"Government / Politics" Essays

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Freedom, Politics, Economics Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,603 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5

SAMPLE TEXT:

He believed the destruction of the nation's currency created permanent ruin. As such, he would disagree with many of the inflation producing measures in society today. Aspects such as quantitative easing would infuriate Hemingway. I believe Hemingway would also approve of a new gold standard which limits the amount of money the government can print. Hemingway would also be disappointed in regards to being a truly free America. He, much like the other two authors, would believe in a laizze-faire government with little to no intervention (Benson, 1989). Politically, Hemingway is against war. He would probably oppose any military strike arising in Syria or the middle east. The war in Iraq and other military conflicts irrespective of origin would be highly negative to Hemingway who views war as a path to ruin. Due primarily to the large amount of inflation producing measures in America, military involvement in the middle east, and high government controls, Hemingway would not approve of America today. Instead, I believe he would believe that Americans are less free than they were during his era.

References:

1) Benson, Jackson. (1989). "Ernest Hemingway: The Life as Fiction and the Fiction as Life." American Literature. Volume 61, issue 3. 354 -- 358

2) Bosco, Ronald a. And Joel Myerson (2003). Emerson in His Own Time. Iowa City: University of Iowa Press. ISBN 0-87745-842-1.

3) Howarth, William. The Book of Concord: Thoreau's Life as a Writer. Viking Press, 1982

4) Gura, Philip F (2007). American Transcendentalism: A History. New York: Hill and Wang. ISBN 978-0-8090-3477-2.

5) Petrulionis, Sandra Harbert, ed., Thoreau in His Own Time: A Biographical Chronicle of His Life, Drawn From Recollections, Interviews, and Memoirs by Family, Friends, and Associates. Iowa City: University of Iowa Press, 2012. ISBN 1-60938-087-8

6) Richardson, Robert…… [read more]


Power, Interdependence, and Nonstate Actors Research Paper

Research Paper  |  18 pages (5,243 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 15

SAMPLE TEXT:

Power, Interdependence, And Nonstate Actors in World Politics

Power, Interdependence, and Non-state Actors in World Politics

In the late 1970s, new approaches emerged concerning international relations. Although the constituents of the new approaches appear in numerous literatures, several political scholars combined the themes in the various literatures to develop a competitor to realism, which later led to the formulation of… [read more]


Thoreau's Resistance to Civil Government Research Paper

Research Paper  |  5 pages (1,397 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

SAMPLE TEXT:

Thoreau in the beginning of the his essay argue that the American government is necessary only because "the people must have some complicated machinery or other, and hear its din, to satisfy that idea of government which they have." However according to Thoreau the only times when the government has been useful, is the time when it has stood aside. In addition Thoreau argues that the government does not achieve what we credit it, the government does not make us free, settle the West, or educate us. On the contrary these are achieved by the incredible character of the individual Americans and they would have been even more successful in these endeavors had government been less involved. Thoreau then argues that we must be men first and subject afterwards, what he means by this is that right and wrong should be decided not by majority but by conscience. Conscience if man is superior to the legislator. He asserts that it is most important that we develop a respect for right, rather than the respect for law, for people's obligation are to do what is right [Alicia 2002]

The question arises as to what must an individual do and how he should behave toward the government. Here we can see Thoreau propagating the most radical of his ideas and extreme individualism. Thoreau's answer to the question of how an individual should behave towards the government is to avoid associating with it altogether. He declares. "I cannot for an instant recognize that political organization as may government which is the slave's government also." Thoreau says that we have not only the right, but indeed the duty, to rebel. Thoreau criticizes the attitude that civil obligation should be maintained for the sake of expediency, he argues that expediency does not take precedence over justice. People must do what is right and just and not what government and the law tells them.

It can be rightly said that Thoreau's essay is an abstract work of political theory, Thoreau argues in a purely philosophical way on the nature of government and that it should be based on conscience. Thus the work should be considered as political philosophy invoking ideas and making claims about the relationship between people and the government. If we look closely we can see that Thoreau in his abstract work is presenting the ideas of anarchism, of individual cooperation and liberty. The fact that Thoreau gives priority to individual conscience to any law and legislation and believes that individual is in the best position to decide the right and wrong and do not need any government. The most important themes throughout the work and which asserts his anarchist theories is the notion of individualism. Deeply skeptic of the government, Thoreau rejects the view that a person must sacrifice or marginalize her values out of loyalty to her government [Beck 1986].

Thoreau believed in a society where people are not governed by any body of representatives and legislations, but by there own conscience,… [read more]


Factions: Help or Hindrance James Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (669 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1

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Among the causes, Madison argued that, "the most common and durable source of factions has been the unequal distribution of property. Those who hold and those who are without property have ever formed distinct interests in society" (Rossiter, 1961). He considered these divisions to be responsible for social and political problems, such as discrimination, class conflict, and even violence. Madison argued that these causes of factions could not be removed, therefore an important role of government is to ensure effective control and regulation of the effects. This does not involve the use of 'pure' democracy, which would result in the majority putting down minorities, but by means of the republican Constitution, which allows the different interests to negotiate their differences in order to reach a solution in which the majority would rule, but which would also show due care and regard to minorities.

Even although Madison believed that factions pose a problem to the institution of a free and democratic form of government, he was also aware that they have a positive role to play. He emphasized that it meant, sometimes, "the public good is disregarded in the conflicts of rival parties," and that voters, politicians, and even governments could potentially be coerced into adopting policies based upon a faction's selfish agenda, at the expense of, "the public good and the rights of other citizens" (Rossiter, 1961). However, he astutely recognized that, by their very number and diversity, competing factions perform a 'checks and balances' role, ensuring that no single group is able to exercise tyrannical control over the rest.

In the late eighteenth century, James Madison was widely recognized as a man of immense intellect and political guile. It is to his credit that the ideas and arguments that he put forward in The Federalist Paper Number 10 - in regard to the relationship between factions, liberty, property, and government - remain at the foundations of the pluralistic democracy that governs and protects much of the Western world today.

Works Cited

Rossiter, C.…… [read more]


War and Occupation: The Effects Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (3,528 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

SAMPLE TEXT:

Since agriculture was still the major industry in Japan, the implication of the reform cannot be underestimated. In fact its implication extended far beyond the economic -- it served to change many ancient and severely entrenched attitudes in the Japanese society and even served to weaken the previously strong authority of family and community. (Roberts, p. 517) It also prompted… [read more]


Australian Federal Politics Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,293 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

SAMPLE TEXT:

caa.org.au/campaigns/refugees/still_drifting/).However, in the case under examination here, there does indeed appear to have been ample reason for the government to be secretive about its actions and for the people to feel that they have been betrayed by Howard's administration (http://www.caa.org.au/campaigns/refugees/pacificsolution/execsum.html#exsum8).

While the population has generally been supportive of turning away refugees (as evidenced by the Howard government's showing at the polls in 2001), there are limits to what even an anti-immigration public will put up with, and the intentional abandonment of children who may drown is one of them. The intentional lying to the public is another thing that that public is unlikely to support. One of these two things happened on Oct. 7, 2001. At that time a SIEV (suspected illegal entry vessel) entered Australian waters. The Howard government - as a part of its reelection campaign - claimed that at least one child had been thrown overboard from the vessel in an attempt to bolster its hard-line claims that refugee seekers were barbarians who would do anything to ensure that they were given asylum in Australia, even risk the death of innocent children.

However, while Howard and his government might have believed that this was a productive claim to make, the fact that there was photographic evidence denying that any children were thrown overboard damaged the government's credibility. An innocent mistake on the part of the government would have been one thing, but it was clear relatively quickly that the government was not simply mistaken, it was lying:

Both Howard's and Reith's departments knew the poll campaign slur of asylum seekers was false. The following article by Andrew Clennell and Tom Allard shows how John Howard's own department and the Defence department were both told just days after the government's explosive claims that children were thrown off an asylum-seeker's boat that the allegations were false (http://www.truthoverboard.com/story1.html).

Sydney Morning Herald article on 15 February 2002 summarized the fact that the claim of innocent children begin endangered by rapacious asylum seekers was a political ploy on the part of Howard and others in his government, some of whom lied intentionally, others of whom simply did not bother the check the details of a story that seemed heaven-sent:

During an election campaign fought on the issue of asylum-seekers, John Howard, Philip Ruddock and Peter Reith peddled falsehoods about boatpeople, then failed to correct their slurs, even when public servants at the highest levels knew the truth (http://www.truthoverboard.com/story1.html).

Few people are shocked to learn that governments - even democratically elected ones - lie to their own people. But sometimes those lies are so egregious and so despicable that they can topple governments. Howard and his administration accused the asylum seekers of victimizing innocent children. It turns out to be the case that it was the Australian government that was guilty of such an indecency.

References

http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/asia-pacific/1659410.stm http://us.cnn.com/2001/WORLD/asiapcf/auspac/08/28/asylum.facts / http://web.amnesty.org/library/index/engASA120102001?Open&of=eng-aus http://www.abc.net.au/4corners/2002/overboard/cable1.htm

http://www.caa.org.au/campaigns/refugees/pacificsolution/execsum.html#exsum8

http://www.caa.org.au/campaigns/refugees/still_drifting/

http://www.immi.gov.au/refugee/index.htm

http://www.melb.catholic.aust.com/ccjdp/pdf/damagingkids.pdf

http://www.truthoverboard.com/story8.html

http://www.smh.com.au/articles/2002/07/31/1027926910266.html… [read more]


American Mistrust of Centralized Government Term Paper

Term Paper  |  13 pages (3,968 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

SAMPLE TEXT:

Further, the Federalists pointed out that the Constitution did not allow the federal government to do anything that was not specifically mentioned in the Constitution; since the Constitution did not state that the government could take away the rights of the people, the Federalists reasoned, then it could not.

The Anti-Federalists, however, did not believe that this guarantee was enough.… [read more]


Cass Sustein's Politics Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (3,052 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0

SAMPLE TEXT:

He describes journalism as a continuing course in adult education.

Moyers was one of the journalists to uncover the Iran/contra scandal, and also the Democrats unbridled and illegal fundraising in 1996. He argues that he lost underwriters through his covering of such stories, and describes how he found that he could not propose controversial subjects to underwriters, for fear that… [read more]


Aristotle's Politics According Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,454 words)
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In such a system of politics, the majority elects the ruling and the ruling that lays a system that establishes laws for the governance. In this way the freedom of the citizens is ensured as the governance is in the hands of the ones who are chosen by the citizen. But on the other hand it is a semi-aristocratic state… [read more]


Politics of Administrative Law Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,352 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

SAMPLE TEXT:

Early on, the party had genuine electoral strength as an alternative to the two-party system. Women, African-Americans, and a variety of ethnic groups were devoted readers of its press, and Jewish and African-American voters often gave the party great electoral strength in the industrialized, urban North.

In contrast, James Q. Wilson argues that the shift to the current conception of the state did not come in a seismic, revolutionary shift from autonomy to a more socialist point-of-view, but through various interactions of disparate political organizations. Weinstein's argument is founded upon the idea that America was subject to a paradigmatic and revolutionary shift in philosophy, as a result of a failed social organization and political party. Wilson argues, however, that one cannot separate the success of the organization of the social organization, nor the way it was founded, from its subsequent impact. Wilson's Political Organizations does not focus on one organization, rather he stresses that political parties, as well as business groups, labor unions, and civil rights associations cannot automatically be assumed to represent the interests of all of its presumed founders, rather the way they are created and maintained significantly affects the opinions they represent and the tactics they use. Rather than having a significant impact upon American political philosophy and law, at best such organizations can only influence government regulation through the use incremental policy-making directed toward servicing the public interest. However, the impact of many of these organizations has been genuine, although perhaps overstated by historians like Weinstein.

