Study "Geography / Geology" Essays 56-109

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8th Grade Science Project From Niagara Falls Essay

… ¶ … 8th Grade Science Project

From Niagara Falls in America to Victoria Falls in Africa, some of the world's most famous natural wonders are waterfalls. When a flowing river erodes the soft rock of a streambed, this process can create a shelf of hard rock that does not erode. This erosion forces the water to flow over the shelf and fall downward with the force of gravity, and this is known as a waterfall. As time passes, the waterfall's impact on the soil and rock underneath it causes even more erosion, as silt and sand swirls around and breaks the ground up. Over time, a waterfall becomes longer and longer because the ground underneath it is being broken up and washed away. While waterfalls can be found in nearly every ecosystem on planet Earth, from the rainforests to arctic glaciers, the most common setting for waterfalls to exist naturally is the mountains (Encyclopedia Britannica, 2012). The upper reaches of mountain ranges are known to be areas of high precipitation, with snow and rain falling from the nearby clouds, and whenever rain falls the water that results immediately begins to flow downhill. Mountain regions with constant rainfall and snowfall, like those found in the Andes of South America, are home to many of world's most impressive waterfalls. In fact, the world's largest and longest waterfall is the 3,212 ft. Angel Falls in Venezeula, which is created by the area's long rainy season and the especially tall peaks of the Andes Mountains (Encyclopedia Britannica, 2012).

A science project to recreate the action of a mountain waterfall can be created with a… [read more]

Waste Management Contaminated Land Research Paper

… Waste Management

(1) Generate a site conceptual model, indicating as much information as possible:

The conceptual model technique is essentially used to model the hydrology, geology, and geochemical situation of a site. It is also essential to understand that historic… [read more]

Foundation Comparison: Burj Khalifa Research Paper

… The other problem was the high temperature in Dubai thus, the concrete used to build the tower could not be poured in the day during summer because of the heat therefore builders had to put ice and pour the concrete at night when the air was much cooler.

For Taipei 101, the challenge during the construction of the building was the prevalent earthquakes and typhoons. Thus, during the construction, the foundation had to be bored deep into the foundation to make the building more stable in the face of constant quakes. In line with this, the concrete was poured with embedded sensors to monitor the mass concrete temperature. For the foundation, the engineers used 23 layers PE canvas to cure the concrete for three weeks in order to control the face concrete temperature difference with the inner part within 20, to reduce the heat impact of mass concrete hydration.


From the above paragraphs, it is vivid that the soil conditions where the two structures are built on are almost similar. In addition, their foundation designs are similar; both structures are supported by concrete rafts lying on pile foundations. In the Burj Khalifa case the concrete raft is 3.7 m thick and the piles are 50 metres long while for Taipei 101, the foundation slab is 3 meters thick at the edges and 5 meters thick under the largest columns with a depth of 80 metres into the ground. However, the site investigation tests carried out in the Burj Khalifa project covered a wider area than those in the Taipei 101.


Figure1: Taipei 101

Figure2: Foundation Plan for Taipei 101

Figure3: Burj Khalifa

Figure4: Foundation of Burj Khalifa

Figure5: The Y Foundation Design


Baker, W.F., & Pawlikowski, J.J. (2009). The Design and Construction of the World's Tallest Building: Pushing Technology to New Heights. Structural Engineer, 12-19.

Bianchi, S., & Critchlow, A. (2010, January 4). World's Tallest Skyscraper Opens in Dubai. Retrieved December 28, 2012, from

Binder, G. (2008). Taipei 101. Mulgrave, Australia: The Images Publishing Group Pty Ltd.

Bunce, G., & Poulos, H.G. (2008). Foundation Design for the Burj Dubai -- The World's Tallest Building. 6th International Conference on Case Histories in Geotechnical Engineering, (pp. 1-16). Arlington, Vancouver.

C.Y Lee & Partners. (2004). Architects & Planners: Taipei 101. A + U Architecture and Urbanism, 10(421), 110-113.

Lee, H.J., Kuchma, D.A., Baker, W., & Novak, L.C. (2008). Design and Analysis of Heavily Loaded Reinforced… [read more]

Earth Science. Earth Science Being Essay

… This helps them obtain in-depth understanding about the problem in the form of testable explanations capable of predicting the future accurately. This allows scientists to gain an understanding of reality, and later use that understanding to intervene in its causal mechanisms. This ensures that the decisions presented by the scientists are better at making accurate predictions and can be easily implemented (Franklin, 2009).

Benefits of the Article

This article acts as an eye opener to the reader. The future predictions though may not be totally correct, they help in making humans aware of what the future holds; time might disappear from our universe, giving us no sense of movement or direction. In reality, nobody is sure how the universe would end and when that would be but, predicting the event can help in finding solution to the problem.

To the individuals who may be religious, this article may make them see how the creator will punish sinners; lakes of fire and brimstones burning them. For this reason, the end is visualized as the deity's way of cleansing our planet; a factor that stirs up the requisite fear and jeopardy among humans. Thus by looking through the lens of science, humans see how the end would be, it becomes much more interesting than just speculating and waiting with false hopes about the end.

Use of Computers in Earth Science

The use of computers has become a normal life trend; always integral in most professions such as medicine, geography as well as other disciplines. As such, computers have become an integral part of modern science. Computers assist scientists in understanding the world around us; computer technology is the driving force of current science. Scientists no longer constrain to just doing experiment-based or theoretical researches, they are able to enter into a computer and the computer, utilizing mathematics and abiding by the physical laws, can recreate a virtual physical world right on the computer screen.

In addition, the use of computers has revolutionized the scientific process from meteorology, molecular biology, astronomy and environmental science. These machines are critical for scientists during recording, analyzing, and capturing experimental data. Scientists use computers to automate calculations, create simulations to test hypotheses and for visualization as well. Moreover, scientists incorporate computer in their work to assists them in their communication with their colleagues.

The major problem faced by scientists when using computers is emotional and social skills detachments. These two factors help scientists in predicting the actions of others, by understanding their motives and emotional states. The computers though are vital in setting and controlling robotics and other machineries, the computers may not be able to give critical evaluation of a particular problem the way a human being would. This may make the use of computers in the field limiting and not well sought after by the scientists.


Franklin, J. (2009). What Science Knows: And how it Knows it. New York: Encounter Books.

Jha, A. (2011, November 20). Is the end of the world really nigh?… [read more]

Geophysics Presentation Summary the Process of Working Term Paper

… Geophysics Presentation Summary

The process of working up a prospect generated from seismic data collected entails six principal elements: (1) Acreage lease amount, (2) Acreage price, (3) Drilling location, (4) Platform erection cost-benefit analysis, (5) Platform location, and (6) the number and location of individual wells.

Identifying prospects from seismic lines is typically a matter determined by the apparent presence of bright spots, structural highs, fault or salt traps, nearby well control, prior experience in the same area, and geological knowledge. In prior eras, creating a seismic map was executed by picking a seismic line location on a base map, viewing the seismic line, and zooming in. Then, the interpreter must decide what to map based on bright spots, nearby well control, knowledge of local geology, and continuity and relative ease of mapping. That traditional method relied on event tracing using colored pencils. More specifically, whether by pencil or modern computer mouse, the interpreter perpendicular identifies seismic lines, extending those picks as far as possible in both directions, monitoring progress by a map view, and picking every tenth line while taking care to maintain consistency. Holes must be filled by one of three possible methods: (1) Picking every line, (2) Grid, and (3) Auto-track. Gridding is an algorithmic method based on estimating missing picks according to the known value of actual picks. Among the potential complications are ambiguous data, poor data, and phantom horizons.

Identifying seismic prospects the modern way involves the volume interpretation processes based on computer-based 3-D displays. The primary tool in those processes is auto-tracking, based on one or more initial interpreter picks. The computer extends those picks as far as possible. The cleaner the… [read more]

Environmental Systems Capstone Project

… ¶ … environmental systems in the past five years. Summarize the techniques used, the assumptions and limitations faced, the potential for error and how it was minimized, and the lessons learned.

