Study "Geography / Geology" Essays 111-147

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Energy What Patterns Essay

… These different elements are important, because they are providing specific insights that will help everyone who is living in these areas to: be ready for the possible hazards and how them to create a contingency plan for dealing with these issues. Once this occurs, the odds decrease that you and your family will be adversely affected by these events. ("Putting Roots Down in Earthquake Country," 2008)

Examine the list of the most destructive earthquakes on record: What are the two most recent earthquakes on this list? What does this list tell you about the power of science to control or predict earthquakes?

The first most devastating earthquake that occurred was in 1556 at Shaanxi, China. During this event there were a total of 830 thousand deaths. The second most deadliest quake, took place in 1976 at Tangshan, China. ("Earthquakes of 50 Thousand or More Deaths," 1994)

What this is telling us about modern science is that they are unable to: predict or detect when these kinds of events will happen. As, scientists can provide some probability estimates of: the likelihood that they will occur. Yet, predicting the exact times and dates remains nearly impossible to forecast.

Even though science cannot predict or prevent earthquakes, what seismological tools do we have to sense the planet's rumblings? What events do you think might have encouraged the development of these tools?

The main tool that is used to determine what is happening beneath the surface is a seismograph. This is a machine that will measure unusual activity in the earth's crust. To monitor these movements, scientists will use a seismogram. This is a printout that is calculating the movement of the fault lines, based upon the extreme movements of these readings of to: illustrate the scope and intensity of the quake. These different elements are important, because they are highlighting how we are able to determine when an earthquake is taking place and the overall amounts of force. ("The Science of Earthquakes," 2009)

The possible events that could have influenced these developments are: people were unable to understand how and the scope of what is happening. As a result, scientists created these tools as a simple way of measuring and comparing seismic activity with what is normally taking place.

How is this kind of geological energy different from biological energy (such as the calories creatures get when they consume food)? How are they the same?

This type power is different from biological energy in that earthquakes are based upon various crusts of the earth interacting with each other, after tremendous amounts of pressure have been built up over the course of many years. When different life forms are consuming calories, this is providing them with energy that is considered to be predictable and consistent on a regular basis. ("The Science of Earthquakes," 2009)

The way that these two are the same, is that both geological and biological energy are expending power in one way or another. With the two exerting tremendous amounts of… [read more]

Charles F. Richter, Father Term Paper

… Since tremors range in magnitude, Richter recorded information based upon a logarithmic scale that was calibrated to the tremors produced in Southern California (Park). While modern seismographic machines record data electronically, the first seismic activities recorded utilized a pen attached to a string hung above a cylindrical drum. Seismic activity was then calculated by measuring the pen's swing in millimeters, taking its logarithm, and applying a correction for the distance between station and earthquake (Park).

With help from Gutenberg, Richter was able to extend his scaling logarithm to include seismic activity worldwide. The findings conducted by the utilization of the Richter Magnitude Scale were published in 1935 and quickly became the standard measurement for seismic activity ("Richter, Charles F. (1900-1985)"). Along with Gutenberg, Richter published Seismicity of the Earth and helped to locate epicenters around the world and classify them according to geographical region. Richter spent most of his career at Cal Tech, except for a year where he lectured at the University of Tokyo as a Fulbright scholar. Additionally, he advised government officials in Los Angeles about the imminent dangers posed by hazardous architectural ornaments; Los Angeles officials heeded his advice that would later prove to be beneficial when a major earthquake hit the city ("Richter, Charles F. (1900-1985)"). In 1958, Richter published Elementary Seismology; the textbook was based upon his lecture notes and years of data and research ("Richter, Charles F. (1900-1985)").

Richter spent his entire life studying seismic activity. His contributions to the field have helped people around the world understand how earthquakes occur and the consequences thereof. Furthermore, Richter's contributions to the field of seismology have helped in the development and construction of safer buildings in earthquake-prone areas.

Works Cited

Park, Jeffrey. "Charles Richter Biography (1900 -- 85), Elementary seismology." Net Industries.

Web. Accessed 12 May 2011. Retrieved from

"Richter, Charles F. (1900-1985)." Web. Accessed 12 May 2011. Retrieved from [read more]

Ucsd Application as a Resident Essay

… There is still much more to be done, however. I would very much like to attend the summer program "Earthquakes in Action" at the University of California at San Diego's Jacobs School of Engineering. I hope to learn more about earthquakes and explore various academic and career options in which they are a focus.

I have a strong background in mathematics and I believe that prepares me for the rigors of the summer course. I am particularly interested in the ways that bridges and buildings respond to earthquakes and I look forward to the opportunity to use computer-generated models to study the methods of design and construction that are meant to address these problems. I would appreciate the opportunity to study with experts in seismology and structural engineering and learn as much as I can. The summer program sounds like a great cooperative learning experience. I am really looking forward to the possibility of working with professionals and other students in…… [read more]

Comparison of the 2011 Japan Earthquake and Tsunami With the 1960 Chilean Essay

… ¶ … Chilean earthquake of 1960 and the recent Japanese earthquake, the Valdivia quake that ruptured the Chilean coastline more than five decades ago is considered by many to be the most powerful earthquake in modern times. It was the largest seismic rupture ever recorded, achieving a 9.5 rating on the Richter scale. The resulting tsunami affected nearly the entire Pacific rim, causing substantial damage across Chile, Hawaii, Japan, New Zealand and Australia. The primary tsunami wave sped to Hawaii, where it devastated the town of Hilo. Waves higher than 30 feet were recorded in the Philippines and Japan in mere hours following the initial shock.

Most accounts placed the death toll at roughly 6,000, while economic losses related to the quake range from U.S.$500 to U.S.$600 million (Seismo-Watch, 2011). Nearly 40 per cent of the town of Valdivia was wiped out, leaving more than 20,000 citizens homeless. Entire cities were flooded, new wetlands were created, and electrical and water facilities were crippled in the quake's aftermath. Local rivers and pipelines were stifled with debris that included entire houses and portions of neighborhoods (Extreme Science, 2011). However, the death toll remained below that of many quakes (including the Japanese quake of 2011). This is likely due to the sparse population in the surrounding region and the propensity of civil engineers to developing municipal centers on higher elevations. Additionally, most towns consisted of wooden structures, as opposed to more deadly brick-and-mortar edifices that could potential pose more threat to life when thrown about by tidal waves.

Like the Japanese quake, the Valdivia rupture was a megathrust quake. It occurred far below the earth's surface and was caused by the subduction of one tectonic plate beneath another. Subduction quakes tend to cause the largest seismic activity due to their capacity to release more built-up stress in one powerful fissure. Among the catastrophic results were a flood that nearly destroyed the entire San Pedro River Valley and a massive volcanic eruption at Cordon Caulle (Extreme Science, 2011).

