland is noted for its low central plains, as well the ring of coastal mountains that surrounds the island. Ireland's highest mountain peak is… [read more]

Geology it Was a Work of Genius Term Paper

… Geology

It was a work of genius," author Simon Winchester asserts, "and at the same time a lonely and potentially soul-destroying project. It was the work of one man...bent on the all-encompassing mission of making a geological map of England… [read more]

Social Geography Socially Constructed Term Paper

… Many have concluded that the "virgin" landscape described during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries was actually one that was "invented" during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries" (Denevan, 1992; Pyne, 1982). This so called "invention" of a geographical landscape of wilderness and raw nature may be perceived as a "deliberate creation" to "ennoble the American Enterprise" (Denevan, 1992).

This change in the environment was necessary to create a "Euro-American landscape" with which people can relate to (Denevan, 1992). Human beings typically learn through experience, interaction and observation. Learning is an integral part of knowledge, and interaction and observation are often utilized as a method for expanding ones cognitive, social and emotional abilities (Bogaards, 2003). People construct and deconstruct idealisms in an attempt to support knowledge acquisition and learning; thus the idea that the nature of geography has been altered and constructed to suit idealisms associated with history makes perfect sense. People in generally are more able to learn and understand via utilization of derived knowledge; knowledge that one can associate with and relate to is more likely to be acquired efficiently and effectively (Bogaards, 2003). The notion for example that within the United States the geographic landscape when tapped into by early explorers was devoid of human interference suggests that early pioneers were truly the first to envision and craft a society that was new, fresh and remarkable. Additionally, the preconceived nature and landscape of the Americas prior to colonization was reflective of the cultural idealisms of the native culture at the time, and this topography may not have suited what Americans associate with cultural norms of today.

People learn best when they can associate with that which with they are familiar. By deconstructing the foundations of geographic knowledge, at least in American society was able to begin with a fresh template with which to build a history, story and societal norms. Thus the geographical landscape was constructed to match a socially adequate idealized notion of how people should interact culturally and socially.


Bogaards, Peter J. "The Underlying thinking of how people learn, acquire knowledge and understand." BogieLand Information. September 2003. {Online}. Available:

Denevan, William M. "The Pristine Myth: The Landscape of the Americas in 1942." Department of Geography, University of Wisconsin. 2004.

Dicken, P. "The Roepke Lecture in Economic Geography." Economic Geography, Vol. 70, 1994

Hanson, S., Lawson, V., McDowell,…… [read more]

North Carolina Tsunami Risks Term Paper

… (Neal W. Driscoll et all, 2000) The institution contrasts the frequency of the former events with the relative infrequency of the other. Although WHOI is interested in being able to track the process of costal change over the course of years, of particular and ominous interest is this second risk. When the large-scale events occur, the ocean's bed smoothes out, eliminating the large canyons that typify the places where river basins empty into the ocean.

The reason that North Carolina is particularly susceptible when compared to any given point along the coastline lies in the shape of the deposit thatthe river makes. The deposit from the Susquehanna River and Chesapeake Bay area assumes a funnel-shaped canyon, where deposits are more even and the sea floor is much more static.

Although a major tsunami has not hit the Eastern Seaboard since 1929, simulations have been generated using hydrodynamic shallow water equations. It was found that the most dangerous variety of tsunami, in which a large, single wave inundates a coast, is most likely to result from landslides that occur rapidly and accelerate to a high velocity. Therefore, it is reasoned that a small, fast landslide is much more dangerous than a larger landslide that happens more slowly. The largest waves occur in the direction of the slope failure; they loosely correspond to the shape of the seabed.

This is why continental slope failure off the coast of Canada between Nova Scotia and Newfoundland affected the two areas differently; whereas Newfoundland was hit dead-on by the tsunami, which ranged from 4-12 meters, Nova Scotia was only awash in waves that were a meter above their normal height. It is estimated that should a tsunami hit the coast of North Carolina, it would carry the same power as a level 3 to level 4 hurricane. (Neal W. Driscoll et all, 2000)

History has demonstrated to us that these landfall events are rare and usually precipitated by an earthquake. Rather than being constantly subjected to the randomness of geological whim, the Atlantic coast has only produced one tsunami over the course of the last 75 years. Although these tsunamis are deadly, their effects would be indistinguishable from the tidal effects of hurricanes that threaten to strike the eastern seaboard at least once every year. Rather than involve our selves in the costly business of timing tsunamis, the state might consider integrating safeguards into its shoreline infrastructure that would protect the local population against the sea. Because the federal government usually is solicited for help with disaster relief, it would not be beyond its purview in requiring shore communities to ascribe to a strict set of architectural guidelines that would proof the region against calamity. This might include the construction of sturdier homes and subsequent inspections could be administered either at a state level or under the auspices of OSHA or FEMA.

