"Government / Politics" Essays

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Would the World Better Without Government Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,586 words)
Bibliography Sources: 7



A world without government sounds great. The governments of most countries are corrupt and politics presents many problems for people. In some places, the elected officials end up suppressing the rights and freedoms of individuals. Other countries have tyrannical governments that use military force to impose power. Thus, it may seem that government is universally bad. However, there are… [read more]

Characteristics of the Nation State and Transnational Entities Essay

Essay  |  6 pages (2,557 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


¶ … Institutions

Describe the characteristics of the modern nation-state.

With the collapse of the pluralistic empires in the 19th Century, there arose the nation states as well as the continued development of the transnational entities that have widely influenced the way the nation states operate and relate to each other. The economies, politics, cultural interaction, social interaction and labor… [read more]

International Political Order Is in a State Essay

Essay  |  6 pages (1,749 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … international political order is in a state if anarchy. Discuss.

Similar to all politics, international politics is basically about conflict management and the re-creation of the community. The nature of such politics is more than the combination of 18,000 possible mutual relationships between the 192 states across the globe today. While these mutual relationships are significant in politics… [read more]

Honest Graft Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (980 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Honest & dishonest graft.

According to Plunkitt, the difference between honest and dishonest graft is simply that honest graft lies in seeing opportunities and taking them. Plunkitt gives the example of property that he bought that, hearing a certain location will be in demand, he proceeds to buy the property before later selling it at a higher price than before. What Plunkitt was doing, in this and similar cases, was investing his money in areas that would later be in demand and, therefore, proceed for a higher price.

According to Plunkitt, most politicians get rich the same way rather than through robbing the government by dishonest graft, I.e. By profiteering from their political activities and diverting money that is supposed to be for the government into their own pockets, by gambling, or by blackmailing certain institutions.

Plunkitt also sees raising wages as a kind of honest graft since he (and other who do so) makes himself popular that way thus receiving votes.

I happen to agree with Plunkitt in the first instance (regarding investment), but think that raising wages should be implemented for reasons other than for solely gaining popularity. Plunkitt seems to imply that were he not in a political position, he may not accord fair salary / benefits. I also think that penalizing certain institutions is not 'blackmail', as Plunkitt calls it, but a way of regulating their concerns. Plunkitt, wishing to profit from these organizations, may have refrained from fining them. I find Plunkitt's reasoning disturbing.

Section 2. Plunkitt & drinking

Plunkitt sees drinking as detrimental to the person who wants to make a success of it in life. According to him, successful businessmen, including politicians, are temperate. They may sell liquors to others, in order to make a business, and they may befriend drinkers (cautiously) but they know that in order to retain they're thinking and calculating abilities and in order to attain positions of prestige, they had better let liquor alone.

Plunkitt provides many examples of this, from the successful politicians of Tammany Hall to the Bowery leaders and the most successful saloon keepers who understand that temperance is a business deal.

Section 3. Plunkitt & political party bosses in the Democratic Party

Plunkitt thinks that the Democratic Party should reserve itself to studying human nature rather than confine itself to studying politics and theories of politics from books. People are most persuaded by those who talk down to their level and address them in practical form living with them and understanding what they are going through rather than quoting at them from books.

Plunkitt, accordingly, sees that the Democratic party has a future ahead of it as long as the political party bosses would get down to the level of the masses and speak to them in their tongue.

He also urges the bosses to abolish "iniquitous and villainous civil service laws' that are effecting jobs and corporations. With the bosses doing this he…… [read more]

Second Treatise of Government by John Locke Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,225 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Locke's Second Treatise Of Government

Property development is South Florida is a contentious inasmuch as it involves incursions into the Everglades, which are considered as having unique environmental value from which the region, state and country benefit. The state has intervened on behalf of Everglades preservation at various points when local governments sought to develop these lands. This conflict can be resolved using a number of perspectives, but it is interesting to consider the contribution Locke's views in the Second Treatise of Government make to the discussion, since Locke's made significant contributions to modern political philosophy regarding property.

Locke was generally in favor of man being able to expropriate "property in the state of nature" on account of his view that man is entitled to fight for survival just as much as any other species. Where there might be disagreement is with respect to the understanding of survival and in addition with respect to some of the constraints that Locke put on property expropriation.

Some of the constraints Locke appears to have put on property expropriation relate to survival. Locke argued that "one may only appropriate as much as one can use before it spoils." This clause relates to survival in that waste is something that works against survival. In the case of South Florida, the pro-development side would point out that Everglades land is not particularly useful for human survival in its natural state anyway, so development adds more value than the land would if it is left undeveloped. However, Locke would likely argue against wanton expropriation of this land, because the land should remain in a state of nature until man has a good use for that land.

In Locke's time, in the pre-industrialized world, land was almost always used for survival -- farming and hunting. The amount of urban land was insignificant in size. In our time, urban land is extensive, in South Florida in particular. Additionally, the land is not necessarily being used for survival. While Locke would most likely accept draining Everglades land to extent Homestead's farmland, for example, he would most likely balk at non-survival uses such as casinos, or retail development. Such development could easily be condensed into other areas -- there is ample vacant land in South Florida and the density of people and development is relatively low. Locke, not faced with these conditions in his time, did not specifically address this situation. However, another clause in the second treatise does provide further guidance as to Locke's views on the subject, so that we need not speculate as freely as above as to his probable views.

Locke argued that "enough and as good" is another constraint on land expropriation. This clause implies that wasting land is something Locke would not approve of. While he defended the right to property ownership, he seemed to also be arguing that one should make use of property expropriated from nature. If land is taken from nature, then it is not available to others. When we consider… [read more]

Political Science in My Opinion the Realties Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (1,155 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Political Science

In my opinion the realties of what is required to run for either the House of Representatives or the Senate are not strict enough considering that none of them are very successful at what they do. Those that end up on capital hill are so out of touch with what is going on in the real world that they don't know enough to even realize that there is a problem in American let along have any idea on how to fix it. The majority of elected representatives get elected because they had the money in order to do so. These are not working class Americans that are struggling everyday to put food on the table for their children or gas in their tank so that they can get to work that day. My views have changed in the fact that they have gotten more cynical that there is any fix for America that this group can bring about. How are those that are so out of touch with what it really takes to survive in this country really supposed to know how to help those who are truly in need.

The system of checks and balances that is in place is a vital part of the Constitution. With checks and balances, each of the three branches of government can limit the powers of the others. This way, no one branch becomes too powerful. Each branch is in charge of checking the power of the other branches to make sure that the power is balanced between them (Checks and Balances, 2012). The framers of the Constitution conceived of Congress as the center of policymaking in America. Over time the prominence of Congress has varied, and even though it was once the true center of power in Washington, its role has seen change over time (Government in America, 2010).

Based upon this one could say that the system of checks and balances that is in place is outdated. It appears that no one follows the rules that have been set down since they are doing what they want, when they want to, with no real regard to the rules that were put into place so many years ago. Due to the fact that the system was developed so many years ago it seems plausible that it no longer works in today's world. What is in place should not be done away with, but updated in order to be more relevant to the world today. The underlying principles that are in place should be kept as three branches do need to have power over each other in order to prevent one from completely taking over. What needs to be added are prevention measures in order to alleviate covert actions from happening. And if they do then stiff penalties needs to be imparted. How is the Congress supposed to be taken seriously as a law making body when they can't even follow the rules that are in place for them?

3. The… [read more]

Chinese Acquisition of Nuclear Weapon Research Paper

Research Paper  |  19 pages (5,510 words)
Style: Chicago  |  Bibliography Sources: 110


¶ … Chinese acquisition of nuclear weapon, which may cause national security threats against the United States, is a matter of much concern. The research addresses the following research question:

What are the national security reasons for the U.S. involvement and political strategy in discouraging the implosion of a nuclear war with China?

The research question is important to address… [read more]

American Government Should the President Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (1,099 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


American Government

Should the President of the United States have authority to remove officials that the U.S. Senate has confirmed?

A bit of government history is needed here to make this answer complete. The Congress of the United States passed the Tenure of Office Act, and notwithstanding the veto of President Andrew Johnson, two-thirds of the Senate overruled Johnson's veto. And when Johnson went ahead and removed the secretary of war without the consent of Congress -- he was nearly impeached from office. That act was repealed in 1887.

In 1926, according to the Supreme Court decision, Myers vs. United States, ruled that it is unconstitutional to require the consent of the Senate to remove non-cabinet officials. I believe if the Senate had to approve the president's decision to remove a high official, it would create even more logjams and chaos in Washington than there are now. It would be a bad idea.

There are those in Congress today (particularly in the House of Representatives -- specifically those adhering to "tea party" values) who would (and often do) attempt to stymie President Barack Obama at every turn. Much of the legislation Obama has passed did not receive very many Republican votes (some legislation got zero support from the GOP), and in fact some members of the GOP in Congress have said their number one goal is defeating Obama in 2012. Most Republicans have shown through their rhetoric and their actions that they goals do not including creating more jobs, or helping reform healthcare, or dealing with energy issues, but rather, in blocking anything Obama proposes. Hence, giving Congress the power to oversee those the president would like to remove from high positions would create even more partisan bickering and polarization.

Are some of the Executive Orders issues by presidents an overstepping of their authority? The answer is yes, in particular EO 9066. This was done during a time of hysteria over World War II after Japan attacked Pearl Harbor in 1941. Giving the military the authority to seize Japanese-Americans that were living within 60 miles from the West coast and place them into internment camps was an outrageous seizing of power by the executive branch. It is very doubtful that this kind of arbitrary seizing of power and rounding up Americans of a particular nationality or ethnicity could happen again.

The EO 13228 (Homeland Security) is quite a bit different, albeit it was also passed in the time right after an emotional war-related act, the 9/11 attacks. Congress in fact authorized the Homeland Security act and EO 13228 was just an executive order setting up the task force on preparedness for the war on terrorism. Meantime, the Patriot Act of 2001 in fact took away rights of privacy and imposed a law that was very anti-democratic, and Congress actually passed this and it was not an executive order, but it was bad legislation. The president should not have the right to send young men to Vietnam based on executive orders… [read more]

Corporation and Money Affecting Politics in American Research Paper

Research Paper  |  5 pages (1,700 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


¶ … nation has recently been rocked by the activities of lobbyist Jack Abramoff (Curtin). His activities as a lobbyist eventually landed him in jail but, along the way, the companies and organizations that hired Abramoff benefited from the efforts and influences that he was able to peddle and, therein, is the problem. Money and corporations have taken over the… [read more]

2012 Political Campaign Funds Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,306 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


President Obama is so far one of the best candidate who have managed to raise a considerable amount of funding. He is leading other potential candidates in a significant amount of money. However, one of the main issues relating to the funding is how the politicians will spend the raised amount in a considerable way. On his side, one of the potentials presidential candidates, Ron Paul, says that he will advocate for the right usage of the campaign funding. He says that he will campaign for the money nit to be used for other purposes than the intended ones like supporting abortion. Moreover, Ron Paul says that the campaign funding should not be used for various family planned programs. Paul is a physician by profession who strongly campaigns against abortions. His views is a clear indication that some of the politicians always have the intention of using the campaign funding for other purposes that are against the will of the majority.

The American law states that all potential candidates are obliged to file the campaign finance in order to show how the funding is being used. All the information about the funding is normally released to the public in order they can get a view of how the amount was spent. However, it is evident that some of the candidates fail to disclosure all the amount of the funding. This raises questions on how the amount of money raised during the funding was used. Failure to offer information on the usage of the funding is a clear indication that some of the politicians tend to use the money in various ways other than the intended purpose.

The presidential campaigns attract usage of huge amount of money. According to the above information, it is clear that all this money comes from the public funding. This means that the public tend to contribute much in the primary and general elections. However, even the private sectors also tend to contribute much in the funding of the campaigns. The funding also translates that a lot of taxpayers' money is spent. Many scholars argue that the wrong usage of the funding contributes to inflation. This was evident during the 2008 presidential campaign where after the elections America went under a hard financial situation. The same issue seems to repeat after this year's election. This is the main reason why the public should care and be concerned over this issue. This is because the public is actively contributing for the campaign. This evident because within the last few months, the top leading potential candidates have managed to raise a considerable amount of money compared to the last campaign period.

In order to end the problem of politicians using the funding money in the wrong way, various measures ought to be considered. Most of these measures relate to the public funding system. Many of the politicians strongly depend on this system for the finances that emerge during this period. Some of the politicians who prefer staying out… [read more]

Corruption in Government Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (639 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


This explains why autocratic governments actually actively participate in the corruption and why even governments that are attempting to reform their style of economy such as China still strongly maintain the areas of their economy that are most susceptible to corruption such as banking, the stock market, telecommunications and transportation. Maintaining such control allows the government to ensure that corruption will be minimized until such time as safeguards can be put in place that guarantee that the rule of law and a more transparent governmental structure can be organized.

Corruption or at least concerns about corruption also offer autocratic governments a scapegoat when the need arises. From time to time autocratic governments must purge a group or individuals that they consider to poise a possible threat and accusing such group or individual of corruption is an easy method of tagging the group or individuals for removal. This system was used repeatedly in Soviet Russia and Communist China to cleanse the government of possible threats.

In democratic societies corruption is a serious problem but, except in very isolated occasions, the problem is short-lived and easily resolved. The ballot box and legal system serve as a lifeline. In an autocratic system of government, however, the same safeguards are not present and corruption actually serves a useful purpose for such governments. Through the tacit allowance of corruption the government is able to ensure its continued existence and by observing such operations from outside step in and apply control when it serves its purposes.

Although corruption is universally declaimed as an evil it can be demonstrated to a positive factor in the governing of autocratic style regimes. In fact, as demonstrated herein, autocratic governments may actually depend heavily upon the continued presence of corruption in order to ensure their existence. As such, corruption serves a valuable purpose in autocracies.

Political Corruption… [read more]

Political Structure and Philosophy Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,496 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Perhaps the most substantial change of the 1987 amendment was conducting the presidential elections by direct, and secret ballot. The president is, of course, the chief executive and holds the right to approve or veto all legislation passed by the National Assembly, and to "refer important policy matters to a national referendum, declare war, conclude peace and other treaties, appoint… [read more]

Benchmarks in Government 1901-1981 Order Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (840 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


II. Common Law gets the Axe:

The Supreme Court did the unthinkable in 1938 when 150 years of 'common-law' was overturned. The common-law is that which expresses our 'human rights' and 'civil liberties" As written by one author:

The Common Law is the fountain source of Substantive and Remedial Rights, if not our very Liberties. The members and associates of the Bar thereafter formed committees, granted themselves special privileges, immunities and franchises, and held meetings concerning the Judicial procedures, and further, to amend laws "to conform to a trend of judicial decisions or to accomplish similar objectives."(Hardison 1999)

III. The Federal Register Act:

President Roosevelt by Executive Order created The Federal Register Act in the year of 1935 (Title 3 sec. 301 et seq) Within this order was an initiated Executive Order. Roosevelt in effect granted himself the power to create federal agencies and appoint a head of the agency. Roosevelt then re-delegated his authority to make law (statutory regulations) to those agency heads. However, the president has no constitutional authority to make law. Constitutionally the act of re-delegating that which is a delegated authority in considered to be a felony breach. Next the agencies were given authority by and of the President in an initiative to tax the U.S. Citizen.

