Study "Government / Politics" Essays 111-165

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Institutions and International Relations Question Term Paper

… Institutions and International Relations Question Set

How do institutions help states to overcome the barriers to cooperation? You answer should draw most heavily from Sterling-Folker's essay, although Ikenberry provides important insights, too.

In her essay on the barriers to cooperation… [read more]

Party Machines and Immigrants Term Paper

… 2). Helping politicians get elected and stay in office is part of what big city bosses did in the past, and in this area little has changed as well. For instance, Hamilton adds that, "[Lopez] had a lot of control over nominations and in Brooklyn -- in most of Brooklyn still today -- if you get the Democratic nomination that is tantamount to election. As a result, he had a lot of influence over elected officials" (para. 2). As an example of his significant political clout, Hamilton cites the election of Christine Quinn to the position of council speaker due to the intervention and support of Lopez in 2005. According to Hamilton, "Lopez was one of the leaders that supported Quinn, and he leaned on council members in his borough to support her. The strategy ultimately succeeded, in large part, because of the role the county leaders like Lopez played" (2012, para. 3).


The research showed that party machines headed by Frank Hague, William "Boss" Tweed, Abraham Reuf, George Cox, Richard Daley and to a lesser extent, Vito Lopez, have largely controlled how candidates are vetted and elected in many major American cities and even states. By currying the vote of newly arrived immigrants, early 20th century bosses such as "Boss" Tweed were able to run things behind the scenes and keep their cohorts in office despite the blatant nature of their criminal activities. Although these activities were rampant during the early 20th century in the United States and big city bosses no longer run the show, the research suggests that one hand still washes another in many political circles in the country to this day.


Hamilton, C. (2012, September 4). County party chair remains powerful, if poorly understood, position. WNYC News Blog. Retrieved from

Howe, F.C. (1915). The modern city and its problems. Chicago: C. Scribner's Sons.

Judd, D.E. & Swanstrom, T.R. (2012). City politics. Pearson.

Luthins, R.H. & Nevins, A. (1954). American demagogues: Twentieth century. Boston: Beacon


Miraldi, R. (2000). The muckrakers: Evangelical crusaders. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers.

Saetre, L. & Patrizia, L. (2010). Exploring textual action. Aarhus,…… [read more]

Warrantless Use of GPS Research Paper

… Katzin was then arrested, charged, and convicted. In the appeals, the government argued the GPS device did not require a warrant because it represented "only a minimal intrusion on a vehicle…no part of the vehicle is penetrated…Installation takes a matter… [read more]

Education and Politics (Iqbal, Azam, and Abiodullah Research Paper

… Education and Politics

(Iqbal, Azam, & Abiodullah, 2009) (Berry, 2008) (Stiggins, 2008)

The interaction between politics and education

Institutions are a critical part of the social structure. They work in combination and individually to reproduce the social structure. Two of the most dominant institutions in society are education and politics. The relationship between the two is not necessarily reciprocal but rather hierarchal and symbiotic. The educational institutions through schools, universities, and other institutes of learning reproduce the values and norms that reinforce the political system of a country. Both systems are necessary an understanding of their interaction however is dependent on the theoretical perspective that is applied to assess the existing system. Interestingly however there is a competing view that considers education as a "liberal force" (Carnoy 1975). The understanding is that it challenges the dominant systems and creates change.

An institution is a structure or mechanism of social order (Searle 2005). Institutions are the result of patterned ordered behavior over an extensive period of time. The construction and function of institutions differ based on the perspective that is adopted by the analyst. The functionalist perspective considers institutions not only as necessary parts of society but as social constructions that assist in producing and maintaining order. Institutions tend to reinforce the status quo and tend towards conservative action. The emergent nature of institutions suggests that there is no conscious individual action that results in institutions but they are the product of society as a general form.

Russell (1916) posited that education was a political institution (Para 2). This view suggests that educational institutions do not exist aimlessly but they are directed toward specific goals. The impartation of knowledge through educational institutions is a political process as that knowledge is designed to affect the norms and values of the individuals who participate in the political process. Education consequently is a conservative system that will reproduce the types of political systems within a country (Myer 1977).

In a democratic society the educational systems will reinforce the value of democracy. This reinforcing is accomplished through a complex system of teaching, and norms and values transfer. This suggests that education will give predominance to a democratic system as compared to other political systems. This could include presenting democracy as a better system and teaching democratic values to students in the classroom. There is often a thin line between the teaching of values and the creation of a system of propaganda. In many countries educational systems are used to present ideas that are incorrect.

In democratic countries there is a dominance of the idea of freedom and individual responsibility. Freedom is given preeminence over any kind of collectivist notions. Freedom and American "exceptionalism" is a dominant theme within the American educational system. The converse occurs in socialist countries where they would give support to collectivist notions. This practice by governments to use the educational systems to advance their agendas is a form of social control.…… [read more]

World Order Soft Power Non-State Actors Marxism and Constructivism Future Hypothetical System Term Paper

… Globalization, soft power, NGOs, and world order

Soft Power

What is a soft power?

