Study "Government / Politics" Essays 661-715

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Conditions in Somaliland Fit Schmitter Essay

… Similarly, despite a constitution that guarantees the right of all individuals to contest for public office the reality is different. People affiliated with stronger clans, have greater opportunities and access to resources for self-development while others do not. Thus, despite having the right to contest majority of the population is illiterate and thus unable and unwilling to participate in the electoral process. In this scenario Somaliland is like any other developing country where rights are guaranteed but the common man is unable to exercise them as he does not have the socio-economic advantage that the rich minority does. It is no surprise thus, that in the Presidential election of 2010 there was a very low voter turn and there are only a few faces seen on the political scene.

c) Right to information from varied sources and freedom of Speech

One of the most difficult balances to obtain in any country is that between individual and group rights. Often developing countries, with newly formed institutions compromise on individual freedom on the basis of national security or defense. This situation is rampant even in countries that guarantee freedom of speech. Somaliland is no different. Its constitution allows people the right to criticize the government and to openly express their opinion through different platforms. The country even has a relatively free media. However, there have been certain incidences where the government has curbed these freedoms by punishing individuals making people awry of exercising this right. For example, a weekly magazine that discussed the idea of reunification with Somalia was banned under government orders. A CEO and 2x journalists of a newspaper were jailed after running stories on presidential corruption. Thus, Somaliland does meet the condition of having various platforms for information for the public but at times their freedom of speech has been curbed by the government.

d) Policy making depends on votes and other expressions of preferences

Somaliland has done pretty well as compared to other developing countries on this particular conditionality. Its Constitution was formed after careful deliberation in clan meetings attended by academics, clan elders, business groups and common people (Kaplan, 2008). Later on it was ratified through a public plebiscite again engaging the public in the policy making of the country. However, there have been times when this has not been the case. For example, national security has been used as a pretext to pass unpopular decisions such as the extension of the incumbent governments rule by 1 year that delayed the presidential elections till 2010. Many times majority demands have been sacrificed in lieu of a bigger aim of pacifying minority clans to maintain law and order.

In short, Somaliland in principle has done much to attain the values that underlie a democracy according to S&K. There is a system of accountability for its public officials, representation of minority groups, and a freedom of information and speech granted to the public. However, like most developing countries its socio-economic circumstances have made it difficult to completely enjoy the… [read more]

Max Weber Defined State Essay

… The pluralistic society diffuses power where society members take ownership of the results of exercising power. Under Kim Jong-il, North Koreans were not given any power to exercise. His authoritarian rule oppressed the human welfare of the society, which decreased productivity and economic growth.

Weber's suggestion of leaders coming from lay citizens who had been politically educated based on social pluralism as a sociocultural ground is also opposite of Jong-il's rule. North Korea has only been ruled by Kim family members for over 50 years. Candidates were not taken from the general society that Weber suggests. And, Jong-il's rule does not show any political education to the lay members of society. They are only instructed to follow his demands and tortured if they do not comply.

"Charismatic authority is defined as 'power legitimized on a basis of a leader's exceptional personal qualities or the demonstration of extraordinary insight and accomplishment, which inspire loyalty and obedience from followers" (Charisma 2008). It depends strongly on the perceived legitimacy of the authority figure. Weber saw charismatic authority as a valid recognition by certain followers based on legitimate duty belonging to the followers who believed they were chosen to recognize the qualities of the leader.

Jong-il's authoritarian rule indicates that North Koreans did not have a choice in the way they voted or who they chose to represent in elections. Jong-il's rule is opposite of Weber's definition of the charismatic authority in respects that followers were not given freedom of choice to determine legitimate duty to follow him. His rule demanded that North Koreans follow him or be tortured.

Kim Jong-il's totalitarian rule is completely the opposite of Weber's definition of a state. North Korean society was not given value-freedom or value-relativism. North Korean government was completely absolute and contained no charisma. Leaders are not elected from votes in free competition. North Korean society contained to social pluralism and lay citizens were not given political education containing ethics in conviction and responsibility.


"Charisma." New World Encyclopedia. Apr 2, 2008. (accessed Jan 26, 2013).

Hokim, S. "Max Weber." Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. July 31, 2012. / (accessed Jan 25, 2013).

Norman, J. The world's enduring dictatiors: Kim Jong-il, North Korea. June 4, 2011. (accessed Jan 25, 2013).

totalitarism. 2013. (accessed Jan 25, 2013).… [read more]

Spartan and Athenian Constitutional Essay

… The archons were selected by the Boule that ruled the state (Durant 1997).


The Spartan military state was under the leadership of an oligarchy. It had an established government that led to political stagnation. A duel monarchy was at the crown of the pecking arrangement, followed by a council of 2 kings and 28 dignified members of the aristocracy. All these noblmen were retired military officers aged over 60. In contrast, Athens had a democratic system that was ruled by its citizens. The executive and administrative control was in the hands of a Council whose members were chosen on an annual basis by the lot. Any male citizen over 30 years of age was eligible for the nomination. An Assembly that consisted only of male citizens had veto power over the Council. Additionally, the Assembly was the only influential faction of the Athenian government that had the authority to declare war.

To cut a long story short, only few Spartans ruled their city-state while all the male citizens of Athens ruled it. It is in the political sphere that the contemporary civilization is indebted to Athens as it was here that the concepts of democracy, classlessness and egalitarianism were born. The democratic system and open culture in Athens stood in stark contrast to the Spartan government and society.

However, the structures of the governments in the two poleis were not completely different. Both the systems made sure that every citizen was within the law and none was above it. Also, both structures did not favor the basic idea of autocracy.


Brand, P.J. "Athens & Sparta: Democracy vs. Dictatorship ." UM Drive. (accessed January 17, 2013).

Durant, W. The Life of Greece - the Story of Civilization. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1997. Print.

Solanki, P. "Sparta vs. Athens." Buzzle.…… [read more]

Public Administration the Ultimate Thesis

… The employers in the local government can include special districts, townships, counties, municipalities and school districts. Now we come to the particular strategies that should be employed by the public administrator of this area. First of all, he should have… [read more]

Democracy in Author Jacques Ranciere Term Paper

… Ranciere states that to be considered a democratic person, then the politician must be able to utilize words and language. This has become more prevalent in the modern era where the strict understanding of democracy has been blurred and modulated to make way for the new ideas and perceptions of the time. Propaganda and rhetoric are a major part of modern politics and indeed have been integral to politics throughout history going back to at least Julius Caesar and the speeches of Marc Anthony and Brutus following Caesar's assassination. The ability to use words and speak convincingly is necessary in any form of government, but particularly in a democracy where the politician needs to convince the people to give them support.

In the current time, people believe that they are more political educated than their predecessors. Ranciere states that in his time, they did not read the texts of proposed legislation and for the most part did not discuss potential laws or politicians running for office; at least this was the case until the 1960s during the time of great political upheaval with issues such as the Civil Rights Movement and the Vietnam War. When students became involved in politics, the form of democracy changed as did the way in which the governmental system was participated in by the people of the country.

If the recent presidential elections are any indication Ranciere has a valid point about the changing forms of democracy in the United States. Each generation contributes to the political attitudes of the politicians and those being governed as well. He seems adamant that the inclusion of a larger population into the field of political interest is a negative thing because it is a sporadic inclusion rather than a long-term interest for most people.

Works Cited:

Ranciere, Jacques. "The Uses of Democracy." On the Shores of Politics. Verso,…… [read more]

United Nations, the Unwanted Nobodies Essay

… 4. U.N. Bureaucracy.

This is a mess and has virtually become a sinecure. It should be streamlined and made more effective. In 2006, it was estimated that the U.N. employed over 56,000 staff (The Heritage Found.) Most of these Staffa are underworked and overpaid and are housed all over. The various Secretaries General too engage in a power struggle at the cost of United Nations programs and operations that are mismanaged as a result. It has also been recorded that huge resources of money that have been pegged for particular causes have been misallocated and not reached their intended locations.

5. Human Rights

The UN should become more effective and truthful as well as less biased in its advancing human rights. Its subjectivity and biased reporting, as well as untruths and inability to intervene has made it and its subunits a mockery. UNRWA, for instance, that has exponential zed the number of Palestinian refugees and has been held majorly responsible for the Palestinian problem (Kushner, 2005) as well as the U.N. Commission on Human Rights (UNCHR) have brought the UN's name down into the mud. The UNCHR has not only been chaired by Libya (!) but also became notorious for its appeasement of brutal dictatorships in Africa, Asia, and the Middle East.

Libya, Cuba, Syria, and Sudan are countries that sponsor terrorism. Nonetheless, the UN has placed each of them as members of the Commission on Human Rights.

6. Ideological Agenda

The UN has linked itself to leftwing ideological groups as well as become a vehicle for government and non-government organizations (NGOs) for promulgating their own leftwing ideologies. To become better respected, the UN has to detach itself from any particular agenda and it should refrain from funding organizations based on their politics alone.


The United Nations was originally formed with the intent of encouraging world peace. Yet, it has done everything but that and has become notorious for its inefficacy and corruption as well as bureaucratic mess. The UN in fact is party to every monstrosity inadvertently encouraging slavery, human trafficking, forced famine, torture, censorship, and political oppression in its own member states, by having many of these perpetrating states sit on its board and by honoring them. Wide-ranging reform is crucial. In fact, Assistant Secretary of State for International Organization Affairs Kim R. Holmes mentioned: "Fear of reform, not its prospect, holds the greater risk for the United Nations." (Kim R. Holmes.) The UN needs to make a thorough audit of its organization and demonstrate accountability, responsibility, and value for its money. Only then may it be better respected.

References . Americans and the World: a source of comprehensive information on U.S. public opinion

Charter of the UN

Kim R. Holmes, Assistant Secretary of State, "The Challenges Facing the United Nations Today: An American View," address to the Council on Foreign Relations, October 21, 2003, at

The Heritage Found. Reform the United Nations

Kushner, A The UN's Palestinian Refugee Problem, Azure Online,… [read more]

Alexis De Tocqueville Democracy in America Book Report

… ¶ … Alexis de Tocqueville Democracy in America (attached)

Q1.What do you think De Tocqueville meant when he said that the principle of association was used as a 'weapon' by the aristocracy, whilst democrats used it 'to seek recognition'? Is this distinction too simplistic? Could democrats use the principle of association as a weapon too? Can you think of any contemporary examples?

