"Government / Politics" Essays

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Charlie Wilson's War Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  1 pages (331 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1

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Charlie Wilson's War ends with a frightening foreshadowing of September 11. However well intentioned, the United States government support for "freedom fighters" around the world and especially in Afghanistan has armed groups of terrorists. The much is a fact, no matter how details of the film reflect real life scenarios. Tom Hanks and Julia Roberts are easy choices for a blockbuster cast. Although an actor with less of a baby face might have better filled the shoes of Charlie Wilson, the all-star casting did ensure a wide viewing audience for a movie depicting historical events that continue to reverberate in the 21st century. One of the reasons why Charlie Wilson's War is a success is that it depicts high-level decision-making and clandestine government operations with fairness. The film does slip into typical Hollywood sensationalism at times, but not enough so to make the main message meaningless.

Drawbacks of Charlie Wilson's War include its near lack of grit. The subject mater would seem to demand a…… [read more]


Sallust in Historical Writings Thesis

Thesis  |  15 pages (4,545 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6

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Sallust

In his historical writings, such as Bellum Jugurthinum, Caius Sallustius Crispus (Sallust) strongly criticizes avarice and ambition and the erosion of the Roman Republic and its earlier strong values. In fact, Sallust admits that he, too, was guilty of corruption and greed. By the time he retires from the political life, he says he recognizes his valueless and vain… [read more]


John Lock Thomas Hobbes Thesis

Thesis  |  9 pages (2,599 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5

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Locke v. Hobbes

The Political Philosophies of Locke and Hobbes

Two of England's -- and the world's -- most important philosophers were John Locke and Thomas Hobbes. Though their lives overlapped by forty years, and both saw the same major political battles and shifts occurring in their native land, the two had markedly different views on the nature and purpose… [read more]


Napoleon by the Late Eighteenth Century Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (626 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 2

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Napoleon

By the late eighteenth century, France was in turmoil. The political vacuum left by the toppling of the monarchy led to great social unrest. Into this cauldron, a minor war officer "with limited prospects" rose to power (PBS). Napoleon Bonaparte therefore came to lead at an opportune moment in the midst of revolution and political instability. His legacy is deeply paradoxical and in many ways contradictory. Napoleon broke from his revolutionary predecessors while simultaneously perpetuating their aims. He was the ultimate Enlightenment despot.

Napoleon Bonaparte likely feigned interest in the Enlightenment values when "trying to establish good links with people who have the power," (Jourquin, cited by PBS). His initial embracing of Enlightenment values was at least partly bogus, for Napoleon went on to side with Robespierre and the Jacobites during the Reign of Terror. Napoleon was clearly "not a revolutionary before the beginning of the Revolution," (Debaecque, cited by PBS). It has been said that Napoleon had been "quite affected by Rousseau and the philosophies of the Enlightenment," but only insofar as principles such as liberty and equality would help him succeed (Jourquin, cited by PBS).

Napoleon's actions and motives thus appear ambiguous. After he seized power Napoleon stated, "The Revolution is made fast on the principles on which it began; the Revolution is finished," (cited by Holmberg). Here, Napoleon may have suggested that his leadership would fulfill the will of the French people for freedom and liberty. After the Reign of Terror, Napoleon likely seemed to be a voice of reason, stability, and national pride. At the very same time, the politician's statement foreshadows Napoleon putting an end to the burgeoning democratic power of the people.

Napoleon did share several ideals in common with revolutionary philosophers, and put those ideals into practice such as a distaste for the monarchy, for the feudal economic and social model, and also for "civil…… [read more]


Sallust Thesis

Thesis  |  15 pages (4,295 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 10

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Sallust

Is the saying, "What comes around, goes around," correct? Just look at the times described by historian Caius Sallustius Crispus (Sallust) during the last years of the Roman Republic, and it is easy to see -- "History repeats itself over and over again." The events he describes could easily have happened anytime throughout American history, up to the present.… [read more]


Public Safety Interoperability Thesis

Thesis  |  1 pages (357 words)
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Public Safety Interoperability

First responders require seamless communications for a number of reasons. The very nature of incidents requiring their attention requires inter-dependence and interoperability between police and other emergency services (Davitt, 2008). The Sept. 11, 2001, terrorist attacks highlighted communications interoperability issues between first responders, after the lack of interoperability was considered a major factor in the deaths of more than 100 firemen at the World Trade Center in New York City (Why first-responder interoperability hasn't happened, 2004). First responders have to be able to work closely with a wide variety of other government and community organizations, including hospitals and health departments, quarantine, public utilities such as gas and electricity providers, the food and transport industries and the owners and operators of critical national infrastructure (Davitt, 2008).