The Tohoko quake that recently occurred in Japan was slightly less powerful but caused significantly more damage, mostly due to the high concentration of population and the powerful tsunami waves that rushed ashore in the subsequent hours. The magnitude of the Tohoko quake was 8.9, among the largest ever to hit the Pacific Rim. It occurred at a depth of roughly 20 miles beneath the ocean's surface. The destructive tsunami waves that resulted measured nearly 100 feet high and destroyed several towns in spite of the warnings and evacuation measures issued by local governments. While the death toll is still being tallied, current numbers confirm more than 11,300 deaths, with 16,290 people still reported missing. In…… [read more]

Tsunamis Term Paper

… Tsunamis can be regarded as one of the most powerful representations of nature's force, considering the damage they generate and the fact that they are typically provoked by earthquakes. Frank I. Gonzalez's article on the subject provides readers with a through account, which is rather easy to it, obviously meant to address the masses. In spite of the fact that Gonzales addresses the matter from a general point-of-view, he nonetheless manages to put across elements that have his readers understand Tsunamis from the perspective of the victim and of the researcher.

Although they can also be triggered by other factors, tsunamis are most commonly set off by underwater seismic activity. Water is pushed upward by a subduction process caused when a tectonic plate moves under another. The speed with which water moves can apparently be greater than seven hundred kilometers per hour in some cases. The fact that coastal regions have recently experienced progress in urbanization has only added to the damage that tsunamis are likely to cause, considering that more and more people risk becoming victims (Escaleras & Register, 2008).

The most devastating tsunami reported in the history of mankind is the one that occurred on December 26, 2004 near the island of Sumatra. It is difficult to determine if this tsunami had also been the most intense to happen, given that its gravity is mostly owed to the fact that population was extremely dense on the island and in its vicinity. This tsunami's death toll is approximated at about 250,000. Because of the circumstances present, numbering victims is easier said than done, with debris, animals, and other factors contributing to making casualties less likely to be found (Escaleras & Register, 2008).

The destructive power of a tsunami is generally recognized and feared by people living on sea coasts (in particular) and by society as a whole. Gonzalez's example involving the July 17, 1998 tsunami on the northern coast of the New Guinean island is more than explicit, considering the fact that it is told from the viewpoint of someone that actually took part in the event. One can observe the fact that people are helpless in front of nature, as a tsunami basically leaves an individual with no other option but to hope that he or she will be lucky enough to survive. Even when someone gets to survive the giant waves, the respective person later has to avoid falling victim to other threats provoked by the tsunami, such as wild animals that have the possibility of entering human-inhabited territory of buildings that have had their structure affected because of the waves (Gonzalez).

Reaction time is crucial in such circumstances, even though there is not much one can do, as was the case with Sanawe. Going through such an event virtually leaves one confused and unable to react rationally, given that the deafening sound and the waves rising abnormally high most probably offer a terrifying experience. Regardless of the knowledge one has regarding tsunamis, being located on the… [read more]

Glaciers Come in All Shapes and Sizes Essay

… Glaciers come in all shapes and sizes, offering the viewer to describe the form in ones opinion. Each observer may describe the same glacier in a plethora of ways. The valleys and streams, curves and bends are ever changing. The supporting points in the article written by Ehrlich (2004) contain facts as well as opinions that support the idea of one's own perception and the factual characteristics of the Perito Moreno Glacier.

The facts stated in the article include information that about the size of Perito being 257 square kilometers across. In the center there is a two meter advance daily. There are warm and cold glaciers this depends on the altitude and latitude. Cold glaciers do not slide as easily, these glaciers are affixed to rocks. Warm glaciers have internal melt-streams at every level and torrents of water flow out from under the ice at the glaciers foot.

Further into the article Ehrlich (2004) describes the glacier in a personal manner. She compares it to the human body describing cheek bones, teeth etc. In conjunction with the descriptions of the forms that can be taken by the glacier she also explains the fluctuations in mass and form that take place every day. Throughout the writing comparisons are made to everyday encounters of the average man or woman. She expresses that the glacier balances its gains and losses like a banker. A glacier can give away more than it takes in. A glacier is an archivist and historian. It registers every fluctuation in weather. It saves everything no matter how small or big, including pollen, dust, heavy metals, bugs, and minerals. As snow becomes firm and then ice, oxygen bubbles are trapped in the glacier, providing samples of ancient atmosphere: carbon dioxide and methane. Records of temperatures and levels of atmospheric gases from before industrialization can be compared with those after a mere 150 years. A glacier is time incarnate.

The article gives clarity not only into the difference that…… [read more]

Plate Movements and Past Climatic Conditions Book Review


As plates move and shift, the water circulation around them in the oceans also changes. The heating of the Earth's surface as well as underwater geologic activity directly caused… [read more]

Earth? Scientists Know What Is Inside Book Review

… ¶ … Earth?

Scientists know what is inside the Earth primarily through firing waves of energy through the planet and measuring how they are affected through ground sensors. Both P. And S. waves move through the Earth at a certain speed and are either reflected or refracted depending on the material they move through. These actions can be tracked by sensors. Most of the information scientists have about the Earth's structure has been learned from observing these travel times, refractions, reflections, and phase transitions of seismic body waves. Earthquakes help in this way. The body waves move through the liquid layers of the Earth, but P-waves are refracted when they move through the transition between the semisolid mantle and the liquid outer core. This results in a P-wave shadow zone which occurs between 104° and 140°. This zone is where the initial P-waves are not able to be registered on sensory equipment like seismometers. However, S-waves do not travel through liquids, instead, they are absorbed.

2. What can one learn about the interior of Earth by measuring the acceleration due to gravity?

The acceleration due to gravity tells scientists that the Earth's structure is made up of different densities. At the surface, this number is usually denoted as "g," or 9.8 meters per second squared. This number depends on the density of the object with gravitational pull. Since the Earth's size and weight are known based upon other astronomical calculations, its density can be figured into the equation. When this was accomplished, scientists realized that the Earth must have a very massive iron core in order to explain the "g" force that is exacted upon the planet's inhabitants. Coupled with seismic measurements, scientists can deduce what exact likely elements and temperatures are present within the Earth's structure.

3. Why do rocks deep in the mantle remain solid, while those in the asthenosphere are close to melting?

Rocks deep in the mantle remain solid because of the huge lithostatic pressures associated with this layer. The rocks are under so much pressure and heat that they cannot become less dense and form a liquid. Those rocks in the asthenosphere are close to melting because they are under less pressure and therefore are very close to becoming a less dense fluid.