Despite the similarity in tidal resonance between hurricanes and tsunamis, it can be argued that communities should be given warning if a tsunami… [read more]

Geological Model for Jackfield Location Research Paper

… In this region, the groundwater levels are 5m bgl on the lower slope of the Salthouse Road sub-unit and 2m to 3m bgl outside this unit. This suggests that given the slopes are currently active; slope stability is very sensitive to increases in the groundwater level. The sensitivity of groundwater was analyzed using slope stability software and found that areas of the slope are prone to failure with a rising water table.

Furthermore, perched water tables may occur above the in situ clay material within the relatively more permeable made ground which will further reduce the strength of the material.

According to survey monitoring has identified up to 5m NNW movement since 1994 and almost 850mm of settlement in the slipped area. The average rate of movement is ~0.5m / year. The principle cause of ground instability is considered the erosion of the slopes by river action and the high groundwater levels following periods of heavy or prolonged rainfall. The consequences of mining in the area may also be affecting the site.

The movement of the debris slide in the area of the Salthouse Road sub-unit is slow with accelerated periods of movement following high water infiltration. Survey monitoring, during 2003, has identified lateral ground movement to the NE (towards the river) of up to 0.2m and settlement of up to 15mm. Inclinometer monitoring (CP 14) identifies made ground to be slipping on in situ material, which may be subject to sub-artesian water pressures. Ground displacement is ~20mm downslope; all other boreholes show negligible displacements.

A further area of concern is in the Jackfield site, where a section of slope previously failed in 1952-53. The major failure zone lies within 5m of the surface where the slope materials comprise weathered clay and mine spoil (Wolman & Gerson, 1978). Although, the slope is relatively gentle in inclination, erosion at the toe of the river bank by river flow is removing downslope support.

This combined along with prolonged periods of rainfall, because the material in the upper part of the slope to become weaker and failure of the slope occurs as a reactivation of the previously failed slope. The slopes at Jackfield, in the Salthouse Road area, are likely to continue moving downslope. Although movement is slow, the constant motion of the ground will continue to damage structures and the road.

Near Woodhouse Farm, an area of gently sloping surfaces separated by low steep scarps and tension cracks of moderate relief. The downslope edge is formed by a steep continuous scarp some 5 to 10m high, which is considered to be the main backscarp of the Jackfield landslide. The broad fissured scarp is believed to represent an incipient retrogressive extension of the landslide by relatively deep rotational displacements within the bedrock.

Figure 3 -- The geology and debris flows of Severn River.


Landslide activity is widespread in Britain. The causes are variable and there is a range of impacts. It is likely that the nature of the landslide hazard will change… [read more]

Geology Identify Term Paper

… C. Answer these questions about dating techniques and event ages:

(1) Describe how the radiometric dating techniques can be used to measure the absolute numerical age of the youngest rock on this diagram.

Radiometric dating offers a reliable method of measuring the absolute numerical age of the youngest rock, by measuring the decay rates relative to radioactive isotopes.

(2) What principles of stratigraphy could we use to measure the relative age of the youngest rock on this diagram? Give at least two (2) principles.

Several principles of stratigraphy can be used to measure the relative age of the youngest rock in the diagram. The most apparent include lithologic, which would measure the age based on the surrounding layers and their placement: showing the sequence in which each layer was formed. However, this layer is young enough that it would be beneficial to use biostratiagraphy because of the possible presence of biological material like fossils. Also, chronostratiagraphy can be used to propose an exact time for this layer based on the rock composition.

(3) What type of dating technique should be used to give a numerical date the largest igneous intrusion in this diagram?

The largest igneous intrusion in the diagram is very old, meaning that it would be best to avoid the use of biostratiagraphy. It would be best to use a combination of lithologic and chronostratiagraphy, which compare the layer to surrounding layers and also treat the composition of the rock independentlhy.

(4) What principles of stratigraphy should be used to determine the relative age of the Tapeats Sandstone (you can refer to the diagram we used in class)?