First responder communications interoperability isn't just a local issue and the U.S. Federal Government is playing a large role in trying to ensure interoperability, which it defines as "the ability of first responders to communicate with whomever they need to (including personnel from a variety of agencies and jurisdictions), when…… [read more]


Democracy the Institution of Democracy - Origins Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  10 pages (2,900 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0

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Democracy

The Institution of Democracy - Origins and Dynamics

What is democracy? What is democracy expected to bring to a culture or a nation? When were the ideals that today citizens embrace as "freedom" initially launched as democracy? What political rights and restrictions are based on democratic principles and how do minority cultures interact with majority cultures in a democratic… [read more]


Mission of UNMIK as Established by UN Resolution 1244 in June 1994 Thesis

Thesis  |  4 pages (1,163 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4

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UNMIK as established by UN resolution 1244 in June 1994: Mission, rationale, and results

The purpose of UN Resolution 1244, passed in June 1999, following a 78 day-long NATO (North American Treaty Organization) led military campaign was to bring to a successful political conclusion to the strife in Kosovo. It combined immediate UN actions with a long-term program to create peace and stability in the region. The former nation of Yugoslavia had fragmented into a piecemeal conglomerate of nation-states and ethnic republics, all torn apart by in-fighting. Kosovo proved to be one of the most difficult situations to resolve. NATO felt it was compelled to take military action to prevent further Serbian infringements of human rights in Kosovo. "After Yugoslavia refused to accept the Rambouillet Agreement, NATO began bombing targets in Belgrade and other Serbian cities...June of 1999, Milosevic withdrew his troops, allowing NATO peacekeeping troops KFOR [Kosovo Force] to move in" (Werkhauseren 2009).

The UN's mandate was characterized as unprecedented and sweeping at the time. It was the first-ever operation of this type. "UNMIK initially brought together four pillars under United Nations leadership. With the emergency stage over, Pillar I (humanitarian assistance), led by the Office of the High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), was phased out at the end of June 2000" ("What is UNMIK," UN, 3009). Pillar II: Civil Administration, under the United Nations is still in force, as is Pillar III: Democratization and Institution Building, under the authority of the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) and Pillar IV: Reconstruction and Economic Development, administered by the European Union (EU) ("What is UNMIK," UN, 3009).

The first step of UNMIK was to restore basic civilian order and routine public service operations such as education, health, and garbage collection, to prevent further social destabilization and chaos. To administrate these operations, "UNMIK set up a regional structure with five Regional Administrators and 30 Municipal Administrators….One key department, the Central Fiscal Authority prepared the Kosovo Consolidated Budget. The internationally recruited UNMIK Police later in conjunction with the newly founded Kosovo Police Service sought to maintain law and order. A Kosovo Protection Corps was created to provide emergency response and reconstruction services, thereby absorbing the energies of some of the manpower of the former Kosovo Liberation Army" ("What is UNMIK," UN, 3009). Today, the nationally-administered Kosovo Police Services commands all 33 police stations and five out of six Regional Police Headquarters across Kosovo, while the UNMIK Police "has assumed a supporting and monitoring role while retaining overall supervisory authority of the UNMIK Police Commissioner" ("UNMIK -- at a glance," UN, 2009).

The ultimate aim of UNMIK has always been to restore local authority and control over Kosovo, not to maintain a permanent presence in the region. Six months after UNMIK was passed, it set up the Joint Interim Administrative Structure (JIAS) to create joint efforts between local counterparts and the UN authorities responsible for administering the province. The first leaders were appointed but later, at the municipal level, they were… [read more]


Ethics Consumerism Is a Movement to Improve Thesis

Thesis  |  1 pages (454 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0

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Ethics

Consumerism is a movement to improve the rights of consumers. It is my view that this movement is alive, but has largely stalled. The information age has allowed for consumer groups to provide information, but there has been little support at the institutional level for consumerism. The result is that drug companies have made Americans the most highly -- medicated people in the world; the U.S. is the only developed nation with both BHT milk and GMO foods; and the nation is flooded with tainted imports from China. While there is little doubt that some consumers remain committed to building their rights, most today have gone around the system. They arm themselves with information and make purchasing decisions in line with their own ethics. People do not expect any enforcement of their rights from government. Thus, consumerism has become less focused with rights and more focused on individuals enforcing their own rights by virtue of the purchasing decisions they make.

Lobbying is the process of influencing the behavior of politicians, particularly with respect to legislation. It is essentially making sure that they understand your story, in a favorable light, and are willing to work for your best interests. Lobbying takes place at all levels of government -- federal, state and local. There is lack of unity among the umbrella organizations because each organization has its own…… [read more]


Deference Discussion Judicial Deference: Does it Give Thesis

Thesis  |  1 pages (318 words)
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Deference Discussion

Judicial deference: does it give too much power to institutions?