Association provides an important power for the group. It allows the group to make a statement, to stress their ideas and to create competition. The Democrats see it as a means to seek recognition because the democrat doctrine is based on the principle of association of common ideas and a tighter connection with the people. The Republicans appeal to a different type of electorate that in association seeks to change in a more aggressive manner. The political parties nowadays are contemporary examples of associations.

Q2.According to De Tocqueville, what is freedom based on? How does he distinguish between aristocratic and democratic freedom? Why do you think this distinction is important to De Tocqueville?

Freedom is based on the structure of government and the institutions. based on rights, on the right to association, on the freedom of press. Aristocratic freedom tends to be more related to the individual whereas democratic freedom is part of the freedom of association. The distinction is important because it relates to the core notions of democracy and freedom.

Q3.How does De Tocqueville define democracy? Is this how you would have defined democracy? If not, how would you have defined it?

There is no clear definition of democracy but rather a consideration that democracy implies a separation of wealth so that there is no lack of equality and a transfer of power from the hands of a few into the hands of the many. Democracy can also be the rule of the majority with due regard for the minority.

Q4.Why does De Tocqueville think newspapers are so important?

Newspapers are important because they offer a communication channel and they provide a "voice" for the associated groups.

Q5. We are accustomed, these days, to thinking about democracy in terms of elections and forms of government. However, this course repeatedly refers to democracy as a mode of interaction and as a way of life. This seems to be a much broader conception of democracy. What are some of the implications of thinking about democracy in this way? What might be the implications for a public sphere where public solidarity might be constructed?

Democracy can be a means of interaction. However, usually it limits the possibilities to…… [read more]

Zimbabwe the PBS Program Entitled Term Paper

… The governments are made to serve the people. Having this freedom, it becomes easy to forget how great a privilege it is to say that one is unhappy with a leader or a policy and to demand change without fear of violence for doing so.

The United States gives financial aid to Zimbabwe and its leader Robert Mugabe, but the money from American tax payers is not doing anything to help the people of the country. Money from countries all over the world is given to Zimbabwe in the hopes that the funds will be used for AIDS patients and those who have been made homeless through natural disasters or through acts of government, but the actions of the leader indicate that very little of those funds are actually going where they are supposed to. The people of Zimbabwe obviously need help. They need food and medicine or they will not survive; many of them are not surviving. It seems that there needs to be a more effective way of ensuring that the moneys granted to the Zimbabwean people are actually going to those in need and not into the pockets of corrupt government officials.

Still another thing to consider is the United States and its economy. Historically, the U.S. has been a source of support for the rest of the world in times of trouble. In the current time period, the United States' economy is extremely bad and seems to be headed towards an additional recession. Under such circumstances it is ill advised to give out governmental aid to other nations when the people of one's own country are not taken care of. In some ways, this reflects the problem in Zimbabwe. The government's first responsibility should always be to the citizens of that country and what the best interests of the citizens are. This is not happening in Zimbabwe and if more aid is given internationally than the economy can handle in the United States, it is possible that America could become as economically unsound as the African country of Zimbabwe.

Works Cited:

"Zimbabwe: Shadows and Lies." PBS. PBS, n.d. 2006. Web. 01 Dec. 2012.

[read more]

Interdisciplinary Social Science Term Paper

… Interdisciplinary Social Science

Ways that Communism Enhances Liberty

When people think about autocracy, the one thing that comes to their minds is communism. This is a misleading perception because communism is not a government type, but rather a different system… [read more]

Sociology of Work Assessing Bureaucracy Research Paper

… A bureaucracy is an obstruction to progress, particularly in a socialist economy's transition into a progressive market democracy (Carnis). The use of Niskanen's theory to model bureaucratic behavior reveals that bureaucrats and politicians in charge of budget maximization would be… [read more]

African Philosophers and Anti-Colonial Struggle Term Paper

… 81-83). The revolutionaries should accept the lumpenproletariat and supply them not just with arms, but, most importantly, with the progressive schooling given by Gramscianesque "peasant-intellectuals" (Fanon, p. 138).

Fanon's work has been well accepted and recommended to people who would… [read more]

Overall Themes Critique of the Cult of the Presidency by Gene Healy Book Report

… Cult of the Presidency

George Healy, author of the Cult of the Presidency, is Vice-President of the libertarian organization and think tank the Cato Institute. While he is clearly opinionated about executive power, the American Presidency in the 21st century has changed to reflect more of an imperial notion of power, and yet most Americans view the president as a central locus of political power as well as what it means to be American. Despite the seriousness of the material, Healy interjects facts with some humor -- which tends to make the book even more powerful a statement when he asks us to reflect on just how much power the people have given up since 9/11. As a scholar, Healy's material is well-cited and documented, enough to satisfy even the staunchest of critics. The book is well written and a relative entertaining read -- more like a conversation simply asking the reader to entertain an alternative point-of-view (Healy).

The gist of the material is that Healy would like Americans to have a wakeup call regarding government. It was so clear during the debates during the framing of the Constitution that the Founding Fathers were quite leery of too much central power -- certainly the last thing they wanted was an imperial presidency. Healy's argument is that the American President's assumptions of power and authority should be limited and reined in -- checked even more by Congress and the Supreme Court, and authority for wartime or extraordinary powers and changes to legal structure should be in the hands of the Courts, not a Presidential Committee.

The President did not make this happen out of thin air or by himself -- note the word President and not anyone specific. Instead, as early as the middle 1950s the public expected the American President to fill ten major roles, at least five which are nowhere to be found in the Constitution: 1) to be the world leader, not just the President, but the core voice for survival and freedom everywhere; 2) Protector of the Peace -- whether natural disaster or international war, the American President can fix things; 3) Chief Legislator -- the Constitution has the Congress taking the lead on domestic policy, the public sees the President as guiding the Congress; 4) Manager of Prosperity -- the President is responsible for the economic well-being of the nation and its citizens; 5) Voice of the People -- the modern president must be the moral spokesperson of all Americans -- the epitome of the general will of the populace.

Thankfully, this is not a Red/Blue argument- there really are no Republican or Democrat faults or favors -- instead, both camps hold that this one figure in American politics can grow the economy, ensure children are taught appropriately, protect the nation and citizens at home or abroad, and rescue the very moral fiber of the country -- wow! Indeed, as witnessed during the last election period, few Americans think it strange "when presidential candidates talk as… [read more]

Humanitarian Intervention Is Morally Essay

… There is a moral hazard in the incentive structure for third parties to intervene -- all parties interested enough to intervene have something at stake in the intervention. Western and Goldstein (2011) offer a counterpoint to the issue of moral hazard by highlighting the improvements in the intervention system and philosophy since the disastrous 1990s interventions in Somalia, Bosnia and Rwanda. They see R2P has a tool in an ever-sophisticated set of strategies that make today's peacekeeping missions more robust, and thus less susceptible to moral hazard.

One of the checks and balances that makes the modern framework for humanitarian intervention is the requirement under R2P that the UN Security Council authorizes such actions. Intervention today requires legitimacy in the eyes of the law, in contrast to many past missions. Today's intervention also sees more action from small third-party nations, as they have fewer interests in the regions. While it is reasonable to argue that sovereignty of the nation-state is critical, the systems for humanitarian intervention today recognize that there is a difference between national sovereignty and the sovereignty of a single regime within that nation. All people within that nation will have rights and the international community has a duty to protect those rights. Thus, humanitarian intervention is not only morally but legally justified.

Works Cited

Chesterman, S. (2011). Leading from behind: The responsibility to protect, the Obama doctrine, and humanitarian intervention in Libya. New York University Public Law and Legal Theory Working Papers.

Kahler, M. (2011). Legitimacy, humanitarian intervention and international institutions. Politics, Philosophy and Economics. Vol. 10 (1) 20-45

Pape, R. (2012) When duty calls: A pragmatic standard of humanitarian intervention. International Security. Vol. 37 (1) 41-80.

Rauchhaus, R. (2009). Principal-agent problems in humanitarian intervention: Moral hazards, adverse selection and commitment dilemma. International Studies Quarterly. Vol. 53 (4) 871-884.

Western, J. & Goldstein, J. (2011). Humanitarian intervention…… [read more]

Humanitarian Intervention the Arab Spring Term Paper

… Humanitarian Intervention

The Arab Spring brought about regime change throughout the Middle East, and most of these regime changes occurred relatively quickly and relatively peacefully. In Syria, however, the uprising has become what is essentially a civil war. The conflict… [read more]

Aristotle's Friendships Elena Irrera Interprets Term Paper

… If this concept is examined in the current political climate in the United States, there are many who would argue that it was a common sense of justice concerning the plight of immigrants that helped President Obama to win reelection (O'Brian, 2012). With Hispanic and Latino voters constituting 10% of the electorate and giving Obama a 44% advantage at the polls, the Republican Party is currently doing some soul searching regarding their stance on immigration reform. Hispanic voters, Democrats, left-leaning independents, and moderate Republicans are apparently political friends when it comes to the issue of immigration reform.

If Aristotle were alive today, he might agree with many Americans that immigration reform is a moral goal that a significant portion of the community can agree on; however, it seems unlikely that he would consider this the 'ultimate good' that all citizens desire to achieve. Instead, he might argue that immigration reform is merely one of many means by which the ultimate good can be pursued. The state policy of excluding non-citizens from the political community would probably be seen by Aristotle as antithetical to the pursuit of the ultimate good. Such a view would be consistent with Ancient Greek Society's view that exile was the worst punishment that could be visited upon a Greek citizen.

Irrera highlights the need for political friendships to have the capacity for empathy and trust, based in an intrinsic sense of justice on an individual level (p. 4). Political friendships of this nature are required for an Aristotelian political community to become reality (p. 4). This ethical virtue has the added quality of imparting a friendlier form of justice, which Aristotle considered to be a far superior form than that dispensed by an indifferent state. Although this may occur occasionally, such as the obvious support for immigration reform in last weeks general election, it seems unlikely that any political community, whether Ancient Greece or contemporary America, can attain such a lofty goal. The Watergate scandal is just one of many examples.

While Aristotle's ideal political community may have value in providing a distant and inherently unattainable goal, especially given the vagaries of human nature, it does seem worthwhile to view current political strife through this lens. For example, it is hard to imagine today's congressional representatives reaching agreements through political friendships, friendships filled with trust, empathy, and personal ethical virtues. While the news media makes 'hay' out of this quagmire of partisan strife, it is also true that political friendships are an important and integral part of politics. It is hard to imagine that anything would get accomplished without them, including a slow and gradual progression towards a higher ultimate good.