Part of the Tonto Group, the Tapeats Sandstone could be measured using a number of different stratigraphic techniques including biostratiagraphy. This is because this layer is heavily impacted by the ocean deposits, and might…… [read more]

Earthquakes Shaking: Condition of Tremors and Jostling Term Paper

… Earthquakes

Shaking: condition of tremors and jostling that occurs during an earthquake

The initial shaking was reported to have lasted more than a minute and aftershocks were reported to have continued into the next month (Destruction 1868).

The massive shaking was preceded and followed by strong movement. The earthquake itself lasted 45 seconds.

Liquefaction: occurs when the ground becomes water-saturated; damages foundations of buildings and other structures

Liquefaction at the time of the earthquake was reported to be substantial enough to have damaged several important structures.

Liquefaction caused much of the damage following the quake. Most of the damage caused by liquefaction occurred in "reclaimed areas" which has once been bay or marshland.

Rupture: a tear in the rocks moves along the fault plane until it dies out

1868: Earthquake ruptured the southern segment of the Hayward Fault, from Berkeley to Fremont, CA; a distance of 20 miles (Berkeley 2005).

1906: The earthquake was approximately 8 on the Richter scale, creating severe rupture damage from San Francisco and outside the city.

Landslide: condition where large masses of land move from one location to another

1868: Landslide damage unknown; all damage to buildings attributed to shaking…… [read more]

Role of Geography in Human Term Paper

… Half of the characterizing chromosomes, or alleles, come from the father parent and the other half from the mother of the offspring. These alleles will also be affected by the environment that the human being exists in. For example, impurities within the environment of that individual can mutate chromosomes and alter the genealogy of a being within a single generation. However, other forms of genetic mutation which result in evolution of the species takes many generations. For this reason, researchers cannot determine conclusively which factors within the geography of a location will impact genealogy and thus subsequent generations.

The final determination of scientists was that geography almost certainly had an important part in the creation of adaptations of peoples from their original nomadic tribes. However, it is as yet difficult to tell if certain geographical alterations will lead to a direct alteration in the genealogical alleles of human beings. The conclusion being that it takes some severe trauma in order to create a human evolution. So, if there is to be a visible change in human adaptation because of geographical change, the change in topography and climate will have to be so dramatic and sudden that it creates an immediate need with the human population to adapt.

The findings of the researchers involved in this study make logical sense. It is also difficult to disregard or disbelieve their assertion considering past genealogical change. Other scientists have proven that people have adapted to their geography in the past because if they did not then the species would die out, as is the basis for all adaptation.

Works Cited:

Coop, Graham et. Al. (2009). "The Role of Geography in Human Adaptation." PLoS Genetics.

Public…… [read more]

Earth Science Info Age and Technology Essay

… Earth Science, Information Age, And Technology

General Earth Science WA-2

General Earth Science WA-3

General Earth Science WA-4

General Earth Science WA-5

Living in the Information Age WA-2

Living in the Information Age WA-3

Living in the Information Age WA-4… [read more]

Emergence, Persistence, and Expression of Geographic Variation Article Review

… ¶ … emergence, persistence, and expression of geographic variation in psychological characteristics," Rentfrow, Gosling & Potter (2008) present an empirical framework for the geography of personality. Working with data gleaned from the United States, the researchers demonstrate the existence and nature of geographic variations in personality and social psychology. Moreover, Rentfrow et al. (2008) present a model that shows how psychological traits vary, where, and why.

Working from the core assumption that geography affects personality in direct and indirect ways, Rentfrow et al. (2008) set out to show which social indicators and specific processes may induce geographic differences. The purpose of the research is to present a model of the geography of personality that bolsters the literature and offers possibilities for practical application. For example, the authors suggest that an understanding of geography of personality can help social workers address issues such as institutionalized racism or public health. Regional differences are described not just in terms of the political boundaries of states . The authors also address geography in terms of climate and other environmental factors.

Noting that the root of research in the field of personality geography rest in anthropology and early psychoanalytic research, Rentfrow et al. (2008) attempt to offer a more detailed and specific understanding of what features in the environment impact what social and psychological characteristics and why. Issues such as selective migration are addressed to acknowledge that many individuals move because they are in search of belonging. In fact, the notion of "fitting in" and its relationship to psychological health and well-being is one that the researchers do take seriously. Social influence and normative behavior as well as environmental influences are also included in the model. For example,…… [read more]

Role of Geoinformatics in 21st Century Society Essay

… Role of Geoinformatics in 21st Century Society

Geoinformatics can be defined as a science that addresses the setbacks of geosciences and correlated branches of engineering by developing and making use of information science infrastructure. It brings together geospatial modeling and… [read more]

Spain Ranging From the Geographically Strategic Location Essay

… Spain

Ranging from the geographically strategic location of a country to its presence along energy transport or key commercial routes to the presence of resources in a country, geography influences the way that the country is likely to act in the international environment, the positions and alliances it will make and the leverage it will benefit from in its relations with other actors. The geography of a country forms the basic characteristics for that country and the profile it can and will adopt in the international arena.