In contrast to both Weinstein and Wilson, however, the international legal scholar Ronen Shamir has argued that organized lawyers, such as the leadership of American Bar Association, struggled against regulatory developments in the 1920s-1930s. Shamir agrees with Wilson's pluralist, or factionalist approach in that he emphasizes the role of organized group entities, beyond the explicitly political influence of organizations such as the Socialist Part. However, he notes that, rather than pressing for an administrative shift in regulatory policy, organizations such as the ABA, wished for an "ad judicatory" or judicial procedure of reforming the American political climate and way of life during the beginning of the century. Furthermore, Shamir's philosophy suggests that neither political activism upon the legislature, through the use of political interest groups (as Wilson might suggest) nor by dominating legislatures through electoral politics and issue-specific agendas (as Weinstein might say) was the best way to shift the American political ethos. Rather, the best methodology is to approach the laws themselves, and attempt to change them through the judicial system, as these attempts tend to be more concrete and permanent in nature.

All three perspectives on regulation grant that there was a need and continues to be a need, for the American conception of individual and collective rights to be in constant dialogue with society. However, regulation does not, in Shamir's vision, necessarily require an ideological paradigm shift on the part of the nation, as advocated by Weinstein, on a grassroots level, but can be accomplished through judicial… [read more]


American Politics Introduction to Kevin Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,857 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

SAMPLE TEXT:

However, although it was supposed to get rid of tax preferences for "the rich and powerful" - there were "650 special provisions" in the bill which were called "transition rules" and "technical corrections" which actually didn't hurt the rich but harmed the middle class.

On page 414, Phillips calls a section of his Afterward "The Democratic Deficit and the Rise of the Unelected." During the winter of 2000-2001, Phillips recalls, "when Americans watched the U.S. Supreme Court determine the outcome of the November presidential election..." And the Federal Reserve Board made "its critical judgments on the fate of the U.S. economy," the "migration of political authority" was thrown into "bold relief." For thinking Americans, these past few years have brought about radical and almost unbelievable events: first, Bush is elected on a 5-4 vote of the Supreme Court, five Republicans and four Democrats. And that happens notwithstanding the fact that Al Gore won the popular vote, and even won the Florida popular vote - once a coalition of news organizations hired lawyers and counters to count all the "disputed ballots" with "hanging chads" and the other flaws in the Florida balloting.

So, we have a president elected by a 5-4 vote by a judiciary that does not run for election or re-election, and a Federal Reserve Board, that is not beholding to the public, that does not run for election or re-election, making monumental decisions affecting millions of Americans.

And today, we see the enormous influence of giant corporations like Halliburton, formerly run by Vice President Dick Cheney, which, we now know, received billion-dollar no-bid contracts before the attacks on Iraq even begun, contracts to "rebuild" Iraq.

After reading this book by Kevin Phillips, the rebuilding should take place not in Iraq, but in America. And what should be rebuilt is not just the power grids, the schools, the roads and the other key infrastructures that are rotting away (things Bush wants to rebuild in Iraq), but the whole system of how taxes and the economy always benefit the rich few, rather than the struggling middle and lower classes.

Reference

Moyers,…… [read more]


Politics of Violence in Harold Pinter's Later Work Dissertation

Dissertation  |  5 pages (1,773 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0

SAMPLE TEXT:

2- Investigate Pinter's repressive regimes that tie social exclusion to political violence, utilizing a dynamic, not known in our current political climate, of delegitimizing oppositional ideas.

3- Demonstrate Pinter's concern with the historical consequences of fascism, and his principled opposition to Americanism and U.S. military actions in the Middle East.

4- Illuminate the dramatic, theatrical and linguistic artistry of Pinter in manipulating such themes as political violence and oppression.

Scope of the Study:

The study discusses the dramatic representation of political violence in Pinter's recent plays in relation to the modern politics and the playwright's political stances and attitudes towards the leading governments. By examining the "Pinteresque discourse," the study meticulously scrutinizes the violence manifestations justified by political claims and institutions. Thus, it draws theoretically on such figures as Louis Althusser, Michel Foucault, and Charles Grimes.

Outline:

1- Introduction

2- Language, Truth and Politics

2.1 Violence, Terrorism, and the Ideological State Apparatus

2.2 Discourse and Power

3- Harold Pinter and the Absurd

3.1 Under the Shadow of Beckett

3.2 Break from the Absurd / Pinter and his Theatrical Contemporaries

4- The Political World of Harold Pinter

4.1 Anti-Americanism / The Political Context 1980-2005

4.2 Anti-Authoritarianism / The Political Context of Post-Fascism and the Shoah

5- Matrices of Violence

5.1 Violence under Ideological Cover:

Ashes to Ashes.

5.2 Political Violence: Victimization through Suppression of Language:

Mountain Language

5.3 Political Oppression:

Party Time

5.4 Threat and Injustice:

The New World…… [read more]


Politics Has Never Reached Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (799 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

SAMPLE TEXT:

[3: (Adamson)]

For example, much of the activity in the Middle East that is ongoing is Western ideas intervening in various forms. The human race faces two challenges that have the potential to wipe the human species from the face of the planet. One deals with the planets finite amount of natural resources and ecological balance and the other deals with international relations and the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction. It was said a few years ago that if the human race is wiped out in the next 50 years it will not be because of disease or an asteroid hitting the earth, but because of foreign policy and international relations[footnoteRef:4]. [4: (Sheehan and Brocklehurst)]

If history is a lesson, then we can expect mankind to make many mistakes. The future of the planet and its capabilities of supporting life are becoming questionable as the population has exploded exponentially. This will ultimately put more tension on nations and cultures that are competition for critical resources such as water and farmable land. With nuclear technology disseminating faster throughout different countries, it is a real possibility that another nuclear device could denoted in a populated area. Some of the likely areas in which such an event could occur are between countries that are experiencing high levels of conflict and volatility; like in the Middle East.

In the Middle East there is a significant amount of tension between Israel, Palestine, and Iran as well as the U.S. attempts at intervention in Afghanistan and Iraq. The U.S. has tried both hard power and soft power techniques in these regions with mixed results at best[footnoteRef:5]. Iran has been suspected of developing nuclear weapons for years now and Israel already has a full arsenal of nuclear capabilities. The future of the world may depend on the level of stability that is achieved in this region over the course of the next fifty years. To achieve stability, there will have to be breakthroughs in the dogmatic ideologies that prevail on all sides of the debate and knowledge and humanity will have to pave the way. [5: (Why Politics Matters)]

Works Cited

Adamson, A. "Why the study of comparative politics is important ." 3 October 2007. NovaNewsnow.com . Online. 8 June 2014.

Sheehan, M. And H. Brocklehurst. "Why international relations is the key to all our futures." 29 July 2006. Independent.…… [read more]


Political Disillusionment Book Report

Book Report  |  4 pages (1,139 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6

SAMPLE TEXT:

Politics in the Trenches

The purpose of this essay is to argue that Vogly's arguments contained in his book Politics in the Trenches, are based on false premises yet still provide a useful examination of society and its relation to politics. This essay will suggest that the disillusionment presented in the author's book is real and impactful, but its results and ultimate effect on society is mostly beneficial. By presenting an argument that declares the democratic processes are actually being strengthened by the willful ignorance of politics, demonstrate the strength of our nation and its ideals they were built upon by our founding fathers and the idealism presented in their approach to life and politics.

Useful Arguments

Vogly's attempt to reframe the founding fathers as pragmatists against the common accepted interpretation of them as being idealists reveals the lack of depth of understanding of democracy presented by the author. By insisting that the founding fathers were more pragmatic than idealistic is not a useful argument and hides the fact that the founding fathers exhibited qualities of both extreme idealism and extreme pragmatic value. Vogly therefore ignores the basic construction of ideas into material things, as all things are based in imaginative idea.

The inherent mentioning of religion contained in The Bill of Rights and the spiritual tone of the Declaration of Independence suggest that democracy and practical application of its tenets are rooted in idealism, spirituality, religion and faith. The spiritual aspect of the argument is also ignored as well, as the esoteric forces that drove our founding fathers to create a political system explained by Vogly are not properly addressed. Kokul (2013) agreed when he wrote "It shows that the members of the Constitutional Convention, the most influential group of men shaping the political foundations of our nation, were almost all Christians, 51 of 55 -- a full 93%. Indeed, 70% were Calvinists (the Episcopalians, Presbyterians, and the Dutch Reformed), considered by some to be the most extreme and dogmatic form of Christianity."

Creating an Appropriate Paradigm

In understanding the principles of trust and value, one must have some moral ideal or guiding point that creates the behavior. The disillusionment experienced by society in general is a symbol of transformation and positive growth when viewed in the proper perspective. The word "government" was created from the Latin words meaning to " control the mind." Government is functioning well when it is not needed. The strength of a nation rests on many things, but the freedom to choose and not be a part of the polticial processes demonstrates the power of our democracy.

Democracy needs to be understood in a new manner to address the problems that Vogly presented in his work. Democracy is the reflection of the strength of the individual's power and having their own say in their manifesting their own destiny. As many grown tired and weary of political elections and tune out political efforts a transformation to individual responsibility has begun. This appears to be democracy… [read more]


Trust in Government Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (872 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0

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Trust in Government

Trust in the United States Government: A Tale of Vacillation

The United States of America is a country that has been built on and perpetuated by a series of binary oppositions. The Patriots (or Rebels) and the Loyalists disagreed about the very need for a revolution and the formation of a new country in the New World, the Federalists and the Anti-Federalists disagreed about the degree and level of federal government the fledgling democracy ought to establish, and the current opposition of the Democrats and the Republicans is ostensibly built on a primary difference of opinion about the size and level of intrusion that should be characteristics of the federal government. All of these situations can be seen as emblematic of the issue of trust vs. mistrust of the federal government, and while the pairs listed here coexisted in this disagreement, there are also periods of observably greater trust alternating with periods of more extensive mistrust that can be traced throughout the progress of American history.

The early days of the country following a successful end to the Revolutionary War actually created one of the largest and most profound eras of distrust in American history, when the very loose Articles of Confederation established the only form of national government on the continent. The period leading up to the Civil War was also a period marked by a sharp mistrust of the federal government on both sides of the Mason-Dixon line, and even the relatively recent Republican domination of Congress in the 1990s can be seen as the result of growing mistrust of the federal government on the part of the American people. The effects of this mistrust have been highly varied in degree and direction, but the existence of this mistrust itself is a matter that can hardly be disputed.

The American Revolution established the schism with the British monarchy and government on no uncertain terms, but it did not establish a clear system of government or even a necessarily more trustworthy one; the Articles of Confederation conferred the vast majority of governmental power upon the states, rather than creating a small central government, precisely because there was a mistrust of such strong central power. In the decades leading uyp to the Civil War, both the North and the South feared fro what would become of their country if the representatives in the federal government were too heavily influenced by one side or the other; this mistrust was a large reason for the South's secession and the North's aggressive stance in the government. The election of 1994, which saw an overwhelming takeover of…… [read more]


Cosmopolitanism and Liberalism in Power and Politics A-Level Coursework

A-Level Coursework  |  3 pages (1,457 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1

SAMPLE TEXT:

Cosmopolitanism and Liberalism in Power and Politics

To under the topic, one must first understand what is involved when talking about Cosmopolitanism and Liberalism. Cosmopolitan is a derivative of the Greek word "kosmopolites" which means citizen of the world. Cosmopolitan views reflect the idea that all humans are from one community that needs cultivating, regardless of political affiliations. The view… [read more]


Paradise and Power: Robert Kagan Author Book Review

Book Review  |  5 pages (1,791 words)
Bibliography Sources: 7

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¶ … Paradise and Power: Robert Kagan

Author Robert Kagan borrows from the title of a pop culture book -- Women are from Venus, Men are from Mars -- to illustrate the great difference in the 21st Century between Europe and the U.S. On the third page of his book (Of Paradise and Power) he asserts that "Americans are from… [read more]


Karl Marx Communist Manifesto Book Report

Book Report  |  5 pages (1,671 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2

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Karl Marx and Frederick Engels argue for the empowerment of workers in the Communist Manifesto. The historical context in which Marx and Engels wrote was one in which labor was devalued and the owners of the means of production had become the new oppressive ruling classes. Noticing that the bourgeoisie had replaced the old aristocracy to exploit the masses, Marx… [read more]


American Government the Five Main Principles Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,237 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0

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American Government

The five main principles that form the basis of the Constitution are Popular Sovereignty, Separation of Powers, Checks and Balances, Limited Government, and Federalism. Popular Sovereignty indicates that people have the most important role in government. Today, it seems that people do not play the most important role in government, because many things happen that the people do not approve of in government, and so this principle is not being adhered to.

