"Geography / Geology" Essays

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Cartography the Geographic Coordinate System Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (738 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


However, this only works well if the distance between the two points can be measured in a straight line. Opisometers can measure the distances between two points using curved lines.

4. Direction is usually measured in relation to the north and south poles. However, the magnetic poles differ from the geographic poles. A magnetic compass can be used to measure angles relative to magnetic north. Those measures can then be translated to geographic map poles that describe True North or Grid North. The azimuth system depicts direction in terms of degrees on a circle, with north as either 0 or 360 degrees. The bearing system divides directions into quadrants, with north, south, east, and west as major reference points.

5. Standardized time keeping evolved as a result of globalization and improved transportation systems between remote localities. In 1878, a Canadian named Sir Sanford Fleming proposed the system of time zones that is still extant today, albeit with some variations due to national boundaries.

6. Topographic maps represent various three-dimensional structures and objects on a two-dimensional surface. They can depict natural features like land and sea elevations using contour lines. Contour lines distinguish areas of similar elevation on the map. If contour lines are spaced close together, it would indicate a steep elevation gain or loss. Topographic maps also use standardized symbols to represent natural and human-made structures like bridges, roads, and railways as well as swamps and waterfalls.

7. Remote sensing refers to the gathering of information about distant locations. Sophisticated remote sensing technology relies on aircraft and satellites to gather data. Infrared-sensitive cameras, aerial photography, and satellites equipped with infra-red and multi-spectral cameras and scanners are some of the remote sensing tools used by geographers. Object identification is based on shapes, size, color, patterns, shadows, and textures.

8. Geographic information systems (GIS) are types of software used to analyze and display geographical data. GIS activities include the spatial representation of natural and human-made objects emphasizing their elements, attributes and relationships; digital storage of map features; numerical manipulation and modeling of geographical data; and the depiction of geographical data in various output forms from maps to charts to written summaries. Element data refers to specific independent variables, objects…… [read more]

Continental Drift to the Present Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,711 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


As more scientists study and understand the many dynamics of plate tectonics, they may come to understand how to predict certain events such as earthquakes, and to better understand the evolution and continued survival of the planet.

In conclusion, plate tectonics is one of the most important discoveries in science and geology for a number of reasons. It explains why the continents share many similarities that could not be explained if they had always existed apart, and it explains why even today the Earth is constantly shifting, rearranging, and moving. Plate tectonics continues to be studied and understood, and as scientists understand more about how the Earth moves and shifts, they may be able to better predict earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, and other natural disasters caused with the plates shift and the Earth moves.


Plate Tectonics. 2000. In The Columbia Encyclopedia (6th ed.). New York: Columbia University Press.

Continental Drift. 2000. In The Columbia Encyclopedia (6th ed.). New York: Columbia University Press.

Darling, D. (2001). Life everywhere: The maverick science of astrobiology. New York: Basic Books.

Morton, R.L. (1996). Music of the Earth: volcanoes, earthquakes, and other geological wonders. New…… [read more]

Continental Drift and Plate Tectonics Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (2,180 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


When the plates push against each other, mountains are formed; at places where they pull apart, oceans are formed and continents 'fracture.' The continents drift along with the movement of these plates.

The main difference

between Wegener's theory of continental drift and the modern plate tectonics is that Wegener believed that each continent was propelled like a ship through the solid ocean floor, while the theory of plate tectonics explains the movement of the continents by the movement of the earth's surface plates floating on the asthenosphere.

The Still Moving Continents Will Collide Again

It has now been established that the lithosphere plates move at a very slow speed of about two inches per year (slower than the speed of a growing nail) but even this slow speed adds up to 30 miles in one million years. Scientists hypothesize that about 225 million years ago all of the land masses of earth were locked together as a great super-continent called Pangaea

. Then about 225 million years ago the earth's plates began to drift apart and a slight fracture between two parts of the single continent became the great Atlantic Ocean in about the next 150 million years ago. By an extension of the same hypothesis the plates the continents will, about 250 million years from now once again join together to form a single land mass (Pangaea Ultima?) once again. Obviously such a long-term prediction (spread over millions of years) can never be done with absolute conviction but most scientists, e.g., Dr. Christopher Scotese, a geologist at the University of Texas at Arlington believes that this is the most likely scenario about the future of our planet. (Barry, 2004) This collision of the continents into one great continent, however, would not be a final move as the continents on our restless planet are likely to again drift apart in a repeat cycle of what happened about 225 million years ago!


Barry, Patrick L. (2004). "Continents in Collision." First Science.com. Retrieved on November 26, 2004 from http://www.firstscience.com/SITE/ARTICLES/continents.asp

Kious, W.J. And Tilling, R.I. (1999). "Developing the Theory." From the online book

This Dynamic Earth: The Story of Plate Tectonics. USGS Website. Retrieved on November 26, 2004 from http://pubs.usgs.gov/publications/text/developing.html

----------------------- -- . (1999). "Historical perspective." From the online book

This Dynamic Earth: The Story of Plate Tectonics. USGS Website. Retrieved on November 26, 2004 from http://pubs.usgs.gov/publications/text/historical.html

Waggoner, Ben. (1996). "Alfred Wegener (1880-1930)." UCMP Website. Retrieved on November 26, 2004 from http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/history/wegener.html

Weil, Anne. (1997). "Plate Tectonics: The Rocky History of an Idea." UCMP Website. Retrieved on November 26, 2004 from http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/geology/techist.html

---------- -- . (1997). "Plate Tectonics: The Mechanism." University of California Museum of Paleontology (UCMP) Website. Retrieved on November 26, 2004 from http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/geology/tecmech.html

Greek for "all the Earth."

Wegener obtained his doctorate in planetary astronomy, carried out most of his research in meteorology and his most notable theory -- the theory of Continental Drift -- was about geology

According to Wegener, the rotation of the earth created a centrifugal force… [read more]

Volcanoes Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,160 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Sea waves with an altitude of 30 meters (100 feet) caused devastating damage on the islands of java and Sumatra and went all the way to the shores of South America. Volcanic dust, released during the eruption of volcano covered the entire planet.

The chronics of that days say the following. The eruption started on the 20th of May. The column of ashes and smoke rose up to 11 km high from the north crater of the old Krakatau volcano. The ashes fell all the way in Sumatra island. The next day the explosions were registered every five-ten minutes. In a period of one month the top of the volcano was blown off by the massive eruption. The most terrible eruption happened two months later on August, 26. Th ehuge explosion of the volcano was heard in a range of 160 km. The resultant of the explosion was a column of smoke and ashes that rose to the high of 36 km in just 4-hour period. The next couple of days the explosions were even more powerful and louder and could be heard on Java island as well. In the city of Batavia (155 km from the volcano) the temperature was only 18 C. instead of 28, because of the volcanic smog. The resultants of the explosions were terrible tsunamis that hit the coast of Java and Sumatra, killing nearly 36-000 people.

The effects of the eruption were incredible and terrible. The explosions were heard nearly 4700 km away from the centre of volcano activity. Waves two meters high were registered nearly 8000 km away from the volcano. The masses of volcanic dust and volcanic pumice covered some locations on South African coast nearly a year after the explosion. Volcanic dust and gases circled the world in a two-week period of time and reached stratosphere. The island of Krakatau was destroyed, and only one third of the original island was remained relatively safe. According to article The Great Volcanic Explosion of Krakatoa:

It has been estimated that at least 21 cubic Km (appr. 11 cubic mile) was ejected from the eruption of Krakatoa and that at least 1 cubic mile of the finer material was blown to a height of about 17 miles (27 Km). The volcanic dust blown into the upper atmosphere was carried several times around the earth by air currents. This volcanic dust veil not only created the spectacular atmospheric effects described previously but acted also as a solar radiation filter, reducing the amount of sunlight reaching the surface of the earth. In the year following the eruption, global temperatures were lowered by as much as 1.2 degree Centigrade on the average. Weather patterns continued to be chaotic for years and there were major climatological changes which affected the entire globe.

Temperatures did not return to normal until five years later, in 1888."

The scientists explain such incredible activity by different reasons. Obviously the Pacific tectonic crust is very weak near the equator, but such kind of… [read more]

San Francisco Earthquake Massive Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,565 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Slowly over time the New San Francisco emerged from the rubble, and still stands proud and tall today.


America Hurrah. "Municipal Reports The San Francisco Earthquake and Fire of April 1906." September 23, 2004, http://americahurrah.com/SanFrancisco/MunicipalReports/1906/History.htm

Bartnett, W.J. "Rebuilding San Francisco." April 29, 1906. The Virtual Museum of The City Of San Francisco. September 23, 2004, http://www.sfmuseum.org/1906/rebuild.html

Ellsworth, W.L., 1990, Earthquake history, 1769-1989, Chapter 6 of Wallace, R.E., ed., The San Andreas Fault System, California: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1515, p. 152-187. An account of historic earthquakes in California.

Greely, A.W., 1906, "Special Report of Maj. Gen. Adolphus W. Greely, U.S.A., Commanding the Pacific Division, on the Relief Operations Conducted by the Military Authorities of the United States at San Francisco and other Points"

Hansen, Gladys. "Chronology of the Great Earthquake, and the 1906-1907 Graft Investigations." The Virtual Museum of the City of San Francisco, September 23, 2004 http://www.sfmuseum.org/hist10/06timeline.html

Hewitt, Fred J. "Wreck of City's Buildings Awful." San Francisco Examiner, April 20, 1906

McCann, Debra. "1906 Earthquake and Fire." September 26, 2004 http://users.ap.net/~chenae/socoquake.html

NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration), 1972, A study of earthquake losses in the San Francisco Bay Area - Data and Analysis, A report prepared for the Office of Emergency Preparedness: U.S. Department of Commerce, 220 p

U.S. Geological Survey. "Quake: 1906 San Francisco Quake." 2001. Earthquake Hazards Program. September 23, 2004:


Wald, David J., Kanamori, Hiroo, & Donald V. Helmberger. "Source Study of the 1906 San Francisco Earthquake." Sociological Laboratory, 252-21, California Institute of Technology. Bull. Seism. Soc. Am., 83, 981-1019, 1993. September 23, 2004 at http://pasadena.wr.usgs.gov/office/wald/1906/1906.html

Wald,…… [read more]

Alfred Lothar Wegener -1930) Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,590 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Wegener also made several key contributions to meteorology by pioneering the use of balloons to track air circulation, and writing a textbook on thermodynamics of air that became standard throughout Germany. ("Alfred Wegener 1880-1930," 1998- from A Science Odyssey Website)

Last Expedition

Wegener along with 14 others set out on a meteorological expedition to Greenland to study the jet stream in the upper atmosphere in September 1930. Due to the extreme cold many of his companions turned back but Wegener pushed on in temperatures as low as 54° C. To reach the winter station after a 15 day journey. While returning to base camp, the next morning, he got caught in a blizzard and died. His body was not found until the next summer: he was almost exactly 50 years old when died. (Watson, 1999)


Alfred Wegener was without doubt a brilliant scientist and a visionary who could see beyond the stereotypical scientific thoughts of his time. The vindication of his theory of the Continental Drift and the development of the theory of plate tectonics (which is largely based on Wegener's idea) after his death are ample proofs of and a tribute to his remarkable vision.


Alfred Wegener 1880-1930" (1998) People and Discoveries. A Science Odyssey. Retrieved on May 7, 2003 at http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aso/databank/entries/bowege.html

Waggoner, Ben. (1996) "Alfred Wegener (1880-1930)." Retrieved on May 7, 2003 at http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/history/wegener.html

Watson, J.M. "Alfred Lothar Wegener: Moving continents." The United States Geological Survey (USGS Website). Retrieved on May 7, 2003 at http://pubs.usgs.gov/publications/text/wegener.html

Wilkson, Tuzo J. (April1963) "The Continental Drift." Article first printed in the Scientific American Journal-Reproduced in Encyclopedia Encarta, 2003

This…… [read more]

Role of Potassium Argon Dating Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (883 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Within archaeology the method of potassium argon dating has been used to date the time line of early hominids found at Olduvai Gorge, these discoveries were mainly due to the eminent archaeologist Louis Leakey and his equally eminent wife Mary Leakey.

In 1959 they discovered their first australopithecine fossil, Leakey classified this as Zinjanthropus boisei, East African Man. The specimen was seen to be a robust type of australopithecine. Today it is referred to as Paranthropus boisei or Australopithecus boisei., A. boisei was also a heavily built australopithecine, was in all likely hood a vegetarian, and possessed thick jaws with large black teeth, it seems that boisei and robustus were related to that of africanus as they are very much alike apart from africanus being more gracile

By using the method of potassium argon dating the fossil was discovered to date between 1.75 to 2.5 million yeas ago. To the scientist this was a very early date for our early ancestors not so much for the age but for the timescale.