Soft power is a concept that describes the ways and means that a particular nation uses in persuading other nations to accept her policies. A nation… [read more]

Dance Political Dances the Body Essay

… Dance

Political Dances

The body is used as propaganda in politics by having it physically assert and demonstrate the values that a particular political regime embraces. In this respect, there are several different values that the human body is used to translate. In some cultures, such as that found in Ghana during the early part of the 15th century, the physical aesthetic of composure, confidence, and cool is demonstrated by dancers who strive to exude this sort of sentiment no matter how upbeat, colorful, or exhilarating the dance happens to be. In many respects, these same virtues are required to progress through the political system in place, which is a primarily pyramidal in nature with the king figured most prominently, and lesser rulers following him.

Some of the European dances, such as ballet, appear to be overtly political. The degree of angularity that these dances require, with very tailored, specific movements, seem to reinforce the notion that people must ideally stay in their place and follow order. Such order, of course, is usually found in the royal court, which is where much of the ballet during the time of Catherine de Medici and Louis XIV took place. Again, it is noteworthy to mention that following such order was the way in which nobles could hope to advance in political rank and clout. The refinement of the movements in Catherine de Medici's ballets helped to convey a staid sensibility that was overtly political. This fact is particularly true in view of the fact that oftentimes these dances would be performed by the nobility for other nobles. Therefore, the political agenda of rulers, (both Catherine and Louis) were effectively transmitted to the right people.

The political use of dance that appeared the most impactful of the many reviewed for discussion in this document is the Japanese Bugaku. One of the principle reasons why this dance creates such a lasting impression is due to the fact that it appears to take the values exemplified by the other types of dances, both European and African, and magnifies it. One of the points regarding Bugaku that I think is significant is the fact that it represents most empires in the sense that it incorporates aspects of outside cultures and effectively appropriates them. A good example of this aspect of the dance is the fact that it incorporates elements of Buddhism into the religion that was endemic to Japan, Shintoism. Also, it is significant to note that this dance is indicative of several different cultural facets of Japan. Japan has historically been a patriarchal society. As such, the only practitioners of Bugaku are men, which is representative of the fact that men have run the country for years.

Additionally, all of the restrain and composure that is denoted in African and…… [read more]

Orwell George Orwell 1984 Eerie Essay

… This suggests a frighteningly pliable nature of the human mind, when it is brought up from cradle to grave to believe certain ideas. Corporations are even accorded the legal status of 'people' in current American society and can support political candidates. 1984 suggests that bureaucratic institutions are so overwhelming they can change language and create new false 'truths' -- and corporations are not necessarily different than the government in their ability to do so.

Within our own society, thanks to the expansion of social media, we are also seeing a shift in the way in which privacy is redefined which is fundamentally not orchestrated by the government. Although arguably since the passage of the Homeland Security Act after the attacks of 9/11, the federal government has been more aggressive in monitoring the actions of every citizen, what is even more surprising is the extent to which people are willing to share their lives voluntarily on Facebook, YouTube, and Twitter. In doing so, they enable companies to more accurately monitor their buying behaviors in a Big Brother fashion. This can be seen every time you go online shopping -- compare the prices of a few pairs of shoes, and ads for the shoes will 'follow' you around the web, clearly showing a kind of 'intelligence' in how one's behavior is being monitored.

In contrast to the citizens of 1984, consumers are willing to make all aspects of their private lives public, presumably to gain a sense of social connection with others. In 1984, true sociability, such as what exists between Winston and Julia, is shown to exist in private, but today unless something is proclaimed on Facebook, there is a question as to whether it is truly relevant. (There is a jokey meme which reads: 'that workout was pointless because I forgot to include it in my status update'). Despite the fact that it could be potentially dangerous to 'check in' with Foursquare that you were dining at a Starbucks on 5th Avenue, if someone was stalking you or wondering if your apartment was unoccupied, or the fact that potential employers can check your Facebook profile picture to see who your friends are and what you like to do in your spare time, people continue to expose themselves, with no specific outside prompting. In 1984, Winston Smith is fighting for a private life, but today people seem to be fighting to give theirs up. Through the use of language, images, and automatic monitoring of our behaviors through voluntarily chosen technology like an iPhone, there is no need for corporations to try very hard to monitor us.

Identity is very pliable in the new online world -- just as Emmanuel Goldstein becomes a demon when at once he was a saint, negative information can spread very quickly today. The pliability of information in the virtual age and the ease with which we can delete information would also be envied by those in control over the society depicted in 1984. Smith has a… [read more]

American Government Response Summarizing Reaction Paper

… In fact, many of the duties that had once been the responsibility of Congress have been transferred to agencies within the Executive Branch. People may not like the bureaucracy because of the viewpoint that this system does not get things done effectively, but the text explains that this is the best possible system given the type of government we have and the many responsibilities of the different agencies.