Geography is "the science of place and space" (AAG, 2006) and can be split into two main branches, human geography and physical geography (AAG, 2006). These two branches are strongly interconnected in that the latter is the premise for the first. Indeed, important parts of the physical geography, such as geomorphology, hydrology or landscape ecology will determine relevant aspects of the human geography, such as economic geography, demography or tourism geography. What the Earth offers in a certain country or territory is likely to determine the behavior of the population settling there, the direction of development it is willing to take and the branches of economy it will be able to specialize itself in.

Following on this discussion, geography will play an essential part in international relations and, hence, in international studies. The examples in the 21st century abound. For example, much of the external policy of the Gulf states, as well as the position of other states (notably the United States) towards these countries, is directed by two important issues, both components of human geography: the strategic location of these countries and their natural resources, mainly oil.

The first component mentioned is related to the presence of these countries in an area with a constant potential for conflict: the Middle East. Their presence there assures a participation in the Peace Process, as well as a potential role as a mediator that is likely to increase their country profile, as well as their capacity to use this mediating role as a leverage for ensuring and supporting other national interests.

The second component also increases, to an even higher degree, their profile in the international arena. Their capacity to dictate and regulate oil price and, especially, oil supply, makes other countries seek them as allies. This is an example of how geography dictates international relations and why it should be a part of international studies.

On the other hand, geography also sometimes dictates or helps support the international politics of a country. Russia is perhaps one of the best examples in this sense. Its enormous resources and potential in gas, oil and other natural resources allows it to take a hawkish stand in international politics and often simply use these as a blackmailing tool in the relationship with other countries. The gas crisis in 2006 and 2009 are relevant examples in this case, as is the way that the Russians are trying to hold on to their monopoly over gas transport routes to Europe.… [read more]

New York State Glacier History Term Paper

… ¶ … glaciers in the development in New York's present geology. Take a drive around just about any part of New York State and you can find evidence of glacial activity in the past. There is evidence even in New York City's Central Park of this glacial activity that molded and shaped the Empire State into its present geological format.

One way to spot hints of glacial activity is to look at the faces of the rocks and the surrounding landscape. The surface of the rocks will be smooth, almost as if they were sanded with a giant piece of sandpaper (which, in effect, they were). There are often scratches or grooves in the surface of the rocks, as well. The landscape surrounding these features will often be marked by rolling hills, valleys, and even elongated and oddly shaped hills. This occurs because the glaciers, as they moved into and then receded from an area, they acted as giant files against the soil and rock. They push rocks along, acting like sandpaper and smoothing the surface of the surrounding area, and they retreat and return gradually, so the changes are far less pronounced than other types of geologic activity.

There is another way to tell an area has been formed or molded by glaciers, and that is to look at the layers of soil in an area. Several geologic experts write to remove the soil, and "[O]bserve a sharp boundary between the soil and the rock, and not a gradational change. This indicates that the soil has not developed from the weathering in situ of the rock, but rather that the soil has been transported to its present location by some transporting agency" (Amos et. al, 1968). The transporting agency in this case is a slow-moving glacier, gradually moving across the landscape and shaping the face of the area for eons to come.

The evidence around the state suggests that glaciers covered the entire area several thousand years ago. Another writer notes, "During the last ice age, which peaked approximately 18,000 years ago, ice in what is now New York City lay as much as a mile thick" ("Explaining Variations in Ice," 9). These glaciers were formed by falling ice and…… [read more]

Alexander Von Humboldt Term Paper


The purpose of the study conducted and reported herein is to research and examine the German Geographer, Alexander Humboldt, and through means of… [read more]

Gobi Desert Term Paper

… Geography

The Gobi Desert: Its Past and Future

The Gobi Desert is one of the most striking natural phenomena in the world. It is the world's northernmost desert, interestingly enough home to the world's southernmost glacier in Gobi's Yol Valley (Spritzer 20). The Gobi Desert is truly an expansive and barren area. It is an arc of desert roughly 1,000 miles in length, which varies from between 300 miles and 600 miles in width. Despite the general conception of a desert as full of sand, much of the Gobi desert is only barren rock. The sand and dirt have been blown eastward into China by ceaseless and powerful winds ("Gobi").