Twenty years later in 1974 a new discovery took place by Donald Johanson and his team of paleoanthropologists in the region of Hadar. They had discovered an older specimen of hominid. The skeleton was forty percent complete and sexed as female, the team named the find Lucy. Again by use of potassium argon dating she was aged to around 3.18-3.2 million years ago. Her classification was that of Australopithecus afarensis.

The break through in modern science since the 1950's has enabled archaeologists to move deeper into the past. Without the need of playing guessing games archaeologists have a clearer view of where our early ancestors came from, modern man has only been active within the archaeological time scale for a relative short time. Yet anatomically modern man did not just spring up from nowhere, he comes from a long line or hominids that extends back many millions of years.

It is the scientific approaches such as potassium argon dating and carbon dating that has enabled the archaeologist to prove his theories, with more artefacts being found and new methods being discovered then the realms of archaeological debate are beyond infinity.


Gamble, C (1994) The Peopling of Europe: Oxford Illustrated Pre-History of Europe Cunliffe, B (ed) Oxford University Press. Oxford Fagan, B. (1998) People of the Earth Longman. New York

McKie (2000) Ape Man BBC Worldwide; London

Stringer, C and Gamble C (1993) In search of the Neanderthals Thames…… [read more]

Plate Tectonics Is Responsible Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (3,196 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


From Pratt, 2000). In this context, it would mean that the ocean floor underwent subsidence and elevation. The ridges, height of the Romanche fracture zone in the equatorial Atlantic for instance is considered to be the model of spreading. But there is no evidence that its formation is derived from plate tectonics. The height of these ridges range from 1-4… [read more]

Analyzing Research on Tubines Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (1,041 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3



The Manufacturing-Research Activities in American Universities, Research Institutes and Centres

A major development program in gas turbines by U.S. Department of Energy was the precursor of UTSR (also known as University Turbine Systems Research) Program in 1992, which was partly a university research effort and focussed on university research projects, internships and technology transfer. It was organized by the South Carolina Institute for Energy Studies (SCIES) and directed by DOE's National Energy Technology Laboratory (Day, Wenglarz & Golan, 2005)

The Turbine Program started fourteen years ago and was previously called the DOE program where the UTSR continues as part of the university activity. In 2003, the UTSR program changed its focus from natural gas fuel and started emphasizing on the discovery of a future power industry that will require turbines which work on syngas and hydrogen (SGH). Research was carried out by 108 universities in 4 states in the areas of combustion, materials and aerodynamics and heat transfer (Day et al., 2005). The leading gas turbine original equipment manufacturers (OEMs), users and gas turbine component manufacturers are part of the UTSR association of several companies which comprise the Industry Review Board. The IRB recommends and tracks research projects that are financed and they are also used as host sites for UTSR universities' graduating seniors and students referred to as Fellows.

IRB comprises of some of the leading names in the commercial energy sector industry; BP, Capstone Turbine Corporation, Cinergy Energy Services, Clean Energy Systems, EPRI, ExxonMobil, General Electric Company, Ingersoll Rand Energy Systems, Parker Hannifin, Pratt & Whitney/UTRC, Precision Combustion Inc., RAMGEN, Rolls-Royce, Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation, Solar Turbines, Inc., Southern Company Services and Woodward FST are some of the current IRB member companies. Companies with the power of vote are mainly gas turbine manufacturers: GE, Pratt & Whitney, Rolls-Royce, Siemens Westinghouse and Solar Turbines. The non-voting members are also called Associate Member companies. (Day et al., 2005; Cohen, 1998) The whole research program that took place from 1992-2001 was given the name of Advanced Turbine Systems (ATS) Program and the university research program specifically was called the Advanced Gas Turbine Systems Research (AGTSR) Program.

Figure 1: Research processes (Adopter from Day et al. 2005)

Advanced-manufacturing Technologies for Gas Turbine Applications

The basic purposes of the research program include attending to the DOE Turbine Program's objectives and producing useful results for the gas turbine industry. in order to attain these objectives, the IRB has designed the program with essential input from industry. In order to do this, the IRB and DOE have divided their research areas among combustion, materials (emphasis on thermal barrier coating- TBCs) and aerodynamics, and then the most relevant research topics are selected which define the research stated in the annual Request for Proposals given to the UTSR universities (General Electric Company, 1991).

Materials (TBCs):

The most auspicious method for non-destructive evaluation (NDE) was the Laser Fluorescence of TBCs and the UTSR started developing a new, cheaper and portable NDE instrument. It has been projected that… [read more]

Engineering School Bio Piece Admission Essay

Admission Essay  |  3 pages (897 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Mario Navarro

Generally, for a majority of people, the traditional path to a college education is to graduate high school first and then directly transition into a four-year university. The path that has brought to this statement of purpose is nothing like that, it was a path with many detours in it. During high school, I wasn't sure I was quite ready for college and I carefully scanned all my options. After much contemplation, I found that the offer that I received from the United States Navy was hard to beat. This path would give me the opportunity to see the world, learn a trade, as well as contribute to my personal character by developing a sense of discipline and responsibility.

I can still remember the feeling of excitement that I felt and I couldn't wait to sign the dotted line. After 13 months of service, I became an Aviation Electronics Technician Petty Officer Third Class who was checking in to my first command, Patrol Squadron 8 a P-3 squadron that was already deployed. The hands on training and sense of comradery was phenomenal, and within just a couple of years I was promoted to a Quality Assurance Inspector and a Petty Officer Second Class. My career continued to follow such a trajectory until I was recognized as a technical expert in the Avionics Branch of the Maintenance Department and a proud mentor to junior sailors.

My experience with the Navy has brought me to something of a crossroads however. I realize that I need to broaden my skill set to be able to fully utilize this experience effectively and enter into the next phase of my career. I believe that studying in your engineering program will provide me the skills and knowledge that I need to help me tackle some of the engineering challenges in aviation that I wish to pursue. I am grateful for your consideration and excited to attend your university.

Research Interest

Aviation quickly became a passion for me in my early career. After just thirteen months in the Navy, I quickly put my training to use fixing airplanes that were flying missions over Bosnia. This initial experience was intense and as my time with Patrol Squadron 8 flew by, I learned so much about aviation, service, and life in general. Because of the technical capabilities I had accumulated, I was later promoted to a Quality Assurance Inspector. With just over two years in the I was a Petty Officer Second Class, a shift supervisor and had a collateral duty as a Quality Assurance Inspector. At this post I was recognized as a technical expert in the Avionics Branch of the Maintenance Department and…… [read more]

College of Engineering Explaining Poor Grades Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (388 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


¶ … Department Chair:

Thank you so much for the time and support you have given me during this difficult period of my life. Speaking with you on Thursday gave me a great deal of hope that I will be able to salvage my academic career. I know that if I had not become ill in the spring of 2014 and had not been hospitalized for two months I would not be facing this issue regarding my substandard GPA. In retrospect I should have withdrawn from my classes when I was sick rather than trying to persevere. I know when I am given a chance to repeat the classes in which I received poor grades I will make a substantial improvement. I look forward to finally mastering the material since I am aware of the importance of this knowledge in embarking upon my future chosen career as an engineer.

The Dean of the College of Engineering requested that you email him a plan detailing how I will work to improve my GPA along with your permission to get my academic suspension removed so I can register for my classes next semester. The table below…… [read more]

Updating Biomechanical Research in Addressiong the Human Impact of Road Accidents Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (670 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … 2004, the World Health Organization estimated that one to two million fatalities occur from road accidents every year (Mackay, 2007). It predicted that these fatalities would rise to more than two million in 2020 with 85% of them from developing countries. It is also most unfortunate that 75% of these are pedestrians, cyclists and motorcyclists. Efforts have stopped at nothing to determine the nature and seriousness of these tragedies, their types, trends and prevention measures. One measure is the use of experimental biomechanics and crash injury research in reducing these fatalities and injuries (Mackay).

Since most of these affected by road accidents are those outside the vehicles, the focus of biomechanics research has properly been the regulatory process, which regulates vehicle design (Mackay, 2007). In turn, the government and industry are involved in developing new techniques in studying the human body's response to vehicular force in a road accident. Biomechanics research reveals that the impact is both intrinsic and extrinsic, permanent or temporary. On the other hand, the effect on the occupant or occupants in the vehicle has been classified into the crash, pre-crash, and post-crash phases. The pre-crash effect depends on the sex, age, height, weight, body mass index, current medical, biomechanical tolerance, muscle tone, contents of the stomach, sitting position, clothing and other factors. Crash effect depends on the direction, change of velocity, peack deceleration, loads, interaction with other occupants and other factors. And post-crash effect depends on the severity and number of injuries, emergency response, diagnosis and treatment and disabilities that may follow. These can e addressed properly by adjusting vehicle design and the strict use of a vehicle within its working life only (Mackay).

Opinion -- This research article is not only readable to the common individual who drives but also very valuable to all car designers and engineers, policy makers, legislators, law enforcers, and the health sector and everyone else who uses the road and wishes to avoid accidents.

There are other counter-measures which will help in diminishing…… [read more]

Green Mountain Resort Case Study

Case Study  |  2 pages (615 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


No one was challenged and that meant that very few took the initiative needed in order to really step up and establish strong and innovative strategies that would help push the company towards greater success.

Ultimately, I would have called in a consultant much sooner in order to completely restructure the way that Green Mountain ran its operations. Clearly, the old way did not work, which ultimately resulted in the buy out in the first place. Gunter meant well with his strategies, but ultimately it was only going down the same path that led the company into trouble in the first place. He needed a fresh perspective in order to bring in new ideas and innovation that would come in and refresh the company strategy in a new and meaningful way. It took Gunter too long to turn to an outside source by calling in a consultant, which wasted valuable time that could have facilitated a faster and more efficient change. Additionally, I would not want to decrease opportunity for growth in order to help secure a better bottom line by reducing turn over. Yes, turn over is costly to the company, but it reduces internal potential for staff within the company. Thus, Gunter was ultimately tuning away potentially good candidates because of the changes he made. Rather than making the changes Gunter made, I would have taken a different perspective on how to handle the turn over problem. It is crucial to keep opportunity open within the company in order to attract the best candidates who want to grow with the company and are just as devoted as Gunter is. Rather, I would have used more challenging decisions in order to attract more capable employees who could help increase the level of innovation within company strategy creation.… [read more]

Earthquake Risks and Hazards Research Paper

Research Paper  |  10 pages (3,227 words)
Bibliography Sources: 20


In case of earthquakes it is not possible for the concerned authorities to reduce the force of the disaster. The authorities, therefore, are required to alter the environment in a manner that can withstand the shocks of earthquake. For this purpose mitigation can be divided into to two broad categories mandatory-structural mitigation and nonstructural mitigation. (Staff Members of the Directorate… [read more]

Mountain Man and American Anguish Article Review

Article Review  |  2 pages (622 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


" The author uses Williams, the drunken and slovenly mountain man who agrees to act as a guide in the "fickle West" because of his greed and becomes a cannibalistic shadow/pariah because of it. Another strength is the author's knowledge about American media in the early 1970's through the mid-1990's, as the author discusses numerous representations of heroes/villains/pariahs/shadows/scapegoats.

The article has at least several weaknesses. First, the author uses some "mountain men" who are not "mountain men." He says the "mountain man" is "the fur trapper and/or trader of the United States of America's nineteenth-century trans-Mississippi West." However, he uses Pasquinel, McKeag and Grizzly Adams, who can be seen as other types of men: Pasquinel and McKeag are "river men" and Grizzly Adams is a "wilderness zookeeper." The author should have expanded his definition of "mountain man" or reduced the examples to men who fit his definition. A second weakness is the author's failure to follow through on all the 5 added themes of the "mountain man" in the early 1970's to mid-1990's: Vietnam soldier; repression of effects from the Vietnam War; men as victims of war, government, and women; fear/hatred of women; loss of individual liberties; rather, the author just makes announcements that the "mountain man" represented some of those themes. A third weakness is that the author seemed to forget about the "mountain man" in media in order to lecture about the bad effects of Vietnam, for example. All-in-all, the article made some interesting points but the author tried to prove too many arguments/themes with a very limited definition of "mountain man" and without continually focusing on the connections between media representations and his arguments/themes.… [read more]

Biology Species Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (697 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


The coloration of the leeward geckos became brighter, as they no longer needed to camouflage to deter predators. Cats, introduced to the island by humans, also preferred the thicker foliage for hunting that remained on the windward side of the island. On the windward side, the numbers of predators vs. geckos remained roughly the same after the eruption of the volcano. Biodiversity ironically increased as a result of the eruption, which helped to wipe out the invasive species of mongoose that had been introduced several decades earlier. However, the mongooses are expected to increase in number once again due to their rapid rates of reproduction and generally hearty nature. The increase in gecko diversity on the leeward side is predicted to be temporary. Food sources for the gecko, especially insects, would also result in dramatic size changes for the leeward vs. windward populations. With a large portion of the vegetation vanishing from the leeward side, the geckos there would be eating different types of insects and likely smaller ones.

