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Politics Essay

… References

Marsh, David and Stoker, Gerry (eds), Theory and Methods in Political

Science (London, Macmillan, 2002). Introduction and Chapter 1.

Schwarzmantel, J., The State in Contemporary Society (Harvester, 1994). Chapter 1.


This paper examines the political philosophies of elitism… [read more]

Andrew Heywood Term Paper

… Andrew Heywood

In my opinion, in order to best discern among the four definitions given for politic, we have to point out that politics can virtual have both a figurative and a realistic approach. According to whether the meaning is figurative or realistic, the degree to which the definition of politics encompasses different areas varies, from the political spectrum (real approach) to the public affairs spectrum (still real approach) to the private life (figurative approach and senses such as politics as compromise and consensus).

As such, in my opinion, the best definition of politics is that providing a meaning that limits politics to the spectrum of the public sector. In this sense, politics can be seen as the art of government and as public affairs.

The first notion, that of politics as the art of government, is perhaps the one providing the most realistic approach to what politics is all about. Politics in general is associated with a process of (1) electing the representatives of the people in governmental structure, (2) uniting ideas into coherent political platforms that can properly reflect the direction that respective party wishes to promote, (3) the existence of political entities, part of this mechanism etc. We do indeed have both a positive and a negative perspective associated to politics, from this perspective, as the capacity to rise as a representative of the people in the governmental structures is often associated with personal ambitions of reaching those levels.

Politics is not limited necessarily to the governmental sector, we can refer to politics when we discuss the art of government in the business sector as well. Indeed, the business sector is also an area where…… [read more]

Mythology Political Issues Constitutional History Term Paper

… The Twenty-First Amendment to the Constitution is the only case of amendment through this venue.

Congress calling a National Convention at the request of the legislator and three-fourths of the States ratifying the amendment. This form has never been utilized… [read more]

Ellis Holds That America Term Paper

… In a transitional state, the head of the Army holds an immense degree of authority. Washington was the only prominent military leader to revere the principles beholden to the new Republic. Washington and his contemporaries were familiar with the tragic flaws of popular leaders that preceded them: Julius Caesar crossed the Rubicon because he believed that he out-do a largely aristocratic and quarrelsome republican government by employing the decisiveness that he had exercised in battle. Oliver Cromwell was unwilling to reflect the interests of a parliament that failed to represent his interests and ultimately handed authority to his son. Although many of the founding fathers shaped America's nature, it can be said with definity that without Washington, America couldn't have existed.

Washington, on the other hand, realized that he could forge consensus, but that it took an even greater man to allow the flawed but necessary mechanisms of representative government to replace him. Washington knew that legislatures were all too human, but that heros were ultimately mortal. Many quotes are attributed to Washington; one that reflects his decision to put down the sword is this one: "I hope I shall always possess firmness and virtue enough to maintain what I consider the most enviable of all titles, the character of an honest man."


Short History of the American Nation, Vol. 1, Garraty and Barnes, 8th Ed.).

William M. Fowler, Jr. Radical Puritan. Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, 1997.

Joseph J. Ellis. Founding Brothers: The Revolutionary Generation. Knopf, 2000.

The Constitution of…… [read more]

British Parliamentary System of Government Term Paper

… S. government. It was written and passed in 1787 during the Constitutional Convention, which had been convened in the midst of the political crisis that followed the American Revolution. At that time relations between the central government and the states… [read more]

Individual Freedom Term Paper

… The Resolutions go on to state that the Parliament has been non-compliant with the system, but the value of the system was not undervalued. Benjamin Franklin ensured that the rights of the individual man had to be protected by, with, and for a great good in his autobiography. "In our way thither," he wrote, "I projected and drew a plan for the union of all the colonies under one government, so far as it might be necessary for defense, and other important general purposes."

These general purposes include the rights later provided to the states, federal government, and those left to be protected for the individual in the American Constitution, but it is in their early synthesize in the burgeoning political philosophy that they are born.

"Tis not in numbers but in unity that our great strength lies: yet our present numbers are sufficient to repel the force of all the world."

With these words, Paine succinctly displays the heart of the American political philosophy into which all the other works are written. By guaranteeing a certain separation and allowing for the individuality of the states, the United States government does not usurp the liberties of the individual for the sake of the common good, but instead reverts their channeling through directly-elected local and state officials who then are able to properly lead the greater cause of American government politics, with threat of elected revocation of power should representation be neither sufficient nor accurate. These conclusions were most incorporated into the American will not in the work of its politicians, but in its very citizens. In Letters From An American Farmer, J. Hector St. John De Crevecoeur writes of the careful balance of freeman and his representative government, "What then is the American, this new man? ... He is an American, who, leaving behind all his ancient prejudices and manners, receives new ones from the new mode of life he has embraced, the new government he obeys, and the new rank he holds."

Adams, Willi Paul. The First American Constitutions: Republican Ideology and the Making of the State Constitutions in the Revolutionary Era. Chapel Hill, NC: The University of North Carolina Press, 1980.

Continental Congress. Declaration of Rights. 1774. Resolution 1. Available Online:

Continental Congress. Resolutions of the Stamp Act. Oct. 19, 1765. Available Online:

De Crevecoeur, J. Hector St. John. Letters from an American Farmer. 1782.

Franklin, Benjamin. The Autobiography of Benjamin Franklin. London: J. Parson, 1793.

Paine, Thomas. Additions to Common Sense: Addressed to the Inhabitants of America. Philadephia, 1776.

Paine, Thomas. "Of the Present Ability of America: with some Miscellaneous Reflections." Common Sense. 1776.

Paine, Thomas. The Crisis. Dec. 23, 1776.

Continental Congress. Declaration of Rights. 1774. Resolution 1. Available Online:

Adams, Willi Paul. The First American Constitutions: Republican Ideology and the Making of the State Constitutions in the Revolutionary Era. Chapel Hill, NC: The University of North Carolina Press, 1980. P. 17.

Paine, Thomas. The Crisis. Dec. 23, 1776. P. 2.

Declaration of… [read more]

American Government and Politics Today Essay

… American Government & Politics Today


Is bureaucracy really necessary? Is it possible to have too much or not enough -- and how does one find that balance? Is the "wrong type" of bureaucracy possible? These are all important questions to be answered within the realm of political studies. Bureaucracy is necessary, because rules and regulations are part of what makes up a civilized society. No games would be able to be played and no knowledge would be able to be transmitted properly if there were no rules as to how anything was done. Without organizers and people who manage things, it would not be easy to move society forward or even to keep it from regressing. There are people who think that bureaucracy is not necessary, but they generally have their own agendas that are not within the realm of what most of society would address. Because that is the case, they are considered anarchists and often not taken seriously. For most of society bureaucracy is somewhat of a "necessary evil" in that they see the value in it and know that it is required, but they do not particularly like some or all of it.

Part of the reason bureaucracy is not popular comes from the ways in which it is created and upheld. Often, there are issues that are strictly regulated and that many people believe should not be so heavily controlled. At the same time, there are issues that are not carefully regulated and that can cause harm because those areas actually need more control from the government or other entities. Bureaucracy needs balance, and many areas of life and society are using the wrong type of bureaucracy to "control" people when guiding those people would be a much better choice. By providing people with a very high level of control over what they can and cannot do in certain aspects of their lives, these people can easily feel as though they are being restricted from doing things that matter to them. In other areas of life, where they have more freedom, these people…… [read more]

American Government and Politics Today Essay

… Government

Why did the Framers of the Constitution create a bicameral legislature? Was part of the reason for a two-house legislature the idea that it would be more difficult to pass legislation, therefore serving as a check on a runaway… [read more]

Government and Elections Should Foreign Essay

… Campaigning also requires attendance at charity functions and other public events so that candidates can mix, mingle, meet, and greet the public. The monetary expenses of political campaigning are such that require great amounts of funding. In fact, the idea that a candidate can run for political office effectively without great amounts of funding would not even be considered as feasible in today's society. Funding for political campaign is a big business. There was a ban on corporate spending on campaigns however, this ban was blocked by the Supreme Court in 2010 when it ruled that the "government may not ban political spending by corporations in candidate elections." (Liptak, 2010) The report states that the move by the Supreme Court served to overrule "two important precedents about the First Amendment rights of corporations." (Liptak, 2010)

III. How do constitutional restrictions hinder the effective and efficient operation of government?

Constitutional law restricts the President and government's authority to do the following:

(1) abolish or transfer an independent regulatory agency or all its functions;

