"Government / Politics" Essays

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Political Machines: Politics Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,064 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


They called their workings patronage democracy, an 'I'll scratch your back if you vote for me, a form of what Riordan's composite creation Plunkett called honest graft. Plunkitt and his constituency shared common class and ethnic origins and even while political bosses were lining his own pockets the machinery men did seem to feel and express sympathy for those whom they served, and seemed to genuinely care for those who elected them to office. In fact, constituents often expressed local pride at a man who had made good on his humble beginnings through his quick wit.

Some machine politicians held themselves up as moral templates to the community, evidence that 'anyone' could make it in America. Plunkitt claimed that he did not drink alcohol. However, this was more due to the fact that saloons were social and political centers in working-class neighborhoods and prohibition advocates tended to associate the evils of alcohol with immigrant city dwellers. Plunkitt positioned himself between these two groups, allowing alcoholic indulgences to take place covertly, while profiting off of their illegality, thus ensuring both prohibitionists and owners would support his rise to office.

Yet despite such two-faced-ness, Plunkitt enfranchised the disenfranchised and did what many less corrupt leaders have been unable to do -- he brought common people into common participation with government, and convinced them that government in a participatory American democracy could help 'the little guy.' The patchwork quilt of ethnicities and constituencies of New York City seems reminiscent of California's plurality of ethnicities today. As noted by Judd and Swanstrom, immigrants and the political machine's growth went virtually hand in hand, as did immigrant assimilation and the political machine's development. (I.3) Although a modern politician would never wish to embody Tweed-style hypocrisy, the stress upon local government, local concern, and local responsiveness to situations and needs of incoming immigrant groups is something that modern politicians could learn from.

Alas, machine politics also gave birth to a great deal of waste and corruption, in the form of 'pork barrel' politics. The ubiquity of the modern media, and the sprawling expanse of expensive electoral campaigns across an ever-widening electorate have created obstacles to such responsive politics as well as formed important watchdog organizations to keep an eye upon the financial corruption modern political elite. But while the Tweed-style corruption must end, this does not mean that local organizations can and should not be involved in citywide urban politics. The Tweed-era politician knew the name of every man and woman on his or her street. So should the modern politician strive for the same level of common involvement, and knowledge of minute affairs of local governance.

Works Cited

Judd. Dennis & Todd Swanstrom, City Politics: Private Power and Public Policy. New York: Pearson Longman, 2002.

Judd. Dennis & Todd Swanstrom, The Politics of Urban America: A Reader. New York: Pearson Longman, 2002.

Riordan, William L. Plunkitt of Tammany Hall / Edited with an Introduction by Terrence J. McDonald. New York: Bedsford St. Martins. Originally Published… [read more]

American Politics Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,893 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


American Politics

When a successful capitalist republic engages in popular elections to determine the leadership of its governing body, the administrating rules regulating it are the nuts and bolts to which systematic legitimacy is inextricably tied. American history is wrought with the corruption that naturally surfaces from this heated competition; from dirty politics to lobby and corporate controllers, every election… [read more]

New Leaders of Iraq Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,493 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Question 2

What are the most important forces promoting and hindering democracy in the contemporary world? Choose 2-3 in both categories (aids and obstacles) and explain how they affect democracy. Focus on the causal mechanisms. Then tell me what the U.S. government and U.S. citizens can do to promote democracy around the world. Again, give 2-3 specific recommendations. Your recommendations… [read more]

Local NY gov. The Local Government Practices Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,618 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Local NY Gov.

The Local Government Practices of Oyster Bay, New York

In order to have a better community in which to live and work, I believe it is important to have an understanding of how the government works at the local level. By having this understanding, one is empowered with the tools and knowledge to make the community even… [read more]

Defending Government Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (541 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


¶ … Defending Government: Why Big Government Works" by Max Neiman

Defending Government" by Max Neiman offers a critical view of the Big Government's (of America) critics -- that is, the book discusses in detail how, in spite of the growing sentiment against the government, the author considers it as essential and beneficial for society, particularly in the context of American society.

In discussing this important point in the book, Neiman presents historical evidence of the development of anti-government sentiment of the public for its government. However, at the center of his discussion and analysis, he makes it clear that these anti-government sentiments are simply propaganda geared at discrediting the government for the benefits that it has given to American civil society.

Neiman discusses anti-government propaganda using the example of Bill Clinton's term as president, trying to overcome the controversy of his sexual harassment case. The author believes that the controversy is a perfect example of how anti-government feelings surfaced not only from the civil society, but from government members as well, wherein there is apparent attempt to divert people's attention from the more important social issues concerning them at the moment to the latest scandal surrounding Clinton's presidency.

American history for the 20th century offers sufficient background to understand why the anti-government propaganda has not only survived over the years, but has become a prevalent occurrence in American politics as well. Citing in particular American government's ineffective decisions during the Cold War and its failure to win the Vietnam and Korean Wars, Neiman states, "...in recent decades the expression of antigovernment [sic] sentiment has escalated to very high levels,…… [read more]

American Politics Introduction to Kevin Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,857 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


However, although it was supposed to get rid of tax preferences for "the rich and powerful" - there were "650 special provisions" in the bill which were called "transition rules" and "technical corrections" which actually didn't hurt the rich but harmed the middle class.

On page 414, Phillips calls a section of his Afterward "The Democratic Deficit and the Rise of the Unelected." During the winter of 2000-2001, Phillips recalls, "when Americans watched the U.S. Supreme Court determine the outcome of the November presidential election..." And the Federal Reserve Board made "its critical judgments on the fate of the U.S. economy," the "migration of political authority" was thrown into "bold relief." For thinking Americans, these past few years have brought about radical and almost unbelievable events: first, Bush is elected on a 5-4 vote of the Supreme Court, five Republicans and four Democrats. And that happens notwithstanding the fact that Al Gore won the popular vote, and even won the Florida popular vote - once a coalition of news organizations hired lawyers and counters to count all the "disputed ballots" with "hanging chads" and the other flaws in the Florida balloting.

So, we have a president elected by a 5-4 vote by a judiciary that does not run for election or re-election, and a Federal Reserve Board, that is not beholding to the public, that does not run for election or re-election, making monumental decisions affecting millions of Americans.

And today, we see the enormous influence of giant corporations like Halliburton, formerly run by Vice President Dick Cheney, which, we now know, received billion-dollar no-bid contracts before the attacks on Iraq even begun, contracts to "rebuild" Iraq.

After reading this book by Kevin Phillips, the rebuilding should take place not in Iraq, but in America. And what should be rebuilt is not just the power grids, the schools, the roads and the other key infrastructures that are rotting away (things Bush wants to rebuild in Iraq), but the whole system of how taxes and the economy always benefit the rich few, rather than the struggling middle and lower classes.


Moyers,…… [read more]

Aristotle's Politics According Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,454 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


In such a system of politics, the majority elects the ruling and the ruling that lays a system that establishes laws for the governance. In this way the freedom of the citizens is ensured as the governance is in the hands of the ones who are chosen by the citizen. But on the other hand it is a semi-aristocratic state… [read more]

Politics of Administrative Law Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,352 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Early on, the party had genuine electoral strength as an alternative to the two-party system. Women, African-Americans, and a variety of ethnic groups were devoted readers of its press, and Jewish and African-American voters often gave the party great electoral strength in the industrialized, urban North.

In contrast, James Q. Wilson argues that the shift to the current conception of the state did not come in a seismic, revolutionary shift from autonomy to a more socialist point-of-view, but through various interactions of disparate political organizations. Weinstein's argument is founded upon the idea that America was subject to a paradigmatic and revolutionary shift in philosophy, as a result of a failed social organization and political party. Wilson argues, however, that one cannot separate the success of the organization of the social organization, nor the way it was founded, from its subsequent impact. Wilson's Political Organizations does not focus on one organization, rather he stresses that political parties, as well as business groups, labor unions, and civil rights associations cannot automatically be assumed to represent the interests of all of its presumed founders, rather the way they are created and maintained significantly affects the opinions they represent and the tactics they use. Rather than having a significant impact upon American political philosophy and law, at best such organizations can only influence government regulation through the use incremental policy-making directed toward servicing the public interest. However, the impact of many of these organizations has been genuine, although perhaps overstated by historians like Weinstein.

In contrast to both Weinstein and Wilson, however, the international legal scholar Ronen Shamir has argued that organized lawyers, such as the leadership of American Bar Association, struggled against regulatory developments in the 1920s-1930s. Shamir agrees with Wilson's pluralist, or factionalist approach in that he emphasizes the role of organized group entities, beyond the explicitly political influence of organizations such as the Socialist Part. However, he notes that, rather than pressing for an administrative shift in regulatory policy, organizations such as the ABA, wished for an "ad judicatory" or judicial procedure of reforming the American political climate and way of life during the beginning of the century. Furthermore, Shamir's philosophy suggests that neither political activism upon the legislature, through the use of political interest groups (as Wilson might suggest) nor by dominating legislatures through electoral politics and issue-specific agendas (as Weinstein might say) was the best way to shift the American political ethos. Rather, the best methodology is to approach the laws themselves, and attempt to change them through the judicial system, as these attempts tend to be more concrete and permanent in nature.

All three perspectives on regulation grant that there was a need and continues to be a need, for the American conception of individual and collective rights to be in constant dialogue with society. However, regulation does not, in Shamir's vision, necessarily require an ideological paradigm shift on the part of the nation, as advocated by Weinstein, on a grassroots level, but can be accomplished through judicial… [read more]

Cass Sustein's Politics Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (3,052 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


He describes journalism as a continuing course in adult education.

Moyers was one of the journalists to uncover the Iran/contra scandal, and also the Democrats unbridled and illegal fundraising in 1996. He argues that he lost underwriters through his covering of such stories, and describes how he found that he could not propose controversial subjects to underwriters, for fear that… [read more]

American Mistrust of Centralized Government Term Paper

Term Paper  |  13 pages (3,968 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Further, the Federalists pointed out that the Constitution did not allow the federal government to do anything that was not specifically mentioned in the Constitution; since the Constitution did not state that the government could take away the rights of the people, the Federalists reasoned, then it could not.

The Anti-Federalists, however, did not believe that this guarantee was enough.… [read more]

Australian Federal Politics Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,293 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


caa.org.au/campaigns/refugees/still_drifting/).However, in the case under examination here, there does indeed appear to have been ample reason for the government to be secretive about its actions and for the people to feel that they have been betrayed by Howard's administration (http://www.caa.org.au/campaigns/refugees/pacificsolution/execsum.html#exsum8).

While the population has generally been supportive of turning away refugees (as evidenced by the Howard government's showing at the polls in 2001), there are limits to what even an anti-immigration public will put up with, and the intentional abandonment of children who may drown is one of them. The intentional lying to the public is another thing that that public is unlikely to support. One of these two things happened on Oct. 7, 2001. At that time a SIEV (suspected illegal entry vessel) entered Australian waters. The Howard government - as a part of its reelection campaign - claimed that at least one child had been thrown overboard from the vessel in an attempt to bolster its hard-line claims that refugee seekers were barbarians who would do anything to ensure that they were given asylum in Australia, even risk the death of innocent children.

However, while Howard and his government might have believed that this was a productive claim to make, the fact that there was photographic evidence denying that any children were thrown overboard damaged the government's credibility. An innocent mistake on the part of the government would have been one thing, but it was clear relatively quickly that the government was not simply mistaken, it was lying:

Both Howard's and Reith's departments knew the poll campaign slur of asylum seekers was false. The following article by Andrew Clennell and Tom Allard shows how John Howard's own department and the Defence department were both told just days after the government's explosive claims that children were thrown off an asylum-seeker's boat that the allegations were false (http://www.truthoverboard.com/story1.html).

Sydney Morning Herald article on 15 February 2002 summarized the fact that the claim of innocent children begin endangered by rapacious asylum seekers was a political ploy on the part of Howard and others in his government, some of whom lied intentionally, others of whom simply did not bother the check the details of a story that seemed heaven-sent:

During an election campaign fought on the issue of asylum-seekers, John Howard, Philip Ruddock and Peter Reith peddled falsehoods about boatpeople, then failed to correct their slurs, even when public servants at the highest levels knew the truth (http://www.truthoverboard.com/story1.html).

Few people are shocked to learn that governments - even democratically elected ones - lie to their own people. But sometimes those lies are so egregious and so despicable that they can topple governments. Howard and his administration accused the asylum seekers of victimizing innocent children. It turns out to be the case that it was the Australian government that was guilty of such an indecency.


http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/asia-pacific/1659410.stm http://us.cnn.com/2001/WORLD/asiapcf/auspac/08/28/asylum.facts / http://web.amnesty.org/library/index/engASA120102001?Open&of=eng-aus http://www.abc.net.au/4corners/2002/overboard/cable1.htm






http://www.smh.com.au/articles/2002/07/31/1027926910266.html… [read more]

War and Occupation: The Effects Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (3,528 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Since agriculture was still the major industry in Japan, the implication of the reform cannot be underestimated. In fact its implication extended far beyond the economic -- it served to change many ancient and severely entrenched attitudes in the Japanese society and even served to weaken the previously strong authority of family and community. (Roberts, p. 517) It also prompted… [read more]

Factions: Help or Hindrance James Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (669 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Among the causes, Madison argued that, "the most common and durable source of factions has been the unequal distribution of property. Those who hold and those who are without property have ever formed distinct interests in society" (Rossiter, 1961). He considered these divisions to be responsible for social and political problems, such as discrimination, class conflict, and even violence. Madison argued that these causes of factions could not be removed, therefore an important role of government is to ensure effective control and regulation of the effects. This does not involve the use of 'pure' democracy, which would result in the majority putting down minorities, but by means of the republican Constitution, which allows the different interests to negotiate their differences in order to reach a solution in which the majority would rule, but which would also show due care and regard to minorities.