In theory, judicial deference, far from giving too much power to institutions, upholds the idea of a separation of powers in government, and checks and balances. Legislatures are supposed to decide issues of policy by finding out the facts of a situation and making laws to address constituent's specific needs. The legislature is the most responsive entity of all of the branches of government and has unique tools to investigate issues. The judiciary decides upon questions of law and principles and defers to the legislature in questions of fact, just as the legislature must defer to the judiciary upon issues such as interpretation and constitutionality. The judiciary is shielded from the popular will and pressures of politics, but sometimes, in the case of rapidly-shifting events the judiciary should defer to the specific data yielded by the fact-finding exercises of the legislature.

But many scholars counter that this…… [read more]


Welfare State in Postwar Europe the Aftermath Essay

Essay  |  6 pages (1,743 words)
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¶ … Welfare State in Postwar Europe

The aftermath of World War II saw massive changes in the global political climate philosophically, theoretically, and practically speaking. The era of direct imperialism was largely over (though this assertion would certainly be disputed by certain populations today, and with legitimate reason), and the era of nation building had, for better or worse,… [read more]


Ethics in Economic Field Thesis

Thesis  |  5 pages (1,660 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+

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Ethics in Econ III

Economic research is embedded in much of the way our businesses and governments are run. The findings of economists can therefore have a profound impact on our lives. At the core of the ethical dilemma is whether or not the economists conduct this research are conducting it in fairness, to serve the greater good, or simply… [read more]


Managing Conflict and Negotiation Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  3 pages (936 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 4

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American Power

Over the past three decades America has had problems with the way in which its use of its power has been perceived by other nations. The past administration's use of inflammatory rhetoric and its decisions to move forward in Iraq without the consultation of its allies and supporters in the United Nations or on the national front cast America into a role of being perceived as a power monger. The poor attitude towards America can be better understood by reading David Harvey's (2005) book, the New Imperialism, in Chapter 2, How America's Power Grew. In Harvey's opening remarks in defining imperialism and capitalism, and those elements in a working government and society, then the American reader is suddenly more keenly aware that allegations of capitalistic imperialism have some weight - much as we might dislike the label. It becomes easier to look back over not just the past eight years, but the past two decades, and to see how we arrived at the place where America has lost the alliance and admiration of much of the world. Harvey helps us to see how America arrived at this place in time.

Harvey helps the reader to put the term "imperialism," into context, describing its meaning as would pertain to the United States, or from the outside perspective, as meaning,.".. A distinctively political project on the part of actors whose power is based in command of a territory and a capacity to mobilize its human and natural resources towards political, economic, and military ends (26)." This describes the place that America was coming from, imperialism, when the country set about to effect regime change in Iraq. Iraq, unlike Afghanistan, was the object of American leadership obsession, and what began at first a seemingly noble cause, was revealed for its more base abuse of power towards an imperialistic regime change and nation building stemming from a singular sense of retribution.

When Harvey speaks of imperialism as a molecular process backed by capital, wherein the command of power vis a vie political, economic, and military resources that can be manipulated as a political power bloc, then the reader is actually to able to make the connection between the events occurring over the past decade, and the ways in which Harvey suggests is the.".. struggle to assert its interests and achieve its goals in the world at large (26)."

Harvey actually helps the reader follow the path of "how America's Power Grew," because we can actually take the concepts as Harvey teaches them back before the events of 2001. In fact, we can take his concepts and apply them to every administration, Republican or Democrat, back to the Viet Nam Conflict. This is the path that American blindly followed their leaders along, until, by 2008, America stood as the epitome of…… [read more]


American Federal Government Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (690 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3

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¶ … United States, many interest groups attempt to attract the attention of the public and the government in order to promote their specific causes. Two main types of interest groups in the United States are economic interest groups and interest groups that are not economic in nature. Both groups have several things in common: they have an "organized membership," and specific policy goals, and they are not political parties because their specialized interests do not cover a wide range of issues (246). Economic groups are also vastly different than other interest groups. Economic interest groups consist of labor unions, farm groups, corporations, and professional associations, among others (247). They "exist primarily for economic purposes," which can include traditional business as well as protecting jobs and the like (247). Economic interest groups in the United States include teacher's unions, such as the National Education Association, and labor unions, such as the Teamsters. On the opposite side of the spectrum, other groups that are not organized around an economic interest also exist as well-organized interest groups. They organized in order to find "opportunities to promote a cause in which they believe" (251). While similar to economic interest groups in organization, they usually classify themselves as more altruistic, although this is not always the case. Some of these interest groups, today, include Greenpeace, which organizes around the environment, and the Association for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals. Both types or organizations engage in lobbying, or "persuading public officials to take actions favorable to a given organized group," as well as "lobbying by litigation," or trying to push their agenda through the judicial branch through law suits (Damerow). While interest groups are often promoted as organizations through which citizens can become involved in the political process, some argue that they cause more harm than good, gaining favors that help their organization, while hurting the public (Kenworthy).