Irrera, Elena. "Between Advantage and Virtue: Aristotle's Theory of Political Friendship." 2nd Pavia Graduate Conference in Political Philosophy, University of Durham, n.d.

O'Brian, Michael. "GOP resistance to immigration reform could be casualty of 2012 election. NBC Politics, NBC News, 2012.

Zunjic, Bob. "Aristotle: The Nicomachean Ethics. Books 1 & 2. Department of… [read more]

Classify Information and Democracy Research Paper

… Classify Information and Democracy

Classifying information has been a big issue over the years. Especially when it comes down to democracy. Democracy is basically discovered on the standard that the ethical authority of government comes from the agreement of the… [read more]

Galt's Gulch and a Strike Essay

… 3. Are there contradictions in the philosophy of life proposed by those in Galt's Gulch? How about their concepts behind their strike against the rest of the world?

According to John Galt, within their society no man owes the others… [read more]

Henry David Thoreau's "Civil Disobedience Essay

… However, this anti-government sentiment often turns into a distrust of all government, and has in many instances paradoxically caused many very wealthy people to be elected to office, simply because they proclaim that government is a problem, not a solution.… [read more]

Election the Results Research Paper

… It is important to cultivate strong ties with Israel. However, the policies of Netanyahu are no longer healthy. A more balanced approach is needed, in order to secure the future of Israel. The health of the Middle East depends on… [read more]

Countries Modernize Grow Capita Gross Essay

… Q2. What impact would a "democratic" China have on the U.S.

Of course, a democratic China would have a positive impact in terms of alleviating much of the 'guilt' the U.S. has in its dealings with such a large, powerful, yet fundamentally undemocratic nation. The United States is often placed in the uncomfortable position of pressuring China to reform its ways, while China holds a substantial portion of U.S. debt and has successfully ignored pressures to modernize and democratize from its major democratic trading partners. Many U.S. companies, such as GM, have profited from selling goods to the Chinese as well as engaging in joint ventures with China. Dealing with a democratic China could facilitate such business partnerships but there is no guarantee that democratization would cause a substantial increase in them.

A democratic China would not necessarily make all of the U.S. problems with the nation evaporate. For example, the need for environmental legislation to ensure that goods and services are produced more safely might not necessarily be passed even in a democratic China, given the pressures to modernize and increase GDP. As seen in the former Soviet Union, an end to communism does not necessarily mean an end to corruption and can actually cause an upturn in crime, bribery, and other activities that people perceive as necessary to 'get by.' Transitioning to democracy would be profoundly destabilizing to China, at least in the short-term, which might not necessarily advance U.S. economic interests although in the long-term it might be beneficial in securing greater stability in the region.

Works Cited

Chen, Jie, & Chunlong Lu. "Democratization and the Middle Class in China: The Middle Class's Attitudes Toward Democracy." Political Research Quarterly 64.3 (2011): 705-19.

Friedman, Edward & Jinghao Zhou. "China's Peaceful Rise in a Global Context: A Domestic Aspect of China's Map to Democratization." The Journal of Asian Studies 70.1 (2011): 221-3. ABI/INFORM Complete. Web. 6 Nov. 2012.

He, Kai, and Huiyun Feng. "A Path to Democracy: In…… [read more]

Fire and Burn Injuries Term Paper

… Fire Service

Fire safety standards, particularly those that effect individuals with Alzheimer's disease, have a profound impact on the overall readiness of personnel. Fire safety is unique in regards to its methods and policies. Much of the fire safety policies currently being implemented pertain to proactive prevention rather than reactive prevention. Fire safety first begins with the individual identification of possible hazards, which requires a specialized knowledge and expertise. The fire safety administration in conjunction with municipal governments can better educated and prepare individuals in regards to overall preventive maintenance. This education ultimately helps prevent individuals affected by Alzheimer's from becoming harmed due to negligent behavior. The collaboration between fire safety administration and municipal governments also protects the public at large from large and often substantial damages (America, 2008).

To begin, the fire safety administration works with municipal government by establishing a uniform code of prevention. This codes and statutes are universal with a particular jurisdiction. These statutes help to establish a culture of consistent appraisal on the part of municipal governments as to the safety and soundness of the overall working environment. Many municipal governments have established safety codes which are universal laws that govern a particular area. Safety codes are designed to also protect the occupants of a building from fire, and to reduce the potential for a fire to start. These requirements are developed based on information gathered from around the designated area that has caused fires in the past. Furthermore, fire safety is a proactive use of rules and regulations to prevent the occurrence of a fire. Fire safety, also helps to prevent many of the deaths, injuries, and damages that insures after a fire manifests itself. As such, fire safety better enables individuals who are victim to a fire to survive with minimal damages (Oakes, 2009). Safety codes are no different in this regard. Safety codes, much like their fire safety counterparts are used in a proactive manner to help prevent hazardous events from occurring. Safety codes are particularly important during the inspection process, as potential hazards are identified prior to an emergency occurring. Inspections also define the relative impact of deficiencies as it relates to the overall building and structure. This provides a concrete forecast of potential damages that might occur if safety hazards are addressed immediately. These inspections ultimately improve the overall soundness and safety within the building. It also provides a means of comparing the effectiveness of proposed improvements by producing a comparative baseline which shows the relative gain in overall building…… [read more]

Obama and Romney -- Foreign Essay

… 5). That is another example of Romney's realist approach in which the notion of economic security (a worthy issue) turns into unnecessary belligerence, all for the sake of attempting to gain traction in a tight presidential race.

Obama's Liberalism --… [read more]

Egypt Revolution and International Relations Case Study

… This project investigates the internal and external consequences of the Egyptian revolution faced by the Egyptian nation.

International Relations is a broad term of political science, it encompasses within itself the study of foreign affairs and policies within the international system. According to Trevor Taylor (1979) "International relations is a subject which attempts to clarify politics across state borders." Positive relations with other countries play a vital role in order to secure the interest of the nation, economic prosperity and chances of survival. Cooperation with the rest of the world results in more security ensures sovereignty and enhances trade with other countries (Pearson & Rochester, 1988). International relations remain in transition and change with the rapidly changing global community and complexities. It includes in itself a variety of affairs at many levels of a nation state with collective international aspects of politics, history, law, sociology, philosophy, culture and economics (Wilkinson, 2010). Comparing the old schools of thoughts; positivist and post positivist theories with modern day issues, the role of International Relations amongst countries has gained much more importance with emphasis on international law, international economic ties, globalization and world peace with increasing threats of nuclear arms, terrorism and global environment issues. Positivist theories emphasizes on the materialist forces such as military force, power etc. On the other hand post-positivist theories oppose the idea of scientific approach to International Relations and focuses on ethical aspects, ideologies, normative judgments, values and principles (Wilkinson, 2010).

Research Methodology:

The research methodology shall be composed of thorough analysis of current and historical events in reference to internal and external issues faced by Egypt in relation to the uprising. Where there are various methods of research available, it is important that the selected method must be suitable as per the research objective. Furthermore, the researcher is expected to be aware of the limitations offered by the research method. For this particular research, the method selected is explorative form of study.

This method of research is mainly selected when the study is conducted using secondary data. Exploratory method of research is best suited for researches where acquisition of first hand data is difficult. Although this has various advantages but also has few inherent limitations as well. Therefore, scarcity of sufficient and reliable data is a considerable concern. Since the research will be mainly conducted by using the online resources and also reliable researches conducted and published in peer reviewed journals, therefore, necessary attention will be paid to the reliability of data used. The data considered would be secondary in nature collected by various independent bodies sourced from published news reports, messages posted on social network websites and blogs relating to prior, during and post revolution events. For analyzing the performance of Mohammed Morsi's regime in relation to internal and external factors; news events, press releases, meetings, speeches and reforms would be taken in to consideration with a historic comparison to Hosni Mubarak's regime considering only independent sources without bias.


The contribution from this research would prove… [read more]

Dream Act -- Immigration Controversy Research Paper

… He's a bitter right wing Senator who is clearly out of touch with diversity in the U.S.

Second Political Perspective: President Obama believes the Dream Act is "common sense legislation" that gives students who "grew up in the United States a chance to contribute to our country's well-being by serving in the U.S. armed forces or pursing a higher education" (White House). The non-partisan Congressional Budget Office study shows the Dream Act will "…cut the [federal] deficit by $1.4 billion and increase government revenues by $2.3 billion over the next 10 years" (White House). Obama says it is a "myth" to say the Act is "amnesty." The young people who become participants are required to attend college or join the military and pass criminal background checks prior to becoming citizens. It is also a "myth" to say the Act will encourage more students to immigrate illegally because the Act only applies "…to young people already in the United States who were brought here as children" (White House). It's also a "myth" that taxpayers will be subsidizing student loans because Dream Act participants since those individuals accepted into the Act are not eligible for any federal grants or loans.

Response to Obama: The president is absolutely right to push this legislation. In fact because the Republicans blocked the Dream Act in the Senate, Obama authored a new policy that allows eligible Latino young people (approximately 1.7 million) who present no risk to public safety "…to request temporary relief from deportation proceedings and apply for work authorization" (White House). Obama's position is a strong, fair, and a progressive one.

Third Political Perspective: Republican presidential candidate Mitt Romney had previously advocated "mass deportation" during the primaries. In September, 2012, Romney said that "I'm not in favor of a deportation -- mass deportation -- effort, rounding up 12 million people and kicking them out of the country. I believe people make their own choices as to whether they want to go home, and that's what I mean by self-deportation" (Poe, 2012). What Romney is saying that he would rather have illegal immigrants (he uses the phrase "illegal aliens" which is the same phrase used by bigots) just "go home" to Mexico. What Romney fails to see is that many of these folks are already home -- they work and live here in America. He's out of touch.

In conclusion, I agree with President Obama's position that young Latinos should be given a chance to go to school or join the military service as a prerequisite to becoming citizens. These young people came into the U.S. with their parents and if they have good records and have not committed crimes, it should be the American way to welcome them and give them a chance. They are our neighbors, they are our classmates and they represent the largest minority culture in America. It's time to be fair and accept diversity, and if Sessions and Romney have a problem with that, let the voters decide who is… [read more]

Cato Institute Journalism Source/Content Analysis Purpose Essay

… Cato Institute

Journalism Source/Content Analysis

Purpose of the organization

The Cato institute is an organization that deals with public policy research. The organization dedicates itself to the principles of free markets, peace, limited government, and individual liberty. Cato institute conducts… [read more]

Thomas Paine Was an Earlier A-Level Coursework

… Not able to solve the problem independently, Paine promoted correspondence to create a situation of war profiteering against Deane. Paine's facts, however, embarrassed French authorities, who had desired to bare this early help away from the headlines so as to prevent invoking Britain. Consequently from the Deane affair, Paine was dismissed in the month of January 1779 (Fruchtman, 1994).