Scope/Direction of the Research

The scope of the study… [read more]

Rock Cycle Most Processes on the Earth Research Paper

… Rock Cycle

Most processes on the earth are cyclic in nature, designed it seems to keep ecological issues in balance. We see this with the water cycle, photosynthesis, and even weather patterns. The Rock Cycle is a basic geological concept that describes the manner in which rocks types (sedimentary, metamorphic, and igneous) evolve and change based on stimuli from the atmosphere, pressure, heat, plate tectonics, water cycle, etc. The basic template is that rocks do not remain in any sort of equilibrium and must change based on new environmental stimuli. The rock cycle also shows us how, over longer periods of geological time, the differing types of rocks are related to one another and how then can go through a differing set of environmental changes. In a way, the rock cycle shows how, like flora and fauna, the diversity of the geological materials on earth also mimic the diversity of life.

The Cycle- The original concept of the cycle is usually attributed to the "father" of geology, James Hutton. The rock cycle is essentially made up of three parts -- just as there are three basic types of rocks: igneous, metamorphic, and sedimentary. The development of the cycle theory was part of Hutton's understanding of uniformitarianism, which dominated geological thought until the 1960s when plate tectonics changed the idea from repetitive to gradually evolving. The parts of the cycle are:

Transition to igneous rock -- as rocks are pushed deeper and deeper into the earth, they often melt into magma. If heat lessens, this magma will cool and solidify into igneous rock. As soon as the rocks begin to cool they change, gasses within magma deposits change the rock and as they are pushed upward they can begin to compose do to weathering (rain, frost, oxygen, etc.). They can also change based on the other minerals that may have been deposited into the magma.

Transition to metamorphic -- rocks that are exposed to both high temperatures and high pressures may be physically changed into metamorphic rock. They typically have banding of types, and are often formed when rock comes into contact with igneous layers that heats up the surrounding rock. In fact, any pre-existing rock may be modified by the process of metamorphism.

Transition to sedimentary -- rocks that are continually exposed to both weathering and erosion (breaking down into smaller fragments) usually accumulate and are buried under additional materials (sand for instance). When these accumulate enough and are subjected to pressure they become sedimentary and are often combined with other organisms and minerals (Rocks and the rock cycle, 2011).

Driving Forces… [read more]

Plate Tectonics and Landform Research Paper

… The two arms of the Y-shaped fracture are in the Red Sea and the Gulf of Aden, while the stem of the Y is the Great Rift Valley. A deepening and widening rift will permit the surrounding waters to enter the fracture. Eventually a new sea or gulf will form on the land side as the Somalian plate separates from the Nubian plate of Africa.

Because most of the rift activity occurs on the ocean floor, the only two places on earth where the results of two major tectonic plates moving apart can be seen are the Great Rift Valley of eastern Africa and Pingvellir in the Reykjaneshryggur-Langjokull rift system of Iceland in the North Atlantic. The Pingvellir area shows the crustal rifting and volcanism characteristic of sea-floor spreading below.

The Alps, Europe

The development of The European Alps was not a straightforward occurrence, if only because so many different forces were in play over many millions of years. The Alps extend from southern Europe into Asia Minor, northern India, Russia, and China. The Alpine/Himalayan System consists of sediments deformed by convergent margin collisions between continents. The northward movement of the African plate caused collision with the Eurasian plate. This activity partly closed the Tethys Sea and created the Mediterranean Sea. Much of the structure of The Alps consists now of piles of allochthonous (original position) thrust sheets or nappes that were driven against the older landmasses or carried up onto them. A nappe is a large segment of rock that has been thrust far away from its original position by the thrust faulting of plate collisions between continents. The folds of the nappes bend back over themselves, like what is seen in the Jura Mountains of Switzerland -- the open Jura-type decollement folds -- and are sheared or break into large recumbent pieces. A thrust fault is particular kind of low dip-angle fault that forms during the compression and deformation of a region. The actual tectonic transport of the sheets involved both compression and gravity gliding -- some of which was submarine -- off of the raised tectonic welt. Also, there is evidence -- in the form of the presence of nappes and decollement -- of shortening of the crust through subduction. Further folding and deformation occurred by lateral compression (orogeny), beginning in the Late Mesozoic and ending in the Miocene. The High Alps exhibit a ruggedness that is due to the uplift that continues into the present, and also by erosion of Pleistocene glaciers.

The Himalayas is another example of mountains formed by a continent to continent collision. India is embedded in the Indo-Australian plate and it pushes relentlessly into the Tibetan region of the southern edge of the Eurasian plate. The towering sharp peaks of the Himalayas are still thrusting up by the action of the two plates, which has exhibited bending, twisting, and folding at the collision zone.


Aleutian Islands, (2011). Retrieved

Island Arc Formation, Windows to the Universe, National Earth Science Teachers… [read more]

Mountain Elbrus Research Paper

… ¶ … Elbrus

Geologic Formation and History

Elbrus itself is a huge volcanic cone with two summits that lies just off the main Caucasus Mountains ridgeline. The mountain's highest summit stands at 18,456 feet and its main ridge is made… [read more]

Carleton Emmons Watkins Research Paper

… Artists

Carleton Emmons Watkins

Carleton Emmons Watkins was a prominent San Francisco-based photographer who first visited and photographed Oregon and the Columbia River Gorge in 1867. He traveled the upper Willamette River and the Columbia River Gorge, taking pictures of… [read more]

Volcanoes in the United States or Other Geographical Areas Research Paper

… Mount Rainier, Washington, is one of the few active volcanoes in the continental United States. It is classified as a stratovolcano, or composite volcano, meaning that it is a tall, more conical volcano built up over the years with numerous… [read more]

Plate Tectonics Thesis


The objective of this work is to identify a specific scientific concept of phenomenon for which the understanding has changed over time. For the purpose of this specific work plate tectonics… [read more]

Caesar Cesar's Work "The Gallic Wars" Abounds Essay

… Caesar

Cesar's work "The Gallic Wars" abounds in characterizations of the two people that he encounters during his campaigns: the Gauls and the Germans. The descriptions for these two people are, however, antithetical: on one hand, Cesar has a positive characterization of the Gauls, while, on the other hand, his description of the Germans is more centered on their negative characteristics that include brigandage, their appetence for destruction and willingness to plunder. The focus of the books is on Gaul, so reference to Germany, both in terms of its geography and of its people is scarce and generally related, in some way or another, to the Gauls.

In this general antithetical approach, Cesar uses an antithesis of the landscape and geographic descriptions as well, both to match the character of the people with the land they live in and to partially explain how a people's character is formed through such a match between geography and human development. This paper will aim to argue that geographical description plays an essential role in the characterization of the Germans that Caesar does in his work and will also provide relevant examples in that sense.

First of all, Caesar insists on the fact that deserted, unpopulated land is part of the Germans' existence and, in fact, their preference for the land surrounding their territory. This point is emphasized in several places throughout his work. Most notably, he states that "to have a vast desert of unpopulated land lying around their frontiers is to them an object of much complacency" and, further on, "there is no more coveted distinction than to live in the centre of a vast wilderness that has been carved out along each and all their frontiers"

This is a first example of the way that Cesar blends characteristics of the German people with the geography and interconnects them. The relationship is quite clear: their inclination towards violence and towards devastation leads, in fact, to a deserted region bordering German territories. As always in his work, the reality may not necessarily be so, but it helps him show the character of the German and provide useful arguments from the geographical elements surrounding them.

There are additional mentions about the geography of Germany throughout the book. In book VI, for example, Caesar refers to the "Hercynian forest, (which, I perceive, was known by report to Eratosthenes and some other Greeks, and which they call Orcynia)"

. The respective paragraph appears, however, in relation with the settlement in that region of the Volcae Tectosages.

