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Politics Is and What it

References Marsh, David and Stoker, Gerry (eds), Theory and Methods in Political Science (London, Macmillan, 2002). Introduction and Chapter 1. Schwarzmantel, J., The State in Contemporary Society (Harvester, 1994). Chapter 1. Abstract This paper examines the political philosophies of elitism and Marxism. The concepts associated with both philosophies are explored in-depth. The applications of both theories are also explored in-depth.…

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Andrew Heywood

Andrew Heywood In my opinion, in order to best discern among the four definitions given for politic, we have to point out that politics can virtual have both a figurative and a realistic approach. According to whether the meaning is figurative or realistic, the degree to which the definition of politics encompasses different areas varies, from the political spectrum (real approach) to the public affairs spectrum (still real approach) to the private life (figurative approach and senses such as politics as compromise and consensus). As such, in my opinion, the best definition of politics is that providing a meaning that limits politics to the spectrum of the public sector. In this sense, politics can be seen as the art of government and as public affairs. The first notion, that of politics as the art of government, is perhaps the one providing the most realistic approach to what politics is all about. Politics in general is associated with a process of (1) electing the representatives of the people in governmental structure, (2) uniting ideas into coherent political platforms that can properly reflect the direction that respective party wishes to promote, (3) the existence of political entities, part of this mechanism etc. We do indeed have both a positive and a negative perspective associated to politics, from this perspective, as the capacity to rise as a representative of the people in the governmental structures is often associated with personal ambitions of reaching those levels. Politics is not limited necessarily to the governmental sector, we can refer to politics when we discuss the art of government in the business sector as well. Indeed, the business sector is also an area where……

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British Parliamentary System of Government

S. government. It was written and passed in 1787 during the Constitutional Convention, which had been convened in the midst of the political crisis that followed the American Revolution. At that time relations between the central government and the states were strained. One of the main reasons behind forming a Constitution was to ease these tensions. The other was the…

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Ellis Holds That America, at

In a transitional state, the head of the Army holds an immense degree of authority. Washington was the only prominent military leader to revere the principles beholden to the new Republic. Washington and his contemporaries were familiar with the tragic flaws of popular leaders that preceded them: Julius Caesar crossed the Rubicon because he believed that he out-do a largely aristocratic and quarrelsome republican government by employing the decisiveness that he had exercised in battle. Oliver Cromwell was unwilling to reflect the interests of a parliament that failed to represent his interests and ultimately handed authority to his son. Although many of the founding fathers shaped America's nature, it can be said with definity that without Washington, America couldn't have existed. Washington, on the other hand, realized that he could forge consensus, but that it took an even greater man to allow the flawed but necessary mechanisms of representative government to replace him. Washington knew that legislatures were all too human, but that heros were ultimately mortal. Many quotes are attributed to Washington; one that reflects his decision to put down the sword is this one: "I hope I shall always possess firmness and virtue enough to maintain what I consider the most enviable of all titles, the character of an honest man." Bibliography Short History of the American Nation, Vol. 1, Garraty and Barnes, 8th Ed.). William M. Fowler, Jr. Radical Puritan. Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, 1997. Joseph J. Ellis. Founding Brothers: The Revolutionary Generation. Knopf, 2000. The Constitution of……

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Mythology Political Issues Constitutional History:

The Twenty-First Amendment to the Constitution is the only case of amendment through this venue. Congress calling a National Convention at the request of the legislator and three-fourths of the States ratifying the amendment. This form has never been utilized for Constitutional amendment. VI. Leadership in Government It takes many skills of leadership and communication to hold a political office.…

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Individual Freedom When the English

The Resolutions go on to state that the Parliament has been non-compliant with the system, but the value of the system was not undervalued. Benjamin Franklin ensured that the rights of the individual man had to be protected by, with, and for a great good in his autobiography. "In our way thither," he wrote, "I projected and drew a plan for the union of all the colonies under one government, so far as it might be necessary for defense, and other important general purposes." These general purposes include the rights later provided to the states, federal government, and those left to be protected for the individual in the American Constitution, but it is in their early synthesize in the burgeoning political philosophy that they are born. "Tis not in numbers but in unity that our great strength lies: yet our present numbers are sufficient to repel the force of all the world." With these words, Paine succinctly displays the heart of the American political philosophy into which all the other works are written. By guaranteeing a certain separation and allowing for the individuality of the states, the United States government does not usurp the liberties of the individual for the sake of the common good, but instead reverts their channeling through directly-elected local and state officials who then are able to properly lead the greater cause of American government politics, with threat of elected revocation of power should representation be neither sufficient nor accurate. These conclusions were most incorporated into the American will not in the work of its politicians, but in its very citizens. In Letters From An American Farmer, J. Hector St. John De Crevecoeur writes of the careful balance of freeman and his representative government, "What then is the American, this new man? ... He is an American, who, leaving behind all his ancient prejudices and manners, receives new ones from the new mode of life he has embraced, the new government he obeys, and the new rank he holds." Adams, Willi Paul. The First American Constitutions: Republican Ideology and the Making of the State Constitutions in the Revolutionary Era. Chapel Hill, NC: The University of North Carolina Press, 1980. Continental Congress. Declaration of Rights. 1774. Resolution 1. Available Online: http://libertyonline.hypermall.com/DeclRights1774.html Continental Congress. Resolutions of the Stamp Act. Oct. 19, 1765. Available Online: http://www.law.ou.edu/hist/stamp.html De Crevecoeur, J. Hector St. John. Letters from an American Farmer. 1782. Franklin,…