Separation of Powers is the separation of the three basic functions of government - legislative, executive, and judicial, and it creates a government that can never be monopolized by one area of the government. Today, there is still a coherent separation of powers, and the President cannot gain enough power to become a monarch or a despot. Checks and Balances means that no branch can dominate another branch of government. Power has to be limited, divided, and checked and balanced. Today, checks and balances are still in place, too, which is why the Supreme Court or the President have not gained power over other branches.

Limited Government is the principle that says government does not have all the power, and that people hold control over what it can do. Laws govern what the government can do, and it must follow the laws in the Constitution. People can be impeached, judges may not gain confirmation, and people can be voted out of office, all of which limit the power of government. Today, this limited government is still in place, and there are still laws that can limit the power of government. Finally, Federalism is the division of power between the national government and state government. The Federal government has certain powers, such as declaring war, while state governments have the power to conduct elections. Today, this is still the case, so Federalism is still strong in the country.

A Unitary System of government is one where the central government gives power to lesser governments, likes states and counties, and it is the most common type of government. These sub-governments may rely on the central government for funds, because they cannot tax themselves. Spain has a unitary form of government. A Confederal System of government gives the power to local or state governments. A good example is the European Union, where each country has power. A Federal System divides governmental power between the national system and state and local systems, and it is the one the United States uses.

In a Presidential system, the President is the head of state and the chief executive, and is elected by the people. The President has broad powers in foreign affairs, and can deploy the military, but cannot declare war without the approval of Congress. The American President is an excellent example of the Presidential system. A Parliamentary system separates the head of state and the chief executive. The chief executive is the head of the legislature, while the head of state is largely ceremonial. The largest gap between these two… [read more]


Political Philosophy Research Paper

Research Paper  |  5 pages (1,602 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5

SAMPLE TEXT:

Government

Political Philosophy

Political Philosophy: Government

The role and function of government has over the centuries been at the centre of debate and even conflict among various political theorists and activists. The question of what the "job" of government should be, hinges to a great extent on the underlying philosophical trajectory that determines the shape, form and function, the extent… [read more]


Habits of the Heart by Robert Bellah Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (621 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1

SAMPLE TEXT:

Habits Heart

Creating a Government of Citizens

In his book Habits of the Heart, Robert Bellah makes an argument that the individualism embedded in modern American society and culture is having a detrimental effect on the government of the United States, and specifically on the relationship between the citizens and their government. There are definitely benefits to the American sense of individualism, at least in a pragmatic (Bellah uses the term "utilitarian" or "economic") sense, but Bellah argues that the cynicism and suspicion with which people view their government is ultimately counterproductive and inefficient. The argument that is built in Habits of the Heart is multi-faceted and quite complex, but and examination of certain of the key points Bellah makes regarding individualism and its conflict with the collective good in this country leads to some understanding of the issues facing our government as framed in this book. One very clear fact emerges from this examination: striving towards collectivism is fraught with too many disagreements and barriers to be accomplished in a way that still upholds the ideals of democracy.

A large part of the problem that Bellah notes in the citizens' relationship to their government in the United States comes down to the definition of success that is associated with individualism, at least in Bellah's view. Bellah contends that, "Americans define success in terms of the outcome of free competition among individuals in an open market" (198). The concept of citizenship, then, has more to do with the way individuals can take advantage of the current system of government and business, rather than a sense of civic duty or a striving towards the common good. As this is how success is defined throughout society, it makes sense that the individuals who hold government offices would define success the same way, and it is precisely this striving towards individual gain by…… [read more]


2007 Election in Kenya Was Bitterly Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (737 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

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the 2007 election in Kenya was bitterly contested but it was the events following the election that caused the most concern. In an election campaign that took place over an entire year, incumbent president, Mwai Kibaki, was re-elected to be President. His re-election, however, required the intervention of the United Nations secretary Kofi Annan and the brokering of a deal in which Kibaki's election challenger, Raila Odinga, was appointed prime minister. The deal ended a long period of violence that broke out following the December 2007 election.

Entering the period of the election Kenya had been considered by political experts to be the most stable government in Africa but this claim was belied by the fact that bitter fighting broke out subsequent to the election. Incumbent Kibaki was declared the winner by the country's election commission but Odinga supporters were unconvinced and charged that the commission had rigged the tallying of the votes (Ongiri).

In the severe violence that followed the election more than 1,000 people were killed and thousands more fled what had been ethnically mixed areas. In a nation where segregation had never been an issue it suddenly became one (Amnesty International).

The primary issue in the election and the reason for the subsequent violence was related to alleged corruption in the Kenyan economy . Kibaki's government had some successes in the area of education and had been able to bring some growth to the Kenyan economy but Odinga and his followers questioned Kibaki's methods. Kibaki had entered office in 2002 on the coattails of promising that he would address corruption in the Kenyan government. Corruption in Kenya, based on old tribal connections, had been a problem for some time prior to Kibaki's election and, in the view of Odinga and his supporters; it had not improved in Kibaki's tenure in office. For Odinga and his supporters, Kibaki's re-election was further proof of this corruption.

Political corruption in Kenya is based upon the century old tribal alliances. Tribal members take care of their own by providing jobs and overlooking the criminal and unethical activities of their members. For many years the Kikuyu tribe, the largest in Kenya, has dominated politics and economic life in Kenya. Other…… [read more]


U.S. Government the United States Democracy Term Paper

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U.S. Government

The United States democracy and government can be considered to be one of the most important political structures of the modern times. From the point-of-view of the principles it entangles, it is created according to the 18th century Constitution which, aside from some amendments, has maintained its basic elements which defines to this day the American government.

The… [read more]


Return of the Market Retreat of the Progressive Agenda and New Public Management Article Review

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Return of the Market

The reinvention strategy is when you are reducing the total amount of oversight and you are changing the focus of government. This occurs by increasing accountability / discretion among administrators, versus eliminating the way the hierarchy is structured. This would have a tremendous impact, upon the way government services are delivered. A good example of this can be seen with Temporary Assistance to Needy Families. As it would specifically address the five different areas that Page identifies for understanding government accountability to include: legal oversight, improved supervision, professional training / norms, political voice and market exit. Legal oversight is when there is greater flexibility in the program and specific objectives that are identified. Improved supervision is when there is more authority is given to individuals that are dealing with the public, versus various bureaucrats. Professional training / norms is when case workers are helping clients to support themselves, instead of ensuring that they qualify for a particular program. Political voice is when the entitlement of guaranteed benefits and rights are removed. Market exit is when the clients are indicating that the new program is more effective in comparison with the previous one. This is significant, because these different changes would refocus the way various government services are delivered to the general public. (Page 166 -- 197)

When you put these different elements together, this highlights how the reinvention strategy is changing the way various services are delivered to the general public. As it is no longer throwing money at the problem, instead, this policy is prudently utilizing government funds where they will have the greatest impact possible. At which point, the effectiveness of the programs increase, because they are holding each person accountable for their own actions. In many ways, one could argue that this is changing the way administrators are interacting with the general public.

Two areas of importance from the Blacksburg Manifesto are: the overall size of government and the relationship between capitalism / government. In this case, these two issues are challenging because the size of the bureaucracy, can mean that the different services being provided are ineffective at addressing the needs of the people.…… [read more]


Gubernatorial Election Term Paper

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Politics

Gubernatorial Election

This country's economic anguish is seeping into the gubernatorial contest in Ohio, that has Gov. Ted Strickland, a Democrat, running against John R. Kasich, a Republican and previous congressman. Ohio may be the most pivotal of swing states, and national administrators know that the victor of the governor's race will also influence which party has the benefit in the 2012 presidential fight (Davey, 2010). This gubernatorial race is set up to be a very good one. Currently polls are showing that the race is a toss up. Strickland's occupancy as Governor has been shaky, as the state has lost both jobs and population. He has come under heavy criticism when an intern misplaced a list of state employees and their social security numbers. His job approval ratings have fell under fifty percent. Strickland originally trailed GOP Congressman John Kasich in their head-to-head matchups. Kasich is a former Congressman and chair of the budget committee that fashioned the country's last balanced budgets. But Kasich has something of a weak spot in the fact that from 2001-2008 he was employed by Lehman Brothers, the investment firm whose fail precipitated the financial system collapse of 2008. Strickland has hit Kasich hard on his connections to the bank, and just might be able to use these connections to seal the congressman's destiny (Ohio Governor - Kasich vs. Strickland, 2010).

Ohio's electoral significance as a swing-state is continually highlighted by operatives on both sides of the aisle. And the resources put into the state's governor's race have altered it into an actual proxy for Obama's 2012 reelection bid. Currently, the effort that national and state-level Democrats have put into the race doesn't show to have put Strickland over the top. While Strickland trails Republican John Kasich in public polls, he closely leads in his own surveys and expects to overcome the gusto gap with organizational force. President Obama sees Ohio as a firewall in his 2012 reelection endeavor, and having a friendly governor would be a key asset (Hayden, 2010).

Economic troubles have hit the state hard. Ohio's unemployment rate of ten percent persists to be higher than the nation's rate of 9.6% after the worst recession since the Great Depression. It is thought that Strickland might pay the price for this. Strickland, disputes that Kasich, embodies Wall Street values and has supported policies that cost Ohio jobs. Kasich, points to what he says is Strickland's failed pledge to turn around the state's stressed economy (Sanner, 2010).

The outcome of the election has repercussions for U.S. House elections in Ohio from 2012 through 2020. The state lawmakers next year will redraw the congressional districts using census data, with boundaries drawn to help or hurt a party. Ohio's next governor will help persuade where the lines are drawn, and also have the authority to veto the plan. Similarly, the next state leader could be vital to supporting or opposing Obama's effort to stay in the White House. Obama won Ohio with fifty one… [read more]


Accountability in the Public Sector Is Largely Article Critique

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¶ … accountability in the public sector is largely dependent upon the ability to evaluate performance. Any quality improvement initiative requires some type of formal and informal monitoring process so that progress can be evaluated over time. Therefore, performance improvement is linked to the concept of managing for results (MFR), in which some kind of output and outcome performance indicators are institutionalized and monitored, usually in accordance with predetermined goals. Moynihan and colleagues, in their 2003 article, Look for the Silver Lining: When Performance-Based Accountability Systems Work, examine how these goals are stated, and how realistic they are in practice, in the context of results-based government.

According to Moynihan et al. (2003) in order for MFR systems to be effective, "there must be very serious commitment to purposes, processes, and outcomes, as well as to increased transparency-characteristics markedly absent in the implementation of results-based reform at the federal level" (p. 470). MFR systems have been examined at length in the United States, primarily through two key projects: The Government Performance Project (GPP) and its sister project, The Federal Performance Project (FPP). The five primary systems examined in these projects are as follows: (1) financial management; (2) human resources management; (3) information technology management; (4) capital management, and (5) managing for results. Moynihan et al. note that the criteria-based models upon which these assessments were reliant provide an exceptional data collection tool that can be used to assess public management systems both effectively and gainfully. As such, they call for the criteria-based grading of state governments as a means of increasing transparency and providing clearer benchmarks of evaluation.