(2) consolidate two or more independent regulatory agonies or all their functions;

(3) continue an agency or function beyond the period authorized by law;

(4) authorize an agency to exercise a function not expressly authorized by law;

(5) increase the term of an office beyond the period authorized by law; (6) deal with more than one logically consistent subject matter; or (7) abolish enforcement functions or programs established by statues. (FAO, 2010)

These are only some of the actions that the President and government cannot take. The Constitution places limits on what government can do to protect the American public. This is because the forefathers understood that government should remain small rather than become the large bureaucratic machine that it presently is today. The present administration has sought to bypass Congress on many of its moves on restructuring the U.S. Government however as reported by the FAO (2010) "Congressional deliberative processes serve the vital function of both gaining input from a variety of clientele and stakeholders affected by any changes and providing an important constitutional check and counterbalance to the executive branch." Bypassing these governmental processes can results in too much power being vested in the President and his discretion. The Constitution provides for a system of checks and balances that serve to ensure that the Constitutional rights of the American people are not violated…… [read more]

Singapore's Politics Term Paper

… Singapore's government is best described as a Socialist Democracy, which makes it somewhat similar to the governments of Northern Europe ("Introduction to Singapore's Political System"). The People's Action Party (PAP) has been the central governing force in Singapore since the nation gained sovereignty in 1965. The political culture of Singapore and the PAP has been described as "authoritarian, pragmatic, rational and legalistic," ("Introduction to Singapore's Political System"). Although pragmatism, rationality, and legalism are familiar to Western investors, many have been put off by the authoritarian philosophies underlying the now-famous rules against certain types of public behavior like gum-chewing ("Why Singapore?").

Similarly, many foreigners and especially Americans might find the "highly centralized," and "top-down style" of political leadership counterintuitive ("Introduction to Singapore's Political System"). Singapore is run more like a company than a country, with many leaders appointed rather than elected. This does not seem like a democratic method of governance, and yet Singapore also relies on a Parliament and Constitutional law. In fact, the appointed members of Singaporean government are not unlike their counterparts in the American President's cabinet.

The President of Singapore is elected, and serves for a period of six years. Voting in Singapore is compulsory. The Constitution guarantees certain rights and freedoms to the citizens of Singapore, including labor rights. Members of the Singaporean Parliament, or Legislature, ensure a balance of power. The government of Singapore is comprised of a diverse body of citizens, reflecting the diversity of cultures, languages, and ethnicities in the nation ("Introduction to Singapore's Political System").

As one author puts it, "Singapore is not administered by politicians, but by bureaucrats, in a meritocracy where power is gained through skill, performance, and loyalty to the nation and its policies," ("Introduction to Singapore's Political System"). While this may not seem to be a viable method of running a democracy, the PAP has remained admirably corruption-free. This is because "Singapore's political leadership has committed itself to maintaining a competitive business environment by enforcing a strict 'no tolerance' approach towards corruption and bribery," ("Why Singapore?"). The government of Singapore assumes the role of "promoter and practitioner of Corporate Social Responsibility," ("Introduction to Singapore's Political System"). The political culture and structure of Singapore make the country one of the most attractive in the world for doing business.

In addition to the nearly non-existent corruption and minimal red tape, there are other reasons why doing business in Singapore is facilitated by a strong and stable political climate. For one, the government of Singapore actively promotes business interests by keeping tax rates attractive. The tax rates in Singapore are "amongst the lowest in the world," ("Why Singapore?"). Over the…… [read more]

Comparative Politics and Government Term Paper

… Political Science

Government in Canada and the United States

The purpose of this paper is to introduce and analyze the topic of political science in America. Specifically, it will compare and contrast three major branches of government and politics in… [read more]

Culture and Politics Germany Research Paper

… Conclusion

As can be seen, Germany can use its rich history and good quality of life to make things better for everyone. Those who immigrate and those who have little money are at a distinct disadvantage, but it does not have to remain that way. There can be freedom and opportunity for everyone in Germany, but only if those in political power are willing to create and adjust policies in order to make those opportunities easier to attain and more realistic to achieve. People who are part of the underclass are often not against working harder and doing more, but they must have government policies to help them get started, and they need societal and cultural guidance to find ways to improve their lives.


A German Underclass? What Underclass? (2006). Spiegel.

Spiegel's article on the German underclass addresses the issue from the standpoint of German politics. In general, the upper classes are looking the other way and avoiding acknowledging that there is a problem with people in the country who do not have money and who need assistance. Until and unless this issue is acknowledged by the government, nothing will get done that will make things better for those people.

Dempsey, J. (2011). German Politics Faces Grass-Roots Threat. The New York Times.

The political parties in Germany are facing some threats from smaller organizations and coalitions that want to see real change. The multi-party system Germany has is valuable, but there are two parties in power and that can stifle other options for people who want to see change. Because of that, grass-roots threats are starting to appear sporadically as they lobby for changes to the political system.

Fulbrook, M. (1991). A Concise History of Germany. NY: Cambridge University Press.

While Germany has a very rich and complicated history, condensing it provides the reader with enough information to understand all the basics of the country including where it came from and where it may be headed in the future.

Heckmann, F. (2003). The Integration of Immigrants in European Societies: national differences and trends of convergence (Warning Germany Has No Humor). Stuttgart: Lucius & Lucius.

It can be difficult to integrate into a society, especially if that society is not entirely welcoming to outsiders. Such has been the case with Germany, as the country has policies in place that do not welcome immigration as openly as many other countries. With that being the case, it is important to note that this is the case with other European countries, too, and may not be specific to Germany.

Meek, J. (2005). Berlin blues. The Guardian.

The changes that have taken place throughout Germany's history are significant. Now, however, there are still changes occurring -- and many of those changes are making German citizens and residents very nervous. With elections coming, many people are scared…… [read more]

Rationalism Politics Impacts Public's View Essay

… However, there is also a degree of doing so from a removed perspective in which the individual or collective which is actually in control is cleverly hidden in the background, effectively beyond the reach of the general public.

Hands off controls, however, are akin to laissez fare financial systems in which the controls in place for public management are lax, if not outright non-existent. Usually this sort of control is implemented if there are certain facets of the public sector that are producing boons for the private one. These benefits are largely financially related. Controls are just one aspect of proper public management (Behn, 2003, p. 586).

Government ethics and differential information have a difficult relationship with one another. From an ethical perspective, the government is charged with supervising the general public in a way which is supposed to be beneficial to the latter. At the same time, the government is supposed to respect and not intrude upon the rights of privacy of individuals. Differential information, for the most part, pertains to these rights of privacy.

Differential information is akin to various facets of someone's personal life -- from his or her social security number to information regarding that person's telephone calls and email communication. This issue recently made national headlines due to the Edward Snowden release of information that the National Security Agency was collecting and analyzing regarding private individuals (Faris, 2013). Ethically, the government's ability to do so is tenuously balanced.


Behn, R.D. (2003). "Why measure performance? Different purposes require different measures." Public Administration Review. 63 (5): 586-606.

Drucker, P.F. (1980). "The deadly sins in public administration." Public Administration Review. 40 (2): 103-106. Retrieved from

Faris, S. (2013). "Have the NSA leaks compromised big data's future?" Retrieved from

Oakeshott, M. (1947). "Rationalism in politics." Retrieved from… [read more]

Rationalism, Government Ethics and Differential Essay

… 75). Also, if the doctor makes a mistake, the doctor might lose income but the layperson might lose his life, so there is an imbalance in the effects of a mistake. Consequently, the doctor provides medical treatment and the agent of the layperson. This dual responsibility is important because society does not want the doctor to just make a profit as the medical provider; it also wants the doctor to enhance the well-being of the layperson (Wrigley & McKevitt, 1994, p. 75).

The concept of differential knowledge is important in the "core public sector" of health, education, welfare and security (HEWS) (Wrigley & McKevitt, 1994, p. 76). The government is the centralized, stable and continuous institution that historically ensures that resources are ethically allocated in the core public sector in the best way for the public good (Wrigley & McKevitt, 1994, pp. 76, 82). The public cannot rely on the market for the most optimal allocation of resources because the market is guided by self-interest. As the demand for these resources increases, government ethics is increasingly important: due to differential information, leaving the public at an information disadvantage, when the government is dealing with the public allocation of resources or the allocation of resources by professionals, the government must use and enforce ethics to ensure fair allocation (Wrigley & McKevitt, 1994, pp. 82-3).