Throughout his time as secretary, Paine consistently searched for growing a sincere Franco-American association. This manifested itself within the Treaty of Alliance between France and American which was signed in February back in 1778. This agreement not just made certain ongoing military assistance easier; additionally, it recognized independence and therefore welcomed the American States in to the society of sovereign states.

Probably as one of the most eloquent pamphleteers from the American and French Revolutions, Thomas Paine is better referred to as a powerful, tireless, and articulate proponent of the free, open, and democratic society -- one that is run according to freedom of expression, religious liberty, a totally free press, and also the right of individuals to elect. Writing with a style marked by clearness and precision, Paine's significant technique attracted a crowd of classes, including artists, trades-people, and craftsmen. He prevented the rhetorical flourishes that incorporated classical references, frequently with quotes in Latin or Greek, which these classes of individuals will not have understood. Rather, Paine authored with a simple yet descriptive method while also utilizing colourful images that brought forward the bad behaviour of tyrants (Keane, 1995).

Once war started between the colonies and Britain, Paine authored a number of papers, titled the American Crisis, which opened by using the famous lines that motivated the American troops by stating that these would be the occasions that would test the spirits and valour of men. The summer time soldier and also the sunshine patriot will, within this crisis, shrink in the service of the country but those who survive it will deserve the gratitude of the state and the government. He stated in these lines that the aspect of tyranny, like hell, was not one that could be easily mastered yet there was consolation for the soldiers: the harder the conflict, the greater the triumph (Keane, 1995).

Following the war Paine came back first to England. He spent some time in England but eventually went back and settled in France. While, settled in France, Paine decided to get back to his job as a pamphleteer. While carrying on his job as a pamphleteer, Paine ended up using most of the ideas he had honed in the United States and customize it according to the French culture and politics. Throughout the French Revolution, he authored a 2-volume rebuttal to Edmund Burke's Insights with regards to the Revolution in France, which ended up being recorded as probably the most famous rebuttal for the year 1789. In the Rights of Man document, Paine promoted the brand new democratic structure in the United States as an appropriate structure for the French government as… [read more]

Ethical Problem of Personally Identifiable Information (Pii) Term Paper

… Ethical Problem of Personally Identifiable Information (PII)

Personally Identifiable Information (PII) refers to any information that can be used to identify the person. According to the U.S. Office of Management and Budget, it consists of the following criteria:

National identification… [read more]

Capitol Crimes Term Paper

… The documentary Capitol Crimes argues that the Abramoff affair is the worst political corruption scandal in the United States since the Watergate incident under the Nixon administration in the early 1970s. It is a severe and serious case which has implications that are long-lasting. Narrator Bill Moyers says, "The scale of corruption still coming to light dwarfs anything since Watergate. In one sense it's the age-old tale of greed, but greed encouraged now by the way our system works." Essentially, his argument is that the current legal system regarding special interests and lobbying allows for the kind of corruption that is visible in the Abramoff case. If the system were not designed to allow for financial contributions of special interests and if there were not so many loopholes and ways to circumvent the law, then the kind of corruption viewed in cases like this would not be possible. It is the fault of the system as much as the perpetrators of the crimes.

In the November 2006 election, anyone who had been linked to Abramoff was criticized and several politicians lost their seats in Congress because of that association, even if they were not directly involved in his illegal activities. Several of the people who had worked with Abramoff or had benefitted from his illegal actions, including high-profile politicians, also faced jail time or other ramifications for their choices. In total, eight people including former Congressional representative Robert W. Ney from Ohio (Grimaldi). Ney was found to have allowed his position on acts of legislation to be purchased by Abramoff and his clientele. In exchange for his voting the way they desired him to despite the wishes of his constituents, Ney received thousands of dollars in gifts, such as fancy vacations to foreign countries. This is not unheard of for lobbyists. Abramoff went too far in his financial crimes, but unfortunately, this is not an unusual circumstance. Many if not most lobbyists and interest groups have been involved in some sort of financial reward system which is pledged to politicians in exchange for cooperation. Instead of giving the money directly to politicians, these moneys are granted in terms of campaign contributions or honorariums (Barbour 529). Examples like Abramoff indicate how far things can go, but many groups skirt illegality and conduct behaviors which are only barely legal.

What is particularly disturbing in Capitol Crimes is the fact that Abramoff used former House Majority Leader Tom DeLay to allow slave labor to continue in land under the control of the United States of America. Legislation which may have reformed the specific conditions which allowed the Marianas to remain in such squalid conditions had continually been retarded by DeLay. Because of DeLay, the Marianas were exempt from minimum wage and immigration laws which allowed Chinese-owned factories to be located on the island where they could pay their employees barely anything and did not have to provide anything in terms of benefits or even safe working conditions.

Political corruption is rampant in all… [read more]

International Relations Philosophical Views Term Paper

… Viewing such issues through rose-colored glasses deceives many, thus negating an accurate perception of the core matter. The key is to find a balance between idealism (liberalism) and realism because both mental paradigms are on the opposite and of the spectrum. However, many feel that international issues should be viewed as they are and not what they should be. While Max Weber is widely acknowledged as one of the major figures in 20th century social science, the relevance of his concepts for the study of international politics is generally neglected (Kunz, 2010).


A state's foreign policy interest consists of accumulating and maintaining as much power as possible. The content of the concrete interest may vary over time, but no matter what exactly has been defined as an interest, power will always be needed for its pursuit. Insomuch, realism contends that politics is a struggle for power and/or survival, and consequently depicts international politics as a realm of recurrent conflicts among states with very little prospect for change (Cozette, 2008). It is therefore not traditionally regarded as an approach, which entertains an idea of progress. E.H. Carr famously rejected "pure realism as an untenable position precisely because it fails to provide a course of action, and advocated finding a delicate balance between realism and utopia," (Cozette, 2008) as meaningful political action must include both. While realism certainly entails a degree of pessimism, it is far fetched to claim that realist scholars are radically skeptical about the future of international relations.


Philosophical theories have been used as a framework to understand political theories, such as International Relations. With liberalism, realism, radical, and constructivist philosophical views, scholars have contributed to analyzing international studies since the beginning of time. However, realism is deemed as the most used, if not the most controversial philosophical view due to its perceived pessimistic nature and untainted view of the human condition. Some purport realists for being unrealistically pessimistic and ultimately incoherent. According to Tabensky (2007), "the lack of realism stems from total or partial blindness to the proper and coherent ideals that ought to be informing their analyses of the international domain." Therefore, achieving a balance between idealism (liberalism) and realism is a more prudent theoretical approach, which perhaps should be termed as realistic idealism or idealistic realism.


Cozette, M. (2008). What lies ahead: Classical realism on the future of international relations. International Studies Review, 10(4), 667-679. doi:10.1111/j.1468-2486.2008.00824.x

Hall, I. (2011). The triumph of anti-liberalism? Reconciling radicalism to realism in international relations theory. Political Studies Review, 9(1), 42-52. doi:10.1111/j.1478-9302.2010.00225.x

Kunz, B. (2010). Hans J. Morgenthau's Political Realism, Max Weber, and the Concept of Power. Max Weber Studies, 10(2), 189-208.

Tabensky, P. (2007). Realistic idealism: An aristotelian alternative to machiavellian international relations. Theoria: A Journal of Social & Political…… [read more]

American Revolutionary War Is Responsible Essay

… Robert Morris was probably one of the most imposing individuals who took action during the Confederation. His financial expertise enabled him to devise clever agendas meant to assist both a federal government and the masses in cooperating without experiencing any trouble. He focused on improving taxation programs and on assisting the government in controlling debt with the purpose of helping the country recover from the conflict that it had just experienced. In spite of the fact that he devised many helpful strategies for the U.S., Morris is also considered responsible for further damaging the country's economy as a result of preventing other individuals from standing alongside of him as he shaped the country's economy system. It is difficult to determine Morris' exact plans with the Confederacy when considering that he founded troops from his own pocket and that he did not hesitate to borrow large amounts of money in an attempt to secure his position in the state.

While it seems that the Constitution was easy to devise when considering that general attitudes in the U.S. focused on encouraging reform, the truth is that there have been a series of controversies at the time when it was issued and that many individuals were forced to compromise concerning their principles. Anti-federalists in particular felt that the Constitution was in disagreement with their plans because it provided the federal government with too much power while states were left with little to no authority. Also, they emphasized that the executive branch and Congress had too much power over the states.

Federalists focused on trying to explain that the federal government was much more effective in controlling affairs in the country because power in the country was separated in three branches. This, they explained, meant that there were three different groups fighting for the rights of three different communities depending on each individual's personal view with regard to the government. The fact that none of these groups could have asserted control over the other also meant that people's rights would be protected regardless of the circumstances.

The federal government was well organized in its efforts and this made it impossible for anti-federalists to be able to successfully criticize its actions. All states ratified the Constitution eventually and this was the moment when the U.S. became a federal union focused on protecting the rights of its people, as it was no longer possible for a single body to control affairs in the country without being penalized for doing so.… [read more]

Australia Have a Bill Essay

… The very smallness of the Australian dream is an important part of our particular value-system: there is no vision of creating a society that can be a model for the rest of the world, as in the U.S.A., nor of… [read more]

Campaign Finance Reform Research Paper

… Federal Election Commission decision to tilt Californian elections to suit their ideological whims. Unless proactive policymaking is engaged in by a consensus of pragmatic local politicians, California's election cycle could easily become as contrived and commercialized as the blockbuster films for which the state is so famed.

