"Government / Politics" Essays

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Features of Modern / Post Term Paper

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4. Other Important Technological Developments:

The modern era has also seen the development of several other technologies that have transformed the way people live. Inventions such as the telephone, radio, X-rays, and electricity have triggered significant changes in societies. The discovery of penicillin and other life-saving medicines have prolonged life-spans and cured diseases that used to routinely devastate human populations. The development of the atomic bomb and other weapons of mass destruction that has made the destruction of the entire planet possible has transformed the way mankind approaches warfare.

5. Diminishing Importance of Religion:

The Modern period has seen a significant reduction in the importance of religion, particularly in the developed world. This has given rise to various liberation movements such as the counter-culture movement of the sixties that extolled the virtues of sexual freedom and the women's liberation movement that seeks to overturn the deeply entrenched gender role of women.

6. Globalization and the Information Age:

Unprecetended developments in the communication technologies (the computer and the Internet) in the last few decades and the eclipse of controlled economies has opened up an age of globalization which has contracted distances, promoted world trade and given rise to a global culture. It also has its downsde -- as it threatens to exacerbate social and economic inequalities and provides new opportunities for global terrorists.

The Post-Modern period generally refers to the period after 1960 but there is no clear cut-off point between the Modern and the Post-Modern eras.

Fascism was successful in gaining power in Italy, Spain and Germany during the period between the two World…… [read more]


Dark Side of Camelot by Seymour Hersh Term Paper

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¶ … Dark Side of Camelot, by Semour Hersh, is a book that strips away the sanitized versions we have heard about the Kennedy administration and replacing it with some harsher truths.

The book demonstrates that because of the Kennedy family's power, and because of his family's position of wealth and privilege, John F. Kennedy, Jr. did not have to live by the rules and restrictions most people have to live by. He was able to indulge in extensive behaviors such as womanizing without having these behaviors leaked to the public. As a result, while President William Clinton was scoured by the press for an affair with one woman, John F. Kennedy never had to answer any hard questions.

The book also describes how John F. Kennedy, Jr. benefited from his father's and grandfather's political connections. The book suggests that the president's father, Joe Kennedy, used his money and influence to essentially purchase a senate seat for the future senator. This was a pattern he repeated for the 1960 presidential election. By controlling Chicago's politics, Joseph P. Kennedy was able to essentially buy Illinois' Electoral College votes, which tipped the scale for John F. Kennedy, Jr., giving him the presidency.

The book gives specific, detailed information on the major events of the Kennedy administration, such as the botched "Bay of Pigs" invasion of Cuba. Hersh demonstrates how the Mafia was involved and how it happened that although some in the CIA realized the invasion could not possibly succeed, this information did not get to Kennedy.

Hersh's book is an expose' of Kennedy politics and actions that never sugar coats the truth. It shows that while the Kennedys acted in ways we would consider excessive, so did the presidents who preceded him, putting Kennedy's behavior into historical perspective.

Twenty interesting facts from the book:

1. p. 35 -- John Kennedy's grandfather, "Honey Fitz," was mayor of Boston for two terms. His terms were marked by political paybacks and cronyism.

2. p. 36 -- as a congressman, Honey Fitz was investigated for voter fraud. This is interesting because apparently it happened in Chicago in 1960 during the presidential election.

3. p. 48 -- Joseph Kennedy made a fortune bootlegging during prohibition. He worked with the same Mafia that his son Robert investigated while Attorney General.

4. p. 63 -- Joseph Kennedy became ambassador to Great Britain. Unfortunately he did not see the importance of stopping Hitler and was an anti-Semite.

5. p. 80 -- Joseph Kennedy and Franklin D. Roosevelt had a long-simmering feud that climaxed Roosevelt ordered Kennedy, who was visiting FDR's Hyde Park home, ordered Kennedy to leave. The…… [read more]


European in Both the Spanish and Greek Term Paper

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European

In both the Spanish and Greek Civil Wars in the twentieth century, a central issue was opposition to communism, bringing left and right into conflict. Both conflicts also came to involve a war between fascism and communism at some level. The Spanish Civil War was treated as a distant issue by the American government, while this was not the… [read more]


Internet Voting in the U.S Term Paper

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The administration, however, showed no signs of stopping. U.S. Department of Defense spokesperson Glenn Flood said that they were aware of the concerns way before but expressed confidence that the system would be safe and secure at election time.

The Serve program was set for use by America's 6 million eligible voters outside the country or the military in November… [read more]


Karl Marx German Philosopher, Political Economist Term Paper

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Karl Marx German philosopher, political economist and revolutionary -- was the most influential 19th century European. He has had the greatest impact on not just European history but the history of the whole world. During much of the second half of the 20th century, almost one-fourth of the world's population lived under governments that claimed to be Marxist. After the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991, Marx's reputation has no doubt been tarnished to an extent but this does not in any way detract from Marx's importance and the impact he has had on people's lives. In this essay I shall carry out a critical analysis of Karl Marx, his theories, and explain his significance in history.

Early Life, Education & Career

Karl Marx was born in Rhineland Germany in 1818 to Jewish parents who were well off without being wealthy. His father, Heinrich was a liberal-minded lawyer who had nominally converted to Lutheranism to make life easier for himself as a lawyer. At the age of seventeen, Marx enrolled in the Faculty of Law at the University of Bonn, where he got involved in radical students politics and unruly behavior. His father disapproved of such behavior and shifted him to the more serious University of Berlin. Being a rebel at heart, though, Marx was unable to keep aloof from politics; he joined the Young Hegelian movement in Berlin, produced a radical critique of Christianity and found the doors of a university education closed to him by the Prussian government. He then moved on to a career in journalism becoming an editor of an influential liberal Cologne newspaper in 1842. He soon got into trouble in his new profession too when he published articles on the economy that were not appreciated by the Government, which banned the paper and Marx was forced to immigrate to France. It was in Paris that Marx developed his theories on Socialism and Communism. (Kries, 2004)

Marx's Theories

In the Communist Manifesto (1848), which Marx co-authored with Friedrich Engels, Marx gave the first systematic statement of modern socialist doctrine -- a materialist concept of history that became the base of all subsequent socialist thought. The Manifesto's central theme was that the history of society is a history of struggles between the capitalist and working classes in which the capitalists exploit the working class. Under this premise, Marx concluded that such a situation could not continue indefinitely and the capitalist class would be eventually overthrown by a working-class revolution leading to a classless society. ("Marx, Karl," 2005)

In his greatest work, Das Kapital (published in 3 Volumes from 1867 to 1895) Marx carried out an exhaustive analysis of the capitalist system and developed the theory that the capitalist class exploits the working class by appropriating the "surplus value" produced by the working class. In the Civil War in France (1871) and Critique of the Gotha Program (1875) he expressed the view that it was necessary for workers to seize political power by armed insurrection in… [read more]


Reforms in France and Germany Term Paper

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This resulted in constitution reform to change the President's term of service to five years to match that of the PM. For the French, this would mean a return to a more unified government as it would strength the relationship between the President and the parliamentary majority (Buckman 41). In this respect, instead of accepting divided government as a product of the French constitutional rules, politicians decided to change the rules to fit them into a political construct where not only is power uniform but creates an environment which is comfortable. This easily contributes to the amount of change possible for France as it does not grow out of the possibilities divided from divided government but instead promotes stronger connections between governmental bodies.