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American Government and Politics Today

Government Why did the Framers of the Constitution create a bicameral legislature? Was part of the reason for a two-house legislature the idea that it would be more difficult to pass legislation, therefore serving as a check on a runaway legislature? What impact does this have today? Is it easy for Congress to agree on legislation? There are three main…

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American Government and Politics Today

American Government & Politics Today Bureaucracy Is bureaucracy really necessary? Is it possible to have too much or not enough -- and how does one find that balance? Is the "wrong type" of bureaucracy possible? These are all important questions to be answered within the realm of political studies. Bureaucracy is necessary, because rules and regulations are part of what makes up a civilized society. No games would be able to be played and no knowledge would be able to be transmitted properly if there were no rules as to how anything was done. Without organizers and people who manage things, it would not be easy to move society forward or even to keep it from regressing. There are people who think that bureaucracy is not necessary, but they generally have their own agendas that are not within the realm of what most of society would address. Because that is the case, they are considered anarchists and often not taken seriously. For most of society bureaucracy is somewhat of a "necessary evil" in that they see the value in it and know that it is required, but they do not particularly like some or all of it. Part of the reason bureaucracy is not popular comes from the ways in which it is created and upheld. Often, there are issues that are strictly regulated and that many people believe should not be so heavily controlled. At the same time, there are issues that are not carefully regulated and that can cause harm because those areas actually need more control from the government or other entities. Bureaucracy needs balance, and many areas of life and society are using the wrong type of bureaucracy to "control" people when guiding those people would be a much better choice. By providing people with a very high level of control over what they can and cannot do in certain aspects of their lives, these people can easily feel as though they are being restricted from doing things that matter to them. In other areas of life, where they have more freedom, these people……

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Government and Elections Should Foreign

Campaigning also requires attendance at charity functions and other public events so that candidates can mix, mingle, meet, and greet the public. The monetary expenses of political campaigning are such that require great amounts of funding. In fact, the idea that a candidate can run for political office effectively without great amounts of funding would not even be considered as feasible in today's society. Funding for political campaign is a big business. There was a ban on corporate spending on campaigns however, this ban was blocked by the Supreme Court in 2010 when it ruled that the "government may not ban political spending by corporations in candidate elections." (Liptak, 2010) The report states that the move by the Supreme Court served to overrule "two important precedents about the First Amendment rights of corporations." (Liptak, 2010) III. How do constitutional restrictions hinder the effective and efficient operation of government? Constitutional law restricts the President and government's authority to do the following: (1) abolish or transfer an independent regulatory agency or all its functions; (2) consolidate two or more independent regulatory agonies or all their functions; (3) continue an agency or function beyond the period authorized by law; (4) authorize an agency to exercise a function not expressly authorized by law; (5) increase the term of an office beyond the period authorized by law; (6) deal with more than one logically consistent subject matter; or (7) abolish enforcement functions or programs established by statues. (FAO, 2010) These are only some of the actions that the President and government cannot take. The Constitution places limits on what government can do to protect the American public. This is because the forefathers understood that government should remain small rather than become the large bureaucratic machine that it presently is today. The present administration has sought to bypass Congress on many of its moves on restructuring the U.S. Government however as reported by the FAO (2010) "Congressional deliberative processes serve the vital function of both gaining input from a variety of clientele and stakeholders affected by any changes and providing an important constitutional check and counterbalance to the executive branch." Bypassing these governmental processes can results in too much power being vested in the President and his discretion. The Constitution provides for a system of checks and balances that serve to ensure that the Constitutional rights of the American people are not violated……

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Comparative Politics and Government

Political Science Government in Canada and the United States The purpose of this paper is to introduce and analyze the topic of political science in America. Specifically, it will compare and contrast three major branches of government and politics in the United States with Canada's government and politics. Both democracies, Canada and the United States have many governmental branches and…