Reaction to the Readings:

The Bureaucracy is a very complicated entity and the subject of a great deal of confusion on behalf of the American people. People, on the whole, do not like the bureaucracy. Many American complain that it is the bureaucracy which is negatively impacting the country and making it impossible for politicians to get anything done. To some degree these concerns are valid, but it also oversimplifies the issue. In a representative government, the American people vote for individuals to perform the actions of running the country because it would not be possible for all the people of the country to participate in the governance all the time and still have the ability to perform the other tasks necessary to daily life. Not everyone can have politician as their profession. In this same vein, it is not possible in this large society for elected officials to carry out all the government's tasks. Some people need to perform the duties related to education and others have to spend their time working on funding, regulating, and organizing the American military. No one can be in two places at once and therefore people have to be assigned to departments on which they can focus and make sure everything that needs to be done is taken care of. Because of this reality, the bureaucracy is a necessary and unavoidable entity in the United States today.

However, the amount of power that some of the bureaucratic departments has acquired in the nation is unquestionably something of a problem. The military is one of the groups that people point to when they talk about the bureaucracy and unchecked levels of power. America's military has a great deal of money given to them every year. They comprise a good sized chunk of the American budget. Unfortunately, they are also such a large entity that their complete workings are unknown to most people including those involved in the governance of the country. Such a great deal of power and the knowledge that actions will largely go unchecked breeds corruption. When there is a large amount of money going around and people performing tasks without any kind of review, it is likely that they will use the opportunity for self-interested reasons rather than doing their duty to the American public.

Works Cited:

"The Executive Branch." 204-28.

Wilson, James Q. "The Rise of the Bureaucratic State." The Bureaucracy. 298-302.

Woll, Peter. "Constitutional Democracy and Bureaucratic Power." The Bureaucracy. 302-310.… [read more]

Governments Should Limit Their Interference Essay

… When the state allows bad banks to fail, the entire system receives that market feedback and responds according, managing assets more efficiently.

A counterargument is that government intervention in markets can guide those markets towards superior results. Joseph Stiglitz (1996) cites East Asia's so-called tiger economies as an example of state intervention that guides economic growth rather than hinders it. However, Krueger (1990) notes that government intervention in development often has the opposite effect. Highly distortive policies are common, examples being neglect of key infrastructure, credit rationing and restrictive trade policies. Government intervention, then, can only spur economic growth when it is intervention of the right type. That brings us back to the points about corruption and centralization. Most government intervention is unfortunately driven by the desire to control resources, and to allocate those resources to those with access to government figures. This unfortunately reality -- a human failing -- highlights why the market and not government should be relied upon to allocate resources.

It is a shame that voters in America only face a binary choice with respect to the role of government in the economy. Government interventions only distort market signals, creating perverse incentives and adverse outcomes. Removing corruption and poor policy choices frees up resources to be used more efficiently that when the whims of government officials dictate their usage. When people are free from such interference, economic growth is the natural consequence.

Works Cited:

Ehrlich, I. & Lui, F. (1999) Bureaucratic growth and endogenous economic growth. Journal of Political Economy. Vol. 107 (6) 270-293.

Krueger, A. (1990). Government failures in development. NBER Working Paper #3340. Retrieved November 16, 2012 from

Manor, J. (1999). The political economy of democratic decentralization. The World Bank. Retrieved November 16, 2012 from

Qian, Y. & Weingast, B. (1999). Federalism as a commitment to preserving market incentives. Journal of Economic Perspectives. Vol 11 (4) 83-92.

Stiglitz, J. (1996). Some lessons from the East…… [read more]

Dillon's Rule: Help or Hindrance? Research Paper

… "

This remark lucidly demonstrates the implications of keeping Dillon's Rule: communities would suffer from having an antiquated form of legislation regulating their actions. Society has progressed in leaps and bounds: it is no longer the 1800s. This was a type of legislation that was drafted when people were still relying on the horse and carriage as their main means of transportation. The implications of keeping this form of legislation are dire as they represent a constriction of values and possibilities for communities, not to mention further contention and debate between state and local governments.

The implications of repealing Dillon's Rule are more promising. While supporters of Dillon's rule might feel that such an act would allow corruption to seep in, that's simply an overly simplistic way of looking at the scenario. Corruption will flourish in politics if people allow it. In fact, in this day and age when mass media is at its finest and more people are educated as to the basics and nuances of politics and there's a high level of transparency, there's a greater opportunity of local government by for and of the people, something which Dillon's Rule is essentially preventing via its restriction and narrowness.