How the Results Apply to the Original Question: The results imply that a dramatic and sudden geological change can lead to the evolution of different physical characteristics within the same population. Over time, the isolation of the two groups would result in diversification and divergences within the species. Size, coloration, and behavioral variables would be noticeably different among geckos that lived on different sides of a volcanic eruption.

Statement of Acceptance of Hypothesis: It was hypothesized that the gecko species would differentiate as a result of the eruption of a volcano, and the results substantiate the claim. Both predators and food sources would change as a result of the volcano impacting the leeward side of the island more than the windward side, and this would cause changes in gecko size and color.


"Tiny Gecko Species Discovered in Vanuatu Rainforest," (2008). Retrieved online: http://scienceblogs.com/grrlscientist/2008/11/08/tiny-gecko-species-discovered/

Uthicke, S. (1999). Sediment bioturbation and impact of feeding activity of Holothuria (Halodeima) atra and Stichopus chloronotus, two sediment feeding holothurians, at Lizard Island, Great Barrier Reef. Bulletin of Marine Science 64(1): 129-141.… [read more]

Eyjafjallajokull One of the Countries Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (597 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


This negatively impacted the economy of the region by disrupting commerce. While the airlines were forced to deal with losses from cancelations and accommodating stranded passengers. (Feigl) (Strukell)

Moreover, the melting water from the glacier will pose a threat to local inhabitants who live near the volcano. This is because an eruption from Eyjafjallajokull releases tremendous amounts of water into rivers and streams. When this happens, a number of communities are subject to flash floods and mudslides from the mountain. This increases the amounts of property damage and the possibility that there will be lives lost in the process. (Feigl) (Strukell)

These different factors are showing how an irruption will have negative impacts on humans. This will occur by posing a direct threat to health, property or the lives of people. While at the same time, there will be disruptions in economic activity and air travel. This will cause growth to slow in a number of regions and it will have an adverse impact on the airlines. (Feigl) (Strukell)


Clearly, Eyjafjallajokull is a unique volcano that is surrounded by a massive glacier (just off of Iceland's Atlantic coast). During times that it is erupting, it can pose a threat to human health and the lives of those living in close proximity to the mountain. Furthermore, it can disrupt air travel and economic activity around Europe. This will have an adverse impact on growth by forcing the delay of flights and it will affect commerce. These areas are significant, as they are illustrating how it will have a negative impact on the region.

Works Cited

Feigl, Kurt. "Intrusion Triggering." Nature. 468 (2010): 426 -- 430. Print.…… [read more]

John Muir and the Sublime: Envisioning Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,350 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


John Muir and the Sublime: Envisioning the Conservation of the Modern Nation

The sublime, "it is productive of the strongest emotion which the mind is capable of feeling" (Burke, 1757, p 32). If one has ever seen the Yosemite Valley in person, it is no mystery as to how John Muir believed that it held the greatest level of sublimity any area of the United States could wield. The cascading waterfalls, sheer rock cliffs, and beautiful rolling valleys are astonishingly beautiful, yet incredibly wild and rugged. However, the modern eye may not have had the opportunity to witness such majestic beauty if it were not for the work of one man -- John Muir. He was the true father of conservation, and spent his time thoroughly documenting and writing about the Sierra Nevada Mountains in order to help try and raise an effort to conserve one of America's most surreal wildernesses. In his articles, Muir paints a very vivid picture in order to show the sublime nature of the wilderness he loved; in his rhetoric, he truly touches on the amazement he felt from such a beautiful, yet wild place. He held a great respect for the amazing, yet dangerous, wilderness, which he often described with religious undertones to truly capture the awe and respect for some of God's greatest handiwork.

John Muir was crucial in the development of the modern sense of national conservancy for our greatest environmental treasures here in the United States. Before his work, the United States had an underlying consciousness that believed everything was for the taking. All the natural resources of its newly acquired lands were not to be preserved, but used to help the growing nation further its massive industrial dreams and aspirations. John Muir began visiting some of the United States most reassured natural environments and spreading the word about how these beautiful places needed to be preserved so that future generations could be able to see and relish their beauty. Together with the Sierra Club that he established, Muir fought long and hard to generate a greater consciousness for conservation. His most favorite places were located in the vast and wild wilderness of the Sierra Nevada mountain ranges in California. Muir's great passion for the mountain ranges of Eastern and Northern California helped set up national parks to preserve areas like the Yosemite Valley and the Sequoias. Both were established with the 1890 passing of the National Park Bill, a monumental piece of legislation that changed the nature in conservancy here in the United States. This was one of the first pieces of legislation that began to show concern for the preservation of America's wilderness, and not the need to use up the abundance of natural resources these wildernesses contain for further pushes towards a greater industrial era. Muir was fundamental in the beginning of a change of consciousness towards greater respect and admiration for the natural wonders of this country.

Without his persuasive and vivid writing style, places like Yosemite… [read more]

Earthquake and Tsunamis Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (819 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


However, some businesses have recovered and some are doing well thanks to the millions of dollars in aid and construction/clean-up activities. What is important to note is that the earthquake did not just affect Japan, or Japanese markets -- rather, in this age of globalization, it affected many Asian financial markets and certainly a great deal of import/export companies (Abe).

Part 3 -- Essentially, the Complexity Paradigm focuses on the way nature interacts with society, particularly in long-term management of hazards, weather, and natural disasters. Human society is vulnerable to disaster, largely due to the manner in which urban areas are structured and the density of population vs. transportation away from dangerous areas. Complexity, when dealing with earthquakes, for instance, is somewhat akin to chaos theory in that there are so many millions of variables that effect the event (the earthquake in this case), that it is almost impossible to predict when and where a strong earthquake will occur with any degree of reliability. Complex systems are not predictable under current technology, with unlimited precision. For instance, the 2004 Sumatra earthquake had all the regional likelihood of an earthquake, but even using complex algorithms, the date and severity of the quake could not be predicted. According to most scientists, two major factors contribute to this complex system: a hierarchical structure that starts with earth's core, moves through the tectonic plates, and up to sand and soil; and the instability caused by a number of issues that are constantly destabilizing the earth (weather, moisture, chemicals, construction, weapons, etc.). We can say, for instance, that the area around X (let us say Southern California) is overdue for an earthquake, we can estimate how it will move the earth and some of the effects, but the complexity paradigm does not allow us to be more accurate -- particularly when dealing with geologic time in contrast to human time (centuries as opposed to days) (Keils-Borok).

Works Cited

Abe, T. "The Lessons of the Great Tohoku Earthquake." 17 November 2011. Fujitsu Research Insitute. Web. October 2012. .

Buerk, R. "Japan Earthquake." 11 March 2011. BBC News Asia Pacific. Web. October 2012. .

Copolla, D. Introduction to International Disaster Management. Burlington, MA: Elsevier, 2011. Print.

Keils-Borok, V., et.al. "Geo-Complexity and Earthquake Prediction." March 2011. Extreme Environmental Events. Web. October 2012. .

"Tsunami Barriers." March 2012. Science Net Links. Web. October 2012. .… [read more]

Rocks That Exhibit Ductile Strain Hypothesis Chapter

Hypothesis Chapter  |  2 pages (545 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Choose one answer.

a. convergent

b. divergent

c. transform fault

d. subvergent


Question 8

Accreted terranes are characteristic features of many

Choose one answer.

a. hot spots.

b. divergent plate boundaries.

c. transform faults.

d. convergent plate boundaries.


Question 9

Shakemaps, which present a visual image of the relative amount of shaking in areas affected by and earthquake, are based on the Choose one answer.

a. local magnitude scale.

b. Richter scale.

c. modified Mercalli scale.

d. moment magnitude scale.


Question 10

Which of the following describes the behavior of body waves as they move through the earth?

Choose one answer.

a. Unless they travel straight through the earth, they follow a path that is convex upward.

b. Unless they travel straight through the earth, they follow a path that is convex downward.

c. They follow a zigzag path as a result of density differences.

d. They all travel straight through the earth.


Question 11

Tectonic plates at divergent plate boundaries are moving away from one another. Rocks at this type of plate boundary will be exposed to Choose one answer.

a. compression

b. shear

c. tension

d. A significant reduction of volume


Question 12

The Basin and Range Province is characterized by which type of faults?

Choose one answer.

a. normal faults

b. reverse faults

c. thrust faults

d. recumbent faults


Question 13

How did seismographs assist in the development of the theory of plate tectonics?

Choose one answer.

a. Seismographs identified that most earthquakes occurred at plate boundaries.

b. Seismographs showed the magnetic polarity of the ocean floor.

c. Seismographs…… [read more]

Pictures Can Speak Louder Research Paper

Research Paper  |  4 pages (1,414 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Survivors exhibit signs of post-traumatic stress syndrome, as a result of their experience, and many, like Mr. Sasaki, take refuge in local bars to drown their sorrows.

However, there are some bright signs that the Japanese economy is rebounding. "Growth in Japan is estimated at 2% this year, after shrinking 0.7% last year, equal to the projected growth for the… [read more]

Igneous Rock Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (813 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Because of the tremendous force when these plates hit, solid rock splits and rocks pile on top of each other, and mountains form. These also form under the oceans, resulting in mountain ranges and deep canyons that are as high as the Himalayas, but unseen. The basic premise for this is that continental crust cannot subduct due to its composition (too light and too thick). So when the oceanic crust between two continents is subducted, collision occurs. Folded Mountains


4. Stellar evolution is a process in which a star changes over time. Depending on the mass of the star, this can range from a few million years to trillions of years. All stars are initially born from gravity collapsing clouds of gas and dust, with the tremendous pressure causing fusion at the core. Stars like Sol (earth's sun) gradually grow in size until they reach the level of a Red Giant, which then, because of so much mass and pressure, causes the core to collapse into a dense white dwarf. Larger stars, with larger mass, can explode as they age and form a supernova, neutron star, or black hole. The steps in solar evolution are:

Birth -- the protostar begins with the collapse of a molecular cloud, and, depending on the mass, may become a brown dwarf or through hydrogen fusion and high temperatures, change the core into helium and become either a red dwarf (fusing hydrogen slowly) to supergiant (massive internal ovens). Sol is a midsize star with a lifespan of about 10 billion years.

Maturity -- depending on mass, once the core exhausts hydrogen, the pressures and gravity cause helium fusion. Low mass starts form helium in an uneven and unstable manner; mid-size become red-giants and have different phases of chemical reactions, and the larger the star, the faster it burns, and then a contraction occurs, changing the consumed helium and causing additional reactions.

Death -- once a star has burned out its fuel, it can take on one of three forms, depending on mass size. White/black dwarfs are for stars of 1 solar mass; very hot when forms and may, depending on location to other stars, form a nova. Neutron stars result from mid-size stars and can collapse to the size of a small city; becoming very dense and turning into pulsars. Black holes result from high mass and rapid…… [read more]

International Disaster: The Indian Ocean Research Paper

Research Paper  |  4 pages (1,098 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


While organization such as Direct Relief performed many social services and helped rebuild entire villages, as well as ensure proper sanitation procedures in various countries affected by the disaster, many state, again, that this has not been enough. According to one website, "The disaster relief that was offered just did not seem to be what others would have expected them to contribute in correspondence to the tsunami relief that the nations that were affected by the disaster had needed. The disaster relief that was offered was believed to not offer the amount of resources that they could have in order to help with the recovery. It has even been said by several sources that the United Nations did not exactly favor the disaster relief that the United States and Europe had offered, as well."

Such concerns, of others not helping as much as the can or should, are expressed in relation to other potential disasters. The NIMS framework, for instance, provides "a systematic, proactive approach guiding departments and agencies at all levels of government, the private sector, and nongovernmental organizations to work seamlessly to prepare for, prevent, respond to, recover from, and mitigate the effects of incidents, regardless of cause, size, location, or complexity, in order to reduce the loss of life, property, and harm to the environment."

Yet, again, could such a framework work in a less developed country where organization do not necessarily work seamlessly, nor would they have the proper equipment and response framework in place. Such a frame work is useful for the United States, yet it could not be feasible in a disaster such as that described above.

The circumstances for man-made and natural disasters, however, do dictate that such a framework must exist. Despite evidence to the contrary, the FEMA framework presented above has to be implemented, in some aspect, in every country, so as to prevent CBRNE (chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear) incidents from shutting a country down, for instance. Though natural disasters still pose a great threat to every nation in the world, man made disasters such as those described here, are perhaps even greater in magnitude, should they strike, and much more devastating potentially.

This paper has focused on the Indian Ocean Earthquake and Tsunami disaster of 2004. This disaster, which left hundreds of thousands of people dead, injured, or missing, affected over five countries in one go. The paper has thus examined international response in the aftermath of the crisis, and how this could be applied to other disasters, such as CBRNE disasters, as well as how it could help with preparation, such as that provided by the NIMS framework, in future disasters and how this could function in various countries.