The Gobi Desert is situated across the border between Mongolia and China. Much of it is in southern Mongolia, but parts of the desert stretch into northern China (Wirtanen and Wirtanen 98). Despite being remote and harsh, the Gobi is home to a diverse series of landscapes and geographical features. For instance, rather than existing as a single, monolithic desert, the Gobi actually consists of a series of discrete desert areas bordered by enormous mountain ranges. Of course, since the Gobi Desert covers an area of more than 500,000 square miles, it shouldn't be entirely surprising to learn that it consists of a multitude of geographical features -- albeit most of the extremely arid. The Gobi Desert sits at an average elevation of 5,200 feet, roughly one mile above sea level, a fact that contributes to the harshness of the environment and the terrain (Sadler 76).

Many of the geographical features of the Gobi Desert were formed because of the effects of plate tectonics over millions of years. At one time, the Gobi Desert region was at the convergence of two tectonic plates, a fact that helped shape the unique geographic features of the region. More recently in geological terms, the Gobi Desert region has felt the effect of the Indian subcontinent tectonic plate moving northward into Asia. While this movement has had the immediate effect of driving the Himalayas upward, the pressure of this convergence has consistently spilled to the east and west. It has fractured the Gobi landscape and helped drive much of the region up into higher elevations (Sadler 76-79). When we consider the major geologic and geographic features of the region, plate tectonics must be seen as a primary cause in their formation.

But there are other, more immediate, forces that have shaped the geographic features of the Gobi Desert over time. These include the ceaseless winds and seasonal streams that shape the terrain. The winds are powerful enough to prevent dirt from settling through the Gobi, making…… [read more]

California, Located in the Western Term Paper

… California, located in the western part of the United States, is the third largest state in the nation. It is best described as a region of extremes, stretching 825 miles from its northwest corner on the 42nd parallel on the… [read more]

William Renwick. The Content of the Book Term Paper

… ¶ … William Renwick. The content of the book is constructed around three central themes: the belief in the interrelationship between humans and their natural environment; the philosophy that many basic principles of geography can be demonstrated and studied on… [read more]

Groundwater and Hydrology Water Term Paper

… The volume of water supply available in your well is dependent on your choice regarding the structure of the well prepared. There are two categories of aquifers viz. unbounded or unbounded. Unbounded aquifers are water aquifers that remain at atmospheric… [read more]

Ancient Michigan Basin Area Term Paper

… This theory is particularly true of mammoths and mastodons. There is clear archeological evidence for human hunting to be the only cause of the disappearance of mammoths and mastodons, both elephant-like creatures.

It is equally as important to note that… [read more]

Leopold, Luna Bergere. Fluvial Processes Term Paper

… The impressive 2000 entries include information on GIS, remote sensing, human impact, pedology, hydrology, zoogeography, climatography and geomorphology, among many others. Entries range from short descriptions to short and self-contained essays on numerous important themes.

Overall, The Dictionary of Physical Geography is well-written and concise. Entries are helpfully cross-referenced with further reading suggestions. The book is obviously intended for those with some previous knowledge of physical geography, as many entries are written for those with existing knowledge.

Hess, Darrel and McKnight, Tom L. Study Guide Physical Geography: A Landscape Appreciation. Pearson, 2001.

Hess and McKnight's textbook is a highly readable and engaging work geared to beginning undergraduates. It is easily understood by entry-level students, and contains a level of detail that will make it useful for teaching. Topics include soil creep, the ozone layer, plate tectonics, weather satellites and volcanic hazards as well as more traditional areas of physical geography.

This undergraduate textbook by Hess and McKnight has a highly visual appeal. It includes over 70 color photographs, and 50 maps.

Photographs are helpfully associated with maps to allow easy location of the picture. It contains helpful boxes for further explanation of key concepts, and the accompanying CD-ROM is full of exercises and videos helpful to the beginning student of physical geography.

Ultimately, this is a highly recommended text. Hess and McKnight's numerous illustrations and photographs are never overused, and they always serve to illustrate an important concept. Further, the writing itself is concise and full of information geared to a beginning audience.

Works Cited

Goudie, A. And Thomas, D., eds. The Dictionary of Physical Geography. Blackwell Publishers, 2000.