For Germany, divided government plays a different role. In Germany, "divided government occurs when opposing majorities control the two legislative houses, the Bundestag and Bundesrat" (Buckman 41). For Germany, the reaction to divided government was more tolerant than for France. Divided government has acted as a lens for Germany to analyze its political decisions. In other words, it has increased opportunities to influence legislation by allowing an expanded look into the Bundesrat absolute veto. The Bundesrat has two forms of veto depending on the type of law; however, the Bundestag has the power to veto the Bundesrat all together. Many critics would see this as a weak way of practicing politics but it proves successful as represents states' interests and prevents domination by any one popular national party (Buckman 41). For Germany, this protects its government from falling victim to a movement such as Nazism whose message and leadership lead to the Second World War. Divided government emerged as a movement in the 1970s as a way to reintroduce federalism and in this way, distributes governmental power between the two houses. This has resulted in an atmosphere of political competition and transformation for partisan parties. Much of Germany's reform has happened over a longer time period of thirty years, whereas, France's happened within a few years. Still this transformation made the reunification of East and West Germanys possible in the early 1990s. Divided government, as some critics charge has given more power to the states but this has also expanded the role of federal legislative process for both sides. By giving the Bundesrat more influence may have given the states more power but also increased public awareness of national parties. In this way, both sides work equally to strength the political process for Germany and this is why this country remains at the forefront of European progress.

Conclusion

As Kirk Buckman elaborates, "the constitution reaction to divided government in France and Germany were based on expectations for institutional practice, which themselves were based on repeated historical experience" (52). What he is really saying is that even politicians can learn from the past and its successes or mistakes. This really means that even government is not protected from human nature and that even it must adjust as a… [read more]


EU and Ireland Europa Term Paper

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(Alvarez, 2005)

Opinion of the EU

Thus, the opinion of the EU has indeed united Protestants and Catholics, although not in the way that may have initially been envisioned by the designers of the European Community in the 1960s, when the EC was first constructed. The EC was created as a way of facilitating cooperation between warring political nationals by creating an economic glue between European nations. Now, Protestants and Catholics within Northern Ireland and the Republic are united through economic prosperity, as younger and more mobile people look with excitement into a new economic future. Shows of wealth rather than faith mark one's status. The EU is viewed extremely positively, as might be expected, by members of this burgeoning youthful, capitalist community.

However, older members of Ireland, whose identities depended upon religion and regional identification, view the EU with greater ambiguity. All Irish have benefited, to one degree or another, from the new prosperity, and even the most hardened nationalist must take comfort in the EU's contribution to a revived Irish agriculture and a new market for Irish exports. Also, the EU has encouraged more young people to stay at home and work in Ireland, as well as to leave the Irish nation, even though the new policies have increased the ease of leaving and working abroad. Still, for many Irish, the EU has been a cause of peace and prosperity, externally, for both Irelands, albeit not a perfect peace, and for some a source of internal disquiet and soul-searching.

Works Cited

Alvarez, Lizette. "Suddenly Rich, Old Ireland Seems Bewildered." The New York Times. A4: 3.

Aughey, Arthur and Duncan Morrow Northern Ireland Politics. Longman Group Limited: London, 1996.

"EU at a Glance, History of the European Union." EUROPA. 2004.

http://europa.eu.int/abc/history/index_en.htm#

'Ireland and the E.U. Structural Funds." EUROPA Overview of Structural Funds.

http://www.csfinfo.com/htm/overview/structural_funds.htm

Munck, Ronnie. The Irish Economy: Results and Prospects. Pluto Press: London, 1993.

"Taoiseach Launches Report on Ireland's Presidency of the European Union." EUROPA Press Release. 1 Jul 2004. http://www.eu2004.ie/templates/news.asp?sNavlocator=66& list_id=904

Wood, David M. And Birol A. Yesilada. The Emerging European Union. Longman…… [read more]


Negative Perspectives on the Challenges and Results of Globalization Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (3,360 words)
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Globalization (Negative viewpoint)

Globalization/Negative Viewpoint

In the issue of globalization, since the start of the modern round of political moves geared toward increasing it, France has seemingly been the 'mine canary,' reacting first and somewhat explosively against the progress of globalization. It has been followed by Canada (particularly French Canada) and feminists; in short, there is a certain Gallic cultural… [read more]


United States Operates Term Paper

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The major function of a political party is in fact to nominate contenders for public office. That is, the parties select candidates and then present them to the electorate. The nominating function is almost exclusively a party undertaking in this country. Parties recruit contestants and by endorsing them, consolidate support for them. Nominees are those individuals who possess traits that hold majority appeal.

The presidential primary is either one or both of two things: a delegation process and/or a preference election. Once that much has been said, the device becomes difficult to describe and must be examined on a per state basis. Those states without presidential primaries hold local caucuses, district conventions, and/or state conventions. During national conventions state delegates determine the nominee of its respective party. The two major party nominees, one Republican and one Democrat, are the chief presidential alternatives from which the electorate chooses.

The presidential campaign ends with election day. It is the next facet of the electoral process that is least understood by Americans. On this day, voters, in choosing between candidates actually pick presidential electors known as the Electoral College. These are individuals expected to support a specific aspirant. A majority of electoral votes, that is 270, is needed for election as president.

Voters have many opportunities throughout the presidential campaign to become involved. An individual may give money, resources, or time to a presidential hopeful. Interest groups, through donations, may influence a candidate's platform. Presidential primaries present another opportunity for involvement as registered party members influence the outcome of presidential nominations. As previously stated, it is important to review each state's protocol in determining who may participate. And naturally, on election day, the entire electorate has a chance to exercise its voting rights.

Reforms in the presidential processes have been proposed. Some claim that primaries should be more inclusive. Others, in reference to the Electoral College, point out its flaws. For example, a candidate may lose the popular vote contest yet win the presidency in the Electoral College balloting. Despite several proposals of reform, it seems unlikely that one particular one will be approved in the immediate future. A process that took considerable deliberation to create requires equal consideration to restructure.

References

Wilson, James Q. & Dilulio, John J. (1998). American Government. Boston:…… [read more]


Cicero Marcus Tullius Cicero Was Born Term Paper

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Cicero

Marcus Tullius Cicero was born on January 3, 106 BC and was murdered on December 7, 43 BC. Cicero was born and raised in the Italian provincial town of Arpinum (Arpino), seventy miles east of Rome. The Arpinates had been citizens of Rome for nearly a century, but its residents were still viewed with careless disdain in Rome as… [read more]


John Locke Believes That the Wealthy Term Paper

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John Locke believes that the wealthy should have the majority of political power in a civil society, that those without property have no need of political power and that the authority of the government comes from the consent of the governed. Society was created, according to Locke's theories to make the existence of property possible, and to protect it from… [read more]


Day in the Life of a Member of Congress Term Paper

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¶ … Life of a Member of Congress

Members of the House of Representatives and of the Senate must have many qualifications in order to appeal to the voting majority and financial backers, and there are a number of reasons why each of those qualifications might be necessary for peak job performance in Congress. Unfortunately, many of the job requirements… [read more]


Thoreau and Locke Acknowledge Term Paper

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Thoreau believed that government and sovereignty, however was merely an idea created by individuals. In other words, without the individual inhabitants of America there was no collective government, and no government or human-created body could be larger than the individuals of the population that it was designed to serve.