The subsequent paragraphs (6.24 to 6.29) complete the image of this geographic component of Germany by mentioning the overall location (as in most cases, Caesar relies on the location of some of the other tribes to define the boundaries of the forest: "it begins at the frontiers of the Helvetii, Nemetes, and Rauraci, and extends in a right line along the river Danube to the territories of the Daci and the Anartes"… [read more]

Fluid Inclusions Thesis

… Fluid Inclusions

Until the early 1950s, few people in the scientific community had any idea of the practical applications of fluid inclusion research. After all, Fluid inclusions are bubbles of liquid and gas trapped within crystals. Fluid inclusions generally range… [read more]

Bowers Ridge and Shirshov Rise Term Paper

… Bowers Ridge & Shirshov Rise

Are the Shirshov Rise and Bowers Ridge features old subduction zones or hotspot tracks? That is the question this paper will relate to and attempt to answer based on available research. Not all articles used… [read more]

Johns Hopkins Geologist Bruce Marsh, Who First Term Paper

… ¶ … Johns Hopkins geologist Bruce Marsh, who first suggested a decade ago that, magmatic mush rather than crystal free magma was instrumental in the formation of the earth's crust. This mush consisted of both magma and crystal, and occurred in smaller sheetlike chambers rather than the giant chambers of previous assumption. The smaller chambers are vertically connected, which connections also served as pathways for the magma to reach the earth's crust.

To further investigate his theories, Marsh is now researching the McMurdo Dry Valleys of Antarctica. Because the territory in this location precludes human habitation, little has changed in the crust pattern of this location. For this reason, Marsh and his associates have come to refer to the Valleys as a "walk-in laboratory" or a "relic landscape." According to the article, it is the only place on earth that looks almost exactly like it did millions of years ago.

As such, the Dry Valleys date back nearly 180 million years ago, around the time of the continents splitting. From his study of this location, Marsh has found that the process of magma pressure did not only form the earth's crust, but also fractured what was already in existence of the earth's crust. Marsh explains that this is a process resulting from pressure underneath the crust causing stress fractures. These fractures were in turn sealed by further magma deposits, which created a pattern of weak points on the crust. Finally, these were eroded to form the mountains and valleys currently visible in the area.

Marsh's study is highly significant in the field of geology, as it brings together two widely divergent areas of study: that of deep volcanic activity and that of land surface formation. These have never been studied concomitantly before. Marsh's new discoveries opens up a vast new field of study within the discipline. Furthermore, the results have repercussions for filling currently existing gaps in the study of the earth's formation.

Furthermore, this study also… [read more]

Yucca Mountain Term Paper

… ¶ … Nuclear waste [...] Yucca Mountain nuclear waste project in Nevada. The Yucca Mountain Repository (often referred to as the "nuclear waste dump") is the nation's "solution" to long-term storage of nuclear waste. Nuclear waste is generated from America's… [read more]

Plate Tectonics Term Paper

… Tectonics

The Ups and Downs of Plate Tectonics

Traditionally, we think of plate tectonics as occurring laterally along the Earth's surface as the crust's plates are pushed back and forth along the top of the mantle. In fact, recent research and computer modeling has illustrated that there are more forces at work within the mantle that have a significant impact on the orientation and characteristics of features on the surface of the planet.

One of the persistent problems in geology has revolved around the African superswell, a plateau in South Africa that is 1,000 miles wide and more than a mile high (Gurnis 40). Unfortunately, classical tectonic theory was unable to account for how the superswell had risen so high above sea level. Other similar issues have cropped up over the decades, including Cretaceous sea levels around Denver, Colorado in North America.

New computer models have demonstrated a solution to this problem. It has long been known that the mantle is semi-liquid in nature and that the crust floats upon the surface of this liquid. However, what is becoming clearer is the extent to which… [read more]

Volcanic Activity and the Consequent Geological Hazard Term Paper

… ¶ … volcanic activity and the consequent geological hazard namely debris flow. Before beginning to start our summary and review of the chosen article it would be forthright to discuss briefly the other two articles that were overviewed. These include the 'Indonesian eruption of muddy waters' and the 'Volcano hazard management strategies'. The article about Indonesian muddy eruption is the same phenomenon as the one under review where the focus is on strategies to prevent the mud debris flow from sweeping the surrounding settlement regions. It is apt to point here that it is a current problem as the Luis mud volcano is creating havoc in east java. The disaster due to large debris flow is fairly obvious. Several such incidents in the past where the sudden activity from a dormant volcano triggering large and destructive debris flow have been recorded. Mud eruption at the rate of 7000-150,000 cubic metres per day displacing a population of more than 11,000 people gives us a fair indication of the disastrous proportion of such volcanic phenomenon. [David Cyranoski] the other paper was focussed on technological and strategic management techniques for handling geological hazards triggered by tectonic changes. This included several studies by volcanologists, geologists and other scientific teams. This paper concentrates on devising efficient forewarning and evacuation systems in geologically prone regions in order to minimize damage. In particular, the emphasis is on public education and access control systems in place to limit access to dangerous areas. [Ronald W. Perry]

In this paper we review an article, which considers the strategies use to mitigate the effects of volcanic debris flow, which is a prominent problem. The intention behind the choice of the article is that it discusses a simple and effective damage control solution that could be life saving for thousands of people who live in seismically active riverside areas. This problem is particularly amplified in areas where residential zones are adjacent to volcanic landscapes. The analysis of this study assumes importance in view of the fact that the strategies can be very useful in preventing damage from going out of proportion. The recent mud volcano situation in east java in Indonesia where an entire town was totally destroyed is an ideal example, highlighting the importance of research into such damage control mechanisms. The article under review, by Wang Shige, is basically an interventional strategy aimed to study the debris hazard and mechanical systems that can be put in place to mitigate the force and control the debris flow. The researcher suggests a plan of installing low cost slit trap dams as a controlling feature for the debris flow in the Cerro Grande volcanic region of Venezuela. Since there is a large accumulation of material due to volcanic eruptions in the region it is very important that a debri flow control strategy is implemented to prevent the… [read more]

Earthquakes and Their Dangers Term Paper

… Earthquakes and Their Dangers

Earthquakes have always been feared for their catastrophic effects and strike without much of a warning. Many recent earthquakes such as the El Salvador quake and the one that happened in India in 2001, and more… [read more]

Geology Volcanic Hazards Term Paper

… Volcanoes are one of the most fascinating natural phenomenons that occur. Many regions of the world have active volcanoes; some of which threaten the lives of inhabitants. The purpose of this discussion is to evaluate volcanic hazards as it relates… [read more]

California Water System Term Paper

… Southern California Water System

Turn on the tap and fill a glass with water. It's a simple act that most people in developed areas of the world take for granted. But ensuring that the water is pure and getting it… [read more]

Tsunami in Indonesia Term Paper

… Tsunami in Indonesia


Tsunami is an ocean wave formed by an underwater earthquake, landslide or volcanic explosion. These waves may attain huge magnitude and have adequate energy to move across whole oceans. (Definitions of Tsunami on the Web) Tsunamis are created by any uproar like earthquake, volcanic eruption, landslide or meteorite impact that quickly shifts a large quantity of water. But the most general reason is an underwater earthquake. An earthquake, which is very small to form a tsunami by itself, may activate an underwater landslide quite able of forming a tsunami. Tsunamis are formed when the sea floor suddenly distorts and perpendicularly moves the overlying water. These huge vertical actions of the earth's layer can take place at plate boundaries. Subduction earthquakes are mainly efficient in forming tsunamis, and take place in areas where thick oceanic plates trip under continental plates in a process known as subduction. Likewise, a fierce submarine volcanic eruption can lift the water column and form a tsunami. Waves are created as the ousted water mass shifts under the influence of gravity to get back its equilibrium and spreads out across the ocean like waves on a pond. (Tsunami: Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia)