4. Describe how the angle at which a seismic wave approaches a discontinuity determines whether or not it is reflected or refracted.

As described in the answer to the first question, the P. wave is not refracted when the refractory angle reaches between 104 degrees and 140 degrees. The wave is dissipated in these zones causing a "shadow zone" familiar to most scientists. So depending on the angle of the wave interception, there may or may not be a refraction or reflection of the wave. So if the wave approaches a discontinuity from this angle range, it will not be reflected.

5. What changes does olivine undergo with depth in the mantle?

Olivine, more commonly referred to in gem quality as peridot,… [read more]

Psyche and Nature Essay

… Nature of Man and the Mountain

If you stand before a mountain, it is almost impossible not to be moved by the majesty of it. Standing tall, having been there for eons, it is slightly worn down from its original… [read more]

Hydrological Hazard Essay

… ¶ … forest conversion to pasture affecting the hydrological response of Amazon catchments? Signals in the Ji-Parana basin" by Rodriguez, Tomasella, and Linchares published on the 26th January 2010 in Wiley Interscience. It goes ahead to discuss in depth runoff. It is apparent to majority of us that the land use and vegetation cover over the land does not remain constant but constantly changes typically because of human activities and deforestation respectively. Deforestation on its own has the potential of affecting not only the forest/vegetation cover, but also hydrological response (Rodriguez, "is forest conversion to pasture affecting hydrological response"). Despite that many of vegetation changes are detectable in majority of small-catchment researches; it can however be difficult in large-scale studies. For this reason, at Ji-Parana basin in southwest Amazon, land use, land-cover changes, and stream flow fluctuations are examined combined with remotely sensed deforestation information to obtain viable results. Despite the Ji-Parana basin being large (<30,000 km2), it has been greatly affected by human activities modifying the land cover. From the statistical analysis, where daily stream flows were correlated with land cover data on smaller areas (sub-basins), the results indicated that the effect of land use and land cover changes on the response of hydrological process in large scales is time lagged (Rodriguez, "is forest conversion to pasture affecting hydrological response"), that is flow patterns are significantly affected by land cover and topography of the location resulting to high peak flows in streams hence storm flows. From the study, it proved easy to detect signals of the impact of land use and land cover changes on hydrological processes on smaller basins compared to large-scale considerations. This revelation thus challenges the existing mathematical models that are designed for faster hydrological response (Rodriguez, "is forest conversion to pasture affecting hydrological response"). Land activities and vegetation cover affects the speed and duration surface water from rainfall/storms takes before reaching streams significantly affecting stream flow hence flooding potential.

Rain falling on land has the potential of flowing either rapidly or slowly depending on the land cover as runoff and finally to streams. In addition depending on the soil characteristics of the area under consideration, infiltration varies where some of the water can percolate through the soil to greater depths…… [read more]

Geosynclines and Accretionary Prisms Term Paper

… Geosynclines v. Accretionary Prisms

Structure and formation of geosynclines

Geosynclines such as the Neoproterozoic Wonoka canyons now located on the southern portions of the Australian continental land mass form as sediments deposit in submarine basins, eventually leading to the compressions and fracture of these deposits and the emergence of canyons or linear troughs -- the geosyncline proper (Giddings et al., 2010). The formation process of these submarine geological features is largely dependent on the destruction of continental crust, especially along its margins, as it is broken down into the sediment that then collects in the submarine basins to form geosynclines, which can either be subjected to further oceanization, moving away from the continental crust, or drawn up out of its submarine birthplace as in the Neoproterozoic Wonoka canyons system (Giddings et al., 2010; Marakushev & Marakushev, 2008). This has led to some measure of debate regarding the origins of certain specific geographic features.

The Neoproterozoic Wonoka canyons, for instance, were hypothesized to be of non-marine origin due to a lack of defining marine features such as wave patterns and an abundance of crustal material (Giddings et al., 2010). The material is now, however, hypothesized to have collected as sediment from runoff and erosions of the continental crust, and the lack of wave patterns and other shallow-water formations is believed to be due to the deep-water nature of the Neoproterozoic Wonoka canyon's origins (Giddings et al., 2010). The depth of the canyons and the degree of fracture is indicative of the scale and mechanisms of a geosyncline's formation.

These mechanisms can also be determined at least in part by the specific substances found in certain geosynclines. South Australia again provides an excellent real-world example; the types of material found in the Wokona Formations and in neighboring canyons are definitely of continental curst origin, yet there exists no explanation for this material's appearance in these formations other than a transference from some other crust via erosion and oceanic currents (Von der Borch 1985). The specific carbonate sediments that comprise layers of the rock in these formations, that is, did not originate on the continental crust where they are now found, but rather from some other area that was eroded away during the Proterozoic era. The sediment that resulted from this erosion was deposited in a submarine basin and eventually coalesced through compression, faulted, and fractured into the formations seen today (Von der Borsch 1985).

As diagram one in the Appendix clearly shows, plate movement from divergence occurring in oceanic plates puts lateral pressure on the basins where geosynclines form, resulting in a pattern of sediment build up…… [read more]

Newsrx Science. "Earthquakes Actually Aftershocks of 19th Thesis

… ¶ … NewsRx Science. "Earthquakes actually aftershocks of 19th century quakes."

According to a collaborative study recently conducted at Northwestern University and the University of Missouri-Columbia, small earthquakes that occur in the Central region of North America are actually not contemporary earthquakes; they are actually aftershocks of much stronger earthquakes that occurred nearly two centuries ago. In principle, that is a result of the different rates of relative tectonic motion between the respective tectonic plates involved in active fault lines after large earthquakes of magnitude 7 and above.

Whereas fault lines closer to the coastal periphery (such as the San Andreas Fault in California) continue moving past one another at a rate of approximately an inch and a half per year after a major earthquake, those located closer to the central mass of tectonic plates (such as the New Madrid Faults) move 100 times slower. As a result, the aftershocks of earthquakes involving peripheral fault lines tend to subside after approximately one decade while those caused by large central plate faults can continue for centuries.

In principle, the researchers compared recorded patterns of large recent earthquakes to the known patterns associated with the gradual decrease in the magnitude of successive aftershocks. The results confirmed that the small earthquakes recorded in this decade are indeed part of the series of aftershocks from much earlier large earthquakes such as the 7.2 magnitude Hebgen Lake earthquake in Montana, Idaho, and Wyoming a half century ago.