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Singapore's Politics

Singapore's government is best described as a Socialist Democracy, which makes it somewhat similar to the governments of Northern Europe ("Introduction to Singapore's Political System"). The People's Action Party (PAP) has been the central governing force in Singapore since the nation gained sovereignty in 1965. The political culture of Singapore and the PAP has been described as "authoritarian, pragmatic, rational and legalistic," ("Introduction to Singapore's Political System"). Although pragmatism, rationality, and legalism are familiar to Western investors, many have been put off by the authoritarian philosophies underlying the now-famous rules against certain types of public behavior like gum-chewing ("Why Singapore?"). Similarly, many foreigners and especially Americans might find the "highly centralized," and "top-down style" of political leadership counterintuitive ("Introduction to Singapore's Political System"). Singapore is run more like a company than a country, with many leaders appointed rather than elected. This does not seem like a democratic method of governance, and yet Singapore also relies on a Parliament and Constitutional law. In fact, the appointed members of Singaporean government are not unlike their counterparts in the American President's cabinet. The President of Singapore is elected, and serves for a period of six years. Voting in Singapore is compulsory. The Constitution guarantees certain rights and freedoms to the citizens of Singapore, including labor rights. Members of the Singaporean Parliament, or Legislature, ensure a balance of power. The government of Singapore is comprised of a diverse body of citizens, reflecting the diversity of cultures, languages, and ethnicities in the nation ("Introduction to Singapore's Political System"). As one author puts it, "Singapore is not administered by politicians, but by bureaucrats, in a meritocracy where power is gained through skill, performance, and loyalty to the nation and its policies," ("Introduction to Singapore's Political System"). While this may not seem to be a viable method of running a democracy, the PAP has remained admirably corruption-free. This is because "Singapore's political leadership has committed itself to maintaining a competitive business environment by enforcing a strict 'no tolerance' approach towards corruption and bribery," ("Why Singapore?"). The government of Singapore assumes the role of "promoter and practitioner of Corporate Social Responsibility," ("Introduction to Singapore's Political System"). The political culture and structure of Singapore make the country one of the most attractive in the world for doing business. In addition to the nearly non-existent corruption and minimal red tape, there are other reasons why doing business in Singapore is…

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Politics of Estonia Foreign and Domestic

Politics of Estonia: Foreign and Domestic Brief Introduction/Overview. Estonia is a small Baltic state with an area of roughly 45,228 sq km and a population of 1.3 million people. It is bordered on the south by Latvia, and to the East by the Russian Federation. It is a coastal country, with a Western shore to the Baltic Sea and a…

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Canadian Politics

Canadian Politics Canada is a nation that is comprised of ten provinces and three territories. Those provinces and territories span five regions: the Atlantic (Maritime region), Central Canada, the prairies, the West Coast and North (DeRocco 2009, 61). Every province in Canada works with Canada's federal government to make sure that Canada is progressing nicely; however, each of these provinces,…

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American Politics Development of Political Parties in

American Politics Development of political parties in the U.S. As United States formed its constitution and political processes after Independence, it was always marked by the presence of two distinct parties that had differing ideologies about governance. The original two parties that laid the foundations of American politics are the federalists and the anti-federalists. The federalists were businessmen who were…

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Democracy or Monarchy), All Governments Have (5)

¶ … democracy or monarchy), all Governments have (5) primary missions: (a) national security, (b) internal security, - public goods and services, (d) socialization of the young and (e) raising money. Fully explain your understanding of each purpose of government and give examples of each. National security refers to the security of the nation, and is concerned with both civil…

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Politics Heywood Describes a Number of Views

Politics Heywood describes a number of views of the state. Which do you prefer and why? Heywood's descriptions of the state vary widely, but they all make sense in some form or another, and in some governments. However, personally I much prefer the idea of the Pluralist State, first because it matches my own relatively liberal viewpoint, but because it focuses on individuals and individual's rights and freedoms, and I think this should be the core functionality of the state. I also believe that the state should be neutral, and should protect the rights and beliefs of its citizens, remaining neutral in this regard. However, I believe that most governments and states are more like the Capitalist state, where one class is dominant in the regulating and operation of the state, and I do not agree with that. I also think there is some of the Leviathan state mixed in, and that states have become too powerful and bloated that it literally has turned into a monster that is intent on growing larger and more bureaucratic, instead of shrinking and really serving the people. I think that all people's rights should be equal, and the state should not be dominated by anyone. Unfortunately, I do not think that is the case, even in our own government today. I think it is dominated by the wealthy and powerful, and that the individual's rights are lost in this type of state. All of these views of the state have merit, and in truth, I do not believe that most states are simply one type or another. Here in the U.S., I think we have a blend, where they mix up some of the characteristics of all these definitions, with mixed results. As noted, I believe the U.S. has Capitalist and Leviathan portions to the state, and some Pluralist, as well, especially when it comes to individual's rights and beliefs. I don't think that a firm, single type of state can really exist, because government and all it entails is far too complicated for any state to simply adhere to one concrete viewpoint or ideal. As for the feminist concept, I see the state more as……