Works Cited

Anonymous. (2009). Craig T. Nelson on government aid. Retrieved from Web site:

Greanleaf, W.H. (1968). Idealism, modern Philosophy and Politics. In P. King, & B.C. Parekh, Politics and experience: Essays presented to Professor Michael Oakeshott on the occasion of his retirement (pp. 93-124). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Oakeshott, M. (1994). Rationalism in politics. In D. McKevitt, & A. Lawton, Public sector management: Theory, critique and practice (pp. 4-10). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc.

Wrigley, L., & McKevitt, D. (1994). Professional ethics, government agenda and differential information. In D. McKevitt, & A. Lawton, Public Sector Management: Theory, critique and practice…… [read more]

Federal Government Expansion Throughout American Research Paper

… ("The Sherman Anti-Trust Act," 2004)

The New Deal

The New Deal was passed in 1993. It dramatically increased the size of the federal government by focusing on a number of areas including: the regulation of the public securities markets, banks, it established Social Security, provided universal labor standards, set minimum wages, increased spending on infrastructure and offered direct support to agriculture. Politically, this allowed Washington to dictate to the states and local governments the types of protections as well as programs that are offered to everyone. Socially, this changed the country by providing ordinary citizens with some kind of safety net. Economically, these programs involved the federal government in areas that were once reserved exclusively for the private sector or states. This is important, as it would expand the role of Washington in everyday activities. ("What is the New Deal," 2008) ("The New Deal," 2012)

The Civil Rights Act of 1964

The Civil Rights Act of 1964 prohibited discrimination against African-Americans, other minorities and women in: housing, employment, education as well as voting. Politically, this allowed the federal government to impose harsh penalties against the states and local communities that supported discriminatory practices. Socially, this forced the nation to reexamine racial and gender attitudes by creating change in the beliefs that were embraced by society. Economically, the law allowed the federal government to go after all businesses, governments or educational institutions that are involved in any form of discrimination. These elements expanded the powers of the federal government in dealing with inequalities that exist. ("The Civil Rights Act of 1964," 2012)


Clearly, the above examples are showing how the role of the federal government has expanded over time. This is because there were certain issues which were not being addressed that could impact the public. To increase the overall amounts of protection, different laws were passed that gave them the power to enforce various standards. Over the course of time, these changes became some of the most common practices that are used by the federal government for dealing with a host of challenges. When this happened, there was increase in the total amounts of power and authority given to Washington.


The Fourteenth Amendment. (2012). Cornel University Law School. Retrieved from:

The Civil Rights Act of 1964. (2012). National Archives. Retrieved from:

The New Deal. (2012). U.S. History. Retrieved from:

The Sherman Anti-Trust Act. (2004). Linfo. Retrieved from:

What is the New Deal? (2008). New Deal 75. Retrieved from:

Kelly, M. (2012). The Fourteenth Amendment. Retrieved from:… [read more]

Governance in America Federal Government Essay

… Governance in America

Federal government should take the lead in issues that affect the country. As stipulated in Article I, Sec. 8 of the American constitution and subsequent amendments to the Article I, issues pertaining to defense, war prosecution, prosecution, peace, foreign relations, foreign commerce, and interstate commerce are the prerogative of the federal government. The 21st century world suffers from many trivialities including nuclear war threats. Modern economies heavily rely on interstate trade and international trade. No viable trade can be undertaken without peace and tranquility. Stronger foreign relations are pivotal for international trade. All these cannot be actualized without the involvement of the federal government. It has to be remembered that it is the federal government of the United States that signs trade treaties on behalf of the American people.

Problems that bedevil American economy like the trade imbalances can only be adequately addressed by the federal government. Other than issues to do with peace, war prosecution, foreign relations, and foreign commerce, the constitution also mandates the federal government to protect American citizen's constitutional rights like the rights to vote and outlawing any form of slavery. Issues pertaining to voting have evoked emotive debates since the inception of the independent United States. There was widespread violence especially in the south where the African-Americans were not allowed to vote. Such touchy issues cannot be left in the hands of any institution other than the federal government. The federal government also engages in copyright protection, establishing federal courts inferior to the SCOTUS, coining money, establishing post offices and posts roads, and establishing a national set of universal weights and measures.

The federal government, in order to effectively carry out its constitutional mandates, has to engage in taxation. All these are crucial responsibilities that impact lives of Americans directly and cannot be entrusted to state or national governments (Anonymous, 2011).

If Congress were to refer certain issues to a vote of the people, it might put civil rights issues to the vote. It is no doubt that direct democracy enhances majority tyranny as civil rights issues spiral out of control. For the past thirty years, public opinion has been sought on…… [read more]

Majority and Minority Governments Research Paper

… Francois and Hoyland stated, "Minority governments usually rely on the support of at least one other party to sustain the confidence of the legislature" (Francois and Hoyland 2009, 01).

One main reason behind this responsive attitude of minority governments is… [read more]

Federalist What Is a Faction? Research Paper

… Justify your proposal.

The framers intended the amendment process to be difficult, to avoid the problem of the tyranny of the majority. Unless the state legislatures call a constitutional convention, the only way an amendment can be passed is with… [read more]

Government and Politics of Europe Essay

… Government and Politics of Europe

Democracy deficit in the European Union

In spite of the fact that more than two decades have passed from the disintegration of the Soviet Union, the European Union is still unable to maintain democracy at… [read more]

Politics of the Common Good Essay

… Since the Republican version of capitalist economics has been dominant since the 1970s and 1980s, inequality has certainly increased greatly in the United States, far more so than in any other Western nation. In this, the U.S. is exceptional compared to Canada, France, Germany or other nations in that its social and economic structure has more in common with Mexico, Brazil, Pakistan and other developing countries. Given the weakness of organized labor and the Republican's skill at exploiting race and religion to attract voters, the situation has become absolutely disastrous for the working class and even the shrinking middle class. These less favored groups have only a very weak and timid Democratic Party to defend their interests, and it often takes money from the very same corporate interests and wealthy donors as the Republicans.

Sandal is also right that private money has completely corrupted the political system in the U.S., and probably the only way to correct this problem would be by a constitutional amendment that would make all elections publicly financed. No politics of the common good would ever be possible in a system totally controlled by wealthy donors, lobbyists and large corporations. America's most recent presidential election cycle in 2008 cost over $2 billion, the majority of which was provided by wealthy donors and big business interest. Even worse, the recent Citizens United decision by the Supreme Court has opened the door to unlimited amounts of corporate cash and private donations during elections, which can even be given anonymously. At this point, the U.S. political system has come to resemble an oligarchy or aristocracy more than a democracy, in which the wealthy elites can buy politicians and political parties exactly as they did during the Gilded Age of the 19th Century, and only the wealthy or those approved by them can even run for political office. This explains why the federal government was so quick to bail out the large Wall Street banks when their corruption and rampant speculation caused them to collapse in 2008, and also why it does so little to assist the common people even though they are suffering through the worst recession since the 1930s.


Locke, John. Two Treatises on Government, 1690.

Sandal, Michael J. Justice: What's the…… [read more]

American Politics Development of Political Parties Essay

… American Politics

Development of political parties in the U.S.

As United States formed its constitution and political processes after Independence, it was always marked by the presence of two distinct parties that had differing ideologies about governance. The original two… [read more]

Canadian Politics Term Paper

… Canadian Politics

Canada is a nation that is comprised of ten provinces and three territories. Those provinces and territories span five regions: the Atlantic (Maritime region), Central Canada, the prairies, the West Coast and North (DeRocco 2009, 61). Every province… [read more]

Politics of Estonia Foreign and Domestic Term Paper

… Politics of Estonia: Foreign and Domestic

Brief Introduction/Overview.

Estonia is a small Baltic state with an area of roughly 45,228 sq km and a population of 1.3 million people. It is bordered on the south by Latvia, and to the… [read more]

Democracy or Monarchy), All Governments Research Proposal

… ¶ … democracy or monarchy), all Governments have (5) primary missions: (a) national security, (b) internal security, - public goods and services, (d) socialization of the young and (e) raising money. Fully explain your understanding of each purpose of government… [read more]

Politics Heywood Describes a Number of Views Term Paper

… Politics

Heywood describes a number of views of the state. Which do you prefer and why?

Heywood's descriptions of the state vary widely, but they all make sense in some form or another, and in some governments. However, personally I much prefer the idea of the Pluralist State, first because it matches my own relatively liberal viewpoint, but because it focuses on individuals and individual's rights and freedoms, and I think this should be the core functionality of the state. I also believe that the state should be neutral, and should protect the rights and beliefs of its citizens, remaining neutral in this regard.