While many of the laws which govern this country are originate from hundreds of years ago, this doesn't necessarily mean that the bulk of our laws should originate from hundreds of years ago. Legislation needs to adapt with the changing times and the failure to allow it to do is taken out on the people. When cities refuse to acknowledge how a vintage law is narrowing the possibilities and effectiveness of local governments simply out of a fear for corruption, those communities are setting their citizens up to have a lower quality of life. Ultimately, communities need to begin in abolishing Dillon's Rule.


Boulter, D. The Dillon Rule and Fairfax County. Accessed November 14, 2012.

Retrieved from

Fauntroy, M.K. Home Rule or House Rule? Lanham: University Press of America, 2003

Gargan, J.J. Handbook of Local Government Administration. New York: Marcel Dekker

Press, 1997.

"Home rule presents advantages, drawbacks" accessed November 14, 2012, retrieved from:

League of Women Voters. Dillon's Rule: Bad or Good for Local Governments? Fairfax

Area Education Fund, 2004.

Marx, P. We the People: Your Constitution in Action. Culver City: Good Year Books,


Nowlan, J.D. et al. Illinois Politics: A Citizens Guide. Chicago: University of Illinois

Press 2010.

Sembor, E.C. An Introduction to Connecticut State and Local Government. Lanham:

University Press of America, 2003.

68 Virginia L. Rev. 693 (1982) Accessed November 14, 2012. Retrieved from



What is Municipal Home Rule?" accessed November, 14, 2012 retrieved from

Pamela Marx. We the People: Your Constitution in Action. (Culver City: Good Year Books, 2001) 18.

John J. Gargan. Handbook of Local Government Administration. (New York: Marcel Dekker Press, 1997) 34.


John J. Gargan. Handbook of Local Government Administration. (New York: Marcel Dekker Press, 1997) 35.

Edward C. Sembor. An Introduction… [read more]

Aristotle and Plato's View of Slavery Essay

… Slavery for Plato and Aristotle

In the Ancient Mediterranean cultures, the institution of slavery took on a number of meanings. It could mean debt-slavery, or as a punishment for a crime; or enslavement of prisoners of war. Primarily, slavery was… [read more]

Difficult to Find a Time Essay

… The author of the paper was convinced that England could only survive if the revolutionary ideas of the Jacobins were stamped out (Canning). This can be seen in the vitriol that different political sides spew in modern political circles. Many believe that it has never been worse and the hate is intensified by websites that promote the evil of one political entity or another. The problem with that logic is that reading a sample of The Anti-Jacobin proves that people have exhibited the same amount of disgust (and possibly more) in times prior to this one.

It is easy to see that politics, and the language that follows the practice, has not changed over the centuries. It is likely that an examination of even more ancient writings would reveal the same thing. Politics breeds discontent and argument, and these writings are simply an affirmation of that statement.


In what way does the plight of the knife grinder coincide with poor people in present times?


The friend of man believed that the knife grinder was brought to his occupation because of the government or of some rich, non-caring oppressor. In the current political atmosphere, people blame governmental policies or the division between the wealthy and poor as a reason for their own circumstances.

This question helps the reader examine how little the political discourse has changed in over two hundred years.

Works Cited

Canning, George. "The Anti-Jacobin." Web.

Frere, John Hookham. "The Friend of Humanity and the Knife Grinder." Web.

More, Hannah. "Village…… [read more]

Reaganomics or Voodoo Economics Helped Research Paper

… William F. Buckley, the founder and editor of the National Review, is a clear manifestation to this. He clearly articulated the ideals of conservatives even before the 1980's. The writer's assertion that Reagan's ascendancy to power and presidency made the conservatives to clearly and vocally express their views is very true. President Reagan gave voice to the opinions of the vast majority of Americans with the Bully Pulpit of the American presidency. Reagan was a great communicator. This is evidenced in the way he defined conservatism. He asserted that the heart and soul of conservatism is libertarianism and the basis of conservatism is a desire for less government interference. This made him connect easily with the ordinary citizens.

The goals and values of conservative movement like the rule of law, fiscal conservatism, limited government intervention, individual responsibility, strong family values, and attention to the core values of Judeo-Christian Ethics, as the writer puts, can be summarized into overall reduction of taxation, the policy of rolling back communism, strengthening family values, and enhancing conservative Christian morality.

When Reagan ascended to the presidency, politicians began courting the powerful Christian right for their votes because they were capable of articulating their desires, a departure from the past when they were shouted down by less than shy liberals. This made the conservatives a significant force in the American politics as the writer notes. Issues relating to family values and pro-life positions were openly talked about. It is…… [read more]

American Political Behavior Mid-Term Essay

… The users of social media are mainly youth in the society. The last election broke the record for the highest voter turnout by the youth thus the significance of social media in the society. The youth were able to communicate with each other and realize the need for change in the political environment in the nation. The president also used the internet to collect funds for his campaign. The use of the internet also allows wire of funds electronically to promote a candidate (Hendricks & Denton, 2009).