Hence, Thoreau's advancement of the idea that the government that governs best, governs least and the primary obligations at stake are those of the (non-human, constructed) government towards protecting the individual rights of the humans it was created to serve, one by one. Locke, in contrast, puts forth the idea that there are mutual foundations of political obligation between the ruled and ruler. True, in Locke's view, all rights begin in the individual property interest and the individual person. In this, his viewpoint echoes Thoreau and thus does have an individualistic component commensurate with Thoreau's essay on "Civil Disobedience." But Locke always stressed that the collective nature of the social structure or commonwealth required a certain sacrifice of individual rights of the governed to the soverign. No collective mode of governance, in Locke's view, could serve all of the people, all of the time.

True, Locke would agree that the soverign or government depends for its formation and maintenance on the express consent of those inidviduals who are governed by its political powers. But not every citizen can individually consent to such an accordance, on every single matter, such as a war that may arise during an administration, as was contended by the American administration during the supposed crisis that led up to the Mexican-American War.

Thus, for Locke, majority rule thus becomes the cornerstone of all political order, and the majority of dissatisfied citizens reserve a lasting right to revolution. But Thoreau, an abolitionist as well as a pacifist, was much less sanguine about the right of the majority to be correct at all times. For Locke, government could be either the rule of the majority by parliamentary democracy alone, or by a democratic form of monarchy, as existed in England. But for Thoreau, 'government' as a collective or individual institution did not exist. Rather, government was merely an expedient or a means to an end of the individual. For Thoreau, government existed not so much to do 'the people's will, for the name of 'the people' could be easily abused. Rather, government existed to protect every individual person's will, for the will of 'the people' never surmounts the individual rights and will of 'the persons' who form the abstract notions of the 'American populace' and the 'American government.' In Thoreau's eyes, a government should protect individual rights, not the rights of the majority of individuals if the majority wished to deprive members of a minority of their individual rights, or to use the government to tyrannical ends. Thoreau, an individual, regarded the Mexican War as an aggressive act of tyranny unjustly and unlawfully perpetuated upon another nation. As he did not support the war, he did not support the… [read more]


Federalist Paper #51 the Theory Term Paper

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In reviewing the #51 paper one can clearly see that Madison supports the partition of powers for each governmental department and expresses a firm belief that each department should have its own will and members within each department should be independent of other departmental members. Further, Madison felt, in order to avoid potential bias, members of one department should not be responsible for the appointment of members to another government department. In addition Madison clearly stresses that in framing the government need to control the governed and as well as control itself. The manner in which Madison envisioned the power of each government department was in assigning a certain amount of self-defense to each department that would protect individual departments from being unduly influenced by other departments as well being representative of the people to who they provided service. What Madison was actually stressing was a system of checks and balances as a means whereby the government's power would be restricted which would help to curb government abuse. In summing up Madison's position with respect to the framing of the U.S. government it is best stated that he supported a strong central government, yet leaving residual sovereignty to states in matters that did not require national concern. The force behind Madison's thinking is primarily based on his distrust of power assigned to people and government. In the end there exists a separation of powers within the three branches of government and no branch has…… [read more]


Nature of Consensus Term Paper

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The process continues even today and the group still involves all persons above 16 being a part of the decision making process. When the Mexican government sends any proposal, it is discussed many times in the small villages there till a decision is reached. Their decision to start on the war was reached after a 92.8% approval, and this continued even after the Mexican government made some initial concessions. (Consensus - How to and Why)

It would be wrong to think that this procedure is important only for social issues. The technique is applied even in industry. In electrical engineering there are some standard called consensus standards by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, or the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. During work, sometimes, the contractors may be expected to follow these standards for designing of equipment. When the contractor does not design equipment matching up to the standards of this code, then the contractor cannot be punished with legal action, but their employees should be punished for not matching up to this policy. This is often mentioned as a part of the contract given by the party asking for the designing exercise. (DiNunno, 1995) Thus it can be seen that even in scientific decisions, consensus is used, when one is not certain about the end results if the decision is implemented.

References

"Civil Disobedience Training." Retrieved from http://www.actupny.org/documents/CDdocuments/Consensus.html

Accessed on 15 June, 2005

"Consensus Decision Making." Retrieved from http://www.uhc-collective.org.uk/knowledge/toolbox/meetings_and_organisation/consensus_short.htm Accessed on 15 June, 2005

"Consensus Decision Making." Retrieved from http://www.givingforum.org/givingcircles/downloads/Consensus%20Decision%20Making%20Philosophy%20NGAAP.pdf Accessed on 16 June, 2005

"Consensus - How to and Why." Retrieved from http://www.msu.edu/~corcora5/org/consensus.html Accessed on 15 June, 2005

DiNunno, Joseph. L. (May 31, 1995) "Fundamentals for Understanding Standards-Based Safety

Management of DOE Defense Nuclear Facilities" Paper Prepared for the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board Public Meeting. Retrieved from http://www.deprep.org/archive/techrpts/bm95u13b.htm Accessed on 16 June, 2005… [read more]


Historical Criticism of Man's Fate Term Paper

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Man's Fate

Historical criticism: Man's Fate

In La Condition humaine (Man's Fate), Malraux discusses an important political episode in 1927 Shanghai. This was the time of Chinese revolution which was instigated by the communists and actively opposed by the nationalist forces of General Tchang-Kai-Shek. Originally published as a report, the book was based on facts but was still largely a… [read more]


Restoration the Shift in Consciousness Term Paper

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Restoration

The Shift in Consciousness -- From John Locke to "The Rape of the Locke"

The Restoration of the monarchy in Great Britain of Charles II first oversaw the development of a new creative ferment and interest in the sciences and political economy in the minds of England's greatest writers. This tumultuous time in English history was marked by intensive divisiveness between Puritans, members of the Church of England, and Catholics. All English citizens feared of one faction might overcome the rights of the other political and religious factions in the land. Religious toleration and a balance between monarchial and popular influence was the only solution to these internally and externally fraught times, suggested John Locke. Locke stated that the will and the needs of the common populace must be taken into account when arriving at a solution as to what was the best form of governance.