National Geographic News. (2005). "The Deadliest Tsunami in History?" The National Geographic. Retrieved, .

National Geographic News, 1.

N.A. (2009). "Earthquake and Tsunami Relief Indian Ocean." Direct Relief International. Retrieved, .

Direct Relief International, 1.

N.A. (2005). "Tsunami Special Envoy." Retrieved, .

FEMA. (2007). National Incident Management System. Explanatory Paper.… [read more]

Rainy Season in the Tropics Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (682 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Rainy Season in the Tropics

Rainy Season in the Topics, 1866 -- oil on canvas

The Fine Arts Museum of San Francisco

Like many artists of his time, Church travelled abroad to find inspiration and subject matter. Rainy Season in the Tropics is actually a representation of two different places -- the Ecuadorian Andes and the Island of Jamaica. This is important because when we look at the painting, we actually see two different scapes which, when we think about it, could not typically be part of nature.

The first part is the right bottom corner and depicts a tropical scene with palm trees, greenery, and what appear to be some travelers highlighted in light around the dark green of the forest. The second part is, of course, very craggy and tall mountains done in contrasting orange and browns. To tie the two together, Church uses a perfectly shaped rainbow, but without all the typical colorations -- just more of a glow and a bit of the prism of the rainbow effect on the upper and lower sides of the rainbow.

There really is not a focal point for the eye; one could say the travelers seem to be in a spotlight, but then the eye moves left to what could be a waterfall, which is the brightest part of the painting and the only part of the work in which the movement moves downward. The rest of the mountains move up, moving the eye to the rainbow glow. Then, on the upper right side of the painting is the only use of blue in the work -- a hint of blue sky emerging from the earth tones of the mountains and the rainbow glow -- possibly hinting at the emerging good weather after a storm.

In fact, there is not much color pallet used in this work -- there is the red jacket of the tiny traveler -- dwarfed likely on purpose by the tremendous height of the mountains, perhaps to show that humans are dwarfed by nature based on…… [read more]

Earthquakes Have Come to Attract Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (587 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


Earthquakes have come to attract more and more attention in the recent years as the world was affected by seismic waves like the one in the Indian Ocean in 2004, the one in Haiti in 2010, and the one in Japan in 2011.

Studies and causes for which earthquakes happen

Effects triggered by earthquakes

Measures needed to be taken in the event of an earthquake

Earthquakes as they happen and examples

Studying the ocean floor is one of the most effective methods of understanding earthquakes. Even with the fact that there are several millions of earthquakes every year, only about one hundred provoke significant damage. Most earthquakes are caused by the moving of plate margins and by volcanic eruptions. The energy that these two processes release makes the ground shake and practically causes earthquakes.

Earthquakes are hazards because they negatively affect a wide assortment of mediums, ranging from humans to whole ecosystems. Economies normally experience significant damage consequent to an earthquake and financial crises are likely to appear as a consequence of a powerful seismic wave. In addition to the physical damage that an earthquake can cause, it also causes a disruption in trade and produces more long-term damage to the area that it strikes in.

3. In order to effectively reduce damage in case of an earthquake, countries adopt legislations that prohibit people from inhabiting buildings considered unlikely to endure through major seismic waves. In addition to that, many earthquake warning systems have been installed around the world with the purpose of predicting earthquakes and in order to assist people in preparing for such seismic activities. In order to be able to successfully live through an earthquake people need to be familiar with precautions and measures that they need to take when…… [read more]

Buckingham Palace -- Heating Engineering Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (2,100 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Another advantage of using the KoolShade material and installation is that it also provides a security shield on the windows for the Buckingham Palace building and will not allow dangerous materials to break the window or penetrate it. Furthermore, the anticipation is that the installation of the KoolShade system in the Buckingham Palace structure will reduce the overall heat penetration from inside of the building by 15% during the winters. So, not only does KoolShade block extreme heat from penetrating 'into' the building during summers, it also blocks the warmth of the building to penetrate outside during winters (Coopers, 2010).

The production of the final KoolShade material is through the use of numerous strands of bronze that are then woven in an intermingled way. The material is flexible after its woven which means it can be cut and shaped according to any design. Furthermore, the color and paint choices on the material are also plenty which allows the building designers to have variety. There is also a lot of variety and flexibility available for its fixing across the windows -- one way is the static fixing while another is the use of horizontal sliding that can be rolled shut when needed and opened when needed. When the KoolShade material is observed from the outside, it does present a very environment friendly solution and outlook for solving solar heating issues without the application of peripheral devices (see images in appendix) (Coopers, 2010).


The production of KoolShade utilizes the string suits of the heaviest materials by intricately designing the minimum quality materials. The tangible weight of the material at the time of installations is lesser than 3 kgs per meter which is 10 times less than the weight of the standard materials of Louvre used for solar shading. As aforementioned, the material is flexible which allows it to be alternatively shaped according to numerous modern or retro designs of the buildings (Coopers, 2010).


The KoolShade material requires minimum maintenance with only quarterly watching of the entire material with clean water in its fixed placement (Coopers, 2010).

Heathrow Airport UK -- example of successful implementation within the United Kingdom

The overall retro and unusually design of the walkways at the airport, the sun's glare and heat was a source of botheration for the passengers and employees at the Heathrow Airport in the UK. The Airport authorities used the KoolShade material due to its heat counter facets, light weight, undisturbed view as well as its flexibility which allowed each panel to be fitted so that it could be transported one at a time when the cleaning or maintenance was required (Coopers, 2010).


Abesser, C. (2010). Open-loop ground source heat pumps and the groundwater systems: A literature review of current applications, regulations and problems. British Geological Survey.

Coopers (2010). KoolShade Solar Control. Available from: http://www.coopersfire.com.au/documents/literature/Koolshade/Koolshade%20brochure.pdf

Green Energy 360. 2008. [cited 27 May 2010]. Available from http://www.greenenergy360.org/heat_pumps/heat_pump_economics.php

Energy Saving Trust. 2010. [cited 27 May 2010]. Available from http://www.energysavingtrust.org.uk/Generate-your-own-energy/Ground-source-heat-pumps

Kelly, T. 2009. Management of… [read more]

Archaeological Interpretations of Upper Paleolithic Research Paper

Research Paper  |  9 pages (2,661 words)
Bibliography Sources: 9


The question posed is how many numbers of types are needed to label an assemblage as Aurignacian? (Bar-Yosef, 2002, p.372)

It is reported that the use of one morph-type such as the carinated narrow cores from which bladelets were removed and known as rabot in the French Aurignacian cannot justify being named as assemblages Aurignacian. It is reported that this… [read more]

Earth Science Ring of Fire Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,387 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


According to calculations by Chris Goldfinger, head of the Active Tectonics and Seafloor Mapping Laboratory at Oregon State University, there is an 80% chance that the portion of the fault off southern Oregon and Northern California would break in the next 50 years and produce a megaquake. The odds of rupture are lower for the northern end, with a 27% chance during the same time period (Chang, 2010).

Natural Resources Canada (2011) presents similar arguments as the Ring of Fire video concerning megathrust earthquakes in the Pacific Northwest. While none have been observed in the short, approximately 150-year written history of the west coast of Canada, the article cites similar compelling evidence that they have occurred in the past. They too cite observations that include buried tidal marsh or coastal forest soils pointing to sudden land subsidence of approximately one meter that happened at the same time from Vancouver Island to Northern California.

All scientists find it challenging to predict the next Pacific Northwest megaquake. One of the largest earthquakes in history occurred during the January night in 1700 that ruptured the seafloor off Oregon and Washington. Within minutes of the magnitude-9 earthquake, a 30-foot wall of water inundated coastal areas, and within 12 hours the tsunami crossed the pacific and flattened houses along the eastern coast of Japan. Scientists believe the Northwest is due for another devastating megaquake (Rojas-Burke, 2010).

While precise predictions are impossible to make, scientists believe that by reconstructing the history of megaquakes in the Northwest, they have found a pattern that could help improve forecasts of the next big quake. Findings suggest that the largest, most damaging quakes may occur in cycles separated by 1,000-year periods of inactivity (Rojas-Burke, 2010); however scientists disagree over clustering in cycles as well as the length of inactive periods.

Earthquakes arise from the collision of massive sections of the earth's crust called tectonic plates. From Northern California to British Columbia, the Juan de Fuca Plate is plunging beneath the North American plate. This region, known as the Cascadia subduction zone, produced the volcanic peaks of the Cascade Range and it poses an ominous earthquake hazard. Scientists have arrived at various estimates of the near-term probability that a magnitude-9 megaquake will strike the Northwest. The most frequently cited number is a 10 to 15% likelihood over the next 50 years (Rojas-Burke, 2010).

However, geologist Chris Goldfinger believes such estimates give an incomplete picture of megaquake probabilities. Goldfinger and others have reconstructed a 10,000-year history of major quakes along the Cascadia subduction zone by examining remnants of undersea landslides, revealing a possible clustering of megaquakes over time. Their studies indicate the risks of a subduction zone quake differ from north to south. In the northern segment, Goldfinger's group also puts the odds at 10 to 15% during the next 50 years. But in southern Oregon and northern California, quakes along the subduction zone appear to strike more frequently. Goldfinger and his colleagues calculate a probability of 37% that another megaquake will… [read more]

Storm Over Mt. Everest Film Movie Review

Movie Review  |  7 pages (3,450 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Time passes, and progress is interminably slow. Anywhere else on earth, except during emergency conditions, say, a buffer of time can generally be found or created. But this is no more so for high altitude climbing than it is for emergency surgery -- time is not a friend in these conditions. There is no such thing as the tincture of… [read more]

Energy What Patterns Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,283 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


These different elements are important, because they are providing specific insights that will help everyone who is living in these areas to: be ready for the possible hazards and how them to create a contingency plan for dealing with these issues. Once this occurs, the odds decrease that you and your family will be adversely affected by these events. ("Putting Roots Down in Earthquake Country," 2008)

Examine the list of the most destructive earthquakes on record: What are the two most recent earthquakes on this list? What does this list tell you about the power of science to control or predict earthquakes?

The first most devastating earthquake that occurred was in 1556 at Shaanxi, China. During this event there were a total of 830 thousand deaths. The second most deadliest quake, took place in 1976 at Tangshan, China. ("Earthquakes of 50 Thousand or More Deaths," 1994)

What this is telling us about modern science is that they are unable to: predict or detect when these kinds of events will happen. As, scientists can provide some probability estimates of: the likelihood that they will occur. Yet, predicting the exact times and dates remains nearly impossible to forecast.

Even though science cannot predict or prevent earthquakes, what seismological tools do we have to sense the planet's rumblings? What events do you think might have encouraged the development of these tools?

The main tool that is used to determine what is happening beneath the surface is a seismograph. This is a machine that will measure unusual activity in the earth's crust. To monitor these movements, scientists will use a seismogram. This is a printout that is calculating the movement of the fault lines, based upon the extreme movements of these readings of to: illustrate the scope and intensity of the quake. These different elements are important, because they are highlighting how we are able to determine when an earthquake is taking place and the overall amounts of force. ("The Science of Earthquakes," 2009)

The possible events that could have influenced these developments are: people were unable to understand how and the scope of what is happening. As a result, scientists created these tools as a simple way of measuring and comparing seismic activity with what is normally taking place.

How is this kind of geological energy different from biological energy (such as the calories creatures get when they consume food)? How are they the same?

This type power is different from biological energy in that earthquakes are based upon various crusts of the earth interacting with each other, after tremendous amounts of pressure have been built up over the course of many years. When different life forms are consuming calories, this is providing them with energy that is considered to be predictable and consistent on a regular basis. ("The Science of Earthquakes," 2009)

The way that these two are the same, is that both geological and biological energy are expending power in one way or another. With the two exerting tremendous amounts of… [read more]

Charles F. Richter, Father Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (641 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Since tremors range in magnitude, Richter recorded information based upon a logarithmic scale that was calibrated to the tremors produced in Southern California (Park). While modern seismographic machines record data electronically, the first seismic activities recorded utilized a pen attached to a string hung above a cylindrical drum. Seismic activity was then calculated by measuring the pen's swing in millimeters, taking its logarithm, and applying a correction for the distance between station and earthquake (Park).

With help from Gutenberg, Richter was able to extend his scaling logarithm to include seismic activity worldwide. The findings conducted by the utilization of the Richter Magnitude Scale were published in 1935 and quickly became the standard measurement for seismic activity ("Richter, Charles F. (1900-1985)"). Along with Gutenberg, Richter published Seismicity of the Earth and helped to locate epicenters around the world and classify them according to geographical region. Richter spent most of his career at Cal Tech, except for a year where he lectured at the University of Tokyo as a Fulbright scholar. Additionally, he advised government officials in Los Angeles about the imminent dangers posed by hazardous architectural ornaments; Los Angeles officials heeded his advice that would later prove to be beneficial when a major earthquake hit the city ("Richter, Charles F. (1900-1985)"). In 1958, Richter published Elementary Seismology; the textbook was based upon his lecture notes and years of data and research ("Richter, Charles F. (1900-1985)").