This moves across the sea as fast as a jet airplane, and on land it can suck all the water out of a harbor. Then it grows to more than 100 feet tall and overturns the whole village. This sea monster is called tsunami. This is a Japanese word for great harbor wave. Normally an underwater earthquake creates tsunami's waves spinning across the ocean. About four out of five tsunamis occur within the Ring of Fire, a region of recurrent earthquakes and volcanic eruptions almost matching the borders of the Pacific Ocean. Alongside the ring's edges, huge slabs of the earth's layer, called tectonic plates, drudge together. At times the plates get trapped, and pressure is formed. Then, the plates can rapidly move apart and crash into a new position. The jerk creates an earthquake. If an earthquake touches or falls to the ocean floor, the water above it starts moving too. This activates a tsunami. (Killer wave! Tsunami) tsunami can rush across the ocean at 500 miles per hour. Strangely, in deep water its ripples are only a few feet high. But when the waves reach the shore, they rise in energy and height. Usually prior to a tsunami, a huge vacuum is formed, and water is sucked from harbors and beaches. People can see the empty seabed with littered with dead fish and abandoned boats. When a depression strikes the land, the water level… [read more]

Plate Tectonics Theory the Story Term Paper

… During this same time frame, the displacements caused by rifting totaled approximately 7 m (Understanding pp).

The size of the Earth has not significantly changed during the past 600 million years, and most likely, not since shortly after its formation… [read more]

Tsunamis a Succinct Definition Term Paper

… A combination of earthquake, fire and tsunami centered around Lisbon, Portugal killed 60,000 people in 1755."( Tsunamis) A further factor that is not often realized is that tsunamis can travel further upstream via costal estuaries and rivers, causing extensive damage… [read more]

Cartography the Geographic Coordinate System Term Paper

… However, this only works well if the distance between the two points can be measured in a straight line. Opisometers can measure the distances between two points using curved lines.

4. Direction is usually measured in relation to the north and south poles. However, the magnetic poles differ from the geographic poles. A magnetic compass can be used to measure angles relative to magnetic north. Those measures can then be translated to geographic map poles that describe True North or Grid North. The azimuth system depicts direction in terms of degrees on a circle, with north as either 0 or 360 degrees. The bearing system divides directions into quadrants, with north, south, east, and west as major reference points.

5. Standardized time keeping evolved as a result of globalization and improved transportation systems between remote localities. In 1878, a Canadian named Sir Sanford Fleming proposed the system of time zones that is still extant today, albeit with some variations due to national boundaries.

6. Topographic maps represent various three-dimensional structures and objects on a two-dimensional surface. They can depict natural features like land and sea elevations using contour lines. Contour lines distinguish areas of similar elevation on the map. If contour lines are spaced close together, it would indicate a steep elevation gain or loss. Topographic maps also use standardized symbols to represent natural and human-made structures like bridges, roads, and railways as well as swamps and waterfalls.

7. Remote sensing refers to the gathering of information about distant locations. Sophisticated remote sensing technology relies on aircraft and satellites to gather data. Infrared-sensitive cameras, aerial photography, and satellites equipped with infra-red and multi-spectral cameras and scanners are some of the remote sensing tools used by geographers. Object identification is based on shapes, size, color, patterns, shadows, and textures.

8. Geographic information systems (GIS) are types of software used to analyze and display geographical data. GIS activities include the spatial representation of natural and human-made objects emphasizing their elements, attributes and relationships; digital storage of map features; numerical manipulation and modeling of geographical data; and the depiction of geographical data in various output forms from maps to charts to written summaries. Element data refers to specific independent variables, objects… [read more]

Continental Drift to the Present Term Paper

… As more scientists study and understand the many dynamics of plate tectonics, they may come to understand how to predict certain events such as earthquakes, and to better understand the evolution and continued survival of the planet.

In conclusion, plate tectonics is one of the most important discoveries in science and geology for a number of reasons. It explains why the continents share many similarities that could not be explained if they had always existed apart, and it explains why even today the Earth is constantly shifting, rearranging, and moving. Plate tectonics continues to be studied and understood, and as scientists understand more about how the Earth moves and shifts, they may be able to better predict earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, and other natural disasters caused with the plates shift and the Earth moves.


Plate Tectonics. 2000. In The Columbia Encyclopedia (6th ed.). New York: Columbia University Press.

Continental Drift. 2000. In The Columbia Encyclopedia (6th ed.). New York: Columbia University Press.

Darling, D. (2001). Life everywhere: The maverick science of astrobiology. New York: Basic Books.

Morton, R.L. (1996). Music of the Earth: volcanoes, earthquakes, and other geological wonders. New… [read more]

Continental Drift and Plate Tectonics Term Paper

… When the plates push against each other, mountains are formed; at places where they pull apart, oceans are formed and continents 'fracture.' The continents drift along with the movement of these plates.

The main difference

between Wegener's theory of continental… [read more]

Volcanoes Term Paper

… Sea waves with an altitude of 30 meters (100 feet) caused devastating damage on the islands of java and Sumatra and went all the way to the shores of South America. Volcanic dust, released during the eruption of volcano covered the entire planet.

The chronics of that days say the following. The eruption started on the 20th of May. The column of ashes and smoke rose up to 11 km high from the north crater of the old Krakatau volcano. The ashes fell all the way in Sumatra island. The next day the explosions were registered every five-ten minutes. In a period of one month the top of the volcano was blown off by the massive eruption. The most terrible eruption happened two months later on August, 26. Th ehuge explosion of the volcano was heard in a range of 160 km. The resultant of the explosion was a column of smoke and ashes that rose to the high of 36 km in just 4-hour period. The next couple of days the explosions were even more powerful and louder and could be heard on Java island as well. In the city of Batavia (155 km from the volcano) the temperature was only 18 C. instead of 28, because of the volcanic smog. The resultants of the explosions were terrible tsunamis that hit the coast of Java and Sumatra, killing nearly 36-000 people.

The effects of the eruption were incredible and terrible. The explosions were heard nearly 4700 km away from the centre of volcano activity. Waves two meters high were registered nearly 8000 km away from the volcano. The masses of volcanic dust and volcanic pumice covered some locations on South African coast nearly a year after the explosion. Volcanic dust and gases circled the world in a two-week period of time and reached stratosphere. The island of Krakatau was destroyed, and only one third of the original island was remained relatively safe. According to article The Great Volcanic Explosion of Krakatoa:

It has been estimated that at least 21 cubic Km (appr. 11 cubic mile) was ejected from the eruption of Krakatoa and that at least 1 cubic mile of the finer material was blown to a height of about 17 miles (27 Km). The volcanic dust blown into the upper atmosphere was carried several times around the earth by air currents. This volcanic dust veil not only created the spectacular atmospheric effects described previously but acted also as a solar radiation filter, reducing the amount of sunlight reaching the surface of the earth. In the year following the eruption, global temperatures were lowered by as much as 1.2 degree Centigrade on the average. Weather patterns continued to be chaotic for years and there were major climatological changes which affected the entire globe.

Temperatures did not return to normal until five years later, in 1888."

The scientists explain such incredible activity by different reasons. Obviously the Pacific tectonic crust is very weak near the equator, but such kind of… [read more]

San Francisco Earthquake Massive Term Paper

… Slowly over time the New San Francisco emerged from the rubble, and still stands proud and tall today.


America Hurrah. "Municipal Reports The San Francisco Earthquake and Fire of April 1906." September 23, 2004,

Bartnett, W.J. "Rebuilding San Francisco." April 29, 1906. The Virtual Museum of The City Of San Francisco. September 23, 2004,

Ellsworth, W.L., 1990, Earthquake history, 1769-1989, Chapter 6 of Wallace, R.E., ed., The San Andreas Fault System, California: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1515, p. 152-187. An account of historic earthquakes in California.