4. How have changes in where we obtain information about politics affected political behavior? Specifically discuss the decline of newspapers, the changes to television, and the impact of the Internet.

Newspapers are among the oldest modes of communication used to communicate information in the nation. Newspapers' publishing takes place daily thus the deviation in information is normally 12 hours. Events that happen today often published in the next day's paper affect the reliability of this form of communication mode. The invention of the television gives audiovisual information to the viewer and information received aired at the time received. The use of the internet has improved the coverage of information within a nation. The quality of information derived from the preferred source and timeliness differs. Although newspapers are slow to deliver current information, they give detail as the editors have time to compile and release the information. Information from the newspaper considered as the conventional way to obtain news thus still used by many people.

There has been a decline in the use of newspapers with many people preferring televisions and the internet. The television provides footage of events happing in the nation. This mode of providing information to the public does not require the effort of reading and provides current information. The use of the television is wide in the nation thus many politicians use the media to engage with the citizens. The use of television allows the people to listen to the policies supported by a politician thus enable them to make their choice during election period. The internet is the latest technology affecting the political environment.

Politicians have been able to use the internet to gain support from the people. Politicians have used the internet to address the key issues affecting the members of the society through their websites. Many political parties have websites regularly updated to capture the activities of the party. The websites list the policies supported and how it aims to achieve the policies. Another reason for the decline of the newspaper is the production of the digital newspaper made possible through the internet. The internet has improved the content that the people have access. The problem is that there is a lot of information on the internet that some sites may give misleading information to the reader. The use of blogs has enabled people to give their opinion that has negatively affected the field of politics. Political parties that have a great following have been able to… [read more]

Internet and Politics Essay

… Internet and Politics

What challenges does the internet present to the authoritarian rule?

The Internet is a direct threat to authoritarian rule. This is occurring through the rapid spread of this technology to different regions around the globe. During times of oppressive activities by these regimes, communication is often cut off to various regions. The focus of the government is to brutally crackdown on dissent and opposition. This means that they must prevent any kind of communication with the outside world. Once this occurs, is the point that the government can conduct operations which are targeting these groups (with little to no international interference). (Gold, 2011) ("Syrian Diplomats defects," 2012) ("Can Social Networking Overthrow a Government," 2011)

The Internet is a threat to these regimes by allowing graphic images to be released. This is when the activities of the government will face greater amounts of scrutiny. Moreover, this medium is used by the opposition to organize and coordinate activities. For authoritarian regimes, this is challenging their authority by giving other groups the ability to question their legitimacy and policies enacted. (Gold, 2011) ("Syrian Diplomats defects," 2012) ("Can Social Networking Overthrow a Government," 2011)

What are the ways that the internet challenges political authority in non-democratic or quasi-democratic countries?

The Internet has directly challenged the political authority in authoritarian nations. A good example of this can be seen by looking no further than the events that were occurring in Syria and Libya. In the case of Syria, this is occurring through different images that are posted on Facebook and You Tube. Since the uprising began in 2011, these images were used to rally and strengthen the opposition. It has also provided direct evidence of the atrocities that are being committed by the government (which has resulted in a series of sanctions against the Assad regime). This has led to a large number of high profile defections…… [read more]

Community Participation Examining and Weighing Essay

… Because of the numerous, public failures of public administrators and government officials, many communities will not cooperate without representation and participation in legislation and activities such as community participation and community engagement.

There is also growing recognition on the part… [read more]

Democratic and Republican Parties Essay

… For example, the recent Libertarian presidential candidate Ron Paul argued that the federal government should not intervene in the private lives of Americans, except to forbid abortions. Given that he has a substantial following, it seems likely that many people are not bothered by such a contradiction.

American public opinion is generally not well informed as can be seen by the fact that so many people are happy to embrace clearly dishonest claims, such as the "birther" claims or the belief that loose gun-regulation laws make society safer.

Essay Three

Two ongoing sources of conflict among American political ideals are the role of the federal government in the regulation of behavior. For example, the last two years have seen scores of laws introduced (with many enacted) that limit the access of women to family planning. This conflicts with the powerful idea that Americans are a free people. Another conflict currently being played out is the one between the idea that anyone can become rich and the backlash against the one percent (including Mitt Romney) who seem to be playing by a set of rules that benefits only them. Romney's ascendency suggests that there is in fact a liberal elite that runs the country; however, there are incursions of populism such as the Civil Rights Movement and the Tea Party.