The first step in developing a performance-based budget format is for government administrators and policymakers to formulate goals and objectives for various activities or services provided by each department or organizational unit. The next step involves developing performance measures that are valid indicators by which to gauge whether goals and objectives have been met. While states vary in their procedures, ultimately, a link between cost and output must be made, thereby permitting an evaluation of the efficiency and effectiveness of the endeavor and the development of management responses. According to Moynihan et al. (2003) MFR legislation in many states details exactly the type of information to be featured in agency strategic plans or budget proposals" (p. 484). However, in some states, this MFR link is only an indirect one whereby objectives, spending levels and trends, and performance outputs for a department or activity are reported in separate sections clustered together in a budget document.

As strong proponents of performance-based accountability, Moynihan et al. are convinced that their inclusion promotes efficiency, effectiveness, and accountability, and ultimately improves management. However, the authors are aware that certain drawbacks exist as well. Opponents complain that performance objectives are often arbitrary and selected purely because "good" data already exist, thereby minimizing the need to establish new, expensive data collection and analytic mechanisms. Another shortcoming is that some indicators selected are not valid measures of the outputs they are… [read more]


Cook, "Franklin Roosevelt's Fundamental Intention Article Critique

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¶ … Cook, "Franklin Roosevelt's fundamental intention by the beginning of his second term was to place public administration at the heart of a new American political system" (p. 98). In fact, the New Deal could be said to be the primary catalyst for the development of public administration as we know it today. Virtually all of Roosevelt's reform and reorganization efforts placed public administration at the center of their implementation.

Roosevelt did not invent public administration per se, but he transformed it into a new system that was designed to cater to the needs of the people by being responsive to the social issues that were souring the public on the concept of democracy. He created many new agencies and government authorities such as the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) and the Federal Housing Administration (FHA),that continue to play extremely significant roles in public administration today. Thus it could be argued, the greatest hallmark of Roosevelt's influence on public administration was not necessarily the implementation of new public administration agencies, but the longevity of those agencies and their continued influence on society.

Cook also points out that the "intents and purposes" of the so-called Third New Deal were the most expressive and influential in terms of their impact on public administration development. The Third New Deal was a launching pad for Roosevelt's second term and his concentration on fiscal economic policy and reorganization of the executive branch of government, as opposed to the labor and social welfare reforms highlighted in his first term.

Works Cited

Cook, Brian J. Bureaucracy and Self-Government. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1996.

Question 2

O'Toole asserts that the concept of separation of powers arose from dissatisfaction with the status quo, rooted in problems with the patronage system that emphasized the need for administrative reform. In his article, O'Toole demonstrates how this tension between administration and democracy created the politics-administration dichotomy that resulted in the separation of powers doctrine. As such, a system of checks and balances arose out of a foundation of mistrust. This is not to say that such a system could ever entirely eradicate suspicions of corruption, misdeeds and personal agendas that did not put the people first. However, it helped to create a stronger sense of transparency and, in turn, reassurance, than that which had previously existed.

The 1883 Pendleton Act indicated that appointments should be made "from among those graded highest." It was understood that Congress, in a separation-of-powers system such as the United States, could not unduly limit the president's powers to appoint and remove executive branch officials. Thus, there had to be some discretion allowed to appointing authorities. The 1921 Budgeting and Accounting Act represented the first time the President was required to submit a budget to Congress, thus decreasing his executive power.

The politics-administration dichotomy was rooted in the notion that the power of public administration fell into the hands of those with most permanent status. It was the administrators' responsibility to carry out programs, while value… [read more]


Causes for the Public to Trust and Not to Trust Government Research Paper

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¶ … Government and trust [...] recent headlines and five causes for the public not to trust government, and five causes for the public to trust government. In today's volatile political world, it is hard to know who to trust and who not to trust. However, the media often reports items with their own "spin," making it even harder to know who to trust and who not to trust. With recent headlines in mind, here are the five reasons for the public not to trust government, and five reasons they should trust government.

Do Not Trust the Government

Lobbyists - While several administrations have decried the great influence lobbyists have on Washington, none of them have come up with any ways to curb this influence. Voters cannot expect their legislators and administration to do what is right for them when they take enormous amounts of money from lobbyists and their Political Action Campaigns (PACs). The people's will can never be served by politicians who owe their elections to lobbyists and PACs, and that is one big reason not to trust government overall.

The Political Parties - There is so much backbiting, fighting, and hatred between both poles of the parties that government comes in second. Republicans fight anything the Democrats try to do, and vice versa. There is no longer working together in government, it is just a battle between the parties, with neither one actually accomplishing anything worthwhile. The health care bill was cited as an example of non-partisanship, but in reality, it is a watered down pathetic attempt at fixing an incredibly complex problem. As long as the parties continue to battle, the American people suffer, and that is another reason not to trust the government. It is not about us, it is all about them and their political aspirations.

Do Not Keep Their Promises - Even in the best of administrations, they make promises they cannot keep. George H.W. Bush said "no new taxes," and then raised taxes. Barack Obama said he would close Guantanamo Bay, and has not done it, and sent more troops to Afghanistan. They should stop making promises they cannot keep, another reason not to trust government.

They can Manipulate the "Truth" - There were no weapons of mass destruction in Iraq, enough said.

They Have Their own Agendas - The governments of North Korea and China show what happens when governments get too much power over the people. Anything or anyone that has that much power is not to be trusted. They serve their own agendas rather than the agendas that are best for the people, and for that reason, they are untrustworthy and often corrupt, as well.

Trust the Government

Social Security - Social security may have funding issues, but it is a good practice for aging Americans. It was never meant to be the only source of…… [read more]


Impact of Politics on Program Evaluation and Vice Versa Research Paper

Research Paper  |  5 pages (1,467 words)
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Politics and Program Evaluation

Getting from Good to Best:

The Role of the Politics in the Evaluation of Public Programs

Any program designed for the public good is by its nature inextricably linked to politics, not only through motive but in many instances through more practical elements as well. The political system provides the directives and often the financial support… [read more]


American Government Branches of the Federal Essay

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American Government

Branches of the federal government

The Federal Government consists of three distinct branches and they are the legislature represented by the Congress, judiciary represented by the Supreme Court and the executive represented by the President of the United States. Each of these three branches have unique powers bestowed by the U.S. Constitution and they also check the actions… [read more]


Rethinking the Politics of Development in Developing Article

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Rethinking the Politics of Development in Developing Countries

This paper discusses developing countries and their politics, largely based on a speech at the Business as Usual Conference in Melbourne earlier this year. The speaker opens her commentary by saying, "The rise of public and scholarly interest in globalization and politics is a new phenomenon. Over the past decade, the liberalization… [read more]


Politics Space Democratic Transitions Term Paper

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Modern society also wants certain rights such as the roles of women and the roles of the ethnic and religious minorities. So you see, choosing a particular nation to adopt a democratic foundation is much more complicated than at first it seems.

And finally sir, there is little doubt that our foreign policies will indirectly master the experiences of specific countries who are undergoing democratic transitions but in no way should we promote the possibilities of democratic consolidation. Every democracy is not the same. Consider China. Although they have gradually adopted more democratic principles in the realm of the economic and social tiers, the government has no intention of fully adopting the American style democratic process in the political tier. Each country has their own idea of what democracy means so our foreign policies should do all it can to improve our situation.

We, as a nation, dictate global policy because we are the ones holding the biggest stick. We can point out the constructive view of our proposed foreign policy. There is an idea that suggests that all nations possessing nuclear weapons should be considered to be dangerous and the nation that holds more weapons than anyone else would make them the most dangerous. If the underlying principles of constructivist thinking allows for significant weight in social and subjective force, not objective material force, then our material forces really do matter. At one time, the shoe was on the other foot. Consider the United States foreign policy over two centuries ago before it became a superpower. "Washington's foreign policy focused on keeping what he called 'strict neutrality' in the midst of European conflicts. Great Britain and the other European monarchies were fighting against the French revolutionary republic. Washington came in for more Democratic-Republican criticism when he signed in 1795 the Jay Treaty, a trade treaty with Great Britain. This treaty settled the United States' outstanding disputes with Britain." (Badertscher) When someone else is holding the bigger stick, it is much easy to be humble and compliant. We no longer have to be Mr. President.

References

Elliot, John. (2000). "How Clinton Created A New Love Affair." New Statesman. 04/03/2000, Vol. 129, Issue 4480, p30, 1p

Badertscher, Eric. (2005). "George Washington." George Washington; edited by Sara Ann McGill. P 1-4, 4p.

Solomon, Jay. (2009). "U.S., India Expand Counterterrorism Cooperation." Wall Street Journal Online. (2009). Retrieved on December 15, 2009, from online.wsj at http://online.wsj.com/article/SB125907299030362349.html

Stein, Janice Gross. (2008). "Foreign Policy Decision-Making: Rational, Psychological, And Neurological Models." Retrieved on December 15, 2009, from http://www.oup.com/uk/orc/bin/9780199215294/smith_ch06.pdf… [read more]


Politics Six Questions &amp Discussion Term Paper

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2. Modernist Protestants and Catholics were strongly Democratic

3. Non-Latino Catholics, historically Democratic, shifted the majority of their votes to the Republican candidate.

4. John Kerry gained voters amongst those religious voters who considered themselves unaffiliated, but their turnout overall did not change.

5. Though still largely Democratic, Black Protestants and Latino Catholics supported Bush at levels much higher than in 2000.

6. For voters with strong religious feelings, foreign policy matters and economic issues were much more important than were issues like abortion or same-sex marriage, traditional points of interests for this type of voter. Nonetheless, social religious issues, the latter above, were still more important for religious voters who voted for Bush than they were for Kerry's voters.

Question #6: Polls

Polling is now a standard feature of political campaigns, in which candidates use polls to garner information about voter desires and demands, and how best to tailor the campaign to appeal to a broad enough base to secure victory. It is, in essence, a kind of survey that is used to question a universe -- a universe being a particular group from whom answer are desired. In the case of political campaigns in an election, a typical universe would likely be the entire breadth of potential voters; thus national campaigns would focus on a much larger universe than would local or even state campaigns (Burner and Rosenfield). Modern polls, thanks to the efforts of polling pioneers like George Gallup, take into account a wide slew of demographic information such as age, sex, income, and geographical region in order to determine how voters feel about a particular candidate or issue, and how they are likely to vote. Using these polls, political candidates often make decisions about whether or not they should pursue one course of action over another. Further, criticism has often been leveled at pollsters for creating a bandwagon effect in which in addition to control over politicians actions, it also has an effect on undecided voters by encouraging them to 'go with the flow'.

There are many considerations that must be taken into account when polling besides the makeup of the polling universe. The type of sample taken will inevitably have a profound effect on the results that are produced. Random sampling suggests that any warm-bodied person is a potential candidate for interview, regardless of demographic consideration. It is something of a shotgun approach to polling. Quota sampling attempts to improve upon random sampling by applying demographic controls to potential interviewees in order to enhance the relevance and reliability of the polling results. Cluster sampling works by selecting separate groups out of the larger polling universe to interview in order to tailor results for specific groups such as working mothers, or students. Of these sampling methods, quota sampling should be considered to be the most reliable, at least in those cases when pollsters are interested in understanding trends for the entire polled universe rather than just one cluster within it.