'Government by appointment is not Constitutional and government by appointment represents taxation without representation. We now have government by appointment running this country. 'This is the shadow government sometimes spoken about, but never referred to as government by appointment. This type of government represents taxation without representation. (Hardison 1999)


Since 1938 The Uniform laws or as they are now called the Uniform Commercial Laws as well as the creation of the Federal Reserve System altered and changed that which the U.S. Constitution established to a degree that the original Constitution would be unrecognizable today. Just prior to the assassination of President John F. Kennedy he made it known that he intended to address the problems that existing within the realm of the Federal Reserve and the Internal Revenue system of 'big government'. Sadly, he didn't not live long enough to accomplish that. It appears that the government grew of its own accord and toward the aim of another agenda other than that of the Constitution.


Hardison, Bob (1999) Who Is Running America? The Bankruptcy of America, the Corporate United States, and the New World Order [Online] at: http://www .barefoot sworld.net/usfraud.html

From Revolution to Reconstruction: An Outline…… [read more]

Socialism Is a Highly Charged Term Paper

Term Paper  |  9 pages (2,493 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


"In Great Britain, where orthodox Marxism had never been a powerful force, the Fabian Society, founded in 1884, set forth basic principles of evolutionary socialism that later became the theoretical basis of the British Labour party." ("Socialism ") Though there was conflict from the very beginning the power structure of the parliamentary system was challenged and the results were to… [read more]

Thomas Abraham Clark Was Born Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (529 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


This would make him a Federalist. He also believes that the property of the wealthy elite must be protected from the masses, something a strong national government could accomplish. Whipple also feels the common people should have little or no voice in government and that government should be left to the elites who know how to run it, a definitive Federalist view.

7. I am undecided about Clymer Fitzsimmons because he demonstrates both Federalist and Anti-Federalist tendencies. His belief in a large, well armed militia, as well as his being a frontiersman demonstrates his independence and individuality. Add to this his satisfaction with the Articles of Confederation and he could be an Anti-Federalist. But seeing how the British are still a threat, a strong national government is the best way to defend America's independence; a Federalist view.

Part 2:

1. Because laws are a way to restrict a person's individual rights, the more laws enacted the more individual rights are restricted. This is the reason laws in America were made to be difficult to enact and should be. The United States was founded on the principle of individual rights, it would be wrong to enact so many laws as to give up all our rights.

2. The United States is a large and diverse nation. Since sometimes the same political party can be quite different in different parts of the country, simply voting on party lines does not always truly represent the local population's will. By having Congresspersons represent individual areas of the country, political views from…… [read more]

Locke the Ironies of Philosophy and Politics Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,683 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+



The ironies of philosophy and politics -- John Locke's definition of tyranny and its applicable to the modern British Commonwealth nation of Zimbabwe

The history of colonialism and the history of political philosophy have given rise to many ironies. One early manifestation of the irony was when the British 17th century philosopher John Locke's Second Treatise on Government gave… [read more]

How to Survive Organizational Influence Power and Politics Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (405 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Organizational Politics and Power: How to Survive and Even Prosper in the Political Environment of One's Organization

Hardly any employee, when asked about what he or she likes about his or her organization is likely to say, "oh the politics of the organization" unless Machiavelli is that individual's personal hero! However, effectively managing organizational politics and deploying one's personal power in an effective fashion is key to a worker's career success. In fact, "to help us understand organizations, we might consider them as political systems, rather than viewing the organization's politics as a negative thing. (Ratzberg, 2000) Some organizations function in their political networks as totalitarian systems, where one actor dominates the organizational hierarchy from on high, others are more democratic or at least interactive in their model. A worker rarely has a choice as to how his or her organization functions as a political model, but can use this knowledge of the overall organization to negotiate his or her relations with the executive and managerial staff, as well as to embark upon his or her own decision-making and problem- solving. (Ratzberg, 2000)

As in politics as well, organizational actors seek to satisfy not only the organizational interests of the collective but…… [read more]

Government and Society Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,056 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Common Sense and Letters From an American Farmer

Thomas Paine was a true revolutionary. In his pamphlet "Common Sense," he repeatedly cried for independence from England. He believes the cause of America is the cause of all mankind. He writes that the king of England has undertaken in his own right, "to support the parliament in what he calls their, and as the good people of this country are grievously oppressed by the combination, they have an undoubted privilege to inquire into the pretensions of both, and equally to reject the usurpations of either" (Paine pp).

Paine depicted a desire for an ideal society, however, he did not romanticize colonial life and its society in general, as Hector St. John de Crevecouer did in his writings, "Letters from an American Farmer."

Paine was a man of politics and given the title of his writing, common sense concerning the affairs of the world. While, John de Crevecouer's writings, on the other hand, in general, seem at times tainted with an almost patronizing quality. His writings seem elaborate, sentimental, flowery, and lacking the spark of realism that Paine creates.

Perhaps Paine's most famous quote is "Society in every state is a blessing, but government even in its best state is but a necessary evil, in its worst state an intolerable one" (Paine pp). Paine did not sugarcoat his sentiments. He presents a clear understanding of the affairs of the world in his essay. He does not paint colonial life as a utopian society, however, John de Crevecouer depicts colonial life as an almost communal society, all striving for the same ideals, when in truth, there were a myriad of factions, political and religious. John de Crevecouer writes, "We are all animated with the spirit of an industry which is unfettered and unrestrained, because each person works for himself" (Crevecouer 67). As Paine says, "for when we suffer, or are exposed to the same miseries by a government, which we might expect in a country without government, our calamities is heightened by reflecting that we furnish the means by which we suffer" (Paine pp).

John de Crevecouer writes, "Here are no aristocratical families, no courts, no kings, no bishops, no ecclesiastical dominion, no invisible power giving to a few a very visible one; no great manufacturers employing thousands, no great refinements of luxury" (Crevecouer 67). He also comments on the fact that the rich and poor are not as distant in status as the two classes are in Europe. John de Crevecouer goes on to describe Americans as a people of cultivators who communicate by means of "good roads and navigable rivers, united by the silken bands of mild government, all respecting the laws, without dreading their power, because they are equitable" (Crevecouer 67). Again, his writing creates a society that appears almost too utopian, too idealistic, and even says, "we are the most perfect society now existing in the world" (Crevecouer 68). Even religion is painted as ideal, "a congregation of respectable… [read more]

American Government Question One (Interest Groups) Term Paper

Term Paper  |  17 pages (5,843 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


American Government

QUESTION ONE (Interest Groups): There are a number of political experts and observers who believe interest groups - or, according to Democracy Under Pressure (Cummings, 224-241), also called the "power elite" - in reality are the forces that make public policy at the federal level. And so, with this system entrenched, it will not be easy to change… [read more]

Liberalism as an Ideology Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (2,057 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


This is largely due to the fact that, in line with the ethos of freedom, liberal thought emphasizes free trade and economic exchange with the minimum of governmental interference.

In an economic context this means that the marketplace should not come under the control of any individual or group, but should be allowed to adjust itself naturally to bring supply and demand into equilibrium. Only minimal interference is needed by governments in enforcing basic rules of conduct for the general welfare, such as respect for individuals and contracts. To protect the market, the state should promote competition, prevent monopolies, and promote consumer information. By enforcing these rules, governments make spontaneous order possible.

(Jackson and Jackson 1997, p.175)

The later development of reformed liberalism led to the modern ideologies of liberalism, which allowed for the democratic principles of mass participation. This differed for the earlier classical mould of liberalism, where the emphasis was on government by the propertied classes as the decision makers. (Jackson and Jackson 1997, p.158)

Another foundation of modern liberalism is the extension of the meaning of political freedom where it is not seen only as the freedom from coercion, but also as the freedom of the " positive power or capacity of doing or enjoying something worthwhile" ( ibid) This ideology of personal freedom has led to the justification of the welfare state.


Throughout the history of the liberal ideology, as this brief discussion indicates, the freedom and autonomy of the individual was emphasized as the central facet of political government and liberal policy. While there are a number of different viewpoints on how this should be achieved in liberal thought, the central impetus in this ideology is towards the best balance between freedom and political order. It is this motivation and drive towards the expression of freedom, on both an individual and social level, that has ensured that the ideology of liberalism has emerged as the most effective and acceptable political philosophy.


Ashby, W. 1997, A Comprehensive History of Western Ethics: What Do We Believe? (W. A. Ashby, Ed.). Amherst, NY: Prometheus Books.

Avnon, D. & De-Shalit, A. (Eds.). 1999, Liberalism and Its Practice. London: Routledge.

Baum, Bruce. 1998, J.S. Mill on Freedom and Power." Polity 31.2 pp.187.

Christman, J. 2001, Liberalism, Autonomy and Self-Transformation. Social Theory and Practice, 27(2), 185.

Freeden, M. 1986, Liberalism Divided: A Study in British Political Thought,1914-1939. Oxford: Oxford University.

Hall, J.A. 1988, Liberalism: Politics, Ideology, and the Market. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press.

Hayek F.A. 1978, Liberalism. [Internet] Available from: http://www.angelfire.com/rebellion/oldwhig4ever/intro.html [ Accessed 15 may 2005]

Jackson J. And Jackson D, 1997, A Comparative introduction to Political Science, Prentice hall: New Jersey

John Stuart Mill's "On Liberty." [Internet] Available from: http://faculty.washington.edu/himma/bls308/lect4.htm [ Accessed 15 may 2005]

Kerlinger, F.N. 1984, Liberalism and Conservatism: The Nature and Structure of Social Attitudes. Hillsdale, NJ: L. Erlbaum Associates.

Mattson, K. (2004). Christopher Lasch and the Possibilities of Chastened Liberalism. Polity, 36(3), 411+. Retrieved May 17, 2005, from Questia database,… [read more]

Three Branches of Government Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (747 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Branches of Government

The three branches of government are the Executive, the Legislative and the Judiciary. Considerable debate has lingered in the political and legal circles as well as American history as to which of these branches is assigned the most powers. On the surface, all three appear equally powerful with one dominating the other on some occasions maintaining a proper system of checks and balances. The framers of the Constitution wanted to create a system where each branch of government would keep a watchful eye over the others in order to prevent any abuse or misuse of powers. Hamilton explained in the Federalist Paper # 23:

The principal purposes to be answered by union are these: the common defense of the members; the preservation of the public peace, as well against internal convulsions as external attacks; the regulation of commerce with other nations and between the States; the superintendence of our intercourse, political and commercial, with foreign countries."

It appears that Executive is the most powerful branch of our government. This is primarily because of the misinterpretation of some of the powers granted to the President and secondly because the courts have often supported these misinterpretations. While the Constitution was framed in such a way as to assign equal or almost equal powers to all branches, the provision in Article II, Section 1 which states that executive power shall be rested in the President has turned the balance in Executive's favor. It is believed that since the President is part of the Executive and he actually makes all the decisions, thus Executive is by far the most powerful branch.

Article II, Section 2 and 3 clearly state the powers granted to the President which are not as ambiguous as they have become in recent times. The reason why President has been able to exercise greater influence over the decision making process than any other branch is because of that precise provision in Article II, Section 1 that gives him all executive powers. This must be made clear here that framers of the constitution did not believe in the same definition of executive power as we do today. For them 'executive power' referred to set of limited powers granted to the President and…… [read more]

Government Do We Dare Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (870 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


She was a burden to him, nothing more, and he was able to convince the state to have her killed by starvation. A Harvard student, who suffers from cerebral palsy, writes that he fears for his own life: "This disrespect is the devaluation of lives of people like Terri Schiavo. In the Schiavo case and others like it, non-disabled decision makers assert that the disabled person should die ... we have arrived at the point where we starve people to death because he or she cannot communicate their experiences to us. What is this but sheer egotism" (Ford) The government's willingness to let people die is evidenced as well by the fact that evidence strongly suggests Bush knew about the September 11th attacks before they occured and allowed them in order to justify wars against Afghanistan and Iraq which were already on the drawing board. "Several cases from recent years have come to light in which FBI agents complained of being held back by superiors from investigating Islamic extremist groups. In each instance, it was alleged that high-ranking officials acted out of concern that these inquiries could lead back to America's closest Arab ally: Saudi Arabia." (Ackerman) This guilt is so obvious that even people in Europe are commenting on it: "The U.S. goal is...world hegemony, built around securing by force command over the oil supplies... this Pax Americana... provides a much better explanation of what actually happened before, during and after 9/11 than the global war on terrorism thesis" (MacAskill)

Murder and profiteering aren't the only reasons why one shouldn't trust the government. Currently crimes in rural counties are sky-rocketing, and nothing productive is being done. Poverty is the most likely cause, and yet little is done to ease poverty of Americans. Frustration with the government itself is also part of the proble, "both major political parties walked away from the problems of rural America. People there felt alienated, they had no voice in the political process." (Davidson) In fact, much is being done to worsen such poverty. The government is actually talking about making it worse by dismantling social security. "The reason Social Security was created in the first place was due to the Great Depression and the inability of the free market to correct itself. . . privatization requires its own costs and risks and rarely helps the people who need social security the most: the poor." (The Daily Campus)

So why should we trust the government? Well, to start with, because if we do trust… [read more]

Three Branches of Government Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,148 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … Branches of Government

An Analysis of the Three Branches of U.S. Federal Government Today

According to one observer, considerable debate has lingered within the field of political science as to which of the three branches of American government is the most powerful or influential. To answer this question, this paper provides a review of how the Founding Fathers envisioned the hierarchy of power for each of the branches, following by a personal assessment of which branch has emerged as the most powerful and influential branch of American government today together with the supporting rationale. A summary of the research will be provided in the conclusion.