In his 1690 an Essay Concerning Human Understanding Locke put forth his argument for the philosophy of empricism, namely that humans do not have innate ideas of God, identity or things in general, but that experience shapes the mind. (I.4) Locke stated that the human mind was a "tabula rasa" or blank sheet until experience in the form of sensation and reflection provided the basic materials to shape impressions. (II.1-2) From this principle, Locke in his later writings extrapolated the democratic ideal that all citizens were equally fit to govern themselves at the beginning of their existences, regardless of their parentage, and every person had the ability to learn. Even if natural abilities might differ, and government might require some hiearchy of rulership, the differences between citizens was not innate, but primarily based upon experiences and impressions one garnered throughout one's existence -- no one began life as 'more fit' to rule because of their birth.

This empiricist ideal of Locke echoed the ideals of ancient, Classical Greek democracy Locke developed his empiricist ideas as the result of his intense scientific questioning, a questioning in the spirit of the scientific Classicism popular during his…… [read more]


Famines and Famine Situations Term Paper

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The Serer of the Sin region in Senegal had developed over centuries a distinctive pattern of cleavage and land colonization, which included a very well-developed system relying on private property as the fundamental form of individual property. The people in this region also used land pawning as a form of cash loan in exchange for land collateral. In time, during the centuries that have passed since the appearance of the model, the system gradually progressed and could certainly be assimilated to any modern economic system, with a functional set of economic rules. The main issue we need to emphasize here is the fact that the system worked and had worked all throughout the history, providing excellent economic results, in the sense of a reasonable economic development at local level, which avoided any food shortages.

The Western style of economy, brought about by the French had several important problems to face. First of all, it was not a sustainable model, because the economic relations and conditions that existed in Senegal by the time had arrived were not fit to respond to a French economic model. The issue at hand here is not necessarily the fact that the French model was not functional, but the fact that the French model was not functional implemented on a different economic system such as the Senegalese one. Exemplified here, we need to point out that this was also the case for other colonial powers, like the British Empire in Sudan or the Portuguese in Mozambique, that implemented economic systems where these would not function.

As in many cases, we may conclude that the Occidental powers have brought on their so-called benefices in way that significantly damaged existing economic relations in the colonies and created issues that have remained unresolved over the next hundred of years. It should not be an exaggerated comparison to relate former colonial powers with present time NGOs, as de Waal would be keen to point out.

Certainly, to an extent, the original purpose is fairly different. For colonial powers, the rule was that exploitation was the only reason that a region was colonized. In the case of NGOs, many times the purpose is noble. However, the approach is often quite similar. In the case of NGOs, de Waal points out to a poor organization and a general misconception. Put together, these mean that the NGOs are often not sure how to approach a sensitive problem. For example, in the case of famine, the Malthusian explanation is not enough, but it is sometimes the most accessible. On the other hand, approaches and correlations such as de Waal is attempting in his book are probably closer to the actual happenings and causes.

The local and village-level economic developments may often appear as primitive and irrelevant for those belonging to the Western civilization. On the other hand, it needs to be pointed out that they are often responses to local particularities and that they could be the best adapted situation in many conditions. Implementing… [read more]


Race for Colonies Term Paper

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This essay briefly describes fascism and explains how fascist governments came to power in Italy and Germany.

What is Fascism?

Historians do not agree on a single or precise definition of fascism but it generally refers to a totalitarian system of government, which emphasizes an extreme form of nationalism and/or racism, rejects liberal ideals such as democracy, freedom and individual rights, and attempts to build a new idealistic and regimented society by suppressing all dissent through the use of violence. Other features of fascism include the creation of an image of a mythical glorious past of a nation that has been lost; the conception of a nation in crisis; identifying a scapegoat responsible for such loss; and mobilizing the nation towards regaining its glorious mythical past.

Rise of Fascism in Italy:

Benito Mussolini, an Italian journalist, founded the fascist movement (known as the Fasci) in 1919 in Italy. Mussolini did not have a clear-cut political program at the beginning and his ideology of fascism evolved over the years.

Initially, the Fasci even adopted a leftist agenda calling for workers' rights and redistribution of wealth. Later, when fear of Bolshevism spread among the Italian elite and middle class (fueled by strikes organized by the Socialist Party of Italy in different parts of the country) the Fascists took an ideological about-turn. They organized a paramilitary force, called the Blackshirts, who used physical violence against the Socialists, and the Fascists gained a reputation as a bulwark against the spread of Bolshevism in Italy and Europe. By organizing violent demonstrations of the Blackshirts in Rome in October 1922 and threatening a coup, Mussolini was able to bully the Italian establishment into making him an offer to join a coalition government. Having got a foot in the door of power, Mussolini used the excuse of a crisis sparked by the murder of a socialist leader in 1925

, to assume dictatorial powers.

Rise of Fascism in Germany:

The post World War I Germany presented an even more condusive environment for the rise of fascism. The country was humiliated in defeat by the terms of the Varseilles Treaty and the "stab in the back" myth made many Germans believe that they had not actually lost the war but were let down by treacherous politicians. Hitler, an ex-Austrian artist who fought in World War I as an ordnary soldier, exploited these feelings among middle class Germans and founded the Nazi Party. He advocated German racial superiority, virulent anti-Semitism, the concept of "Lebensraum" (living space) for the Germans and the necessity of another war to achieve these objectives. Economic depression and fear of Bolshevism gave the Nazis political support. The Nazis organized their own militant arm, fought the communists on the streets, and got enough parliamentary seats in the elections of 1932 to maneuver themselves into power, when Hitler was invited to become the Chancellor of Germany in 1933. From the onwards, Hitler, like his fascist counterpart in Italy, implemented his plan for establishing a ruthless dictatorship and… [read more]


Federalist 10 in a Positive Light Term Paper

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Federalist 10 in a Positive Light plan was carried to the convention floor by Mr. James Madison. It was the exact mirrored opposite of Hamilton's plan. In fact, the theory he advocated at Philadelphia and in his Federalist essays was developed as a republican substitute for the New Yorker's, often high toned, scheme of state. Madison was convinced the class struggle would be alleviated in America by establishing a limited federal government that would make use of the vast size of the country and the existence of the states as active political organizations. He expressed in his "Notes on Confederacy," in his speeches and in Federalist 10 that if in an extended republic was set up including a multiplicity of economic, geographic, social, religious and sectional interests, these interests, by checking each other, would prevent American society from being divided into segments of the rich and segments of the poor.1 Thus, if no interstate proletariat could become organized purely due to economic lines, the property of the rich would be safe even though the mass of the people held political power.

Madison's solution for the class struggle was not to set up an absolute and irresponsible state to regiment society from above; he was never willing to sacrifice liberty to gain security in any way. His goal was to multiply the deposits of political power in the state itself sufficiently in order to break down the sole dualism of rich and poor, allowing for a guarantee of liberty and security. This, as he stated in Federalist 10, would provide a "republican remedy for the diseases most incident to republican government." 2 it is also interesting to note that James Madison was the most creative and philosophical disciple of the Scottish school of science and politics in the Philadelphia Convention. He was effective as an advocate for a new constitution, and of the particular constitution that was drawn up in Philadelphia n 1787. This effectiveness was certainly based in a large part on his vast personal experience in public life and his personal knowledge of the conditions of American in 1787. Madison was a great statesman who had the ability to set his personal experience into the context of the experience of men in other ages and times. By doing this he gave extra insight to his political formulations.