California has maintained a strong tradition of enacting and enforcing local legislation restricting the abuse of campaign financing, and as current Republican Vice Presidential Paul Ryan noted in 2003 article published by the National Civic Review, "the Los Angeles public financing program upheld by Johnson v. Bradley has served as a model for programs in the California cities of Long Beach, Petaluma, Oakland and San Francisco" (Ryan, 6). By preserving the last shred of integrity inherent to our democratic system of representation, campaign finance reforms based upon prudent public financing laws stand as a crucial check on the rampant expansion of corporate influence on open political campaigns. The terrible temptation of unrestrained access to unlimited capital is embodied by Ryan himself, who stated soberly in 2003 that "public financing & #8230; enables qualified individuals who lack personal wealth or access to wealthy donors to run a competitive campaign and win public office, (and) reduces candidate dependence on special interest donors, making elected officials more accountable to the constituents they represent" (3). Despite these lofty proclamations, Ryan soon embraced the culture of corporate subsidization, and today his presidential ticket alongside multimillionaire Mitt Romney is backed largely by Adelson and the Koch brothers, while Ryan himself has amassed "more than $5.4 million in his campaign account, about $2 million more than the next highest House member, according to Federal Election Commission data" (Bykowicz & Salant) through the backing of major banking institutions. As the full fledged monetization of a formerly sensible politician like Paul Ryan clearly demonstrates, simply adhering to and advocating for public financing legislation does not represent a sufficient bulwark against the onslaught of corporate influence in our political system.

Works Cited

Bertoni, Steven. "Billionaire Sheldon Adelson Says He Might Give $100M To Newt Gingrich Or

Other Republican." Forbes. 22 Feb 2012: n. page. Web. 15 Sep. 2012.


Bykowicz, Julie, and Jonathan Salant . "Ryan Ranks as Top House Fundraiser With Backing by Banks." Bloomberg. 11 Aug 2012: n. page. Web. 17 Sep. 2012.


Citizens United v. FEC, 130 S. Ct. 876 (2010).

Kalanick, Cory. "Blowing Up the Pipes: The Use of (c)(4) to Dismantle Campaign Finance

Reform." Minnesota Law Review. 95.2254 (2011): 2254-2284. Print.

Li, Chen. "Public Funding After Davis vs. FEC: Is Campaign Finance Reform in the States Still

Legally Viable?" Civil Rights Law Journal. 20.2 (2010): 279-314. Print.

McManus, Doyle. "Republicans' secret formula -- 501(c)(4)." Los Angeles Times 21 Oct 2010,

n. pag. Web. 17 Sep. 2012. .

Ryan, Paul. "Beyond BCRA: Cutting-Edge Campaign Finance Reform at the Local Government

Level." National Civic Review. 92.1 (2003): 3-18. Print.

Spencer, Andrew. "Cleaning Elections." Arizona Law Review. 54.277 (2012): 277-309. Print.

Udall, Tom. "Amend the Constitution To Restore Public Trust… [read more]

Political Risk Models Research Paper

… Political Risk Models

The recent volatility in the Middle East, which shifted the dynamism and optimism of an Arab Spring into the potential conflagration and destructiveness of an Arab Winter, has refocused attention on political risk in nations around the globe. Political risk is not an end to itself, but rather a component of a larger analytic framework from which policy makers, CEO's, and governmental institutions conduct due diligence on potential investment, public works, peacekeeping, and philanthropic undertakings.

Political risk is most closely associated with nation states which have authoritarian regimes, closed economies, or government institutions implementing policies curtailing economic, political, and social freedom. In observing nations for potential investments: public or private; the critical question is to what extent will invested capital be safe given underlying tension in political, social, and economic institutions.

Political risk has always played a part in investment decisions however; its weighting has often depended on the relative certainty of other analytic elements: "economic policy risk, economic structure risk and liquidity risk" (Economist Intelligence Unit. N.D. PP. 1). Investments in uncertain political or economic environments depend on a forecast of the potential for substantive changes in intra-state stability. As such the recent Arab State uprisings have brought a wave of instability to governmental institutions and consequently have increased the risk premium.

Middle East- Egypt

The transitional governments resulting from the recent Arab Spring provide a window of analysis on the changing landscape of political risk and investment opportunities. Egypt for example, stepped out of the Arab Spring in 2010/2011 with lofty expectations and a perceived low level of political and economic risk; "the IMF had predicted in the spring one percent economic growth for 2011 in Egypt and a quick recovery" (Chalamish, E.N.D. PP. 1).…… [read more]

Australian Bill of Rights Maintaining Term Paper

… Humans should be allowed to fail without so much guilt and regret. Zero tolerance of human rights abuses seems and appears to be in everyone's best interests, but that is impossible.

Reason # 3: It may give too many rights.

It is important to become aware when too much of a good thing begins to display the effect of diminishing returns. Although, wisdom seems to have currently prevailed, installing rights that may become dangerous are misinterpreted is a serious disadvantage to chartering such a proposal. In America, the right to bear arms in many cases has seemed to have backfired. The framers of that constitution are forever being discussed in hypothetical and improvable arguments. While most would agree that a most of the human rights charters being adopted in newly formed governments reflect a positive and uplifting message, but, who is to say that too many rights will eventually undermine and eventually eradicate the government itself.

Governing the minds of the population requires both allowance and restriction. It is very risky to hand over the keys to the car to an unproven driver and control should be centralized and maintained in order to sustain the effectiveness levels of all levels of government. Treating the national constitution with prudence and a conservative mind serves everyone the best in this particular case.

Reason #4: It undermines democracy.

Judges who would be required to rule on human rights violations are given an extraordinary amount of power in these cases. Parliament and the democratic procedures behind the election of its members are seriously undermined if a national bill of rights were to be enacted. If Australians value their democratic voice, ironic as it may be, an explicit and constitutional bill of rights would have a serious possibility of degrading the impact of voting. Every dispute of any sort now threatens to fall into a human rights violation. Once again the danger and trickiness of exposing a subjective term to a material definition.

Reason #5: It is untraditional.

Traditions, while lacking universal appeal, are important. The Australian identity has always not required a Bill of Rights distinguishing it from the West. Total conformity always risks the potential new discovery. Australia has provided a model of diversity which can be subjected to criticism however, the results are not remarkable. Succumbing to international pressure to be like everyone else marginalizes Australia's contribution to establishing society on local and relevant terms. Global ideas do not always translate into local successes and Australia should lean on its history and tradition to guide them in suspect ventures of coalescence.

Works Cited

Carr, B. 2009. Bill of rights is the wrong call. The Australian.May 9, 2009. Retrieved from e6frg6z6-1225710664130

Evans, S. & Evans, C. 2006. Legal redress under the Victorian Charter of Human Rights and Responsiblities. Public Law Review Vol 17, 2006 p260-281. Retrieved from

Funnell, N. (2010). Human rights abuses happen close to home too. The Sunday Morning Herald, December 9, 2010. Retrieved from too-20101209-18qps.html

Gregg, S.… [read more]

Understanding Public Policy Essay

… ¶ … successful policy model include?

Typically, the types of criteria that determine the long and short-term success of policies include cost, efficacy, feasibility, and public relations implications. Cost criteria enable communities to determine whether policies are economically feasible and justified in relation to other potential uses for public funds. Efficacy criteria determine whether and to what extent the intended policy goals are achievable. Feasibility criteria determine whether and to what degree proposed policies are possible technically and objectively preferable to other prospective alternative policies. Public relations criteria determine the likely political consequences of policy choices.

At least 150 words - Describe the concept of public choice theory.

According to public choice theory, the inadequacies of government within a democracy are the consequences of many individuals to choose not to bother voting, largely because they realize that their solitary vote will not cause any difference in the outcome of any election. On one hand, Democracy depends on the act of voting being exercised and the correspondence between the government that the public desires and the government that actually evolves depends directly on the choice to exercise voting rights. On the other hand, the investment required to become a knowledgeable voter (and, sometimes, to take the time and trouble to vote) are always much greater than the benefit to any individual voter from casting a vote. The paradox is that Democracy depends on the willingness of individuals to vote even though no single vote is worth the trouble according to an objective basic cost-benefit analysis (Edwards, Wattenberg, & Lineberry, 2009).

3. At least 100 words - How can public policy be viewed as the "preferences and values of a governing elite"? Provide examples.

Unfortunately, our current political system demonstrates the fact that public policy reflects the preferences and values of the governing elite, as evidenced by the manner and extent to which wealthy and politically-connected individuals and entities exploit there access to legislators to promote laws and policies in there interests (Ehrenreich, 2009). The current economic crisis was precipitated by the collapse of the housing market and the entire mortgage banking industry…… [read more]

Understanding Public Policy Essay

… ¶ … Public Policy

Depending upon the context of the public policy, such as social, military, political, or healthcare, the policy development process may differ. Public policy can be generally defined as a system of laws, regulatory measures, courses of action, and funding priorities concerning a given topic promulgated by a governmental entity or its representatives (Kilpatrick, 2000). With certainty, the policy making development process requires evaluation, which may be qualitative or quantitative, such as outcome data or perhaps in the form of consumer research (i.e. focus groups, surveys). Consumer research is the most frequently used to understand or to evaluate public policy issues (Hastak, et al., 2001). Policies evaluation refers to the process of measuring and assessing the impacts and merits of government policies, strategies and programs. It is a means of determining the appropriateness, effectiveness and efficiency of government policies and programs, and contributing to policy improvements and innovation.

The U.S. Government Accountability Office (GAO)

An integral part of evaluating a public policy is to measure the efficiency and effectiveness in utilizing taxpayers' dollars. To aid in such checks and balance, the U.S. Government Accountability Office (GAO) serves as an auditing agency operations to determine whether federal funds are being spent efficiently and effectively. Hence, the GAO is an independent, nonpartisan agency that works for Congress. Often called the "congressional watchdog," GAO investigates how the federal government spends taxpayer dollars (U.S. GAO, n.d.). Although, its main purpose is to advise Congress and the heads of executive agencies about ways to make government more efficient, effective, ethical, equitable and responsive, GAO's work leads to laws and acts that improve government operations, saving the government and taxpayers billions of dollars. More importantly, GAO's core values are as follows (Dodaro, 2009):


Help the Congress oversee federal programs, policies, and operations to…… [read more]

Citizen United on the 2012 Essay

… This approach also shows that it was expected for outside spending to increase in major way with or without Citizen United. Although McCain-Feingold did not intend for this consequence to happen, political might has been migrating from within the party structure to outside it since it was passed.

The analysis, therefore, that attributes the rise in outside spending solely to Citizen United ignores the fact that this election period (2010 through 2012) are the first election cycles since the McCain-Feingold was enacted whereby the White House is occupied by a Democrat (Bai, 2012). Rich Conservatives are therefore inspired and propelled to invest their fortunes to a president and legislative agenda that they are completely against. It is hence apparent that even without Citizen United, the common enemy that conservatives have during this election will cause them to mobilize their entire wealth.