However, I believe that most governments and states are more like the Capitalist state, where one class is dominant in the regulating and operation of the state, and I do not agree with that. I also think there is some of the Leviathan state mixed in, and that states have become too powerful and bloated that it literally has turned into a monster that is intent on growing larger and more bureaucratic, instead of shrinking and really serving the people. I think that all people's rights should be equal, and the state should not be dominated by anyone. Unfortunately, I do not think that is the case, even in our own government today. I think it is dominated by the wealthy and powerful, and that the individual's rights are lost in this type of state.

All of these views of the state have merit, and in truth, I do not believe that most states are simply one type or another. Here in the U.S., I think we have a blend, where they mix up some of the characteristics of all these definitions, with mixed results. As noted, I believe the U.S. has Capitalist and Leviathan portions to the state, and some Pluralist, as well, especially when it comes to individual's rights and beliefs. I don't think that a firm, single type of state can really exist, because government and all it entails is far too complicated for any state to simply adhere to one concrete viewpoint or ideal.

As for the feminist concept, I see the state more as…… [read more]

Jennifer Government Term Paper

… Jennifer Government

Max Barry's Jennifer Government is a novel based in a dystopian alternative to reality where the world is controlled by the United States and government is run by for-profit corporations. It is a political satire much along the lines of George Orwell's Nineteen Eighty Four but instead of being critical of too much government, as Orwell is, Maxwell seems critical of too little public government.

The story begins shortly after the United States has conquered the entire Western Hemisphere, the United Kingdom, Ireland, India, Japan, Iceland, South Korea, Oceania, Thailand, Myanmar and Australia. In this state, taxation is abolished and the government has become privatized and thus unable to create new laws or hold elections. In fact, its job is limited to preventing crime. Instead, the world is largely run by competing coalitions of corporations and their police forces, either the Police or the NRA. In the story John Nike hires Hack Nike to kill teenagers for marketing purposes. The plan goes awry and Jennifer Government, a government agent known for her barcode tattoo under her eye, is hired to investigate the incidence. However, Jennifer once has a relationship and a daughter with John Nike and thus has a personal vendetta against him.

In her actions and beliefs Jennifer Government represents the…… [read more]

American Politics Term Paper

… American Politics

The three features of the American political system that anyone would try to control would be, and this of course is speculation, but I will give the reasons why: the U.S. Supreme Court; the U.S. Senate (two members are elected from each state in the union); and the U.S. House of Representatives (435 members are elected based on population density in all 50 states; in other words, states with a big population like California, have more Representatives because they have more people to represent; a state like North Dakota has very few because the population is very scant).

Supreme Court: QUESTION ONE: First, why any one try to control the U.S. Supreme Court? The Court is very powerful, and makes legal decisions that affect the economy, the society, the workers, the health care, the environment, and more. The members of the Court are very well protected by a high level of security, and if someone tried to approach a justice on the Court, there would be a very big fine and there would be imprisonment for such an act. And what if a justice was actually corrupt and was willing to take a bribe to vote a certain way on a legal case before the Court?

It is highly unlikely that a justice would be corrupt, because it takes many years as a judge at many different levels of the judicial system to get nominated by a president to the High Court, and if that jurist were corrupt, it probably would have been seen earlier. Also, when a judge is nominated for a seat on the High Court, the U.S. Senate has to hold hearings to investigate the nominee before the nominee is confirmed, and the FBI has to check the nominee's background very closely to see if there is any reason that person should not be confirmed.

U.S. Supreme Court QUESTIONS TWO, THREE, FOUR AND FIVE: Which group has most chance to exercise control over the Court? The president of the U.S. has "influence" on the Court because he nominates the justices; so if a president is conservative, as George W. Bush is, he can nominate a conservative judge which will render decisions that reflect Bush's political views. A recent case in point is the right of government workers to become "whistleblowers" when they see something illegal or terribly wrong and report it to their superiors. The Supreme Court recently ruled that "20 million public employees do not have free-speech protections for what they say as part of their jobs," according to the Associated Press (Holland, 2006). The vote on the Court was 5-4, with the two Bush appointees voting to take away whistleblowing rights for public employees. So, Bush got what he wanted, had his influence felt, in order to take away the rights of government workers at all levels to speak out to their supervisors on the job about corruption that they witnessed.

The president "exercises control" over the Court's decisions by putting the people… [read more]

Japanese Politics Term Paper

… Japanese Politics Float

Under the Occupation (led by the United States), Japan underwent legislative changes that aimed to provide a more representative political system in the society. Through the Occupation Japanese political system was centered in the executive and legislative… [read more]

Business Ethics Government Corruption: The Political Term Paper

… Business Ethics

Government Corruption: The Political and Economic Impact of Corruption

Government corruption can have wide ranging and reaching negative effects on both the political and economic development of any country. This essay will particularly explore the effects of government… [read more]

Totalitarian Government Term Paper

… Totalitarian Governments

Although no exact definition of "totalitarianism" exists, it generally refers to an extreme form of authoritarian government in the modern times. Totalitarian governments are different from the 'classical' dictatorships that have existed and have been described by philosophers… [read more]

Political Disillusionment Book Report

… Politics in the Trenches

The purpose of this essay is to argue that Vogly's arguments contained in his book Politics in the Trenches, are based on false premises yet still provide a useful examination of society and its relation to politics. This essay will suggest that the disillusionment presented in the author's book is real and impactful, but its results and ultimate effect on society is mostly beneficial. By presenting an argument that declares the democratic processes are actually being strengthened by the willful ignorance of politics, demonstrate the strength of our nation and its ideals they were built upon by our founding fathers and the idealism presented in their approach to life and politics.

Useful Arguments

Vogly's attempt to reframe the founding fathers as pragmatists against the common accepted interpretation of them as being idealists reveals the lack of depth of understanding of democracy presented by the author. By insisting that the founding fathers were more pragmatic than idealistic is not a useful argument and hides the fact that the founding fathers exhibited qualities of both extreme idealism and extreme pragmatic value. Vogly therefore ignores the basic construction of ideas into material things, as all things are based in imaginative idea.

The inherent mentioning of religion contained in The Bill of Rights and the spiritual tone of the Declaration of Independence suggest that democracy and practical application of its tenets are rooted in idealism, spirituality, religion and faith. The spiritual aspect of the argument is also ignored as well, as the esoteric forces that drove our founding fathers to create a political system explained by Vogly are not properly addressed. Kokul (2013) agreed when he wrote "It shows that the members of the Constitutional Convention, the most influential group of men shaping the political foundations of our nation, were almost all Christians, 51 of 55 -- a full 93%. Indeed, 70% were Calvinists (the Episcopalians, Presbyterians, and the Dutch Reformed), considered by some to be the most extreme and dogmatic form of Christianity."

Creating an Appropriate Paradigm

In understanding the principles of trust and value, one must have some moral ideal or guiding point that creates the behavior. The disillusionment experienced by society in general is a symbol of transformation and positive growth when viewed in the proper perspective. The word "government" was created from the Latin words meaning to " control the mind." Government is functioning well when it is not needed. The strength of a nation rests on many things, but the freedom to choose and not be a part of the polticial processes demonstrates the power of our democracy.

Democracy needs to be understood in a new manner to address the problems that Vogly presented in his work. Democracy is the reflection of the strength of the individual's power and having their own say in their manifesting their own destiny. As many grown tired and weary of political elections and tune out political efforts a transformation to individual responsibility has begun. This appears to be democracy… [read more]

Politics Has Never Reached Essay

… [3: (Adamson)]

For example, much of the activity in the Middle East that is ongoing is Western ideas intervening in various forms. The human race faces two challenges that have the potential to wipe the human species from the face of the planet. One deals with the planets finite amount of natural resources and ecological balance and the other deals with international relations and the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction. It was said a few years ago that if the human race is wiped out in the next 50 years it will not be because of disease or an asteroid hitting the earth, but because of foreign policy and international relations[footnoteRef:4]. [4: (Sheehan and Brocklehurst)]

If history is a lesson, then we can expect mankind to make many mistakes. The future of the planet and its capabilities of supporting life are becoming questionable as the population has exploded exponentially. This will ultimately put more tension on nations and cultures that are competition for critical resources such as water and farmable land. With nuclear technology disseminating faster throughout different countries, it is a real possibility that another nuclear device could denoted in a populated area. Some of the likely areas in which such an event could occur are between countries that are experiencing high levels of conflict and volatility; like in the Middle East.