Scientific Concepts

After large tectonic shifts that cause significant earthquakes, the tectonic plates involved continue their relative motion with respect to one another for many years afterwards. This is a function of the tectonic settling that scientists refer to as "swamping" their changes in position. In effect, the…… [read more]

Soufriere Hills Volcano Eruption Thesis

… ¶ …

Recently the Soufriere Hills Volcano began erupting ash, magma, and hot gasses on the island of Montserrat in the Caribbean. The ash plume is estimated to extend nearly 40,000 feet into the Earth's atmosphere. The volcano had not erupted since 1995, but shifts in the local tectonics have given rise to some serious instability in the region's volcanoes. Many flights and travel plans had to be rescheduled due to the volcanic activity. The area around the volcano has been an exclusion zone since 1995, where people were discouraged from visiting unless they were part of a guided tour or scientific expedition. The volcano's exclusion zone is similar to the one constructed around the vicinity of Pompeii in Italy, and the 1995 eruption was compared to the Italian eruption 200 years ago in that it buried an entire city and killed many people with its pyroclastic flows and associated tremors. The former capital of the island nation, Plymouth, was nearly completely buried by the 1995 eruption, and most of the population fled following the 1995 eruption. The Soufriere Hills Volcano had been dormant throughout recorded history until the 1995 eruption and now has been awakened once again. Since the islands surrounding the volcano are a popular tourist destination, the local economy will likely be impacted just as much as the local travel industry has been.

The Soufriere Hills Volcano is part of a larger group of stratovolcanoes, which are made up of many layers of ash, lava, and mud flows. These volcanoes are subject to earthquake…… [read more]

Geographical Information System (GIS) Term Paper

… This is mainly carried out several customers that I strive to be very important

Many are on ArcGIS in all the various types of organizations in order to improve their workflows and the I always solve their most challenging issues.

This project is simply become obsolete dude without to thigh number of demands and equal People are using ArcGIS in all types of organizations to improve their workflows and solve their most challenging issues. The software by itself requires at least 216 MB of space soas to work seamlessly without any latency.


It is very necessary to work with professional so as to ensure that the projects that he or she was involved in is working fine and is delivering the effect that is desirable so as to be at peace with the current address and situation. The adoption of the GIS software in housing is therefore one of the most important technologies to be adopted in the process of planning and actual viewing and monitoring of housing projects,.


Bolstad, P. (2005) GIS Fundamentals: A first text on Geographic Information Systems, Second Ed. White Bear Lake, MN: Eider Press

Elangovan, K (2006) GIS: Fundamentals, Applications and Implementations," New India Publishing Agency, New Delhi

National Research Council, GIS for housing and urban development

Longley, P.A., Goodchild, M.F., Maguire, D.J. And Rhind, D.W. (2005) Geographic Information Systems and Science. Chichester Thurston, J., Poiker, T.K. & J. Patrick Moore. (2003) Integrated Geospatial Technologies: A Guide to GPS, GIS, and Data Logging. Hoboken, New Jersey

Wise, S. (2002) GIS Basics.… [read more]

Water and Sustainability Essay

… Water and Sustainability

Economic Approaches

Introduction / Generalizations: The Technical Advisory Committee (TAC) of the Global Water Partnership has issued an urgent yet coherent series of proposals. For starters, the need for sensible, workable programs to deal with the exploding… [read more]

California History USA Thesis

… California History: Earthquake of 1906

The objective of this work is to write about a particular event in California History. This work will examine the California earthquake of April 18, 1906. This earthquake is one of the largest earthquakes in recorded history and resulted in more than 3,000 deaths, 225,000 and property damage exceeding $400,000,000.

It is reported that the ground broke open for 270 miles along the San Andreas rift. Reports state that the earthquake, which hit at approximately 5:12 A.M. On April 18, 1906, was of 8.4 magnitude and has been named one of the worst natural disasters in U.S. history. The destruction of the earthquake was soon matched and then exceeded by fires that raged throughout San Francisco.


Elizabeth Hull writes that the 1906 earthquake "was one of the first natural disasters for which documentation through photography and motion picture film was available. As a result, many astonishingly vivid and well-preserved visual records of the event are housed in libraries and archival repositories across the country, including the National Archives, the Library of Congress, the Museum of the City of San Francisco, and the Bancroft Library of the University of California-Berkeley." (2006) Hull additionally writes that the fires had substantiated the claims made by the lumber companies in California that redwood was a fire-resistant building material. Hull points out that an article in the 'American Lumberman' six weeks following the disaster stated as follows: "This no longer is a theory but a fact that has been proved by a test which none can dispute as the most severe to which any lumber has been subjected in modern history.... It is hardly possible that this showing will not have the effect of bringing the California lumber into greater favor in all sections to which it now finds its way, and it may be instrumental in opening to it markets which heretofore have not received it with open arms." (Hull, 2006) Hull states that the "the desired effect of promotional efforts like those of the Redwood Car Shippers Bureau was realized. In the midst of the timber boom that followed from San Francisco's massive rebuilding efforts, California redwood was in the highest demand." (2006)


The work of Fradkin entitled: "The Great Earthquake and Firestorms of 1906: How San Francisco Nearly Destroyed Itself, notes that loggers "...worked unceasingly during daylight hours. Mills operated on 'full double-time.' The amount of redwood shipped to San Francisco in October 1906 was double that of the same month in the previous year, which had also been a record month." (in Hull, 2006) Hull writes that in a short period of time yet one characterized by "...intensive and indiscriminate logging of forests in northern California, Oregon, and Washington" following the 1906 earthquake "...undoubtedly took its toll on the land, a toll that has not been widely examined by historians and other social scientists. The topic of the impact of recovery on the land and on… [read more]

Kant's Transcendental Aesthetic Essay

… Kant's Transcendental Aesthetic

The Transcendental Aesthetic is the manner by which we attain our sense-originated knowledge of the physical world. Knowledge is attained through the immediacy of our relation to objects and it is through that relationship that all our thoughts are directed thus our understanding of our world is shaped by our capacity for relating to the objects in the world around us. In essence, my understanding of a rock is built upon the depth of my capacity to experience the rock in any manner (physical, emotional, intellectual, etc.) that I have the capability of reaching. Thus, as I experience the rock through an immediate relationship to it and the context in which I encounter the rock, my understanding, my total definition of that which is "rock" also shapes how I understand, categorize, experience, relate to and function within the context of other objects just as the same is true in reverse for the rock. Our ability to function within the world is entirely dependent upon our understanding of the world. That understanding is wholly dependent upon our ability to perceive the world through depth of our relationships with the objects within it. These relationships are built both in space and in time and the appearance of an object, our "sense" of it, is thus shaped both by context in which we find the object and the time relative to our prior experiences (or lack) with that object.