Works Cited

Burner, David and Rosenfield,… [read more]


Electrical Decay Thesis

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Electoral Decay

In the book, Politics by Other Means, Benjamin Ginsberg and Martin Shefter consider the state of democracy in the United States and its relationship to the format that politics and political goals are assuming at the beginning of the 21st century. The main argument appears to revolve around the generally low voter turnout during presidential elections, and the… [read more]


How According to Aristotle Does Political Rule Differ From the Rule of the Slave Master Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  2 pages (576 words)
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Politics

Aristotle's Politics

Aristotle covers a great many human relationships that he feels fall under the sphere of "politics," by which he essentially means the wielding of power between human individuals and over other human individuals. There are different political contexts, Aristotle asserts, where different types of political relationships are called for. These contexts are made up of different people, with different objectives and a different derivation of authority.

Two main divisions can be drawn between a master-and-slave type of rule, and a political rule. The former is proper, according to Aristotle, in cases of natural slaves, and even of the rule of a husband and father over his wife and children, though the two cases are not entirely the same (I. 4-8; 12). Political rule, however -- that is, the rule of the state over its population -- must remain more inclusive and equitable by definition, for "a state is a community of freemen" (III.6). If despotic rule were introduced at the state level, the polis wouldn't truly be a polis, but merely the household and goods of the despot/oligarchy.

The goals of these two rule types also differ considerably, though not as much as the modern reader might assume. The master-salve relationship has the ultimate goal of benefiting the master; though the master suffers if the slave dies, the primary goal of the rule is still the benefit of the master. The goal of rule over the wife and children of a man, however, is the greater good of those governed (III.6). This is more akin to the goal of political rule, which endeavors to promote "noble actions" and the good life for al of its citizens (III.9). Just political rule, however, is more inclusive when…… [read more]


International Politics Essay

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Human Rights

National Sovereignty and Human Rights Violations

It is taken almost for granted in most instances that the sovereignty of every nation on this Earth is guaranteed implicitly by the very concept of a modern nation, as well as explicitly under international law. In reality, of course, such sovereignty is somewhat permeable in certain regions, whether or not it is officially regarded as such. Generally, however, international laws and organizations have upheld the right to sovereignty in most cases. This has led to many verified cases of human rights violations that have been carried out as official practice by sovereign governments within their own borders, as well as allegations of many more cases. It remains unclear exactly how much power the various international bodies and laws have or even desire when it comes to punishing national leaders for human rights violations, especially when these leaders are still in power. Also in question is whether or not there is a true duty or responsibility for a national leader to grant his people human rights.

Moralistically, of course, there is no debate; a human right by very definition is a right that is inalienable to all humans, and therefore the denial of someone's human rights is a morally and ethically repugnant act. In the real world, however, there are very real questions of what exactly constitutes a human right, or if they even exist; what the power of the State is, and what the power of the people; and the very serious question of whether one sovereign state has the right to inhibit, prohibit, or in any way discourage what it perceives as human rights violations in another sovereign nation. This last question has led to many political altercations in the past, and still leads to several a year currently. Much recent attention has been paid to human rights violations in China, with United States' leaders speaking out directly against these acts.

Shortly before traveling to Beijing to attend the Olympic opening ceremony in August of 2008, President George W. Bush used very strong and direct terms to denounce several of China's most well-documented human rights abuses, including the imprisonment of political dissidents and members of the press who do not toe the party line (Abramowitz 2008). In response, the Chinese press and government did absolutely nothing. Despite increasingly strong language from a growing ally and an essential trading partner, the Chinese government was largely unconcerned either by the allegations or the long-standing evidences of the abuses that are conducted there (Abramowitz 2008). China was making major efforts to clean up its city and even to loosen some of its hold on politics and expression, but it did not show the same level of concern in addressing the many explicitly identified and extreme criticisms of the American President.

A similar tone was struck by President Obama…… [read more]


Major Trends Issues and Prospects Thesis

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Women in Politics

The recent Presidential election was historically noteworthy not only because it marked the first election of an African-American to the highest office in the country (and arguably the world), but also because of some of the other contenders. Hillary Clinton very nearly won the Democratic Party's nomination, and Sarah Palin became an invigorating presence in McCain's Republican bid for the seat. Women have not always been granted such an equal place in politics, and as it turns out there is actually still a lot to be doe before true equality is reached.

Currently, only seventeen women serve in the hundred-member Senate, and approximately the same proportion of women -- seventy-three out of four-hundred and thirty-five -- currently serve in the House of Representatives (CAWP 2009). Despite making up slightly more than half of the population in the United States, women still make up significantly less than a quarter of our elected representatives in…… [read more]


U.S. Constitution the United States Thesis

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U.S. Constitution

The United States Constitution

The Philosophical Principles of Liberty, Equality and Democracy

Towards the end of the eighteenth century, the need for a more solid document to regulate and normalize the actions of the American congress and government became impending. The answer came from the delegates of Philadelphia, who conceived and instituted what is today known as the… [read more]


American Government Explain Why in a State Thesis

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American Government

Explain why in a state of nature, free men are willing to relinquish some of their freedoms.

In a state of nature, free men are willing to relinquish some of their freedoms for a variety of reasons, the main one being a desire to live without fear of one's fellow man. A state of liberty is not a state of license, and the law of nature obliges everyone. However, free men recognize that they may have to relinquish some of their freedoms in order to develop a system to compel one another to follow natural law. Under a theory of natural law, every person has the ability to enforce the natural law. The problem arises with the fact that in a state of nature, men can be judges in their own cases, making it unlikely that they will acknowledge their faults. Therefore, in order to ensure that laws will be followed, that crime will be prevented and punished, and that the wronged parties will receive reparation, free men relinquish some of their freedoms.

Summarize the three reasons Locke gives for why property is not protected in a state of nature.

According to Locke, property is not protected in a state of nature because, in a state of nature, everything exists in a common store. Human beings, owning themselves, also own the products of their own labor; to hold otherwise would reduce men to slaves. Therefore, each person has a right to take things from the common store if he uses his labor to do so; for example, by picking fruit from a tree. This does allow men to own private property, once he has combined his labor with the property to exercise possession over it. However, this does not permit a man to own real property, because each individual has the same right to exercise control over the property in the common store. Each individual has the right to take from the common store because nature is a state of plenty, as long as people leave usable property for others. Moreover, taking from nature does not mean depriving anyone else of something as long as individuals only take as much as they can use before it spoils.

3. Define democracy, oligarchy, monarchy and mixed government according to Locke.

According to Locke, once men have united into a society, if they all have the power of the community and then appoint officers who execute laws, then a government is a perfect democracy. If they put the power of making laws into the hands of a few select men, and that power is transmitted by…… [read more]


Superintendent and Politics Thesis

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Superintendent Politics

The Political Pressures Facing the Superintendent of Schools

The position of superintendent is one which, while affording its holder a degree of gravitas, authority and singular status, may also be personally taxing, professionally difficult and ideologically problematic. For its holder, the top office in a school district can be an extremely embattled spot, distinguishable by the various political… [read more]


Voting Rights Act of 1965 and African-American Politics Thesis

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Voting Rights Act of 1965

Description and Evolution

On February 12, 1909, the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) became one of the nation's first civil rights organizations aimed at promoting equal rights for African-Americans. Although the NAACP was founded mainly to combat racial violence, its overarching goal was "to secure for all people the rights guaranteed… [read more]


China the Political System Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  10 pages (3,103 words)
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China

The Political System of China

The fundamental law in China is the Constitutional System (China Guide 2009). Its present Constitution was adopted by the Fifth National People's Congress on December 4, 1982. The National People's Congress or NPC is the highest state authority, China's fundamental political system. On the other hand, local authorities head local people's congresses. The people… [read more]


Comparing and Evaluating Chinese Politics in the Mao and Post Mao Era Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  5 pages (1,400 words)
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Mao & Post-Mao Era

Chinese Politics in Mao and Post Mao Era

Chinese politics has been heavily dependent on ideology and the prevailing ideology is clearly manifested in the political leadership and subsequently in the economic and social policies implemented by the government. The rise of Mao as China Chief Executive during the post World War II and at the… [read more]


Media and the Government Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  2 pages (621 words)
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Politicians and the Media

Without a body of voters that have their own opinions, there can be no politics. At its most basic, the art of politics is manipulating these opinions and maneuvering between them in order to attain a specific goal, either of election to office, or the passage of a law, or political/governmental end. Without these opinions, or in situations where these opinions don't matter, the result (or perhaps more often the cause) is a dictatorship, or an oligarchy. The media is only an essential ingredient in the power system of a democratic or republic government then, and there are many ways that politicians in these systems can use the media to their advantage.

The two basic ways a politician can do this are through promoting themselves and their ideas, and through denigrating opposing people and ideas. Specifically, the media provides the essential function of letting the people know what the government is doing. A politician can use this function to inform people of their plan to solve a given problem or change a situation. Though most government activities become a part of the public record almost instantly in this technological age, meaning the information is available without the assistance of the media, most citizens know only what the media tells tem about their government (C-SPAN does not have great ratings). Politicians can use this fact to put forward their own plans and ideas as if they are the most practical and/or advantageous, despite competing plans that might be equally or more beneficial. Likewise, politicians are able to characterize themselves in the public eye by presenting a different image of themselves in the media than the facts and circumstances of their lives and careers support. Less cynically, politicians can also use the media to propagate good and honest reflections of themselves and their ideas, too, which is much…… [read more]


Plato's Republic Forms of Government Research Proposal

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Plato's Republic

Forms of Government in the Republic by Plato

One of the most interesting aspects of the forms of government described in Plato's the Republic is his views on the democratic government and its shortcomings. It is particularly interesting in respect of how democracy is viewed by society today. Indeed, this form of government is seen as ideal in… [read more]


German History German Government: Ancient, 18th Century Thesis

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German History

GERMAN GOVERNMENT:

ANCIENT, 18TH CENTURY and MODERN TIMES

Between the beginning of the 1st millennium a.D. And 500 a.D., the government of what is now Germany did not exist, for at this time, much of Northern Europe including Germany was controlled by tribal Teutonic warriors and chieftains who mostly came to power by either destroying rival tribes or by killing rival tribal leaders. Sometime in the 1st century a.D., the great Roman Empire invaded Germany and conquered many of the Germanic tribes as they migrated to the south and to the west, clashing in fierce battles with the better equipped and trained Roman army. In 9 a.D., these Germanic tribes, headed by Arminius, destroyed the Roman army of Quinctilius Varus which prompted Augustus Caesar to cease his invasions of Germany. In the 4th century a.D., Huns from Asia conquered the Germanic Ostrogoths, thus creating a new form of government instituted by the Huns.

Between 1770 and 1775, the nation of Germany, then known as Prussia, was ruled by King Frederick II, a.k.a. Frederick the Great, considered as one of Europe's first "Enlightened Despots." He inherited the throne of Prussia from his father Frederick Wilhelm, thus making him a true monarchical power and since Frederick II was a monarchical king, the Prussian government was under his absolute control.

In an essay on the Forms of Government, King Frederick II makes it clear that he is the only sovereign of the state of Prussia and that he "and his people form a single body;" thus, King Frederick II was the head of state and although he did have an administration under him, he decided who held what position and for how long, thus making this form of government closely related to despotism and dictatorship. 2

In the current year of 2008, the nation of Germany is formally known as the Federal Republic of Germany, a.k.a. Bundesrepublik Deutschland. The German government is currently located in the capital city of Berlin and contains the following administrative divisions, broken into sixteen separate states or regions --…… [read more]


Government Contracting Process Thesis

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Government Contracting Process

The Federal Acquisition Streamlining Act (FASA) of 1994 was formulated with the intention of simplifying of the buying procedures of the government in that many competition restrictions on government purchases were removed involving purchases less than $100,000. Now, full and open competition is used in procedures that are much simpler in solicitation and evaluation of bids up… [read more]


Aristotle's Politics Thesis

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Aristotle's Book Three of the Politics emphasizes what takes for a man to be a good citizen and what distinguishes a good citizen from a good man. The issue whether a good man can be a good citizen in the same time is controversial, as being a citizen sometimes implies doing bad for the sake of the community. According to… [read more]


Selling to the Federal Government Marketing Research Paper

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Selling to the Federal Government

Marketing and selling to the federal government requires a highly unique and customized set of processes, systems and contract management strategies compared to selling to private industry. The advantages and disadvantages of selling to the federal government and a recommendation of whether this is a sustainable and profitable strategy is discussed.