The impact of Citizen United in altering the balance between the republican and democratic parties permanently might therefore not be the determining factor. Some argue that Republicans will probably get a structural advantage that is hard to overcome because of the corporate money. Between 2004 and 2006, outside spending was dominated by liberals and similarly, if Romney becomes president, the same case would happen (Bai, 2012).

Negative campaigning is also an impact expected to result from Citizen United. Fueling massive funds by major corporations into the campaign process may lead to donations that have an underlying hidden agenda. Foul play may enter the picture and in the process introduce negative reasons for supporting and funding parties as well as individual candidates. The influence of money in the presidential elections has grown exponentially because of Citizen United (Stones, 2012). This negative campaigning can be seen in the recent allegations presented by Roger Stones (Republican strategist) regarding the reason behind the support of the Koch brothers in the Romney campaign.

Koch brothers, as claimed by stones, released their full energy and resources to the Romney campaign so that Paul Ryan can be picked as Romney's running mate. The allegations point to July 22 as the day that 100 million dollars was pledged by David Koch in support to SuperPACs as well as C-4s as long as Ryan got picked (Stone, 2012). The interest in Ryan is partly because he is best known for championing for 'top-heavy economic policies' hence Koch brothers would make much money if he got in office because of policies such as elimination of capital gains tax (Stones, 2012). Additionally, if Koch support Ryan to be picked and Ryan plays a key role in the election of Romney as the president, then the Kochs will have sealed a significant amount of leverage over Romney's administration.

In conclusion, Citizen United is expected to impact on the 2012 presidential elections in several ways although the major influence will be on amount of outside spending in the elections. This, however, has been contested as a possible occurrence with or without Citizen United since statistics show a trend in increase of outside… [read more]

Community Participation Is a Key Case Study

… Chen (2005) said:

"A community-based sentence allows, where appropriate, a child or young person to stay living in their usual home, and continue their existing school, training or work commitments. Community-based sentences vary in relation to the level and type of supervision." 11

10. Australian Research Alliance for Children and Youth, "The Wellbeing of Young Australians: Technical Report," Journal of Australian Research Alliance for Children and Youth, no.7 (2008):117.

11. Chen, S, "The transition from juvenile to adult criminal careers," Crime and Justice Bulletin, New South Wales Bureau of Crime Statistics and Research, no. 86 (2005): 9-11.

enough to build a community; the most important is to run the community on its norms and rules. Welcoming people of any age or background will bring different cultures under one roof and most important the ideas to accomplish the goal.


A significant investment has been made by the government in community participation in order to build stronger networks in between the people. Amstein (1969) describes it as:

"We need to pay much closer attention to the incentives for participation as these are fundamentally about the devolution of power. Participants in governance will find it easier to mobilize others and plug into their networks if the formal structures they inhabit are places where real power lies." 12

Every community has two kinds of participants: insiders and outsiders. The distribution of tasks among these defines there responsibilities. Community participation has become a part of our lives. It requires dedication, honesty and equality. Recognizing the real power for achieving goals brings the members of community much closer. Community participation is a wide topic. This case study discusses every possible aspects of the community participation whether it lays in political networks, health issues, educational development or cultural communities. The participants vary from children to youngsters and most important are the old age experienced members.

12. Arnstein, S. "A ladder of citizen participation," Journal of the American Institute of Planners, no. 4 (1969): 216 -- 24.

End Notes

6. Peck M. Scott, The Different Drum: Community Making and Peace (New York: Touchstone Books, 1998).

7. Reid J. Norman, How People Power Brings Sustainable Benefits to Communities, USDA Rural Developments (2002),

3. United Nations ESCAP (Economic and Social Commission for Asia and Pacific), Regional trends, issues and practices in rural poverty reduction -- Case Studies on Community Participation, (2009),

4. Nampila Tatileni, Assessing Community Participation -- The Huidare Informal Settlement, University of Stellenbosch, (2005).

5. Haglund, J.A. "A new approach to community participation assessment," Journal of Health Promotion International, no. 6 (1991): 199.

6. World Health Organization (WHO), "Community participation in local health and sustainable development -- Approaches and Techniques," (2002),

7. Bracht, N. & Tsources, A. "Principles and strategies of effective community participation." Journal of Health promotion International, no. 5 (1990):199-208.

8. Schuftan, C. "The community development dilemma: what is really empowering," Community development Journal, no. 31 (1996):260 -- 264.

9. Bilken, S. "Are you retarded? No I'm Catholic: qualitative methods in the… [read more]

Political Realignment Curse Essay

… Your final step is to write a paragraph outlining the concept and show how it relates to the issue. Post your paragraphs in the blog

The recent event on political realignment amongst American Jewish voters is evidence of political realignment. It is now clear that many people are shifting from one party to another. The minority parties are also gaining stand against the major political parties of old (Miller, 2012). In this article the identification of one party and democracy has been an aspect, which has been realized with time. For instance it can be foreseen that most American Jews will finally favor republicans as opposed to democrats.

After posting your paragraphs, provide feedback to two of your fellow students. In your feedback, comment on your classmates' analysis and in addition, try to provide a different perspective. Post your feedback as comments in the blog.

Author: STEPHEN Larocque Posted Date: August 17, 2012

The author has pointed out an aspect that has recently affected the political scenes across the nation. American young people today have adopted the concept of democracy and are free to speak out their opinion thorough social networks. It is true that most of these social sites enhance voluntary participation of young voters throughout America. This is likely to affect the future stability of America.

It is imperative to realize the potential of media in politics across the globe. It is clear that politics affect people even across a nation. Consequently, politicians and nation leaders ought to watch out to ensure that there is maximum political stability. This should be done through the social media and various internet sources.


Miller, A.H. (February 9. 2012). Jews, Party Identification, and Political Realignment.Daily Digest.

Putnam, R.D. (2000) Bowling alone: The collapse and revival of American community. New York: Simon & Schuster (Touchstone).

Wattenberg, M.P. (2008) Is voting for young people? New York, NY: Pearson Longman. (ISBN 10: 0-205-51807-9, ISBN 13: 978-0-205-51807-4)

Winograd, M. & Hais, M.D. (2009) Millennial…… [read more]

American Political Behavior New Technology Discussion Chapter

… In 2008, many could not vote at the polling station, but each person had decided on his or her political candidate. This is the effect of the use of social networks.

Technology can be termed as the stirring aspect in enhancing voter participation. Communication and information are key in influencing the people's attitude and convincing them towards a certain political decision. For instance, Winograd and Hais (2009) point out that information and technology were fundamental in creating and reviving the fallen economies, which contributed remarkably to the beginning of the new political dispensation. The authors describe the rise of the millennium and the new technology has caused every process to move considerably fast. This indicates the distinct effect technology has in the economic, social, and political scenes.


Putnam, R.D. (2000) Bowling alone: The collapse and revival of American community. New York, NY: Simon & Schuster. (ISBN 0-7432-0304-6)

Wattenberg, M.P. (2008) Is voting for young people? New York, NY: Pearson Longman. (ISBN 10: 0-205-51807-9, ISBN 13: 978-0-205-51807-4)

Winograd, M. & M.D. (2009) Millennial makeover: MySpace, YouTube and the future of American politics. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers Press. (ISBN 978-0-8135-4504-2)

Zeleny, J. (2012, August 1). The…… [read more]

Sudan Split Grade Course Term Paper

… This is because that the imports are to be pain in the U.S. Dollar, making the South currency worthless.

The independence resulted in the Southerners to lose their right to stay in the North. In addition, there is a continuous… [read more]

Chernobyl Nuclear Disaster Research Paper

… These International programs initiated by the United Nations have been known to assist during such crisis. The red-Cross has always been available in times of need too.

International laws and polices that impacted international organizations' response and recovery efforts to the Chernobyl disaster the response showed some deficiencies and gaps. This is because the set International legal and regulations norms which had been established to govern the safe and peaceful uses of nuclear plants were not followed. At the same time, this incidence stressed the need for a collective International focus on nuclear plant use. This also prompted for a call on the creation of an International management for the secure development of nuclear power under the backing of IAEA. The International nuclear community tried to restore confidence in the nuclear use by addressing these deficiencies (Berger 2010). There have been funds set aside to assist during such tragedies. These funds are internationally controlled by different bodies that have been given the mandate. The World Bank is responsible for monitoring the flow of these funds making sure that the funding did not come from terrorists. Some divisions were set up similar to the homeland Security. They monitor all nuclear plants just to make sure that bio-attacks have not been used by terrorist. In the process they monitor those gas plants that are likely to leak hence endangering the people around.

While disaster relief network hunted ways to stop future catastrophes by relying on engineering, sciences, and organization, at hand were also raising calls for building social equality. Humanitarianism was no longer narrowly describe as a sympathetic response to human distress but included the responsibility to defend human rights. Human rights were named to include universal human rights to basic material goods like clothing, food, shelter and to political freedom too. If these rights were deprived of, the human community had a compulsion to intervene to safeguard and shield them, whether this dishonored the sovereignty of state or not. The human law allows for the basic needs which has not been the practice.

Chernobyl disaster shaped international disaster management policies and plans to assist victims of disasters through the intervention by the United Nations. This disaster management realized how slow the response was in solving the fast spreading situation. It took over ten years to resolve the issue. The reports being given were misleading since the number of the affected people was way bigger than the figures the government was reporting (Jargin 2012).


Due to the uncertainties over this issue from the consequences of the Chernobyl disaster, it is important that the investigations of its effects to be broadened and supported on a long-term basis. The International response proved its slowness and hence the importance for the United Nations to start an independent study of the actions and assignments of the concerned agencies. This has been happening during major disasters like the Katrina and other natural hazards where the governments have been slow to respond. Infrastructure has been the major… [read more]

Biology Thoughts on Environmentalism Essay

… For environmentalism, challenging corporations and creating offended scientific reports about pollution is the easy stuff. But these actions are inadequate to the real difficulties, as any can tell you who has witnessed the last thirty years of environmental activism. The last great places cannot be preserved. Responding to environmental destruction necessitates not only the overpowering of corporate offenders but also an alteration in the way people live. A more adequate response to the true problems necessitates that people stop to be a culture that believes that wealth is the build-up of money and begin to be a society that comprehends that the real wealth lies in life (White, 2007).