Americans vote at lower rates because the country is so much larger than European nations that it is harder to create a sense of national purpose and identity; because European nations have parliamentary systems that allow for more nuanced political debates, allowing more people the chance to feel that there voices are heard; and because Europeans, having in many cases a less divisive and more functional government, are not as alienated…… [read more]

Branches of U.S. Gov Term Paper

… The judicial branch is made up of the United States Supreme Court and of lower federal courts. The legislative branch is charged with hearing court cases and interpreting legislation (Trethan, 2012). The Justices appointed to the Supreme Court are chosen by the President and confirmed by the Senate; furthermore, this Justice positions are lifetime appointments. When it comes to public policy, the legislative branch is charged with ensuring that the public's rights are not violated and ensure that laws and policies passed at state levels adhere to Constitutional requirements, thus setting precedence and determining if laws are unconstitutional thereby protecting the public from unfair discrimination. One of the most influential Supreme Court cases affecting public education was Brown v. Board of Education, which determined that laws that established separate public schools for black and white students was unconstitutional.

In order to ensure that none of these branches of government has more power than another a system of checks and balances was instituted. For example, the President's power is checked by Congress, which has the power to "refuse to confirm [the President's] appointees…and has the power to impeach, or remove, the president" (Trethan, 2012). Likewise, while Congress has the power to pass laws, the President has the power to veto them; in these cases, a two-thirds majority vote in Congress can override vetoes. Additionally, while the Supreme Court determines the constitutionality of a law, Congress has the power to amend the Constitution (Trethan, 2012).

Working in conjunction with each other, the three branches of government help to influence how policies and laws are made and how they are interpreted. Furthermore, through a system of checks and balances, these branches cannot function without each other and rely on each other to maintain a stable and functional government.


2011 Executive Orders signed by Barack Obama. (2012). National Archives. Retrieved 17 July

2012, from

Bill Summary & Status, 111th Congress (2009-2010), H.R. 3808. (2012). The Library of Congress. Retrieved 17 July 2012, from

Brown v. Board of Education. (2012). National Park Service. Retrieved 17 July 2012, from

Huisman, J. (2010, September 14). An outline of American government. From Revolution to Reconstruction. University of Groningen. Retrieved 17 July 2012, from

Trethan, P. (2012). The branches of the government. Retrieved 17 July 2012, from… [read more]

Government Constitution Essay

… States also have authority reserved to them. This separation of powers does overlap and from time to time leads to problems which then have to be resolved according to the other components of the Constitution (Kelly, 2012).

What is public policy? Explain. What purpose does it serve?

Public policy manifests the general sense and universal conscience of the citizens as a total that extends throughout the state and is applied to matters of public well-being, security, and welfare. It is universal, well-settled public opinion relating to the responsibilities of citizens to their fellow citizens. It brings in something that varies with the changing economic needs, social customs, and moral ambitions of the people. Public policy enters into, and influences, the performance, implementation, and understanding of legislation (What Is Public Policy, 2012).

Public Policy is the implementation framework under which governmental and non-governmental organizations work to determine one or more social, financial or political issues of a society. It defines the roles and responsibilities of a variety of agents in the system and the share and allocation of resources to decide the issues. It is significant because its consequences proliferate through the total cross section of the society directly or indirectly. The policies take the shape of providing incentives that support certain behavior over another or disincentives to dampen particular actions. The significance of public policy can also be stressed in terms of the scale and cost of its implementation which makes any changes to be made in the latter stage extremely expensive and therefore it is fundamental to provide maximum effort and resource in its design.


Features of the Constitution. (2008). Retrieved from

Kelly, M. (2012). Overview of United States Government and Politics. Retreived from

What Is Public Policy? (2012). Retrieved from… [read more]

Thomas Abraham Clark Was Born Essay

… This would make him a Federalist. He also believes that the property of the wealthy elite must be protected from the masses, something a strong national government could accomplish. Whipple also feels the common people should have little or no voice in government and that government should be left to the elites who know how to run it, a definitive Federalist view.

7. I am undecided about Clymer Fitzsimmons because he demonstrates both Federalist and Anti-Federalist tendencies. His belief in a large, well armed militia, as well as his being a frontiersman demonstrates his independence and individuality. Add to this his satisfaction with the Articles of Confederation and he could be an Anti-Federalist. But seeing how the British are still a threat, a strong national government is the best way to defend America's independence; a Federalist view.

Part 2:

1. Because laws are a way to restrict a person's individual rights, the more laws enacted the more individual rights are restricted. This is the reason laws in America were made to be difficult to enact and should be. The United States was founded on the principle of individual rights, it would be wrong to enact so many laws as to give up all our rights.

2. The United States is a large and diverse nation. Since sometimes the same political party can be quite different in different parts of the country, simply voting on party lines does not always truly represent the local population's will. By having Congresspersons represent individual areas of the country, political views from…… [read more]

Corruption in Government Essay

… This explains why autocratic governments actually actively participate in the corruption and why even governments that are attempting to reform their style of economy such as China still strongly maintain the areas of their economy that are most susceptible to corruption such as banking, the stock market, telecommunications and transportation. Maintaining such control allows the government to ensure that corruption will be minimized until such time as safeguards can be put in place that guarantee that the rule of law and a more transparent governmental structure can be organized.