Understanding the transcendental aesthetic is based upon the dual non-empirical entities of space and time. Space, itself, does not exist - there is no space, there are only things. The objects that are there in the world around us are labeled as being in "space" to allow for a mental framework with which to understand how an object can be related to. As we experience objects (people, buildings, situations, places, etc.) we form immediate understandings of them. First, there is the sense of the thing, sight, hearing, taste, touch, smell, and then there is the categorization of perception that is formed immediately within the famework of our existing understanding of objects. Our brain immediately asks, is this similar to other things I already am aware of or is this a new object never before encountered? As we do not function well with objects we cannot categorize with others, we immediately seek to understand and "explain" the unique and new in relationhip to other things. If we know that objects hanging from trees are generally edible such as apples, avocadoes, and walnuts, then when we encounter a pinecone for the first time hanging from a tree branch, our understanding of fruit-trees allows us to make a comparison. but, visually, as the pine cone does not resemble other familiar fruit, we cannot understand it as fruit yet.

As we experience objects, the space in which we encounter them (or the context) is not an object itself - our concept of space, then,…… [read more]

Mars Tectonics Thesis

… ¶ … theories regarding plate tectonics, with the researcher contending that as Mars tectonics cannot currently be confirmed, more research, including two geophysical methods the researcher would utilize to test the *** theory of Mars tectonics need to be conducted.… [read more]

Tsunami in Indian Ocean in 2004 Research Proposal

… Tsunami in Indian Ocean in 2004

The 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami

The tsunami that occurred in the Indian Ocean on the 26th of December 2004 caused more than two-hundred thousand deaths and extensive economic and physical damage - including environmental… [read more]

Yellowstone National Park Fire Issues Term Paper

… Yellowstone National Park Fire Issues

The objective of this work is to review the article entitled: "Mount St. Helens: A Case Study of Managing for Change in Wildland Recreation" written by Alan Ewert and published by the USDA Forest Service… [read more]

Limestone Sedimentary Rocks Term Paper

… Limestone

Sedimentary rocks that are made from the mineral calcite are called limestone. Calcite is found in the beds of evaporated seas and lakes. It also comes from sea animal shells such as clams, brachiopods, bryoza, crinoids and corals. Some limestone's can be nearly pure calcite, there is often a large amount or sand or silt that is included in the shelly debris.

Pure limestone is more or less white in color. The impurities that limestone contains such as clay, organic remains, sand, and few other materials make it white in color. Many novel limestones come in various colors especially on weathered surfaces. Limestone might be crystalline, clastic, granular, or huge; all in fact depends on the system of formation.

Limestone is most common in North America where it is used for architectural structures. Many landmarks across the world are made of limestone. This even includes the pyramids in Egypt. In Ontario, Canada so many buildings are constructed from it that is has been nicknamed the Limestone City. Limestone was most popular in the 19th and 20th centuries in the construction of banks and train stations.

Indiana is most notable for what is called Indiana limestone. This limestone comes from the Bloomington area and has been a source of high quality quarried limestone. Limestone is easy to cut into blocks or to make elaborate carvings. Limestone is very long lasting and stands up well to exposure. Limestone as well as marble…… [read more]

Why Do I Want to Study Earthquake? Term Paper

… ¶ … Earthquakes

As a resident of California, few things have the ability to terrify me as the thought of a major Pacific coast earthquake. Earthquakes are terrifying for a variety of reasons. First, they are sudden and occur without any immediate warning. In addition, they are very violent; when major earthquakes strike densely populated areas, death and destruction is inevitable. Furthermore, while earthquake activity is heavily focused in areas that lie along major fault lines, earthquakes can theoretically impact almost anywhere, and their major damage can occur miles away from their epicenters. There are approximately half-a-million detectable earthquakes each year, about 100,000 of those can be felt by humans, and only about 100 of them cause any type of damage or death.

The element that makes earthquakes so terrifying is the fact that they are relatively unpredictable and sudden. Of course, it is incorrect to state that earthquakes are unpredictable. There are certain…… [read more]

Geographic Information Systems Term Paper

… Geographic Information Systems

If the latest GIS systems can convert vector data into raster form and vice versa, is it now irrelevant to maintain a distinction between vector and raster GIS?

Despite the ability of nearly all GIS and CAD/CAM systems to complete vector-to-raster conversions and vice versa, there still exists the need for keeping vector-based and raster-based data separately managed and stored. There are inherent differences between vector and raster data, each with specific attributes necessary for completing effective GIS-based data analysis. The intent of this short essay is to explain why it is still very relevant to keep a distinction between vector and raster-based GIS data.

One of the most prevalent uses of vector-based data in GIS and CAD/CAM systems is providing data and file compatibility to other design and drafting systems and applications. Vector data's inherent characteristics of being able to define X, Y coordinates and the use of quadrants to define relative locations of vector data in a design plane is critical for the development of proposed building, production plant, or larger projects that require the eventual integration of raster data to define which aspects of a project are accomplishable or not.

Vector-based data is invaluable in defining a series of points or nodes throughout multiple layers of as design file, making the computation of points, lines, curves, arcs, polygons and more graphics primitives usable in a Cartesian coordinate pair design space. The multiple layering of AutoCAD and other CAD/Cam applications that work in conjunction with GIS systems are a case in point. Vector-based data can be used for extensive calculations and the definition of complex geometric shapes and conceptual maps relatively quickly due to the majority of vector-based design standards having a set of graphics primitives included as a basic part of their command sets and Application Programmer Interfaces (APIs). In the context of GIS, vector-based data executes more efficiently than raster data and is therefore considered less computationally intensive. This level of computational performance is achieved however due to the much more complex data structure that vector-based design files rely on to store their data points and graphic primitives.

Taking the perspective of having raster data separated from vector data, the many applications of raster-based data in GIS that are made possible through the representation of data as pixels that can be multiple bytes deep in terms of context and color. In addition, pixels that comprise a raster image are organized into grid sizes, grid resolutions, and rely on extensive georeferencing. Raster-based data is captured both from large-scale photography from airplanes in addition to the satellite imagery. While raster-based image data has a relatively simple data structure, is compatible with remotely sensed and scanned data, and has relatively simply spatial analysis features, raster data sets require greater storage space, projection transformations are made more difficult as this imaging technology does not rely on a coordinate space like vector and it is much more difficult to represent relationships with the data as a result. In… [read more]

Spirituality Involves a Deeper Understanding Term Paper

… Spirituality involves a deeper understanding of what is happening around me. Being a more spiritual person means looking at what certain things mean beneath the surface. I believe that there is always more going on that what we can know and we should be open to that. Being spiritual also includes connecting with others. One thing that can be like a spiritual experience is riding the light rail. When I ride it to work, I always consider myself lucky because I can see the sun rising on the way to work and the sun setting coming home. The contrast of nature and man-made mechanisms is striking. My eyes are looking at the sky and yet I am hearing the noise of the light rail along with the strange smell I associate with it. Most of the time, there is a slight draft on the light rail, even when it is warm. In addition, I always grab a Sprite when I leave work so I associate drinking a Sprite with the experience of riding the light rail. The experience would not be the same if I could not see the sky. Because I love nature, the experience comes to mean more to me. I look at it and I am rejuvenated and the ride home becomes a ritual that I love.