Greely, A.W., 1906, "Special Report of Maj. Gen. Adolphus W. Greely, U.S.A., Commanding the Pacific Division, on the Relief Operations Conducted by the Military Authorities of the United States at San Francisco and other Points"

Hansen, Gladys. "Chronology of the Great Earthquake, and the 1906-1907 Graft Investigations." The Virtual Museum of the City of San Francisco, September 23, 2004

Hewitt, Fred J. "Wreck of City's Buildings Awful." San Francisco Examiner, April 20, 1906

McCann, Debra. "1906 Earthquake and Fire." September 26, 2004

NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration), 1972, A study of earthquake losses in the San Francisco Bay Area - Data and Analysis, A report prepared for the Office of Emergency Preparedness: U.S. Department of Commerce, 220 p

U.S. Geological Survey. "Quake: 1906 San Francisco Quake." 2001. Earthquake Hazards Program. September 23, 2004:

Wald, David J., Kanamori, Hiroo, & Donald V. Helmberger. "Source Study of the 1906 San Francisco Earthquake." Sociological Laboratory, 252-21, California Institute of Technology. Bull. Seism. Soc. Am., 83, 981-1019, 1993. September 23, 2004 at

Wald,… [read more]

Alfred Lothar Wegener -1930) Term Paper

… Wegener also made several key contributions to meteorology by pioneering the use of balloons to track air circulation, and writing a textbook on thermodynamics of air that became standard throughout Germany. ("Alfred Wegener 1880-1930," 1998- from A Science Odyssey Website)

Last Expedition

Wegener along with 14 others set out on a meteorological expedition to Greenland to study the jet stream in the upper atmosphere in September 1930. Due to the extreme cold many of his companions turned back but Wegener pushed on in temperatures as low as 54° C. To reach the winter station after a 15 day journey. While returning to base camp, the next morning, he got caught in a blizzard and died. His body was not found until the next summer: he was almost exactly 50 years old when died. (Watson, 1999)


Alfred Wegener was without doubt a brilliant scientist and a visionary who could see beyond the stereotypical scientific thoughts of his time. The vindication of his theory of the Continental Drift and the development of the theory of plate tectonics (which is largely based on Wegener's idea) after his death are ample proofs of and a tribute to his remarkable vision.


Alfred Wegener 1880-1930" (1998) People and Discoveries. A Science Odyssey. Retrieved on May 7, 2003 at

Waggoner, Ben. (1996) "Alfred Wegener (1880-1930)." Retrieved on May 7, 2003 at

Watson, J.M. "Alfred Lothar Wegener: Moving continents." The United States Geological Survey (USGS Website). Retrieved on May 7, 2003 at

Wilkson, Tuzo J. (April1963) "The Continental Drift." Article first printed in the Scientific American Journal-Reproduced in Encyclopedia Encarta, 2003

This… [read more]

Role of Potassium Argon Dating Term Paper

… Within archaeology the method of potassium argon dating has been used to date the time line of early hominids found at Olduvai Gorge, these discoveries were mainly due to the eminent archaeologist Louis Leakey and his equally eminent wife Mary Leakey.

In 1959 they discovered their first australopithecine fossil, Leakey classified this as Zinjanthropus boisei, East African Man. The specimen was seen to be a robust type of australopithecine. Today it is referred to as Paranthropus boisei or Australopithecus boisei., A. boisei was also a heavily built australopithecine, was in all likely hood a vegetarian, and possessed thick jaws with large black teeth, it seems that boisei and robustus were related to that of africanus as they are very much alike apart from africanus being more gracile

By using the method of potassium argon dating the fossil was discovered to date between 1.75 to 2.5 million yeas ago. To the scientist this was a very early date for our early ancestors not so much for the age but for the timescale.

Twenty years later in 1974 a new discovery took place by Donald Johanson and his team of paleoanthropologists in the region of Hadar. They had discovered an older specimen of hominid. The skeleton was forty percent complete and sexed as female, the team named the find Lucy. Again by use of potassium argon dating she was aged to around 3.18-3.2 million years ago. Her classification was that of Australopithecus afarensis.

The break through in modern science since the 1950's has enabled archaeologists to move deeper into the past. Without the need of playing guessing games archaeologists have a clearer view of where our early ancestors came from, modern man has only been active within the archaeological time scale for a relative short time. Yet anatomically modern man did not just spring up from nowhere, he comes from a long line or hominids that extends back many millions of years.

It is the scientific approaches such as potassium argon dating and carbon dating that has enabled the archaeologist to prove his theories, with more artefacts being found and new methods being discovered then the realms of archaeological debate are beyond infinity.


Gamble, C (1994) The Peopling of Europe: Oxford Illustrated Pre-History of Europe Cunliffe, B (ed) Oxford University Press. Oxford Fagan, B. (1998) People of the Earth Longman. New York

McKie (2000) Ape Man BBC Worldwide; London

Stringer, C and Gamble C (1993) In search of the Neanderthals Thames… [read more]

Plate Tectonics Is Responsible Term Paper

… From Pratt, 2000). In this context, it would mean that the ocean floor underwent subsidence and elevation. The ridges, height of the Romanche fracture zone in the equatorial Atlantic for instance is considered to be the model of spreading. But… [read more]

Analyzing Research on Tubines Research Paper

… Turbines

The Manufacturing-Research Activities in American Universities, Research Institutes and Centres

A major development program in gas turbines by U.S. Department of Energy was the precursor of UTSR (also known as University Turbine Systems Research) Program in 1992, which was… [read more]

Engineering School Bio Piece Admission Essay

… Mario Navarro

Generally, for a majority of people, the traditional path to a college education is to graduate high school first and then directly transition into a four-year university. The path that has brought to this statement of purpose is nothing like that, it was a path with many detours in it. During high school, I wasn't sure I was quite ready for college and I carefully scanned all my options. After much contemplation, I found that the offer that I received from the United States Navy was hard to beat. This path would give me the opportunity to see the world, learn a trade, as well as contribute to my personal character by developing a sense of discipline and responsibility.

I can still remember the feeling of excitement that I felt and I couldn't wait to sign the dotted line. After 13 months of service, I became an Aviation Electronics Technician Petty Officer Third Class who was checking in to my first command, Patrol Squadron 8 a P-3 squadron that was already deployed. The hands on training and sense of comradery was phenomenal, and within just a couple of years I was promoted to a Quality Assurance Inspector and a Petty Officer Second Class. My career continued to follow such a trajectory until I was recognized as a technical expert in the Avionics Branch of the Maintenance Department and a proud mentor to junior sailors.

My experience with the Navy has brought me to something of a crossroads however. I realize that I need to broaden my skill set to be able to fully utilize this experience effectively and enter into the next phase of my career. I believe that studying in your engineering program will provide me the skills and knowledge that I need to help me tackle some of the engineering challenges in aviation that I wish to pursue. I am grateful for your consideration and excited to attend your university.

Research Interest

Aviation quickly became a passion for me in my early career. After just thirteen months in the Navy, I quickly put my training to use fixing airplanes that were flying missions over Bosnia. This initial experience was intense and as my time with Patrol Squadron 8 flew by, I learned so much about aviation, service, and life in general. Because of the technical capabilities I had accumulated, I was later promoted to a Quality Assurance Inspector. With just over two years in the I was a Petty Officer Second Class, a shift supervisor and had a collateral duty as a Quality Assurance Inspector. At this post I was recognized as a technical expert in the Avionics Branch of the Maintenance Department and… [read more]

College of Engineering Explaining Poor Grades Essay

… ¶ … Department Chair:

Thank you so much for the time and support you have given me during this difficult period of my life. Speaking with you on Thursday gave me a great deal of hope that I will be able to salvage my academic career. I know that if I had not become ill in the spring of 2014 and had not been hospitalized for two months I would not be facing this issue regarding my substandard GPA. In retrospect I should have withdrawn from my classes when I was sick rather than trying to persevere. I know when I am given a chance to repeat the classes in which I received poor grades I will make a substantial improvement. I look forward to finally mastering the material since I am aware of the importance of this knowledge in embarking upon my future chosen career as an engineer.