Hess, Darrel and McKnight, Tom L. Study Guide Physical Geography: A Landscape Appreciation. Pearson, 2001.…… [read more]

Development and Disasters Essay

… Tsunami 2004

In the morning of December 26, 2004, the Indian Ocean plate was subducted by the Burma plate, unleashing an earthquake underneath of the Indian Ocean that has been estimated at 9.2, the third most-intense earthquake ever recorded (,… [read more]

Plateaus Region Essay

… Alluvial fans are also seen more often in the southernmost parts of that particular province (Hardwick).

The Intermediate Province is smaller, in that only parts of Idaho, Washington, and Oregon are located within it (Hardwick). One of the most striking areas to be considered within that province are the lava fields that are seen in the Columbia River Basin area (Hardwick). These fields are more than 4,000 feet deep in places, and cover nearly 200,000 square meters (Hardwick). They are among the largest and most extensive volcanic fields to be found anywhere in the world, making them valuable to study and an anomaly when compared to the areas around them. Any of the land forms that existed there before the lava flows occurred are completely buried, so it is not possible to tell what the land looked like before the volcanic eruption that made the massive flows. River canyons are also present throughout the area, and while there are few trees in the actual lava plains, there is wildlife to be found. They also support horses and cattle, but are too dry for agriculture (Hardwick).

It has been this way ever since the lava occurred and cooled, and shaped the area into what it is today. The Snake River winds through the area, and has cut a deep canyon through parts of the lava field (Hardwick). Under some of the lava, and exposed by the erosion of the river, there are mountains to be found. These can then be studied, to help determine what the terrain was like before the lava flows took place. How the lava affected the area and how long ago it happened can also be more easily determined when the underlying geographical features can be seen and examined. Each province in the Intermontane Region is unique, but all of them are tied closely together, as well.


Hardwick, et al. The Geography of North America. NY: Prentice Hall. 2013. Print.

USGS.…… [read more]

Geographic Information System (GIS) as Client Server System for US Government Case Study

… As per the size of the data, the system has four servers (An Oracle database server, Two ArcIMS servers, as well as, a general file server). GIS in this case is very big because Vandenberg is spread on an area… [read more]

Earthquake Preparedness Budget Discussion Term Paper

… For example, gas lines can pose a significant threat in an urban area and preparation for this must be included in the response plan. Furthermore, water lines and severe weather can also play a role. It has been established that there is sufficient evidence to conclude that there is an association between dampness and mold in buildings and an increased risk of adverse health effects (Mudarri, 2007).

Sample Budget





5,000 Gallons



1,000 Meals



200 Outfits



200 Blankets


Medical Supplies

20 Kits


Cooking Supplies

Kitchen Items



200 Beds/100 Tents



Emergency Tool Kits


All Other Items

Flashlights, Radios, and Others



Preparedness Planning and Training

The office building will have unique challenges in regards to emergency planning due to the fact that it hosts several different organizations. Thus coordinating actions and providing training will be logistically challenging. However, individualized training should be conducted with each organization separately. The organizations that have their office space in the building should designate a representative that can spearhead the training efforts specific to that organization. For example, the organizations representative would be responsible for that organizations specific evacuation plan and ensure the members understand that plan. It is also necessary to coordinate the different divisions and run practice drills on a regular basis.

In some areas, such as the San Fernando Valley, the San Gabriel Valley, and the Los Angeles Basin, simulations have been conducted to estimate damages. Based on the simulation results and available information on the number and distribution of steel buildings, the recommended damage scenario for the "ShakeOut" drill was 5% of the estimated 150 steel moment-frame structures in the 10 -- 30 story range collapsing, 10% red-tagged, 15% with damage serious enough to cause loss of life, and 20% with visible damage requiring building closure (Muto & Krishnan, 2011). With estimates such as these, it is vital that not only do the individual organizations plan and practice preparedness, but it must also be a community effort. If the community is involved on the whole in preparing for a disaster then this can help save countless lives.

Works Cited

FEMA. (2013, January 18). Earthquake Safety at Work. Retrieved from FEMA:

Mudarri, D.F. (2007). Public health and economic impact of dampness in mold. Indoor Air, 226-235.

Muto, M., & Krishnan, S. (2011). Hope for the Best, Prepare for the Worst: Response of Tall Steel Buildings to the ShakeOut Scenario Earthquake. Earthquake Spectra,…… [read more]

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Geographically, California may find itself among the few places in the world where climate types, five, to be precise, meet at such a close range from one another. Of course, this may… [read more]

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