Richter spent his entire life studying seismic activity. His contributions to the field have helped people around the world understand how earthquakes occur and the consequences thereof. Furthermore, Richter's contributions to the field of seismology have helped in the development and construction of safer buildings in earthquake-prone areas.

Works Cited

Park, Jeffrey. "Charles Richter Biography (1900 -- 85), Elementary seismology." Net Industries.

Web. Accessed 12 May 2011. Retrieved from

"Richter, Charles F. (1900-1985)." Enotes.com. Web. Accessed 12 May 2011. Retrieved from [read more]

Ucsd Application as a Resident Essay

Essay  |  1 pages (354 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


There is still much more to be done, however. I would very much like to attend the summer program "Earthquakes in Action" at the University of California at San Diego's Jacobs School of Engineering. I hope to learn more about earthquakes and explore various academic and career options in which they are a focus.

I have a strong background in mathematics and I believe that prepares me for the rigors of the summer course. I am particularly interested in the ways that bridges and buildings respond to earthquakes and I look forward to the opportunity to use computer-generated models to study the methods of design and construction that are meant to address these problems. I would appreciate the opportunity to study with experts in seismology and structural engineering and learn as much as I can. The summer program sounds like a great cooperative learning experience. I am really looking forward to the possibility of working with professionals and other students in…… [read more]

Comparison of the 2011 Japan Earthquake and Tsunami With the 1960 Chilean Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (901 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


¶ … Chilean earthquake of 1960 and the recent Japanese earthquake, the Valdivia quake that ruptured the Chilean coastline more than five decades ago is considered by many to be the most powerful earthquake in modern times. It was the largest seismic rupture ever recorded, achieving a 9.5 rating on the Richter scale. The resulting tsunami affected nearly the entire Pacific rim, causing substantial damage across Chile, Hawaii, Japan, New Zealand and Australia. The primary tsunami wave sped to Hawaii, where it devastated the town of Hilo. Waves higher than 30 feet were recorded in the Philippines and Japan in mere hours following the initial shock.

Most accounts placed the death toll at roughly 6,000, while economic losses related to the quake range from U.S.$500 to U.S.$600 million (Seismo-Watch, 2011). Nearly 40 per cent of the town of Valdivia was wiped out, leaving more than 20,000 citizens homeless. Entire cities were flooded, new wetlands were created, and electrical and water facilities were crippled in the quake's aftermath. Local rivers and pipelines were stifled with debris that included entire houses and portions of neighborhoods (Extreme Science, 2011). However, the death toll remained below that of many quakes (including the Japanese quake of 2011). This is likely due to the sparse population in the surrounding region and the propensity of civil engineers to developing municipal centers on higher elevations. Additionally, most towns consisted of wooden structures, as opposed to more deadly brick-and-mortar edifices that could potential pose more threat to life when thrown about by tidal waves.

Like the Japanese quake, the Valdivia rupture was a megathrust quake. It occurred far below the earth's surface and was caused by the subduction of one tectonic plate beneath another. Subduction quakes tend to cause the largest seismic activity due to their capacity to release more built-up stress in one powerful fissure. Among the catastrophic results were a flood that nearly destroyed the entire San Pedro River Valley and a massive volcanic eruption at Cordon Caulle (Extreme Science, 2011).

The Tohoko quake that recently occurred in Japan was slightly less powerful but caused significantly more damage, mostly due to the high concentration of population and the powerful tsunami waves that rushed ashore in the subsequent hours. The magnitude of the Tohoko quake was 8.9, among the largest ever to hit the Pacific Rim. It occurred at a depth of roughly 20 miles beneath the ocean's surface. The destructive tsunami waves that resulted measured nearly 100 feet high and destroyed several towns in spite of the warnings and evacuation measures issued by local governments. While the death toll is still being tallied, current numbers confirm more than 11,300 deaths, with 16,290 people still reported missing. In…… [read more]

Tsunamis Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,201 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


Tsunamis can be regarded as one of the most powerful representations of nature's force, considering the damage they generate and the fact that they are typically provoked by earthquakes. Frank I. Gonzalez's article on the subject provides readers with a through account, which is rather easy to it, obviously meant to address the masses. In spite of the fact that Gonzales addresses the matter from a general point-of-view, he nonetheless manages to put across elements that have his readers understand Tsunamis from the perspective of the victim and of the researcher.

Although they can also be triggered by other factors, tsunamis are most commonly set off by underwater seismic activity. Water is pushed upward by a subduction process caused when a tectonic plate moves under another. The speed with which water moves can apparently be greater than seven hundred kilometers per hour in some cases. The fact that coastal regions have recently experienced progress in urbanization has only added to the damage that tsunamis are likely to cause, considering that more and more people risk becoming victims (Escaleras & Register, 2008).

The most devastating tsunami reported in the history of mankind is the one that occurred on December 26, 2004 near the island of Sumatra. It is difficult to determine if this tsunami had also been the most intense to happen, given that its gravity is mostly owed to the fact that population was extremely dense on the island and in its vicinity. This tsunami's death toll is approximated at about 250,000. Because of the circumstances present, numbering victims is easier said than done, with debris, animals, and other factors contributing to making casualties less likely to be found (Escaleras & Register, 2008).

The destructive power of a tsunami is generally recognized and feared by people living on sea coasts (in particular) and by society as a whole. Gonzalez's example involving the July 17, 1998 tsunami on the northern coast of the New Guinean island is more than explicit, considering the fact that it is told from the viewpoint of someone that actually took part in the event. One can observe the fact that people are helpless in front of nature, as a tsunami basically leaves an individual with no other option but to hope that he or she will be lucky enough to survive. Even when someone gets to survive the giant waves, the respective person later has to avoid falling victim to other threats provoked by the tsunami, such as wild animals that have the possibility of entering human-inhabited territory of buildings that have had their structure affected because of the waves (Gonzalez).

Reaction time is crucial in such circumstances, even though there is not much one can do, as was the case with Sanawe. Going through such an event virtually leaves one confused and unable to react rationally, given that the deafening sound and the waves rising abnormally high most probably offer a terrifying experience. Regardless of the knowledge one has regarding tsunamis, being located on the… [read more]

Glaciers Come in All Shapes and Sizes Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (661 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Glaciers come in all shapes and sizes, offering the viewer to describe the form in ones opinion. Each observer may describe the same glacier in a plethora of ways. The valleys and streams, curves and bends are ever changing. The supporting points in the article written by Ehrlich (2004) contain facts as well as opinions that support the idea of one's own perception and the factual characteristics of the Perito Moreno Glacier.

The facts stated in the article include information that about the size of Perito being 257 square kilometers across. In the center there is a two meter advance daily. There are warm and cold glaciers this depends on the altitude and latitude. Cold glaciers do not slide as easily, these glaciers are affixed to rocks. Warm glaciers have internal melt-streams at every level and torrents of water flow out from under the ice at the glaciers foot.

Further into the article Ehrlich (2004) describes the glacier in a personal manner. She compares it to the human body describing cheek bones, teeth etc. In conjunction with the descriptions of the forms that can be taken by the glacier she also explains the fluctuations in mass and form that take place every day. Throughout the writing comparisons are made to everyday encounters of the average man or woman. She expresses that the glacier balances its gains and losses like a banker. A glacier can give away more than it takes in. A glacier is an archivist and historian. It registers every fluctuation in weather. It saves everything no matter how small or big, including pollen, dust, heavy metals, bugs, and minerals. As snow becomes firm and then ice, oxygen bubbles are trapped in the glacier, providing samples of ancient atmosphere: carbon dioxide and methane. Records of temperatures and levels of atmospheric gases from before industrialization can be compared with those after a mere 150 years. A glacier is time incarnate.

The article gives clarity not only into the difference that…… [read more]

Plate Movements and Past Climatic Conditions Book Review

Book Review  |  5 pages (1,824 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0



As plates move and shift, the water circulation around them in the oceans also changes. The heating of the Earth's surface as well as underwater geologic activity directly caused by plate movements changes the temperature and flow of the ocean currents. These currents in turn change the weather through… [read more]

Earth? Scientists Know What Is Inside Book Review

Book Review  |  4 pages (1,018 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


¶ … Earth?

Scientists know what is inside the Earth primarily through firing waves of energy through the planet and measuring how they are affected through ground sensors. Both P. And S. waves move through the Earth at a certain speed and are either reflected or refracted depending on the material they move through. These actions can be tracked by sensors. Most of the information scientists have about the Earth's structure has been learned from observing these travel times, refractions, reflections, and phase transitions of seismic body waves. Earthquakes help in this way. The body waves move through the liquid layers of the Earth, but P-waves are refracted when they move through the transition between the semisolid mantle and the liquid outer core. This results in a P-wave shadow zone which occurs between 104° and 140°. This zone is where the initial P-waves are not able to be registered on sensory equipment like seismometers. However, S-waves do not travel through liquids, instead, they are absorbed.

2. What can one learn about the interior of Earth by measuring the acceleration due to gravity?

The acceleration due to gravity tells scientists that the Earth's structure is made up of different densities. At the surface, this number is usually denoted as "g," or 9.8 meters per second squared. This number depends on the density of the object with gravitational pull. Since the Earth's size and weight are known based upon other astronomical calculations, its density can be figured into the equation. When this was accomplished, scientists realized that the Earth must have a very massive iron core in order to explain the "g" force that is exacted upon the planet's inhabitants. Coupled with seismic measurements, scientists can deduce what exact likely elements and temperatures are present within the Earth's structure.

3. Why do rocks deep in the mantle remain solid, while those in the asthenosphere are close to melting?

Rocks deep in the mantle remain solid because of the huge lithostatic pressures associated with this layer. The rocks are under so much pressure and heat that they cannot become less dense and form a liquid. Those rocks in the asthenosphere are close to melting because they are under less pressure and therefore are very close to becoming a less dense fluid.

4. Describe how the angle at which a seismic wave approaches a discontinuity determines whether or not it is reflected or refracted.

As described in the answer to the first question, the P. wave is not refracted when the refractory angle reaches between 104 degrees and 140 degrees. The wave is dissipated in these zones causing a "shadow zone" familiar to most scientists. So depending on the angle of the wave interception, there may or may not be a refraction or reflection of the wave. So if the wave approaches a discontinuity from this angle range, it will not be reflected.

5. What changes does olivine undergo with depth in the mantle?

Olivine, more commonly referred to in gem quality as peridot,… [read more]

Psyche and Nature Essay

Essay  |  10 pages (3,383 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Nature of Man and the Mountain

If you stand before a mountain, it is almost impossible not to be moved by the majesty of it. Standing tall, having been there for eons, it is slightly worn down from its original heights, but it still reaches high into the clouds. A man cannot help but be moved to contemplate his own… [read more]

Hydrological Hazard Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (750 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


¶ … forest conversion to pasture affecting the hydrological response of Amazon catchments? Signals in the Ji-Parana basin" by Rodriguez, Tomasella, and Linchares published on the 26th January 2010 in Wiley Interscience. It goes ahead to discuss in depth runoff. It is apparent to majority of us that the land use and vegetation cover over the land does not remain constant but constantly changes typically because of human activities and deforestation respectively. Deforestation on its own has the potential of affecting not only the forest/vegetation cover, but also hydrological response (Rodriguez, "is forest conversion to pasture affecting hydrological response"). Despite that many of vegetation changes are detectable in majority of small-catchment researches; it can however be difficult in large-scale studies. For this reason, at Ji-Parana basin in southwest Amazon, land use, land-cover changes, and stream flow fluctuations are examined combined with remotely sensed deforestation information to obtain viable results. Despite the Ji-Parana basin being large (<30,000 km2), it has been greatly affected by human activities modifying the land cover. From the statistical analysis, where daily stream flows were correlated with land cover data on smaller areas (sub-basins), the results indicated that the effect of land use and land cover changes on the response of hydrological process in large scales is time lagged (Rodriguez, "is forest conversion to pasture affecting hydrological response"), that is flow patterns are significantly affected by land cover and topography of the location resulting to high peak flows in streams hence storm flows. From the study, it proved easy to detect signals of the impact of land use and land cover changes on hydrological processes on smaller basins compared to large-scale considerations. This revelation thus challenges the existing mathematical models that are designed for faster hydrological response (Rodriguez, "is forest conversion to pasture affecting hydrological response"). Land activities and vegetation cover affects the speed and duration surface water from rainfall/storms takes before reaching streams significantly affecting stream flow hence flooding potential.