The Dean of the College of Engineering requested that you email him a plan detailing how I will work to improve my GPA along with your permission to get my academic suspension removed so I can register for my classes next semester. The table below… [read more]

Updating Biomechanical Research in Addressiong the Human Impact of Road Accidents Essay

… ¶ … 2004, the World Health Organization estimated that one to two million fatalities occur from road accidents every year (Mackay, 2007). It predicted that these fatalities would rise to more than two million in 2020 with 85% of them from developing countries. It is also most unfortunate that 75% of these are pedestrians, cyclists and motorcyclists. Efforts have stopped at nothing to determine the nature and seriousness of these tragedies, their types, trends and prevention measures. One measure is the use of experimental biomechanics and crash injury research in reducing these fatalities and injuries (Mackay).

Since most of these affected by road accidents are those outside the vehicles, the focus of biomechanics research has properly been the regulatory process, which regulates vehicle design (Mackay, 2007). In turn, the government and industry are involved in developing new techniques in studying the human body's response to vehicular force in a road accident. Biomechanics research reveals that the impact is both intrinsic and extrinsic, permanent or temporary. On the other hand, the effect on the occupant or occupants in the vehicle has been classified into the crash, pre-crash, and post-crash phases. The pre-crash effect depends on the sex, age, height, weight, body mass index, current medical, biomechanical tolerance, muscle tone, contents of the stomach, sitting position, clothing and other factors. Crash effect depends on the direction, change of velocity, peack deceleration, loads, interaction with other occupants and other factors. And post-crash effect depends on the severity and number of injuries, emergency response, diagnosis and treatment and disabilities that may follow. These can e addressed properly by adjusting vehicle design and the strict use of a vehicle within its working life only (Mackay).

Opinion -- This research article is not only readable to the common individual who drives but also very valuable to all car designers and engineers, policy makers, legislators, law enforcers, and the health sector and everyone else who uses the road and wishes to avoid accidents.

There are other counter-measures which will help in diminishing… [read more]

Green Mountain Resort Case Study

… No one was challenged and that meant that very few took the initiative needed in order to really step up and establish strong and innovative strategies that would help push the company towards greater success.

Ultimately, I would have called in a consultant much sooner in order to completely restructure the way that Green Mountain ran its operations. Clearly, the old way did not work, which ultimately resulted in the buy out in the first place. Gunter meant well with his strategies, but ultimately it was only going down the same path that led the company into trouble in the first place. He needed a fresh perspective in order to bring in new ideas and innovation that would come in and refresh the company strategy in a new and meaningful way. It took Gunter too long to turn to an outside source by calling in a consultant, which wasted valuable time that could have facilitated a faster and more efficient change. Additionally, I would not want to decrease opportunity for growth in order to help secure a better bottom line by reducing turn over. Yes, turn over is costly to the company, but it reduces internal potential for staff within the company. Thus, Gunter was ultimately tuning away potentially good candidates because of the changes he made. Rather than making the changes Gunter made, I would have taken a different perspective on how to handle the turn over problem. It is crucial to keep opportunity open within the company in order to attract the best candidates who want to grow with the company and are just as devoted as Gunter is. Rather, I would have used more challenging decisions in order to attract more capable employees who could help increase the level of innovation within company strategy creation. [read more]

Earthquake Risks and Hazards Research Paper

… In case of earthquakes it is not possible for the concerned authorities to reduce the force of the disaster. The authorities, therefore, are required to alter the environment in a manner that can withstand the shocks of earthquake. For this… [read more]

Mountain Man and American Anguish Article Review

… " The author uses Williams, the drunken and slovenly mountain man who agrees to act as a guide in the "fickle West" because of his greed and becomes a cannibalistic shadow/pariah because of it. Another strength is the author's knowledge about American media in the early 1970's through the mid-1990's, as the author discusses numerous representations of heroes/villains/pariahs/shadows/scapegoats.

The article has at least several weaknesses. First, the author uses some "mountain men" who are not "mountain men." He says the "mountain man" is "the fur trapper and/or trader of the United States of America's nineteenth-century trans-Mississippi West." However, he uses Pasquinel, McKeag and Grizzly Adams, who can be seen as other types of men: Pasquinel and McKeag are "river men" and Grizzly Adams is a "wilderness zookeeper." The author should have expanded his definition of "mountain man" or reduced the examples to men who fit his definition. A second weakness is the author's failure to follow through on all the 5 added themes of the "mountain man" in the early 1970's to mid-1990's: Vietnam soldier; repression of effects from the Vietnam War; men as victims of war, government, and women; fear/hatred of women; loss of individual liberties; rather, the author just makes announcements that the "mountain man" represented some of those themes. A third weakness is that the author seemed to forget about the "mountain man" in media in order to lecture about the bad effects of Vietnam, for example. All-in-all, the article made some interesting points but the author tried to prove too many arguments/themes with a very limited definition of "mountain man" and without continually focusing on the connections between media representations and his arguments/themes. [read more]

Biology Species Research Paper

… The coloration of the leeward geckos became brighter, as they no longer needed to camouflage to deter predators. Cats, introduced to the island by humans, also preferred the thicker foliage for hunting that remained on the windward side of the island. On the windward side, the numbers of predators vs. geckos remained roughly the same after the eruption of the volcano. Biodiversity ironically increased as a result of the eruption, which helped to wipe out the invasive species of mongoose that had been introduced several decades earlier. However, the mongooses are expected to increase in number once again due to their rapid rates of reproduction and generally hearty nature. The increase in gecko diversity on the leeward side is predicted to be temporary. Food sources for the gecko, especially insects, would also result in dramatic size changes for the leeward vs. windward populations. With a large portion of the vegetation vanishing from the leeward side, the geckos there would be eating different types of insects and likely smaller ones.

How the Results Apply to the Original Question: The results imply that a dramatic and sudden geological change can lead to the evolution of different physical characteristics within the same population. Over time, the isolation of the two groups would result in diversification and divergences within the species. Size, coloration, and behavioral variables would be noticeably different among geckos that lived on different sides of a volcanic eruption.

Statement of Acceptance of Hypothesis: It was hypothesized that the gecko species would differentiate as a result of the eruption of a volcano, and the results substantiate the claim. Both predators and food sources would change as a result of the volcano impacting the leeward side of the island more than the windward side, and this would cause changes in gecko size and color.


"Tiny Gecko Species Discovered in Vanuatu Rainforest," (2008). Retrieved online:

Uthicke, S. (1999). Sediment bioturbation and impact of feeding activity of Holothuria (Halodeima) atra and Stichopus chloronotus, two sediment feeding holothurians, at Lizard Island, Great Barrier Reef. Bulletin of Marine Science 64(1): 129-141. [read more]

Eyjafjallajokull One of the Countries Essay

… This negatively impacted the economy of the region by disrupting commerce. While the airlines were forced to deal with losses from cancelations and accommodating stranded passengers. (Feigl) (Strukell)

Moreover, the melting water from the glacier will pose a threat to local inhabitants who live near the volcano. This is because an eruption from Eyjafjallajokull releases tremendous amounts of water into rivers and streams. When this happens, a number of communities are subject to flash floods and mudslides from the mountain. This increases the amounts of property damage and the possibility that there will be lives lost in the process. (Feigl) (Strukell)

These different factors are showing how an irruption will have negative impacts on humans. This will occur by posing a direct threat to health, property or the lives of people. While at the same time, there will be disruptions in economic activity and air travel. This will cause growth to slow in a number of regions and it will have an adverse impact on the airlines. (Feigl) (Strukell)


Clearly, Eyjafjallajokull is a unique volcano that is surrounded by a massive glacier (just off of Iceland's Atlantic coast). During times that it is erupting, it can pose a threat to human health and the lives of those living in close proximity to the mountain. Furthermore, it can disrupt air travel and economic activity around Europe. This will have an adverse impact on growth by forcing the delay of flights and it will affect commerce. These areas are significant, as they are illustrating how it will have a negative impact on the region.