Question Four

Although checks and balances are one way that the United States government attempts to keep its democratic nature, another watchdog is the media. In fact, it is the media…… [read more]


Federalism and Intergovernmental Relations Thesis

Thesis  |  5 pages (1,496 words)
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Federalism and Intergovernmental Relations

Ever since the creation of the United States, there has been a constant tremendous debate between the federalists and the anti-federalists, about the division of labor and responsibilities between a federal government and the state entities. At the same time, the discussion is ongoing and developing in the intergovernmental relations so as to what is the… [read more]


Citizen Originating With the Ancient Greeks Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,272 words)
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¶ … Citizen

Originating with the ancient Greeks, the concept of a good citizen remains central to any society. Yet the exact definitions of a good citizen will vary from culture to culture and person to person. To an extent, a society's social norms will dictate how a good citizen is defined. In most American communities, a good citizen is generally considered to be anyone who is not a bad citizen. Exemplary citizens are those whose service to the community goes above and beyond what it would take to be called a "good citizen." In other societies, being a good citizen might depend on more than just refraining from crime. For example, voting and community service might both be considered an integral part of being a good citizen. Interviews with classmates elucidated various approaches to defining what a good citizen is. All the answers suggested that obeying the law is an essential feature of a good citizen. However, we did not explore whether obeying the law was a sufficient means of defining good citizenship or whether obeying the law is just a necessary means. Furthermore, we did not determine whether a person could be a good citizen and also J-walk, or be a good citizen but not vote. Obeying laws, participating in the voting process, and volunteering or serving the community are some of the possible features of a good citizen.

Obeying laws seems to be at the very least an important part of being a good citizen. A convicted felon is generally not considered to be a good citizen, and neither is a vandal or someone who drives drunk. At the same time, even the best citizens occasionally break laws. It is therefore entirely possible that a person can break a city bylaw and still be a good citizen, so long as they harmed no one. Refraining from any behavior that might cause discomfort or harm to others is the core quality that helps define a good citizen, even more so than obeying the law strictly. In fact, a person who obeys all laws can still harm others by being verbally abusive, mean, or grumpy. The loner who participates little in community activities and who is an unpleasant person to be around might be law-abiding but a questionably good citizen. Thus, being a good citizen must depend on more than just obeying the law. Being a good citizen means treating fellow members of the community with respect and refraining from any and all offensive behavior.

One classmate noted that a good citizen should be defined as someone who gives back to the community in some way, such as by volunteering their time or helping others directly. The person mentioned a volunteer firefighter as a model good citizen: their selfless service characterizes those whose role in the community is outstanding. Therefore, some definitions of a good citizen require direct, positive action. Good citizens are not just those who obey laws; good citizens are those who obey laws and give back… [read more]


American Myth One of the Major Ways Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (699 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3

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¶ … American Myth

One of the major ways in which modern American society has shown the American ideal of freedom and prosperity to be a myth is through our programs -- or lack thereof -- to aid the lower and even middle classes. According to the text, Americans "place more emphasis on personal responsibility than do Europeans" (12). Two large examples of this are the nation's myth of college equaling success and its lack of a national healthcare system.

Most other first-world countries have some form of nationalized healthcare; Canada's programs began as early as 1944 (Irvine et al., 1). These programs are paid for by taxes that are generally much higher than American taxes, and yet the United States, despite having one of the lowest tax rates of the first-world countries, is still eighth on the UN's list of the standard of living amongst various countries -- still high up on a list of 177 countries, but beaten by Canada, Australia, Belgium, Iceland, and others who all have a national healthcare plane (Stanford). Our concept of prosperity is limited by our short-term vision, and the lack of healthcare for the poor keeps them from pursuing their true opportunities.

The standard of living ranking takes factors like life expectancy, GDP, and average income into account, too, but though the United States has the highest GDP in the world, this was not enough to earn them a higher rank on this list because the average income is still far lower than first-place Norway's (Stanford). This can be attributed in part to the fact that one in four Americans have college degrees -- far more than are actually necessary, meaning many of these students wasted time and money in school instead of adding years of income and job training to their lives (14). In essence, the American ideal is a myth because of its lack of prioritization.

Works Cited

Quality of Life." Stanford University. UN Human Development Index, 2004. Accessed 25 January 2009. http://ccrma.stanford.edu/~peer/norwayLiving.html

Irvine, B., Ferguson, S. And Cackett, B. "Background Briefing: The Canadian Health Care System." 2005.