Madison's most amazing political prophecy, contained within the pages of Federalist 10, was that the size of the United States and its variety of interests could be made a guarantee of stability and justice under the new constitution. When Madison made this prophecy, the accepted opinion among many politicians was the opposite. It was David Hume's speculations in the "Idea of a Perfect Common Wealth," first published in 1752, that most stimulated James Madison's thought on factions. 3…… [read more]


Voting Term Paper

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It should therefore be impressed upon these people that all of the current issues, including global warming and national debt, are influenced by politics and indeed by voters. The voter has the power to change things through a single mark on the ballot. This power is a privilege that has been won by hard work in the history of the country. Perhaps this is the starting point from which educator should work to bring young people into the political scene. Young people spend many of their waking hours at school. This time should be used to educated them not only on the importance of voting, but also on the sacrifices made by their forefathers to bring the current democracy into existence.

Specific solutions could therefore entail implementing programs in schools where prominent politicians are invited to speak to children about politics and how voting makes a difference. These speeches can then be followed by a question and answer sequence where children are allowed to ask questions and make comments regarding the process of voting. Furthermore, individual classes could also focus on politics and how young people specifically may make a difference.

Another good initiative was mentioned by Hillary Clinton. The "Motor Voter" law for example entailed that young people register to vote as soon as they receive their driver's license. This however should be followed up by voter education, so that young people are encouraged to vote and made aware of the benefits of voting.

The Internet is another excellent resource to use for this. Schools are increasingly privileged with Internet connections, and thus young people could at their leisure find informative and interesting web sites in order to educate themselves regarding the voting process and the benefits thereof.

Another important aspect of education is making young people aware of the processes that led to the United States' democracy as it currently exists. They should also be aware that voting for all sectors of society is a hard-earned right that should be exercised by all who have it. Schools can also educate children regarding less privileged countries, where democracy is no more than a dream. Indeed, citizens from countries just emerging into the democratic paradigm stand in line for hours on end to exercise their new voting rights.

The benefits of voting are numerous. Although it is tempting to think that a single vote cannot change anything, couple with all other single votes in the country, it makes a huge difference indeed. If everybody felt that their vote made no difference, the turnouts at elections would be zero, and no democracy would exist. It is therefore in the interest of the country's way of life that everybody exercise their right to vote.

Voting is the most important right exercised by any democratic society. It is therefore vitally important that not only young people, but also their parents and their younger siblings, be aware of exactly how the right to vote can change their lives. This is not only true of… [read more]


United Nations Peacekeeping Missions Term Paper

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United Nations Peacekeeping Missions

The initiators of the United Nations in 1945 laid down the maintenance of peace and security as one among its three primary objectives. The UN Security Council has the necessary power to undertake military peacemaking action against the concerned government regime. But any such proposal is capable of being barred by any one of the permanent… [read more]


Kuwait the General Belief Term Paper

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Kuwait

The general belief everywhere in the world is that the U.S. Foreign Policy or, as it is otherwise known, the 'country-by-country policy', is one that proves to be of great advantage to that country that it is supposed to help. However, the true fact today is that the U.S. does not have, any longer, a really unified foreign policy,… [read more]


Fall of Communism Term Paper

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Economic and Political Factors That Led to the Fall of Communism in Eastern Europe

Right after the Second World War, a new war had pervaded humanity with the gradual dominance and spread of Communism in the Eastern Europe and Asian regions. Proposed as Karl Marx's program for the creation of a socialist society in the modern period, Communism had gained inspiration for countries who tried to veer away from the influence of the Western world, and adopt a new society that contradicts the principles of capitalism. Believing that indeed, capitalism has an inevitable propensity to create stratification and marginalization to specific groups in the society, Eastern European nations formed the Union of Soviet Socialist Republic (USSR or Soviet Union) in order to push through Marx's proposition that a socialist, Communist society be established.

With its inception Communism had spread to include other nations as well, particularly those in the Asian regions, such as China and the northern parts of Korea and Vietnam, as well as Cambodia. With the proliferation of nations adopting the Communist social and politico-economic paradigm, Western nations, specifically Great Britain and United States, felt threatened that these Communist nations would oppose the prevalent status quo among most societies, which are all capitalist economic societies. What thus transpired was a Cold War that created divisions among nations, wherein two factions were created: those who support the Communist Agenda, and those who support the Modernist Project, which portrayed capitalism as better, more liberal, and successful than Communism. Indeed, history illustrated that the Communist agenda to establish a socialist society did not succeed, and a few decades after the rise of Communism, it fell immediately, particularly among the Eastern European nations.

However, political and economic factors have contributed to the fall of Communism. It is erroneous to claim that Communism failed because it is, in its entirety, a faulty proposition created by Marx. These political and economic factors are significantly related to the U.S. And Britain's Modernist Project, which developed within the Marshall Aid Plan. The Marshall Plan was created to provide financial aid and support to Eastern European, as well as Asian, nations who have been crippled by the effects of World War II. Through the creation of organizations that provide financial and social support, such as the World Bank and United Nations, respectively, nations that need rehabilitation after World War II were given indirect financial aid and political support from the U.S. And Britain.

The Modernist Project through the Marshall Plan was…… [read more]


Civil War the International Law Term Paper

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(UN intervention in Somalia and Mozambique: why success is not always cast in stone)

The failure of the peace implementation policy is attributed to the presence of spoilers, factions or leaders contradicting the peace agreement and exerts force those oppose the peace agreement and apply coercive force to undermine that. The opposition of the neighboring states opposing the peace agreement and assisting the spoilers also contributes towards the failure. (Implementing Peace Agreements in Civil Wars: Lessons and Recommendations for Policymakers)

Strategically, the international community is required to be agreeable to back the intervention into some internal disputes. Interventions also are required to plan for success. They are also required to follow through with plans to execute any peace solution that may be accessed. The effective interventions are required to be aware of the mode of taking advantages of the connection between the diplomacy and military force. The diplomatic interventions are strengthened by the military power and the simultaneously the military forces necessitate diplomacy to put forth its objectives and interests. Hence the military intervention is seen to be more effective when deployed in the circumstances of a continuing political peace process. (Lessons on Intervention)

References

Boutwell, Jeffrey. Pugwash Study Group on Intervention, Sovereignty and International Security. Pugwash Workshop on Intervention and Sovereignty. Pugwash Meeting No. 252, 10-11 December 1999. Venice, Italy. Retrieved from http://www.pugwash.org/reports/rc/rc5.htm Accessed on 7 May, 2005

Chester Crocker, Lessons on Intervention, in Managing Conflict in the Post-Cold War World: The Role of Intervention. Report of the Aspen Institute Conference, August 2-6, 1995, (Aspen, Colorado: Aspen Institute, 1996) pp.77-88. Retrieved from http://www.colorado.edu/conflict/peace/example/croc1975.htm Accessed on 7 May, 2005

Implementing Peace Agreements in Civil Wars: Lessons and Recommendations for Policymakers. IPA Policy Paper Series on Peace Implementation. Center for International Security and Co-operation. Stanford University. May, 2001. Retrieved from http://www.ipacademy.org/PDF_Reports/Pdf_Report_Implementing.pdf Accessed on 7 May, 2005

UN intervention in Somalia and Mozambique: why success is not always cast in stone. Global Dialogues. Vol: 5; No: 1; May 2000. Retrieved from http://www.igd.org.za/pub/g-dialogue/africa/somalia.html Accessed on 7 May, 2005… [read more]


Disagreeable Aspects of the Legislative, Judicial Term Paper

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Disagreeable Aspects of the Legislative, Judicial and Executive Branches

Article 1, Section 2 of the Constitution of the United States sets out the term of a member of the House of Representatives at two years, and Section 3 sets out the term for Senators at six years. It can be argued that the Framers of the Constitution intended for Congressmen to serve their terms and return to their civilian lives. They did not intend for a class of politicians that return to their seats, term after term. This situation is in need of change.