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Jennifer Government

Jennifer Government Max Barry's Jennifer Government is a novel based in a dystopian alternative to reality where the world is controlled by the United States and government is run by for-profit corporations. It is a political satire much along the lines of George Orwell's Nineteen Eighty Four but instead of being critical of too much government, as Orwell is, Maxwell seems critical of too little public government. The story begins shortly after the United States has conquered the entire Western Hemisphere, the United Kingdom, Ireland, India, Japan, Iceland, South Korea, Oceania, Thailand, Myanmar and Australia. In this state, taxation is abolished and the government has become privatized and thus unable to create new laws or hold elections. In fact, its job is limited to preventing crime. Instead, the world is largely run by competing coalitions of corporations and their police forces, either the Police or the NRA. In the story John Nike hires Hack Nike to kill teenagers for marketing purposes. The plan goes awry and Jennifer Government, a government agent known for her barcode tattoo under her eye, is hired to investigate the incidence. However, Jennifer once has a relationship and a daughter with John Nike and thus has a personal vendetta against him. In her actions and beliefs Jennifer Government represents the……

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Government and Politics of Europe

Government and Politics of Europe Democracy deficit in the European Union In spite of the fact that more than two decades have passed from the disintegration of the Soviet Union, the European Union is still unable to maintain democracy at a constant level in all of its member countries. Although people might be inclined to express lack of interest in…

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Totalitarian Government

Totalitarian Governments Although no exact definition of "totalitarianism" exists, it generally refers to an extreme form of authoritarian government in the modern times. Totalitarian governments are different from the 'classical' dictatorships that have existed and have been described by philosophers and intellectuals since the time of Plato and Aristotle. In fact many historians consider totalitarianism to be a uniquely 20th…

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Business Ethics Government Corruption: The Political and

Business Ethics Government Corruption: The Political and Economic Impact of Corruption Government corruption can have wide ranging and reaching negative effects on both the political and economic development of any country. This essay will particularly explore the effects of government corruption in Europe including the country of Greece. Among the more common effects of government corruption include a sluggish economy…

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Japanese Politics

Japanese Politics Float Under the Occupation (led by the United States), Japan underwent legislative changes that aimed to provide a more representative political system in the society. Through the Occupation Japanese political system was centered in the executive and legislative branches. Created in 1947, the previously known Imperial Diet became the National Diet; it was composed of two legislative bodies,…

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Majority and Minority Governments Is

Francois and Hoyland stated, "Minority governments usually rely on the support of at least one other party to sustain the confidence of the legislature" (Francois and Hoyland 2009, 01). One main reason behind this responsive attitude of minority governments is that they do not have any other option. As stated above, they also need approval of other parties for passing…

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American Politics

American Politics The three features of the American political system that anyone would try to control would be, and this of course is speculation, but I will give the reasons why: the U.S. Supreme Court; the U.S. Senate (two members are elected from each state in the union); and the U.S. House of Representatives (435 members are elected based on population density in all 50 states; in other words, states with a big population like California, have more Representatives because they have more people to represent; a state like North Dakota has very few because the population is very scant). Supreme Court: QUESTION ONE: First, why any one try to control the U.S. Supreme Court? The Court is very powerful, and makes legal decisions that affect the economy, the society, the workers, the health care, the environment, and more. The members of the Court are very well protected by a high level of security, and if someone tried to approach a justice on the Court, there would be a very big fine and there would be imprisonment for such an act. And what if a justice was actually corrupt and was willing to take a bribe to vote a certain way on a legal case before the Court? It is highly unlikely that a justice would be corrupt, because it takes many years as a judge at many different levels of the judicial system to get nominated by a president to the High Court, and if that jurist were corrupt, it probably would have been seen earlier. Also, when a judge is nominated for a seat on the High Court, the U.S. Senate has to hold hearings to investigate the nominee before the nominee is confirmed, and the FBI has to check the nominee's background very closely to see if there is any reason that person should not be confirmed. U.S. Supreme Court QUESTIONS TWO, THREE, FOUR AND FIVE: Which group has most chance to exercise control over the Court? The president of the U.S. has "influence" on the Court because he nominates the justices; so if a president is conservative, as George W. Bush is, he can nominate a conservative judge which will render decisions that reflect Bush's political views. A recent case in point is the right of government workers to become "whistleblowers" when they see something illegal or terribly wrong and report it to their superiors. The…

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Governance in America Federal Government Should Take