Federalism,…… [read more]


Puritanism and Transcendentalism Essay

Essay  |  1 pages (462 words)
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¶ … Puritanism and Transcendentalism. Include specific references to the works of Bradstreet (Upon the Burning of Our House) and Thoreau (Resistance to Civil Government)

Compare and contrast Puritanism and Transcendentalism. Include specific references to the works of Bradstreet ("Upon the Burning of Our House") and Thoreau ("Resistance to Civil Government")

Puritanism and Transcendentalism seem to stand as opposite poles of thought, although both are philosophies that flourished in America. While Puritanism was tied to the Puritan church and society, the Transcendentalist movement advocated radical individualism and a break from society, as was made manifest in the life of Henry David Thoreau. Both philosophies advocated simplicity and a rejection of social convention in the name of the truth, but Transcendentalists like Thoreau focused on improving the world in the here and now, rather than upon changing the individual soul to prepare for the world to come, as did Puritan writers like the poet Anne Bradstreet.

Puritans rejected conventional English Christianity. They believed the English church had become corrupted by institutional bureaucracy, Catholicism, and worldliness. The radical Transcendentalist Thoreau believed that the American government had become corrupted and oppressive in its advocacy of territorial expansion and the waging of the Mexican-American War against another nation. American government had become bound to another tradition, just as bad as the British and was "each instant losing some of its integrity" when it engaged in…… [read more]


Ripple Effects of American Independence Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  14 pages (4,742 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1

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The Ripple Effects of American Independence

The United States and the United Kingdom are today great partners on
a divided world stage. Ironically, we may argue that this is a
relationship which in its worst straits would help to plant the seeds for a
reciprocating progressiveness that would leap back and forth across the
Atlantic through the coming century. Bred… [read more]


Major Themes in US History Since 1968 Thesis

Thesis  |  5 pages (1,477 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3

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¶ … U.S. History since 1986

The Conservative Influences

Today's America is the result of endless changes in all backgrounds, including economical, technological, social, cultural and political. In terms of political changes, the United States of America has evolved from being the vassal colonies of the British Empire to an independent and democratic state. The federal republic is run by… [read more]


English Civil War Thesis

Thesis  |  8 pages (2,541 words)
Bibliography Sources: 8

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English Civil War

There is a general debate among historians about precisely what started the English Civil War. While some historians hold that it was the disagreement among the king and the House of Lords and the House of Commons, others hold that this civil war was economically based. However, as this work will demonstrate both of these causes were… [read more]


July Monarchy Essay

Essay  |  1 pages (317 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

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¶ … Monarchy primarily refers to a period of time from approximately 1830 through 1847. The era was one of excess, merriment and parties throughout Paris, especially in regards to the Bourgeoisie, and as one recent article espoused, "the July Monarchy would be a somewhat more liberal regime than the Bourbon monarchy of Charles X that fell during the Trois Glorieuses" (Merriman, 2004, pg 147). The July Monarchy was more liberal due in no small part to the residual ecstasy still evident from the Revolution. Yet, "riots (still) rocked Paris" (Merriman, pg 147).

Many of the commoners at that time were slow to realize that even though the number of voters had doubled, little else had changed in France. The citizens were still ruled by a 'citizen-king' who in everything except title was still a monarch. That fact was a primary reason for the uprising in Lyons in both 1831 and Paris/Lyons in 1834. The cholera epidemic was…… [read more]


Oblivious Empire by Mark Hertsgaard Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,661 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 2

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¶ … Oblivious Empire" by Mark Hertsgaard and "The March of the Flag" by Albert J. Beveridge. Specifically it will compare and contrast the evolution of America's "special purpose" in the two readings. These two readings take very different views of America's place in the world. Beveridge, writing in 1898, speaks of America as an imperial institution who owes it… [read more]


Progressive Movement in Colorado Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (608 words)
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¶ … Colorado

Though the Progressive Party did not become an official national political party until 1912, when Theodore Roosevelt lost the Republican Party's nomination for the Presidency and formed the party along with many other Republicans and independent political figures, the progressive movement had a long history leading up to this split. Fears that the inordinate influence of big business were keeping Colorado behind the rest of the nation as far as progressive politics went fueled certain liberal elements of the Republican party in the state, and early rhetoric used to sway voters to the progressive movement was less extreme than it was in other areas, for fear of alienating voters if the language used to condemn the current system was too strong.