Works Cited

Feigl, Kurt. "Intrusion Triggering." Nature. 468 (2010): 426 -- 430. Print.… [read more]

John Muir and the Sublime: Envisioning Essay

… John Muir and the Sublime: Envisioning the Conservation of the Modern Nation

The sublime, "it is productive of the strongest emotion which the mind is capable of feeling" (Burke, 1757, p 32). If one has ever seen the Yosemite Valley… [read more]

Earthquake and Tsunamis Essay

… However, some businesses have recovered and some are doing well thanks to the millions of dollars in aid and construction/clean-up activities. What is important to note is that the earthquake did not just affect Japan, or Japanese markets -- rather, in this age of globalization, it affected many Asian financial markets and certainly a great deal of import/export companies (Abe).

Part 3 -- Essentially, the Complexity Paradigm focuses on the way nature interacts with society, particularly in long-term management of hazards, weather, and natural disasters. Human society is vulnerable to disaster, largely due to the manner in which urban areas are structured and the density of population vs. transportation away from dangerous areas. Complexity, when dealing with earthquakes, for instance, is somewhat akin to chaos theory in that there are so many millions of variables that effect the event (the earthquake in this case), that it is almost impossible to predict when and where a strong earthquake will occur with any degree of reliability. Complex systems are not predictable under current technology, with unlimited precision. For instance, the 2004 Sumatra earthquake had all the regional likelihood of an earthquake, but even using complex algorithms, the date and severity of the quake could not be predicted. According to most scientists, two major factors contribute to this complex system: a hierarchical structure that starts with earth's core, moves through the tectonic plates, and up to sand and soil; and the instability caused by a number of issues that are constantly destabilizing the earth (weather, moisture, chemicals, construction, weapons, etc.). We can say, for instance, that the area around X (let us say Southern California) is overdue for an earthquake, we can estimate how it will move the earth and some of the effects, but the complexity paradigm does not allow us to be more accurate -- particularly when dealing with geologic time in contrast to human time (centuries as opposed to days) (Keils-Borok).

Works Cited

Abe, T. "The Lessons of the Great Tohoku Earthquake." 17 November 2011. Fujitsu Research Insitute. Web. October 2012. .

Buerk, R. "Japan Earthquake." 11 March 2011. BBC News Asia Pacific. Web. October 2012. .

Copolla, D. Introduction to International Disaster Management. Burlington, MA: Elsevier, 2011. Print.

Keils-Borok, V., "Geo-Complexity and Earthquake Prediction." March 2011. Extreme Environmental Events. Web. October 2012. .

"Tsunami Barriers." March 2012. Science Net Links. Web. October 2012. . [read more]

Rocks That Exhibit Ductile Strain Hypothesis Chapter

… Choose one answer.

a. convergent

b. divergent

c. transform fault

d. subvergent


Question 8

Accreted terranes are characteristic features of many

Choose one answer.

a. hot spots.

b. divergent plate boundaries.

c. transform faults.

d. convergent plate boundaries.


Question 9

Shakemaps, which present a visual image of the relative amount of shaking in areas affected by and earthquake, are based on the Choose one answer.

a. local magnitude scale.

b. Richter scale.

c. modified Mercalli scale.

d. moment magnitude scale.


Question 10

Which of the following describes the behavior of body waves as they move through the earth?

Choose one answer.

a. Unless they travel straight through the earth, they follow a path that is convex upward.

b. Unless they travel straight through the earth, they follow a path that is convex downward.

c. They follow a zigzag path as a result of density differences.

d. They all travel straight through the earth.


Question 11

Tectonic plates at divergent plate boundaries are moving away from one another. Rocks at this type of plate boundary will be exposed to Choose one answer.

a. compression

b. shear

c. tension

d. A significant reduction of volume


Question 12

The Basin and Range Province is characterized by which type of faults?

Choose one answer.

a. normal faults

b. reverse faults

c. thrust faults

d. recumbent faults


Question 13

How did seismographs assist in the development of the theory of plate tectonics?

Choose one answer.

a. Seismographs identified that most earthquakes occurred at plate boundaries.

b. Seismographs showed the magnetic polarity of the ocean floor.

c. Seismographs… [read more]

Pictures Can Speak Louder Research Paper

… Survivors exhibit signs of post-traumatic stress syndrome, as a result of their experience, and many, like Mr. Sasaki, take refuge in local bars to drown their sorrows.

However, there are some bright signs that the Japanese economy is rebounding. "Growth… [read more]

Igneous Rock Essay

… Because of the tremendous force when these plates hit, solid rock splits and rocks pile on top of each other, and mountains form. These also form under the oceans, resulting in mountain ranges and deep canyons that are as high as the Himalayas, but unseen. The basic premise for this is that continental crust cannot subduct due to its composition (too light and too thick). So when the oceanic crust between two continents is subducted, collision occurs. Folded Mountains


4. Stellar evolution is a process in which a star changes over time. Depending on the mass of the star, this can range from a few million years to trillions of years. All stars are initially born from gravity collapsing clouds of gas and dust, with the tremendous pressure causing fusion at the core. Stars like Sol (earth's sun) gradually grow in size until they reach the level of a Red Giant, which then, because of so much mass and pressure, causes the core to collapse into a dense white dwarf. Larger stars, with larger mass, can explode as they age and form a supernova, neutron star, or black hole. The steps in solar evolution are:

Birth -- the protostar begins with the collapse of a molecular cloud, and, depending on the mass, may become a brown dwarf or through hydrogen fusion and high temperatures, change the core into helium and become either a red dwarf (fusing hydrogen slowly) to supergiant (massive internal ovens). Sol is a midsize star with a lifespan of about 10 billion years.

Maturity -- depending on mass, once the core exhausts hydrogen, the pressures and gravity cause helium fusion. Low mass starts form helium in an uneven and unstable manner; mid-size become red-giants and have different phases of chemical reactions, and the larger the star, the faster it burns, and then a contraction occurs, changing the consumed helium and causing additional reactions.

Death -- once a star has burned out its fuel, it can take on one of three forms, depending on mass size. White/black dwarfs are for stars of 1 solar mass; very hot when forms and may, depending on location to other stars, form a nova. Neutron stars result from mid-size stars and can collapse to the size of a small city; becoming very dense and turning into pulsars. Black holes result from high mass and rapid… [read more]

International Disaster: The Indian Ocean Research Paper

… While organization such as Direct Relief performed many social services and helped rebuild entire villages, as well as ensure proper sanitation procedures in various countries affected by the disaster, many state, again, that this has not been enough. According to… [read more]

Rainy Season in the Tropics Essay

… Rainy Season in the Tropics

Rainy Season in the Topics, 1866 -- oil on canvas

The Fine Arts Museum of San Francisco

Like many artists of his time, Church travelled abroad to find inspiration and subject matter. Rainy Season in the Tropics is actually a representation of two different places -- the Ecuadorian Andes and the Island of Jamaica. This is important because when we look at the painting, we actually see two different scapes which, when we think about it, could not typically be part of nature.

The first part is the right bottom corner and depicts a tropical scene with palm trees, greenery, and what appear to be some travelers highlighted in light around the dark green of the forest. The second part is, of course, very craggy and tall mountains done in contrasting orange and browns. To tie the two together, Church uses a perfectly shaped rainbow, but without all the typical colorations -- just more of a glow and a bit of the prism of the rainbow effect on the upper and lower sides of the rainbow.