According to Black's Law Dictionary (1990), checks and balances are an "arrangement of government powers whereby powers of one governmental branch check or balance those of other branches" (238). This separation of powers, of course, has been a fundamental feature of the American federal government from the outset, but the intent, purpose and net effect of this approach has not been exactly what the Founders may have envisioned. When the nation's Founders gathered to forge a constitution, Goldwin and Schambra (1980) suggest that the checks and balances provisions that were adopted were not intended to keep the forces of government under control, but were rather intended to keep the popular majority from exercising any substantive degree of influence over its operation. "In keeping with their desire to contain the majority," the authors say, "the founders inserted 'auxiliary precautions' that were designed to fragment power without democratizing it" (46). By keeping the three branches of the federal government (the executive, legislative, and judiciary functions) separate and by providing a system of checks and balances among the various branches (including staggered elections, executive veto, Senate confirmation of appointments and ratification of treaties, and a bicameral legislature), these delegates intended to diminish the impact of popular will. "They also contrived an elaborate and difficult process for amending the Constitution," Goldwin and Schambra add, "To the extent that it existed at all, the majoritarian principle was tightly locked into a system of minority vetoes, making sweeping popular actions nearly impossible" (46). Despite these early intentions at keeping the popular will at bay, much has changed over the years and today, the system of checks and balances serves to address the respective roles, responsibilities, and relationships among these three branches of the federal government (Clark, Gardner, Grace et al., 63); the current system of checks and balances also provides protections for the citizens of the country from the inordinate and arbitrary exercise of a branch of government rather than the other way around (Jasper 27).

For example, in his essay, "The Continued Need for the Prerogative Presidency," Martin S. Sheffer (2002) points out that, "It has been more than a quarter-century since the Congress enacted the War Powers Act, the National Emergencies Act, and an additional half-dozen or so pieces of legislation to effectively end a constitutional crisis and simultaneously apply long-overdue constraints to the 'runaway' or 'imperial'… [read more]

21st Century American 'Democracy Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (642 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


What made these early Americans so different from 21st century ones was (1) the relatively tiny size and homogeneity of their group, and (2) their commitment to a single common cause (Tocqueville). Further, John Winthrop's "A Model of Christian Charity" (1630), originally delivered as a sermon onboard the Arbella bound for the New World, suggests how "every man might have need of the other, and from hence they might all be knit more nearly together in the bonds of brotherly affection" (p. 215). However, as America has expanded over time and space, individual citizens have become more distant from and indifferent toward one another; more spread out geographically, and perhaps too autonomous, to the point of near total self-interest.

Moreover, all of that was accurately predicted by Tocqueville (Democracy in America). Politics, then, the raw material of democracy (or any form of government) is today in America, not only remote, distasteful, and unfathomable to the average citizen; it is personally irrelevant as well, a fact that then allows special interest groups to thrive, and politicians who pander to them to be elected and re-elected, to the equivalents of lifetime terms in office (consider Strom Thurmond). Our Founding Fathers considered political office only a part-time civic duty, from which a person would then return to a previous profession or trade, not as a permanent job. Because of America's size; its lack of anymore common threads that bind all Americans together; corporate greed and zealous selfishness by special interest groups, a lack of term limits for politicians, voter mistrust, and voter apathy, America of the 21st century possesses only a pseudo-democracy, a.k.a. 'the best government that money can buy'.

Works Cited

"Democracy." Webster's New American Dictionary. New York: Merriam-

Webster, 1995, p. 138.

Tocqueville, Alexis de. Democracy in America. New York: Signet, September

2001. 42-43.

Winthrop, John. "A Model of Christian Charity." The Norton Anthology of American…… [read more]

Max Weber in "Politics as a Vocation Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (390 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Max Weber

In "Politics as a Vocation," Max Weber frames politics as a function of the state, and thereby defines the state as that social organization that has the unique right to use physical force or violence. The first portion of his lecture is devoted to illustrating how and why the state should be defined in terms of its command over the "legitimate," or legal, use of physical force over the populace. Therefore, Weber does not frame politics or statehood primarily in terms of economic or legal powers but basic physical power. In other words, political power automatically entails physical power and political control is wielded through physical control.

Next, Weber describes what he calls the "legitimations of domination," including patriarchal tradition, charisma, and legal authority. Politicians can secure their power through any of these means. Weber also shows how politicians can either "live for" politics or "live off" politics as a vocational choice. The author also calls the political life a "calling."

Then, Weber describes in details the ways in which political bureaucracies function in the modern world, using several examples from Western and Eastern societies to illustrate his points. Weber also points out…… [read more]

Government Constitution Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (644 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


States also have authority reserved to them. This separation of powers does overlap and from time to time leads to problems which then have to be resolved according to the other components of the Constitution (Kelly, 2012).

What is public policy? Explain. What purpose does it serve?

Public policy manifests the general sense and universal conscience of the citizens as a total that extends throughout the state and is applied to matters of public well-being, security, and welfare. It is universal, well-settled public opinion relating to the responsibilities of citizens to their fellow citizens. It brings in something that varies with the changing economic needs, social customs, and moral ambitions of the people. Public policy enters into, and influences, the performance, implementation, and understanding of legislation (What Is Public Policy, 2012).

Public Policy is the implementation framework under which governmental and non-governmental organizations work to determine one or more social, financial or political issues of a society. It defines the roles and responsibilities of a variety of agents in the system and the share and allocation of resources to decide the issues. It is significant because its consequences proliferate through the total cross section of the society directly or indirectly. The policies take the shape of providing incentives that support certain behavior over another or disincentives to dampen particular actions. The significance of public policy can also be stressed in terms of the scale and cost of its implementation which makes any changes to be made in the latter stage extremely expensive and therefore it is fundamental to provide maximum effort and resource in its design.


Features of the Constitution. (2008). Retrieved from http://www.thisnation.com/textbook/constitution-features.html

Kelly, M. (2012). Overview of United States Government and Politics. Retreived from http://americanhistory.about.com/od/governmentandpolitics/a/amgovoverview.htm

What Is Public Policy? (2012). Retrieved from http://www.wisegeek.com/what-is-public-policy.htm… [read more]

Democratic and Republican Parties Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (603 words)
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For example, the recent Libertarian presidential candidate Ron Paul argued that the federal government should not intervene in the private lives of Americans, except to forbid abortions. Given that he has a substantial following, it seems likely that many people are not bothered by such a contradiction.

American public opinion is generally not well informed as can be seen by the fact that so many people are happy to embrace clearly dishonest claims, such as the "birther" claims or the belief that loose gun-regulation laws make society safer.

Essay Three

Two ongoing sources of conflict among American political ideals are the role of the federal government in the regulation of behavior. For example, the last two years have seen scores of laws introduced (with many enacted) that limit the access of women to family planning. This conflicts with the powerful idea that Americans are a free people. Another conflict currently being played out is the one between the idea that anyone can become rich and the backlash against the one percent (including Mitt Romney) who seem to be playing by a set of rules that benefits only them. Romney's ascendency suggests that there is in fact a liberal elite that runs the country; however, there are incursions of populism such as the Civil Rights Movement and the Tea Party.

Americans vote at lower rates because the country is so much larger than European nations that it is harder to create a sense of national purpose and identity; because European nations have parliamentary systems that allow for more nuanced political debates, allowing more people the chance to feel that there voices are heard; and because Europeans, having in many cases a less divisive and more functional government, are not as alienated…… [read more]

Internet and Politics Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (631 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Internet and Politics

What challenges does the internet present to the authoritarian rule?

The Internet is a direct threat to authoritarian rule. This is occurring through the rapid spread of this technology to different regions around the globe. During times of oppressive activities by these regimes, communication is often cut off to various regions. The focus of the government is to brutally crackdown on dissent and opposition. This means that they must prevent any kind of communication with the outside world. Once this occurs, is the point that the government can conduct operations which are targeting these groups (with little to no international interference). (Gold, 2011) ("Syrian Diplomats defects," 2012) ("Can Social Networking Overthrow a Government," 2011)

The Internet is a threat to these regimes by allowing graphic images to be released. This is when the activities of the government will face greater amounts of scrutiny. Moreover, this medium is used by the opposition to organize and coordinate activities. For authoritarian regimes, this is challenging their authority by giving other groups the ability to question their legitimacy and policies enacted. (Gold, 2011) ("Syrian Diplomats defects," 2012) ("Can Social Networking Overthrow a Government," 2011)

What are the ways that the internet challenges political authority in non-democratic or quasi-democratic countries?

The Internet has directly challenged the political authority in authoritarian nations. A good example of this can be seen by looking no further than the events that were occurring in Syria and Libya. In the case of Syria, this is occurring through different images that are posted on Facebook and You Tube. Since the uprising began in 2011, these images were used to rally and strengthen the opposition. It has also provided direct evidence of the atrocities that are being committed by the government (which has resulted in a series of sanctions against the Assad regime). This has led to a large number of high profile defections…… [read more]

Reaganomics or Voodoo Economics Helped Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (544 words)
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William F. Buckley, the founder and editor of the National Review, is a clear manifestation to this. He clearly articulated the ideals of conservatives even before the 1980's. The writer's assertion that Reagan's ascendancy to power and presidency made the conservatives to clearly and vocally express their views is very true. President Reagan gave voice to the opinions of the vast majority of Americans with the Bully Pulpit of the American presidency. Reagan was a great communicator. This is evidenced in the way he defined conservatism. He asserted that the heart and soul of conservatism is libertarianism and the basis of conservatism is a desire for less government interference. This made him connect easily with the ordinary citizens.

The goals and values of conservative movement like the rule of law, fiscal conservatism, limited government intervention, individual responsibility, strong family values, and attention to the core values of Judeo-Christian Ethics, as the writer puts, can be summarized into overall reduction of taxation, the policy of rolling back communism, strengthening family values, and enhancing conservative Christian morality.

When Reagan ascended to the presidency, politicians began courting the powerful Christian right for their votes because they were capable of articulating their desires, a departure from the past when they were shouted down by less than shy liberals. This made the conservatives a significant force in the American politics as the writer notes. Issues relating to family values and pro-life positions were openly talked about. It is…… [read more]

Aristotle and Plato's View of Slavery Essay

Essay  |  6 pages (2,185 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+


Slavery for Plato and Aristotle

In the Ancient Mediterranean cultures, the institution of slavery took on a number of meanings. It could mean debt-slavery, or as a punishment for a crime; or enslavement of prisoners of war. Primarily, slavery was designed as an economic way to work agriculture or household duties. In the Roman Empire, for instance, slavery was such… [read more]

Dillon's Rule: Help or Hindrance? Research Paper

Research Paper  |  5 pages (2,178 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10



This remark lucidly demonstrates the implications of keeping Dillon's Rule: communities would suffer from having an antiquated form of legislation regulating their actions. Society has progressed in leaps and bounds: it is no longer the 1800s. This was a type of legislation that was drafted when people were still relying on the horse and carriage as their main means of transportation. The implications of keeping this form of legislation are dire as they represent a constriction of values and possibilities for communities, not to mention further contention and debate between state and local governments.

The implications of repealing Dillon's Rule are more promising. While supporters of Dillon's rule might feel that such an act would allow corruption to seep in, that's simply an overly simplistic way of looking at the scenario. Corruption will flourish in politics if people allow it. In fact, in this day and age when mass media is at its finest and more people are educated as to the basics and nuances of politics and there's a high level of transparency, there's a greater opportunity of local government by for and of the people, something which Dillon's Rule is essentially preventing via its restriction and narrowness.


While many of the laws which govern this country are originate from hundreds of years ago, this doesn't necessarily mean that the bulk of our laws should originate from hundreds of years ago. Legislation needs to adapt with the changing times and the failure to allow it to do is taken out on the people. When cities refuse to acknowledge how a vintage law is narrowing the possibilities and effectiveness of local governments simply out of a fear for corruption, those communities are setting their citizens up to have a lower quality of life. Ultimately, communities need to begin in abolishing Dillon's Rule.


Boulter, D. The Dillon Rule and Fairfax County. Accessed November 14, 2012.

Retrieved from http://www.dougboulter.com/policy/dillon.html

Fauntroy, M.K. Home Rule or House Rule? Lanham: University Press of America, 2003

Gargan, J.J. Handbook of Local Government Administration. New York: Marcel Dekker

Press, 1997.

"Home rule presents advantages, drawbacks" accessed November 14, 2012, retrieved from: http://www.opb.org/news/article/home_rule_presents_advantages_drawbacks/

League of Women Voters. Dillon's Rule: Bad or Good for Local Governments? Fairfax

Area Education Fund, 2004.

Marx, P. We the People: Your Constitution in Action. Culver City: Good Year Books,


Nowlan, J.D. et al. Illinois Politics: A Citizens Guide. Chicago: University of Illinois

Press 2010.

Sembor, E.C. An Introduction to Connecticut State and Local Government. Lanham:

University Press of America, 2003.

68 Virginia L. Rev. 693 (1982) Accessed November 14, 2012. Retrieved from http://heinonline.org/HOL/LandingPage?collection=journals&handle=hein.



What is Municipal Home Rule?" accessed November, 14, 2012 retrieved from http://www.celdf.org/article.php?list=type&type=147

Pamela Marx. We the People: Your Constitution in Action. (Culver City: Good Year Books, 2001) 18.

John J. Gargan. Handbook of Local Government Administration. (New York: Marcel Dekker Press, 1997) 34.


John J. Gargan. Handbook of Local Government Administration. (New York: Marcel Dekker Press, 1997) 35.

Edward C. Sembor. An Introduction… [read more]

Governments Should Limit Their Interference Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (650 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


When the state allows bad banks to fail, the entire system receives that market feedback and responds according, managing assets more efficiently.

A counterargument is that government intervention in markets can guide those markets towards superior results. Joseph Stiglitz (1996) cites East Asia's so-called tiger economies as an example of state intervention that guides economic growth rather than hinders it. However, Krueger (1990) notes that government intervention in development often has the opposite effect. Highly distortive policies are common, examples being neglect of key infrastructure, credit rationing and restrictive trade policies. Government intervention, then, can only spur economic growth when it is intervention of the right type. That brings us back to the points about corruption and centralization. Most government intervention is unfortunately driven by the desire to control resources, and to allocate those resources to those with access to government figures. This unfortunately reality -- a human failing -- highlights why the market and not government should be relied upon to allocate resources.

It is a shame that voters in America only face a binary choice with respect to the role of government in the economy. Government interventions only distort market signals, creating perverse incentives and adverse outcomes. Removing corruption and poor policy choices frees up resources to be used more efficiently that when the whims of government officials dictate their usage. When people are free from such interference, economic growth is the natural consequence.

Works Cited:

Ehrlich, I. & Lui, F. (1999) Bureaucratic growth and endogenous economic growth. Journal of Political Economy. Vol. 107 (6) 270-293.