Corruption or at least concerns about corruption also offer autocratic governments a scapegoat when the need arises. From time to time autocratic governments must purge a group or individuals that they consider to poise a possible threat and accusing such group or individual of corruption is an easy method of tagging the group or individuals for removal. This system was used repeatedly in Soviet Russia and Communist China to cleanse the government of possible threats.

In democratic societies corruption is a serious problem but, except in very isolated occasions, the problem is short-lived and easily resolved. The ballot box and legal system serve as a lifeline. In an autocratic system of government, however, the same safeguards are not present and corruption actually serves a useful purpose for such governments. Through the tacit allowance of corruption the government is able to ensure its continued existence and by observing such operations from outside step in and apply control when it serves its purposes.

Although corruption is universally declaimed as an evil it can be demonstrated to a positive factor in the governing of autocratic style regimes. In fact, as demonstrated herein, autocratic governments may actually depend heavily upon the continued presence of corruption in order to ensure their existence. As such, corruption serves a valuable purpose in autocracies.

Political Corruption… [read more]

2012 Political Campaign Funds Term Paper

… President Obama is so far one of the best candidate who have managed to raise a considerable amount of funding. He is leading other potential candidates in a significant amount of money. However, one of the main issues relating to… [read more]

Conflict Neg Essay

… Obama's tendency to compromise indicates the same: a desire to resolve conflict. Unfortunately, Obama believes that compromise creates win-win scenarios when in reality, compromise creates lose-lose scenarios.

Authoritative command would not work in the Washington scenario, and neither would altering the structure of the organization because the roles are firmly fixed in government procedure. Therefore, the best tactics for negotiation would be to reveal the ground rules for each party. Boehner is obviously self-interested and concerned about keeping his position as Speaker. He also needs to please the "base" of his party. However, it was apparent that the abortion bill was not as important to him as he was first letting on. As mediator, I would make sure to discover exactly how important the abortion funding issue was; and encourage him to perhaps reconsider his stance given the constitutional issues at stake. The Democrats did not effectively assert their needs and desires in this situation. It was unnecessary even to entertain the Planned Parenthood issue, especially in light of the fact that it was compromised out of the ultimate agreement.

In the end, "all three were trying to camouflage weaknesses with bluffing and public confidence," (Kane, 2011). With an effective mediator who could illuminate the principles of good negotiation, weaknesses could be turned into strengths. The Biden/Obama/Reid side might have seen that they came from a relative position of power, and could use the opportunity to assert a mandate. The Boehner/Republican side of the conflict might have seen that they could better clarify the goals of their party rather than remain as wishy-washy as the democrats.


Kane, P. (2011). Budget battle came down to 3 men and their weaknesses. Washington Post. Retrieved online:… [read more]

Corporation and Money Affecting Politics in American Research Paper

… ¶ … nation has recently been rocked by the activities of lobbyist Jack Abramoff (Curtin). His activities as a lobbyist eventually landed him in jail but, along the way, the companies and organizations that hired Abramoff benefited from the efforts… [read more]

International Community to Know Research Paper

… The Libyan affairs have put a serious question mark on the United Nations and the role that they are playing. United Nations intervened in the local state of affairs of the country which is not in their jurisdiction. This has had an impact on the global politics and that has changed the face of international relations specially the relations of under developed nations with the stronger nations. The Libyan movement has challenged the credibility on the United Nations. The United Nations Security Council stepped in and seized all the assets of Gaddafi and had forward the case to the International Criminal Court for further investigation. On the 20th October Gaddafi was captured while he was escaping from Sirte and was killed in the process. The death of Gaddafi marked the independence of Libya and an end to the war.

These movements were not only limited to the less developed or the Arab nations instead they were spread all over the world. European nations were faced by the Euro zone crisis. Spain felt the effects of high level unemployment. While Greece had to face the backlash of Euro zone crisis as there economy became unstable. The Occupy Movements aimed to make the economic system fairer and give rights to the lesser developed nations.

The Protestants have indicated a failure to the theory of realism. Realism now must consider that the focus should what a country must accept in the changing times. Realist theories seem fit for the utopian world and do not apply in the current scenario. It is hard to justify the fact that the powerful states and state actors will continue to dominate the weaker states. It is not restricted to international politics and international affairs instead it is the human nature which can be found in families and professional organizations as well. The secular liberals of the revolutionary states, which were mentioned in the previous section, they all spoke for the ideas of liberal pluralism. The main themes of the protests were mostly for the minority rights and preached tolerance. Most of the protests were headed by the liberal parties who demanded an end to the political structure and a change in the dynamics of the politics. The revolts last year were not only relevant for the local or regional politics instead they had a huge impact on the international politics and…… [read more]

American Government Should the President Research Paper

… American Government

Should the President of the United States have authority to remove officials that the U.S. Senate has confirmed?