Governance in America Federal government should take the lead in issues that affect the country. As stipulated in Article I, Sec. 8 of the American constitution and subsequent amendments to the Article I, issues pertaining to defense, war prosecution, prosecution, peace, foreign relations, foreign commerce, and interstate commerce are the prerogative of the federal government. The 21st century world suffers from many trivialities including nuclear war threats. Modern economies heavily rely on interstate trade and international trade. No viable trade can be undertaken without peace and tranquility. Stronger foreign relations are pivotal for international trade. All these cannot be actualized without the involvement of the federal government. It has to be remembered that it is the federal government of the United States that signs trade treaties on behalf of the American people. Problems that bedevil American economy like the trade imbalances can only be adequately addressed by the federal government. Other than issues to do with peace, war prosecution, foreign relations, and foreign commerce, the constitution also mandates the federal government to protect American citizen's constitutional rights like the rights to vote and outlawing any form of slavery. Issues pertaining to voting have evoked emotive debates since the inception of the independent United States. There was widespread violence especially in the south where the African-Americans were not allowed to vote. Such touchy issues cannot be left in the hands of any institution other than the federal government. The federal government also engages in copyright protection, establishing federal courts inferior to the SCOTUS, coining money, establishing post offices and posts roads, and establishing a national set of universal weights and measures. The federal government, in order to effectively carry out its constitutional mandates, has to engage in taxation. All these are crucial responsibilities that impact lives of Americans directly and cannot be entrusted to state or national governments (Anonymous, 2011). If Congress were to refer certain issues to a vote of the people, it might put civil rights issues to the vote. It is no doubt that direct democracy enhances majority tyranny as civil rights issues spiral out of control. For the past thirty years, public opinion has been sought on……

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Federal Government Expansion Throughout American

("The Sherman Anti-Trust Act," 2004) The New Deal The New Deal was passed in 1993. It dramatically increased the size of the federal government by focusing on a number of areas including: the regulation of the public securities markets, banks, it established Social Security, provided universal labor standards, set minimum wages, increased spending on infrastructure and offered direct support to agriculture. Politically, this allowed Washington to dictate to the states and local governments the types of protections as well as programs that are offered to everyone. Socially, this changed the country by providing ordinary citizens with some kind of safety net. Economically, these programs involved the federal government in areas that were once reserved exclusively for the private sector or states. This is important, as it would expand the role of Washington in everyday activities. ("What is the New Deal," 2008) ("The New Deal," 2012) The Civil Rights Act of 1964 The Civil Rights Act of 1964 prohibited discrimination against African-Americans, other minorities and women in: housing, employment, education as well as voting. Politically, this allowed the federal government to impose harsh penalties against the states and local communities that supported discriminatory practices. Socially, this forced the nation to reexamine racial and gender attitudes by creating change in the beliefs that were embraced by society. Economically, the law allowed the federal government to go after all businesses, governments or educational institutions that are involved in any form of discrimination. These elements expanded the powers of the federal government in dealing with inequalities that exist. ("The Civil Rights Act of 1964," 2012) Conclusion Clearly, the above examples are showing how the role of the federal government has expanded over time. This is because there were certain issues which were not being addressed that could impact the public. To increase the overall amounts of protection, different laws were passed that gave them the power to enforce various standards. Over the course of time, these changes became some of the most common practices that are used by the federal government for dealing with a host of challenges. When this happened, there was increase in the total amounts of power and authority given to Washington. References The Fourteenth Amendment. (2012). Cornel University Law School. Retrieved from: http://www.law.cornell.edu/constitution/amendmentxiv The Civil Rights Act of 1964. (2012). National Archives. Retrieved from: http://www.archives.gov/education/lessons/civil-rights-act/ The New Deal. (2012). U.S. History. Retrieved from: http://www.u-s-history.com/pages/h1851.html The Sherman Anti-Trust Act. (2004). Linfo.…

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Rationalism Politics Impacts Public's View

However, there is also a degree of doing so from a removed perspective in which the individual or collective which is actually in control is cleverly hidden in the background, effectively beyond the reach of the general public. Hands off controls, however, are akin to laissez fare financial systems in which the controls in place for public management are lax, if not outright non-existent. Usually this sort of control is implemented if there are certain facets of the public sector that are producing boons for the private one. These benefits are largely financially related. Controls are just one aspect of proper public management (Behn, 2003, p. 586). Government ethics and differential information have a difficult relationship with one another. From an ethical perspective, the government is charged with supervising the general public in a way which is supposed to be beneficial to the latter. At the same time, the government is supposed to respect and not intrude upon the rights of privacy of individuals. Differential information, for the most part, pertains to these rights of privacy. Differential information is akin to various facets of someone's personal life -- from his or her social security number to information regarding that person's telephone calls and email communication. This issue recently made national headlines due to the Edward Snowden release of information that the National Security Agency was collecting and analyzing regarding private individuals (Faris, 2013). Ethically, the government's ability to do so is tenuously balanced. References Behn, R.D. (2003). "Why measure performance? Different purposes require different measures." Public Administration Review. 63 (5): 586-606. http://ehis.ebscohost.com.ezp.waldenulibrary.org/eds/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?vid=7&sid=22c51486-3a0f-4394-93b3-bb44ec64223d%40sessionmgr14&hid=106 Drucker, P.F. (1980). "The deadly sins in public administration." Public Administration Review. 40 (2): 103-106. Retrieved from http://ehis.ebscohost.com.ezp.waldenulibrary.org/eds/resultsadvanced?sid=22c51486-3a0f-4394-93b3-bb44ec64223d%40sessionmgr14&vid=4&hid=17&bquery=(public+administration)+AND+(deadly+sins)&bdata=JmNsaTA9RlQmY2x2MD1ZJnR5cGU9MSZzaXRlPWVkcy1saXZlJnNjb3BlPXNpdGU%3d Faris, S. (2013). "Have the NSA leaks compromised big data's future?" www.dataversity.net. Retrieved from http://www.dataversity.net/have-the-nsa-leaks-compromised-big-datas-future/ Oakeshott, M. (1947). "Rationalism in politics." www.conservativeforum.org. Retrieved from http://www.conservativeforum.org/EssaysForm.asp?ID=6102…