Comparing the Advantages and Disadvantages of Government Contracting

The advantages of selling to the federal government include the opportunity to expand into an entirely new market and generate incremental sales, gain the opportunity to have multi-year contractual purchasing agreements with federal government agencies, and gain valuable insights into how the government contract management process works. The disadvantages of selling to the federal government are first the reality that the government has often awarded contracts with little or no competitive bidding (Berrios, 2006). This makes the entire bidding process unethical and nearly impossible to win. Second, the government favors cost-plus contracts which are also difficult to accurately predict at…… [read more]


Human Rights the Contemporaneous Society Evolves Thesis

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Human Rights

The contemporaneous society evolves at a rapid pace, forcing as such groups and individuals to adapt along. The fact that we need to implement changes ourselves to survive in the dynamic environment is already an indisputable fact. The nature of the implemented changes on the other hand is an issue worth analyzing. In other words, are the modifications… [read more]


Woodrow Wilson and Theodore Roosevelt Research Proposal

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¶ … Presidencies of Woodrow Wilson and Franklin Roosevelt

Woodrow Wilson and Franklin Roosevelt were both presidents that changed the American presidency through legislation and actually made the presidency more powerful by doing so. Through legislation, both men illustrated how the power of the president can extend beyond 1600 Pennsylvania Avenue and extend into the cities and towns across the country. Wilson and Roosevelt were able to pass many measures that allowed them to govern legislatively like no presidents before them. Both men had different ideas in mind but both men made giant steps in directing a new path for government to travel down. Government became bigger and more powerful under the leadership of these men, changing the role of the president forever.

Woodrow Wilson implemented a legislative program of progressive reform. With a Democratic Congress Wilson passed many progressive measures. These include the Underwood Tariff Act, the Federal Reserve Act, and Antitrust legislation. Marshall Dimock asserts that Wilson "literally pioneered in the legislative field" (3) when it comes to presidents. He quotes Lawrence Chamberlain, who stated that Wilson was the '"first President to develop systematically the legislative powers of his office'" (Chamberlain qtd. In Dimock 3). Wilson was attempting to apply the same theory of legislative leadership in the office of the president that he did in the office of the governor. Dimock maintains that Wilson's most "durable legislative accomplishments are among the foundation-stones of our individuals enterprise system even today" (Dimock 9) the Federal Reserve System, the Federal Trade Commission Acts, and the Tariff Act of 19134 are all significant to America even today. Dimock claims that Wilson treated all "major segments of the economy fairly" (Dimock 9) and legislated in their behalf. In fact, Dimock states that Wilson legislated more that any president before or since him. Because he had the ability to build and work around timetables, he was able to appeal to public opinion, especially when "congressional leadership tended to stall" (9). Dimock points out how successful Wilson was at communicating by noting that while most presidents today have a staff working for them, Wilson had none. He worked on projects long before he presented them to the public and was always well prepared. He certainly did not believe in springing anything on the public. He had his own method, which was getting "leaders and committees of Congress to do the work for him, once they agreed in principle on what should be done" (10). Wilson was a man with a plan and he was not afraid to make that plan something he could see in action.

Another man with a vision and a plan was Franklin Roosevelt. Roosevelt also changed the presidency while he was in office. Milkis…… [read more]


Sovereignty a Good Thing or a Bad Essay

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¶ … sovereignty a good thing or a bad thing?

The international political scene is in a constant state of change, transformation and development. Since the Concert of Europe was established in 1815 states have officially been engaged in different types of organizations, alliances that have often placed the idea of sovereignty and that of state authority over its territory… [read more]


Qustions to Answer on Human Rights Essay

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¶ … qustions to answer on Human rights, order and Justice

The protection of human rights represents one of the most important achievements of the international community. It offers a sine qua non-conditions for the well being of our global community. Nonetheless there are several key aspects which are yet to be clearly represented in the legislation of human rights… [read more]


Immigration Term Paper

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immigration is one of the most important elements confronting the United States in terms of public policies taking into account that this policy has received wide attention in particular in the 2008 election due to the increase in the number of illegal immigrants. The focus has been on the ideas promoted in particular by the Republicans and the Democrats which… [read more]


John Locke's Political Theories Term Paper

Term Paper  |  19 pages (5,073 words)
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Locke

One of the single most influential characters in the history of nation building is John Locke. His theories and writings demonstrate a basis for support of actions that had already been taken to eliminate monarchical rule as well as in the development of doctrine for new nations that came from such changes. This work will be a summation of… [read more]


Outsourcing of Government Functions a US Study Term Paper

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Government Outsourcing

The Outsourcing of Government Functions: a U.S. Study

Outsourcing of government functions is one of the most highly controversial practices of the 21st century. There are several prevailing positions regarding the outsourcing of government contracts to private companies. Valid arguments exist for increasing government outsourcing and for limiting future outsourcing as well. Regardless of which side one happens… [read more]


Ontario Provincial Politics Term Paper

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Ontario Provincial Politics

Ontario, Canada's largest province by population has been facing great economic obstacles since the early 90s, after the severe fallout of that time. Although social policies have been directed towards accomplishing some degree of economic improvement, there are still many reforms to be made in order for Ontario and the whole of Canada to achieve a greater… [read more]


Communism the Main Conflict Between Western Democracy Term Paper

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¶ … Communism

The main conflict between Western democracy and Communism was not ideological, but political. The Soviet Union had taken control of Eastern Europe, and the encroachment of its political dominance over the Warsaw Pact nations was threatening to the West's interests in the region. Had the Soviet Union simply existed as a repressive regime with no apparent intent upon expanding its outreach and spheres of influence, the Cold War likely would not have played such a critical role in international politics. It must be remembered that the U.S. And the U.S.S.R. were allies during World War II, when the Soviet's political interests with America had coincided

The pure form of Communism as created by Marx and Engels was not practiced by any communist nation, as all were totalitarian regimes, rather than worker's collective republics. The leaders of every communist block, from Stalin, to Mao, to Castro, to Tito in Yugoslavia, created cults of personality around their personas, class-based societies where class was defined on party loyalty. The degree to which certain aspects of a collective economic system were emphasized depended upon the degree of industrialization that has existed in the nation before communism took root. In Russia, there was a particular emphasis on rapidly industrializing the country to compete with the West.

Discussion 3

Most Communist governments fell because of economic inefficiency rather than internal political revolt or external political and economic pressure. This is shown by the fact that the communist regimes that still exist in North Korea and Cuba, and even vaguely in name in China, that were able to support their populace with some minimal standard of living still stand. Their existence is based upon these nations' ability, in the case of China, to rapidly improve the standard of living in relative terms for the populace, or in the case of the island of Cuba and North Korea, to isolate the nation from exposure to images of Western, higher standards of living and to provide a better standard of living than had existed for most of the population beforehand.

Communism vs. Terrorism

Discussion 1

In the excerpt from the Modern Middle East (2004), Akram Fouad Khater succinctly states that a threat to one's interests is not a threat to one's self, in short that a government in Iraq (or Vietnam during the Cold War) that is antidemocratic is not a personal attack upon America. It is an expression of regional, nationalist conflicts and ideology that have little to do with America as a whole. Khater's tone is scholarly, but also chiding, as he stresses the lack of historical and international perspective of even U.S. policy makers

Discussion 2

Khater's point…… [read more]


Why Are Typologies Useful in Comparative Politics? Term Paper

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¶ … typologies useful in comparative politics?

Typologies are an essential part in the study of comparative politics. They are used on a constant basis for expressing the wide range of differences that only comparative studies can identify. Typologies represent the fundament of the political analysis because they offer reference for the theoretical approach.

There are different typologies; they can refer to particular types of leaders, such as the dictatorial type or the democratic one. One of the most significant areas of analysis in which typologies are the basis for interpretation is the study of different forms of government. In this sense, for instance the discussion over the best means of government is placed on the analysis of different typologies: monarchy, republicanism. Also, there are taken into account its leaders, such as kings, elected leaders, imposed rulers, or dictators.

There are both advantages and disadvantages to typologies in comparative politics. One of the advantages of using typologies in the political analysis is the fact that a theoretical framework is created for a particular subject (Goodin and Klingeman, 2000). In this sense for instance, the analysis over the best governing practices is available since ancient times, from Plato and Aristotle. They were the one who theorized the discussion over the perfect society, the democratic rule, the advantages…… [read more]


Defining and Describing Culture Term Paper

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Culture

Dismantling Identity Politics: The Canadian Context

Identity politics has long been perceived as supremely important to the continued success of political and social institutions. Constructing and maintaining a strong national identity that includes the entire scope of the state has been considered a prerequisite for this kind of success. However, there are indications that this approach to understanding national identity is incorrect, or at least exaggerated. An examination of the role that identity politics plays in the Canadian context (Kymlicka, 2003) suggests that identity politics may no longer be a driving consideration in the success of political and social institutions. Since Canadian "uniqueness" among Western democracies is largely mythical, we can conclude that the decreasing importance of identity politics in Canada points to a larger shift among Western democracies towards societies in which unity of identity is no longer the crucial factor in the success of the state.

When nation-states first began to develop as distinct political entities -- think back to the Treaty of Westphalia in the mid-17th century -- critical importance was placed on the existence of a national identity. While this importance wasn't necessarily consciously spelled out, it was nonetheless a consistent feature of early and developing nation states. Without a strong sense of nationalism, the likelihood of the mergence of a new political entity that was capable of transcending old rivalries and cultural differences was quite unlikely. Nation-states effectively called for the nullification of old political powers and cultural points of focus. In order for groups to embrace this change in Western politics, the construction of a national identity was important to unifying the disparate groups and people under a single national banner. This unification might have occurred along the lines of common language, shared history, common racial characteristics, or any number of other factors. Whatever the unifying principle(s), though, the presence of a singular national identity was important for the success of the nation-state.

Three hundred fifty years later, the notion that identity politics is crucial to the success of political and social institutions has persisted largely unchallenged. Throughout the intervening centuries, national foci have been squarely centered on assimilation and the evaporation of internal cultural differences, all the while trying to craft a unique national identity to make the nation as a whole distinct from other nations. In Canada, these trends have been quite persistent. Up until the 1960s and 1970s, Canadian policies on Aboriginal groups, immigration, and the Quebecois had focused on complete assimilation into the larger Canadian identity (Kymlicka, 2003: pp. 369-373). More recently, that focus has shifted as the Canadian people and the nation's institutions have come to accept that these groups will most likely remain forever distinct within the larger pan-Canadian identity (Kymlicka, 2003:…… [read more]


American Citizenry Elects a Democrat as President Term Paper

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¶ … American citizenry elects a Democrat as President in the 2008 elections, then what will be some of the changes evidenced shortly thereafter, due to those results?" Understanding the fact that politicians make promises during their campaign(s) and that they will, for the most part, at least attempt to keep some of those promises leads to the conclusion that there will indeed be changes in a number of areas if a Democrat is elected. Hillary Clinton knows that some of those changes will be made but that others will be impossible. She recently said, "The challenge is to practice politics as the art of making what appears to be impossible, possible" (Clinton, 2006). She is cognizant of the fact that she is making promises she will probably never be able to fulfill.