The things that happen on the light rail can be spiritual. I am always looking for opportunities that can turn into positive experiences. These do not have to be life-saving experiences. Most of the time, they are not. For example, once I was on the light rail and I was running late for work. I was rushed and my bag was overstuffed. I could not remember if I had my badge for work with me and as I was looking for it in my bag, half of my bag spilled out on the floor. An elderly woman got up and helped me gather my things. She was handing items to me one at a time so I could put them in my bag. She did not say a word but she did smile as she bent down, picked up items with…… [read more]

Earth Science: The Sculpting Term Paper


The objective of this work is to review the article entitled: "Magma P.I. 'Unearths Clues to How Earth's Crust Was Sculpted" published December 14, 2007 online the website 'Science Daily'.

The article entitled: "Magma P.I. 'Unearths Clues to How Earth's Crust Was Sculpted" published online the Science Daily website December 14, 2007 relates the work of John Hopkins University geologist Bruce Marsh who is stated to have "challenged the century-old concept that the Earth's outer layer formed when crystal-free molten rock called magma oozed to the surface from giant subterranean chambers hidden beneath volcanoes." (Science Daily, 2007)


Bruce Marsh has posited that the "deep-seated plumbing underneath volcanoes" is actually comprised of a system that is extensive in nature of "smaller sheet-like chambers vertically connected with each other and transporting a crystal laden 'magnetic mush' to the surface" and is a theory that is becoming accepted widely among scientists. This type of system has been termed a "magmatic mush column" and said to exist "beneath all of the world's major volcanic centers. It is held by Marsh that these channels, instead of simply transporting the magma and crystals needed in formation of the surface of the Earth involves a process in which the magma is pushed up through the earth and in doing so the earth's crust became fractured creating a type of "template" which guides erosion and sculpting that occurs in formation of "a series of valleys and mountain ranges..." (Science Daily, 2007)


Marsh holds that the functions he describes, at least in the region of Antarctica, "date back at least 180 million years to the time…… [read more]

Mount Vesuvius Significant Threat to Naples Term Paper

… Vesuvius

The eruption of Mt. Vesuvius in 79 a.D. destroyed the city of Pompeii and also nearby Herculaneum. The volcano remains active, though it has not produced much more than steam for some time. However, a volcano is always a… [read more]

Science Volcanoes and Earthquakes Pinatubo Term Paper

… Science

Volcanoes and Earthquakes

Pinatubo - Pinatubo is a stratovolcano in the Philippines. The eruption in 1991 was a Plinian eruption, which are some of the most violent eruptions on earth, and can make great changes in nature, which is… [read more]

Disaster Management Options for Volcano Hazards Term Paper

… Disaster Management Options for Volcano Hazards

Currently there are many options in forecasting volcanic natural disasters like eruptions and explosions. None of the current methods are accurate enough to predict a volcanic event every time and in quickly enough to evacuate nearby populations. This is problematic since so many volcanic areas are well-populated. These include the Alban Hills south of Rome, Italy, the "Ring of Fire" in the Cascade Mountains of the northwest United States, and the Tungurahua volcano in Ecuador (Choi, 2004; Kerr, 2003). To make matters worse, few volcanoes around the world are monitored well or at all (Mileti, 1999). While current methods are not perfect, they offer detection in many cases. If they are implemented and understood, new developments and methods may be developed that can better predict volcanic events and save the lives of those who witness such a natural disaster.

Mileti (1999) suggests that there are two main factors in volcanic disaster warning and prediction: "forecasting explosive events and assessing volcanic hazard" (185). Methods to detect whether there is a volcanic hazard are more accurate than methods attempting to predict an explosive event (Kerr, 2003; Mileti, 1999). Assessing a volcanic hazard simply means to assess whether a volcano is still active and should be monitored or watched for possible future activity. This is more difficult with volcanoes that have large caldera systems and that do not erupt often (Kerr, 2003; Mileti, 1999). Predicting where and when an explosive or eruption event will happen is more difficult. Yet, knowing when a volcano will erupt and how it will erupt is the most important issue in volcanic forecasting because it has the potential to save lives. Most of the current forecasting methods look for confirmation that fresh magma (liquid rock) has traveled to chambers in the upper crust, about 3-6 miles below the earth's surface (Kerr, 2003).

Seismic monitoring is one of the most common ways to keep track of volcanic activity (Choi, 2004; Mileti, 1999). Seismometers monitor earth movement, including the earthquakes and tremors that sometimes indicate volcanic activity like underground magma movement (Choi, 2004). Though seismic activity is often linked to volcanic events successfully, not all seismic events indicate a coming eruption (Kerr, 2003). For this reason, seismometer readings do not always provide accurate predictions (Choi, 2004).

Seismic tomography is a related method which uses tremor activity and seismic waves to "image" the underground workings of a volcano; since the waves travel at different speeds through magma than through rock, registering an earthquake from several different stations in one area can illuminate where volcanic magma chambers are. This, in turn, can help to predict where eruptions might occur (Kerr, 2003). Electromagnetic monitoring can also be used with seismic monitoring and tomography. By using strainmeters buried deep in the earth around a volcano, a "long-period seismic event" (LP) can be monitored (Kerr, 2003, 2017). This monitoring allows scientists to make better predictions for volcanoes that are regularly active.