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Rationalism, Government Ethics and Differential

75). Also, if the doctor makes a mistake, the doctor might lose income but the layperson might lose his life, so there is an imbalance in the effects of a mistake. Consequently, the doctor provides medical treatment and the agent of the layperson. This dual responsibility is important because society does not want the doctor to just make a profit as the medical provider; it also wants the doctor to enhance the well-being of the layperson (Wrigley & McKevitt, 1994, p. 75). The concept of differential knowledge is important in the "core public sector" of health, education, welfare and security (HEWS) (Wrigley & McKevitt, 1994, p. 76). The government is the centralized, stable and continuous institution that historically ensures that resources are ethically allocated in the core public sector in the best way for the public good (Wrigley & McKevitt, 1994, pp. 76, 82). The public cannot rely on the market for the most optimal allocation of resources because the market is guided by self-interest. As the demand for these resources increases, government ethics is increasingly important: due to differential information, leaving the public at an information disadvantage, when the government is dealing with the public allocation of resources or the allocation of resources by professionals, the government must use and enforce ethics to ensure fair allocation (Wrigley & McKevitt, 1994, pp. 82-3). Works Cited Anonymous. (2009). Craig T. Nelson on government aid. Retrieved from www.youtube.com Web site: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yTwpBLzxe4U Greanleaf, W.H. (1968). Idealism, modern Philosophy and Politics. In P. King, & B.C. Parekh, Politics and experience: Essays presented to Professor Michael Oakeshott on the occasion of his retirement (pp. 93-124). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. Oakeshott, M. (1994). Rationalism in politics. In D. McKevitt, & A. Lawton, Public sector management: Theory, critique and practice (pp. 4-10). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc. Wrigley, L., & McKevitt, D. (1994). Professional ethics, government agenda and differential information. In D. McKevitt, & A. Lawton, Public Sector Management: Theory, critique and practice……

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Federalist What Is a Faction?

Justify your proposal. The framers intended the amendment process to be difficult, to avoid the problem of the tyranny of the majority. Unless the state legislatures call a constitutional convention, the only way an amendment can be passed is with a supermajority of two-thirds of Senators and Representatives which is then sent to the states for ratification. Three quarters of…

Pages: 7  |  Research Paper  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 0


Politics of the Common Good

Since the Republican version of capitalist economics has been dominant since the 1970s and 1980s, inequality has certainly increased greatly in the United States, far more so than in any other Western nation. In this, the U.S. is exceptional compared to Canada, France, Germany or other nations in that its social and economic structure has more in common with Mexico, Brazil, Pakistan and other developing countries. Given the weakness of organized labor and the Republican's skill at exploiting race and religion to attract voters, the situation has become absolutely disastrous for the working class and even the shrinking middle class. These less favored groups have only a very weak and timid Democratic Party to defend their interests, and it often takes money from the very same corporate interests and wealthy donors as the Republicans. Sandal is also right that private money has completely corrupted the political system in the U.S., and probably the only way to correct this problem would be by a constitutional amendment that would make all elections publicly financed. No politics of the common good would ever be possible in a system totally controlled by wealthy donors, lobbyists and large corporations. America's most recent presidential election cycle in 2008 cost over $2 billion, the majority of which was provided by wealthy donors and big business interest. Even worse, the recent Citizens United decision by the Supreme Court has opened the door to unlimited amounts of corporate cash and private donations during elections, which can even be given anonymously. At this point, the U.S. political system has come to resemble an oligarchy or aristocracy more than a democracy, in which the wealthy elites can buy politicians and political parties exactly as they did during the Gilded Age of the 19th Century, and only the wealthy or those approved by them can even run for political office. This explains why the federal government was so quick to bail out the large Wall Street banks when their corruption and rampant speculation caused them to collapse in 2008, and also why it does so little to assist the common people even though they are suffering through the worst recession since the 1930s. WORKS CITED Locke, John. Two Treatises on Government, 1690. http://constitution.org/jl/2ndtreat.htm Sandal, Michael J. Justice: What's the……