One of the distinguishing features of our form of government is the interdependence of the three branches of government. This was born out of a distrust of government by the Framers. The one branch that they most distrusted and felt was most likely to take over the entire government was the legislative branch. "In republican government,' Madison wrote, 'the legislative authority necessarily predominates.' It was in part to meet this problem that the Framers decided on two houses and made them responsible to different constituencies." Even in the terms of the two houses, we see this distrust. They staggered the terms in the Senate, rather than having all Senators elected at once. This was to prevent one group of people (they did not envision political parties) from gaining control of the Senate during one election.

Given their distrust of the legislative branch of government and their suspicions of government in general, it is very likely that the intention of the Framers was to have a Congressman serve their term and return to their civilian occupations. They did not intend for professional politicians to serve many terms, essentially making a career out of serving in one particular office. Had they foreseen this, it is likely they would have proposed some type of term limitation on the amount of time an individual could serve in one office. In the House particularly, this abuse has led to a situation where the incumbent is regularly returned to office. Every two years, out of a total of 435 seats up for reelection, only a handful are in doubt. If the amount of terms that an individual can serve were to be limited, it would go far in restoring to government the integrity and the faith of the people.

The Framers of the Constitution intended for the judicial branch to act as a check on the power of the other two branches, but they did not anticipate that the judicial branch would take it upon themselves to legislate from the bench. Instead of following the constitution and interpreting it, they have added rights and privileges that may not have been originally intended. This is a situation that should not have been allowed to develop and should be rectified.

Section 1 of Article 3 of the Constitution states that, "The judicial Power of the United States, shall be vested in one supreme Court, and in such inferior Courts as the Congress may from… [read more]


Accounting America Was Not Founded Term Paper

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Bush and other pro-Republicans consistently make disparaging remarks about the "liberal elite" who they claim are out of touch with the American heartland (as if any Texan oil tycoon can actually have a deep felt understanding of what it means to be a trailer-park parent in the heart of the south). These parties are intensely anti-intellectual. " By the 1990's, 'elitism. had become an all-purpose epithet, used by neoconservatives against the 'new class'... consisting of all political intellectuals with the exception of themselves... The Bushes ... represent aristocracy with a populist gloss, borrowing what they can from the evangelical revival, siding with business and its distaste for time-wasting mind work, holding intellectual talent in contempt from both above and below." (Gitlin, 2000) The fact that there is a great deal of tension between what rabid Republicans might term the "out of touch liberal intellectual elite" and what rabid Democrats might call the "plutocractic aristocracy of America" proves that some degree of pluralism exists in America between competing elite groups.

This issue of wealth and power in America should be considered of considerable personal and social relevance to all those who have any interest in their own liberty and political situation. If any group of elite are dominating the nation, then one's personal choices in voting and participating in politics need to be evaluated. If pluralism is to survive, then it will need the independent investment of time and money by those who care about the future of the nation.

Bibliography

Bernstein, A. (1998) "Republican and Democratic -- The Identical Party? The Two Major Parties Are Becoming Dangerously Alike -- in Their Opposition to Individual Rights." Capitalism Magazine, Nov. 6. http://www.capmag.com/article.asp?ID=2020

Gitlin, T. (2000) "The Renaissance of anti-intellectualism." The Chronicle of Higher Education, Dec. 8. Archived at: http://chronicle.com/free/v47/i15/15b00701.htm

Grinning Planet. (2004) "INJECTING A SHOT OF REBEL YELL INTO OLD GLORY" http://www.grinningplanet.com/2004/11-11/direct-democracy-plutocracy-article.htm

Morgan, D. (2000) "Mercenaries For Big Business: Corporate Funding of Think Tanks Raises Question of Credibility" San Francisco Chronicle, Feb 16. Archived at: http://www.commondreams.org/views/021600-102.htm

Rothenberger, R. (2001) Beyond Plutocracy: True Democracy for America. [ebook] http://www.beyondplutocracy.com/… [read more]


Gw Bush Less Than Six Months Term Paper

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GW Bush

Less than six months into his second administration, it is clear that President Bush remains dedicated to deluded political decision-making. His bold nomination of John Bolton for the esteemed position of ambassador to the United Nations is yet another notch in Bush's deplorable record, as is his blank dismissal of the dangers of global climate change. George Walker Bush has become one of the most controversial American presidents in recent history, beginning with the 2000 elections in which Al Gore clearly won the popular vote. Remarkably, in spite of his poor domestic and foreign policy record during his first term, Bush was reelected with a clear mandate in 2004. Any objective peek at Bush's foreign and domestic policies will reveal that the president of the United States is an unfit leader. Regarding the bloody war in Iraq, James Dobbins of Foreign Affairs bluntly states, "The second administration of George W. Bush seems to be left with the choice between making things worse slowly or quickly." The international community continues to shake its head at the sorry state of affairs in the Middle East, but the Bush administration remains eager to invade other nations. President Bush has also been overtly religious in his public conversations and refers to God frequently in his addresses and speeches. Consequently, the president has created the faith-based initiative, which threatens to undermine the separation between matters of church and state. Another key reason why President Bush scores below-average marks as President is related to his No Child Left Behind Act. The Act purports to improve the standards of American public schools, but some experts say that it places "impossible logistical and financial burdens on school systems," (Donlevy). George W. Bush's weak war in Iraq, frightening faith-based initiative, and nonsensical No Child Behind Act prove that the President has done and continues to do a lousy job leading a nation.