Ground deformation monitoring uses satellite and air images,… [read more]

Earthquakes Charles Richter Determined That the Seismic Term Paper

… Earthquakes

Charles Richter determined that the seismic waves emitted from an earthquake could be used to estimate its magnitude, and he developed a calibrated system for measuring these waves commonly known as the Richter Scale (Earthquakes). The Richter Scale formula is based on the discovery that the larger the earthquake, the larger the amplitude of ground motion at a given distance from the quake. The Richter Scale equation is:

R (x) =.67 • log (.37x) + 1.46

R (x) equals the magnitude of that earthquake on the Richter scale and x equals the energy of an earthquake in kilowatt-hours (Earthquakes). The small numeric differences in values of R (x) can be misleading if one does not understand that the scale is logarithmic, which means that each whole number of the scale actually increases by 10. Thus, a magnitude 7.0 earthquake is ten times stronger than a 6.0; a 7.0 is 100 times greater than a 5.0; and a 7.0 is 1000 times greater than…… [read more]

Fashion of School Students Starts With Blasting Essay

… ¶ … fashion of school students starts with blasting music and outrageous clothing that marks the symbol of new generation. However, presently the minds of children accommodates more than the simple school fashions like studying for tests, the downright deadly homework they are performing. The movie Dangerous Minds represents Michelle Pfeiffer as an inner city teacher who strives hard to maintain her students alive sufficiently longer to learn something. She opined that education is everything that enables one to move mountains through that, especially the people who feel very confined by their environment. It is the one thing they don't have to feel confined by. The movie Dangerous Minds is believed to depict that the children have enough liberty to do or become anything. Irrespective of the background, whether it is socio-economical or from the educational system or the family the children have plenty of choices. (Interview with Michelle, Pfeiffer: Dangerous Minds)

It is opined that faith of the size of mustard seed can move mountains and nothing will be impossible. Physically having faith is not necessitated to move mountains. The nature is performing the job. As human beings it is also possible for us to blow up mountains or create tunnels through them and also create new mountains out of the debris. All in these cases faith is not needed to move the physical mountains. Jesus refers that mountains which are to be moved with faith are somewhat bigger, harder and even more durable than the physical mountains. These mountains are even harder since they are hardly visible. We even are not aware of their existence. However, their growth is steady and slow. They do not broke out suddenly after some personal earthquake, they grow slowly but the remnants are accumulated in out souls by daily life while we move with our business, while we perform our jobs in a routine manner. (And Now For Something Completely Different)

Such mountains are created by the accumulation of debris of the normal. Such mountains of heart are visualized as metaphors; however, are quite real. Similar to the physical mountains they erect as irresistible planks to isolate one from another, they deter those standing on the one side from seeing the other side. The mountains in our hearts isolate us from the true desire of our hearts. Such mountains are created from the desires that cannot be satiated. They perpetuate from the pride and ambition, arrogance, idolatry of work, love of victory, love of the legal and indifference to the moral and love of the wealth and power that our acquisitions can entail. Such mountains call upon our integrity that strives to connect our faith, our values, our personal lives and our professional lives, etc. with oneness.

Saint Augustine could successfully depict in the Confession's parable of the stolen pears the way he resorted to stealing something he really did not desire but pleased him to steal. He loved the pleasure of contravention that finally shamed him. Therefore, according to him in… [read more]

Tsunami Warning System the December Term Paper

… Works Cited

'About The Pacific Tsunami Warning Center." National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration: United States Department of Commerce. 25 June 2004. Online at <>.

Atwater, Brian F., Cisternas V. Marco, Bourgeois, Joanne, Dudley, Walter C., Hendley, James W. II, and Stauffer, Peter H. "Surviving a Tsunami -- Lessons from Chile, Hawaii, and Japan." 1999. United States Geological Survey Circular 1187. Version 1.0. Online at <>.

'Gaps plague Indian Ocean tsunami warning system." Associated Press. 23 June 2005. Online at <>.

'Indian Ocean Tsunami Early Warning System Launched." 30 June 2005. Press Release: United Nations reproduced on Scoop. Online at <>.

Leow, Joanne. "No tsunami warning system in the Indian Ocean and affected countries." 27 Dec 2004. Channel News Asia. Online at <>.

'The Tsunami Warning System." 29 Mar 2005. Department of Earth and Space Sciences at the University of Washington. Online at <>.

'Tsunami Warning System." Wikipedia. 1 Jun 2005. <>.

'2004 Indian Ocean earthquake." Wikipedia. 18 July 2005. Online at <>.

Williams, Sue. "Indian Ocean Tsunami Warning System formally established." UNESCO. 30 June 2005. Online at < URL_DO=DO_TOPIC& URL_SECTION=201.html>.… [read more]

Regulatory Structure Policies and Process in Water Law Term Paper

… Regulatory Structure, Policies and Process in Water Law

The public trust doctrine, which keeps the state responsible for keeping certain natural resources exclusively available for public use, has influenced the way California implements its water rights system. The history of the doctrine's application dates back to December 19, 1914, when the California Water Commission Act was passed. This act made it mandatory for the state to determine who could exercise appropriative rights to California's waterways.

On February 17, 1983, a landmark decision for the case National Audubon Society v. Superior Court of Alpine County was made when the California Supreme Court decided to explicitly enforce the public trust doctrine within its water rights system. This meant that California's State Water Resources Control Board would have to now take public trust values into account whenever it reviewed any applications pertaining to water rights. Initially, the doctrine was used to only protect navigation, commerce, and fisheries. As time passed, its role was expanded to include the rights of fishing, hunting, swimming, boating,…… [read more]

Cambrian System of the Grand Term Paper

… Berkhault (2004) states that, "Because the Tapeats, Bright Angel, and Muav are not separated by unconformities but grade into each other, they have been collectively called the Tonto Group. The deposits are overlain by the sequence of sandstones, siltstones, shales, and carbonate rocks of Devonian, Carboniferous and Permian Systems."

IV. Zones in the Tonto Group Strata

The Tapeats, Bright Shale Angel and Muav Limestone "superposed each other and juxtaposed when erosion produced clasts of all sizes, including particles of quartz, clay, pebbles and boulders. As indicated by Lebediev (1959) the velocity of incipient motion relative to the depth of water was in relation to the clast size. As the advancement of the transgression occurred the water increased in deepness which resulted in a reduction of the current but still a capacity to erode remained causing clasts that were smaller than boulders and were transported as far away as Zone 2.

Zone One & Two

The shallow zone or Zone 1 experienced current that was greatly 'diminished' (Berkhault, 2004) and the erosion level was diminished as well but transported 'clasts of terrigeneous which is grave, sand, silt and clay as well as carbonate material such as lime. Berkhault (2004) states that, "A regressive current started, which carried westwards the largest particles in a bed load, and the smallest in a suspended load. The first deposited from zone 2 to 6, and the second in zones 5 and 6 only."

Zone Three

Characterized in composition by sand in waves that were formed by thin cross sand beds, this zone is composed of sand waves forming thinly cross-bedded sands, which compose the middle of the Tapeats. Water velocity was approximately 1.0 meter per second.

Zone Four

The waters with the most depth and least velocity "depositing the uppermost Tapeats" (Berkhault, 2004)

Zone Five

This zone is characterized by deposits formed by much deeper waters and much slower in motion with the silicate clay and particles that were silt sized accumulated forming the graded silt and clay beds of Bright Angel Shale with water velocity at approximately 0.5 meters per second.