Pages: 6  |  Essay  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 2


Culture and Politics Germany: How

Conclusion As can be seen, Germany can use its rich history and good quality of life to make things better for everyone. Those who immigrate and those who have little money are at a distinct disadvantage, but it does not have to remain that way. There can be freedom and opportunity for everyone in Germany, but only if those in political power are willing to create and adjust policies in order to make those opportunities easier to attain and more realistic to achieve. People who are part of the underclass are often not against working harder and doing more, but they must have government policies to help them get started, and they need societal and cultural guidance to find ways to improve their lives. References A German Underclass? What Underclass? (2006). Spiegel. Spiegel's article on the German underclass addresses the issue from the standpoint of German politics. In general, the upper classes are looking the other way and avoiding acknowledging that there is a problem with people in the country who do not have money and who need assistance. Until and unless this issue is acknowledged by the government, nothing will get done that will make things better for those people. Dempsey, J. (2011). German Politics Faces Grass-Roots Threat. The New York Times. The political parties in Germany are facing some threats from smaller organizations and coalitions that want to see real change. The multi-party system Germany has is valuable, but there are two parties in power and that can stifle other options for people who want to see change. Because of that, grass-roots threats are starting to appear sporadically as they lobby for changes to the political system. Fulbrook, M. (1991). A Concise History of Germany. NY: Cambridge University Press. While Germany has a very rich and complicated history, condensing it provides the reader with enough information to understand all the basics of the country including where it came from and where it may be headed in the future. Heckmann, F. (2003). The Integration of Immigrants in European Societies: national differences and trends of convergence (Warning Germany Has No Humor). Stuttgart: Lucius & Lucius. It can be difficult to integrate into a society, especially if that society is not entirely welcoming to outsiders. Such has been the case with Germany, as the country has policies in place that do not welcome immigration as openly as many other countries. With…

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Hannah Arendt and Jews and Politics

Hannah Arendt, Jews, And Politics Hannah Arendt, the Jewish Question, and Totalitarianism Totalitarianism was never defined in the past because it could not exist. This is simply because totalitarianism implies total control, and in the past it was simply not possible to gain total control given the technological and cultural limitations. It has only been as recently as the 20th…

Pages: 8  |  Essay  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 0


Is Democracy the Most Viable Form of Government?

¶ … Democracy the Most Viable Form of Government? There are numerous forms of government, especially when we consider our global population. There are dictatorships, socialists, communists, and then, those who follow the political bearing of democracy. The prosperity and of some governments are begging the question of whether or not democracy is the most viable form of government in today's world. In this analysis, the first section will argue that democracy is in fact the most viable form of government, attempting to reveal the key indicators that support this theory. It will then discuss the opposing view. In summary, the goal is to leave the reader processing, and pondering upon both perspectives. As democracy can vary within different contexts, for the purpose of this paper, we will take democracy as meaning, a government where constitutional rights guarantee basic personal and political freedoms, including free elections and a fair judicial system. In order to establish consensus, democracy proves to be a viable form of government as the majority rule. "Democratic institutions, however, may be necessary…to produce a political consensus as well as an adequate policy performance at all times and under varying (social and economic) conditions," (Keman, 6). This form of government was not always accepted as a practicable source of rule. It wasn't until the past couple centuries was it evident that this form of government became sustainable, even though the structure has been around for quite some time in different contexts. The understanding of democracy as a representative system, instead of direct rule, helped it in becoming a valuable and acceptable approach. In democratic societies, people can have the right, the will, and the desire to be active members of the nation or organization. The freedom of choice, the power of representation, and the access to courts and justice are essential principles that make democracy the most viable form of government. There are few other forms of government or organizational structure that allow such access to these values. "In a democracy, people have the right to choose their leaders in regular, free, and fair elections," (Diamond 21). They are encouraged to represent themselves by voting, campaigning for, and supporting congressman, representatives, presidents and other leaders by a system of equal representative choice. Elected leaders by the citizens of a society, then are able to make decisions based on the will of the people. Democracy also ensures some inevitable…

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American Government Course

American Government Course American Government PREAMBLE to the U.S. CONSTITUTION Form a more perfect union: At birth, the forefathers thought of a united America one that was devoid of separation along any lines but a perfectly united USA. The preamble of the constitution with the phrase "to form a more perfect union" aimed ad coalescing the states that were hitherto…

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Ego in World Politics

IGOs in World Politics Nonstate actors, including nongovernmental and intergovernmental organizations, have been seeking more influence in the global community (Kegley & Blanton, 2010). Intergovernmental organizations, or IGOs, have become increasingly commonplace in the past century. From 37 IGOs in 1909 to nearly 1,000 IGOs by the start of 2009 (Kegley, 2010), the proliferation of IGOs altered the field of…