Even although Madison believed that factions pose a problem to the institution of a free and democratic form of government, he was also aware that they have a positive role to play. He emphasized that it meant, sometimes, "the public good is disregarded in the conflicts of rival parties," and that voters, politicians, and even governments could potentially be coerced into adopting policies based upon a faction's selfish agenda, at the expense of, "the public good and the rights of other citizens" (Rossiter, 1961). However, he astutely recognized that, by their very number and diversity, competing factions perform a 'checks and balances' role, ensuring that no single group is able to exercise tyrannical control over the rest.

In the late eighteenth century, James Madison was widely recognized as a man of immense intellect and political guile. It is to his credit that the ideas and arguments that he put forward in The Federalist Paper Number 10 - in regard to the relationship between factions, liberty, property, and government - remain at the foundations of the pluralistic democracy that governs and protects much of the Western world today.

Works Cited

Rossiter, C.…… [read more]

Thoreau's Resistance to Civil Government Research Paper

Research Paper  |  5 pages (1,397 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Thoreau in the beginning of the his essay argue that the American government is necessary only because "the people must have some complicated machinery or other, and hear its din, to satisfy that idea of government which they have." However according to Thoreau the only times when the government has been useful, is the time when it has stood aside. In addition Thoreau argues that the government does not achieve what we credit it, the government does not make us free, settle the West, or educate us. On the contrary these are achieved by the incredible character of the individual Americans and they would have been even more successful in these endeavors had government been less involved. Thoreau then argues that we must be men first and subject afterwards, what he means by this is that right and wrong should be decided not by majority but by conscience. Conscience if man is superior to the legislator. He asserts that it is most important that we develop a respect for right, rather than the respect for law, for people's obligation are to do what is right [Alicia 2002]

The question arises as to what must an individual do and how he should behave toward the government. Here we can see Thoreau propagating the most radical of his ideas and extreme individualism. Thoreau's answer to the question of how an individual should behave towards the government is to avoid associating with it altogether. He declares. "I cannot for an instant recognize that political organization as may government which is the slave's government also." Thoreau says that we have not only the right, but indeed the duty, to rebel. Thoreau criticizes the attitude that civil obligation should be maintained for the sake of expediency, he argues that expediency does not take precedence over justice. People must do what is right and just and not what government and the law tells them.

It can be rightly said that Thoreau's essay is an abstract work of political theory, Thoreau argues in a purely philosophical way on the nature of government and that it should be based on conscience. Thus the work should be considered as political philosophy invoking ideas and making claims about the relationship between people and the government. If we look closely we can see that Thoreau in his abstract work is presenting the ideas of anarchism, of individual cooperation and liberty. The fact that Thoreau gives priority to individual conscience to any law and legislation and believes that individual is in the best position to decide the right and wrong and do not need any government. The most important themes throughout the work and which asserts his anarchist theories is the notion of individualism. Deeply skeptic of the government, Thoreau rejects the view that a person must sacrifice or marginalize her values out of loyalty to her government [Beck 1986].

Thoreau believed in a society where people are not governed by any body of representatives and legislations, but by there own conscience,… [read more]

Open Elections Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (2,325 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Canadian Government: Party and Politics

An increasing number of citizens of the major western democracies have become disenchanted with the electoral process: they believe that it does not represent them or their interests. Canada is no different and one attempt to deal with the challenges posed by the public's sense of political disenfranchisement has been to offer 'open' nominations, i.e.,… [read more]

Amending the Constitution to Make Government Work Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (863 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Specifically, note that the combined tax rate for Social Security and Medicare is 7.65%, paid by both employers and employees, and 15.3% paid by the self-employed. For 2014, covered wage Social Security tax rate is 6.2% on earnings to $117,000, and for self-employed people, the Social Security tax rate is 12.4% on earnings to $117. While people earning more than $200,000 ($250,000 for married couples filing joint income taxes) pay only an additional 0.9% in Medicare taxes. An amendment to the Constitution is needed to eliminate the taxation caps on income so that the burden of income taxes is not disproportionately on those who earn less than the cap. This amendment aligns with the 16th Amendment that dealt with income tax as an indirect tax, therefore exempting income tax from the previous apportionment clause related to direct taxes.

Constitutional Change #3

The Voting Rights Amendment Act of 2014 (sponsored by Sensenbrenner, Conyers, and Leahy) would strengthen the Voting Rights Act of 1965 (VRA) in response to the Supreme Court decision last June that invalidated a critical section of the VRA. In the Shelby County v. Holder ruling on June 25, 2013, the conservative majority of the Supreme Court struck down Section 4 of the VRA. This section served as a protection against voting discrimination, in that it compelled certain states with a well-documented history of voting discrimination to clear any proposed changes to voting practices or regulations with the federal government under Section 5 of the VRA. That the sections provided necessary protections is evidenced by the fact that since the Shelby decision, eight states previously covered under Section 4 have passed or implemented new voting restrictions, like the new draconian laws recently enacted in North Carolina and Texas. The Sensenbrenner-Conyers-Leahy bill would strengthen the VRA. However, an Amendment to the constitution is needed to prevent the conservative Supreme Court from playing loose with voter protection laws, and to prevent the states from restricting the rights of citizens, as in Amendment 14.

resurrecting Glass-Steagall, like breaking up the big banks, like making sure that taxes are increased on the very wealthy and the earned income tax credit

States. A short list would include: stagnant wages; and economy making the rich richer, and ignoring most of the rest; the problem of climate change or global warming; the declining middle class; immigrant reform; entitlement reform (Medicare social security); the undermining of healthcare reform; tax reform and making the tax code fairer.

This may be an excellent time to consider whether there are any constitutional changes that could be made? Your task:…… [read more]

Politics in "The New War Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (505 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


" Invoking Reagan is a definite sign of the fiscally conservative stance embraced in this article. Similarly, the author states, "even cities with liberal leadership benefit from statewide policies that increase incentives for job creation." Thus, the primary area of concern for Fund (2014) is not social conservativism but fiscal conservativism. Fund (2014) makes a point to pick on labor unions and corresponding political support for them, linking unions to liberalism. The core political issue in the article is economic policy, with the conservative platform of small government and little to no taxes being championed over the typically liberal platform of higher taxes that are theoretically channeled into public infrastructure. Interestingly, the author makes no mention of how public infrastructure, including services related to transportation and education, would be paid for in areas with no taxes and uses logical fallacies and untenable assumptions typical of the conservative point-of-view.

Therefore, this article is clearly conservative in that it suggests that a business-friendly environment will magically create the quality of life and infrastructure Americans need. The author's diction likewise reflects a conservative stance, with disparaging phrases like "Obama model of wealth redistribution," which has no basis in fact. Likewise, the term "European welfare-state economics" reflects the author's opinion that somehow Europe is a terrible place, especially when compared to hotbeds of culture like Phoenix and Orlando.


Fund, J. (2014). The new war between the states. National Review Online. May 30, 2014.…… [read more]

Dilemmas and Issues of Contemporary Public Administration Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (1,078 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


The tendency to deceive the public so as to hide such improprieties comes into play here (Starling, 2007). Public officials lie either to hide underperformance and incompetence, or out of the mere feeling of superiority (Starling, 2007). Acts such as these, which are aimed at avoiding negative publicity, would be viewed by the public as being unethical. Public officials are expected to make public any conflicts of interest and be ready to deal with the challenges in the public eye (Starling, 2007).

The First Lady Mitchell Obama's healthy living initiative, in which she seeks to get American youth as healthy as her family clears the path for healthy eating and increased physical activity and gives the public the image of a public officer who seeks to fulfill her ethical obligations, especially now that obesity is recording alarming prevalence rates in the U.S.

Sexual misconduct brings about a whole new idea of dilemmas of contemporary public administration. Former President Bill Clinton's scandal perfectly illustrates the 'utmost decency' concept advanced by former Senator Paul Douglas, and demonstrates the extent to which the concept of ethical responsibility shapes the public's decisions, and a public officer's career.

The Privatization of Government Functions and the Public Interest Dilemma It Poses

Nowadays, the government-private sector relationship is in a state of flux; more government functions are being delegated to the hands of the private sector, and the federal civilian bureaucracy is shrinking at substantially high rates (Holland, et al., 2007). The number of private contractors carrying out government functions today exceeds, by far, that of federal employees supervising them (Holland, et al., 2007). Both the deregulation and privatization movements come into play here.

Of concern, however, is the dilemma posed by this delegation on the attainment of public interest. As the government delegates regulation to the private sector, what happens to accountability and fair deliberation standards of public interest (Holland, et al. 2007)? Are these transferred together with other government functions (Holland, et al., 2007)? If so, then what is the likelihood of their continuance (Holland, et al., 2007? These concerns arise because the private sector is known to pursue profit maximization before any other business goals, and would, naturally, work towards eradicating anything that poses as a hindrance for profit maximization, including welfare-maximization (Holland, et al., 2007).


Public officials have an obligation to serve the public, and are expected to carry out this obligation in the best possible way. The concerns surrounding the recent trend in privatizing government functions come about because the private sector is not subject to the above regulations, and, with the greater proportion of government functions now in its hands, the future of the concepts of public interest and administrative responsibility remains highly uncertain.


CAPAM Featured Report. (2010). Ethical Dilemmas in the Public Service. CAPAM. Retrieved from http://win2vin.files.wordpress.com/2013/09/ethical-dilemma-good-one.pdf

Holland, D., Nonini, D.M., Lutz, C., Bartlett, L. & Frederick-McGlathery, M., Guldbrandsen, T. & Murillo, E. (2007). Local Democracy under Siege: Activism, Public Interests, and Private Politics. New York: New York… [read more]

US Role as "Policeman of the World Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,328 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


" clearly marking the U.S. As a global policeman. Furthermore, he went on to say "Even a limited strike will send a message to Assad that no other nation can deliver." (Federal News Service, 2013)

Another example of the way in which the U.S. intervenes as a global policeman is through diplomatic and political means. The Tunisian situation is relevant in this sense. In 2011, Tunisia was the first country to break away as part of the Arab Spring revolution and, despite the fact that there are reports of the U.S. having supported the previous regime of Ben Ali, the American government was among the first ones to encourage the democratic transition for Tunisia (Shahshahani and Mullin, 2012). This was a result of certain fears of a revolution that would not be able to be contained and stirred towards a democratic resolution and the fear of countries in the Middle East succumbing to extremists was sufficient enough to engage the U.S. diplomatically and politically in all Arab Spring revolutions. Both the military intervention in Syria and the diplomatic intervention in Tunisia are clear reminiscences of the post Civil War tailored foreign policy that somewhat entitles the U.S. To consider international conflicts as threats to its own national security and act accordingly.

There are several driving forces that determined in time a foreign policy based on an interventionist approach. One of the most important and historically defined is the need for security that the U.S. felt since it broke free from the British Empire. Once liberated from British Crown it was up to the states to determine their own national security. At the same time, the constant European and Southern threat determined an expansion of the security areal the U.S. started to build for itself in time. Secondly, the pure nature of the democratic process and exercise has become a symbol of good practices and there has been a tendency since the beginning of the 20th century but especially after the elaboration of the 14 Points made by President Wilson in 1917 during the First World War in which democracy and human rights were the cornerstone of future international politics. Another driving force that determined this foreign policy approach is the actual ability of the U.S. To influence, politically and economically. The U.S. is currently the strongest economy of the world and with the most impressive political influence. Under these circumstances, it can enforce a preference and thus act as a policeman. Finally, the actual necessity to enforce democracy was another driving force for the actions undergone in recent decades and years. The threats the U.S. are subject to demand an increased control over the security environment particularly because of the global nature of the threats and the enemies. The fight against terror is a constant strive to dismiss global connections and threats, and this would not be possible if the U.S. would not be full front engaged in managing the international security environment.

Overall, the United States can rightfully be… [read more]

Political Issues in Modern Society Book Report

Book Report  |  5 pages (1,691 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Acknowledging that can help people who are struggling to feel validated in their concerns. That may not allow them to correct the problem, but will show them they are not the only people with the issue.

Personally, I both enjoyed and disliked the book. It was well-written, and the dislike did not come from the quality of the book, but just from the understanding that Huffington was right about the issues and problems being faced. It is honestly depressing to see how far America has sunk from what it was supposed to be and what it was created to be. That is not to say that it is not still a great country, but there are many more problems with and in it than politicians are willing to recognize. Until they are more willing to say that there are serious problems and that they are helping to create and perpetuate those problems, and until true change is actually being made, there is very little that the public can do. The argument is to vote out the politicians that are not doing a good job so new ones can do something different. That makes sense, but it does not actually work.