Rain falling on land has the potential of flowing either rapidly or slowly depending on the land cover as runoff and finally to streams. In addition depending on the soil characteristics of the area under consideration, infiltration varies where some of the water can percolate through the soil to greater depths…… [read more]

Geosynclines and Accretionary Prisms Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (870 words)
Bibliography Sources: 15


Geosynclines v. Accretionary Prisms

Structure and formation of geosynclines

Geosynclines such as the Neoproterozoic Wonoka canyons now located on the southern portions of the Australian continental land mass form as sediments deposit in submarine basins, eventually leading to the compressions and fracture of these deposits and the emergence of canyons or linear troughs -- the geosyncline proper (Giddings et al., 2010). The formation process of these submarine geological features is largely dependent on the destruction of continental crust, especially along its margins, as it is broken down into the sediment that then collects in the submarine basins to form geosynclines, which can either be subjected to further oceanization, moving away from the continental crust, or drawn up out of its submarine birthplace as in the Neoproterozoic Wonoka canyons system (Giddings et al., 2010; Marakushev & Marakushev, 2008). This has led to some measure of debate regarding the origins of certain specific geographic features.

The Neoproterozoic Wonoka canyons, for instance, were hypothesized to be of non-marine origin due to a lack of defining marine features such as wave patterns and an abundance of crustal material (Giddings et al., 2010). The material is now, however, hypothesized to have collected as sediment from runoff and erosions of the continental crust, and the lack of wave patterns and other shallow-water formations is believed to be due to the deep-water nature of the Neoproterozoic Wonoka canyon's origins (Giddings et al., 2010). The depth of the canyons and the degree of fracture is indicative of the scale and mechanisms of a geosyncline's formation.

These mechanisms can also be determined at least in part by the specific substances found in certain geosynclines. South Australia again provides an excellent real-world example; the types of material found in the Wokona Formations and in neighboring canyons are definitely of continental curst origin, yet there exists no explanation for this material's appearance in these formations other than a transference from some other crust via erosion and oceanic currents (Von der Borch 1985). The specific carbonate sediments that comprise layers of the rock in these formations, that is, did not originate on the continental crust where they are now found, but rather from some other area that was eroded away during the Proterozoic era. The sediment that resulted from this erosion was deposited in a submarine basin and eventually coalesced through compression, faulted, and fractured into the formations seen today (Von der Borsch 1985).

As diagram one in the Appendix clearly shows, plate movement from divergence occurring in oceanic plates puts lateral pressure on the basins where geosynclines form, resulting in a pattern of sediment build up…… [read more]

Newsrx Science. "Earthquakes Actually Aftershocks of 19th Thesis

Thesis  |  2 pages (580 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1


¶ … NewsRx Science. "Earthquakes actually aftershocks of 19th century quakes."

According to a collaborative study recently conducted at Northwestern University and the University of Missouri-Columbia, small earthquakes that occur in the Central region of North America are actually not contemporary earthquakes; they are actually aftershocks of much stronger earthquakes that occurred nearly two centuries ago. In principle, that is a result of the different rates of relative tectonic motion between the respective tectonic plates involved in active fault lines after large earthquakes of magnitude 7 and above.

Whereas fault lines closer to the coastal periphery (such as the San Andreas Fault in California) continue moving past one another at a rate of approximately an inch and a half per year after a major earthquake, those located closer to the central mass of tectonic plates (such as the New Madrid Faults) move 100 times slower. As a result, the aftershocks of earthquakes involving peripheral fault lines tend to subside after approximately one decade while those caused by large central plate faults can continue for centuries.

In principle, the researchers compared recorded patterns of large recent earthquakes to the known patterns associated with the gradual decrease in the magnitude of successive aftershocks. The results confirmed that the small earthquakes recorded in this decade are indeed part of the series of aftershocks from much earlier large earthquakes such as the 7.2 magnitude Hebgen Lake earthquake in Montana, Idaho, and Wyoming a half century ago.

Scientific Concepts

After large tectonic shifts that cause significant earthquakes, the tectonic plates involved continue their relative motion with respect to one another for many years afterwards. This is a function of the tectonic settling that scientists refer to as "swamping" their changes in position. In effect, the…… [read more]

Soufriere Hills Volcano Eruption Thesis

Thesis  |  2 pages (516 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1


¶ … timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/world/us_and_americas/article7026867.ece

Recently the Soufriere Hills Volcano began erupting ash, magma, and hot gasses on the island of Montserrat in the Caribbean. The ash plume is estimated to extend nearly 40,000 feet into the Earth's atmosphere. The volcano had not erupted since 1995, but shifts in the local tectonics have given rise to some serious instability in the region's volcanoes. Many flights and travel plans had to be rescheduled due to the volcanic activity. The area around the volcano has been an exclusion zone since 1995, where people were discouraged from visiting unless they were part of a guided tour or scientific expedition. The volcano's exclusion zone is similar to the one constructed around the vicinity of Pompeii in Italy, and the 1995 eruption was compared to the Italian eruption 200 years ago in that it buried an entire city and killed many people with its pyroclastic flows and associated tremors. The former capital of the island nation, Plymouth, was nearly completely buried by the 1995 eruption, and most of the population fled following the 1995 eruption. The Soufriere Hills Volcano had been dormant throughout recorded history until the 1995 eruption and now has been awakened once again. Since the islands surrounding the volcano are a popular tourist destination, the local economy will likely be impacted just as much as the local travel industry has been.

The Soufriere Hills Volcano is part of a larger group of stratovolcanoes, which are made up of many layers of ash, lava, and mud flows. These volcanoes are subject to earthquake…… [read more]

Geographical Information System (GIS) Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (538 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


This is mainly carried out several customers that I strive to be very important

Many are on ArcGIS in all the various types of organizations in order to improve their workflows and the I always solve their most challenging issues.

This project is simply become obsolete dude without to thigh number of demands and equal People are using ArcGIS in all types of organizations to improve their workflows and solve their most challenging issues. The software by itself requires at least 216 MB of space soas to work seamlessly without any latency.


It is very necessary to work with professional so as to ensure that the projects that he or she was involved in is working fine and is delivering the effect that is desirable so as to be at peace with the current address and situation. The adoption of the GIS software in housing is therefore one of the most important technologies to be adopted in the process of planning and actual viewing and monitoring of housing projects,.


Bolstad, P. (2005) GIS Fundamentals: A first text on Geographic Information Systems, Second Ed. White Bear Lake, MN: Eider Press

Elangovan, K (2006) GIS: Fundamentals, Applications and Implementations," New India Publishing Agency, New Delhi

National Research Council, GIS for housing and urban development

Longley, P.A., Goodchild, M.F., Maguire, D.J. And Rhind, D.W. (2005) Geographic Information Systems and Science. Chichester Thurston, J., Poiker, T.K. & J. Patrick Moore. (2003) Integrated Geospatial Technologies: A Guide to GPS, GIS, and Data Logging. Hoboken, New Jersey

Wise, S. (2002) GIS Basics.… [read more]

Water and Sustainability Essay

Essay  |  8 pages (3,130 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 6


Water and Sustainability

Economic Approaches

Introduction / Generalizations: The Technical Advisory Committee (TAC) of the Global Water Partnership has issued an urgent yet coherent series of proposals. For starters, the need for sensible, workable programs to deal with the exploding world population is acute, according to TAC. The list of challenges is long but without the "will to act" by… [read more]

California History USA Thesis

Thesis  |  5 pages (1,301 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 2


California History: Earthquake of 1906

The objective of this work is to write about a particular event in California History. This work will examine the California earthquake of April 18, 1906. This earthquake is one of the largest earthquakes in recorded history and resulted in more than 3,000 deaths, 225,000 and property damage exceeding $400,000,000.

It is reported that the ground broke open for 270 miles along the San Andreas rift. Reports state that the earthquake, which hit at approximately 5:12 A.M. On April 18, 1906, was of 8.4 magnitude and has been named one of the worst natural disasters in U.S. history. The destruction of the earthquake was soon matched and then exceeded by fires that raged throughout San Francisco.


Elizabeth Hull writes that the 1906 earthquake "was one of the first natural disasters for which documentation through photography and motion picture film was available. As a result, many astonishingly vivid and well-preserved visual records of the event are housed in libraries and archival repositories across the country, including the National Archives, the Library of Congress, the Museum of the City of San Francisco, and the Bancroft Library of the University of California-Berkeley." (2006) Hull additionally writes that the fires had substantiated the claims made by the lumber companies in California that redwood was a fire-resistant building material. Hull points out that an article in the 'American Lumberman' six weeks following the disaster stated as follows: "This no longer is a theory but a fact that has been proved by a test which none can dispute as the most severe to which any lumber has been subjected in modern history.... It is hardly possible that this showing will not have the effect of bringing the California lumber into greater favor in all sections to which it now finds its way, and it may be instrumental in opening to it markets which heretofore have not received it with open arms." (Hull, 2006) Hull states that the "the desired effect of promotional efforts like those of the Redwood Car Shippers Bureau was realized. In the midst of the timber boom that followed from San Francisco's massive rebuilding efforts, California redwood was in the highest demand." (2006)


The work of Fradkin entitled: "The Great Earthquake and Firestorms of 1906: How San Francisco Nearly Destroyed Itself, notes that loggers "...worked unceasingly during daylight hours. Mills operated on 'full double-time.' The amount of redwood shipped to San Francisco in October 1906 was double that of the same month in the previous year, which had also been a record month." (in Hull, 2006) Hull writes that in a short period of time yet one characterized by "...intensive and indiscriminate logging of forests in northern California, Oregon, and Washington" following the 1906 earthquake "...undoubtedly took its toll on the land, a toll that has not been widely examined by historians and other social scientists. The topic of the impact of recovery on the land and on… [read more]

Kant's Transcendental Aesthetic Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (979 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Kant's Transcendental Aesthetic

The Transcendental Aesthetic is the manner by which we attain our sense-originated knowledge of the physical world. Knowledge is attained through the immediacy of our relation to objects and it is through that relationship that all our thoughts are directed thus our understanding of our world is shaped by our capacity for relating to the objects in the world around us. In essence, my understanding of a rock is built upon the depth of my capacity to experience the rock in any manner (physical, emotional, intellectual, etc.) that I have the capability of reaching. Thus, as I experience the rock through an immediate relationship to it and the context in which I encounter the rock, my understanding, my total definition of that which is "rock" also shapes how I understand, categorize, experience, relate to and function within the context of other objects just as the same is true in reverse for the rock. Our ability to function within the world is entirely dependent upon our understanding of the world. That understanding is wholly dependent upon our ability to perceive the world through depth of our relationships with the objects within it. These relationships are built both in space and in time and the appearance of an object, our "sense" of it, is thus shaped both by context in which we find the object and the time relative to our prior experiences (or lack) with that object.

Understanding the transcendental aesthetic is based upon the dual non-empirical entities of space and time. Space, itself, does not exist - there is no space, there are only things. The objects that are there in the world around us are labeled as being in "space" to allow for a mental framework with which to understand how an object can be related to. As we experience objects (people, buildings, situations, places, etc.) we form immediate understandings of them. First, there is the sense of the thing, sight, hearing, taste, touch, smell, and then there is the categorization of perception that is formed immediately within the famework of our existing understanding of objects. Our brain immediately asks, is this similar to other things I already am aware of or is this a new object never before encountered? As we do not function well with objects we cannot categorize with others, we immediately seek to understand and "explain" the unique and new in relationhip to other things. If we know that objects hanging from trees are generally edible such as apples, avocadoes, and walnuts, then when we encounter a pinecone for the first time hanging from a tree branch, our understanding of fruit-trees allows us to make a comparison. but, visually, as the pine cone does not resemble other familiar fruit, we cannot understand it as fruit yet.

As we experience objects, the space in which we encounter them (or the context) is not an object itself - our concept of space, then,…… [read more]

Mars Tectonics Thesis

Thesis  |  9 pages (2,610 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 4


¶ … theories regarding plate tectonics, with the researcher contending that as Mars tectonics cannot currently be confirmed, more research, including two geophysical methods the researcher would utilize to test the *** theory of Mars tectonics need to be conducted.

Along with exploring issues relating to Mars tectonics, the paper addresses: (a) Whether Mars has mobile plates, and a plate… [read more]

Tsunami in Indian Ocean in 2004 Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  9 pages (3,301 words)
Bibliography Sources: 15


Tsunami in Indian Ocean in 2004

The 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami

The tsunami that occurred in the Indian Ocean on the 26th of December 2004 caused more than two-hundred thousand deaths and extensive economic and physical damage - including environmental damage to the countries in the region. The Tsunami was triggered by an underground seismic event that displaced ocean water… [read more]

Yellowstone National Park Fire Issues Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,412 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Yellowstone National Park Fire Issues

The objective of this work is to review the article entitled: "Mount St. Helens: A Case Study of Managing for Change in Wildland Recreation" written by Alan Ewert and published by the USDA Forest Service in Riverside, California.