Zone 6: This zone is farther towards the west and is the water with the most depth and the water that moved the slowest of all waters at the time characterized by a deficiency of particles of silicate clay and silt-sized. Lime mud accumulated in strata that is laminated and bedded "rhythmically" and water velocity was below 0.5 meters per second.


The lower middle and upper series in the stratigraphic scale of the Cambrian is a duration of over 50 million years but the three faceis of the Tonto group deposited simultaneously appear super and juxtaposed which could be explained due to a varying velocity of the water flow in the different zones while sedimentation was still in its' formation process.


Berthault, G., Analysis of main principles of stratigraphy on the basis of experimental data / / Lithol. Polezn. Iskop., 2002, no 5, pp. 442 -- 446.

Timmons, Mike et al.… [read more]

Magic Mountain Term Paper

… Magic Mountain

Thomas Mann's the Magic Mountain is an expansive intellectual play upon the forces of thought imposed upon the people of early twentieth century Europe. Mann satirically places these competing ideologies in a sanatorium in the Swiss Alps; he… [read more]

GIS: Emergency, Planning and Operations Term Paper

… In certain circumstances for example, an IC may need to be dictatorial or authoritative, and the GIS should allow the IC to conduct business in this fashion. This may be the case in a smaller scale disaster where most of the decision making will remain in the hands of the IC. However, the GIS needs to respond to different decision making styles, so that if the commander needed to delegate, he/she could put people in charge of decisions and make things happen. The GIS will be most accommodating and useful if it will change based on who is using it and who they are working with.


European Commission. (2003). "Guidelines for Best Practice User Interface GIS." ESPRIT/ESSI, European Commission. Retrieved November 22, 2003,

Hall, Richard., Adams, Barbara. (1998). Essentials of Firefighting, 4th Edition. Fire Protection Publications: Oklahoma

Harrington, Andrew. "Field Experiences Highlight Mobile GIS Benefits." GeoPlace. Retrieved November 23, 2003,

Smith, Dan. August 1997. "CDI and QDR." The Defense Monitor, Center for Defense Information. Volume XXVI, No. 5 Washington, DC. Retrieved November 22, 2003,

Wieder, Michael. (1994). Hazardous Materials for First Responders, Second Edition. International Fire Service Training Association: Stillwater.… [read more]

Formed to What Their Value Term Paper

… The melting point of cubic zirconia is an astoundingly high 2750 Degrees Centigrade! Colored cubic zirconia can withstand temperatures that are just as high as the ones that can be tolerated by the white colorless counterparts and does not experience color fading. In experiments involving very high temperatures using liquid oxygen, moissanite survived the temperatures where diamonds have been vaporized! [Anderson, B.W.: Gem Testing]

Diamonds come in all shapes, qualities and sizes and can be bought according to one's specifications and budget. The factors involved in purchasing a diamond, include clarity, color, cut and carat size. The diamonds have naturally occurring internal characteristics that are called inclusions. The diamond's clarity is largely determined by the size, nature, location and amount of inclusions the diamond possesses. A diamond's clarity grade affects its value and determines the price of that stone. Many diamonds appear colorless, but in reality they have light tones of yellow or brown in them. As the intensity of the tones become more pronounced, the rarity and the value of the stone directly decrease. [Schumann, Walter, Gemstones of the World]

Light entering the diamond reflects it

When a diamond is cut, most of the light entering the stone from any direction is reflected from the top and forming a display of sparkling flashes and rainbow colors. This is called dispersion. This creates a brilliant affect of colors and beauty.

Diamonds have the most unique characteristics any stone can possibly have. They have come to find uses in many different spheres of life. But their most significant use is in making beautiful jewelry, when a man wants to win a woman's heart he knows diamonds will do the trick!


Anderson, B.W., Gem Testing. Heywood & co. Ltd., London

Kraus, E.H., Hunt, W.F., Ramsdell, L.S., Mineralogy - An Introduction to the Study of Minerals and Crystals, McGraw-Hill, New York - London

McCarthy, J. R, Fire in the Earth - The Story of the Diamond. Robert Hale Ltd., London.

Schumann, Walter, Gemstones…… [read more]

Anthropological Analysis the Water Resources Term Paper

… Dissolved iron concentrations in ground water, particularly in wells, are the highest in ground-water discharge zones, especially near the south shore on Long Island. Another of the more serious disadvantages of natural ground water contamination is that the bacteria that accompanies and promotes iron bio-fouling also contributes immensely to iron encrustation and corrosion of wells, pumps, distribution lines, and treatment systems, subsequently raising the degree of expense another notch (Cartwright & Brown, 2003).

Supply problems & possible solutions

In spite of the marginal relevance of natural contamination, however, human activities associated with urban and agricultural land use continue to constitute the primary factors affecting the quality of streams as well as the health of aquatic life throughout Long Island and New Jersey. It is quite apparent that the water supply of New York is primarily affected as a result of the primary source of most public supply wells being contaminated, more often than not, as a result of natural contamination.

The degree of blame put upon human induced factors, however, is once again highlighted when acknowledging that although concentrations of most chemical constituents detected in stream samples generally meet Federal and State water-quality guidelines; current guidelines do not address many chemicals resultant to the combinations of pesticides, fertilizers, and industrial and fuel-related compounds (Ayers, Kennen & Stackelberg, 2001).

Taking into consideration the fact that the large population, extensive urban and industrial development, and, in some areas, agricultural activities, are the main causes of water-quality problems within New York as well as a number of other states; it becomes quite evident that there is no immediately effectual countermeasure that can be conveniently implemented. Natural contamination tends to affect the ground water resources, which are quite widely spread across New York, subsequently compromising most of the root sources for public supply wells, while human induced contamination is widely responsible for the contamination of other water resources. Taking into consideration the fact that the decontamination of ground water resources is rather inappropriately costly, it is apparent that focusing upon neutralizing and minimizing the degree of contamination to other bodies of water would be more suitable.

The proper, ecologically oriented regulating of power generators which release most of the acid-rain causing emissions that reach New York and the northeastern U.S. American acid rain emissions would be an effective initiative. Surprisingly, these emissions, as a result of the significant scope to which they travel, are also causing serious water quality problems in the Great Lakes and Canada.


Thus speaking and taking into consideration all that has been said in regard to the water supply problem within the State of New York, it is quite apparent that dealing with the human induced predicaments prior to the natural ones would be the more sound strategy to opt for; regardless of that, however, it is quite apparent that the degree of problematic issues related to the water supply within New York will be significantly dwarfed in the case of suitably effectual and appropriate measures not being taken… [read more]

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