In the Middle East there is a significant amount of tension between Israel, Palestine, and Iran as well as the U.S. attempts at intervention in Afghanistan and Iraq. The U.S. has tried both hard power and soft power techniques in these regions with mixed results at best[footnoteRef:5]. Iran has been suspected of developing nuclear weapons for years now and Israel already has a full arsenal of nuclear capabilities. The future of the world may depend on the level of stability that is achieved in this region over the course of the next fifty years. To achieve stability, there will have to be breakthroughs in the dogmatic ideologies that prevail on all sides of the debate and knowledge and humanity will have to pave the way. [5: (Why Politics Matters)]

Works Cited

Adamson, A. "Why the study of comparative politics is important ." 3 October 2007. . Online. 8 June 2014.

Sheehan, M. And H. Brocklehurst. "Why international relations is the key to all our futures." 29 July 2006. Independent.…… [read more]

Politics of Violence in Harold Pinter's Later Work Dissertation

… 2- Investigate Pinter's repressive regimes that tie social exclusion to political violence, utilizing a dynamic, not known in our current political climate, of delegitimizing oppositional ideas.

3- Demonstrate Pinter's concern with the historical consequences of fascism, and his principled opposition to Americanism and U.S. military actions in the Middle East.

4- Illuminate the dramatic, theatrical and linguistic artistry of Pinter in manipulating such themes as political violence and oppression.

Scope of the Study:

The study discusses the dramatic representation of political violence in Pinter's recent plays in relation to the modern politics and the playwright's political stances and attitudes towards the leading governments. By examining the "Pinteresque discourse," the study meticulously scrutinizes the violence manifestations justified by political claims and institutions. Thus, it draws theoretically on such figures as Louis Althusser, Michel Foucault, and Charles Grimes.


1- Introduction

2- Language, Truth and Politics

2.1 Violence, Terrorism, and the Ideological State Apparatus

2.2 Discourse and Power

3- Harold Pinter and the Absurd

3.1 Under the Shadow of Beckett

3.2 Break from the Absurd / Pinter and his Theatrical Contemporaries

4- The Political World of Harold Pinter

4.1 Anti-Americanism / The Political Context 1980-2005

4.2 Anti-Authoritarianism / The Political Context of Post-Fascism and the Shoah

5- Matrices of Violence

5.1 Violence under Ideological Cover:

Ashes to Ashes.

5.2 Political Violence: Victimization through Suppression of Language:

Mountain Language

5.3 Political Oppression:

Party Time

5.4 Threat and Injustice:

The New World…… [read more]

Power, Interdependence, and Nonstate Actors Research Paper

… Power, Interdependence, And Nonstate Actors in World Politics

Power, Interdependence, and Non-state Actors in World Politics

In the late 1970s, new approaches emerged concerning international relations. Although the constituents of the new approaches appear in numerous literatures, several political scholars… [read more]

Freedom, Politics, Economics Term Paper

… He believed the destruction of the nation's currency created permanent ruin. As such, he would disagree with many of the inflation producing measures in society today. Aspects such as quantitative easing would infuriate Hemingway. I believe Hemingway would also approve of a new gold standard which limits the amount of money the government can print. Hemingway would also be disappointed in regards to being a truly free America. He, much like the other two authors, would believe in a laizze-faire government with little to no intervention (Benson, 1989). Politically, Hemingway is against war. He would probably oppose any military strike arising in Syria or the middle east. The war in Iraq and other military conflicts irrespective of origin would be highly negative to Hemingway who views war as a path to ruin. Due primarily to the large amount of inflation producing measures in America, military involvement in the middle east, and high government controls, Hemingway would not approve of America today. Instead, I believe he would believe that Americans are less free than they were during his era.


1) Benson, Jackson. (1989). "Ernest Hemingway: The Life as Fiction and the Fiction as Life." American Literature. Volume 61, issue 3. 354 -- 358

2) Bosco, Ronald a. And Joel Myerson (2003). Emerson in His Own Time. Iowa City: University of Iowa Press. ISBN 0-87745-842-1.

3) Howarth, William. The Book of Concord: Thoreau's Life as a Writer. Viking Press, 1982

4) Gura, Philip F (2007). American Transcendentalism: A History. New York: Hill and Wang. ISBN 978-0-8090-3477-2.

5) Petrulionis, Sandra Harbert, ed., Thoreau in His Own Time: A Biographical Chronicle of His Life, Drawn From Recollections, Interviews, and Memoirs by Family, Friends, and Associates. Iowa City: University of Iowa Press, 2012. ISBN 1-60938-087-8

6) Richardson, Robert…… [read more]

History / Politics Essay

… More importantly, they include an economic division of the city's wealth to bridge the divide between the haves and the have-nots. This latter aspect is largely identified by the media as De Blasio's vision of the city, one which is not the tale of two cities he widely disparages the municipality for in his campaign slogan, but one in which the economic divide -- which is largely evinced within racial and economic grounds -- is closed.

De Blasio's rise to power is in accordance with general principles of the Democratic party. In fact, he obtained his first substantial position with the city of New York during the tenure of the city's last Democratic mayor, David Dinkins. One can even argue that the virtues of equality and racial and ethnic diversification that are a key part of his campaign platform -- especially when applied to an economic viewpoint -- are exemplified in the De Blasio's personal life. He has two mixed race children with his African-American wife. In the late summer his campaign team ran a commercial with his son extolling his democratic, economic and social equality virtues -- which certainly played a role in his gaining the Democratic candidacy for the election.

Works Cited

Berg, Bruce. New York City Politics: Governing Gotham. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press. 2007. Print.

Sante, Luc. Low Life. New York: Farrar,…… [read more]

United States of America Essay

… Whenever a Republican President is elected, the policies devised under him contains traditional beliefs despite of the fact that these policies are to be applied in an environment subjected to continuous mammoth changes. Moreover, since the Republicans are mainly Conservatives, they support the idea of culture in which people bear personal weapons that imposes a grave threat to the security and safety of common people. This is reflected by a brutal incident of present times in which innocent children were shot down by a heavily armed person (Deutsch, 2010).

Democrats who are chiefly Liberals believe in providing social and economic assistance to its people. This has promoted a culture of dependency where people are not willing to realize that self-reliance is actual code of life and dependency is morally wrong. Furthermore, Liberals promote multiculturalism that is expected to amalgamate cultures by removing religious and cultural differences between them. However, at instances, this practice promotes jealousy when some people get favor over others for any reason. It disturbs the cultural balance since America is a land of inhabitants belonging to a diverse range of ethnicity (Watts, 2006).

The impact of Liberal politics is immense on American society as a whole. They focus on promotion of human rights, environmental development, security, assistance, and so forth as part of their political measures; whereas, Conservatives essentially cater to family ideals and ethics in their politics. Modern Liberalism in America that encompasses deep and diverse politics has recently affected its foreign policy as well as promoted the American political beliefs on international arena (Watts, 2006).

Liberal government of present-day America mainly focuses on economic and social equality for which it largely facilitates females, senior citizens, and underprivileged. It also believes in assisting third-world nations by providing aid to them (Watts, 2006). Conversely, Conservative government does not believe in providing assistance to its people, rather it considers that individuals are responsible for themselves and if they require help, private institutions should play a fundamental role (Deutsch, 2010).

Conservatism and Liberalism are poles apart with respect to the beliefs they illustrate. Nevertheless, these ideologies have greatly influenced every facet of U.S. In today's epoch. Despite of all the odds, America's supremacy and political visions are recognized all around the world and the people hold high hopes from their leaders.


Brux, J.M. (2007). Economic Issues & Policy. Fourth Edition. Canada: Cengage Learning.

Deutsch, K. (2010). The Dilemmas of American Conservatism. USA: University Press of Kentucky.

Lipsman, R. (2007). Liberal Hearts and Conservative Brains: The Correlation Between Age…… [read more]

American Government and Its Influence and Control on Society Term Paper

… ¶ … government has a perfect right to influence behavior to the best of its ability if it is for the welfare of the individual and the community as a whole.