Krueger, A. (1990). Government failures in development. NBER Working Paper #3340. Retrieved November 16, 2012 from http://www.nber.org/papers/w3340.pdf

Manor, J. (1999). The political economy of democratic decentralization. The World Bank. Retrieved November 16, 2012 from http://elibrary.worldbank.org/content/book/9780821344705

Qian, Y. & Weingast, B. (1999). Federalism as a commitment to preserving market incentives. Journal of Economic Perspectives. Vol 11 (4) 83-92.

Stiglitz, J. (1996). Some lessons from the East…… [read more]

Dance Political Dances the Body Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (931 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0



Political Dances

The body is used as propaganda in politics by having it physically assert and demonstrate the values that a particular political regime embraces. In this respect, there are several different values that the human body is used to translate. In some cultures, such as that found in Ghana during the early part of the 15th century, the physical aesthetic of composure, confidence, and cool is demonstrated by dancers who strive to exude this sort of sentiment no matter how upbeat, colorful, or exhilarating the dance happens to be. In many respects, these same virtues are required to progress through the political system in place, which is a primarily pyramidal in nature with the king figured most prominently, and lesser rulers following him.

Some of the European dances, such as ballet, appear to be overtly political. The degree of angularity that these dances require, with very tailored, specific movements, seem to reinforce the notion that people must ideally stay in their place and follow order. Such order, of course, is usually found in the royal court, which is where much of the ballet during the time of Catherine de Medici and Louis XIV took place. Again, it is noteworthy to mention that following such order was the way in which nobles could hope to advance in political rank and clout. The refinement of the movements in Catherine de Medici's ballets helped to convey a staid sensibility that was overtly political. This fact is particularly true in view of the fact that oftentimes these dances would be performed by the nobility for other nobles. Therefore, the political agenda of rulers, (both Catherine and Louis) were effectively transmitted to the right people.

The political use of dance that appeared the most impactful of the many reviewed for discussion in this document is the Japanese Bugaku. One of the principle reasons why this dance creates such a lasting impression is due to the fact that it appears to take the values exemplified by the other types of dances, both European and African, and magnifies it. One of the points regarding Bugaku that I think is significant is the fact that it represents most empires in the sense that it incorporates aspects of outside cultures and effectively appropriates them. A good example of this aspect of the dance is the fact that it incorporates elements of Buddhism into the religion that was endemic to Japan, Shintoism. Also, it is significant to note that this dance is indicative of several different cultural facets of Japan. Japan has historically been a patriarchal society. As such, the only practitioners of Bugaku are men, which is representative of the fact that men have run the country for years.

Additionally, all of the restrain and composure that is denoted in African and…… [read more]

World Order Soft Power Non-State Actors Marxism and Constructivism Future Hypothetical System Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (2,144 words)
Bibliography Sources: 9


Globalization, soft power, NGOs, and world order

Soft Power

What is a soft power?

Soft power is a concept that describes the ways and means that a particular nation uses in persuading other nations to accept her policies. A nation that uses soft power may uses things like cooperative programs and financial aids in attracting other nations. The nation considers… [read more]

Education and Politics (Iqbal, Azam, &amp Abiodullah Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (980 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Education and Politics

(Iqbal, Azam, & Abiodullah, 2009) (Berry, 2008) (Stiggins, 2008)

The interaction between politics and education

Institutions are a critical part of the social structure. They work in combination and individually to reproduce the social structure. Two of the most dominant institutions in society are education and politics. The relationship between the two is not necessarily reciprocal but rather hierarchal and symbiotic. The educational institutions through schools, universities, and other institutes of learning reproduce the values and norms that reinforce the political system of a country. Both systems are necessary an understanding of their interaction however is dependent on the theoretical perspective that is applied to assess the existing system. Interestingly however there is a competing view that considers education as a "liberal force" (Carnoy 1975). The understanding is that it challenges the dominant systems and creates change.

An institution is a structure or mechanism of social order (Searle 2005). Institutions are the result of patterned ordered behavior over an extensive period of time. The construction and function of institutions differ based on the perspective that is adopted by the analyst. The functionalist perspective considers institutions not only as necessary parts of society but as social constructions that assist in producing and maintaining order. Institutions tend to reinforce the status quo and tend towards conservative action. The emergent nature of institutions suggests that there is no conscious individual action that results in institutions but they are the product of society as a general form.

Russell (1916) posited that education was a political institution (Para 2). This view suggests that educational institutions do not exist aimlessly but they are directed toward specific goals. The impartation of knowledge through educational institutions is a political process as that knowledge is designed to affect the norms and values of the individuals who participate in the political process. Education consequently is a conservative system that will reproduce the types of political systems within a country (Myer 1977).

In a democratic society the educational systems will reinforce the value of democracy. This reinforcing is accomplished through a complex system of teaching, and norms and values transfer. This suggests that education will give predominance to a democratic system as compared to other political systems. This could include presenting democracy as a better system and teaching democratic values to students in the classroom. There is often a thin line between the teaching of values and the creation of a system of propaganda. In many countries educational systems are used to present ideas that are incorrect.

In democratic countries there is a dominance of the idea of freedom and individual responsibility. Freedom is given preeminence over any kind of collectivist notions. Freedom and American "exceptionalism" is a dominant theme within the American educational system. The converse occurs in socialist countries where they would give support to collectivist notions. This practice by governments to use the educational systems to advance their agendas is a form of social control.…… [read more]

Warrantless Use of GPS Research Paper

Research Paper  |  10 pages (3,202 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


Katzin was then arrested, charged, and convicted. In the appeals, the government argued the GPS device did not require a warrant because it represented "only a minimal intrusion on a vehicle…no part of the vehicle is penetrated…Installation takes a matter of moments, and is much less intrusive than the typical stop and frisk of a person" (Gosztola, 2013). In this… [read more]

Party Machines and Immigrants Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,659 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


2). Helping politicians get elected and stay in office is part of what big city bosses did in the past, and in this area little has changed as well. For instance, Hamilton adds that, "[Lopez] had a lot of control over nominations and in Brooklyn -- in most of Brooklyn still today -- if you get the Democratic nomination that is tantamount to election. As a result, he had a lot of influence over elected officials" (para. 2). As an example of his significant political clout, Hamilton cites the election of Christine Quinn to the position of council speaker due to the intervention and support of Lopez in 2005. According to Hamilton, "Lopez was one of the leaders that supported Quinn, and he leaned on council members in his borough to support her. The strategy ultimately succeeded, in large part, because of the role the county leaders like Lopez played" (2012, para. 3).


The research showed that party machines headed by Frank Hague, William "Boss" Tweed, Abraham Reuf, George Cox, Richard Daley and to a lesser extent, Vito Lopez, have largely controlled how candidates are vetted and elected in many major American cities and even states. By currying the vote of newly arrived immigrants, early 20th century bosses such as "Boss" Tweed were able to run things behind the scenes and keep their cohorts in office despite the blatant nature of their criminal activities. Although these activities were rampant during the early 20th century in the United States and big city bosses no longer run the show, the research suggests that one hand still washes another in many political circles in the country to this day.


Hamilton, C. (2012, September 4). County party chair remains powerful, if poorly understood, position. WNYC News Blog. Retrieved from http://www.wnyc.org/blogs/wnyc-news-blog/2012/sep/04/powerful-poorly-understood-county-party-chair-seat-have/.

Howe, F.C. (1915). The modern city and its problems. Chicago: C. Scribner's Sons.

Judd, D.E. & Swanstrom, T.R. (2012). City politics. Pearson.

Luthins, R.H. & Nevins, A. (1954). American demagogues: Twentieth century. Boston: Beacon


Miraldi, R. (2000). The muckrakers: Evangelical crusaders. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers.

Saetre, L. & Patrizia, L. (2010). Exploring textual action. Aarhus,…… [read more]

Model of Representation Trustee and Delegate Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (2,153 words)
Bibliography Sources: 7


¶ … agents, elected officials usually try to represent the people (as their primary principle) through models of trustee and/or delegate representation. However, the task of balancing the two models of representation is very challenging because they are competing visions of representation. One of the main incentives of political leaders is to reflect the interests of their constituents because of… [read more]

Tudor Dynasty Essay

Essay  |  7 pages (2,240 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


¶ … Tudor dynasty was arguably one of the most eventful and consequential in the history of England. It spanned from the final decades of the 15th century to the first couple years of the 17th century. During this time period, the dynasty produced substantial effects on the three primary areas of English life: religion, economics, and politics -- all… [read more]

Power in America Who Holds Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (847 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Power in America

Who Holds the Power in America?

With the ratification of the Constitution, the United States of America was established as a Federal Republic. A Republic is a Democratic form of government in the people elect representatives to create government policy that reflects their will. Because the United States contains several independent territories, called "States," which retain a certain amount number of individual rights, there is a system of power sharing between the states and the national government called Federalism. In this way America is a Federal Republic where the power to elect those who would make public policy lies with the electorate. If one considers the policies that the federal government establishes, and the ability to pass legislation that would establish those policies, then the real power in America lies with those who are best able to organize political organizations that can bring about electoral success for those who will implement the policies favored by those organizations.

In the United States, one effect of the system of Federalism is that individual states can implement public policy that is supported by the majority of its citizens. However, the system of Federalism also guarantees that that majority cannot impose its will upon the minority by reserving powers to decide constitutionality within the federal apparatus. That means that the Federal Government ultimately can decide what is legal and what is not within a state. And even though the Constitution also guarantees certain powers to the states, the power to decide constitutionality tips the balance of power in the system in favor of the federal government. Therefore if one truly wants to influence public policy, then using the federal government is best means because its decisions must be implemented throughout the nation and not just in individual states.

Because the people's will is supposed to be implemented as governmental policy, there must be some sort of process by which the will of the people can be transmitted to those holding governmental offices. This policy making system is dependent upon a number of linkage institutions, such as "parties, elections, interest groups, and the media-[which] transmit Americans' preferences to the policymakers in government. " (Edwards, 2010, p 10) These organizations influence the policy making institutions created by the Constitution and in place to implement the various types of policies. But the relationship between the various linkage institutions, which is important in the implementation of public policy, is very complex.

There are three main theories on how the electorate can influence government policy: pluralism, elitism, hyper-pluralism. While…… [read more]

Campaign Finance Spending You Decide Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (663 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


The Court decision flies in the face of common sense: "If the court believes that the government may limit a $3,000 contribution to a candidate because of its corruptive potential, how could it not believe that the government has a similar anticorruption interest in limiting $3 million spent in an independent effort to elect that candidate? Would a federal candidate not feel much more beholden to the big spender than the more modest contributor?" (Hasen 2011). In other words, the decision merely serves to empower shadowy organizations not specifically affiliated with the candidate that may be even more ideologically rigid than the person they are trying to elect.

The Citizens United decision immediately fueled the creation of what became known as 'Super PACs' or political action committees that were specifically created to donate unlimited funds to outside groups not specifically affiliated with a candidate (Cordes 2011). This means that a Super PAC can donate unlimited funds to a group known as 'Citizens for the American Way' to lobby against a Democratic incumbent, while the incumbent's supporters can donate unlimited funds to a group known as 'Friends of Senator X.' Thus, Citizens United seems to place a substantial legal roadblock in the way of creating meaningful campaign finance reform. In a relatively short span of time, it changed the American political landscape of financing and its effects are likely to grow in magnitude in coming years.


Cordes, N. (20). Colbert gets a Super PAC. CBS. Retrieved:


Gitell, S. (2003). Making sense of McCain-Feingold. The Atlantic. Retrieved:


Hasen, R. (2010). Super-soft money. Slate. Retrieved:


Sullivan, K & Terrance, A. (2010).Summary of Citizen's United.

Retrieved: http://www.cga.ct.gov/2010/rpt/2010-R-0124.htm… [read more]

Institutions and International Relations Question Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (2,246 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


Institutions and International Relations Question Set

How do institutions help states to overcome the barriers to cooperation? You answer should draw most heavily from Sterling-Folker's essay, although Ikenberry provides important insights, too.

In her essay on the barriers to cooperation that limit effective communication between state actors within the international arena, Jennifer Sterling-Folker posits that three primary types of barriers… [read more]

Orwell George Orwell 1984 Eerie Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,393 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


This suggests a frighteningly pliable nature of the human mind, when it is brought up from cradle to grave to believe certain ideas. Corporations are even accorded the legal status of 'people' in current American society and can support political candidates. 1984 suggests that bureaucratic institutions are so overwhelming they can change language and create new false 'truths' -- and corporations are not necessarily different than the government in their ability to do so.

Within our own society, thanks to the expansion of social media, we are also seeing a shift in the way in which privacy is redefined which is fundamentally not orchestrated by the government. Although arguably since the passage of the Homeland Security Act after the attacks of 9/11, the federal government has been more aggressive in monitoring the actions of every citizen, what is even more surprising is the extent to which people are willing to share their lives voluntarily on Facebook, YouTube, and Twitter. In doing so, they enable companies to more accurately monitor their buying behaviors in a Big Brother fashion. This can be seen every time you go online shopping -- compare the prices of a few pairs of shoes, and ads for the shoes will 'follow' you around the web, clearly showing a kind of 'intelligence' in how one's behavior is being monitored.

In contrast to the citizens of 1984, consumers are willing to make all aspects of their private lives public, presumably to gain a sense of social connection with others. In 1984, true sociability, such as what exists between Winston and Julia, is shown to exist in private, but today unless something is proclaimed on Facebook, there is a question as to whether it is truly relevant. (There is a jokey meme which reads: 'that workout was pointless because I forgot to include it in my status update'). Despite the fact that it could be potentially dangerous to 'check in' with Foursquare that you were dining at a Starbucks on 5th Avenue, if someone was stalking you or wondering if your apartment was unoccupied, or the fact that potential employers can check your Facebook profile picture to see who your friends are and what you like to do in your spare time, people continue to expose themselves, with no specific outside prompting. In 1984, Winston Smith is fighting for a private life, but today people seem to be fighting to give theirs up. Through the use of language, images, and automatic monitoring of our behaviors through voluntarily chosen technology like an iPhone, there is no need for corporations to try very hard to monitor us.

Identity is very pliable in the new online world -- just as Emmanuel Goldstein becomes a demon when at once he was a saint, negative information can spread very quickly today. The pliability of information in the virtual age and the ease with which we can delete information would also be envied by those in control over the society depicted in 1984. Smith has a… [read more]

American Government Response Summarizing Reaction Paper

Reaction Paper  |  3 pages (984 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


In fact, many of the duties that had once been the responsibility of Congress have been transferred to agencies within the Executive Branch. People may not like the bureaucracy because of the viewpoint that this system does not get things done effectively, but the text explains that this is the best possible system given the type of government we have and the many responsibilities of the different agencies.