When politicians are voted out and replaced by others, the same cycles are just repeated. All politicians seem to be essentially the same anymore. They may have some different views on issues based on party lines, but I have not seen any of them that are not rich and powerful, and I have not seen any of them that really do make a large difference by affecting change that makes a large, long-term difference for the American people. Part of the reason for that, though, is that the system itself is fundamentally broken. It will not provide what is needed for real change that will make a significant difference in the lives of the American people without major adjustments. Since politicians are getting what they want and need, there is no incentive to make those adjustments. That is a large part of the reason why reform and change of the political system in the United States has been unsuccessful. However, it is clear that the system is far from what was originally envisioned.… [read more]

European Union - Politics, Policies Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (2,242 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


European Union - Politics, Policies, and Governance

The European Union: Cohesion and Complexity

When it comes to the governance of the EU, a lack of coherence is one of the issues that has to be addressed. This is seen throughout several areas from the overarching control of the EU right down to difficulties between member states. Because of this lack… [read more]

Minority Representation in U.S. Politics Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (573 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Similarly, by targeting early voting, same-day registration and voting, and Sunday voting, new restrictions in that regard were clearly intended to disenfranchise black voters who traditionally vote on Sunday after church services. New restrictions on the types of ID that can be used for voting include elimination of student IDs, obviously meant to disenfranchise students. New requirement for voter ID cards overwhelmingly affect the poorest voters, a disproportionate number of whom are minorities, because the only possible process for obtaining the necessary ID cards require state drivers licenses, or credit cards, or other forms of identification that may poor people simply do not have (Bouie, 20132). Even when they posses the necessary identification to obtain a voter ID card, poor people are much more heavily burdened by the obligation to take off from work during business hours and travel to the facilities where the IDs are issued (Bouie, 20132). Unfortunately, all of these transparent measures will be remembered by future historians as the Jim Crow laws of the early 21st century because they serve the same basic function as their namesake from the late 18th and early 19th centuries.


Bouie, J. "Virginia Republicans move forward with mass disenfranchisement

A Senate subcommittee has recommended a bill to rig the state's electoral vote allocation." The American Prospect (January 23, 2013).



Bouie, J. "Republicans Admit Voter-ID Laws Are Aimed at Democratic Voters."

Politics Beast (August 28, 2013).

http://www.thedailybeast.com/articles/2013/08/28/republicans-admit-voter-id-laws-are-aimed-at-democratic-voters.html… [read more]

Government Shutdown a Shutdown Furlough Article Review

Article Review  |  2 pages (565 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


For this situation to be avoided and its repeat, it is important that at the time of high-stakes negotiations regarding appropriation measures, the Congress and the President are left with different options:

Applying a single or several interim continuing resolutions (CRs) in extending temporary funding beyond the start of a fiscal year, in anticipation of negotiators making final decisions over funding levels of full year.

Reaching to an agreement pertaining regular appropriations acts prior to October 1, which is in the beginning of a new fiscal year.

Failing to agree on full year or interim appropriations acts, leading to a funding gap as well as a corresponding shutdown of federal activities.

In case the President and the Congress pursue the first or third option, an agreement can be reached on full year appropriations after the start of the fiscal year. Such agreements can adopt a full year CR or the usual regular appropriation acts, in single or omnibus legislation. The President and the Congress have always agreed on full year or interim funding facing impasse. While in other occasions like the one we are in, President and the Congress may fail to reach accommodation in time to avoid any likelihood of fund gap.


Even though conflict may exist between the President and the Congress, it is important to remember that the life of people who are affected by the furlough depends on their decision, therefore any decision should be a well thought one to stop unnecessary…… [read more]

Louisiana: Race Relations During Reconstruction Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,312 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


On September 14, 1974, the White League, a coalition of citizen club members, took control of the Louisiana government by force in New Orleans and replaced the Republican governor with their own (Steedman, 2009). The White League was a White Supremacist organization with ties to the Democratic Party. According to the Ouachita Telegraph, the raid on the capital was triggered by the New Orleans Police attempting to seize an arms shipment making its way to the White League. The police raid was led by the former Confederate General P.G.T. Beauregard, which suggests that not all Southern white conservatives agreed with the use of violence to reestablish white rule (Steedman, 2009). Fifty white and black leaders formed the Louisiana Unification Movement for the purpose of drawing freedmen away from the Republican Party, in the spirit of compromise, but this effort failed.


Racist Democrats in Louisiana used a number of methods to control the social and political status of freedmen, including issuing work permits based on political affiliation, enacting Black Codes, engaging in election fraud, and the use of violence. Freedmen responded by running for office, joining the Republican Party, and revising the Louisiana Constitution to outlaw slavery in the state, while the U.S. Congress and the President enacted supportive legislation and occupied the state with military forces. Despite the strong response by the federal government and the courageous actions of former slaves, the political and social atmosphere during Reconstruction in Louisiana, especially the racially-motivated violence, made it clear that freedmen did not enjoy full citizenship.

Second class citizenship for freedmen was enforced by Black Codes enacted throughout the South. These Codes were designed to keep freedmen tied to and working on plantations (Stewart, 1998). Black Codes were passed at the local level throughout the South and were effectively vagrancies laws. Gary Stewart describes the Black Codes as one variation, in a long history of vagrancy laws, designed to keep second class citizens in their place. Based on Stewart's analysis, the Black Codes eventually led to passage of contemporary anti-gang legislation. For example, the Broken Windows policing strategy gives wide discretion to police officers to maintain social order, similar to the wording in Black Codes. One of the more famous examples is the now defunct "Stop-and-Frisk" policing policy used by the New York Police Department, which was recently held to be racially biased and therefore unconstitutional (Goldstein, 2013).

Second class citizenship was also institutionalized within at least one federal agency, the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) (Johnson, 2011). The South and the rest of the country needed to restore its economy and supporting farmers was integral to this effort. When it came time to allocate federal money to Southern states, however, the USDA ceded control to local governments. The Morrill Act of 1890 included a separate but equal clause reminiscent of the Jim Crow laws that had been enacted across the South when formal Reconstruction ended in 1877. Formal segregation was not ended within the USDA until the Civil Rights Act… [read more]

Nations and Nationalism Exist: Comparison Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,187 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


This is true most clearly in nations located in the Middle East. Language is held in the work of Laitin and Geertz to be of primary importance in the determination of a nation however, the national language is reported in the work of Hobsbawn to be a "pragmatic matter and still less a dispassionate one, as is show by the reluctance to recognize them as constructs, by historicizing, and inventing traditions for them." (1990) It is noted however, that language for some is viewed as the nation's soul and in some cases is a prerequisite for nationality.

Geertz writes that in new nation states that the new states

"are abnormally susceptible to serious disaffection based on primordial attachments. By a primordial attachment is meant one that stems from the "givens" -- or, more precisely, as culture is inevitably involved in such matters, the assumed "givens" -- of social existence: immediate contiguity and kin connection mainly, but beyond them the givenness that stems from being born into a particular religious community, speaking a particular language, or even a dialect of a language, and following particular social practices." (Geertz, nd, p. 4)

These blood, speech, cultural and other such ties are held to be strong and in some cases coercive for when the individual is effectively bound by kinsmanship and so forth the outcome is not just affection on a personal basis or necessitated practicality or even common interest or some obligation that has been incurred. The varying strength of these ties is varied from one to another individual and from one society to another.


It is difficult to discern whose notion of how a nation is best defined is between the authors reviewed in this study however, from the viewpoint of this writer it appears that Anderson has the most rational view of what constitutes a nation at least from the view of an American citizen. The nation cannot be defined solely on the basis of the territory in which that nation is situated or even upon the language which is predominantly spoken by the people comprising the nation. Moreover, the nation cannot be defined solely by its cultural, religious or political beliefs since just as in the United States of America, in other nations too exist a great diversity of individuals and belief systems as well as political parties.

Summary and Conclusion

The nation is best defined by the individuals that comprise that nation with the nation's definition fitting to the characteristics of its citizenry than attempting to mold the citizenry to 'fit' into the definition of the nation. This is because where no growth exists stagnation becomes dominant and with growth comes change evidenced in the 'tips' and 'cascades' that occur within society and the nation-at-lager. Of course there are some things that one cannot imaging changing since it is unlikely that Israel will ever become a Muslim nation and just as unlikely that the United States will assume a communist stance in politics. With that being said,… [read more]

Tudor Dynasty Essay

Essay  |  7 pages (2,240 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


¶ … Tudor dynasty was arguably one of the most eventful and consequential in the history of England. It spanned from the final decades of the 15th century to the first couple years of the 17th century. During this time period, the dynasty produced substantial effects on the three primary areas of English life: religion, economics, and politics -- all… [read more]

Power in America Who Holds Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (847 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Power in America

Who Holds the Power in America?

With the ratification of the Constitution, the United States of America was established as a Federal Republic. A Republic is a Democratic form of government in the people elect representatives to create government policy that reflects their will. Because the United States contains several independent territories, called "States," which retain a certain amount number of individual rights, there is a system of power sharing between the states and the national government called Federalism. In this way America is a Federal Republic where the power to elect those who would make public policy lies with the electorate. If one considers the policies that the federal government establishes, and the ability to pass legislation that would establish those policies, then the real power in America lies with those who are best able to organize political organizations that can bring about electoral success for those who will implement the policies favored by those organizations.

In the United States, one effect of the system of Federalism is that individual states can implement public policy that is supported by the majority of its citizens. However, the system of Federalism also guarantees that that majority cannot impose its will upon the minority by reserving powers to decide constitutionality within the federal apparatus. That means that the Federal Government ultimately can decide what is legal and what is not within a state. And even though the Constitution also guarantees certain powers to the states, the power to decide constitutionality tips the balance of power in the system in favor of the federal government. Therefore if one truly wants to influence public policy, then using the federal government is best means because its decisions must be implemented throughout the nation and not just in individual states.

Because the people's will is supposed to be implemented as governmental policy, there must be some sort of process by which the will of the people can be transmitted to those holding governmental offices. This policy making system is dependent upon a number of linkage institutions, such as "parties, elections, interest groups, and the media-[which] transmit Americans' preferences to the policymakers in government. " (Edwards, 2010, p 10) These organizations influence the policy making institutions created by the Constitution and in place to implement the various types of policies. But the relationship between the various linkage institutions, which is important in the implementation of public policy, is very complex.

There are three main theories on how the electorate can influence government policy: pluralism, elitism, hyper-pluralism. While…… [read more]

Campaign Finance Spending You Decide Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (663 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


The Court decision flies in the face of common sense: "If the court believes that the government may limit a $3,000 contribution to a candidate because of its corruptive potential, how could it not believe that the government has a similar anticorruption interest in limiting $3 million spent in an independent effort to elect that candidate? Would a federal candidate not feel much more beholden to the big spender than the more modest contributor?" (Hasen 2011). In other words, the decision merely serves to empower shadowy organizations not specifically affiliated with the candidate that may be even more ideologically rigid than the person they are trying to elect.

The Citizens United decision immediately fueled the creation of what became known as 'Super PACs' or political action committees that were specifically created to donate unlimited funds to outside groups not specifically affiliated with a candidate (Cordes 2011). This means that a Super PAC can donate unlimited funds to a group known as 'Citizens for the American Way' to lobby against a Democratic incumbent, while the incumbent's supporters can donate unlimited funds to a group known as 'Friends of Senator X.' Thus, Citizens United seems to place a substantial legal roadblock in the way of creating meaningful campaign finance reform. In a relatively short span of time, it changed the American political landscape of financing and its effects are likely to grow in magnitude in coming years.


Cordes, N. (20). Colbert gets a Super PAC. CBS. Retrieved:


Gitell, S. (2003). Making sense of McCain-Feingold. The Atlantic. Retrieved:


Hasen, R. (2010). Super-soft money. Slate. Retrieved:


Sullivan, K & Terrance, A. (2010).Summary of Citizen's United.

Retrieved: http://www.cga.ct.gov/2010/rpt/2010-R-0124.htm… [read more]

Model of Representation Trustee and Delegate Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (2,153 words)
Bibliography Sources: 7


¶ … agents, elected officials usually try to represent the people (as their primary principle) through models of trustee and/or delegate representation. However, the task of balancing the two models of representation is very challenging because they are competing visions of representation. One of the main incentives of political leaders is to reflect the interests of their constituents because of… [read more]

Institutions and International Relations Question Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (2,246 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


Institutions and International Relations Question Set

How do institutions help states to overcome the barriers to cooperation? You answer should draw most heavily from Sterling-Folker's essay, although Ikenberry provides important insights, too.

In her essay on the barriers to cooperation that limit effective communication between state actors within the international arena, Jennifer Sterling-Folker posits that three primary types of barriers… [read more]

Party Machines and Immigrants Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,659 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


2). Helping politicians get elected and stay in office is part of what big city bosses did in the past, and in this area little has changed as well. For instance, Hamilton adds that, "[Lopez] had a lot of control over nominations and in Brooklyn -- in most of Brooklyn still today -- if you get the Democratic nomination that is tantamount to election. As a result, he had a lot of influence over elected officials" (para. 2). As an example of his significant political clout, Hamilton cites the election of Christine Quinn to the position of council speaker due to the intervention and support of Lopez in 2005. According to Hamilton, "Lopez was one of the leaders that supported Quinn, and he leaned on council members in his borough to support her. The strategy ultimately succeeded, in large part, because of the role the county leaders like Lopez played" (2012, para. 3).


The research showed that party machines headed by Frank Hague, William "Boss" Tweed, Abraham Reuf, George Cox, Richard Daley and to a lesser extent, Vito Lopez, have largely controlled how candidates are vetted and elected in many major American cities and even states. By currying the vote of newly arrived immigrants, early 20th century bosses such as "Boss" Tweed were able to run things behind the scenes and keep their cohorts in office despite the blatant nature of their criminal activities. Although these activities were rampant during the early 20th century in the United States and big city bosses no longer run the show, the research suggests that one hand still washes another in many political circles in the country to this day.


Hamilton, C. (2012, September 4). County party chair remains powerful, if poorly understood, position. WNYC News Blog. Retrieved from http://www.wnyc.org/blogs/wnyc-news-blog/2012/sep/04/powerful-poorly-understood-county-party-chair-seat-have/.

Howe, F.C. (1915). The modern city and its problems. Chicago: C. Scribner's Sons.

Judd, D.E. & Swanstrom, T.R. (2012). City politics. Pearson.

Luthins, R.H. & Nevins, A. (1954). American demagogues: Twentieth century. Boston: Beacon


Miraldi, R. (2000). The muckrakers: Evangelical crusaders. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers.