This quote, by former Surgeon General of the United… [read more]

National Economic Effects of Government Essay

… The skills necessities, additional, frequently discriminate against women, whereas women's contribution in the labour force might also be incomplete in their nation of source. Some propose that one of the more clear procedures of discrimination can be originated in the… [read more]

How China's Cultures and Politics Affect One Another and Ultimately Affect Social Change Term Paper

… ¶ … China's Cultures and Politics affect one Another, and Ultimately Affect Social change

China's politics and culture and how they came to affect the social order

In spite of the fact that it has experienced much economic progress in… [read more]

Citizens and Politics Many Citizens Today Essay

… Citizens and Politics

Many citizens today are not interested in politics and public policy because they see that nothing really changes. It does not seem to matter who gets elected, democratic or republican, the basic status quo is preserved (Schmidt, et al., 2011). The rich continue to get richer, and the poor continue to struggle. Taxes and prices for everything rise, and the economy struggles because the national debt is growing and the "little guy" does not have enough to pay his or her workers a good, living wage. Politicians also seem to have a hard time keeping their promises. They say that they will do something if elected, but once they are elected they do nothing - or they reverse what they originally said. Part of the problem comes from the fact that the political system is very broken (Losco, 2010; Schmidt, et al., 2011). The president does not have that much power, and it is relatively easy for Congress to derail whatever the president has planned. So much arguing and infighting in politics has simply soured the American people when it comes to getting involved in any kind of policy-making or political issues.

It would be nice if politicians paid attention to citizen engagement, but the reality of it is that they are not that concerned about how engaged the citizens are. They need enough citizen engagement and involvement to get the required number of votes to win. Beyond that, they focus on their special interests and the campaign promises that they actually meant - not the ones they only said in order to get elected. As far as the American people are concerned, however, citizen engagement is something to be aware of. There is a reason that many people are not paying attention to politics (Losco, 2010). However, if they believed that they really could affect change they would be more likely to get involved and focus on what they could do to help needed changes take place. As long as the status quo is there, and as long as it seems like something that they cannot change, why should any citizen get involved? It is a losing proposition.

As a nation, the level of interest and participation is relatively low. A large number of Americans are registered to vote, but most of them do not bother to show…… [read more]

Federal and State Government Essay

… The 10th Amendment tersely identifies the powers of the States in this way: "The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States respectively, or to the people" (U.S. Constitution). In other words, anything that is not listed in those 18 powers identified in Article I, Section 8, by definition is a power that belongs to the States.

There are also limitations to the power of the federal government. Article I, Section 9, "sets definite limits on what Congress may do" (McClellan, 2000, p. 300). Some of the restraints placed upon Congress are archaic, such as the restraint stating that Congress may not forbid the importation of slaves until 1808. Article I, Section 9, also denies the federal government the power to "levy direct taxes unless in proportion to population; to tax exports; or to favor the ports or shipping of one State over…another" (McClellan, 2000, p. 301). The federal government is also forbidden to use money from the Treasury unless it is "in accordance with Congress's appropriation of funds" -- but of course it appears that this section of the Constitution is violated all the time today; and finally the federal government cannot grant anyone a title of nobility or accept gifts/bribes/favors from foreign nations without approval by Congress (McCellan, p. 301).

Likewise, the States have limits too. They may not make treaties or alliances with foreign nations; license or privateer mercenaries; issue money; pass bills of attainder or interfere with contracts. States also need Congressional approval to tax both imports and exports -- and even if they gain it, they do not gain the right to keep the money (it must go to the federal treasury). Without approval, states cannot maintain an army or navy.

Overlapping powers are these: neither states nor the federal government may grant titles of nobility. (This appears to be a holdover from English resentment and egalitarian doctrine). Also, both state government and federal government are obliged to serve each other. For example, the federal government is obliged to guarantee a republic and protect the states from invasion. Meanwhile, the states are obliged to hold elections for Congress. The most obvious overlapping powers, however, are the power to tax, to borrow, and to charter corporations.

In conclusion, both the federal and the state government are allotted specific powers and denied specific powers by the U.S. Constitution. At least, this was the case once upon a time. Now, through "interpretation," the Constitution is used to justify nearly any sort of behavior on the part of the federal government, as the U.S. becomes more and more central in its power.

Reference List

Katz, E. (1996). United States of America. Retrieved from

McClellan, J. (2000). Liberty, Order, and Justice. IN: Liberty…… [read more]

Iran Political Case Study

… Instead an Iran Developers group has now taken the lead. Another influential group is a reformist party by the name of National Trust Party

EXTENT OF ELITE COHESION: The current reign began with the idea that administration and religion had huge gaps which the clerics felt the need to eliminate. The country is a Muslim majority state with 89% Shi'a Muslims and only 9% Sunni Muslims

. Khomeini appealed to the religious feeling and attachment of people to gain support. Vali R. Nasr testifies in The Shia Revival that Khomeini wished to make Islam a political force as well. Khomeini won over the young religious revolutionaries and they helped him bring religion back to the state. In today's Capitalist, democratic and practical world religion and state are two opposing and incongruent concepts, thus Iran is unique in its approach to politics. The new Supreme leader who came to power after Khomeini's death is Ali Hoseini Khamenei. He has been in power since 1989 and does not have the charisma that Khomeini did.

As far as the government's cohesion with and influence on society is concerned, Khomeini did not have support of most of his religious colleagues. Even until 2000, out of a 5000 only 8 clerics were part of the federal administration. Gregory F. Giles, an American scholar, says the government was restricted to "four rings of power

." In other words the loyalty and attachment to the Iranian government is limited to its revolutionaries and devotees. Liberal, nationalist and democratic section of nation is considered outsiders and is given very little leverage. The proof of dissent among the populace is the 1997 election when the reformist M. Khatami was elected as fifth Iranian president. He preached freedom of speech, expression and strove for better diplomatic ties with Asian as well as European nations, something Khomeini's conservative Iran could never even think of. His election by 70% voting majority and his two office terms are evident signs of a liberal thought process of the nation

. However, whatever efforts Khatami made the conservatives were able to make them useless and near the year 2004, the conservationists were finally able to push out the reformists completely. This was the year the 7th elections for the Majlis were held and Ahmadi-Nejad became president the next year. He is now completing his second term as President and his reign is characterized by human rights violation incidents and the nuclear arms issue

. Since then there have been incidents where clerics are not offered rides by taxis and "there is a rising tide of anti-clericalism among ordinary Iranians." The conservative regime of Ahmadi-Nejad has increased the public's dissatisfaction with the government. All of them have failed to uproot poverty, economic mafia and persistent inflation. His actions and accusations of corruption on his fellow clerics are largely viewed as ploys to weaken the opposition

. Protests against the government continue and the government keeps arresting activists, rebels and revolutionaries, in an effort to stamp the… [read more]

Big Government Essay

… ¶ … Right to Downsize Big Government

They that can give up essential liberty to obtain a little temporary safety deserve neither liberty nor safety. -- Benjamin Franklin

Proponents argue that some people are not able to take care of… [read more]

Political Systems and Business Politics Play Term Paper

… Political Systems and Business

Politics play an important role in providing an environment that is conducive for business to both foreign and domestic investors and the politically stable countries are more attractive to foreign investors. The governments of different countries employ different political systems which therefore becomes a major concern for any company or organization to consider before investing. Any international company that intends to venture into business should asses the political situation of the host country to verify whether the political climate is suitable for their operations.

Various aspects of politics such as the political unrest, government policies, corruption, change of regulation and other government actions should be considered. These factors have a direct impact on the operations of the foreign investors as they interfere with the long-term plans and business objectives in terms of the market share and profitability. It is for these reasons that the international companies prefer countries with democratic political systems due to their stable environment for doing business as opposed to the totalitarian political systems.

In a totalitarian environment, business for the foreign companies is quiet a challenge if profitability is to be realized both in the short and the long run. In countries with such a system, there is no room for opposition to the government, they are ruled by a single party and both the economic and political issues lie with the government and a few individuals. There is no participation by the society or the stake holders in making decisions and all the decisions and control of all the resources are centralized.

Doing business in such an environment is a challenge to both foreign and domestic companies since it denies people an equal opportunity to do business and to take part in important matters of the state. An example of this kind of political form is China where the rules can be changed anytime by the government which might change the nature of doing business or may totally paralyze the business of a foreign company. Lack of opposition to carry out checks and balances and to challenge some of the key government policies is risky and does not provide a suitable environment for doing business. All the decisions are based on the interest of a few individuals with power and not taking into consideration the interest of the majority of the citizens. There is no fair play and most international companies become vulnerable in such an environment due to the political uncertainty and interference by the government making it difficult to make projections and achieve the company's objectives hence unsuitable for doing business (Jason Chavis, 1999).