The differences, however, between the approaches to government offered by both parties (Democrat and Republican) are as glaring as they are divergent. The Republicans believes in lower taxes, a right to life policy and a preemptive policy in regards to war. The Democrats, on the other hand, believe in strong social programs, a…… [read more]


History of the Early National United States 1789-1848 Term Paper

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History Of the Early National United States, 1789-1848

The history of the United States has been marked by important factors which determined its evolution into what has come to be known as the most efficient democracy in the world. However, in order to reach this status, the republic had to undergo several changes, both at the level of the political conduct, as well as at the level of the political thought. Republicanism is widely considered as having been a milestone in both these aspects. It was the cornerstone of the political conduct in the early days of the republic and at the same time it enshrined the basic thoughts on politics at the time. Despite its use in that historical context, by the late 1960s, the term of republicanism as analyzed by scholars came to signify a different perspective and thus its interpretation gave rise to new meanings and points-of-view.

In the early days of the creation of the state, republicanism represented a set of ideas and values that motivated the revolutionary spirit of the Founding Fathers. It stood up for the beliefs that justified their actions which set them apart from the British rule. In this sense, the early history of the United States saw in the elements defining republicanism ideas related to liberty, the respect for human right, the equality of men, and, above all, a new set of norms based on the constitutional order.

The emergence of republicanism as a political thought is attributed to the early revolutionary forces that continuously viewed the British rule as a sign of corruption and inherited power. In turn, the advocates of this trend sought liberation from the old ideas related to the monarchic rule which limited the exercise of basic human rights. This was considered to be a flaw in the system of the monarchy that also confronted the colonies under the British rule. The right to exercise a chosen religion for instance was thought to be forbidden in the Empire, taking into account the fact that Anglicanism was the dominant and decisive force in England. By comparison, Republicanism advocated a new sense of considering the freedom of choice and of belief and rejected these imperatives.

There were also other considerations which led to the establishment of Republicanism as the framework for the conduct of politics in the era prior to the American Revolution. Unlike the apparently corrupt political system in Britain, which was hereditarily constructed, with inherited titles and positions often accessed through favoritism, the American political scene would be one in which the population would be properly represented according to the will of the people, and not through the power of influence of the representatives. In this sense, there was a wide interest in the construction of a representative system of elections which would set the basis for the democratic system.

The power of the law was yet another aspect that was taken into consideration by the Republican advocates. Personalities such as John Adams considered that the equality… [read more]


Government Bureaucracy Term Paper

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Government Bureaucracy

Personal Experience with Bureaucracy

When the average person hears the term bureaucracy, the typical image that is conjured up in the mind is probably that of smoke filled backrooms full of politically connected people whose only interest is the advancement of their own goals and objectives, or perhaps the endless backlog of paperwork which keeps progress from occurring. Whatever the case, by looking at a personal situation that resulted in a brush with bureaucracy, and comparing that experience with classic views of bureaucracy is quite interesting.

The personal experience with bureaucracy involves the payment of a personal income tax for the municipality in which I live. Where the complication came in was that surprisingly enough, I one day received a delinquent tax notice which was startling because I always paid my taxes on time and in full. Trying to find out what the reason for the delinquent tax notice was became a nightmare, as telephone calls to the tax office became a tangled maze of confusion, as each person to whom I spoke said they could not answer my questions- clearly, the interest to assist me was long gone. Ultimately, the error was acknowledged and fixed, but in the meantime, many problems occurred which could have been avoided.

What is seen in the example presented is that somehow, the goal of bureaucracy to assist the general public somehow was changed into a situation where the interests of the individuals became the goal, rather than a team…… [read more]


Sociology Urban Crisis and the Government Essay

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Sociology

Urban Crisis and the Government

Dear Editor:

I am the author of "Origins of the Urban Crisis," and my name is Thomas Sugrue, and I would like to bring this book to the attention of your readers. I show in my book that the federal government's cuts in urban spending since the Reagan administration, combined with public-private attempts at revitalizing the city have cost the city money, jobs, and reputation, and that all of these lead to lack of financing and ability to revitalize the city, leading to an urban crisis there.

I believe this crisis situation applies to many areas of the country, from New Orleans and the reaction to Hurricane Katrina, to any urban area that suffers from a depressed economy and a lack of support from the government. I believe the government is ignoring the plight of many of its most needy and deserving citizens, and leaving the solutions up to cities and counties that cannot bear the load.

Sadly, these areas suffer from the "politics of race," and little is done to stop those politics from occurring. The government must…… [read more]


Getting Started in Local Politics Term Paper

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¶ … Local Politics

The political system in America is a rather important issue to be taken into consideration when discussing the definition and content of the notion of democracy. Although its structure is of British, it is through the struggle of people such as George Washington, Thomas Paine, but also Abraham Lincoln and John Kennedy that its full content… [read more]


Africa Government Term Paper

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Africa Governments

In the majority of African countries, the economic and social conditions are critical, with the poverty levels high, translated with extremely low purchasing power, explosion of deadly diseases and lack of access to potable water unfortunately an integrant part of the current reality. According to several authors, "the process of economic development must be viewed as the means of reducing and/or eliminating poverty, ignorance and diseases; and achieving improvement in the deteriorating human conditions" (Abjibolosoo, 1995, pp. 9). In this paper we shall propose actions that the Central Authority can take in order to improve the social and economic conditions.

The African Government must design policies that are shaped according to African societies, with its particularities and special conditions, not to Western ones. The failure of the Western approach was caused by the differences between the two types of societies.

Government should reduce corruption, which is currently at important levels and impeding the durable economic development of the African countries. Corruption disables new companies to be set-up, to freely compete on the market based on their unique comparative advantages rather on special advantages provided through corrupted means. Legislation in this case should be elaborated…… [read more]


Law Making Process of the United States Government Term Paper

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¶ … Law making Process of the U.S. Government

The Law Making Process of the United States Government

The law making process in the United States government is carried out by the Congress, which consists of the House of Representatives and the Senate. In fact, law-making is the chief function of the Congress, and the legislative powers have been provided… [read more]


Affairs of Honor National Politics in the New Republic Term Paper

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American History

Affairs of Honor

The purpose of this paper is to introduce and analyze the book "Affairs of Honor: National Politics in the New Republic" by Joanne B. Freeman. Specifically, it will contain a book review of the book. This American history volume discusses the early American Republic and its stability. It describes a fledging nation not united under a new found freedom, but a nation deeply divided over political power, control, and governing, all based on a complex code of honor that helped decrease the division between parties, people, and politicians by creating a complex set of rules that governed the "gentlemen" of the New Republic. The author notes, "Particularly in a nation lacking an established aristocracy, this culture of honor was a crucial proving ground for the elite" (Freeman xv). Set in the early years of the American Republic, this politically charged book engages the reader and uses detailed research to illustrate the author's main thesis. This thesis contends that a strict code of honor helped lead political relationships and debate in the early years of the United States, and that this code of honor was crucial in maintaining civil relationships in a time of torment, discontent, and revolution, even after the Revolutionary War ended.

The author's purpose is clear throughout this text. She presents a detailed look into the lives and political histories of some of America's greatest leaders like Thomas Jefferson, Alexander Hamilton, and Aaron Burr. She delves into their personal lives in an attempt to illustrate how the accepted code of honor permeated every aspect of their lives, and led to some rash decisions such as the duel between Hamilton and Burr that resulted in Hamilton's death. This code of honor was so deep, it could lead to destruction and mayhem, even as it attempted to keep the peace and maintain order. Freeman writes, "Convinced that Burr was a threat to the republic, personally invested in his public role to an extraordinary degree, Hamilton perceived the duel as both a public service and a personal sacrifice" (Freeman 198). If the reader attempts to find any modern politician so deeply invested in his "public role," it could prove impossible. Freeman shows how this code of honor led to disagreements and political suicide by many early American politicians, but also helped maintain an element of decorum and civility in dealings that could quickly turn into arguments, disagreements, and misunderstandings.

Delving deep into the early history of our country is not a new endeavor, but this author manages to uncover new and thought-provoking material that helps explain some of the chaos that greeted the country and politicians in 1789. It would seem the new government and its representatives would be eager to get to work in creating a new democracy, but in fact, the country's government was disorganized, even haphazard, at first. The reader is thrown into the middle of the political mayhem, which might seem a little disheartening at first glance. I wondered if the country… [read more]


New Jersey Political Campaigns Term Paper

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New Jersey Political Campaigns

Politics in the United States spurs rather hated debates, especially among the two main forces of the political system, the Republicans and the Democrats. Democrat Congressman Frank Pallone has been strongly involved in the issues affecting his constituency in New Jersey and his political activity focused deeply on problems related to the community such as health… [read more]


Machiavelli and Hobbes Term Paper

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¶ … Machiavelli and Thomas Hobbes influenced the entire direction of political thought within their respective generations. Their influence resulted from political documents that changed the way we view the nature of humanity and political science. They brought a scientific understanding to the perception of politics, rather than a humanistic and rhetorical understanding. The profound difference in the ways in which they approached politics as a science rather than a philosophy challenged traditional thinking and transformed our understanding of politics forever.

Machiavelli's "The Prince" was a revolutionary political document that influenced how we perceived European politics. This document, which was originally written as a political codex for the Medici family of Italy, turned European thinking inside out by explicitly stating rules for pragmatic governance. Many critics argue that Machiavelli's legacy in the long-term is to explain political phenomena in scientific terms. He resided in an era of flourishing scientific thought and an evolving definitional system. Ethics, science, mathematics, and many other fields were no longer thought of as conceptual frameworks, but executable concepts. For Machiavelli, politics was not an arena of rhetoric or ethical understanding, but rather a process that can be documented and understood by governing principles and rules much like any other scientific process. Therefore, his book revolutionarily reduced political governance to its core components.

Prior to the Prince, politics was caste within the light of conceptual rhetoric. The likes of Plato, Aristotle and Roman philosophers approached politics as an understanding of how idealized government and governors operate. Machiavelli's approach however, was to look at governance in a pragmatic setting. He attempts to understand how an individual can govern effectively given the political circumstances of the status quo. This is a unique approach because it focuses on execution rather than conceptualization. As a codex for government, his ideas were not unique nor were he the first one to advocate them, but he is the first to publicly state them in an open and challenging light. Machiavelli's main contribution and his revolution of political science are to understand it as a reality, with governance as a template for how individuals must govern, rather than should govern. Although many critics throughout history have argued the immorality of the rules advocated by the Prince, Machiavelli argues that all moral principles must yield to every circumstance. The essential revolution within Machiavelli's political rhetoric is that he does not believe that there is a tangible connection between ethics and politics, which has been implicitly assumed by all previous philosophers. Machiavelli departs from classical conceptions of virtue, unlike Plato and Aristotle who assert that virtue is the principle quality of all great managers. His politics focuses on real and tangible guidance for leadership; Machiavelli's chief contribution is that he no longer makes politics synonymous with justice.

Specifically, Machiavelli's founding principle is the focus on achieving pragmatic ends of governance and stability. When viewed from an ends perspective, the majority of his rhetoric coincides with other philosophers. For instance, he argues that a Prince must… [read more]


George Washington's Farewell Term Paper

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Government

George Washington's Farewell Address

Washington's Farewell Address 1796 Major Points:

Washington's main point to this address comes in the first two paragraphs, when he notes he will not seek reelection and why he has made that choice. He asserts he cares about the country and the government, but he really hopes to retire and lead a quiet life, and he feels he is past the age of great usefulness, (the "weight of years" he refers to), and the country would be better served by another, younger leader. He also thanks the country and the people for the many honors they have given him, and that he will remember them the rest of his life.

He also is adamant that the Constitution should be "sacredly maintained" and that the government should always be "stamped with wisdom and virtue." He also hopes the success of the nation will inspire other nations to attempt their own democratic governments. He also has several observations about the country and the people, and especially their "love of liberty," that he begins to share as the speech continues.