Alan Ewert writes that the study of Mount St. Helens has provided a case that is interesting… [read more]

Limestone Sedimentary Rocks Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (483 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3



Sedimentary rocks that are made from the mineral calcite are called limestone. Calcite is found in the beds of evaporated seas and lakes. It also comes from sea animal shells such as clams, brachiopods, bryoza, crinoids and corals. Some limestone's can be nearly pure calcite, there is often a large amount or sand or silt that is included in the shelly debris.

Pure limestone is more or less white in color. The impurities that limestone contains such as clay, organic remains, sand, and few other materials make it white in color. Many novel limestones come in various colors especially on weathered surfaces. Limestone might be crystalline, clastic, granular, or huge; all in fact depends on the system of formation.

Limestone is most common in North America where it is used for architectural structures. Many landmarks across the world are made of limestone. This even includes the pyramids in Egypt. In Ontario, Canada so many buildings are constructed from it that is has been nicknamed the Limestone City. Limestone was most popular in the 19th and 20th centuries in the construction of banks and train stations.

Indiana is most notable for what is called Indiana limestone. This limestone comes from the Bloomington area and has been a source of high quality quarried limestone. Limestone is easy to cut into blocks or to make elaborate carvings. Limestone is very long lasting and stands up well to exposure. Limestone as well as marble…… [read more]

Why Do I Want to Study Earthquake? Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (308 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


¶ … Earthquakes

As a resident of California, few things have the ability to terrify me as the thought of a major Pacific coast earthquake. Earthquakes are terrifying for a variety of reasons. First, they are sudden and occur without any immediate warning. In addition, they are very violent; when major earthquakes strike densely populated areas, death and destruction is inevitable. Furthermore, while earthquake activity is heavily focused in areas that lie along major fault lines, earthquakes can theoretically impact almost anywhere, and their major damage can occur miles away from their epicenters. There are approximately half-a-million detectable earthquakes each year, about 100,000 of those can be felt by humans, and only about 100 of them cause any type of damage or death.

The element that makes earthquakes so terrifying is the fact that they are relatively unpredictable and sudden. Of course, it is incorrect to state that earthquakes are unpredictable. There are certain…… [read more]

Geographic Information Systems Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,077 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Geographic Information Systems

If the latest GIS systems can convert vector data into raster form and vice versa, is it now irrelevant to maintain a distinction between vector and raster GIS?

Despite the ability of nearly all GIS and CAD/CAM systems to complete vector-to-raster conversions and vice versa, there still exists the need for keeping vector-based and raster-based data separately managed and stored. There are inherent differences between vector and raster data, each with specific attributes necessary for completing effective GIS-based data analysis. The intent of this short essay is to explain why it is still very relevant to keep a distinction between vector and raster-based GIS data.

One of the most prevalent uses of vector-based data in GIS and CAD/CAM systems is providing data and file compatibility to other design and drafting systems and applications. Vector data's inherent characteristics of being able to define X, Y coordinates and the use of quadrants to define relative locations of vector data in a design plane is critical for the development of proposed building, production plant, or larger projects that require the eventual integration of raster data to define which aspects of a project are accomplishable or not.

Vector-based data is invaluable in defining a series of points or nodes throughout multiple layers of as design file, making the computation of points, lines, curves, arcs, polygons and more graphics primitives usable in a Cartesian coordinate pair design space. The multiple layering of AutoCAD and other CAD/Cam applications that work in conjunction with GIS systems are a case in point. Vector-based data can be used for extensive calculations and the definition of complex geometric shapes and conceptual maps relatively quickly due to the majority of vector-based design standards having a set of graphics primitives included as a basic part of their command sets and Application Programmer Interfaces (APIs). In the context of GIS, vector-based data executes more efficiently than raster data and is therefore considered less computationally intensive. This level of computational performance is achieved however due to the much more complex data structure that vector-based design files rely on to store their data points and graphic primitives.

Taking the perspective of having raster data separated from vector data, the many applications of raster-based data in GIS that are made possible through the representation of data as pixels that can be multiple bytes deep in terms of context and color. In addition, pixels that comprise a raster image are organized into grid sizes, grid resolutions, and rely on extensive georeferencing. Raster-based data is captured both from large-scale photography from airplanes in addition to the satellite imagery. While raster-based image data has a relatively simple data structure, is compatible with remotely sensed and scanned data, and has relatively simply spatial analysis features, raster data sets require greater storage space, projection transformations are made more difficult as this imaging technology does not rely on a coordinate space like vector and it is much more difficult to represent relationships with the data as a result. In… [read more]

Spirituality Involves a Deeper Understanding Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (722 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Spirituality involves a deeper understanding of what is happening around me. Being a more spiritual person means looking at what certain things mean beneath the surface. I believe that there is always more going on that what we can know and we should be open to that. Being spiritual also includes connecting with others. One thing that can be like a spiritual experience is riding the light rail. When I ride it to work, I always consider myself lucky because I can see the sun rising on the way to work and the sun setting coming home. The contrast of nature and man-made mechanisms is striking. My eyes are looking at the sky and yet I am hearing the noise of the light rail along with the strange smell I associate with it. Most of the time, there is a slight draft on the light rail, even when it is warm. In addition, I always grab a Sprite when I leave work so I associate drinking a Sprite with the experience of riding the light rail. The experience would not be the same if I could not see the sky. Because I love nature, the experience comes to mean more to me. I look at it and I am rejuvenated and the ride home becomes a ritual that I love.

The things that happen on the light rail can be spiritual. I am always looking for opportunities that can turn into positive experiences. These do not have to be life-saving experiences. Most of the time, they are not. For example, once I was on the light rail and I was running late for work. I was rushed and my bag was overstuffed. I could not remember if I had my badge for work with me and as I was looking for it in my bag, half of my bag spilled out on the floor. An elderly woman got up and helped me gather my things. She was handing items to me one at a time so I could put them in my bag. She did not say a word but she did smile as she bent down, picked up items with…… [read more]

Earth Science: The Sculpting Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (564 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+



The objective of this work is to review the article entitled: "Magma P.I. 'Unearths Clues to How Earth's Crust Was Sculpted" published December 14, 2007 online the website 'Science Daily'.

The article entitled: "Magma P.I. 'Unearths Clues to How Earth's Crust Was Sculpted" published online the Science Daily website December 14, 2007 relates the work of John Hopkins University geologist Bruce Marsh who is stated to have "challenged the century-old concept that the Earth's outer layer formed when crystal-free molten rock called magma oozed to the surface from giant subterranean chambers hidden beneath volcanoes." (Science Daily, 2007)


Bruce Marsh has posited that the "deep-seated plumbing underneath volcanoes" is actually comprised of a system that is extensive in nature of "smaller sheet-like chambers vertically connected with each other and transporting a crystal laden 'magnetic mush' to the surface" and is a theory that is becoming accepted widely among scientists. This type of system has been termed a "magmatic mush column" and said to exist "beneath all of the world's major volcanic centers. It is held by Marsh that these channels, instead of simply transporting the magma and crystals needed in formation of the surface of the Earth involves a process in which the magma is pushed up through the earth and in doing so the earth's crust became fractured creating a type of "template" which guides erosion and sculpting that occurs in formation of "a series of valleys and mountain ranges..." (Science Daily, 2007)


Marsh holds that the functions he describes, at least in the region of Antarctica, "date back at least 180 million years to the time…… [read more]

Mount Vesuvius Significant Threat to Naples Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (2,357 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 10



The eruption of Mt. Vesuvius in 79 a.D. destroyed the city of Pompeii and also nearby Herculaneum. The volcano remains active, though it has not produced much more than steam for some time. However, a volcano is always a potential threat and could erupt at some time in the future. Over the centuries, people have moved back into the… [read more]

Science Volcanoes and Earthquakes Pinatubo Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,519 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3



Volcanoes and Earthquakes

Pinatubo - Pinatubo is a stratovolcano in the Philippines. The eruption in 1991 was a Plinian eruption, which are some of the most violent eruptions on earth, and can make great changes in nature, which is why they can affect climate around the globe. The last eruption was 1991, which was followed by many secondary eruptions… [read more]

Disaster Management Options for Volcano Hazards Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,039 words)
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Disaster Management Options for Volcano Hazards

Currently there are many options in forecasting volcanic natural disasters like eruptions and explosions. None of the current methods are accurate enough to predict a volcanic event every time and in quickly enough to evacuate nearby populations. This is problematic since so many volcanic areas are well-populated. These include the Alban Hills south of Rome, Italy, the "Ring of Fire" in the Cascade Mountains of the northwest United States, and the Tungurahua volcano in Ecuador (Choi, 2004; Kerr, 2003). To make matters worse, few volcanoes around the world are monitored well or at all (Mileti, 1999). While current methods are not perfect, they offer detection in many cases. If they are implemented and understood, new developments and methods may be developed that can better predict volcanic events and save the lives of those who witness such a natural disaster.

Mileti (1999) suggests that there are two main factors in volcanic disaster warning and prediction: "forecasting explosive events and assessing volcanic hazard" (185). Methods to detect whether there is a volcanic hazard are more accurate than methods attempting to predict an explosive event (Kerr, 2003; Mileti, 1999). Assessing a volcanic hazard simply means to assess whether a volcano is still active and should be monitored or watched for possible future activity. This is more difficult with volcanoes that have large caldera systems and that do not erupt often (Kerr, 2003; Mileti, 1999). Predicting where and when an explosive or eruption event will happen is more difficult. Yet, knowing when a volcano will erupt and how it will erupt is the most important issue in volcanic forecasting because it has the potential to save lives. Most of the current forecasting methods look for confirmation that fresh magma (liquid rock) has traveled to chambers in the upper crust, about 3-6 miles below the earth's surface (Kerr, 2003).

Seismic monitoring is one of the most common ways to keep track of volcanic activity (Choi, 2004; Mileti, 1999). Seismometers monitor earth movement, including the earthquakes and tremors that sometimes indicate volcanic activity like underground magma movement (Choi, 2004). Though seismic activity is often linked to volcanic events successfully, not all seismic events indicate a coming eruption (Kerr, 2003). For this reason, seismometer readings do not always provide accurate predictions (Choi, 2004).

Seismic tomography is a related method which uses tremor activity and seismic waves to "image" the underground workings of a volcano; since the waves travel at different speeds through magma than through rock, registering an earthquake from several different stations in one area can illuminate where volcanic magma chambers are. This, in turn, can help to predict where eruptions might occur (Kerr, 2003). Electromagnetic monitoring can also be used with seismic monitoring and tomography. By using strainmeters buried deep in the earth around a volcano, a "long-period seismic event" (LP) can be monitored (Kerr, 2003, 2017). This monitoring allows scientists to make better predictions for volcanoes that are regularly active.

Ground deformation monitoring uses satellite and air images,… [read more]

Earthquakes Charles Richter Determined That the Seismic Term Paper

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Charles Richter determined that the seismic waves emitted from an earthquake could be used to estimate its magnitude, and he developed a calibrated system for measuring these waves commonly known as the Richter Scale (Earthquakes). The Richter Scale formula is based on the discovery that the larger the earthquake, the larger the amplitude of ground motion at a given distance from the quake. The Richter Scale equation is:

R (x) =.67 • log (.37x) + 1.46

R (x) equals the magnitude of that earthquake on the Richter scale and x equals the energy of an earthquake in kilowatt-hours (Earthquakes). The small numeric differences in values of R (x) can be misleading if one does not understand that the scale is logarithmic, which means that each whole number of the scale actually increases by 10. Thus, a magnitude 7.0 earthquake is ten times stronger than a 6.0; a 7.0 is 100 times greater than a 5.0; and a 7.0 is 1000 times greater than…… [read more]

Fashion of School Students Starts With Blasting Essay

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¶ … fashion of school students starts with blasting music and outrageous clothing that marks the symbol of new generation. However, presently the minds of children accommodates more than the simple school fashions like studying for tests, the downright deadly homework they are performing. The movie Dangerous Minds represents Michelle Pfeiffer as an inner city teacher who strives hard to maintain her students alive sufficiently longer to learn something. She opined that education is everything that enables one to move mountains through that, especially the people who feel very confined by their environment. It is the one thing they don't have to feel confined by. The movie Dangerous Minds is believed to depict that the children have enough liberty to do or become anything. Irrespective of the background, whether it is socio-economical or from the educational system or the family the children have plenty of choices. (Interview with Michelle, Pfeiffer: Dangerous Minds)

It is opined that faith of the size of mustard seed can move mountains and nothing will be impossible. Physically having faith is not necessitated to move mountains. The nature is performing the job. As human beings it is also possible for us to blow up mountains or create tunnels through them and also create new mountains out of the debris. All in these cases faith is not needed to move the physical mountains. Jesus refers that mountains which are to be moved with faith are somewhat bigger, harder and even more durable than the physical mountains. These mountains are even harder since they are hardly visible. We even are not aware of their existence. However, their growth is steady and slow. They do not broke out suddenly after some personal earthquake, they grow slowly but the remnants are accumulated in out souls by daily life while we move with our business, while we perform our jobs in a routine manner. (And Now For Something Completely Different)

Such mountains are created by the accumulation of debris of the normal. Such mountains of heart are visualized as metaphors; however, are quite real. Similar to the physical mountains they erect as irresistible planks to isolate one from another, they deter those standing on the one side from seeing the other side. The mountains in our hearts isolate us from the true desire of our hearts. Such mountains are created from the desires that cannot be satiated. They perpetuate from the pride and ambition, arrogance, idolatry of work, love of victory, love of the legal and indifference to the moral and love of the wealth and power that our acquisitions can entail. Such mountains call upon our integrity that strives to connect our faith, our values, our personal lives and our professional lives, etc. with oneness.