There really is not a focal point for the eye; one could say the travelers seem to be in a spotlight, but then the eye moves left to what could be a waterfall, which is the brightest part of the painting and the only part of the work in which the movement moves downward. The rest of the mountains move up, moving the eye to the rainbow glow. Then, on the upper right side of the painting is the only use of blue in the work -- a hint of blue sky emerging from the earth tones of the mountains and the rainbow glow -- possibly hinting at the emerging good weather after a storm.

In fact, there is not much color pallet used in this work -- there is the red jacket of the tiny traveler -- dwarfed likely on purpose by the tremendous height of the mountains, perhaps to show that humans are dwarfed by nature based on… [read more]

Earthquakes Have Come to Attract Essay

… Earthquakes have come to attract more and more attention in the recent years as the world was affected by seismic waves like the one in the Indian Ocean in 2004, the one in Haiti in 2010, and the one in Japan in 2011.

Studies and causes for which earthquakes happen

Effects triggered by earthquakes

Measures needed to be taken in the event of an earthquake

Earthquakes as they happen and examples

Studying the ocean floor is one of the most effective methods of understanding earthquakes. Even with the fact that there are several millions of earthquakes every year, only about one hundred provoke significant damage. Most earthquakes are caused by the moving of plate margins and by volcanic eruptions. The energy that these two processes release makes the ground shake and practically causes earthquakes.

Earthquakes are hazards because they negatively affect a wide assortment of mediums, ranging from humans to whole ecosystems. Economies normally experience significant damage consequent to an earthquake and financial crises are likely to appear as a consequence of a powerful seismic wave. In addition to the physical damage that an earthquake can cause, it also causes a disruption in trade and produces more long-term damage to the area that it strikes in.

3. In order to effectively reduce damage in case of an earthquake, countries adopt legislations that prohibit people from inhabiting buildings considered unlikely to endure through major seismic waves. In addition to that, many earthquake warning systems have been installed around the world with the purpose of predicting earthquakes and in order to assist people in preparing for such seismic activities. In order to be able to successfully live through an earthquake people need to be familiar with precautions and measures that they need to take when… [read more]

Buckingham Palace -- Heating Engineering Term Paper

… Another advantage of using the KoolShade material and installation is that it also provides a security shield on the windows for the Buckingham Palace building and will not allow dangerous materials to break the window or penetrate it. Furthermore, the anticipation is that the installation of the KoolShade system in the Buckingham Palace structure will reduce the overall heat penetration from inside of the building by 15% during the winters. So, not only does KoolShade block extreme heat from penetrating 'into' the building during summers, it also blocks the warmth of the building to penetrate outside during winters (Coopers, 2010).

The production of the final KoolShade material is through the use of numerous strands of bronze that are then woven in an intermingled way. The material is flexible after its woven which means it can be cut and shaped according to any design. Furthermore, the color and paint choices on the material are also plenty which allows the building designers to have variety. There is also a lot of variety and flexibility available for its fixing across the windows -- one way is the static fixing while another is the use of horizontal sliding that can be rolled shut when needed and opened when needed. When the KoolShade material is observed from the outside, it does present a very environment friendly solution and outlook for solving solar heating issues without the application of peripheral devices (see images in appendix) (Coopers, 2010).


The production of KoolShade utilizes the string suits of the heaviest materials by intricately designing the minimum quality materials. The tangible weight of the material at the time of installations is lesser than 3 kgs per meter which is 10 times less than the weight of the standard materials of Louvre used for solar shading. As aforementioned, the material is flexible which allows it to be alternatively shaped according to numerous modern or retro designs of the buildings (Coopers, 2010).


The KoolShade material requires minimum maintenance with only quarterly watching of the entire material with clean water in its fixed placement (Coopers, 2010).

Heathrow Airport UK -- example of successful implementation within the United Kingdom

The overall retro and unusually design of the walkways at the airport, the sun's glare and heat was a source of botheration for the passengers and employees at the Heathrow Airport in the UK. The Airport authorities used the KoolShade material due to its heat counter facets, light weight, undisturbed view as well as its flexibility which allowed each panel to be fitted so that it could be transported one at a time when the cleaning or maintenance was required (Coopers, 2010).


Abesser, C. (2010). Open-loop ground source heat pumps and the groundwater systems: A literature review of current applications, regulations and problems. British Geological Survey.

Coopers (2010). KoolShade Solar Control. Available from:

Green Energy 360. 2008. [cited 27 May 2010]. Available from

Energy Saving Trust. 2010. [cited 27 May 2010]. Available from

Kelly, T. 2009. Management of… [read more]

Archaeological Interpretations of Upper Paleolithic Research Paper

… The question posed is how many numbers of types are needed to label an assemblage as Aurignacian? (Bar-Yosef, 2002, p.372)

It is reported that the use of one morph-type such as the carinated narrow cores from which bladelets were removed… [read more]

Earth Science Ring of Fire Term Paper

… According to calculations by Chris Goldfinger, head of the Active Tectonics and Seafloor Mapping Laboratory at Oregon State University, there is an 80% chance that the portion of the fault off southern Oregon and Northern California would break in the next 50 years and produce a megaquake. The odds of rupture are lower for the northern end, with a 27% chance during the same time period (Chang, 2010).

Natural Resources Canada (2011) presents similar arguments as the Ring of Fire video concerning megathrust earthquakes in the Pacific Northwest. While none have been observed in the short, approximately 150-year written history of the west coast of Canada, the article cites similar compelling evidence that they have occurred in the past. They too cite observations that include buried tidal marsh or coastal forest soils pointing to sudden land subsidence of approximately one meter that happened at the same time from Vancouver Island to Northern California.

All scientists find it challenging to predict the next Pacific Northwest megaquake. One of the largest earthquakes in history occurred during the January night in 1700 that ruptured the seafloor off Oregon and Washington. Within minutes of the magnitude-9 earthquake, a 30-foot wall of water inundated coastal areas, and within 12 hours the tsunami crossed the pacific and flattened houses along the eastern coast of Japan. Scientists believe the Northwest is due for another devastating megaquake (Rojas-Burke, 2010).

While precise predictions are impossible to make, scientists believe that by reconstructing the history of megaquakes in the Northwest, they have found a pattern that could help improve forecasts of the next big quake. Findings suggest that the largest, most damaging quakes may occur in cycles separated by 1,000-year periods of inactivity (Rojas-Burke, 2010); however scientists disagree over clustering in cycles as well as the length of inactive periods.

Earthquakes arise from the collision of massive sections of the earth's crust called tectonic plates. From Northern California to British Columbia, the Juan de Fuca Plate is plunging beneath the North American plate. This region, known as the Cascadia subduction zone, produced the volcanic peaks of the Cascade Range and it poses an ominous earthquake hazard. Scientists have arrived at various estimates of the near-term probability that a magnitude-9 megaquake will strike the Northwest. The most frequently cited number is a 10 to 15% likelihood over the next 50 years (Rojas-Burke, 2010).

However, geologist Chris Goldfinger believes such estimates give an incomplete picture of megaquake probabilities. Goldfinger and others have reconstructed a 10,000-year history of major quakes along the Cascadia subduction zone by examining remnants of undersea landslides, revealing a possible clustering of megaquakes over time. Their studies indicate the risks of a subduction zone quake differ from north to south. In the northern segment, Goldfinger's group also puts the odds at 10 to 15% during the next 50 years. But in southern Oregon and northern California, quakes along the subduction zone appear to strike more frequently. Goldfinger and his colleagues calculate a probability of 37% that another megaquake will… [read more]

Storm Over Mt. Everest Film Movie Review

… Time passes, and progress is interminably slow. Anywhere else on earth, except during emergency conditions, say, a buffer of time can generally be found or created. But this is no more so for high altitude climbing than it is for… [read more]

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