Saetre, L. & Patrizia, L. (2010). Exploring textual action. Aarhus,…… [read more]

Warrantless Use of GPS Research Paper

Research Paper  |  10 pages (3,202 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


Katzin was then arrested, charged, and convicted. In the appeals, the government argued the GPS device did not require a warrant because it represented "only a minimal intrusion on a vehicle…no part of the vehicle is penetrated…Installation takes a matter of moments, and is much less intrusive than the typical stop and frisk of a person" (Gosztola, 2013). In this… [read more]

Education and Politics (Iqbal, Azam, &amp Abiodullah Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (980 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Education and Politics

(Iqbal, Azam, & Abiodullah, 2009) (Berry, 2008) (Stiggins, 2008)

The interaction between politics and education

Institutions are a critical part of the social structure. They work in combination and individually to reproduce the social structure. Two of the most dominant institutions in society are education and politics. The relationship between the two is not necessarily reciprocal but rather hierarchal and symbiotic. The educational institutions through schools, universities, and other institutes of learning reproduce the values and norms that reinforce the political system of a country. Both systems are necessary an understanding of their interaction however is dependent on the theoretical perspective that is applied to assess the existing system. Interestingly however there is a competing view that considers education as a "liberal force" (Carnoy 1975). The understanding is that it challenges the dominant systems and creates change.

An institution is a structure or mechanism of social order (Searle 2005). Institutions are the result of patterned ordered behavior over an extensive period of time. The construction and function of institutions differ based on the perspective that is adopted by the analyst. The functionalist perspective considers institutions not only as necessary parts of society but as social constructions that assist in producing and maintaining order. Institutions tend to reinforce the status quo and tend towards conservative action. The emergent nature of institutions suggests that there is no conscious individual action that results in institutions but they are the product of society as a general form.

Russell (1916) posited that education was a political institution (Para 2). This view suggests that educational institutions do not exist aimlessly but they are directed toward specific goals. The impartation of knowledge through educational institutions is a political process as that knowledge is designed to affect the norms and values of the individuals who participate in the political process. Education consequently is a conservative system that will reproduce the types of political systems within a country (Myer 1977).

In a democratic society the educational systems will reinforce the value of democracy. This reinforcing is accomplished through a complex system of teaching, and norms and values transfer. This suggests that education will give predominance to a democratic system as compared to other political systems. This could include presenting democracy as a better system and teaching democratic values to students in the classroom. There is often a thin line between the teaching of values and the creation of a system of propaganda. In many countries educational systems are used to present ideas that are incorrect.

In democratic countries there is a dominance of the idea of freedom and individual responsibility. Freedom is given preeminence over any kind of collectivist notions. Freedom and American "exceptionalism" is a dominant theme within the American educational system. The converse occurs in socialist countries where they would give support to collectivist notions. This practice by governments to use the educational systems to advance their agendas is a form of social control.…… [read more]

World Order Soft Power Non-State Actors Marxism and Constructivism Future Hypothetical System Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (2,144 words)
Bibliography Sources: 9


Globalization, soft power, NGOs, and world order

Soft Power

What is a soft power?

Soft power is a concept that describes the ways and means that a particular nation uses in persuading other nations to accept her policies. A nation that uses soft power may uses things like cooperative programs and financial aids in attracting other nations. The nation considers… [read more]

Dance Political Dances the Body Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (931 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0



Political Dances

The body is used as propaganda in politics by having it physically assert and demonstrate the values that a particular political regime embraces. In this respect, there are several different values that the human body is used to translate. In some cultures, such as that found in Ghana during the early part of the 15th century, the physical aesthetic of composure, confidence, and cool is demonstrated by dancers who strive to exude this sort of sentiment no matter how upbeat, colorful, or exhilarating the dance happens to be. In many respects, these same virtues are required to progress through the political system in place, which is a primarily pyramidal in nature with the king figured most prominently, and lesser rulers following him.

Some of the European dances, such as ballet, appear to be overtly political. The degree of angularity that these dances require, with very tailored, specific movements, seem to reinforce the notion that people must ideally stay in their place and follow order. Such order, of course, is usually found in the royal court, which is where much of the ballet during the time of Catherine de Medici and Louis XIV took place. Again, it is noteworthy to mention that following such order was the way in which nobles could hope to advance in political rank and clout. The refinement of the movements in Catherine de Medici's ballets helped to convey a staid sensibility that was overtly political. This fact is particularly true in view of the fact that oftentimes these dances would be performed by the nobility for other nobles. Therefore, the political agenda of rulers, (both Catherine and Louis) were effectively transmitted to the right people.

The political use of dance that appeared the most impactful of the many reviewed for discussion in this document is the Japanese Bugaku. One of the principle reasons why this dance creates such a lasting impression is due to the fact that it appears to take the values exemplified by the other types of dances, both European and African, and magnifies it. One of the points regarding Bugaku that I think is significant is the fact that it represents most empires in the sense that it incorporates aspects of outside cultures and effectively appropriates them. A good example of this aspect of the dance is the fact that it incorporates elements of Buddhism into the religion that was endemic to Japan, Shintoism. Also, it is significant to note that this dance is indicative of several different cultural facets of Japan. Japan has historically been a patriarchal society. As such, the only practitioners of Bugaku are men, which is representative of the fact that men have run the country for years.

Additionally, all of the restrain and composure that is denoted in African and…… [read more]

Orwell George Orwell 1984 Eerie Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,393 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


This suggests a frighteningly pliable nature of the human mind, when it is brought up from cradle to grave to believe certain ideas. Corporations are even accorded the legal status of 'people' in current American society and can support political candidates. 1984 suggests that bureaucratic institutions are so overwhelming they can change language and create new false 'truths' -- and corporations are not necessarily different than the government in their ability to do so.

Within our own society, thanks to the expansion of social media, we are also seeing a shift in the way in which privacy is redefined which is fundamentally not orchestrated by the government. Although arguably since the passage of the Homeland Security Act after the attacks of 9/11, the federal government has been more aggressive in monitoring the actions of every citizen, what is even more surprising is the extent to which people are willing to share their lives voluntarily on Facebook, YouTube, and Twitter. In doing so, they enable companies to more accurately monitor their buying behaviors in a Big Brother fashion. This can be seen every time you go online shopping -- compare the prices of a few pairs of shoes, and ads for the shoes will 'follow' you around the web, clearly showing a kind of 'intelligence' in how one's behavior is being monitored.

In contrast to the citizens of 1984, consumers are willing to make all aspects of their private lives public, presumably to gain a sense of social connection with others. In 1984, true sociability, such as what exists between Winston and Julia, is shown to exist in private, but today unless something is proclaimed on Facebook, there is a question as to whether it is truly relevant. (There is a jokey meme which reads: 'that workout was pointless because I forgot to include it in my status update'). Despite the fact that it could be potentially dangerous to 'check in' with Foursquare that you were dining at a Starbucks on 5th Avenue, if someone was stalking you or wondering if your apartment was unoccupied, or the fact that potential employers can check your Facebook profile picture to see who your friends are and what you like to do in your spare time, people continue to expose themselves, with no specific outside prompting. In 1984, Winston Smith is fighting for a private life, but today people seem to be fighting to give theirs up. Through the use of language, images, and automatic monitoring of our behaviors through voluntarily chosen technology like an iPhone, there is no need for corporations to try very hard to monitor us.

Identity is very pliable in the new online world -- just as Emmanuel Goldstein becomes a demon when at once he was a saint, negative information can spread very quickly today. The pliability of information in the virtual age and the ease with which we can delete information would also be envied by those in control over the society depicted in 1984. Smith has a… [read more]

American Government Response Summarizing Reaction Paper

Reaction Paper  |  3 pages (984 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


In fact, many of the duties that had once been the responsibility of Congress have been transferred to agencies within the Executive Branch. People may not like the bureaucracy because of the viewpoint that this system does not get things done effectively, but the text explains that this is the best possible system given the type of government we have and the many responsibilities of the different agencies.

Reaction to the Readings:

The Bureaucracy is a very complicated entity and the subject of a great deal of confusion on behalf of the American people. People, on the whole, do not like the bureaucracy. Many American complain that it is the bureaucracy which is negatively impacting the country and making it impossible for politicians to get anything done. To some degree these concerns are valid, but it also oversimplifies the issue. In a representative government, the American people vote for individuals to perform the actions of running the country because it would not be possible for all the people of the country to participate in the governance all the time and still have the ability to perform the other tasks necessary to daily life. Not everyone can have politician as their profession. In this same vein, it is not possible in this large society for elected officials to carry out all the government's tasks. Some people need to perform the duties related to education and others have to spend their time working on funding, regulating, and organizing the American military. No one can be in two places at once and therefore people have to be assigned to departments on which they can focus and make sure everything that needs to be done is taken care of. Because of this reality, the bureaucracy is a necessary and unavoidable entity in the United States today.

However, the amount of power that some of the bureaucratic departments has acquired in the nation is unquestionably something of a problem. The military is one of the groups that people point to when they talk about the bureaucracy and unchecked levels of power. America's military has a great deal of money given to them every year. They comprise a good sized chunk of the American budget. Unfortunately, they are also such a large entity that their complete workings are unknown to most people including those involved in the governance of the country. Such a great deal of power and the knowledge that actions will largely go unchecked breeds corruption. When there is a large amount of money going around and people performing tasks without any kind of review, it is likely that they will use the opportunity for self-interested reasons rather than doing their duty to the American public.

Works Cited:

"The Executive Branch." 204-28.

Wilson, James Q. "The Rise of the Bureaucratic State." The Bureaucracy. 298-302.

Woll, Peter. "Constitutional Democracy and Bureaucratic Power." The Bureaucracy. 302-310.… [read more]

Governments Should Limit Their Interference Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (650 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


When the state allows bad banks to fail, the entire system receives that market feedback and responds according, managing assets more efficiently.

A counterargument is that government intervention in markets can guide those markets towards superior results. Joseph Stiglitz (1996) cites East Asia's so-called tiger economies as an example of state intervention that guides economic growth rather than hinders it. However, Krueger (1990) notes that government intervention in development often has the opposite effect. Highly distortive policies are common, examples being neglect of key infrastructure, credit rationing and restrictive trade policies. Government intervention, then, can only spur economic growth when it is intervention of the right type. That brings us back to the points about corruption and centralization. Most government intervention is unfortunately driven by the desire to control resources, and to allocate those resources to those with access to government figures. This unfortunately reality -- a human failing -- highlights why the market and not government should be relied upon to allocate resources.

It is a shame that voters in America only face a binary choice with respect to the role of government in the economy. Government interventions only distort market signals, creating perverse incentives and adverse outcomes. Removing corruption and poor policy choices frees up resources to be used more efficiently that when the whims of government officials dictate their usage. When people are free from such interference, economic growth is the natural consequence.

Works Cited:

Ehrlich, I. & Lui, F. (1999) Bureaucratic growth and endogenous economic growth. Journal of Political Economy. Vol. 107 (6) 270-293.

Krueger, A. (1990). Government failures in development. NBER Working Paper #3340. Retrieved November 16, 2012 from http://www.nber.org/papers/w3340.pdf

Manor, J. (1999). The political economy of democratic decentralization. The World Bank. Retrieved November 16, 2012 from http://elibrary.worldbank.org/content/book/9780821344705

Qian, Y. & Weingast, B. (1999). Federalism as a commitment to preserving market incentives. Journal of Economic Perspectives. Vol 11 (4) 83-92.

Stiglitz, J. (1996). Some lessons from the East…… [read more]

Dillon's Rule: Help or Hindrance? Research Paper

Research Paper  |  5 pages (2,178 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10



This remark lucidly demonstrates the implications of keeping Dillon's Rule: communities would suffer from having an antiquated form of legislation regulating their actions. Society has progressed in leaps and bounds: it is no longer the 1800s. This was a type of legislation that was drafted when people were still relying on the horse and carriage as their main means of transportation. The implications of keeping this form of legislation are dire as they represent a constriction of values and possibilities for communities, not to mention further contention and debate between state and local governments.

The implications of repealing Dillon's Rule are more promising. While supporters of Dillon's rule might feel that such an act would allow corruption to seep in, that's simply an overly simplistic way of looking at the scenario. Corruption will flourish in politics if people allow it. In fact, in this day and age when mass media is at its finest and more people are educated as to the basics and nuances of politics and there's a high level of transparency, there's a greater opportunity of local government by for and of the people, something which Dillon's Rule is essentially preventing via its restriction and narrowness.


While many of the laws which govern this country are originate from hundreds of years ago, this doesn't necessarily mean that the bulk of our laws should originate from hundreds of years ago. Legislation needs to adapt with the changing times and the failure to allow it to do is taken out on the people. When cities refuse to acknowledge how a vintage law is narrowing the possibilities and effectiveness of local governments simply out of a fear for corruption, those communities are setting their citizens up to have a lower quality of life. Ultimately, communities need to begin in abolishing Dillon's Rule.


Boulter, D. The Dillon Rule and Fairfax County. Accessed November 14, 2012.

Retrieved from http://www.dougboulter.com/policy/dillon.html

Fauntroy, M.K. Home Rule or House Rule? Lanham: University Press of America, 2003

Gargan, J.J. Handbook of Local Government Administration. New York: Marcel Dekker

Press, 1997.

"Home rule presents advantages, drawbacks" accessed November 14, 2012, retrieved from: http://www.opb.org/news/article/home_rule_presents_advantages_drawbacks/

League of Women Voters. Dillon's Rule: Bad or Good for Local Governments? Fairfax

Area Education Fund, 2004.