Saint Augustine could successfully depict in the Confession's parable of the stolen pears the way he resorted to stealing something he really did not desire but pleased him to steal. He loved the pleasure of contravention that finally shamed him. Therefore, according to him in… [read more]

Tsunami Warning System the December Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,722 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Works Cited

'About The Pacific Tsunami Warning Center." National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration: United States Department of Commerce. 25 June 2004. Online at < http://www.prh.noaa.gov/ptwc/aboutptwc.htm>.

Atwater, Brian F., Cisternas V. Marco, Bourgeois, Joanne, Dudley, Walter C., Hendley, James W. II, and Stauffer, Peter H. "Surviving a Tsunami -- Lessons from Chile, Hawaii, and Japan." 1999. United States Geological Survey Circular 1187. Version 1.0. Online at < http://pubs.usgs.gov/circ/c1187/>.

'Gaps plague Indian Ocean tsunami warning system." Associated Press. 23 June 2005. CTV.ca. Online at < http://www.ctv.ca/servlet/ArticleNews/story/CTVNews/1119550538188_5/?hub=SciTech>.

'Indian Ocean Tsunami Early Warning System Launched." 30 June 2005. Press Release: United Nations reproduced on Scoop. Online at < http://www.scoop.co.nz/stories/WO0507/S00008.htm>.

Leow, Joanne. "No tsunami warning system in the Indian Ocean and affected countries." 27 Dec 2004. Channel News Asia. Online at < http://www.channelnewsasia.com/stories/singaporelocalnews/view/124343/1/.html>.

'The Tsunami Warning System." 29 Mar 2005. Department of Earth and Space Sciences at the University of Washington. Online at < http://www.ess.washington.edu/tsunami/general/warning/warning.html>.

'Tsunami Warning System." Wikipedia. 1 Jun 2005. < http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tsunami_warning_system>.

'2004 Indian Ocean earthquake." Wikipedia. 18 July 2005. Online at < http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2004_Indian_Ocean_earthquake#Signs_and_warnings>.

Williams, Sue. "Indian Ocean Tsunami Warning System formally established." UNESCO. 30 June 2005. Online at < http://portal.unesco.org/en/ev.php-URL_ID=28234& URL_DO=DO_TOPIC& URL_SECTION=201.html>.… [read more]

Regulatory Structure Policies and Process in Water Law Term Paper

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Regulatory Structure, Policies and Process in Water Law

The public trust doctrine, which keeps the state responsible for keeping certain natural resources exclusively available for public use, has influenced the way California implements its water rights system. The history of the doctrine's application dates back to December 19, 1914, when the California Water Commission Act was passed. This act made it mandatory for the state to determine who could exercise appropriative rights to California's waterways.

On February 17, 1983, a landmark decision for the case National Audubon Society v. Superior Court of Alpine County was made when the California Supreme Court decided to explicitly enforce the public trust doctrine within its water rights system. This meant that California's State Water Resources Control Board would have to now take public trust values into account whenever it reviewed any applications pertaining to water rights. Initially, the doctrine was used to only protect navigation, commerce, and fisheries. As time passed, its role was expanded to include the rights of fishing, hunting, swimming, boating,…… [read more]

Cambrian System of the Grand Term Paper

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Bibliography Sources: 1+


Berkhault (2004) states that, "Because the Tapeats, Bright Angel, and Muav are not separated by unconformities but grade into each other, they have been collectively called the Tonto Group. The deposits are overlain by the sequence of sandstones, siltstones, shales, and carbonate rocks of Devonian, Carboniferous and Permian Systems."

IV. Zones in the Tonto Group Strata

The Tapeats, Bright Shale Angel and Muav Limestone "superposed each other and juxtaposed when erosion produced clasts of all sizes, including particles of quartz, clay, pebbles and boulders. As indicated by Lebediev (1959) the velocity of incipient motion relative to the depth of water was in relation to the clast size. As the advancement of the transgression occurred the water increased in deepness which resulted in a reduction of the current but still a capacity to erode remained causing clasts that were smaller than boulders and were transported as far away as Zone 2.

Zone One & Two

The shallow zone or Zone 1 experienced current that was greatly 'diminished' (Berkhault, 2004) and the erosion level was diminished as well but transported 'clasts of terrigeneous which is grave, sand, silt and clay as well as carbonate material such as lime. Berkhault (2004) states that, "A regressive current started, which carried westwards the largest particles in a bed load, and the smallest in a suspended load. The first deposited from zone 2 to 6, and the second in zones 5 and 6 only."

Zone Three

Characterized in composition by sand in waves that were formed by thin cross sand beds, this zone is composed of sand waves forming thinly cross-bedded sands, which compose the middle of the Tapeats. Water velocity was approximately 1.0 meter per second.

Zone Four

The waters with the most depth and least velocity "depositing the uppermost Tapeats" (Berkhault, 2004)

Zone Five

This zone is characterized by deposits formed by much deeper waters and much slower in motion with the silicate clay and particles that were silt sized accumulated forming the graded silt and clay beds of Bright Angel Shale with water velocity at approximately 0.5 meters per second.

Zone 6: This zone is farther towards the west and is the water with the most depth and the water that moved the slowest of all waters at the time characterized by a deficiency of particles of silicate clay and silt-sized. Lime mud accumulated in strata that is laminated and bedded "rhythmically" and water velocity was below 0.5 meters per second.


The lower middle and upper series in the stratigraphic scale of the Cambrian is a duration of over 50 million years but the three faceis of the Tonto group deposited simultaneously appear super and juxtaposed which could be explained due to a varying velocity of the water flow in the different zones while sedimentation was still in its' formation process.


Berthault, G., Analysis of main principles of stratigraphy on the basis of experimental data / / Lithol. Polezn. Iskop., 2002, no 5, pp. 442 -- 446.

Timmons, Mike et al.… [read more]

Magic Mountain Term Paper

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Bibliography Sources: 1


Magic Mountain

Thomas Mann's the Magic Mountain is an expansive intellectual play upon the forces of thought imposed upon the people of early twentieth century Europe. Mann satirically places these competing ideologies in a sanatorium in the Swiss Alps; he hopes to suggest the sickness of the patients' thoughts, and the detrimental impact they imply for society. In short, Mann… [read more]

GIS: Emergency, Planning and Operations Term Paper

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In certain circumstances for example, an IC may need to be dictatorial or authoritative, and the GIS should allow the IC to conduct business in this fashion. This may be the case in a smaller scale disaster where most of the decision making will remain in the hands of the IC. However, the GIS needs to respond to different decision making styles, so that if the commander needed to delegate, he/she could put people in charge of decisions and make things happen. The GIS will be most accommodating and useful if it will change based on who is using it and who they are working with.


European Commission. (2003). "Guidelines for Best Practice User Interface GIS." ESPRIT/ESSI, European Commission. Retrieved November 22, 2003, http://www.gisig.it/best-gis/Guides/chapter1/chi1.pdf

Hall, Richard., Adams, Barbara. (1998). Essentials of Firefighting, 4th Edition. Fire Protection Publications: Oklahoma

Harrington, Andrew. "Field Experiences Highlight Mobile GIS Benefits." GeoPlace. Retrieved November 23, 2003, http://www.geoplace.com/gw/2003/0306/0306mgis.asp

Smith, Dan. August 1997. "CDI and QDR." The Defense Monitor, Center for Defense Information. Volume XXVI, No. 5 Washington, DC. Retrieved November 22, 2003, http://www.cdi.org/dm/1997/issue5/

Wieder, Michael. (1994). Hazardous Materials for First Responders, Second Edition. International Fire Service Training Association: Stillwater.… [read more]

Formed to What Their Value Term Paper

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The melting point of cubic zirconia is an astoundingly high 2750 Degrees Centigrade! Colored cubic zirconia can withstand temperatures that are just as high as the ones that can be tolerated by the white colorless counterparts and does not experience color fading. In experiments involving very high temperatures using liquid oxygen, moissanite survived the temperatures where diamonds have been vaporized! [Anderson, B.W.: Gem Testing]

Diamonds come in all shapes, qualities and sizes and can be bought according to one's specifications and budget. The factors involved in purchasing a diamond, include clarity, color, cut and carat size. The diamonds have naturally occurring internal characteristics that are called inclusions. The diamond's clarity is largely determined by the size, nature, location and amount of inclusions the diamond possesses. A diamond's clarity grade affects its value and determines the price of that stone. Many diamonds appear colorless, but in reality they have light tones of yellow or brown in them. As the intensity of the tones become more pronounced, the rarity and the value of the stone directly decrease. [Schumann, Walter, Gemstones of the World]

Light entering the diamond reflects it

When a diamond is cut, most of the light entering the stone from any direction is reflected from the top and forming a display of sparkling flashes and rainbow colors. This is called dispersion. This creates a brilliant affect of colors and beauty.

Diamonds have the most unique characteristics any stone can possibly have. They have come to find uses in many different spheres of life. But their most significant use is in making beautiful jewelry, when a man wants to win a woman's heart he knows diamonds will do the trick!


Anderson, B.W., Gem Testing. Heywood & co. Ltd., London

Kraus, E.H., Hunt, W.F., Ramsdell, L.S., Mineralogy - An Introduction to the Study of Minerals and Crystals, McGraw-Hill, New York - London

McCarthy, J. R, Fire in the Earth - The Story of the Diamond. Robert Hale Ltd., London.

Schumann, Walter, Gemstones…… [read more]

Anthropological Analysis the Water Resources Term Paper

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Bibliography Sources: 1+


Dissolved iron concentrations in ground water, particularly in wells, are the highest in ground-water discharge zones, especially near the south shore on Long Island. Another of the more serious disadvantages of natural ground water contamination is that the bacteria that accompanies and promotes iron bio-fouling also contributes immensely to iron encrustation and corrosion of wells, pumps, distribution lines, and treatment systems, subsequently raising the degree of expense another notch (Cartwright & Brown, 2003).

Supply problems & possible solutions

In spite of the marginal relevance of natural contamination, however, human activities associated with urban and agricultural land use continue to constitute the primary factors affecting the quality of streams as well as the health of aquatic life throughout Long Island and New Jersey. It is quite apparent that the water supply of New York is primarily affected as a result of the primary source of most public supply wells being contaminated, more often than not, as a result of natural contamination.

The degree of blame put upon human induced factors, however, is once again highlighted when acknowledging that although concentrations of most chemical constituents detected in stream samples generally meet Federal and State water-quality guidelines; current guidelines do not address many chemicals resultant to the combinations of pesticides, fertilizers, and industrial and fuel-related compounds (Ayers, Kennen & Stackelberg, 2001).

Taking into consideration the fact that the large population, extensive urban and industrial development, and, in some areas, agricultural activities, are the main causes of water-quality problems within New York as well as a number of other states; it becomes quite evident that there is no immediately effectual countermeasure that can be conveniently implemented. Natural contamination tends to affect the ground water resources, which are quite widely spread across New York, subsequently compromising most of the root sources for public supply wells, while human induced contamination is widely responsible for the contamination of other water resources. Taking into consideration the fact that the decontamination of ground water resources is rather inappropriately costly, it is apparent that focusing upon neutralizing and minimizing the degree of contamination to other bodies of water would be more suitable.

The proper, ecologically oriented regulating of power generators which release most of the acid-rain causing emissions that reach New York and the northeastern U.S. American acid rain emissions would be an effective initiative. Surprisingly, these emissions, as a result of the significant scope to which they travel, are also causing serious water quality problems in the Great Lakes and Canada.


Thus speaking and taking into consideration all that has been said in regard to the water supply problem within the State of New York, it is quite apparent that dealing with the human induced predicaments prior to the natural ones would be the more sound strategy to opt for; regardless of that, however, it is quite apparent that the degree of problematic issues related to the water supply within New York will be significantly dwarfed in the case of suitably effectual and appropriate measures not being taken… [read more]

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