The problem for even the best intentioned environmental activism is that it believes that it can tackle a problem outside of itself. What the environmental group is not very good at is distinguishing that something in the very underpinning of ones every day life is extremely anti-nature as well as anti-human. It lives in not just the bad guys but also in nearly every working American, environmentalists included. It is true that there are CEOs, although few in number, who are indifferent to everything except money and who are cruel and greedy, but nonetheless, all that people distinguish to be the destructiveness of corporate culture in relation to nature is not the consequence of its power, or its capability for controlling nature (White, 2007).


Hay, P., Meyer, J.M., Biro, A., Minteer, B.A., & Taylor, B.P. (2004). Main currents in western environmental thought [political nature: Environmentalism and the interpretation of western thought] [democracy and the claims of nature: Critical

perspectives for a new century]. Alternatives Journal, 30(1), 46-48.

Paehlke, R. (2008). Break through: From the death of environmentalism to the politics of Possibility/The landscape of reform: Civic pragmatism and environmental thought in America. Alternatives Journal, 34(2), 32-33.

White, C. (2007). The Ecology of Work. Orion Magazine. Retrieved from

White, C. (2007). The Idols of Environmentalism. Orion Magazine. Retrieved from… [read more]

Presidential Power Do Our Presidents Essay

… He or she should build teams of smart, capable leaders and work collectively to make tough decisions. Patriotism and professionalism are important and the needs and safety of the people should be his or her ultimate concern.

A President should also demonstrate honesty by living up to promises and be straightforward about the state of the Union. He or she should be relatable, unbiased and understanding. Being able to connect to the people and others across the globe is very important. Above all, the President should be a competent leader. The presidential office comes with a tremendous responsibility and without sound judgment and the ability to lead, success would not be possible and the prosperity of the country would be at risk.

As you are writing about the Supreme Court decision that is of interest to you, please write an opinion on how you would vote on the case and some implications that "your" case had or will have on society.


No. 11-5683. Argued April 17, 2012 -- Decided June 21, 2012

In 2010, Congress enacted a new statute reducing the crack-to-powder cocaine disparity from 100-to-1 to 18-to-1. The new statute took effect on August 3, 2010. Congress upheld that the new, more lenient mandatory minimum provisions should apply to pre-Act offenders. I would vote to apply the law retroactively. What's fair for someone going into prison is fair for the person who's already incarcerated for the same violation and crime.

Many of those impacted by the statute are minorities and members of marginalized groups. The statute seeks to prevent unjust harsh sentencing laws enacted back in the 1980s. Mainly poorer African-Americans and Hispanics have been impacted by the disparity in this law. There is a huge racial gap between severe sentences for having basically the same substance: one is powder, one is crack. Our laws should treat everyone the same (i.e., equal protection under the law). Although this statue does not equalize and balance thing -- it's still 18-to-1, but it's a far cry better than 100-to-1. Ultimately, it needs to be 1-to-1.


(2011, April 25). Multiple Inequities: A new law lessens, but doesn't end, the sentencing disparities for crack cocaine. New York Times. p. 24.

(2012, April 18). Abiding by the Fair Sentencing Act. New York Times. p. 26.

Beckmann, M.N., & Kumar, V. (2011). How presidents push, when presidents win: A model of positive presidential power in U.S.…… [read more]

American History Jefferson's First Essay

… American History

Jefferson's First Address

In his first inaugural address as the President, Thomas Jefferson displays a degree of compassion and tolerance towards those who disagree about his perception of the new form of government -- which was Republican, and not Federalist -- that would characterize his tenure in the executive office. He states within his address that those who disagree with his opinion should be allowed to disagree, if only so that by doing so people will see the error of their ways. This gesture signifies a degree of confidence on the part of the former President, who truly believes that his way of governing the country is superior to those of his doubters and naysayers, and that reason and logic will prove the righteousness of his methodology for governance.

Jefferson was well reputed as an advocate of the rights of the individual. His envisioning of the United States as a nation of independent farmers is indicative to the degree of liberty and egalitarianism that he equated with the common individual in the U.S. These concepts are denoted within his first Inaugural address. In this speech, Jefferson definitely expresses a regard for the potency of the Union and for the federal government in general. But Jefferson was not a Federalist, he was rather a Republican, and this speech is peppered with quotations in which the former President speaks about the value in the personal freedom of people. Of his many references, some of the most eminent include the passage in which he applauds the U.S. For ridding itself of religious intolerance, and then goes on to equate political intolerance as equally "despotic as the former. Both of these examples are indicative of the fact that Thomas Jefferson truly valued the individual, and only esteemed the collective government in so much…… [read more]

Social Capital and Political Behavior Discussion Chapter

… ¶ … Human society is made up of individuals and the interactions that form between them. This means that the social bonds between individuals shape the society in which they exist. These social bonds have been called the "social capital" by which society functions, but "social capital" can also be harnessed for specific purposes. For instance, the nature of politics is based in the realm of social interactions between individuals. The system of trust and mutual exchange which fuels politics, can be referred to as an example of how "social capital" exists in the real world.

It is through association with political parties that an example of "social capital" playing a role in political behavior can be made. This is not to be confused with voting or following politics, as these actions can be performed all alone by an individual. But association with a political party, by its very nature, means social interaction with other people; and this is the basis of "social capital." For instance, "From the 1950's to the 1960's growing numbers of Americans worked for a political party during election campaigns, ringing doorbells, stuffing envelopes, and the like." (Putnam, 2000, p.38) This type of activity, working for political parties, is an example of how "social capital" can be directly related to political behavior. However, since actual voting rates have been in decline since the late 1960's, and fewer people are willing to expend "social capital" on political activities, party organizations have had a need to become more organized, professional, and efficient through the use of new technologies and social media.

In the 21st century the advent of new technologies have allowed for the development of new and innovative social networks that can be utilized as a means of 'social capital." People no longer have to physically work for a political party, as they did in the past, but can interact with others politically through social media sites. For instance, Facebook, MySpace, and other popular social networks have been instrumental in organizing a variety of political movements from the Arab Spring to the Occupy Wall Street protests. These two examples also specifically targeted the young and for many were their first foray into politics. The posts by several other students are correct when they said that targeting the young for participation in politics through the use of social networks has been demonstrated, and can be in the future, an effective means of developing "social capital."

Part 2:

One startling statistic that is pointed out by Wattenberg is that since 1972, the rate at which newspaper readership has declined has been about 1% a year. (Wattenberg, 2008, p.15) And while the attacks of September 11, 2001 did cause an immediate rise in readership, the trend of declining newspaper readership has continued for the last 50 years. An interesting coincidence may be that the rise of the Internet has coincided with the decline in the readership of newspapers. As stated by other students, there seems to be a generational aspect… [read more]

Progressivism the Early 20th Century Saw Essay

… Progressivism

The early 20th century saw a great change in the American political landscape as society, as well as the traditional two parties, were heavily influenced by the new ideology known as "progressivism." The influence that progressivism played on the various political interests may have been diverse, but there is no doubt that it had a definitive influence on American politics, economics, and society. This influence can be identified through the writings of different political figures of the early 20th century who espoused progressive ideas to various degrees.

The earliest example of the influence of progressivism is in Debs' 1900 article "The Outlook for Socialism in the United States," which espoused a radical progressive ideology and openly states that socialism should replace the capitalist system. Debs would like to see American society, government, and economy completely transformed through socialism. By 1914, progressivism had taken root in American society, but not completely as predicted by Debs; something that Herbert Croly pointed out in his 1914 article "Progressive Democracy." Croly asserted that progressivism, but not necessarily socialism, was itself a force that could reform American political life. The old corrupt capitalistic system needed to be replaced, but with a new system which was "the result of an alert social intelligence as well as an aroused individual conscience." (Croly)

Debs and Croly are the two most radical writers being examined, with Debs the most radical. Both want to replace the old system with a new one, but while Croly felt that the new system should be a more intelligent and moral refection of the old one, Debs wanted a completely new socialistic system. This is different from the next two writers who were much less radical in their approach to applying progressive ideas to American society. Theodore Roosevelt and Woodrow Wilson both espoused progressive ideas, but they felt that progressivism could be used to modernize specific aspects of American society without the need for a radical transformation.

After Debs and Croly, Wilson would have to be placed as the next most radical progressive writer examined. However, Wilson did not want to completely alter the American system but to have government regulate the private economy for the benefit of the people. It is Roosevelt that Wilson attacks in…… [read more]

Threat of Bioterrorism Research Paper

… In addition, the health care team should provide prophylaxis to the exposed. Another type of education that the local government should offer is to the local health department. This department should have the full knowledge of the state and the assistance that they can get. This means that the departments should know the appropriate channels to follow when there is a need to seek for help. Through education, the local government can save many funds that could be used in the curbing of bioterrorism earlier (Crosse 2003).

Conclusively, bioterrorism is one issue that has vast significance in the country. This is because it compromises the security of people who are everyday subject to such risks. It is hard to determine the next step that a terrorist can use when planning bioterrorism. Therefore, there should be measures that protect the public beforehand. The stakeholders have a massive role in the protection of the public. The public health agencies have the obligation to ensure that there is assistance to the public immediately such cases are experienced. The federal government cannot handle the cases because of the high attention that is necessary for bioterrorism. Therefore, they delegate the role to the local government, which has the obligation to assist the health care agencies. The communication between these stakeholders is extremely essential and can lead to the control of bioterrorism. Therefore, it is safe to conclude that the United States has the ability to respond to a bioterrorist attack whenever one occurs.


Borrelli, J.V. (2007). Bioterrorism: Prevention, preparedness and protection. New York: Nova


Crosse, M. (2003). Hospital Preparedness: Most Urban Hospitals Have Emergency Plans but Lack Certain Capacities for Bioterrorism Response: GAO-03-924. GAO Reports, 1.

Evans, R., & Lawrence, S. (2006). Preparing for and responding to bioterrorist attacks: the role of disease management initiatives. Disease Management & Health Outcomes, 14(5), 265-

Green, M.S., North Atlantic Treaty Organization., & NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Risk Assessment and Risk Communication in Bioterrorism. (2007). Risk assessment and risk communication strategies in bioterrorism preparedness: Proceedings of the NATO

Advanced Research Workshop on Risk Assessment and Risk Communication in Bioterrorism, held in Ein-Gedi, Israel, June 2005. Dordrecht [etc.: Springer.

Mellehovitch, V.B. (2004). Bioterrorism and public health. New York: Nova Science.