Marx, P. We the People: Your Constitution in Action. Culver City: Good Year Books,


Nowlan, J.D. et al. Illinois Politics: A Citizens Guide. Chicago: University of Illinois

Press 2010.

Sembor, E.C. An Introduction to Connecticut State and Local Government. Lanham:

University Press of America, 2003.

68 Virginia L. Rev. 693 (1982) Accessed November 14, 2012. Retrieved from http://heinonline.org/HOL/LandingPage?collection=journals&handle=hein.



What is Municipal Home Rule?" accessed November, 14, 2012 retrieved from http://www.celdf.org/article.php?list=type&type=147

Pamela Marx. We the People: Your Constitution in Action. (Culver City: Good Year Books, 2001) 18.

John J. Gargan. Handbook of Local Government Administration. (New York: Marcel Dekker Press, 1997) 34.


John J. Gargan. Handbook of Local Government Administration. (New York: Marcel Dekker Press, 1997) 35.

Edward C. Sembor. An Introduction… [read more]

Aristotle and Plato's View of Slavery Essay

Essay  |  6 pages (2,185 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+


Slavery for Plato and Aristotle

In the Ancient Mediterranean cultures, the institution of slavery took on a number of meanings. It could mean debt-slavery, or as a punishment for a crime; or enslavement of prisoners of war. Primarily, slavery was designed as an economic way to work agriculture or household duties. In the Roman Empire, for instance, slavery was such… [read more]

Difficult to Find a Time Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (540 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


The author of the paper was convinced that England could only survive if the revolutionary ideas of the Jacobins were stamped out (Canning). This can be seen in the vitriol that different political sides spew in modern political circles. Many believe that it has never been worse and the hate is intensified by websites that promote the evil of one political entity or another. The problem with that logic is that reading a sample of The Anti-Jacobin proves that people have exhibited the same amount of disgust (and possibly more) in times prior to this one.

It is easy to see that politics, and the language that follows the practice, has not changed over the centuries. It is likely that an examination of even more ancient writings would reveal the same thing. Politics breeds discontent and argument, and these writings are simply an affirmation of that statement.


In what way does the plight of the knife grinder coincide with poor people in present times?


The friend of man believed that the knife grinder was brought to his occupation because of the government or of some rich, non-caring oppressor. In the current political atmosphere, people blame governmental policies or the division between the wealthy and poor as a reason for their own circumstances.

This question helps the reader examine how little the political discourse has changed in over two hundred years.

Works Cited

Canning, George. "The Anti-Jacobin." Web.

Frere, John Hookham. "The Friend of Humanity and the Knife Grinder." Web.

More, Hannah. "Village…… [read more]

Reaganomics or Voodoo Economics Helped Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (544 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


William F. Buckley, the founder and editor of the National Review, is a clear manifestation to this. He clearly articulated the ideals of conservatives even before the 1980's. The writer's assertion that Reagan's ascendancy to power and presidency made the conservatives to clearly and vocally express their views is very true. President Reagan gave voice to the opinions of the vast majority of Americans with the Bully Pulpit of the American presidency. Reagan was a great communicator. This is evidenced in the way he defined conservatism. He asserted that the heart and soul of conservatism is libertarianism and the basis of conservatism is a desire for less government interference. This made him connect easily with the ordinary citizens.

The goals and values of conservative movement like the rule of law, fiscal conservatism, limited government intervention, individual responsibility, strong family values, and attention to the core values of Judeo-Christian Ethics, as the writer puts, can be summarized into overall reduction of taxation, the policy of rolling back communism, strengthening family values, and enhancing conservative Christian morality.

When Reagan ascended to the presidency, politicians began courting the powerful Christian right for their votes because they were capable of articulating their desires, a departure from the past when they were shouted down by less than shy liberals. This made the conservatives a significant force in the American politics as the writer notes. Issues relating to family values and pro-life positions were openly talked about. It is…… [read more]

American Political Behavior Mid-Term Essay

Essay  |  6 pages (2,145 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


The users of social media are mainly youth in the society. The last election broke the record for the highest voter turnout by the youth thus the significance of social media in the society. The youth were able to communicate with each other and realize the need for change in the political environment in the nation. The president also used the internet to collect funds for his campaign. The use of the internet also allows wire of funds electronically to promote a candidate (Hendricks & Denton, 2009).

4. How have changes in where we obtain information about politics affected political behavior? Specifically discuss the decline of newspapers, the changes to television, and the impact of the Internet.

Newspapers are among the oldest modes of communication used to communicate information in the nation. Newspapers' publishing takes place daily thus the deviation in information is normally 12 hours. Events that happen today often published in the next day's paper affect the reliability of this form of communication mode. The invention of the television gives audiovisual information to the viewer and information received aired at the time received. The use of the internet has improved the coverage of information within a nation. The quality of information derived from the preferred source and timeliness differs. Although newspapers are slow to deliver current information, they give detail as the editors have time to compile and release the information. Information from the newspaper considered as the conventional way to obtain news thus still used by many people.

There has been a decline in the use of newspapers with many people preferring televisions and the internet. The television provides footage of events happing in the nation. This mode of providing information to the public does not require the effort of reading and provides current information. The use of the television is wide in the nation thus many politicians use the media to engage with the citizens. The use of television allows the people to listen to the policies supported by a politician thus enable them to make their choice during election period. The internet is the latest technology affecting the political environment.

Politicians have been able to use the internet to gain support from the people. Politicians have used the internet to address the key issues affecting the members of the society through their websites. Many political parties have websites regularly updated to capture the activities of the party. The websites list the policies supported and how it aims to achieve the policies. Another reason for the decline of the newspaper is the production of the digital newspaper made possible through the internet. The internet has improved the content that the people have access. The problem is that there is a lot of information on the internet that some sites may give misleading information to the reader. The use of blogs has enabled people to give their opinion that has negatively affected the field of politics. Political parties that have a great following have been able to… [read more]

Internet and Politics Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (631 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Internet and Politics

What challenges does the internet present to the authoritarian rule?

The Internet is a direct threat to authoritarian rule. This is occurring through the rapid spread of this technology to different regions around the globe. During times of oppressive activities by these regimes, communication is often cut off to various regions. The focus of the government is to brutally crackdown on dissent and opposition. This means that they must prevent any kind of communication with the outside world. Once this occurs, is the point that the government can conduct operations which are targeting these groups (with little to no international interference). (Gold, 2011) ("Syrian Diplomats defects," 2012) ("Can Social Networking Overthrow a Government," 2011)

The Internet is a threat to these regimes by allowing graphic images to be released. This is when the activities of the government will face greater amounts of scrutiny. Moreover, this medium is used by the opposition to organize and coordinate activities. For authoritarian regimes, this is challenging their authority by giving other groups the ability to question their legitimacy and policies enacted. (Gold, 2011) ("Syrian Diplomats defects," 2012) ("Can Social Networking Overthrow a Government," 2011)

What are the ways that the internet challenges political authority in non-democratic or quasi-democratic countries?

The Internet has directly challenged the political authority in authoritarian nations. A good example of this can be seen by looking no further than the events that were occurring in Syria and Libya. In the case of Syria, this is occurring through different images that are posted on Facebook and You Tube. Since the uprising began in 2011, these images were used to rally and strengthen the opposition. It has also provided direct evidence of the atrocities that are being committed by the government (which has resulted in a series of sanctions against the Assad regime). This has led to a large number of high profile defections…… [read more]

Community Participation Examining &amp Weighing Essay

Essay  |  9 pages (2,842 words)
Style: Harvard  |  Bibliography Sources: 12


Because of the numerous, public failures of public administrators and government officials, many communities will not cooperate without representation and participation in legislation and activities such as community participation and community engagement.

There is also growing recognition on the part of administrators that decision making without public participation is ineffective. In recent times, interest in public participation in administrative decision… [read more]

Democratic and Republican Parties Essay

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For example, the recent Libertarian presidential candidate Ron Paul argued that the federal government should not intervene in the private lives of Americans, except to forbid abortions. Given that he has a substantial following, it seems likely that many people are not bothered by such a contradiction.

American public opinion is generally not well informed as can be seen by the fact that so many people are happy to embrace clearly dishonest claims, such as the "birther" claims or the belief that loose gun-regulation laws make society safer.

Essay Three

Two ongoing sources of conflict among American political ideals are the role of the federal government in the regulation of behavior. For example, the last two years have seen scores of laws introduced (with many enacted) that limit the access of women to family planning. This conflicts with the powerful idea that Americans are a free people. Another conflict currently being played out is the one between the idea that anyone can become rich and the backlash against the one percent (including Mitt Romney) who seem to be playing by a set of rules that benefits only them. Romney's ascendency suggests that there is in fact a liberal elite that runs the country; however, there are incursions of populism such as the Civil Rights Movement and the Tea Party.

Americans vote at lower rates because the country is so much larger than European nations that it is harder to create a sense of national purpose and identity; because European nations have parliamentary systems that allow for more nuanced political debates, allowing more people the chance to feel that there voices are heard; and because Europeans, having in many cases a less divisive and more functional government, are not as alienated…… [read more]

Branches of U.S. Gov Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (792 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


The judicial branch is made up of the United States Supreme Court and of lower federal courts. The legislative branch is charged with hearing court cases and interpreting legislation (Trethan, 2012). The Justices appointed to the Supreme Court are chosen by the President and confirmed by the Senate; furthermore, this Justice positions are lifetime appointments. When it comes to public policy, the legislative branch is charged with ensuring that the public's rights are not violated and ensure that laws and policies passed at state levels adhere to Constitutional requirements, thus setting precedence and determining if laws are unconstitutional thereby protecting the public from unfair discrimination. One of the most influential Supreme Court cases affecting public education was Brown v. Board of Education, which determined that laws that established separate public schools for black and white students was unconstitutional.

In order to ensure that none of these branches of government has more power than another a system of checks and balances was instituted. For example, the President's power is checked by Congress, which has the power to "refuse to confirm [the President's] appointees…and has the power to impeach, or remove, the president" (Trethan, 2012). Likewise, while Congress has the power to pass laws, the President has the power to veto them; in these cases, a two-thirds majority vote in Congress can override vetoes. Additionally, while the Supreme Court determines the constitutionality of a law, Congress has the power to amend the Constitution (Trethan, 2012).

Working in conjunction with each other, the three branches of government help to influence how policies and laws are made and how they are interpreted. Furthermore, through a system of checks and balances, these branches cannot function without each other and rely on each other to maintain a stable and functional government.


2011 Executive Orders signed by Barack Obama. (2012). National Archives. Retrieved 17 July

2012, from http://www.archives.gov/federal-register/executive-orders/2011.html

Bill Summary & Status, 111th Congress (2009-2010), H.R. 3808. (2012). The Library of Congress. Retrieved 17 July 2012, from http://thomas.loc.gov/cgi-bin/bdquery/z-d111:H.R.3808:

Brown v. Board of Education. (2012). National Park Service. Retrieved 17 July 2012, from http://www.nps.gov/brvb/index.htm

Huisman, J. (2010, September 14). An outline of American government. From Revolution to Reconstruction. University of Groningen. Retrieved 17 July 2012, from http://www.let.rug.nl/usa/GOV/ch3_p2.htm

Trethan, P. (2012). The branches of the government. Retrieved 17 July 2012, from http://usgovinfo.about.com/od/usconstitution/a/branches.htm… [read more]

Government Constitution Essay

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States also have authority reserved to them. This separation of powers does overlap and from time to time leads to problems which then have to be resolved according to the other components of the Constitution (Kelly, 2012).

What is public policy? Explain. What purpose does it serve?

Public policy manifests the general sense and universal conscience of the citizens as a total that extends throughout the state and is applied to matters of public well-being, security, and welfare. It is universal, well-settled public opinion relating to the responsibilities of citizens to their fellow citizens. It brings in something that varies with the changing economic needs, social customs, and moral ambitions of the people. Public policy enters into, and influences, the performance, implementation, and understanding of legislation (What Is Public Policy, 2012).

Public Policy is the implementation framework under which governmental and non-governmental organizations work to determine one or more social, financial or political issues of a society. It defines the roles and responsibilities of a variety of agents in the system and the share and allocation of resources to decide the issues. It is significant because its consequences proliferate through the total cross section of the society directly or indirectly. The policies take the shape of providing incentives that support certain behavior over another or disincentives to dampen particular actions. The significance of public policy can also be stressed in terms of the scale and cost of its implementation which makes any changes to be made in the latter stage extremely expensive and therefore it is fundamental to provide maximum effort and resource in its design.


Features of the Constitution. (2008). Retrieved from http://www.thisnation.com/textbook/constitution-features.html

Kelly, M. (2012). Overview of United States Government and Politics. Retreived from http://americanhistory.about.com/od/governmentandpolitics/a/amgovoverview.htm

What Is Public Policy? (2012). Retrieved from http://www.wisegeek.com/what-is-public-policy.htm… [read more]

Thomas Abraham Clark Was Born Essay

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This would make him a Federalist. He also believes that the property of the wealthy elite must be protected from the masses, something a strong national government could accomplish. Whipple also feels the common people should have little or no voice in government and that government should be left to the elites who know how to run it, a definitive Federalist view.

7. I am undecided about Clymer Fitzsimmons because he demonstrates both Federalist and Anti-Federalist tendencies. His belief in a large, well armed militia, as well as his being a frontiersman demonstrates his independence and individuality. Add to this his satisfaction with the Articles of Confederation and he could be an Anti-Federalist. But seeing how the British are still a threat, a strong national government is the best way to defend America's independence; a Federalist view.