Reaction to the Readings:

The Bureaucracy is a very complicated entity and the subject of a great deal of confusion on behalf of the American people. People, on the whole, do not like the bureaucracy. Many American complain that it is the bureaucracy which is negatively impacting the country and making it impossible for politicians to get anything done. To some degree these concerns are valid, but it also oversimplifies the issue. In a representative government, the American people vote for individuals to perform the actions of running the country because it would not be possible for all the people of the country to participate in the governance all the time and still have the ability to perform the other tasks necessary to daily life. Not everyone can have politician as their profession. In this same vein, it is not possible in this large society for elected officials to carry out all the government's tasks. Some people need to perform the duties related to education and others have to spend their time working on funding, regulating, and organizing the American military. No one can be in two places at once and therefore people have to be assigned to departments on which they can focus and make sure everything that needs to be done is taken care of. Because of this reality, the bureaucracy is a necessary and unavoidable entity in the United States today.

However, the amount of power that some of the bureaucratic departments has acquired in the nation is unquestionably something of a problem. The military is one of the groups that people point to when they talk about the bureaucracy and unchecked levels of power. America's military has a great deal of money given to them every year. They comprise a good sized chunk of the American budget. Unfortunately, they are also such a large entity that their complete workings are unknown to most people including those involved in the governance of the country. Such a great deal of power and the knowledge that actions will largely go unchecked breeds corruption. When there is a large amount of money going around and people performing tasks without any kind of review, it is likely that they will use the opportunity for self-interested reasons rather than doing their duty to the American public.

Works Cited:

"The Executive Branch." 204-28.

Wilson, James Q. "The Rise of the Bureaucratic State." The Bureaucracy. 298-302.

Woll, Peter. "Constitutional Democracy and Bureaucratic Power." The Bureaucracy. 302-310.… [read more]

Difficult to Find a Time Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (540 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


The author of the paper was convinced that England could only survive if the revolutionary ideas of the Jacobins were stamped out (Canning). This can be seen in the vitriol that different political sides spew in modern political circles. Many believe that it has never been worse and the hate is intensified by websites that promote the evil of one political entity or another. The problem with that logic is that reading a sample of The Anti-Jacobin proves that people have exhibited the same amount of disgust (and possibly more) in times prior to this one.

It is easy to see that politics, and the language that follows the practice, has not changed over the centuries. It is likely that an examination of even more ancient writings would reveal the same thing. Politics breeds discontent and argument, and these writings are simply an affirmation of that statement.


In what way does the plight of the knife grinder coincide with poor people in present times?


The friend of man believed that the knife grinder was brought to his occupation because of the government or of some rich, non-caring oppressor. In the current political atmosphere, people blame governmental policies or the division between the wealthy and poor as a reason for their own circumstances.

This question helps the reader examine how little the political discourse has changed in over two hundred years.

Works Cited

Canning, George. "The Anti-Jacobin." Web.

Frere, John Hookham. "The Friend of Humanity and the Knife Grinder." Web.

More, Hannah. "Village…… [read more]

American Political Behavior Mid-Term Essay

Essay  |  6 pages (2,145 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


The users of social media are mainly youth in the society. The last election broke the record for the highest voter turnout by the youth thus the significance of social media in the society. The youth were able to communicate with each other and realize the need for change in the political environment in the nation. The president also used the internet to collect funds for his campaign. The use of the internet also allows wire of funds electronically to promote a candidate (Hendricks & Denton, 2009).

4. How have changes in where we obtain information about politics affected political behavior? Specifically discuss the decline of newspapers, the changes to television, and the impact of the Internet.

Newspapers are among the oldest modes of communication used to communicate information in the nation. Newspapers' publishing takes place daily thus the deviation in information is normally 12 hours. Events that happen today often published in the next day's paper affect the reliability of this form of communication mode. The invention of the television gives audiovisual information to the viewer and information received aired at the time received. The use of the internet has improved the coverage of information within a nation. The quality of information derived from the preferred source and timeliness differs. Although newspapers are slow to deliver current information, they give detail as the editors have time to compile and release the information. Information from the newspaper considered as the conventional way to obtain news thus still used by many people.

There has been a decline in the use of newspapers with many people preferring televisions and the internet. The television provides footage of events happing in the nation. This mode of providing information to the public does not require the effort of reading and provides current information. The use of the television is wide in the nation thus many politicians use the media to engage with the citizens. The use of television allows the people to listen to the policies supported by a politician thus enable them to make their choice during election period. The internet is the latest technology affecting the political environment.

Politicians have been able to use the internet to gain support from the people. Politicians have used the internet to address the key issues affecting the members of the society through their websites. Many political parties have websites regularly updated to capture the activities of the party. The websites list the policies supported and how it aims to achieve the policies. Another reason for the decline of the newspaper is the production of the digital newspaper made possible through the internet. The internet has improved the content that the people have access. The problem is that there is a lot of information on the internet that some sites may give misleading information to the reader. The use of blogs has enabled people to give their opinion that has negatively affected the field of politics. Political parties that have a great following have been able to… [read more]

Community Participation Examining &amp Weighing Essay

Essay  |  9 pages (2,842 words)
Style: Harvard  |  Bibliography Sources: 12


Because of the numerous, public failures of public administrators and government officials, many communities will not cooperate without representation and participation in legislation and activities such as community participation and community engagement.

There is also growing recognition on the part of administrators that decision making without public participation is ineffective. In recent times, interest in public participation in administrative decision… [read more]

Branches of U.S. Gov Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (792 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


The judicial branch is made up of the United States Supreme Court and of lower federal courts. The legislative branch is charged with hearing court cases and interpreting legislation (Trethan, 2012). The Justices appointed to the Supreme Court are chosen by the President and confirmed by the Senate; furthermore, this Justice positions are lifetime appointments. When it comes to public policy, the legislative branch is charged with ensuring that the public's rights are not violated and ensure that laws and policies passed at state levels adhere to Constitutional requirements, thus setting precedence and determining if laws are unconstitutional thereby protecting the public from unfair discrimination. One of the most influential Supreme Court cases affecting public education was Brown v. Board of Education, which determined that laws that established separate public schools for black and white students was unconstitutional.

In order to ensure that none of these branches of government has more power than another a system of checks and balances was instituted. For example, the President's power is checked by Congress, which has the power to "refuse to confirm [the President's] appointees…and has the power to impeach, or remove, the president" (Trethan, 2012). Likewise, while Congress has the power to pass laws, the President has the power to veto them; in these cases, a two-thirds majority vote in Congress can override vetoes. Additionally, while the Supreme Court determines the constitutionality of a law, Congress has the power to amend the Constitution (Trethan, 2012).

Working in conjunction with each other, the three branches of government help to influence how policies and laws are made and how they are interpreted. Furthermore, through a system of checks and balances, these branches cannot function without each other and rely on each other to maintain a stable and functional government.


2011 Executive Orders signed by Barack Obama. (2012). National Archives. Retrieved 17 July

2012, from http://www.archives.gov/federal-register/executive-orders/2011.html

Bill Summary & Status, 111th Congress (2009-2010), H.R. 3808. (2012). The Library of Congress. Retrieved 17 July 2012, from http://thomas.loc.gov/cgi-bin/bdquery/z-d111:H.R.3808:

Brown v. Board of Education. (2012). National Park Service. Retrieved 17 July 2012, from http://www.nps.gov/brvb/index.htm

Huisman, J. (2010, September 14). An outline of American government. From Revolution to Reconstruction. University of Groningen. Retrieved 17 July 2012, from http://www.let.rug.nl/usa/GOV/ch3_p2.htm

Trethan, P. (2012). The branches of the government. Retrieved 17 July 2012, from http://usgovinfo.about.com/od/usconstitution/a/branches.htm… [read more]

Conflict Neg Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (626 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Obama's tendency to compromise indicates the same: a desire to resolve conflict. Unfortunately, Obama believes that compromise creates win-win scenarios when in reality, compromise creates lose-lose scenarios.

Authoritative command would not work in the Washington scenario, and neither would altering the structure of the organization because the roles are firmly fixed in government procedure. Therefore, the best tactics for negotiation would be to reveal the ground rules for each party. Boehner is obviously self-interested and concerned about keeping his position as Speaker. He also needs to please the "base" of his party. However, it was apparent that the abortion bill was not as important to him as he was first letting on. As mediator, I would make sure to discover exactly how important the abortion funding issue was; and encourage him to perhaps reconsider his stance given the constitutional issues at stake. The Democrats did not effectively assert their needs and desires in this situation. It was unnecessary even to entertain the Planned Parenthood issue, especially in light of the fact that it was compromised out of the ultimate agreement.

In the end, "all three were trying to camouflage weaknesses with bluffing and public confidence," (Kane, 2011). With an effective mediator who could illuminate the principles of good negotiation, weaknesses could be turned into strengths. The Biden/Obama/Reid side might have seen that they came from a relative position of power, and could use the opportunity to assert a mandate. The Boehner/Republican side of the conflict might have seen that they could better clarify the goals of their party rather than remain as wishy-washy as the democrats.


Kane, P. (2011). Budget battle came down to 3 men and their weaknesses. Washington Post. Retrieved online: http://www.washingtonpost.com/politics/budget-battle-came-down-to-3-men-and-their-weaknesses/2011/04/09/AFLotbAD_story.html… [read more]

International Community to Know Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (834 words)
Bibliography Sources: 8


The Libyan affairs have put a serious question mark on the United Nations and the role that they are playing. United Nations intervened in the local state of affairs of the country which is not in their jurisdiction. This has had an impact on the global politics and that has changed the face of international relations specially the relations of under developed nations with the stronger nations. The Libyan movement has challenged the credibility on the United Nations. The United Nations Security Council stepped in and seized all the assets of Gaddafi and had forward the case to the International Criminal Court for further investigation. On the 20th October Gaddafi was captured while he was escaping from Sirte and was killed in the process. The death of Gaddafi marked the independence of Libya and an end to the war.

These movements were not only limited to the less developed or the Arab nations instead they were spread all over the world. European nations were faced by the Euro zone crisis. Spain felt the effects of high level unemployment. While Greece had to face the backlash of Euro zone crisis as there economy became unstable. The Occupy Movements aimed to make the economic system fairer and give rights to the lesser developed nations.

The Protestants have indicated a failure to the theory of realism. Realism now must consider that the focus should what a country must accept in the changing times. Realist theories seem fit for the utopian world and do not apply in the current scenario. It is hard to justify the fact that the powerful states and state actors will continue to dominate the weaker states. It is not restricted to international politics and international affairs instead it is the human nature which can be found in families and professional organizations as well. The secular liberals of the revolutionary states, which were mentioned in the previous section, they all spoke for the ideas of liberal pluralism. The main themes of the protests were mostly for the minority rights and preached tolerance. Most of the protests were headed by the liberal parties who demanded an end to the political structure and a change in the dynamics of the politics. The revolts last year were not only relevant for the local or regional politics instead they had a huge impact on the international politics and…… [read more]

Role of Government Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,532 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


The President should not have the power to decide when another branch of what is supposed to be a separated government is in session, or any other such control over them, any more than Congress should be able to tell the President whether or not he can have a conversation with a foreign leader.

These issues are particularly reprehensible coming from a candidate who campaigned on being a constitutional scholar who would respect the separation of powers. Between signing statements, skirting his constitutional limits on appointments and ignoring the War Powers Act, Obama has shown that he is just another politician who rails against opponents when they have control and skirts constitutional limits and hypocritically ignores them when they take power.


Baker, P. 2010. Obama Making Plans to Use Executive Power. New York Times. 12 Feb 2010.

Fiegerman, S. 2011. Congress Approval Rating Hits All Time Low. The Street. 21 Dec 2011.

Immigration Policy Center, 2009. Enforcing Immigration Laws. American Immigration Council. Last Accessed 12 Jan 2012. URL: http://www.immigrationpolicy.org/just-facts/enforcing-immigration-laws-repairing-our-broken-immigration-system

Matthews, M. 2012. How Obama Sucker Punched Republicans on the Budget. Forbes. 12 Jan 2012. URL: http://www.forbes.com/sites/merrillmatthews/2012/01/12/how-obama-sucker-punched-republicans-on-the-budget/

Milbank, D. 2012. Mitt talks money. Orlando Sentinel. 10 Jan 2012.

Scalia,…… [read more]

Parties and Party Systems Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (827 words)
Style: Chicago  |  Bibliography Sources: 2


161). Mass populous support exists in both examples and drives political participation and populous voting, to determine the "platform" which will dominate the control function of the party (Sartori, 2005, p. 224). This popular support is reciprocal to governmental control and influence, in other words the popular support is fed by the perceived power of control and is the basis to some degree of that very control, through voting and economic support by members and non-members in agreement on issues.

Out of necessity mostly in response to funds needed especially for major election races as well as to maintain continuity and momentum in the party creates internal mechanisms to control infrastructure and funding. Funds are necessary for the party to function in and out of the election process and the party must have some semblance of control over this issue

The education aspect is also important in regards to funding as it is usually the third most important funding direction in the system. Funding has been a major issue regarding how the cost of elections dominate the election field, creating strong two or limited party completion for real control in government. Funding is of course also necessary for the functioning of the party itself and for it to fill the party role of educator to the public, some who support it and others who are in contention but most importantly the party serves as the main source of information about not only opinions but candidates for office themselves, which to some degree allows the party to dictate what information the populous gets regarding the candidate (Ware, p.106). This effects the system in that it creates a sense of homogeneity between the party platform and the candidates, themselves if one exists or not. Funding internally and externally will likely continue to be a huge issue for political parties, especially in the U.S. As regulations and demand for them dominate the climate of the party system.


Katz, R.S. (2008) "Political parties," in Daniele Caramani, ed., Comparative politics.

(Oxford: Oxford University Press,), pp. 293-317.

Sartori, G. (2005) Parties and party systems: a framework for analysis. Colchester, UK: University of Essex Press.

Ware, A. "The classification of party systems," Chapter 5 in book Political

parties and party systems (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1996), pp. 147-183.