The war in Iraq has proved unpopular, costly, bloody, and fought on false premises. If nothing else destroyed the President's reputation, the situation in Iraq would be enough to show that George W. Bush is an inept as well as dishonest leader. There are three main reasons why the war in Iraq was a mistake. First, the deaths of countless civilians leave a horrible stain on the administration. In fact, prolonged and uncontrollable fighting in Iraq indicates that there is no clear end in sight. The Iraqi people have lost most of whatever little faith they had in the United States. Far from viewing Americans as heroic liberators, the Iraqis remain understandably suspicious and wary: "As a result of its initial miscalculations, misdirected planning, and inadequate preparation, Washington has lost the Iraqi people's confidence and consent, and it is unlikely to win them back," (Dobbins). Second, at the expense of scores of civilians, soldiers, journalists, and aid workers, the United States nearly single-handedly invaded a sovereign nation. As a result, the war in Iraq has largely diminished the credibility of the United States within the… [read more]


Progressivism the Early 20th Century Saw Essay

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Progressivism

The early 20th century saw a great change in the American political landscape as society, as well as the traditional two parties, were heavily influenced by the new ideology known as "progressivism." The influence that progressivism played on the various political interests may have been diverse, but there is no doubt that it had a definitive influence on American politics, economics, and society. This influence can be identified through the writings of different political figures of the early 20th century who espoused progressive ideas to various degrees.

The earliest example of the influence of progressivism is in Debs' 1900 article "The Outlook for Socialism in the United States," which espoused a radical progressive ideology and openly states that socialism should replace the capitalist system. Debs would like to see American society, government, and economy completely transformed through socialism. By 1914, progressivism had taken root in American society, but not completely as predicted by Debs; something that Herbert Croly pointed out in his 1914 article "Progressive Democracy." Croly asserted that progressivism, but not necessarily socialism, was itself a force that could reform American political life. The old corrupt capitalistic system needed to be replaced, but with a new system which was "the result of an alert social intelligence as well as an aroused individual conscience." (Croly)

Debs and Croly are the two most radical writers being examined, with Debs the most radical. Both want to replace the old system with a new one, but while Croly felt that the new system should be a more intelligent and moral refection of the old one, Debs wanted a completely new socialistic system. This is different from the next two writers who were much less radical in their approach to applying progressive ideas to American society. Theodore Roosevelt and Woodrow Wilson both espoused progressive ideas, but they felt that progressivism could be used to modernize specific aspects of American society without the need for a radical transformation.

After Debs and Croly, Wilson would have to be placed as the next most radical progressive writer examined. However, Wilson did not want to completely alter the American system but to have government regulate the private economy for the benefit of the people. It is Roosevelt that Wilson attacks in…… [read more]


Marshal Tito Term Paper

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Marshal Tito

Josip Broz Tito

Josip Broz Tito is the main figure of Yugoslavian politics of the 20th century who was the leader of this Balkan country for more than 30 years. He is considered to be a founder of postwar communist Yugoslav federation which provided independent policy resisting Joseph Stalin's wish turn his political power into Soviet puppet-regime which had to fulfill all orders Moscow said. So, Tito's role in Yugoslav history is invaluable and his successes and failures are worth researching.

Tito's participation in WWII resistance is well-known. "Communist interwar and wartime experience created party organizations in the Balkans that were well-equipped for the resistance struggle, but poorly prepared to exercise real political power after 1945." (Twenty-Five Lectures on Modern Balkan History Lecture 20: The traditional regimes and the challenge of Communism: Patriotism vs. opportunism). After German troops were defeated Tito took the office of Prime Minister and Minister of Foreign Affairs. In fact he became a real leader of Yugoslavia as he was the most popular political figure in the country. Moreover, his warm relations with victorious Soviet Union and its leader Joseph Stalin on the hand with his guerilla resistance experience caused his great authority both inside and outside Yugoslavia. Early Tito's domestic policy was directed on improving Communists' positions and eliminating political enemies such as royalists and local profascists. Very soon his rule became dictatorial as his party (Yugoslav Communist Party) won elections under unequal conditions; many of his political opponents were assassinated or incarcerated by the secret police. Also Tito provided internationalist policy to reunify the country as there were too many nationalistic movements in all Yugoslav republics especially in Catholic and Muslim regions (Kosovo and Croatia). Ultimately these measures had a success and he managed consolidating the federation which was the main goal of all peoples of multinational Yugoslavia.

Josip Tito is also known as the first leader of Socialist block who disputed Stalin's leadership in the Communist world. The main reason of that conflict was Tito's wish to be the only master in his own country and provide own policy independently from Soviet state. At the same time Stalin was convinced that he was the only leader of the Communism world and wanted every Socialist state to subordinate to official Moscow. According to Milovan Djilas Marshall Tito knew that "Without power in his own country, it was impossible to survive in the domain of Soviet ideological tyranny." (Djilas, Milovan Tito: The Story from Inside p.42). Soviets called Tito's policy "Titoism" which meant it was not devoted to Marxist theory. It…… [read more]


Mass Communications Globalization, Fractionalization Term Paper

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Presence technologies inform message originators of both the availability and optimum communications mode for reaching people now. Work needs to be done to achieve interoperability among different devices and networks, but progress is being made. Although it may be difficult to quantify, making better decisions faster is the ultimate productivity improvement that convergence can bring to the enterprise." (Bucci, 2004)

VII. Would it be a positive or a negative for our society

Convergence is a positive aspect for society in that all communications are streamlined. This allows for instantaneous communication on a worldwide basis.

Opinion:

Convergence has streamlined business process which results in lower prices in relation to costs of goods as well as services. Also, in relation to communication technologies with real-time communication via the Internet and Web convergence has expedited many business processes throughout the entire world.

Works Cited:

Lind, Thori Jo (2005) Fractionalization and Inter-Group Differences 2005 February 28 Online available at: http://www.dur.ac.uk/john.ashworth/EPCS/Papers/Lind.pdf

Bollier, David (2003 )The Rise of NetPolitik: How the Internet is Changing International Politics and Diplomacy Report of the Eleventh Annual Aspen Institute Roundtable on Information Technology Communication and Society Program

Jainschigg, John (2001) A Casualty of Convergence: Convergence eliminates redundancy. Sometimes, that hurts.

08/03/2001, 9:37 AM ET Online available at: https://www.cmpevents.com/CC5/a.asp?option=B& V=2& SC=CCM

Bucci, Dick (2004) The Real Key to Convergence: Understanding productivity and how IP Telephony makes a real difference.

By Dick Bucci, Technology 05/04/2004… [read more]


Home Exam Explore the Economic Term Paper

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They have computers and cellular phones, PDAs and fax machines. All of these are technological advances, and even though they may seem commonplace now, there was a time in history when they were unheard of, and when no one thought that they would work or that they would be useful. Without being able to create new technology, society could not advance beyond where it is now. It is true that the American society today is quite advanced when compared to years ago, and also when compared to many other countries. However, this does not mean that there is not much more that can be done. However, an enforceable decision to halt the development of new technology in this country would stop society from advancing even further and would allow other countries to catch up and even surpass the United States in what they are capable of doing and how their society actually functions.

This advancement of society is important for political as well as social reasons, since much of what politics deals with is the fact that the United States is the number one superpower in the world. It is so powerful that it surpasses every other nation on almost everything that is done today, and stopping this would allow the United States to be weakened. Right now, the war in Iraq is being fought with a lot of muscle and brains, but also with a lot of technology. Halting the development of new technology would weaken the power base that this country has and would therefore weaken the ability of politicians such as the President to negotiate with other countries and to stop many of the problems that are taking place in the Middle East and in other areas of the world. This may not seem like that large of a concern, but the politicians know that part of what keeps them in their jobs and keeps the American people generally happy and complacent is that the United States is advanced and powerful, and that these people have basic freedoms and can generally live their lives unafraid of what other countries might do to their home country. Without the power that advances in technology brings to the country, this could change and no longer be the case.