Part 2:

1. Because laws are a way to restrict a person's individual rights, the more laws enacted the more individual rights are restricted. This is the reason laws in America were made to be difficult to enact and should be. The United States was founded on the principle of individual rights, it would be wrong to enact so many laws as to give up all our rights.

2. The United States is a large and diverse nation. Since sometimes the same political party can be quite different in different parts of the country, simply voting on party lines does not always truly represent the local population's will. By having Congresspersons represent individual areas of the country, political views from…… [read more]

Corruption in Government Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (639 words)
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This explains why autocratic governments actually actively participate in the corruption and why even governments that are attempting to reform their style of economy such as China still strongly maintain the areas of their economy that are most susceptible to corruption such as banking, the stock market, telecommunications and transportation. Maintaining such control allows the government to ensure that corruption will be minimized until such time as safeguards can be put in place that guarantee that the rule of law and a more transparent governmental structure can be organized.

Corruption or at least concerns about corruption also offer autocratic governments a scapegoat when the need arises. From time to time autocratic governments must purge a group or individuals that they consider to poise a possible threat and accusing such group or individual of corruption is an easy method of tagging the group or individuals for removal. This system was used repeatedly in Soviet Russia and Communist China to cleanse the government of possible threats.

In democratic societies corruption is a serious problem but, except in very isolated occasions, the problem is short-lived and easily resolved. The ballot box and legal system serve as a lifeline. In an autocratic system of government, however, the same safeguards are not present and corruption actually serves a useful purpose for such governments. Through the tacit allowance of corruption the government is able to ensure its continued existence and by observing such operations from outside step in and apply control when it serves its purposes.

Although corruption is universally declaimed as an evil it can be demonstrated to a positive factor in the governing of autocratic style regimes. In fact, as demonstrated herein, autocratic governments may actually depend heavily upon the continued presence of corruption in order to ensure their existence. As such, corruption serves a valuable purpose in autocracies.

Political Corruption… [read more]

2012 Political Campaign Funds Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,306 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


President Obama is so far one of the best candidate who have managed to raise a considerable amount of funding. He is leading other potential candidates in a significant amount of money. However, one of the main issues relating to the funding is how the politicians will spend the raised amount in a considerable way. On his side, one of the potentials presidential candidates, Ron Paul, says that he will advocate for the right usage of the campaign funding. He says that he will campaign for the money nit to be used for other purposes than the intended ones like supporting abortion. Moreover, Ron Paul says that the campaign funding should not be used for various family planned programs. Paul is a physician by profession who strongly campaigns against abortions. His views is a clear indication that some of the politicians always have the intention of using the campaign funding for other purposes that are against the will of the majority.

The American law states that all potential candidates are obliged to file the campaign finance in order to show how the funding is being used. All the information about the funding is normally released to the public in order they can get a view of how the amount was spent. However, it is evident that some of the candidates fail to disclosure all the amount of the funding. This raises questions on how the amount of money raised during the funding was used. Failure to offer information on the usage of the funding is a clear indication that some of the politicians tend to use the money in various ways other than the intended purpose.

The presidential campaigns attract usage of huge amount of money. According to the above information, it is clear that all this money comes from the public funding. This means that the public tend to contribute much in the primary and general elections. However, even the private sectors also tend to contribute much in the funding of the campaigns. The funding also translates that a lot of taxpayers' money is spent. Many scholars argue that the wrong usage of the funding contributes to inflation. This was evident during the 2008 presidential campaign where after the elections America went under a hard financial situation. The same issue seems to repeat after this year's election. This is the main reason why the public should care and be concerned over this issue. This is because the public is actively contributing for the campaign. This evident because within the last few months, the top leading potential candidates have managed to raise a considerable amount of money compared to the last campaign period.

In order to end the problem of politicians using the funding money in the wrong way, various measures ought to be considered. Most of these measures relate to the public funding system. Many of the politicians strongly depend on this system for the finances that emerge during this period. Some of the politicians who prefer staying out… [read more]

Conflict Neg Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (626 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Obama's tendency to compromise indicates the same: a desire to resolve conflict. Unfortunately, Obama believes that compromise creates win-win scenarios when in reality, compromise creates lose-lose scenarios.

Authoritative command would not work in the Washington scenario, and neither would altering the structure of the organization because the roles are firmly fixed in government procedure. Therefore, the best tactics for negotiation would be to reveal the ground rules for each party. Boehner is obviously self-interested and concerned about keeping his position as Speaker. He also needs to please the "base" of his party. However, it was apparent that the abortion bill was not as important to him as he was first letting on. As mediator, I would make sure to discover exactly how important the abortion funding issue was; and encourage him to perhaps reconsider his stance given the constitutional issues at stake. The Democrats did not effectively assert their needs and desires in this situation. It was unnecessary even to entertain the Planned Parenthood issue, especially in light of the fact that it was compromised out of the ultimate agreement.

In the end, "all three were trying to camouflage weaknesses with bluffing and public confidence," (Kane, 2011). With an effective mediator who could illuminate the principles of good negotiation, weaknesses could be turned into strengths. The Biden/Obama/Reid side might have seen that they came from a relative position of power, and could use the opportunity to assert a mandate. The Boehner/Republican side of the conflict might have seen that they could better clarify the goals of their party rather than remain as wishy-washy as the democrats.


Kane, P. (2011). Budget battle came down to 3 men and their weaknesses. Washington Post. Retrieved online: http://www.washingtonpost.com/politics/budget-battle-came-down-to-3-men-and-their-weaknesses/2011/04/09/AFLotbAD_story.html… [read more]

Corporation and Money Affecting Politics in American Research Paper

Research Paper  |  5 pages (1,700 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


¶ … nation has recently been rocked by the activities of lobbyist Jack Abramoff (Curtin). His activities as a lobbyist eventually landed him in jail but, along the way, the companies and organizations that hired Abramoff benefited from the efforts and influences that he was able to peddle and, therein, is the problem. Money and corporations have taken over the… [read more]

International Community to Know Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (834 words)
Bibliography Sources: 8


The Libyan affairs have put a serious question mark on the United Nations and the role that they are playing. United Nations intervened in the local state of affairs of the country which is not in their jurisdiction. This has had an impact on the global politics and that has changed the face of international relations specially the relations of under developed nations with the stronger nations. The Libyan movement has challenged the credibility on the United Nations. The United Nations Security Council stepped in and seized all the assets of Gaddafi and had forward the case to the International Criminal Court for further investigation. On the 20th October Gaddafi was captured while he was escaping from Sirte and was killed in the process. The death of Gaddafi marked the independence of Libya and an end to the war.

These movements were not only limited to the less developed or the Arab nations instead they were spread all over the world. European nations were faced by the Euro zone crisis. Spain felt the effects of high level unemployment. While Greece had to face the backlash of Euro zone crisis as there economy became unstable. The Occupy Movements aimed to make the economic system fairer and give rights to the lesser developed nations.

The Protestants have indicated a failure to the theory of realism. Realism now must consider that the focus should what a country must accept in the changing times. Realist theories seem fit for the utopian world and do not apply in the current scenario. It is hard to justify the fact that the powerful states and state actors will continue to dominate the weaker states. It is not restricted to international politics and international affairs instead it is the human nature which can be found in families and professional organizations as well. The secular liberals of the revolutionary states, which were mentioned in the previous section, they all spoke for the ideas of liberal pluralism. The main themes of the protests were mostly for the minority rights and preached tolerance. Most of the protests were headed by the liberal parties who demanded an end to the political structure and a change in the dynamics of the politics. The revolts last year were not only relevant for the local or regional politics instead they had a huge impact on the international politics and…… [read more]

American Government Should the President Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (1,099 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


American Government

Should the President of the United States have authority to remove officials that the U.S. Senate has confirmed?

A bit of government history is needed here to make this answer complete. The Congress of the United States passed the Tenure of Office Act, and notwithstanding the veto of President Andrew Johnson, two-thirds of the Senate overruled Johnson's veto. And when Johnson went ahead and removed the secretary of war without the consent of Congress -- he was nearly impeached from office. That act was repealed in 1887.

In 1926, according to the Supreme Court decision, Myers vs. United States, ruled that it is unconstitutional to require the consent of the Senate to remove non-cabinet officials. I believe if the Senate had to approve the president's decision to remove a high official, it would create even more logjams and chaos in Washington than there are now. It would be a bad idea.

There are those in Congress today (particularly in the House of Representatives -- specifically those adhering to "tea party" values) who would (and often do) attempt to stymie President Barack Obama at every turn. Much of the legislation Obama has passed did not receive very many Republican votes (some legislation got zero support from the GOP), and in fact some members of the GOP in Congress have said their number one goal is defeating Obama in 2012. Most Republicans have shown through their rhetoric and their actions that they goals do not including creating more jobs, or helping reform healthcare, or dealing with energy issues, but rather, in blocking anything Obama proposes. Hence, giving Congress the power to oversee those the president would like to remove from high positions would create even more partisan bickering and polarization.

Are some of the Executive Orders issues by presidents an overstepping of their authority? The answer is yes, in particular EO 9066. This was done during a time of hysteria over World War II after Japan attacked Pearl Harbor in 1941. Giving the military the authority to seize Japanese-Americans that were living within 60 miles from the West coast and place them into internment camps was an outrageous seizing of power by the executive branch. It is very doubtful that this kind of arbitrary seizing of power and rounding up Americans of a particular nationality or ethnicity could happen again.

The EO 13228 (Homeland Security) is quite a bit different, albeit it was also passed in the time right after an emotional war-related act, the 9/11 attacks. Congress in fact authorized the Homeland Security act and EO 13228 was just an executive order setting up the task force on preparedness for the war on terrorism. Meantime, the Patriot Act of 2001 in fact took away rights of privacy and imposed a law that was very anti-democratic, and Congress actually passed this and it was not an executive order, but it was bad legislation. The president should not have the right to send young men to Vietnam based on executive orders… [read more]

Chinese Acquisition of Nuclear Weapon Research Paper

Research Paper  |  19 pages (5,510 words)
Style: Chicago  |  Bibliography Sources: 110


¶ … Chinese acquisition of nuclear weapon, which may cause national security threats against the United States, is a matter of much concern. The research addresses the following research question:

What are the national security reasons for the U.S. involvement and political strategy in discouraging the implosion of a nuclear war with China?

The research question is important to address… [read more]

Political Science in My Opinion the Realties Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (1,155 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Political Science

In my opinion the realties of what is required to run for either the House of Representatives or the Senate are not strict enough considering that none of them are very successful at what they do. Those that end up on capital hill are so out of touch with what is going on in the real world that they don't know enough to even realize that there is a problem in American let along have any idea on how to fix it. The majority of elected representatives get elected because they had the money in order to do so. These are not working class Americans that are struggling everyday to put food on the table for their children or gas in their tank so that they can get to work that day. My views have changed in the fact that they have gotten more cynical that there is any fix for America that this group can bring about. How are those that are so out of touch with what it really takes to survive in this country really supposed to know how to help those who are truly in need.

The system of checks and balances that is in place is a vital part of the Constitution. With checks and balances, each of the three branches of government can limit the powers of the others. This way, no one branch becomes too powerful. Each branch is in charge of checking the power of the other branches to make sure that the power is balanced between them (Checks and Balances, 2012). The framers of the Constitution conceived of Congress as the center of policymaking in America. Over time the prominence of Congress has varied, and even though it was once the true center of power in Washington, its role has seen change over time (Government in America, 2010).

Based upon this one could say that the system of checks and balances that is in place is outdated. It appears that no one follows the rules that have been set down since they are doing what they want, when they want to, with no real regard to the rules that were put into place so many years ago. Due to the fact that the system was developed so many years ago it seems plausible that it no longer works in today's world. What is in place should not be done away with, but updated in order to be more relevant to the world today. The underlying principles that are in place should be kept as three branches do need to have power over each other in order to prevent one from completely taking over. What needs to be added are prevention measures in order to alleviate covert actions from happening. And if they do then stiff penalties needs to be imparted. How is the Congress supposed to be taken seriously as a law making body when they can't even follow the rules that are in place for them?

3. The… [read more]

Second Treatise of Government by John Locke Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,225 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Locke's Second Treatise Of Government

Property development is South Florida is a contentious inasmuch as it involves incursions into the Everglades, which are considered as having unique environmental value from which the region, state and country benefit. The state has intervened on behalf of Everglades preservation at various points when local governments sought to develop these lands. This conflict can be resolved using a number of perspectives, but it is interesting to consider the contribution Locke's views in the Second Treatise of Government make to the discussion, since Locke's made significant contributions to modern political philosophy regarding property.

Locke was generally in favor of man being able to expropriate "property in the state of nature" on account of his view that man is entitled to fight for survival just as much as any other species. Where there might be disagreement is with respect to the understanding of survival and in addition with respect to some of the constraints that Locke put on property expropriation.

Some of the constraints Locke appears to have put on property expropriation relate to survival. Locke argued that "one may only appropriate as much as one can use before it spoils." This clause relates to survival in that waste is something that works against survival. In the case of South Florida, the pro-development side would point out that Everglades land is not particularly useful for human survival in its natural state anyway, so development adds more value than the land would if it is left undeveloped. However, Locke would likely argue against wanton expropriation of this land, because the land should remain in a state of nature until man has a good use for that land.

In Locke's time, in the pre-industrialized world, land was almost always used for survival -- farming and hunting. The amount of urban land was insignificant in size. In our time, urban land is extensive, in South Florida in particular. Additionally, the land is not necessarily being used for survival. While Locke would most likely accept draining Everglades land to extent Homestead's farmland, for example, he would most likely balk at non-survival uses such as casinos, or retail development. Such development could easily be condensed into other areas -- there is ample vacant land in South Florida and the density of people and development is relatively low. Locke, not faced with these conditions in his time, did not specifically address this situation. However, another clause in the second treatise does provide further guidance as to Locke's views on the subject, so that we need not speculate as freely as above as to his probable views.