Rokach, A., Cohen, R., Shapira, N., Einav, S., Mandibura, A., & Bar-Dayan, Y. (2010).

Preparedness for anthrax attack:…… [read more]

Labor Relations Project Outline Term Paper

… Lqbor Relations Project

Labor Relations Project

In the United States, Canada and other advanced countries, labor unions are legal workers' representatives and the union activities largely centered on the collective bargaining over wages and improvement of working conditions of union… [read more]

Canadian Social Policy Essay

… Canadian Social Policy

The title of the article by Gerard Boismenu and Peter Graefe provides a strong hint as to the intended message and impact of this piece. "Tool Belt" reads like something is being forced into position rather than by legislative cooperation, or that something needs mechanical manipulation; and "Attempts to Rebuild Social Policy Leadership," suggest that there is no current leadership (Boismenu, et al., 2004, p. 71). In addition, a phrase in the first sentence offers the reader the sense that this paper is going to take the Canadian government to task: "unilateral action" in reference to any government policy reads as arbitrary, undemocratic, and is not what parliamentary leadership is supposed to be about.

And as the reader continues through this scholarly piece, the initial clues become strongly worded (yet for the most part quasi-diplomatic) narrative in opposition to government policies. The salient arguments that Boismenu and colleague are very effective at making -- specifically related to health policy, child policy, and employment issues -- is that the federal government: a) is not cooperative with provinces; rather, it is "regularly circumventing" provinces; b) systems that were effective in the past in terms of government / province relationships are "unusable"; c) the federal government has cut back its funding for health, education and other needs from 25% (in the 1980s) to about 15%, hence the government's actions reflect a "retreat from leadership" (Boismenu, 73).

Strengths: There clearly are strengths within the strategy put forward by Boismenu and Graefe in this narrative. Rather than simply attacking the federal government for failing to involve the provinces in matters that pertain to the funding of health, children's issues and employment, the authors point out that institutions were created at the federal level to create a more cooperative and collaborative relationship, but those institutions are being bypassed, tossed in the trash, or reinvented with bias against provinces. The 1999 Social Union Framework Agreement (SUFA), for example, was a "capstone" because it was an agreement that supposedly required the federal government to consult with -- and gain the "consent of" -- the six provinces prior to using spending authority in any nation-wide format (Boismenu, 74). However, the collaborative system of SUFA has been shot down due to the federal government's "unilateral reflex" and this leaves the provinces without the cooperation they expected or the funding they need (Boismenu, 74).

Another strength of this article is its narrative style; nowhere will a reader discover the word "arrogant" or "indifferent" albeit that is obviously the behavioral path the federal government is following. Boismenu and Graefe tell it like it is on page 75; notwithstanding the noise from the "provincial outcry" the truth -- from those backing federal unilateralism -- is that the provinces are too weak-kneed (and lacking in legitimacy) to challenge the federal government's leverage.

When on page 76 the authors accuse the federal government of using unilateral, undemocratic action as both a tool for putting pressure on the provinces and as a way… [read more]

Bureaucracies Can Become Self-Justifying Systems Article Critique

… This correlation suggests the value of consulting citizens when measuring the efficacy of government programs. Subjective factors that could also affect the perceptions of street cleanliness such as race, ethnicity, and class were less of a factor than objective measures of cleanliness (Van Ryzin et al. 2005: 301). The correlation between objective reports of cleanliness and citizen's from-the-ground reports has been observed anecdotally on numerous occasions, not just in the article but also in recent New York City history, when the City's failure to adequately clean snow from the ground during the blizzard of 2010.

Although the input provided by the street-cleaning program is very valuable and heartening in terms of its alignment of citizen and government measures and values, it could be questioned because street cleanliness, much like street snow plowing, is a fairly objective concept. More indefinite measures of quality of life could be more questionable, such as the effects of government programs on welfare policy, affirmative action, or education. Potentially controversial programs that require longitudinal analysis to determine their efficacy are less well-suited to citizen observational reviews as a measure of performance.


Kenney, John. (2011). Who owns snow? The New Yorker. Retrieved:

Van Ryzin, G.G., Immerwahr, S., & Altman, S. (2008). Measuring street cleanliness:

A comparison of New York City's scorecard and results from a citizen survey. Public Administration Review, 68(2), 295-303. Retrieved March…… [read more]

America's Founding Documents: Declaration and Constitution Research Paper

… Further, the American people get representation in their state legislatures as well. The address the grievance that King denied judicial institutions and made those existing judicial officers "dependent upon his will . . . For tenure and salaries," Article III of the Constitution creates an independent judiciary where offices are held during "good behavior" and where judicial salaries cannot be diminished while a judge sits on the bench -- this gets around the problem of a politically controlled or captured judiciary.

The grievance that the British government has a military "independent and superior to the civil power" is addressed both by giving the president and not generals, control over the military, and by giving the states the authority to have their own militias in which to protect themselves against the potential illegitimate use of military power by the American government. To address the grievances that jury trials are denied to the colonists and that the colonists are taken to Great Britain or distant places for trial, the Constitution gives Americans the right to trial by jury for criminal offenses and the right to be tried in the state where a given crime was committed in Article III.

One can also read the list of grievances as a violation of the Declaration's preamble's natural right to consensual government. The list, taken as a whole, violates the right of the people to choose both their form of government and to choose those who are to govern under the rule of law. It follows that through representative government, the ensuing law and politics will reflect the political and ethical morality of the governed -- and this means government will represent whatever ethical foundation that animates American political culture at a given time in history. As far as Founding goes, Kant had not yet been published in the United States in 1776, and the works of Bentham had not yet been widely disseminated. But the Declaration gives us clues on what "ethical code" informed the Founders. In the Declaration we find the phrasing "the Laws of Nature and Nature's God;" men are "endowed by their Creator" and that the colonists seek the protection of "Divine Providence." This is the language of Lockean natural rights; a natural rights understanding in which Jefferson and many of the Founders imbibed their rationalist Enlightenment ethical code. In this, humans use reason to discern the natural law which compels men to create government for the protection of "life, liberty and . . . happiness." And it follows that this government, created by the consent of the polity, could embrace any of the ethical currents found in the American polity at any given time in its history.

DI and C. predate "utilitarianism" and Kantianism so the "understanding of ethical standards under which the Founders operated must necessarily predate formal utilitarianism and KAntianism in the new republic.

Assess the possible…… [read more]

Legislative Bills the Campaign Finance Term Paper

… The bill was introduced January 26, 2012 by the Senate. It was passed February 2, 2012 by the Senate and February 9, 2012 by the House of Representatives. It is now before the President waiting for approval to be enacted into law. (S2038-Prohibits Insider Trading by Government Officials-Key Vote)

This bill specifies employees and members of Congress, executive branch employees, and judicial officers are not exempt from insider trading law. It would prohibit them from using nonpublic information for private profit. It would include the President, Vice President, and employees of U.S. Postal Service and the Postal Regulatory Commission. It would also prohibit public officials from performing official duties for the purpose of knowingly benefitting financial interest for themselves, their immediate family, or any business, organization, or person they have business relationship with, and does not disclose the required financial information regarding the person or organization benefitting from the act.

The bill would require key government officials to file reports on mortgages exceeding $10,000 secured by their personal residence and transactions over $1,000 for securities. It exempts disclosure of "widely held investment funds" provided they are publicly held or contain assets that are "widely diversified." It requires financial disclosure forms to be publicly displayed within 30 days and political consultants to register with the Secretary of Senate, Clerk of House, and disclose their activities. The Comptroller General of U.S. would be required to submit a report to Congress on the role of political intelligence in financial markets.


HR-3463-Repeals Taxpayer Financing of Presidential Election Campaigns-Key Vote. (n.d.). Retrieved from Project Vote Smart:

S2038-Prohibits Insider Trading by Government Officials-Key Vote.…… [read more]

Hacktivism and How it Reflects a Particular Tension in American Culture Research Paper

… Hacktivism

One Expression of the Haves vs. The Have-Notes

Once upon a time, not very long ago and in our very own galaxy, hackers just wanted to have fun. Hacking -- breaking into someone else's computer system -- began primarily… [read more]

Boone Pickins, My Case Term Paper

… Groups of this sort appear to constitute a natural frame of reference for those trying to understand the complex world of politics. Americans often reply in terms of group benefits when asked what they like or dislike about a candidate. The party or candidate is simply endorsed as being for a group with which the voter identifies, or as being above the selfish demands of certain groups within the population. In others words the voter's main consideration is the perceived economic position of their group.

At the broadest level there were key differences between the two candidates and their parties in the 1984 election. A Mondale administration could be expected to give more attention to unemployment whereas Reagan would focus on keeping inflation down. This reflects each candidate's fundamental viewpoint, Mondale's concern with social policy matters and government involvement, and Reagan's concern with economics and the belief in private initiative. At the time Democrats favored tax increases, especially in the higher brackets, while the Republicans favored cuts in civilian spending, mainly on social programs. While Mondale stated he would raise taxes to deal with the deficit, Reagan said he would not. Although Murray Weidenbaum (768) predicted any tax reform in the second Reagan administration would resemble revenue enhancement, and despite the rhetoric the tax burden on the average citizen would rise.

Weidenbaum (786) described the economic ideologies of the two candidates this way, "In a nutshell, the variances between the two candidates can be summed up in terms of greater reliance on government decision making verses more emphasis on the role of private enterprise and on the private sector generally."

Works Cited

Abramowitz, Alan L., David J. Lanoue and Subha Ramesh. "Economic Conditions, Casual Attributions, and Political Evaluations in the 1984 Presidential Election." Journal of Politics. Vol. 50, Issue 4. November 1988: 848- 863. 7 May 2012.

Kinder, Donald R., Gordon S. Adams and Paul W. Gronke. "Economics and Politics in the 1984 Presidential Election." American Journal of Political Science. Vol. 33, No. 2. May 1989: 491- 515. 7 May 2012.

Pickins, T.B. My Case for Reagan. (1984). 7 May 2012.

Qualls, John H. "Outlook for 1984: Politcal Economicsin an Election Year." Vital Speeches of the Day. Vol. 50, Issue 10. 1 March 1984: 314-317. 7 May 2012.

Weidenbaum, Murry L. " An Economist's Look at the 1984 Elections and Beyond." Vital Speeches of the Day. Vol. 50, Issue 24. 1 October 1984: 765-768. 7 May 2012. [read more]

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