Edward P. Costigan, later a Democrat appointed to office by President Woodrow Wilson and eventually serving as a United States Senator for the same party, helped to found the Colorado Progressive Party in 1912, but lost his bid for the governorship of that state. The major platform of the Progressive Party included major governmental reforms at almost every level of government, from election reforms that included women's suffrage to the redefining of the judicial role away from dependence on oral arguments and precedents in favor of careful consideration of the factual information on hand, and even extending down to the reorganization of city and local politics to prevent the "boss" system that existed in so many localities. In Colorado specifically, many the Democratic governor elected in 1908, John F. Shafroth, incorporated much of the Progressive platform into his campaign and the actions of his administration, which is at least partially responsible for the incumbent's defeat of Edward P. Costigan. The reformative requirements urged by the progressive party were given serious consideration and much implementation in Colorado's state government during this…… [read more]


Geography Determined Some of the Differences Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (576 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1

SAMPLE TEXT:

Geography determined some of the differences between the various colonies. Ecological considerations made some richer in fishing and furs, versus others in food and cash crops. However, the colonists themselves hailed from different cultural backgrounds. Some were from England, others were Dutch, and African slaves populated large portions of the colonies and especially in the South where their labor was harnessed and exploited for economic gain. The motives behind settlement, relocation, and emigration differed from person to person or family to family but in general followed predictable patterns. Settlers with religious lifestyles formed conservative Christian communities. Those with more mercenary interests created colonies based on trade and expediency instead of romanticism. The differences between the colonies manifested in distinct political zones. Those zones would demarcate the first states of the union after Independence. Therefore, the political, economic, and cultural differences among the colonies would determine the political, economic, and cultural differences between the states.

The political differences that emerged between the colonies were rooted in different settlement patterns. Governance was mainly a local matter in colonial America. Towns were formed based on Old World, old country alliances. Families who traveled to the New World together generally tended to settle in the same colonial outposts and generations later became the forefathers and foremothers of the first states in the union. The New England states, which comprised the northeastern colonies and what are now the northeastern states, developed a system of local governance that depended on town hall meetings and strong communal interaction. The middle and southern colonies tended toward looser community connections and weaker central governments. Their settlers espoused the same theoretical freedoms touted by the New England colonists but politics were voiced differently in the southern colonies.

Economic…… [read more]


Intergovernmental Relations: Issues in Public Policies Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  11 pages (3,046 words)
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Intergovernmental Relations: Issues in Public Policies

This objective of this work is to examine intergovernmental relations specifically as related to issues in public policy and to answer the question of 'what changes need to be made in the public administration and political systems in order for them to be more communicative and inter-related?'

INTERGOVERNMENTAL RELATIONS (IGR) ISSUE

The issue addressed… [read more]


Danielle Allen Talking to Strangers Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (2,787 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

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Danielle Allen: Talking to Strangers.

Danielle Allen's Talking to Strangers: Anxieties of Citizenship since Brown v. Board of Education

The civil society has often constituted a subject of great interest for scholars and practitioners. While some works focus on the role the individual plays within the society, others reveal the role society plays in the formation of the individual. Then,… [read more]


Personal Statement for Political Science Major Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  3 pages (914 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0

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Personal Statement

I am writing to express my intent to pursue a major in Political Science. As I come from a politically involved family, the subject has always interested me. I have lived under three unique political systems and have seen many more on my travels. I have a strong interest in political theories like Marxism, because of the powerful way in which such theories have shaped our world and my life both.

I am a Chinese male who was born on the mainland and then emigrated to Hong Kong when I was five years old. My family's political involvement began during the Cultural Revolution when we struggled against the government. It was during this time when we left for British-run Hong Kong. I have been in the United States since I was 18 to attend community college. I wish to transfer to university to pursue a bachelor's degree in Political Science because I feel that this is the most valuable education I can receive here. Political Science is not a commonly-studied subject in Hong Kong and I feel it will benefit my country if I am able to return home with strong knowledge of such an uncommon subject.

My family's past and my interaction with various political systems has strongly influenced my desire to study Political Science. I have been exposed to communist China, Hong Kong in both the pre- and post-colonial eras, and now the most exciting example of American democracy in many years in the form of the latest election campaign. All of these systems interest me. I feel that it is important to understand how each of these systems has affected the populations of the different countries, and to compare that with my own experiences.

On a broader level, I am interested in the role of political systems in the modern world. For example, Marxism has had a profound influence on my family's history in China. Yet, Marxism itself has evolved into a number of different forms, and within each form the system takes a new life with every leader. The Cultural Revolution my family struggled against, for example, was a completely different reflection of the Marxist ideal than that which led to the founding of the communist party several decades earlier.

I have had extensive contact with the political system. My family's business frequently deals with various levels of government both in the U.S. And in Hong Kong. We have fought for policy change on the Chinese mainland as well in the course of our business endeavors. This has shown me how the policymakers can affect business, in contrast to the Cultural Revolution where we learned how policymakers can affect the people. The study of Political Science will help me to learn…… [read more]


Independence of Kosovo (the Problems the Crieses Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,530 words)
Style: Harvard  |  Bibliography Sources: 10

SAMPLE TEXT:

¶ … independence of KOSOVO (the problems the crieses that the nation faced)

Kosovo's declaration of independence and, even more important, its recognition by a significant number of states around the world, has sparked a debate that is likely to continue in the international arena throughout the following decades. The debate is not only moral or ethical, but also legal,… [read more]


John Adams Thesis

Thesis  |  10 pages (3,045 words)
Style: Turabian  |  Bibliography Sources: 5

SAMPLE TEXT:

John Adams was the second President of the United States. Adams entered the spotlight of the political arena during the early stages of the American Revolution. In fact, his contribution to Congress adopting the Declaration of Independence in 1776 was remarkable. He became Washington's Vice President after being a delegate from Massachusetts to the Continental Congress, as well as an… [read more]


Why a Legalization Program for Undocumented Workers Would Be Bad for the United States Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  8 pages (2,693 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 8

SAMPLE TEXT:

¶ … Legalization Program for Undocumented Workers Would be Bad for the U.S.