Ware, A. (2008) The American direct primary:…… [read more]

Theory &amp Context: Institutional Choice Essay

Essay  |  6 pages (1,589 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 11


However, the role that bureaucracies play as organizations is not well examined from that specific view which is one that is reported to "run counter to principal-agent relationships that must be predicated on a zone of acceptable behavior between such parties." (Meier, 2003) Meier states that what is needed are models that give consideration to the "utility functions of politicians and bureaucratic agencies without relegating the latter to a constraint on the optimization problem facing the former." (2003) Moe notes the fact that the "…norm of reciprocity within Congress are not products of explicit choice but have emerged informally over time through repeated interaction and adaptive adjustment among participants." (2011, p.215)


From the literature reviewed in this brief study it is clear that there are many theories and accompanying models that attempt to explain the processes of bureaucracy however, each of these touches upon normative principles and the manner in which bureaucratic structures and accompanying actions, reciprocal actions and reactions are established within the framework of what is considered as 'normal' thereby demonstrating that no matter what theoretical framework one may construct the model and understanding of bureaucratic organizations upon the normative theory comes into play in gaining an understanding of the structure, processes and workings of any bureaucratic agency.


Derthick, M. (1990) Agency under Stress: The Social Security Agency in American Government. Washington, DC: The Brookings Institution.

Meier, K and Krause, G (2003) Conclusion: An Agenda for the Scientific Study of Bureaucracy, u in Krause and Meier (eds.) Politics, Policy and Organizations: Essays in the Scientific Study of Bureaucracy.

Miller, Gary (20000 Rational Choice and Dysfunctional Institutions.u…… [read more]

Political Compromise and Politics Public Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (855 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


Fritz Hollings (Congressional Record 1990:S4901) which asserted that tariff's on footwear were needed because these "protected" the American consumer yet again from "threats of runaway prices" for shoes (Boudreaux & Lee, 1997). Other examples cited by the authors include Rep. Ed Jenkin's (Congressional Record 1986: H9386) argument that all "basic industries" in the United States had to receive protection from "imports" because if they were not, the U.S. "would not be able to lead the free world that all of us want to lead" (Boudreaux & Lee, 1997). Such statements are illogical and used to brainwash people into thinking the government is acting on behalf of the people, when self-interest is at heart.

Compromise IS necessary, but the politicians governing compromise must consider how much the weight of their decisions will affect others. Glaser (2006) makes an important point, noting that when compromise is necessary, it is much more beneficial to redirect attitudes of the political minority so they understand why the prevailing ideology is important to pass. Much of the time the consideration involves the vote of consumers. Every politician has to pay a price for their choices, and typically this comes in the way of votes. Voters typically vote for those politicians who constantly support the majority ideology at the time; thus a politician will "compromise" to provide such an ideology, whether or not it matches their own. Sometimes the desire for voting rewards leads to the passage of policies that are not beneficial when one performs a cost-to-benefit analysis, which can damage the country over the long-term (Boudreaux & Lee, 1997).


The long-term ramifications of political compromise can be beneficent or damaging, depending on how well special-interest campaigns mesh with the needs of voter's and the nation as a whole (Glaser, 2006). It is critical that a government remember they are in place to represent a people, and not merely special interest campaigns whose goals include securing votes. When the needs of the majority are met, then more likely than not the government will remain viewed as a solid structure in the minds of the governed. However, as more and more compromised are demanded, the legitimacy of governmental bodies can only come into question in the future.


Bourdreaux, Donald & Lee, Dwight R. 1997 Winter. Politics as the art of confined compromise.

Cato Journal, 16(3). Cato Institute. Retrieved: http://www.cato.org/pubs/journal/cj16n3-6.html

Bovard, J. 1991. The fair trade fraud. New York: St. Martin's Press.

Glaser, J.M. (2006). Public support for political compromise on a volatile racial issue: insight from the survey experiment. Political Psychology,…… [read more]

European Union a State Research Paper

Research Paper  |  22 pages (9,068 words)
Bibliography Sources: 20


Whereas, the democracy provided by the EU is mainly "with the people" and "for the people" and is mostly done through this vast process of the intermediation of the interest; this is also known as "Community Model" (Schmidt and Monnet, 2004).

Because of such a fragmented democracy the legitimization of EU has been questioned as, EU is compared to the… [read more]

Government Preferable in a Presidential Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (612 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


The federal government originally was far weaker than it now is, states held far more responsibility in concerns such as currency, trade, and even the states military.

One problem of a divided government is the presence of considerable deadlock and conflict between issues among the divided parties. This problem does not happen in parliamentary systems, since the ruling party controls all functions of government, and the minority party can merely voice its opinion. The slowness of the presidential system is frustrating for many observers, as controversial legislation is often not even presented in divided congresses, so that one party can seek to pass that legislation during a time of one party rule. This means legislation that is passed during divided government is usually weaker, less controversial, and less costly than in divided congress times.

Ultimately, the presidential democracy system's strengths in stability outweigh its negatives in speed of enacting legislation. A weak executive branch is important to such a powerful country as the U.S., and a breakdown in responsibility to the legislature allows the executive branch to manage a country the size of the U.S., and a divided system of houses in the legislature allows smaller states some more say in the nations affairs. I believe the founding fathers of the United States setup government in this manner to ensure the maximum amount of balance and stability inherit in the system, unwilling to risk the dominant ability of a parliamentary system. Enabling the balance of powers is what the founders sought to unite the states, both big and small, but also to undermine the powers of the president, a position which was feared to be as powerful as a monarch, which had just been shed in the…… [read more]

Politics International Relations Analysis Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,276 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Group dynamics in a particular ethnic context, coupled with negative perception of "the other" and subjective images have been and often are a recipe for disaster. This was the case in the Rwandan Genocide and in the Bosnian Wars in the 1990's, and is, sadly, the norm in the Democratic Republic of Congo today. This part of the paper, due to limited writing space, will only focus on the Rwandan Genocide and the Bosnian Wars of succession in the break-up of Yugoslavia in Europe with an attempt to explain these traumatic events for the countries involved, and what can be done to avoid them in the future.

Such seemingly singular events in humanity as the Rwandan Genocide and the Bosnian Wars should have no precursor and no successor. They should be anomalies. Sadly, this is not the case. Not only was the Rwandan Genocide not the first such event (it was preceded by the Holocaust, after all) it was not the last. Around the same time that Rwanda was happening, the Bosnian-Serbian wars began in Eastern Europe. Though the two issues are completely different in causes and events, they are similar in that the perception of "other" led to mass atrocity.

When looking at these nations (Rwanda, Bosnia and Serbia), all of which are peaceful today, it is hard to believe that less than two decades ago people were being slaughtered in their streets, in their houses, and thrown in mass graves with no respect. This kind of inhumanity towards fellow man is hard to accept, much less describe. But some nations, as seen from this analysis, do engage in genocide. They can do so because various groups are threatened by various factors, including a negative concept of "the other" (which may be a person with a different ethnicity or religion or both) or simple financial and political reasons. Often, the negative concepts within society reinforce other reasons, and vice versa, creating a complex cause to violent conflict. The negative concepts fostered in these societies are also further reinforced by factors such as financial differences, ethnic dominance of one group over the other, media encouragement, etc. In fact, both in Bosnia and Rwanda, the media played a great part in facilitation and even encouraging the mass killings. In both, financial or political differences (such as those between Hutus and Tutsis in Rwanda historically), also played a big part in both conflicts.

The reality of genocide is acute, as these examples show. It is also quite disheartening that mass killings are still happening around the world today, most notably in the Democratic Republic of Congo. However, there are solutions to ending mass violence. Often, even in our society, there is intra-group hostility. This kind of hostility can contribute to ensuing chaos, and must be one of the most important issues examined to help bring about an end to mass violence. What can prevent this kind of hostility is often help: be it social, financial or political. For example, in the Congo… [read more]

Nations and Nationalism Exist: Comparison Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,187 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


This is true most clearly in nations located in the Middle East. Language is held in the work of Laitin and Geertz to be of primary importance in the determination of a nation however, the national language is reported in the work of Hobsbawn to be a "pragmatic matter and still less a dispassionate one, as is show by the reluctance to recognize them as constructs, by historicizing, and inventing traditions for them." (1990) It is noted however, that language for some is viewed as the nation's soul and in some cases is a prerequisite for nationality.

Geertz writes that in new nation states that the new states

"are abnormally susceptible to serious disaffection based on primordial attachments. By a primordial attachment is meant one that stems from the "givens" -- or, more precisely, as culture is inevitably involved in such matters, the assumed "givens" -- of social existence: immediate contiguity and kin connection mainly, but beyond them the givenness that stems from being born into a particular religious community, speaking a particular language, or even a dialect of a language, and following particular social practices." (Geertz, nd, p. 4)

These blood, speech, cultural and other such ties are held to be strong and in some cases coercive for when the individual is effectively bound by kinsmanship and so forth the outcome is not just affection on a personal basis or necessitated practicality or even common interest or some obligation that has been incurred. The varying strength of these ties is varied from one to another individual and from one society to another.


It is difficult to discern whose notion of how a nation is best defined is between the authors reviewed in this study however, from the viewpoint of this writer it appears that Anderson has the most rational view of what constitutes a nation at least from the view of an American citizen. The nation cannot be defined solely on the basis of the territory in which that nation is situated or even upon the language which is predominantly spoken by the people comprising the nation. Moreover, the nation cannot be defined solely by its cultural, religious or political beliefs since just as in the United States of America, in other nations too exist a great diversity of individuals and belief systems as well as political parties.

Summary and Conclusion

The nation is best defined by the individuals that comprise that nation with the nation's definition fitting to the characteristics of its citizenry than attempting to mold the citizenry to 'fit' into the definition of the nation. This is because where no growth exists stagnation becomes dominant and with growth comes change evidenced in the 'tips' and 'cascades' that occur within society and the nation-at-lager. Of course there are some things that one cannot imaging changing since it is unlikely that Israel will ever become a Muslim nation and just as unlikely that the United States will assume a communist stance in politics. With that being said,… [read more]

Louisiana: Race Relations During Reconstruction Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,312 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


On September 14, 1974, the White League, a coalition of citizen club members, took control of the Louisiana government by force in New Orleans and replaced the Republican governor with their own (Steedman, 2009). The White League was a White Supremacist organization with ties to the Democratic Party. According to the Ouachita Telegraph, the raid on the capital was triggered by the New Orleans Police attempting to seize an arms shipment making its way to the White League. The police raid was led by the former Confederate General P.G.T. Beauregard, which suggests that not all Southern white conservatives agreed with the use of violence to reestablish white rule (Steedman, 2009). Fifty white and black leaders formed the Louisiana Unification Movement for the purpose of drawing freedmen away from the Republican Party, in the spirit of compromise, but this effort failed.


Racist Democrats in Louisiana used a number of methods to control the social and political status of freedmen, including issuing work permits based on political affiliation, enacting Black Codes, engaging in election fraud, and the use of violence. Freedmen responded by running for office, joining the Republican Party, and revising the Louisiana Constitution to outlaw slavery in the state, while the U.S. Congress and the President enacted supportive legislation and occupied the state with military forces. Despite the strong response by the federal government and the courageous actions of former slaves, the political and social atmosphere during Reconstruction in Louisiana, especially the racially-motivated violence, made it clear that freedmen did not enjoy full citizenship.

Second class citizenship for freedmen was enforced by Black Codes enacted throughout the South. These Codes were designed to keep freedmen tied to and working on plantations (Stewart, 1998). Black Codes were passed at the local level throughout the South and were effectively vagrancies laws. Gary Stewart describes the Black Codes as one variation, in a long history of vagrancy laws, designed to keep second class citizens in their place. Based on Stewart's analysis, the Black Codes eventually led to passage of contemporary anti-gang legislation. For example, the Broken Windows policing strategy gives wide discretion to police officers to maintain social order, similar to the wording in Black Codes. One of the more famous examples is the now defunct "Stop-and-Frisk" policing policy used by the New York Police Department, which was recently held to be racially biased and therefore unconstitutional (Goldstein, 2013).

Second class citizenship was also institutionalized within at least one federal agency, the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) (Johnson, 2011). The South and the rest of the country needed to restore its economy and supporting farmers was integral to this effort. When it came time to allocate federal money to Southern states, however, the USDA ceded control to local governments. The Morrill Act of 1890 included a separate but equal clause reminiscent of the Jim Crow laws that had been enacted across the South when formal Reconstruction ended in 1877. Formal segregation was not ended within the USDA until the Civil Rights Act… [read more]

Government Shutdown a Shutdown Furlough Article Review

Article Review  |  2 pages (565 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


For this situation to be avoided and its repeat, it is important that at the time of high-stakes negotiations regarding appropriation measures, the Congress and the President are left with different options:

Applying a single or several interim continuing resolutions (CRs) in extending temporary funding beyond the start of a fiscal year, in anticipation of negotiators making final decisions over funding levels of full year.

Reaching to an agreement pertaining regular appropriations acts prior to October 1, which is in the beginning of a new fiscal year.

Failing to agree on full year or interim appropriations acts, leading to a funding gap as well as a corresponding shutdown of federal activities.

In case the President and the Congress pursue the first or third option, an agreement can be reached on full year appropriations after the start of the fiscal year. Such agreements can adopt a full year CR or the usual regular appropriation acts, in single or omnibus legislation. The President and the Congress have always agreed on full year or interim funding facing impasse. While in other occasions like the one we are in, President and the Congress may fail to reach accommodation in time to avoid any likelihood of fund gap.


Even though conflict may exist between the President and the Congress, it is important to remember that the life of people who are affected by the furlough depends on their decision, therefore any decision should be a well thought one to stop unnecessary…… [read more]

Minority Representation in U.S. Politics Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (573 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Similarly, by targeting early voting, same-day registration and voting, and Sunday voting, new restrictions in that regard were clearly intended to disenfranchise black voters who traditionally vote on Sunday after church services. New restrictions on the types of ID that can be used for voting include elimination of student IDs, obviously meant to disenfranchise students. New requirement for voter ID cards overwhelmingly affect the poorest voters, a disproportionate number of whom are minorities, because the only possible process for obtaining the necessary ID cards require state drivers licenses, or credit cards, or other forms of identification that may poor people simply do not have (Bouie, 20132). Even when they posses the necessary identification to obtain a voter ID card, poor people are much more heavily burdened by the obligation to take off from work during business hours and travel to the facilities where the IDs are issued (Bouie, 20132). Unfortunately, all of these transparent measures will be remembered by future historians as the Jim Crow laws of the early 21st century because they serve the same basic function as their namesake from the late 18th and early 19th centuries.


Bouie, J. "Virginia Republicans move forward with mass disenfranchisement

A Senate subcommittee has recommended a bill to rig the state's electoral vote allocation." The American Prospect (January 23, 2013).



Bouie, J. "Republicans Admit Voter-ID Laws Are Aimed at Democratic Voters."