Locke argued that "enough and as good" is another constraint on land expropriation. This clause implies that wasting land is something Locke would not approve of. While he defended the right to property ownership, he seemed to also be arguing that one should make use of property expropriated from nature. If land is taken from nature, then it is not available to others. When we consider… [read more]

Role of Government Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,532 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


The President should not have the power to decide when another branch of what is supposed to be a separated government is in session, or any other such control over them, any more than Congress should be able to tell the President whether or not he can have a conversation with a foreign leader.

These issues are particularly reprehensible coming from a candidate who campaigned on being a constitutional scholar who would respect the separation of powers. Between signing statements, skirting his constitutional limits on appointments and ignoring the War Powers Act, Obama has shown that he is just another politician who rails against opponents when they have control and skirts constitutional limits and hypocritically ignores them when they take power.


Baker, P. 2010. Obama Making Plans to Use Executive Power. New York Times. 12 Feb 2010.

Fiegerman, S. 2011. Congress Approval Rating Hits All Time Low. The Street. 21 Dec 2011.

Immigration Policy Center, 2009. Enforcing Immigration Laws. American Immigration Council. Last Accessed 12 Jan 2012. URL: http://www.immigrationpolicy.org/just-facts/enforcing-immigration-laws-repairing-our-broken-immigration-system

Matthews, M. 2012. How Obama Sucker Punched Republicans on the Budget. Forbes. 12 Jan 2012. URL: http://www.forbes.com/sites/merrillmatthews/2012/01/12/how-obama-sucker-punched-republicans-on-the-budget/

Milbank, D. 2012. Mitt talks money. Orlando Sentinel. 10 Jan 2012.

Scalia,…… [read more]

Honest Graft Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (980 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Honest & dishonest graft.

According to Plunkitt, the difference between honest and dishonest graft is simply that honest graft lies in seeing opportunities and taking them. Plunkitt gives the example of property that he bought that, hearing a certain location will be in demand, he proceeds to buy the property before later selling it at a higher price than before. What Plunkitt was doing, in this and similar cases, was investing his money in areas that would later be in demand and, therefore, proceed for a higher price.

According to Plunkitt, most politicians get rich the same way rather than through robbing the government by dishonest graft, I.e. By profiteering from their political activities and diverting money that is supposed to be for the government into their own pockets, by gambling, or by blackmailing certain institutions.

Plunkitt also sees raising wages as a kind of honest graft since he (and other who do so) makes himself popular that way thus receiving votes.

I happen to agree with Plunkitt in the first instance (regarding investment), but think that raising wages should be implemented for reasons other than for solely gaining popularity. Plunkitt seems to imply that were he not in a political position, he may not accord fair salary / benefits. I also think that penalizing certain institutions is not 'blackmail', as Plunkitt calls it, but a way of regulating their concerns. Plunkitt, wishing to profit from these organizations, may have refrained from fining them. I find Plunkitt's reasoning disturbing.

Section 2. Plunkitt & drinking

Plunkitt sees drinking as detrimental to the person who wants to make a success of it in life. According to him, successful businessmen, including politicians, are temperate. They may sell liquors to others, in order to make a business, and they may befriend drinkers (cautiously) but they know that in order to retain they're thinking and calculating abilities and in order to attain positions of prestige, they had better let liquor alone.

Plunkitt provides many examples of this, from the successful politicians of Tammany Hall to the Bowery leaders and the most successful saloon keepers who understand that temperance is a business deal.

Section 3. Plunkitt & political party bosses in the Democratic Party

Plunkitt thinks that the Democratic Party should reserve itself to studying human nature rather than confine itself to studying politics and theories of politics from books. People are most persuaded by those who talk down to their level and address them in practical form living with them and understanding what they are going through rather than quoting at them from books.

Plunkitt, accordingly, sees that the Democratic party has a future ahead of it as long as the political party bosses would get down to the level of the masses and speak to them in their tongue.

He also urges the bosses to abolish "iniquitous and villainous civil service laws' that are effecting jobs and corporations. With the bosses doing this he…… [read more]

International Political Order Is in a State Essay

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Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … international political order is in a state if anarchy. Discuss.

Similar to all politics, international politics is basically about conflict management and the re-creation of the community. The nature of such politics is more than the combination of 18,000 possible mutual relationships between the 192 states across the globe today. While these mutual relationships are significant in politics… [read more]

Parties and Party Systems Essay

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Style: Chicago  |  Bibliography Sources: 2


161). Mass populous support exists in both examples and drives political participation and populous voting, to determine the "platform" which will dominate the control function of the party (Sartori, 2005, p. 224). This popular support is reciprocal to governmental control and influence, in other words the popular support is fed by the perceived power of control and is the basis to some degree of that very control, through voting and economic support by members and non-members in agreement on issues.

Out of necessity mostly in response to funds needed especially for major election races as well as to maintain continuity and momentum in the party creates internal mechanisms to control infrastructure and funding. Funds are necessary for the party to function in and out of the election process and the party must have some semblance of control over this issue

The education aspect is also important in regards to funding as it is usually the third most important funding direction in the system. Funding has been a major issue regarding how the cost of elections dominate the election field, creating strong two or limited party completion for real control in government. Funding is of course also necessary for the functioning of the party itself and for it to fill the party role of educator to the public, some who support it and others who are in contention but most importantly the party serves as the main source of information about not only opinions but candidates for office themselves, which to some degree allows the party to dictate what information the populous gets regarding the candidate (Ware, p.106). This effects the system in that it creates a sense of homogeneity between the party platform and the candidates, themselves if one exists or not. Funding internally and externally will likely continue to be a huge issue for political parties, especially in the U.S. As regulations and demand for them dominate the climate of the party system.


Katz, R.S. (2008) "Political parties," in Daniele Caramani, ed., Comparative politics.

(Oxford: Oxford University Press,), pp. 293-317.

Sartori, G. (2005) Parties and party systems: a framework for analysis. Colchester, UK: University of Essex Press.

Ware, A. "The classification of party systems," Chapter 5 in book Political

parties and party systems (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1996), pp. 147-183.

Ware, A. (2008) The American direct primary:…… [read more]

Characteristics of the Nation State and Transnational Entities Essay

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Bibliography Sources: 2


¶ … Institutions

Describe the characteristics of the modern nation-state.

With the collapse of the pluralistic empires in the 19th Century, there arose the nation states as well as the continued development of the transnational entities that have widely influenced the way the nation states operate and relate to each other. The economies, politics, cultural interaction, social interaction and labor… [read more]

Theory &amp Context: Institutional Choice Essay

Essay  |  6 pages (1,589 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 11


However, the role that bureaucracies play as organizations is not well examined from that specific view which is one that is reported to "run counter to principal-agent relationships that must be predicated on a zone of acceptable behavior between such parties." (Meier, 2003) Meier states that what is needed are models that give consideration to the "utility functions of politicians and bureaucratic agencies without relegating the latter to a constraint on the optimization problem facing the former." (2003) Moe notes the fact that the "…norm of reciprocity within Congress are not products of explicit choice but have emerged informally over time through repeated interaction and adaptive adjustment among participants." (2011, p.215)


From the literature reviewed in this brief study it is clear that there are many theories and accompanying models that attempt to explain the processes of bureaucracy however, each of these touches upon normative principles and the manner in which bureaucratic structures and accompanying actions, reciprocal actions and reactions are established within the framework of what is considered as 'normal' thereby demonstrating that no matter what theoretical framework one may construct the model and understanding of bureaucratic organizations upon the normative theory comes into play in gaining an understanding of the structure, processes and workings of any bureaucratic agency.


Derthick, M. (1990) Agency under Stress: The Social Security Agency in American Government. Washington, DC: The Brookings Institution.

Meier, K and Krause, G (2003) Conclusion: An Agenda for the Scientific Study of Bureaucracy, u in Krause and Meier (eds.) Politics, Policy and Organizations: Essays in the Scientific Study of Bureaucracy.

Miller, Gary (20000 Rational Choice and Dysfunctional Institutions.u…… [read more]

Establishing a New Government Essay

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Establishing a New Government

In order to construct from zero a country with a functioning government based on democratic principles several steps are necessary in order to identify the most suitable opportunities available.

The first steps are to make an external non-biased analysis of the new country taking into account the most important elements: geography, demography, social and economic conditions of inhabitants and especially recent history. The latter would allow an understanding of the political and people's psychological situation as the new country of Kramer might have been born out of a conflict with another state or states, or from an interior conflict. This, alongside identifying the main leaders of the society, is very important in the construction of any new state as it lowers political pressures on the future governments. Therefore, a serious analysis should be made on the solidity of the people that have requested assistance in organizing a new government, of their background and most of all influence and trust of the Kramerian population.

A government can be organized by either an external party or an internal number of actors. As no institution appears to exist in Kramer, it appears logic that the first steps in creating fundamental laws and institutions could be made by representatives of the people in conjunction with the external party which should be a recognized international authority like the United Nations. A temporary working group of representative leaders from the Kramerian society and international advisors should be formed to put into motion the first steps towards a free and democratic society.

As the most important act in the political formation of the country is the Constitution, the temporary working group should identify national and international experts and community actors that would engage in a closed doors debate on drafting the Constitution. After the final draft is ready, this should be opened for a public debate that would also involve citizens, creating therefore a sense of responsibility and unity. As such a process takes time and a country needs to also develop its basic skeleton, the temporary working group should either request international logistics support or use the existing one (if the case) to offer citizens some of the basic needs: security, shelter, basic nutrition and health resources and communication methods.

After the finalization of the Constitution, that would lay in theory all the necessary institutions and relations of the state with citizens and other states, a significant number of the population should give its agreement on the document either in a massive public gathering or, if in place, by voting. More technical issues that are also very important relate to the creation of a flag, an anthem, a capital city and to identify or build state buildings.

The next steps would be related to the final actions of the temporary working group…… [read more]

Political Compromise and Politics Public Essay

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Fritz Hollings (Congressional Record 1990:S4901) which asserted that tariff's on footwear were needed because these "protected" the American consumer yet again from "threats of runaway prices" for shoes (Boudreaux & Lee, 1997). Other examples cited by the authors include Rep. Ed Jenkin's (Congressional Record 1986: H9386) argument that all "basic industries" in the United States had to receive protection from "imports" because if they were not, the U.S. "would not be able to lead the free world that all of us want to lead" (Boudreaux & Lee, 1997). Such statements are illogical and used to brainwash people into thinking the government is acting on behalf of the people, when self-interest is at heart.

Compromise IS necessary, but the politicians governing compromise must consider how much the weight of their decisions will affect others. Glaser (2006) makes an important point, noting that when compromise is necessary, it is much more beneficial to redirect attitudes of the political minority so they understand why the prevailing ideology is important to pass. Much of the time the consideration involves the vote of consumers. Every politician has to pay a price for their choices, and typically this comes in the way of votes. Voters typically vote for those politicians who constantly support the majority ideology at the time; thus a politician will "compromise" to provide such an ideology, whether or not it matches their own. Sometimes the desire for voting rewards leads to the passage of policies that are not beneficial when one performs a cost-to-benefit analysis, which can damage the country over the long-term (Boudreaux & Lee, 1997).


The long-term ramifications of political compromise can be beneficent or damaging, depending on how well special-interest campaigns mesh with the needs of voter's and the nation as a whole (Glaser, 2006). It is critical that a government remember they are in place to represent a people, and not merely special interest campaigns whose goals include securing votes. When the needs of the majority are met, then more likely than not the government will remain viewed as a solid structure in the minds of the governed. However, as more and more compromised are demanded, the legitimacy of governmental bodies can only come into question in the future.


Bourdreaux, Donald & Lee, Dwight R. 1997 Winter. Politics as the art of confined compromise.

Cato Journal, 16(3). Cato Institute. Retrieved: http://www.cato.org/pubs/journal/cj16n3-6.html

Bovard, J. 1991. The fair trade fraud. New York: St. Martin's Press.

Glaser, J.M. (2006). Public support for political compromise on a volatile racial issue: insight from the survey experiment. Political Psychology,…… [read more]

Government: An Unviable Solution Essay

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e., America's Civil War) and would be foolhardy to suggest that a "one-size-fits-all" governance solution is available to satisfy the needs in this increasingly globalized setting.

In this regard, Weiss also notes that, "Applying the notion of 'governance' to the planet' is fundamentally misleading. It captures the gamut of interdependent relations in the absence of any overarching political authority and with institutions that exert little or no effective control. Quite a distinction exists, then, between the national and international species of governance" (3). This paucity of a universal solution to humankind's needs is not new, of course, but it does reflect the changing views concerning what paradigms are best suited to the dynamic environment in which countries around the world are seeking to advance their own interests, a process that frequently involves attenuating the interests of their neighbors. In this regard, Weiss emphasizes that, "Within a country, we have governance plus government which, whatever its shortcomings in Mexico or the United States, usually and predictably ensures effective authority and control. At the international level, governance is the whole story. We have governance minus government, which means virtually no capacity to ensure compliance with collective decisions" (2009, 3).

Relationship of these Issues

In years past, it has become abundantly apparent that like the Roman Empire, superpowers can come can go. According to some analysts, China's economy will exceed the United States are early as 2027 (Tett, 2010). China, though, is not the only emerging economic powerhouse on the horizon and, together with India, Brazil and Russia (a collective group of nations commonly referred to as the "BRIC") will play an increasingly significant role in refining the geopolitical aspects of the world as it is today. In fact, Tett suggests that, "While the total BRICs' group will eclipse the big western economies by 2032 -- almost a decade sooner than first thought. That will overturn many western assumptions about how the world works" (2010, 5).