Why a Legalization Program for Undocumented Workers Would be Bad for the United States

Benjamin Franklin, never at a loss for the pithy comment, once said, "these immigrants are the most stupid in the nation. Few of their children speak English, and through their indiscretion or ours,… [read more]


Military Strategy Thesis

Thesis  |  15 pages (4,433 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 16

SAMPLE TEXT:

Australia's Domestic and Foreign Policy Approach to Confronting Terrorism
Terrorism has emerged as one of the most pressing concerns in foreign
policy and international relations. With the inception of guerilla strike
tactics, multicellular militia organizations and rising tension between the
developing and the developed sphere over the course of the second half of
the 20th century, terrorism has become a… [read more]


International Relations the Book "The Return Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (2,447 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 4

SAMPLE TEXT:

International Relations

The book "The Return of History and the End of Dreams" by Robert Kagan is an expressive, influential, alarming, but in the end a reader eventually feels positive and sees the world in the view of promising and rising balance of power in the world along with America's right role in it. His view has been quite fundamental… [read more]


Second World by Parag Khanna Research Paper

Research Paper  |  6 pages (1,932 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0

SAMPLE TEXT:

¶ … Second World by Parag Khanna

Book Review of Second World

The author Parag Khanna takes on an ambitious journey in researching and writing the book the Second World: Empires and Influence in the New Global World by visiting dozens of countries and both observing and interviewing globalization experts to complete this book. His is a writing style comparable… [read more]


Cosmopolitanism and the Transnational Public Sphere Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (991 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1

SAMPLE TEXT:

Transnational Public Sphere as Conduit

In the days of feudalism, and even after the Peace of Westphalia created the modern state, the fields of International Relations were primarily concerned with the competitive aspects of the economy and war. Today, however, the modern world has concerns that bring the community together instead of focusing on competition. Some of these concerns include the environment, human rights, and war and peace. These issues have fostered a new world community specifically in that they affect the world as a whole. In the form of Civil Society Organizations (CSOs), Nongovernmental Organizations (NGOs), and Intergovernmental Organizations (IGOs) specialty groups have organized around these issues and are attempting to form a global community to address them and change them. Often, this is called the global civil society -- a united, international society concerned with achieving common goals. The Cosmopolitan theorists have modified this idea to come up with the theory of the transnational public sphere. An explanation and exploration of this idea, followed by its comparison with current trends in globalization, will allow readers to evaluate for themselves the applicability of the theory. Regardless of where scholars stand on the theory, its existence offers several important questions about the global sphere: has the global or international realm really changed, or are new issues simply hiding tired policies? In what ways have social justice and special interests come to replace the policies of competition and economics, if they have at all. How will the world transition if this theory is true? How will the facets of competition and war be reconciled with the facets of social justice and peace in the modern world? Finally, what implications does this have for policymaking, organizations, government types, and international relations.

According to Kohler, the transnational public sphere is similar, and some would say identical to, what some call the global civil society. A group that values common international goals and characteristics over national ties, the transnational public sphere is identified more by their place in the human race than by their ethnicity or residency. But the new persuasion of international politics is not a transnational public sphere in itself. Instead, the transnational public sphere is recognizable not only for its ability to realign individuals, but also for the networking and action that it allows. Kohler identifies the transnational public sphere as a conduit through which "through which social interest groups are able to participate in international affairs beyond the traditional limits of state-confined politics" (232). Though Kohler goes on to qualify his statement by identifying the degree to which the transnational public sphere allows this interaction, it is clear that the primary objective and benefit from this type of public sphere is the amount of international work that can be done via non-traditional groups. For instance, special interest groups like Doctors without Boarders, Greenpeace, and Amnesty International can affect their societal causes in ways never before imaginable because the transnational public sphere allows them free passage…… [read more]


States and Localities the Changing Dynamic Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,534 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3

SAMPLE TEXT:

The Dynamic of Local, State and Federal Governance

American governance has been based in Constitutional ideology since
the founding of our nation. Woven within the myriad premises which have
defined this ideology and the document giving it foundation is an ongoing
debate concerning the balance of governmental oversight and relative
individual or community autonomy. One of the core philosophical divides… [read more]


Nations Can Thrive Without Democracy Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (1,011 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1

SAMPLE TEXT:

¶ … Nations Can Thrive Without Democracy, but Only for so Long by Marcus Gee. Specifically it will contain a critical response to the essay. Gee's essay promotes the idea that capitalism and success can spread without democracy, and autocracy can be the choice for some people of the world. While his arguments are compelling, they are weak when they assume that people "choose" autocracy and that all non-democratic entities must someday fail seem at odds with each other and at odds with what is happening in the world today.