Democratic political systems however provide the international companies with a stable environment to do business. It is a system that involves the participation of the citizens and they are encouraged to take part in the decision making processes and policies that that shape both the economic and political landscape of the nation. With the participation of the citizens the environment for conducting business is fair… [read more]

Georgia Politics Researching Congressional Delegation Research Paper

… 437). In 1994, he ran unopposed during the primary and then beat Democrat Craig Mathis by 63% in the general election. To protect his state's interests, then Speaker of the House, Newt Gingrich, handed him two key committee assignments, Armed Services and Agriculture.

Sen. Chambliss first sought a seat in the U.S. Senate in 2000, but House Speaker Hastert convinced him to stay by offering the possibility of securing a seat on the Budget Committee (Barone and McCutcheon, 2011, p. 437-438). The promised committee assignment fell through and Chambliss entered the race for a senate seat in 2002. Even though this seat was held by a 'favorite son' of Georgia, Max Cleland, who had lost two legs and an arm in Vietnam, George W. Bush carried the state in the 2000 Presidential election and Cleland narrowly won his last challenge. In a post-9/11 America, Chambliss characterized Cleland as weak on national security when ads claimed incorrectly that Cleland repeated voted against Homeland Security legislation. Chambliss carried Atlanta by 53% and the rest of Georgia by 54%.

Senator Chambliss is solidly within the conservative arm of the Republican Party. This is evident by strong support from interest groups like National Right to Life Committee, Citizens Against Government Waste, United States Chamber of Commerce, John Birch Society, Family Research Council, Gun Owners of America, and the American Conservative Union, and little to no support from organizations like Planned Parenthood, ACLU, and the League of Women Voters (Project Vote Smart, 2012b).…… [read more]

American Government and Institutions Essay

… American Government & Institutions

Should voters continue to have the political authority to change state constitutions when popular or unpopular issues are shaping public opinion? What is the proper role of the people in a Constitutional government? Did the Founders intend for citizens to make changes in the Constitution when times change and issues alter public opinion on various topics? This paper discusses those issues in light of the constitutional bans that have been enacted in up to 30 states vis-a-vis same sec marriage.

The Arguments

A classic example of voters showing their political muscle is the fact that some 30 states in the United States have passed initiatives that ban on same-sex marriage. Led by members of the Christian conservative movement and others representing conservative causes (and against gay rights), these states now have amended their legal political statues to reflect current attitudes and policy beliefs. It should be noted that the Founders clearly wanted the states to have authority to enact laws that are suited to their specific cultural, social, and geographical experiences -- as long as those state laws did not intrude on federal law -- but they made it very difficult for any state or political movement to change the U.S. Constitution. Two-thirds of the states' legislatures would have to approve any amendment to the U.S. Constitution.

As to the issue of popular sovereignty, professor Daniel Levin (Boise State University) explains that there are very few aspects of the U.S. Constitution actually represented in the American culture. Hence, there is an ongoing difficulty in actually "embodying popular sovereignty." Yes, the U.S. Constitution is a symbol of the "formal political relationships between individual citizens and the state based on…popular sovereignty," Levin writes. But because Americans have never conceived of the state as "fully autonomous from society, the Constitution is a weak symbol, lost in the mist that surrounds the American state." Popular sovereignty is difficult to understand and "virtually impossible to depict," Levin asserts.

Meanwhile, if popular sovereignty means the ability to pass propositions and alter state constitutions, it is certainly in play in America. To wit, California was one of the 30 states to pass a ban on gay marriage based on a popular vote. However, in February, 2012, the U.S. 9th Circuit Court of Appeals…… [read more]

Philosophical Roots of American Government Essay

… Philosophical Roots of American Government

The philosophical and political resources that early American political leaders turned to as guidelines to be used in order to form "a more perfect government" will be reviewed in this paper.

Some of the Hallmarks of the American Government

When the founding fathers were working to create a new government -- independent of the British -- they used theories and philosophies from great thinkers in the past. The principal concern for the founders was the relationship between the government and the people. In the text, American Government (Heineman, et al.) the author explains that during the Constitutional Convention the Federalists (who supported the proposed Constitution following the convention in 1787) and the anti-Federalists (who did not support the proposed Constitution) went head-to-head in their debates over what the Constitution should be and what it should do.

What were the theories and strategies of government that the founders referenced to come up with the American Constitution?

For example, in Aristotle's work, Politics, the iconic Greek philosophers emphasized that the people "…should have a significant role in their own governance"; the democratic ideals put forth by Aristotle indicated that democracy was the "most virtuous form of government" (although not the ideal form of government) (Heineman, 20). Another ancient idea of democracy was also taken into consideration, that of Marsiglio of Padua (1280-1343), who believed that laws should be created by "…the people of body of citizens" which is the "more weighty part" of the government (Heineman, 21).

In the French Vindiciae (1579), the king is to be "the servant to the public" and while the people are the owners of the "commonwealth" (seen as a vessel), the king is just the pilot, helping to steer. This is also a philosophy that takes its source from the concept of democracy. At the Constitutional Convention a great deal…… [read more]

Government and Its Role and Power Essay

… Government and its role and power to rule people within a specific territory are core aspect of all political philosophy. This is largely because people generally accept legitimacy claims made by the government and states that govern the territories where they live. However, in analyzing the role of the government in relation to its rule over people, it's important to explore the concept of human nature, social contract, and several aspects that impact democracy. These aspects are critical elements with which the role of government can be determined and understood given that almost every society has a system of governance in the form of government or state's rule.

Concept of Human Nature:

One of the most remarkable features about human nature is that human beings are prone to accept authority claims made by states or governments that rule their respective territories. The general acceptance is usually without efforts to try and determine whether the government's or state's claim to authority is legal. Since human beings have an enormous ability to adapt, the general acceptance of legitimacy claims allows them to have a moral obligation to obey the commands provided by the government or state. Consequently, governments continue to exercise their power to rule and issue commands or laws that citizens are required to obey. The concept of human nature can be further understood through the term general will, which is people's decision to reserve their personal concerns for the joint aim toward common good.

Meaning of Social Contract:

Social contract can be described as a deliberate, common agreement among all members of the society to create themselves into an integrated political community and abide by the laws established by government that they jointly choose. According to the political theory of the 17th and 18th centuries, the state's legitimacy claims are based on either a real or hypothetical social contract.

Social contract can be further understood through a society's general will, which is the collective aim by its members towards general good in all political discussions and actions. While achieving a general will is difficult, this term an important aspect of social contract because of the collective aims towards general or common good.

One of the major components of the theory of social contract is that it disregards the notion that the political world consists of only individuals and the state. According to liberal social contract theorists, an individual comes first and together with others, their actions create the state through their social contract. However, the pluralist social theorists state that a society consists of various groups rather than individuals.

Privileges under Social Contract:

Since social contract is founded on the basis of collective actions, social contract contains powers and privileges that societal members are entitled to. Some of these privileges include:


Unlike capitalism, social contract offers people the power and privilege of self-awareness in both economic and political organization. Some of the evident disadvantages of capitalism are the fact that it's internally unstable and subject to degenerate into economic… [read more]

USA Hegemony Term Paper

… S. kept Haiti economically and politically isolated for decades and refused any diplomatic recognition until after the Civil War. In more recent history, Jean Bertrand Aristide, a Catholic priest and advocate of liberation theology, was overthrown twice in military coups… [read more]

Government and Policy the Joyan Islands Creative Writing

… Government & Policy

The Joyan Islands

As provisional Prime Minister of the newly independent Joyan Islands, it is my duty to set the example for the future course of the Joyan people. This means forming the island's priorities based on its goals, and following the examples of other island nations before it. A lot of what happens in a country depends on the cultural values embedded in history, but every new country feels it must shape its path in a fresh way from its colonial past. It is important for the Joyan Islands to maintain their unique cultural identity, yet at the same time to modernize and develop strong economy ties around the world as well as any industrial nation can do so.

The Joyan Islands should have a Parliamentary system of government, as it currently exists. A good example is the United Kingdom, which maintains almost all levels of power concentrated in London. This is advantageous because it allows the largest and most influential island to exert influence onto the two smaller islands.

The Joyan Islands need to be arranged as a unitary territorial arrangement in order to maintain the status quo power relationship, yet maintain a strong cultural link to the smaller islands. A federal system would allow for too much division, similar to the Scottish Parliament's separate viewpoints from the UK Parliament in London. No government representatives should be on the islands except for local police and administrative positions like mayor or sheriff.