He stresses the importance of national unity in the face of opposition and criticism, and that the country must always remain unified to remain strong. He urges people to remember their pride in their patriotism, and the common cause that came together in the birth of a new nation. He urges people to remember their commonalities, rather than their differences, as well. He also maintains the difference between the North and South is industry in the North and agriculture in the South, something that will prove prophetic in the results of the Civil War. He also notes improvements in communication and production, and acknowledges as the country grows it must remain united and avoid infighting and backbiting. He also stresses the country must remain free from foreign alliances and dependence. He also believes that the agencies of the federal government will learn to organize and divide themselves effectively, and that the government is still learning what…… [read more]


Political Science: Argentina Democracy Term Paper

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Political Science: Argentina

Democracy in Argentina

How well has democracy been consolidated in Argentina? Things are certainly much better than they were between 1976 and 1983, when "as many as 30,000 people disappeared, thousands were imprisoned for political reasons, and thousands more were killed" (Bonner 2005) during the last military dictatorship (when democracy was only a distant dream of the people). The publication Latin American Politics and Society explains that today in Argentina the main thrust of citizen action for fairness and justice comes through the human rights organizations (HROs). And the political leadership in Argentina responds more quickly and thoroughly when HROs address "family relationships." But the article explains that Argentina's political system may not have paid any attention to HROs if those human rights groups had not put pressure on Argentina's leaders through the leverage of international courts. The obstacles facing HROs include the fact that paying attention to today's families in Argentina allows to some degree the government to overlook the children of the "disappeared."

Meanwhile, in an article in the British Journal of Political Science (Gelineau, et al., 2006), the authors review and analyze the issue of how decentralization in Argentina is affecting the political dynamics in "subnational" (local and regional) areas. In other words do local (often rural) citizens vote and participate in democracy based on how they are responding socially to the national political scene? The authors note that there is an international trend of late for governments to pass administrative, political, and economic responsibilities along to local and regional authorities; "decentralization" in effect amounts to the national political establishment washing its hands of the decisions in the outlying areas; in another way, it is passing along power to local and regional authorities.

The results of this research indicate that, "...vote choice in provincial elections is heavily influenced by the track record of the national administration" (Gelineau et al.). That having been said, it is also a finding in the article that if things are going well on the national level, and the economy is "booming and presidential popularity high," the chances of political success for candidates at the local level are "more likely to be shaped by partisan affiliation than by the effectiveness" of the politicians at the local level who identify with the political party of the national leaders. And when things are not going well at the national level, those in local government aligned with the president politically, will suffer, no matter how well they do in their jobs.

Another article, this on in the Journal of Latin American Studies (Wolff 2007) the writer, Jonas Wolff, a research associate with the Peace Research Institute in Frankfurt, Germany, explains the rise in the "piquetero movement" as protests broke out around the country in the 1990s in response to unemployment and poverty. Those protests started in the country's interior but it "quickly spread across Argentina and, especially, into the de-industrialized suburbs around Buenos Aires." By 1997, there were 170 piquetes and by 2001… [read more]


Erin Brockovich Movie Term Paper

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¶ … Erin Brocovich

Movie Review: "Erin Brockovich" How did the movie contribute to your understanding of American politics?

It can't happen here.' No American will say this after seeing the movie "Erin Brockovich" (2000). The film suggests that massive government cover-ups that endanger ordinary citizen's lives are possible, even in a representative democracy with a free press. Thus, Americans cannot trust their elected legislators to protect their health and well-being. Americans must take responsibility for monitoring what is going on in their own communities, or special interests such as large corporate entities will dominate the political decision-making process. Not even the news media can entirely be trusted to bring problems that affect the public to light. Without crusaders like Erin Brockovich, ordinary Americans not associated with powerful special interest groups are apt to lose their voices in their own government, even though it is elected by the people to serve the people. As noted by T. R Dye (2002), although every citizen only has one vote, the existence of interest groups defies such notions of…… [read more]


Comparison in Comparative Politics Term Paper

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Comparison in Comparative Politics

Comparative politics seek to find the similarities and differences
between different countries in order to help explain the cause and effects
of political actions. In this way, even studies of comparisons covering
vastly different topics can have much in common. Peter Uvin, in his 1999
article "Ethnicity and Power in Burundi and Rwanda: Different Paths to… [read more]


Florida Government in the Sunshine Act Term Paper

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¶ … Sunshine Act

The Government in the Sunshine Act is likened to the Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) in that the former also mandates that meetings be conducted as "open meetings" -- that is, full disclosure of the proceedings of the meetings, specifically applied to "collegial" agencies. These "collegial" agencies are identified if these agencies are composed of more than one member or person (Hall, 2006:285). And similar to the FOIA as well, there are certain exceptions to this law, which include the non-disclosure of procedural meetings that divulges personal information about an individual, unless mandated to be disclosed by an Executive order; or the disclosure of business or financial information that are considered confidential or "trade secrets" by the owner of said information (286).

The Government in the Sunshine Act primarily aims to keep the public informed about the issues dealt and activities conducted by government agencies, a step towards establishing honesty and transparency of the government…… [read more]


Urban Government Term Paper

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Urban Govt

Over a century before the age of industrialization and urbanization in America, the Founding Fathers held conflicting visions of what form localized governments should take. Federalists like James Madison, though they may not have envisioned the sheer size to which American cities would grow, espoused a strong centralized system of government. The Federalist model would be evident in… [read more]


New Public Management and Democracy Term Paper

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New Public Management Reforms

The Implications of New Public Management for Democracy Today

Among the plethora of issues arising out of the preeminence of New Public Management (NPM) reforms over the past decades is the question of democracy - the changing nature of Public Administration under managerialism is said to be altering the concept of governance and affecting democratic politics.… [read more]


Urban Politics Brick City - Season Essay

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Urban Politics

Brick City - Season One, Episode Four: Circus

"Circus," the fourth episode of the documentary television series Brick City, contrasts the garish entertainment of the Ringling Bros. And Barnum & Bailey Circus with the gritty, daily existence of life in Newark. Newark's Mayor Corey Booker has been attempting to revitalize the reputation of Newark, which has often been stereotyped as crime-ridden and depressed. Attracting major entertainment figures, particularly 'family' entertainment figures such as the circus to Newark, is part of Booker's campaign. The episode contrasts the circus with images of the city's residents, to show the distinction between the image that Newark is attempting to project to the world and what is real -- both the images of a former gang member turning his life around as well as that of urban residents talking about the costs violence has had upon their lives and families.

Brick City contrasts hopeful gestures, like the measurable reduction in homicides by the Newark police and the attempts of characters like to forge a new existence, with the fact that deaths still happen. The video shows how both gang members and police officers alike mourn the deaths of members of their group and also how members of the circus dare to do the impossible -- just like the residents, everyone lives in hope. One of the greatest strengths of this video is the humor and the evident earnestness of Corey Booker as he welcomes the animals and performers to Newark. The contrast between the beautiful elephants and the highways of Newark is poignant and effective, illustrating how the circus and the constructed, urban environment of Newark both look unnatural. However, as well as tragedy and difficulty there is also joy. The image of a tightrope performer, suspended over Newark's buildings becomes a symbol of Booker's attempt to walk a tightrope between sensitivity to the crime that still exists and his desire to create a new and better Newark. "Every day my life is a circus," the mayor admits.

According to one reviewer of Brick City: "There is tragedy aplenty in these five hours, but also comedy and political intrigue and, yes, black people having a good time" (Sepinwall 2009). The mayor's staff is shown relaxing and interacting with one another as human beings and ordinary residents are shown in a full manner, in their strengths as well as their weaknesses. One of the most powerful feats of strength shown on the video is not that of the…… [read more]


Government: An Unviable Solution Essay

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e., America's Civil War) and would be foolhardy to suggest that a "one-size-fits-all" governance solution is available to satisfy the needs in this increasingly globalized setting.

In this regard, Weiss also notes that, "Applying the notion of 'governance' to the planet' is fundamentally misleading. It captures the gamut of interdependent relations in the absence of any overarching political authority and with institutions that exert little or no effective control. Quite a distinction exists, then, between the national and international species of governance" (3). This paucity of a universal solution to humankind's needs is not new, of course, but it does reflect the changing views concerning what paradigms are best suited to the dynamic environment in which countries around the world are seeking to advance their own interests, a process that frequently involves attenuating the interests of their neighbors. In this regard, Weiss emphasizes that, "Within a country, we have governance plus government which, whatever its shortcomings in Mexico or the United States, usually and predictably ensures effective authority and control. At the international level, governance is the whole story. We have governance minus government, which means virtually no capacity to ensure compliance with collective decisions" (2009, 3).

Relationship of these Issues

In years past, it has become abundantly apparent that like the Roman Empire, superpowers can come can go. According to some analysts, China's economy will exceed the United States are early as 2027 (Tett, 2010). China, though, is not the only emerging economic powerhouse on the horizon and, together with India, Brazil and Russia (a collective group of nations commonly referred to as the "BRIC") will play an increasingly significant role in refining the geopolitical aspects of the world as it is today. In fact, Tett suggests that, "While the total BRICs' group will eclipse the big western economies by 2032 -- almost a decade sooner than first thought. That will overturn many western assumptions about how the world works" (2010, 5).

Fully 80 years after the Great Depression, though, some hardy economists are pointing out that no one truly understands what fuels the global economy, let alone the global economy, and it may well be that Adam Smith was right all along. As the impact of the increasing globalization of the marketplace provides consumers in the developing nations the world with an improved standard of living, it has become increasingly apparent that the "invisible hand" described by Smith will be the overriding factor that is involved in how and when innovations in global governance structures take place. As Tett points out, the BRIC nations are not alone in their struggle to enjoy a piece of the American resource pie, but they are in the vanguard of the nations that will inevitably play a role in global governance structures. For instance, Tett emphasize that, "We estimate that two billion people could join the global middle-class by 2030, mainly from BRICs" (Tett 2010, 5). It is reasonable as well to suggest that these increasingly affluent consumers in the BRIC nations… [read more]


Establishing a New Government Essay

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Establishing a New Government

In order to construct from zero a country with a functioning government based on democratic principles several steps are necessary in order to identify the most suitable opportunities available.

The first steps are to make an external non-biased analysis of the new country taking into account the most important elements: geography, demography, social and economic conditions of inhabitants and especially recent history. The latter would allow an understanding of the political and people's psychological situation as the new country of Kramer might have been born out of a conflict with another state or states, or from an interior conflict. This, alongside identifying the main leaders of the society, is very important in the construction of any new state as it lowers political pressures on the future governments. Therefore, a serious analysis should be made on the solidity of the people that have requested assistance in organizing a new government, of their background and most of all influence and trust of the Kramerian population.

A government can be organized by either an external party or an internal number of actors. As no institution appears to exist in Kramer, it appears logic that the first steps in creating fundamental laws and institutions could be made by representatives of the people in conjunction with the external party which should be a recognized international authority like the United Nations. A temporary working group of representative leaders from the Kramerian society and international advisors should be formed to put into motion the first steps towards a free and democratic society.

As the most important act in the political formation of the country is the Constitution, the temporary working group should identify national and international experts and community actors that would engage in a closed doors debate on drafting the Constitution. After the final draft is ready, this should be opened for a public debate that would also involve citizens, creating therefore a sense of responsibility and unity. As such a process takes time and a country needs to also develop its basic skeleton, the temporary working group should either request international logistics support or use the existing one (if the case) to offer citizens some of the basic needs: security, shelter, basic nutrition and health resources and communication methods.

After the finalization of the Constitution, that would lay in theory all the necessary institutions and relations of the state with citizens and other states, a significant number of the population should give its agreement on the document either in a massive public gathering or, if in place, by voting. More technical issues that are also very important relate to the creation of a flag, an anthem, a capital city and to identify or build state buildings.

The next steps would be related to the final actions of the temporary working group…… [read more]

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