Gee's essay addresses the rise of China from a third-world economic nobody to one of the giants of industry in today's world. He also discusses Russia's return to autocracy, and the main points of his article are that experts believed a rising economy and prosperity would spread capitalism and democracy around the world, but Russia and China have resisted this assumption, and cling to their autocratic governments, seemingly without regret. Gee writes, "Many Chinese and Russians seem to agree. China's leaders face no real challenge to their rule and Mr. Putin remains far more popular than many democratic leaders could dream of, despite his steady accumulation of unchecked power (Gee, par. 5). The author maintains this autocracy cannot last, and historically it does not last, and that nations cannot survive and thrive without democracy.

Gee presents logical arguments, often backed up with readings from other authors, but many of his arguments are assumptions, rather that facts with backup. For example, he writes, "China's leaders can probably keep China orderly and its economy growing for years to come. Perhaps. But the good times for China and Russia can't go on forever. Russia's current prosperity floats on high oil prices, which are even now showing signs of coming back to earth" (Gee, par. 7). "Probably" and "perhaps" are not words normally used to argue effectively. They point to the fact that Gee is offering is opinion, and no matter how informed and well read he is, it is still that, simply his opinion. In reality, China shows no signs of turning democratic any time soon. There were no mass demonstrations or defections, for that matter, during the Olympic Games. This is because China's government rules with an iron hand, to be sure, but the people of China seem content with their lives and their government, and no large-scale revolt is seen, except in other countries who protest China's record on human rights. Are the people afraid? Certainly, but that has never stopped people from rebelling, and that does not seem to be occurring in China. Gee even agrees with that, even as he argues against it. He writes, "It is a reminder that ordinary people put a premium on order, especially if they are from countries like Russia and China that have suffered through the lack of it" (Gee, par. 6). He seems at odds with his own assessments, as he says autocracies cannot work, and yet, they are working in times… [read more]


Politics of Aging Thesis

Thesis  |  9 pages (3,166 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 5

SAMPLE TEXT:

Elderly Voting Trends and the Current Election
There is an election in the United States which is fast-approaching
and which bucks the trend of recent history wherewith it can be said that
the two candidates are virtual mirror images of one another. Illinois
Senator Barrack Obama, at age forty-seven and coming from a mixed-
ethnicity, is a clear departure from… [read more]


Legitimization and Effectiveness of Denationalization Processes Term Paper

Term Paper  |  13 pages (3,695 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

SAMPLE TEXT:

Legitimization and Effectiveness of Denationalization Processes

The work of Zangl and Zurn entitled: "The Effects of Denationalization on Security in the OECD World" published by the Joan B. Kroc Institute for International Peace Studies" states: "Denationalization can partly explain not only the outstanding and unprecedented success with which nation states in the OECD world are today able to provide external… [read more]


Letters From 1990 Bush Doctor Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (688 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3

SAMPLE TEXT:

¶ … Letters from a 1990s bush doctor by Theresa Andrews. Specifically it will contain a historical analysis of the excerpt. The document was written in the 1990s during a coup in Sierra Leone. The author is a woman doctor who works for the humanitarian group World Vision in Africa, and the intended audience is anyone interested in African history, politics, and the history of African coups and their nature. The essay is short, but it contains quite a few details is this short account, and it makes the situation come alive for the reader.

The author wrote this document to illustrate the drama of living in the middle of a coup in Sierra Leone, but ultimately, the essay is an homage to God and God's blessing on the family. Throughout the article, the author notes her belief and faith in God, and she bases her feelings of safety and security on that faith. She wrote this essay to give an eyewitness account of the violence and fear that came with the coup, but ultimately the theme of the essay was hope and faith, rather than a close view of history.

The author makes many basic assumptions in this essay. She assumes the reader knows about Sierra Leone and Freeport, and why a coup would occur, and how coups work. She also makes the assumption that everyone reading will share her view of faith and God, and that her revelations will touch a cord in them like they touch on her. She also assumes the reader will understand the layout of her home and the surrounding area, because she does not really spend to much time giving descriptions of their home and surroundings, instead simply relying on sentences like "It turned out that an intruder had shot through the garage door to gain entry" (Andrews, p. 340). The reader assumes the garage is attached to the house, and that the intruder would have had access to the house, but this is implied, rather than described. These may be details that would have take away…… [read more]