The best electoral system for maintaining central power will be simple majority. Citizen representation is split 100% Indo-European for the largest island, 50/50 on the middle island, and 100% Amero-Indian on the smallest island. Theoretically, there should never exist a scenario where the Amero-Indian voter bloc can control Parliament. Any other electoral system will give the opposition party power-sharing responsibilities, which is counter to the goals of a newly independent, yet still European dominated country.

I would absolutely pursue an export-heavy industrialized economy. I would follow the model of such countries as Taiwan and Japan, both island nations which leveraged their cheap costs and easy access to cheap shipping methods to grow their markets. Education is a core component of a well developed economy, and therefore education of Spanish language and mandatory 12-year curriculum for all will be instituted on all islands.

A strong business elite has guided Japan and Taiwan well in their economic visions, and therefore I would follow their model. As little unionization as possible is important in order to maintain a low-cost labor competitive advantage against neighbor countries. The state will use its resources to maintain relatively low corporate taxation, possibly even to the extent of drawing in foreign investment simply to increase interaction with the best possible trading partners. The island-nation situation is ideal, as labor problems will mostly be stifled by the fact that commerce will continue on the large island even if the two smaller islands have strikes and union representation. Their source of revenue will entirely… [read more]

Government Contracting Term Paper

… ¶ … Government Contracts

Federal contractors are faced with a number of alternatives concerning the type of contract they use for a given project. Different types of contracts, of course, have their respective benefits and weaknesses for any given project, though. To determine optimal contractual approaches, this paper explores the pros and cons of different types of contracts from both the contractor's perspective as well as that of the federal government. A summary of the research and important findings are presented in the conclusion.

Benefits and drawbacks of fixed-price contracts from the perspective of a contractor

There are as many as 20 different types of defense contracts currently in use, and identifying the respective risks that are associated with cost overruns allows them to be categorized into two general groups: (a) fixed price contracts and (b) cost reimbursement (Diltz, 1999). According to Diltz, "By far the most common among the fixed price formats is the firm fixed price contract. The price (award) is fixed for the duration of the contract, and it is not subject to any adjustment. These contracts are used in situations in which costs are reasonably predictable and specifications are well defined" (1999, p. 4). According to Black's Law Dictionary, in contracts, "prices are fixed when they are mutually agreed upon" (1999, p. 637). With fixed-price contracts, suppliers mutually agree to provide a certain quantity of materials and services at a preset price (Weber, 2001). Fixed-price contracts have significant benefits for contractors because they provide a firm monetary amount for the costs that are involved in a federal contract as well as eliminating much of the risk that may be involved if material prices unexpectedly increase. For instance, Abele, Elliott, O'Hara and Roegner (2002) report that, "[One] tactic is to shift risk to the supplier by using fixed-price contracts, which force it to absorb unexpected price hikes for raw materials" (p. 118).

The main drawback for fixed-price contracts from the perspective of contractors relates to the increased pressure on timely performance. In this regard, Kautz (2009) reports that, "When the suppliers work under a fixed price contract, time pressure is often a consequence. If, in contrast, a time and material contract is used, the risk moves to the customer and the price level increases with risk supplements, which reflect the risks that the suppliers perceive" (p. 25). As to potential benefits of using fixed-price contracting for the federal government, the U.S. Department of Defense director for industrial policy, Brett Lambert, emphasizes that, "Fixed-price contracting is only going to be applied in a rare number of instances when we have locked in requirements, we understand the requirements, and we know we're not going to change them'" (quoted in Erwin, 2010 at p. 8).

Benefits and drawbacks of cost-reimbursement contracts from the perspective of the federal government

The primary drawback to the federal government in using cost-reimbursement contracts is the potential for being forced to absorb any cost overruns or losses that are incurred during the duration of the… [read more]

Can Government Ever Be Effectively Limited Term Paper

… Limited Government

Oxford philosopher, journalist and refugee from communism Anthony de Jasay once commented that "Constitutions are the chastity belts on government promiscuity." The problem, according to the Jasay, is that: "Government always has the key (a 21st corollary to… [read more]

Government by the People Federalism Essay

… government by the People


This is the sharing of power by and between the national, state and local governments (Longley, 2011). It is the opposite of centralized governments in such countries as England and France where the national government exercises total power. The 50 States of the Union have their own constitutions but they all comply with the U.S. Constitution.

The national government exercises exclusive powers as well as shares other powers with the state and the local governments. Its exclusive powers are to print money, declare war, create an army and a navy, enter into foreign treaties, regulate local and international trade, set up post offices and issue postage, and create laws to enforce the Constitution. On the other hand, state governments exercise exclusive powers to establish local government, issue licenses, regulate interstate trade, conduct elections, ratify amendments to the U.S. Constitution, provide and maintain public health and safety, and exercise other powers not within the jurisdiction of the national government. And the national and state governments share the power to set up courts, create and collect taxes, build highways, borrow money, legislate and implement laws, charter banks and corporations, spend for the improvement of general welfare and confiscate private property but with just compensation (Longley).

The two types of federalism are dual and cooperative (Drake & Nelson, 2002). The dual type prohibits the national government from invading states' exclusive powers. The cooperative type argues that the national government should be allowed to expand its power, even overlap with state powers and functions, for the sake of general welfare.. Advocates of the cooperative type ground their argument on the "general welfare" and "necessary and proper" clauses of the Constitution (Drake & Nelson).

Media and Special Interest Groups

Fierce economic competition compels the media to present situations and information that will appeal and elicit desired emotional responses from the public (Fog, 2004). It takes advantage of the people's preference for topics like danger, crime and disaster. In the process, the media chooses ways to make the people perceive the outside world as more danger it may be. This situation substantially influences the democratic process towards authoritarianism and intolerance. The media's competitive environment inclines it to choose and frame reports in a way that deters the democratic system to confront and solve local social problems and international situations realistically and appropriately (Fog).

On the other hand, special interest groups make strong demands on the government (Magleby et al., 2010). These groups may be economic or occupational, ideological, public interest, foreign policy or ethic and racial. They often organize themselves into movements. They assert their influence through their size, resources, cohesiveness, leadership, and funding, and most importantly, their relationship with the political and governmental environment. Lobbying is their chief activity, although they also connect directly with the public through mass mailings, advertising campaigns and cooperative lobbying. Lobbying is chiefly aimed at public officials, particularly legislators,…… [read more]

World War II Ended Term Paper

… Leaders such as Konrad Adenauer and Kurt Schumacher of Germany did not go into exile, but rather stayed and suffered through the persecution and ruling of the Nazi regime. This sense of loyalty amongst its leaders helped solidify and embrace democracy post-war immensely. Unlike German leaders, majority of Iraqi leaders did go into exile during Saddam's rule. Democratic theory further suggests that this is a serious deficit and the country suffers from a lack of leaders who would openly accept and embrace democratization. Bellin additional goes on to conclude that "even elites not existentially committed to democratic values can often play a crucial role in this process."

Enterline and Greig point out that "the democratization of Iraq would first and foremost, improve the political and economic well being of Iraqi citizens." They further more go on to conclude that:

A democratic Iraq would pursue peace abroad, eliminating a major antagonist in the Middle East and setting the stage for the settlement of conflicts long plaguing the region. Finally, American policy makers argued that a democratic Iraq would stimulate further democratization and greater economic prosperity in the Middle East, a region characterized historically by authoritarian governments and widespread poverty, conditions reinforcing chronic political instability and conflict.

On the other hand, Bellin has effectively provided five viable factors and differences between the post-war Germany and Iraq which would lead us to believe that the democratization of Iraq or even Afghanistan may not be as favorable.

Bellin, Eva. "The Iraqi Intervention and Democracy in Comparative Historical Perspective." Political Science Quarterly 119.4 (2004-2005): 595-608. The Political Science Quarterly. Web. 21 Apr. 2011.

Enterline, Andrew J., and J. Michael Greig. "Against All Odds? The History of Imposed Democracy and the Future of Iraq and Afghanistan." Foreign Policy Analysis 4 (2008): 321-347. Wiley Online. Web. 21 Apr. 2011.

Michael, McFaul. "Democracy Promotion as a World Value." The Washington Quarterly 28.1 (2004): 147-163. Project Muse. Web. 21 Apr. 2011.

Katz, Stanley N. "Gun Barrel Democracy? Democratic Constitutionalism Following Military Occupation: Reflections on the U.S. Experience in Japan, Germany, and Afghanistan and Iraq." Princeton Law &…… [read more]

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