As can be seen from the above discussion, there are many problems with halting the development of new technology. If this is done to save the environment, it is a worthwhile cause, but it would seem that there would be other ways of looking at the issue and other things that could be done to protect the environment that would allow technological advances to continue in the future. It is not likely that an enforceable decision to halt the development of new technology, to protect the environment or for any other reason, will ever be made, but those that are in power must consider the economic, social, and political consequences and ramifications of doing so, should the idea ever be…… [read more]


Extreme Right in France Term Paper

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Le Pen's Party

Jean Marie Le Pen was born in La Trinite-sur-Mer, a small Breton harbor town on June 20, 1928. He was the son of a fisherman, but was orphaned as an adolescent when his father's boat was blown up by a mine. He studied political science and law and at one time was president of an association of… [read more]


Voting Behavior Suffrage Term Paper

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A foresighted electorate can induce policies with benefits that endure beyond the next election. In this light, the traditional model may need to be revised about the criteria that connect the electorate, politicians and public policy. Aggregated forecast goes beyond the individual talents of members. To the extent that the mass public's political evaluations of the present depends on how… [read more]


Communication Laws Patriot Act Supreme Court Cases Term Paper

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Communication Laws/Patriot Act/Supreme Court Cases

Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the government for a redress of grievances." (First Amendment History) This is the first amendment in the… [read more]


Meech Lake Accords Term Paper

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Many were concerned that Quebec could use the phrase "distinct society" to justify any type of action. Some were concerned about the secret way in which the Accords were created, without any broad public discussion. The only provinces that held public discussion were New Brunswick and Manitoba and it both provinces public opinion was largely negative.

Women's groups and native… [read more]


Political Events in Ukraine Term Paper

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His promises in inauguration speech inspired Ukrainians but at the same time they mean that the nation has to make a tremendous effort in order to overcome its dark past. Economical development and gross product growth rate which is by the way the highest in Europe (13% in 2004) doesn't mean that forecast of Ukraine's economy will be optimistic.

Ukraine… [read more]


Henry David Thoreau's on the Duty of Civil Disobedience Term Paper

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¶ … Henry David Thoreau's "On the Duty of Civil Disobedience." The writer of this paper discusses what role Thoreau afforded the government as well as what his views on dissent were and why. The writer then argues that the strength and merit of Thoreau's work carry through to current American political traditions.

When Henry Davidson Thoreau penned his "On the Duty of Civil Disobedience" he probably had no idea it would become such a political cornerstone for activists hundreds of years later. His work provides a blue print for those who want to challenge the government and allows for the possibility that the common people have the right to stand up and refuse to be ignored.

Thoreau believes that the best government is one that does not govern in any way. He explores the possibility of a government that is not overburdened, slow, and filled with motives not for the people who elected its participants.

The government according to Thoreau is naturally corrupt and he would like to see it become honest and not greedy. According to Thoreau as long as he is as intelligent and well informed as those who are serving public office then he should not have to submit to or obey those in office (Civil Disobedience (http://www.vcu.edu/engweb/transcendentalism/authors/thoreau/civil/).

The authority of government, even such as I am willing to submit to -- for I will cheerfully obey those who know and can do better than I, and in many things even those who neither know nor can do so well -- is still an impure one: to be strictly just, it must…… [read more]


Friedrich Engels, 1820-1895 Term Paper

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A socialist society will be controlled by the working class, the proletariat, whose familiarity with large, collective undertakings will be reflected in the character of the society, it will be a dictatorship of the proletariat, "in the sense that it is contrasted with the existing dictatorship of the bourgeoisie" (Friedrich pp). Marx and Engels saw socialism as a transitional phase to eventually be replaced by a classless communist society in which the existing forms of government would no longer be needed (Friedrich pp). Engels believed that the state was destined to wither away as the "representative democracy of socialism slowly turned into the direct democracy of socialism, and economic life would be re-organized on a basis of freedom and equality" (Friedrich pp).

The Marxist theory helped develop society further into communism, which is a type of egalitarian society with no state, no privately owned means of production, no money and no social classes (Friedrich pp). Under communism, all property is owned collectively and cooperatively by the community as a whole, and everyone has equal social and economic status and rights (Friedrich pp). Theoretically, "human need or advancement is not left unsatisfied because of poverty, and is solved through distribution of resources as needed" (Friedrich pp). Communists believe that power is not the problem, but rather, the social class that possesses that power (Friedrich pp).

They believe in working class control of the state, and the necessity of a professional army of communist soldiers for defense from a resurgent ruling class (Friedrich pp).

Work Cited…… [read more]


Targets of the "Muckrakers Term Paper

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The Reform Movement's anti-immigration stress, on keeping America for Americans, however, ran against such an idealistic perspective of the Progressive spirit.

In what ways was Teddy Roosevelt both a Progressive reformer and strongly conservative at the same time?

Teddy Roosevelt status as a Progressive reformer is clear in his conservationist status regarding American wildlife and his belief in the goodness and power of American democracy and the American common man. However, he was also staunchly imperialistic in his foreign policy aims and intolerant of American cultural diversity and opposition to his views by the electorate and by members of Congress.

What were the personality traits of Teddy Roosevelt that made him so popular? What was his conception of the presidency? Why was he so well suited to be a "foreign policy" president?

Roosevelt's extroversion, his enthusiasm for the outdoors and America, his continual stress upon self-improvement (as he began his life as a sickly infant to become a strapping president, through sheer force of will) all made him a popular President. He was a master of the evolving media, and his conception of the American presidency was as a bully pulpit of advocacy. He defined a new role for America in the world, creating an expansionist form of foreign policy, a Manifest Destiny not confined to American territories.

What major progressive reforms did the government between 1912 and 1915 enact? Which of these reforms, if any, have had a lasting effect on the United States?

While the ratification of the 18th Amendment regarding Prohibition did not have a long-lasting effect in limiting alcohol, it did create a profoundly influential illegal economy in the nation regarding the transportation and sale of drugs. On a more positive note, electoral reform efforts such as the secret ballot and direct election of senators did enfranchise the common populace in a more hands on fashion, paving the way for civil rights legislation and empowering all politically excluded groups, such as women and Blacks, later on.

Teddy Roosevelt's phrase describing his foreign policy was "Speak softly and carry a big stick." How do you see this relating to America's foreign policy in 2005? In your opinion is this a legitimate style of foreign policy especially with global terrorism as a major issue?

Roosevelt's punitive and activist policy seems to be commensurate with current United States policy -- but not, unfortunately, his choice to speak softly, as American rhetoric regarding its desires to limit terrorism has often exceeded real American knowledge, such as Iraq's capacity to…… [read more]