Fully 80 years after the Great Depression, though, some hardy economists are pointing out that no one truly understands what fuels the global economy, let alone the global economy, and it may well be that Adam Smith was right all along. As the impact of the increasing globalization of the marketplace provides consumers in the developing nations the world with an improved standard of living, it has become increasingly apparent that the "invisible hand" described by Smith will be the overriding factor that is involved in how and when innovations in global governance structures take place. As Tett points out, the BRIC nations are not alone in their struggle to enjoy a piece of the American resource pie, but they are in the vanguard of the nations that will inevitably play a role in global governance structures. For instance, Tett emphasize that, "We estimate that two billion people could join the global middle-class by 2030, mainly from BRICs" (Tett 2010, 5). It is reasonable as well to suggest that these increasingly affluent consumers in the BRIC nations… [read more]

Urban Politics Brick City - Season Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (829 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 2


Urban Politics

Brick City - Season One, Episode Four: Circus

"Circus," the fourth episode of the documentary television series Brick City, contrasts the garish entertainment of the Ringling Bros. And Barnum & Bailey Circus with the gritty, daily existence of life in Newark. Newark's Mayor Corey Booker has been attempting to revitalize the reputation of Newark, which has often been stereotyped as crime-ridden and depressed. Attracting major entertainment figures, particularly 'family' entertainment figures such as the circus to Newark, is part of Booker's campaign. The episode contrasts the circus with images of the city's residents, to show the distinction between the image that Newark is attempting to project to the world and what is real -- both the images of a former gang member turning his life around as well as that of urban residents talking about the costs violence has had upon their lives and families.

Brick City contrasts hopeful gestures, like the measurable reduction in homicides by the Newark police and the attempts of characters like to forge a new existence, with the fact that deaths still happen. The video shows how both gang members and police officers alike mourn the deaths of members of their group and also how members of the circus dare to do the impossible -- just like the residents, everyone lives in hope. One of the greatest strengths of this video is the humor and the evident earnestness of Corey Booker as he welcomes the animals and performers to Newark. The contrast between the beautiful elephants and the highways of Newark is poignant and effective, illustrating how the circus and the constructed, urban environment of Newark both look unnatural. However, as well as tragedy and difficulty there is also joy. The image of a tightrope performer, suspended over Newark's buildings becomes a symbol of Booker's attempt to walk a tightrope between sensitivity to the crime that still exists and his desire to create a new and better Newark. "Every day my life is a circus," the mayor admits.

According to one reviewer of Brick City: "There is tragedy aplenty in these five hours, but also comedy and political intrigue and, yes, black people having a good time" (Sepinwall 2009). The mayor's staff is shown relaxing and interacting with one another as human beings and ordinary residents are shown in a full manner, in their strengths as well as their weaknesses. One of the most powerful feats of strength shown on the video is not that of the…… [read more]

European Union a State Research Paper

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Bibliography Sources: 20


Whereas, the democracy provided by the EU is mainly "with the people" and "for the people" and is mostly done through this vast process of the intermediation of the interest; this is also known as "Community Model" (Schmidt and Monnet, 2004).

Because of such a fragmented democracy the legitimization of EU has been questioned as, EU is compared to the… [read more]

Government Preferable in a Presidential Essay

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The federal government originally was far weaker than it now is, states held far more responsibility in concerns such as currency, trade, and even the states military.

One problem of a divided government is the presence of considerable deadlock and conflict between issues among the divided parties. This problem does not happen in parliamentary systems, since the ruling party controls all functions of government, and the minority party can merely voice its opinion. The slowness of the presidential system is frustrating for many observers, as controversial legislation is often not even presented in divided congresses, so that one party can seek to pass that legislation during a time of one party rule. This means legislation that is passed during divided government is usually weaker, less controversial, and less costly than in divided congress times.

Ultimately, the presidential democracy system's strengths in stability outweigh its negatives in speed of enacting legislation. A weak executive branch is important to such a powerful country as the U.S., and a breakdown in responsibility to the legislature allows the executive branch to manage a country the size of the U.S., and a divided system of houses in the legislature allows smaller states some more say in the nations affairs. I believe the founding fathers of the United States setup government in this manner to ensure the maximum amount of balance and stability inherit in the system, unwilling to risk the dominant ability of a parliamentary system. Enabling the balance of powers is what the founders sought to unite the states, both big and small, but also to undermine the powers of the president, a position which was feared to be as powerful as a monarch, which had just been shed in the…… [read more]

Would the World Better Without Government Essay

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A world without government sounds great. The governments of most countries are corrupt and politics presents many problems for people. In some places, the elected officials end up suppressing the rights and freedoms of individuals. Other countries have tyrannical governments that use military force to impose power. Thus, it may seem that government is universally bad. However, there are… [read more]

Politics International Relations Analysis Essay

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Bibliography Sources: 0


Group dynamics in a particular ethnic context, coupled with negative perception of "the other" and subjective images have been and often are a recipe for disaster. This was the case in the Rwandan Genocide and in the Bosnian Wars in the 1990's, and is, sadly, the norm in the Democratic Republic of Congo today. This part of the paper, due to limited writing space, will only focus on the Rwandan Genocide and the Bosnian Wars of succession in the break-up of Yugoslavia in Europe with an attempt to explain these traumatic events for the countries involved, and what can be done to avoid them in the future.

Such seemingly singular events in humanity as the Rwandan Genocide and the Bosnian Wars should have no precursor and no successor. They should be anomalies. Sadly, this is not the case. Not only was the Rwandan Genocide not the first such event (it was preceded by the Holocaust, after all) it was not the last. Around the same time that Rwanda was happening, the Bosnian-Serbian wars began in Eastern Europe. Though the two issues are completely different in causes and events, they are similar in that the perception of "other" led to mass atrocity.

When looking at these nations (Rwanda, Bosnia and Serbia), all of which are peaceful today, it is hard to believe that less than two decades ago people were being slaughtered in their streets, in their houses, and thrown in mass graves with no respect. This kind of inhumanity towards fellow man is hard to accept, much less describe. But some nations, as seen from this analysis, do engage in genocide. They can do so because various groups are threatened by various factors, including a negative concept of "the other" (which may be a person with a different ethnicity or religion or both) or simple financial and political reasons. Often, the negative concepts within society reinforce other reasons, and vice versa, creating a complex cause to violent conflict. The negative concepts fostered in these societies are also further reinforced by factors such as financial differences, ethnic dominance of one group over the other, media encouragement, etc. In fact, both in Bosnia and Rwanda, the media played a great part in facilitation and even encouraging the mass killings. In both, financial or political differences (such as those between Hutus and Tutsis in Rwanda historically), also played a big part in both conflicts.

The reality of genocide is acute, as these examples show. It is also quite disheartening that mass killings are still happening around the world today, most notably in the Democratic Republic of Congo. However, there are solutions to ending mass violence. Often, even in our society, there is intra-group hostility. This kind of hostility can contribute to ensuing chaos, and must be one of the most important issues examined to help bring about an end to mass violence. What can prevent this kind of hostility is often help: be it social, financial or political. For example, in the Congo… [read more]

Karl Marx Communist Manifesto Book Report

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Karl Marx and Frederick Engels argue for the empowerment of workers in the Communist Manifesto. The historical context in which Marx and Engels wrote was one in which labor was devalued and the owners of the means of production had become the new oppressive ruling classes. Noticing that the bourgeoisie had replaced the old aristocracy to exploit the masses, Marx… [read more]

American Government the Five Main Principles Essay

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American Government

The five main principles that form the basis of the Constitution are Popular Sovereignty, Separation of Powers, Checks and Balances, Limited Government, and Federalism. Popular Sovereignty indicates that people have the most important role in government. Today, it seems that people do not play the most important role in government, because many things happen that the people do not approve of in government, and so this principle is not being adhered to.

Separation of Powers is the separation of the three basic functions of government - legislative, executive, and judicial, and it creates a government that can never be monopolized by one area of the government. Today, there is still a coherent separation of powers, and the President cannot gain enough power to become a monarch or a despot. Checks and Balances means that no branch can dominate another branch of government. Power has to be limited, divided, and checked and balanced. Today, checks and balances are still in place, too, which is why the Supreme Court or the President have not gained power over other branches.

Limited Government is the principle that says government does not have all the power, and that people hold control over what it can do. Laws govern what the government can do, and it must follow the laws in the Constitution. People can be impeached, judges may not gain confirmation, and people can be voted out of office, all of which limit the power of government. Today, this limited government is still in place, and there are still laws that can limit the power of government. Finally, Federalism is the division of power between the national government and state government. The Federal government has certain powers, such as declaring war, while state governments have the power to conduct elections. Today, this is still the case, so Federalism is still strong in the country.

A Unitary System of government is one where the central government gives power to lesser governments, likes states and counties, and it is the most common type of government. These sub-governments may rely on the central government for funds, because they cannot tax themselves. Spain has a unitary form of government. A Confederal System of government gives the power to local or state governments. A good example is the European Union, where each country has power. A Federal System divides governmental power between the national system and state and local systems, and it is the one the United States uses.

In a Presidential system, the President is the head of state and the chief executive, and is elected by the people. The President has broad powers in foreign affairs, and can deploy the military, but cannot declare war without the approval of Congress. The American President is an excellent example of the Presidential system. A Parliamentary system separates the head of state and the chief executive. The chief executive is the head of the legislature, while the head of state is largely ceremonial. The largest gap between these two… [read more]

American Government Branches of the Federal Essay

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American Government

Branches of the federal government

The Federal Government consists of three distinct branches and they are the legislature represented by the Congress, judiciary represented by the Supreme Court and the executive represented by the President of the United States. Each of these three branches have unique powers bestowed by the U.S. Constitution and they also check the actions… [read more]

Political Philosophy Research Paper

Research Paper  |  5 pages (1,602 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5



Political Philosophy

Political Philosophy: Government

The role and function of government has over the centuries been at the centre of debate and even conflict among various political theorists and activists. The question of what the "job" of government should be, hinges to a great extent on the underlying philosophical trajectory that determines the shape, form and function, the extent… [read more]

Habits of the Heart by Robert Bellah Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (621 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1


Habits Heart

Creating a Government of Citizens

In his book Habits of the Heart, Robert Bellah makes an argument that the individualism embedded in modern American society and culture is having a detrimental effect on the government of the United States, and specifically on the relationship between the citizens and their government. There are definitely benefits to the American sense of individualism, at least in a pragmatic (Bellah uses the term "utilitarian" or "economic") sense, but Bellah argues that the cynicism and suspicion with which people view their government is ultimately counterproductive and inefficient. The argument that is built in Habits of the Heart is multi-faceted and quite complex, but and examination of certain of the key points Bellah makes regarding individualism and its conflict with the collective good in this country leads to some understanding of the issues facing our government as framed in this book. One very clear fact emerges from this examination: striving towards collectivism is fraught with too many disagreements and barriers to be accomplished in a way that still upholds the ideals of democracy.

A large part of the problem that Bellah notes in the citizens' relationship to their government in the United States comes down to the definition of success that is associated with individualism, at least in Bellah's view. Bellah contends that, "Americans define success in terms of the outcome of free competition among individuals in an open market" (198). The concept of citizenship, then, has more to do with the way individuals can take advantage of the current system of government and business, rather than a sense of civic duty or a striving towards the common good. As this is how success is defined throughout society, it makes sense that the individuals who hold government offices would define success the same way, and it is precisely this striving towards individual gain by…… [read more]

2007 Election in Kenya Was Bitterly Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (737 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


the 2007 election in Kenya was bitterly contested but it was the events following the election that caused the most concern. In an election campaign that took place over an entire year, incumbent president, Mwai Kibaki, was re-elected to be President. His re-election, however, required the intervention of the United Nations secretary Kofi Annan and the brokering of a deal in which Kibaki's election challenger, Raila Odinga, was appointed prime minister. The deal ended a long period of violence that broke out following the December 2007 election.

Entering the period of the election Kenya had been considered by political experts to be the most stable government in Africa but this claim was belied by the fact that bitter fighting broke out subsequent to the election. Incumbent Kibaki was declared the winner by the country's election commission but Odinga supporters were unconvinced and charged that the commission had rigged the tallying of the votes (Ongiri).

In the severe violence that followed the election more than 1,000 people were killed and thousands more fled what had been ethnically mixed areas. In a nation where segregation had never been an issue it suddenly became one (Amnesty International).

The primary issue in the election and the reason for the subsequent violence was related to alleged corruption in the Kenyan economy . Kibaki's government had some successes in the area of education and had been able to bring some growth to the Kenyan economy but Odinga and his followers questioned Kibaki's methods. Kibaki had entered office in 2002 on the coattails of promising that he would address corruption in the Kenyan government. Corruption in Kenya, based on old tribal connections, had been a problem for some time prior to Kibaki's election and, in the view of Odinga and his supporters; it had not improved in Kibaki's tenure in office. For Odinga and his supporters, Kibaki's re-election was further proof of this corruption.

Political corruption in Kenya is based upon the century old tribal alliances. Tribal members take care of their own by providing jobs and overlooking the criminal and unethical activities of their members. For many years the Kikuyu tribe, the largest in Kenya, has dominated politics and economic life in Kenya. Other…… [read more]

U.S. Government the United States Democracy Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (3,390 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


U.S. Government

The United States democracy and government can be considered to be one of the most important political structures of the modern times. From the point-of-view of the principles it entangles, it is created according to the 18th century Constitution which, aside from some amendments, has maintained its basic elements which defines to this day the American government.

The… [read more]

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