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Decentralized Government

Decentralized Government The issue of decentralization represents a major aspect in the theory of government and organization of the state. From several points-of-view it can be considered to be a success story for the administrations throughout the world. This is largely due to the fact that it enables the top political aspects to be viewed from all the levels of…

Pages: 6  |  Essay  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 4


U.S. Federal Government Recognizing the End of

U.S. Federal Government Recognizing the end of the American Civil War, then President Abraham Lincoln delivered his Second Inaugural Address (1865), talking about the social and political divide that is the South and the North, factions that support and oppose black slavery, respectively. In his inaugural address, Lincoln expresses his hope for a united America -- hope because of the still apparent divide and continued prevalence of the slavery system in the country even in the aftermath of the Civil War. Instead of condemning or supporting slavery, Lincoln left his audience thinking about slavery by simply leaving "judgment to the Lord." Two years after his inaugural address, abolitionist movement leader Frederick Douglass called "for including the negro in the body politic." This demand is a precursor to society's continuous struggle to achieve equality in a free country, albeit still weakened by social discrimination brought by the slavery system. Lincoln's Second Inaugural Address and Douglass' Appeal to Congress for Impartial Suffrage are just examples of the kind of politic that America was gradually developing into, especially after the American Civil War. The creation and development of federalism in the United States made it possible for states and the country, as one, created "checks and balances" that aims to respond and answer to the interests of the majority, without discounting the rights of the minority. Indeed, one of the most important features of federalism as a form of government is that it provides the right balance between or among different socio-political groups, which are the states, in the case of the U.S. Lincoln and Douglass represent one side of……

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Politics Modern Political Thought the

Modern capitalism is far less restrictive than what they were used to. When society evolved to try to give everyone a small piece of the big pie, it eventually called it Capitalism. "Over a period of a few centuries the 'long journey' toward capitalism extended in this direction: a complex and interlocking process which involved the formation of merchant and…

Pages: 12  |  Term Paper  |  Style: APA  |  Sources: 10


Non-Western Comparative Politics

Tanaka Kakuei Corruption Chalmers Johnson, one of the U.S.'s foremost Japan experts, tells us the story of Tanaka Kakuei and the shocking extent of his corruption. But Johnson tells us this story so we can better understand the nature of Japanese politics and the role of the bureaucracy. What is Johnson trying to illuminate for us? Chalmers Johnson has conducted a very thorough research into the political system of Japan and the role played by Tanaka Kakuei in revolutionizing the elitist political scene. Johnson doesn't try to downplay the corruption scandal associated with Tanaka but he looks at it in a more objective manner. Instead of accusing him of corruption per se, he goes deeper into the very heart of Japanese politics to understand why a man with very high ideals for Japan and its public would resort to accepting bribes. Johnson also fully understands the importance of Tanaka's role in resurrection of non-bureaucratic political system within a very strong and rather insulated bureaucracy. Tanaka's case is unique not because of bribery involved but because it helps us understand just how much corruption has become a part of Japanese political system. In most cases, it usually goes unnoticed because public seems to accept it as a way politics work in Japan and there is not much that can be done against the bureaucracy that literally rules the country. With Tanaka, things however were different. Not only did his shady deal with Lockheed come to the limelight, what was more shocking was that he managed to emerge from this scandal without much damage to his popularity. This indicates one thing clearly: Tanaka was more than just a politician for the public. He was recognized for his various actions that had benefited the poor over the years. Tanaka had been one strong supporter of equality in all sections of society and all sectors of economy. He did not allow one sector to prosper on the expense of another. "Tanaka actually performed a vital function for the system, redistributing income from the rich sectors to the poor ones and ensuring that high speed growth did not benefit one group to the exclusion of others." (Johnson, p. 202). Thus Johnson illuminates some very important aspects of Tanaka's reign and the political system in Japan. Junichiro Koizumi Who was Junichiro Koizumi and what did his election and re-election as Prime Minister of Japan represent? Why…

Pages: 5  |  Essay  |  Style: MLA  |  Sources: 1


Ethical Principles in Government Policy in Modern

Ethical Principles in Government Policy In modern society, societal ethical values are codified in the formal rules, laws, and regulations administrated by local and national governments. However, different contemporary societies uphold very different standards of behavior and ethical definitions and criteria. Throughout human history, dictatorships and autocracies imposed laws of behavior based strictly on the whims and interests of government…

Pages: 8  |  Thesis  |  Style: APA  |  Sources: 4


Politics on War

Politics of War - Kennedy and Nixon Administrations The Kennedy administration decided in 1961 not to assist the Laotian government through military intervention, though President Eisenhower had advised him that Laos, and not Vietnam, was the hotspot in Southeast Asia. Kennedy backed a diplomatic settlement that brought to power a neutral regime. For a candidate who had cast a hard…

Pages: 6  |  Research Proposal  |  Style: MLA  |  Sources: 3

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