Politics Beast (August 28, 2013).

http://www.thedailybeast.com/articles/2013/08/28/republicans-admit-voter-id-laws-are-aimed-at-democratic-voters.html… [read more]

PC's, Central-System Computing, and Government Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (889 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


For example, the authors defined the scope of the study as using two sets of cities, but later in the study they refer to responses given from 10 different cities. "When central-system cities rated their experiences with minicomputers and/or mainframes, more than 8 in 10 (83.4%) indicated that these systems had met or exceeded their expectations" (page 9, paragraph 2, line 1). Due to these inaccuracies it is impossible to determine if the same methodology is used throughout the survey. In the final two pages of the study the authors address the significance of their study in comparison to other studies. Each point of the problem is addressed in these pages followed by the authors deductions of their study and backed by polls or studies completed by various groups.

Only certain areas of this study can be replicated. The study's treatment can be replicated in that the methodology used is clearly defined as PC vs. mainframe and the Cramer V scoring method. The data collecting methods cannot be defined due to the inconsistencies of the population used. The size of the sample was not adequately described, however the characteristics of the sample were clearly laid out (Assistant managers, department heads, and technical staff). The treatments administered for the study were held constant for all the treatments in that the authors define the parameters of the Cramer V scoring method and used them consistently throughout the study. The alpha level in this study is a priori of p=. 20 defined as a moderate relationship between the variables.

The reliability of the measurement cannot be determined because the authors did not directly compare the methods used with their study to methods used in the referenced research studies. The validity of the measurement is in question because the authors were unable to show significant differences between PC and mainframe computing in a large number of areas that are used in this study. The study showed that there were only marginal differences in the majority of the areas covered. The study shows that both mainframe computers and PC's have their place in government operations and the authors concur with the study results. The generalizations used throughout the article were not confined to the study conducted by the authors. In many cases it is unclear where the authors draw their theories.

This study was significant in the fact that the authors showed, albeit grudgingly, that PC's have their place in government operations. It is my opinion that the authors were too one-sided with the scope of this study, often downplaying the significance of the PC's ability to speed…… [read more]

America, Without Doubt Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,349 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


America in the Eyes of Some Philosophers

It would be interesting to speculate on how today's America would have looked like to some of yesteryear's philosophers. Plato, for example, who elaborates his political theory in the Republic, discussing questions such as "what is a just state" and "who is a just individual

The ideal state, according to Plato, is composed of three classes: the economic structure of the state being maintained by the merchant class, its security needs by the military class, and political leadership by the philosopher-kings. The relatively classless society of America would thus have shocked Plato. He would have admired the importance placed on education by the American society, though.

Voltaire, the 18th century French writer and philosopher was a leading proponent of enlightenment and opponent of religious bigotry. He was a brilliant, satirical wit who attacked the religious clergy of his time. The freedom of religion and the separation of church from the affairs of the state in America would have been a source of satisfaction to the Frenchmen. He would probably not have been able to resist a dig (or two) at some of our leaders of today. (Count yourselves lucky, Messrs. Bush and Rumsfeld -- Voltaire died in 1778!)

Bismarck, an ultra-conservative and a believer in the divine right of the monarchy to rule a country would have been dismayed to observe the emphasis on democracy and majority rule in America. The Prusso-German statesman justifying an increase in the Army once observed that, "the great questions of the day will not be settled by speeches and the majority decisions...but by blood and iron." He would probably have given two thumbs-up to the ultra-hawks in the Bush administration who believe in military solutions to all the troubles of the world.

Karl Marx, who believed that the capitalist system was condemned to be overthrown by a worldwide revolution of the working class and replaced by a classless society, would have been dismayed to observe the thriving 'capitalist' American economy. The phenomenon of the transformation of a predominantly industrial society dominated by the manufacturing industry into a service-based economy would have intrigued the German political philosopher and thinker. The development of the American economy and society has most certainly not followed Karl Marx's script for an industrial society.

America's Future

We must not forget that the secret behind America's success since its independence has been the diversity of its culture provided by continuing waves of immigrants who, unencumbered in an environment of freedom, have injected vitality and freshness in the system. In my opinion, our society and the nation will continue to develop and prosper if it sticks to its motto of E. Pluribus Unum (From many, one). This process of creating one society out of many different backgrounds has been an ongoing American tradition. An American-French immigrant, Crevecoeur, observing the phenomenon first-hand wrote "The American is a new man....here individuals of all nations are melted into a new race of men."


In this essay we… [read more]

Voting to Violence, Jack Snyder Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,359 words)
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Thus it becomes problematic to include the Russian minority that dwells within the nation's borders in the process of Latvian nation formation. Also, the nation becomes much more inclined to enter into ethnic conflicts around its borders, because enabling members of its ethnic identity to survive in other lands is linked to the nation's democratic identity and survival.

Snyder correctly points out in his book that this problem is not only endemic to Eastern Europe and the Slavic regions but also in India, which came to its modern identity in opposition to British rule, and other post-colonial nations. He stresses that this does oppose the move towards democracy -- far from it, he believes that the world could become more peaceful were it to become more democratic. "[T]he successful unfolding of a global, liberal-democratic revolution might eventually undergrid a more peaceful era in world politics." (Snyder 2000: 20)

This philosophy is also echoed by Robert Dahl in is book On Democracy. (Snyder 2000: 58) In other words, both authors state that at least in theory because a democratic defines itself and places an inherent value upon the rights of the individual, a democratic nation should tend to be less warlike, less cavalier with the lives of the citizens who back the government. It should also tend to be less expansionist and cavalier of the freedoms of other individuals in other nations. Democracies are more beholden to "inclusive ideals of civil rights for all members of society... And perceive each other as having common principles that make war between them illegitimate and nearly unthinkable" (Snyder, 2000: 353). Or, more succinctly put, because they share a common ideological framework, democracies rarely go to war with other democracies.

However, this valuation of the individual must be for all individuals for this world democratic peace to ensue. In other words, new democracies must be rights-based rather than purely populist and ethnically based, otherwise an 'us vs. them' ethnic ideology will lead to warfare. In an ethnic democracy, the security of one's ethnic state becomes based in the stamping out of all ethnic groups, groups who were historically, previously opposed to one's own ethnic identity. What is called upon is not a naive liberal faith in the value of a democracy, but an intelligent understanding of the complications of democracy, a belief in a rights-based system with a questioning eye upon simple ethnic majority populism. (Snyder 2000: 16-17)

Snyder and Dahl's analysis is so cogent because their words explain why democracy does not automatically produce a "democratic peace," only a rights-based "civic democracy" as distinguished from an "ethnic democracy" can do so. (Snyder 2000: 353) In contrast, ethnic democracies undermine a democratic peace because they "deactivate the mechanisms that keep relations between democracies peaceful," in other words for ethnically-based democratic movements and states, the individual's rights is only valued if that individual is part of a specific ethnic frame of reference. Rather than civic or rights-based and individualistic liberal democracies, when democracies evolve in an… [read more]

Division of Political Power Term Paper

Term Paper  |  9 pages (2,776 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+



Koch revitalized the city with his personal style, optimism, and common sense. He rode the subways. He talked to New Yorkers in the streets. He extolled the virtues of the city. Koch also put the city back on firm financial footing. His optimism and enthusiasm were contagious. Koch was also outspoken and often abrasive. but, as the city's economy… [read more]

Conservative Intellectual Movement Term Paper

Term Paper  |  23 pages (6,252 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


This work was "a manifesto, akin in impact to what C. Wright Mill's The Power of Elite was for left-wing students." Buckley, in attacking the "atheism and collectivism" in his religion and economic courses at Yale, drew national attention to the conservative intellectual movement of the 1950's.

William Rusher played a similar role in the development of the conservative intellectual… [read more]

Resistance to Civil Government Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (642 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


We even have laws in congress to protect "whistle-blowers," those who speak out against excesses or abuses in our government bureaucracy.

Thoreau noted that government (state and federal) quickly becomes entrenched and tradition-bound, and that the best government encourages enterprise best by just getting out of the way. Anyone looking at the IRS tax forms and the tax laws we have put in place for businesses, which would include small farmers like Thoreau today, would agree. Thoreau would probably be a tax protester, not because he was a poor citizen but to rail against the massive rules, regulations, and restrictive traditions that have grown up around taxation.

Although most people think of Thoreau as advocating a kind of "back to nature" lifestyle, he is also a vocal supporter of free commerce. He is especially critical of the citizens of this country who choose to be tax collectors, since without taxes there can be no growth of government. In fact he advocated going to jail rather than being forced to pay taxes, something the American Revolutionaries of less than 100 years ago would have agreed with. He sees money as inherently corrupting, and believes that the acquisition of wealth and material goods actively interferes with living a whole life. That is food for thought for a college student who believes that a college degree helps one achieve that materialistic "American dream." Thoreau didn't want his efforts used to support wrong actions by the government, and I have similar doubts, but I want to believe I can live a middle-class life without completely corrupting myself as an individual and an American.


Gordon, Jessica, and Woodlief, Ann, eds. 1999. "Resistance to Civil Government, or Civil Disobedience" by Henry David Thoreau. Accessed via the Internet 11/22/02. http://www.vcu.edu/engweb/transcendentalism/authors/thoreau/civil… [read more]

Government Welfare Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (681 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


..this led to increases in welfare caseloads and the number of single-parent families" (New B7). The results of the Cato study and Murray's arguments show that "states with low benefits enjoyed larger caseload reductions than states with high benefits" (New B7).

According to the Government Accounting Office, although, there have been studies conducted to understand the role of welfare benefits and a "woman's decision to have a child...the results of studies have been mixed" (Welfare pg). However, "a recent summary of this research found that a slight majority of studies have concluded that receiving welfare has led to a decrease in marriage and an increase in childbearing" (Welfare pg).

The Center on Budget and Policy Priorities 1999 report observed that welfare caseloads "have declined at a much faster rate than any objective indicator of need" (Adkisson 184). The report focused on "whether low-income single mothers in families with children earned enough to offset the loss in income from means-tested programs" (Adkisson 184). Data showed that "income losses from means-tested programs had been more than offset by increases in income from work and other programs such as the earned income tax credit and increased minimum wage levels" (Adkisson 184).

Works Cited

Adkisson, Richard V. "Welfare reform: What are the numbers, and does anyone care?" Journal of Economic Issues. March 01, 2001; pp 184.

New, Michael. "Helping the Poor: Strong Work Requirements are the way out of Welfare." St. Louis Post-Dispatch. October 01, 2002; pp B7.

Welfare Reform - More Research Needed on TANF Family Caps and other Policies for Reducing Out-of-Wedlock Births." Government Accounting Office Report. September 11, 2001. http://ask.elibrary.com/getdoc.asp?pubname=Government_Accounting_Office_Report&puburl=http~C~~S~~S~www.emediamillworks.com&querydocid=:bigchalk:U.S.;Lib&dtype=0~0&dinst=0&author=&title=WELFARE+REFORM+%2D+MORE+RESEARCH+NEEDED+ON+TANF+FAMILY+CAPS+AND+OTHER+POLICIES+FOR+REDUCING+OUT%2DOF%2DWEDLOCK+BIRTHS++&date=09%2D11%2D2001&query=welfare+and+single+parents&maxdoc=24&idx=5.(accessed 12-01-2002).… [read more]

American Politics, for the Presidential Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (1,883 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


The only force that seemed to really disrupt a steady Wall Street climb that the technology and communication sectors had spurred throughout the 1990s was the impeachment proceedings, which most Americans rightfully blamed the republican party for. But there was no denying it, especially by investors, corporate executives and newly affluent Americans everywhere, the economy was working. Growth was unstoppable, it had seemed at the time.

And while the House of Representatives does have a tradition of handing itself out to the party most alienated by a presidential administration, it also must abide by a governing law of political nature that also has some history to back it. That is, the economy drives everything. If the economy presents a trend one way or the other, for growth or recession, and that trend has manifestations which are easily and unavoidably detectable to the public, those facts will greatly encourage voting decisions.

More commonly, this is a law that is illustrated by reelection. It was something that helped presidents from Eisenhower to Reagan to Clinton himself in their efforts at defending the throne. In the case of the 1998 midterm election, not only was the democratic party most visibly responsible for an economic health that seemed to resonate well with registered voters at the very least, but the republican party appeared intent to disrupt it.

Another factor worth considering is that the upcoming session would be Bill Clinton's last. The mandate of power, many Americans took comfort in knowing, would only be enough for him to sustain his efforts. He was better equipped to prevent republican usurpation and this suited many Americans fine. On the other hand, his majority in the House was relatively slim and would not arm him to pursue any of his own extremes. And given the traditional nature of a lame duck session, his last two years were not likely to witness anything more than maintenance. The 1998 midterm elections, it seems, are not a rejection of the impulse by Americans to maintain a balance of power but a buttressing of this proclivity. Be the means to such an end the support to or the rejection of the presidential agenda, there is little doubt that Americans have consistently used the midterm election as a…… [read more]

Leisure May Be the Death Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (967 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


The most obvious, as pointed out by Muller, is a common commitment to a free market economy and to political democracy, both of which are dominated by middle class values. However, there are vital differences within these broad areas of agreement, and it is these deviations that place Europe at a disadvantage when dealing with the demise of employment and the growth of leisure. America is better placed to deal with these social changes, and the subsequent economic and political fallout, because of its emphasis upon individualism, commercialism, and its perception of state assistance only as a last resort. Therefore America, as with Japan, is better able to adapt to changes in labor requirements by capitalizing on the social and economic values of competition, individual and corporate enterprise, and minimal regulation. In contrast to this frontier spirit, Europe continues to be guided, and indeed haunted, by a value system that is founded upon class conflict, class consciousness, and state regulation. So, whereas America and Japan will successfully adapt their labor functions to take advantage of the increase in leisure, by diversification and specialization, the danger in Europe is the creation of a Marxist style social conflict between the unemployed 'proletariat', and the employed 'bourgeoisie'. I also believe that Muller is accurate when he extends this European ethos of 'us' against 'them' beyond the limits of class to include the racial element. As he perceptively points out: at the same time as America is growing increasingly multiracial, Europe is veering more and more towards the politics of anti-immigration and racial discrimination. The recent rise in the popularity of Jean Le Pen's 'National Front Party' in France, Jorg Haider's 'Freedom Party' in Austria, and the Italian neo-fascist movement, are evidence of an alarming tendency towards xenophobia and racial intolerance. I feel that the author is correct to highlight the likelihood of anti-social and violent reactions by the indigenous majority, as a result of leisure induced boredom, against racial or cultural minorities.

Official statistics support Muller's assertion that, in the world's most technologically advanced nations, a major change is occurring in the relationship between labor and leisure. As a result of technological advancement, the requirement for human labor is decreasing and the amount of leisure time is increasing. I support the author's claims that, of these nations, those within Western Europe are least likely to be able to cope effectively with the inevitable economic, social, and political difficulties. This support is based on the fact that, unlike nations such as the United States or Japan, the countries of Western Europe continue to be constrained by state intervention, inflexible and costly welfare systems, and a value system that is based on the traditions of class conflict and liberalism.


Muller, S. (1997, Summer). Time to Kill - Europe and the Politics of Leisure. National Interest,…… [read more]

Political Science Politics Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (2,597 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Democratic socialists of United States of America share a dream of having a humane international social order based on gender and racial equality, hard work, proper apportioning of resources, hygienic milieu and non-oppressive relationships.

20th century liberalism shares the views of classical liberalism put forward by Thomas Jefferson and James Madison. Classical liberalism appreciated human nature and created a constitution… [read more]

Evolution of South Korea's Politics Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (749 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


He even declared Martial law in 1972 that proclaimed his indefinite rule. General Chun Doo Hwan who came to power by assassinating Park in 1979 continued to ignore the popular demand for democratization and brutally suppressed all dissent until 1987. Although a measure of reforms was introduced by the adoption of a new democratic constitution in 1987, Korean politics continued to be dogged by corruption, cronyism and the unsavory political influence of the chaebols for the next several years.

In contrast to the tumultuous and less than exemplary political development, the Korean economy has shown almost consistent growth since the 1960s. The extent of South Korea's rapid economic progress can be gauged from the fact that in just 3 decades its per capita GDP has risen from among the lowest in the world to 20 times North Korea's and is now comparable to some of the lesser economies of the European Union. Its per capita GDP is $19,400 (2002 est.) while its Gross Domestic Product (GDP) stood at $931 billion in 2002 (est.).

As we saw in this essay, South Korea's economy and politics have not exhibited the same degree of development in its history so far. While Korea's economic performance has been more than impressive since the 1960s, its politics remained mired in unsavory authoritarianism for long periods. However, recent political developments indicate that the country's politics shall keep in step with its economy in future.


CIA -- the World Factbook." (2003) South Korea. [Available online]. Retrieved on October 29, 2003 at http://www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/geos/ks.html#Econ

South Korea." (2003) Article in Encyclopedia Encarta. CD-ROM Version, 2003.

Why Invest in Korea?" (2003) Investment Public Relations Team. [Available online]. Retrieved on October 29, 2003 at http://www.kisc.org/servlet/KiscUK1USub01Q-MENU_ID=%23WNWKISC&LANG=2&SITE_ID=KISC&ITEM_ID=001454

South Korea." (2003) Encarta article. Para on Syngman Rhee and the Second Republic

Hee was installed as the leader of South Korea after a military coup in 1961 that ousted Syngman Rhee

The economy contracted by 6.7% in 1998 following the Asian Economic Crisis but quickly rebounded ("Why Invest in Korea" 2003)

CIA -- "The World Factbook." 2003

Korea… [read more]

Government in the Historic Preservation Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,525 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


B. (1998). "Florida's Local Historic Preservation Ordinances: Maintaining Flexibility While Avoiding Vagueness Claims." Florida State Univ. Law Review. 25:1017.

Bardon, D., and Murray D.L. (1998). Florida's Museums and Cultural Attractions. Sarasota, FL: Pineapple Press, Inc.

Bense, J. A Bense, Hernandez, J.L., Barnes, A. Deagan, K.A. Jackson, DH. Jr., Littrell, V., McKeithen, L., Quina, C., Uguccioni, E., Williams, C. (2003). Florida Historical Commission White Paper. February 20, 2003. [Online] Available at http://www.floridatrust.org/whitepaper.html

Center for Urban Policy Research. (1997). Economic Impacts of Historic Preservation. Trenton, NJ: New Jersey Historic Trust.

City of Tallahassee, Florida. (2001). The History of the South Monroe Area. Official City of Tallahassee, Florida. © 2001 [Online] Available at http://talgov.com/citytlh/planning/cmplan/sector/historysm.html

Douglas, L. (1986). "Preservation and rehabilitation -- an economic tool for cities." Nation's Cities Weekly, June 2.

General Assembly, The State of Georgia. (1987). Economic Development through Historic Preservation. Report of the Joint Study Committee, General Assembly, State of Georgia.

Harris, K. (2000). "Making it count: How the arts and historic preservation can make a difference in your county." Florida Counties. (November/December).

Kleinberg, E. (1997). Historical Traveler's Guide to Florida. Sarasota, FL: Pineapple Press, Inc.

McLendon, T and Klein, J. (2003). Historic Preservation: Value Added. Research at the University of Florida. Explore, September 2003, Vol.8 No. 1.

Profiting from the Past: The Impact of Historic Preservation on the North Carolina Economy…… [read more]

American Government Structure and Foundation Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,848 words)
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A democracy, officially, is a situation in which the people join together to vote on the laws and decisions of the community. However, there have only been a very few cases of true democracies, such as existed in Athens. More common are democratic-like societies, such as existed among many American Indian tribes in which leaders would be commonly chosen. Another such example is, of course, the American system of government in which representatives are elected. In a democratic republic, the people are able to elect leaders who will at least theoretically vote as their constituents would wish.

Each of these systems of government have their own strengths and weaknesses. A dictatorship, for example, is particularly able to wage war effectively, to defend itself against invasion, and to control its economy. Many of the strongest empires and nations have been dictatorships. However, dictatorships have a significant problem in that they provide no freedom for their people. Freedom is abridged, and this means that science, art, and philosophy progress less.

An aristocracy may be strong militarily, but is more likely to fall due to feuding and infighting between the nobles. Among aristocrats, and in more constitutional aristocracies, art and science may progress farther due to increased freedom for these classes. Still, tyranny is the standard here as in a dictatorship.

A democracy is really the only form of government which allows for widespread freedom. While it is harder to make war within a democracy, the nation is likely to be much stronger in terms of art and progress. For example, the ancient Greeks who contributed so much to science and literature and philosophy were largely democratic. The main weakness in a democracy is that it may slip into a tyranny, but considering that the other forms of government are already tyrannical, this hardly makes…… [read more]

Politics of Rage: George Wallace Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,092 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


For example, he recounts the story of one black man in Greenwood who struggled to register to vote. "The first time he went, the registrar told him he had to know how many seeds were in a watermelon and how many bubbles in a bar of soap, questions of the sort that registrars often asked as a form of teasing Black applicants" (Payne 136). Payne eloquently shows the struggles of Black Americans for their freedom, and how difficult the struggle really was.

Each author uses complete and compelling evidence to illustrate his thesis and viewpoint. It is clear they both did meticulous research, and interviewed countless witnesses to the events as they happened in both books. They present both sides of their arguments decently, and try to portray the people in their books as real people, complete with flaws and problems. Carter shows Wallace as a family man and a womanizer, and Payne shows the community of Greenwood as a cotton community ruled by whites and populated by Black workers who support the whites for survival. These are professional historians, who know how to present both sides of an argument, and present compelling information on both sides for their readers.

These books seem as if they could be quite comparable, and they do cover much of the same time in history in the same location. However, they are quite different in their content and perspective. One is a biography of one man that looks at the events occurring around him certainly, but centers on the man, his life, and his influence on others. The other is a compellation of people and events that merge into a cohesive movement that changes history and a nation. These books complement each other nicely, but they are really two different voices from the same era. Reading both of them gives a more complete and balanced picture of what was happening in the South in the sixties, and shows exactly what each side was thinking, and how they simply could not meet in the middle, their needs were far too different. George Wallace may have eventually apologized for his racism, but that does not mean it still does not exist in the South, and that Blacks do not still have to continually fight to be recognized as equals in the minds of many.

Both books were interesting and compelling. Reading them one after the other was far more interesting than simply reading one by itself. The complement each other because they give a more balanced view of the times, but they also are written from different perspectives, so the information presented in each really gives a full view of the South and how Southerners view each other. In addition, they both illustrate the intricacies and back rooms of national politics. Carter shows how one vocal man could influence politics on a national scale, and Payne shows how it took a huge movement to change politics and laws on a national scale. It is an interesting… [read more]

Stability in Government Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,131 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


But in recent years, there have been questions as to whether the U.S. must be having succession problems that less stable countries have faced (Rhodes). If and when this happens, political stability in the Continent will be vastly imperiled. Its economic gains will be affected and so will that of other nations that depend on the economy of the U.S. Its stability cannot fail or other nations will lose confidence in it with a loss of legitimacy as the established world political and economic leader.

All nations need to work out their own systems of government. History shows that the American and British systems have performed better than that of other nations and for a longer period of time. Political instability or uncertainty is expected in smaller, less powerful and politically stable nations, but not in the American system of government. Recent scandals, terrorist attacks, wrong decisions in the White House and other developments illustrate that American political stability cannot be over-estimated or taken for granted any more. This is clearly a new and jolting experience for the American people and their friends in the world and presents itself as a fertile ground for opportunist-enemies to take advantage of.

Elsewhere, economic pressure from without can render a government to become unstable (Marinov 2003), as a study indicates. It is a political reality that many nations are controlled by stronger world powers like the United States and Great Britain, to which state leaders of these weaker governments are exposed. Findings show that such leaders are very often replaced. Sanctions do not prove very effect in many cases but only serve to bring a weaker government down. Destabilizing state leaders who are exposed to outside pressure is a preference.

Sanctions are also an instrument of intervention (Marinov), either as economic recession or civil insurgency. Outside pressures then become more discriminating and less wasteful. Losses from economic growth must be borne by the targeted civilian population as an overwhelming risk.

Domestic political accountability is viewed as a desirable solution to the problem. Those state leaders who are exposed to outside pressures must be more cooperative with the international community, since they are frequently more replaceable. Democratization is a favored approach to re-establishing fully cooperative relationships with such states and domestic political accountability paves the way for that cooperative world order.

The application of civil insurgency and a resulting bloodless popular revolution restored democratic rule in the case of the Philippines in 1986. That popular revolution, now known as EDSA People Power, removed the dictator President Ferdinand Marcos and installed the widow of a slain senator and foremost foe of the President, Benigno Aquino. Marcos ruled the country with an iron had un-interruptedly for 20 years. Marcos was a state leader who was exposed to external pressure, which asserted itself and removed him to install his widow-successor, President Corazon C. Aquino, who was named Woman of the Year by Time Magazine the year after.


Center for Voting and Democracy. IRV Promotes Government Stability,… [read more]

Political Science as Nations Move Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,453 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


The individuals must be able to govern themselves. At the heart of a responsive government, regardless of this formal structure, is a government which allows individual freedoms and self-interest to motivate the citizens.

For example, the Citizens For Responsive Government is an organization which is designed to unify and give a voice to the individual citizens This organization operates in… [read more]

Democracy in America: Analysis Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,571 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+



We can thus conclude that while the government may claim to be taking all these actions to protect us, the fact remains that it is not letting us decide how we want to be protected. The government doesn't include the public in major decisions because it has somehow assumed that it can control the public opinion easily with the help of false media reports. The question is not whether the government is doing the right thing or not, but is it letting us think for ourselves. Are we allowed to decide for ourselves how we would want to be protected? Are we permitted to think for ourselves and decide what exactly is terrorism and who is behind it? Does the government give us enough freedom to use our own yardstick to judge Moslems or other religious groups? The answer to all these questions is No. In the light of recent actions taken by the government, it is clear that we are not allowed to think for ourselves. Our lives and minds are being subtly controlled by the government.


Susan M. Akram, The Aftermath of September 11, 2001: The Targeting of Arabs and Muslims in America, Arab Studies Quarterly. Publication Year: 2002. Page Number: 61+.

Joyce Howard Price. Newspaper Title: Poll Shows Public Wants Saddam Targeted; Government Opinion Split, The Washington Times. October 26, 2001. 6.

John Gray. Happy to Be Handcuffed by the State: Liberals Refuse to Accept That the Greatest Threat to Freedom Comes Not from an Over-Mighty Government but One That Is Too Weak to Guarantee Its Citizens' Safety. New Statesman. Volume: 131. Issue: 4601.…… [read more]

Politics Notions of Modern Democracy Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (717 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


A pure democracy must be small, and often the majority can be just as tyrannical as a minority.

Thus, America has formulated a conception of minority rights. Even members of unpopular minorities have rights cannot be impinged upon by all of the majority's concerns.

Even today, America's own representative system has received criticism from other country's interpreters of the democratic political concept. America's political environment takes the form, by and large, of a two-party structure. Within European Parliamentary systems in Italy, Germany and France, and also in nations such as Israel, diverse political interests are represented by the voices many political parties. This creates an unstable political environment, but conceptually allows a greater influx of ideas into the political public discourse. Is this more democratic? Some might answer yes.

Even in the relatively more coherent political environment of England, the Parliamentary system results in a less divided form of government. When the people speak through elections, the popular will can be more swiftly enacted in a system with less checks and balances built into its structure than America's. Is this more democratic? Again, many might concur.

However, the answer to both questions might be that it is better, in for instance Israel's case, in certain specific national instances to have certain democratic forms of discourse that might not be appropriate to all nations. In smaller nations, for instance, with a great deal of ideological diversity and discussion as to what democracy means within that nation, a multi-party system may be more appropriate. In a nation with few regional bases of political discourse, a more heated political environment might be required, where more can speak in a variety of ideological voices.

But in the United States, which has more diversity in levels of government on local and regional levels, less party diversity on the national level may be necessary, as local ideological and practical concerns have other venues in which they may be aired. Thus democracy's strength as a political concept lies in its flexibility, rather than a rigid understanding of the idea of 'majority rules.'… [read more]

Federalist Paper #10, James Madison Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,547 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


S. Constitution, para 1), it is important to maintain the idea of liberty in any argument to ratify it. The paper does this successfully, and in fact not only maintains the idea, but also implies that liberty would be enhanced through ratification. The Constitution also includes the ideas of representation by population (U.S. Constitution, Article I), and the Federalist Paper defends that idea thoroughly by providing reasons for the masses not to govern themselves directly.

The only weakness of this paper was that the factions were presented in a slightly negative manner. Had James Madison not portrayed the faction members in quite such a negative manner, he may have been able to broaden his audience, and make more people likely to ratify the Constitution. Although the attempts to downplay the negative aspects of factions helped, more could have been done to portray factions as possible problems, but still positive groups.

In general, James Madison provides a well thought out, well argued paper on the justifications for ratifying the Constitution, based on Article I, that of representation. While his arguments may create a negative view of factions, his arguments are in line with the majority of people at that time. His points are well written, and his overall tone is that of educating the people, rather than dictating their actions.


James Madison. "Appendix D: Federalist Nos.…… [read more]

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