A bit of government history is needed here to make this answer complete. The Congress of the United States passed… [read more]

Chinese Acquisition of Nuclear Weapon Research Paper

… ¶ … Chinese acquisition of nuclear weapon, which may cause national security threats against the United States, is a matter of much concern. The research addresses the following research question:

What are the national security reasons for the U.S. involvement… [read more]

Political Science in My Opinion the Realties Research Paper

… Political Science

In my opinion the realties of what is required to run for either the House of Representatives or the Senate are not strict enough considering that none of them are very successful at what they do. Those that… [read more]

Second Treatise of Government by John Locke Essay

… Locke's Second Treatise Of Government

Property development is South Florida is a contentious inasmuch as it involves incursions into the Everglades, which are considered as having unique environmental value from which the region, state and country benefit. The state has… [read more]

Role of Government Term Paper

… The President should not have the power to decide when another branch of what is supposed to be a separated government is in session, or any other such control over them, any more than Congress should be able to tell the President whether or not he can have a conversation with a foreign leader.

These issues are particularly reprehensible coming from a candidate who campaigned on being a constitutional scholar who would respect the separation of powers. Between signing statements, skirting his constitutional limits on appointments and ignoring the War Powers Act, Obama has shown that he is just another politician who rails against opponents when they have control and skirts constitutional limits and hypocritically ignores them when they take power.


Baker, P. 2010. Obama Making Plans to Use Executive Power. New York Times. 12 Feb 2010.

Fiegerman, S. 2011. Congress Approval Rating Hits All Time Low. The Street. 21 Dec 2011.

Immigration Policy Center, 2009. Enforcing Immigration Laws. American Immigration Council. Last Accessed 12 Jan 2012. URL:

Matthews, M. 2012. How Obama Sucker Punched Republicans on the Budget. Forbes. 12 Jan 2012. URL:

Milbank, D. 2012. Mitt talks money. Orlando Sentinel. 10 Jan 2012.

Scalia,…… [read more]

Honest Graft Essay

… Honest & dishonest graft.

According to Plunkitt, the difference between honest and dishonest graft is simply that honest graft lies in seeing opportunities and taking them. Plunkitt gives the example of property that he bought that, hearing a certain location will be in demand, he proceeds to buy the property before later selling it at a higher price than before. What Plunkitt was doing, in this and similar cases, was investing his money in areas that would later be in demand and, therefore, proceed for a higher price.

According to Plunkitt, most politicians get rich the same way rather than through robbing the government by dishonest graft, I.e. By profiteering from their political activities and diverting money that is supposed to be for the government into their own pockets, by gambling, or by blackmailing certain institutions.

Plunkitt also sees raising wages as a kind of honest graft since he (and other who do so) makes himself popular that way thus receiving votes.

I happen to agree with Plunkitt in the first instance (regarding investment), but think that raising wages should be implemented for reasons other than for solely gaining popularity. Plunkitt seems to imply that were he not in a political position, he may not accord fair salary / benefits. I also think that penalizing certain institutions is not 'blackmail', as Plunkitt calls it, but a way of regulating their concerns. Plunkitt, wishing to profit from these organizations, may have refrained from fining them. I find Plunkitt's reasoning disturbing.

Section 2. Plunkitt & drinking

Plunkitt sees drinking as detrimental to the person who wants to make a success of it in life. According to him, successful businessmen, including politicians, are temperate. They may sell liquors to others, in order to make a business, and they may befriend drinkers (cautiously) but they know that in order to retain they're thinking and calculating abilities and in order to attain positions of prestige, they had better let liquor alone.

Plunkitt provides many examples of this, from the successful politicians of Tammany Hall to the Bowery leaders and the most successful saloon keepers who understand that temperance is a business deal.

Section 3. Plunkitt & political party bosses in the Democratic Party

Plunkitt thinks that the Democratic Party should reserve itself to studying human nature rather than confine itself to studying politics and theories of politics from books. People are most persuaded by those who talk down to their level and address them in practical form living with them and understanding what they are going through rather than quoting at them from books.

Plunkitt, accordingly, sees that the Democratic party has a future ahead of it as long as the political party bosses would get down to the level of the masses and speak to them in their tongue.

He also urges the bosses to abolish "iniquitous and villainous civil service laws' that are effecting jobs and corporations. With the bosses doing this he…… [read more]

International Political Order Is in a State Essay

… ¶ … international political order is in a state if anarchy. Discuss.

Similar to all politics, international politics is basically about conflict management and the re-creation of the community. The nature of such politics is more than the combination of… [read more]

Parties and Party Systems Essay

… 161). Mass populous support exists in both examples and drives political participation and populous voting, to determine the "platform" which will dominate the control function of the party (Sartori, 2005, p. 224). This popular support is reciprocal to governmental control and influence, in other words the popular support is fed by the perceived power of control and is the basis to some degree of that very control, through voting and economic support by members and non-members in agreement on issues.

Out of necessity mostly in response to funds needed especially for major election races as well as to maintain continuity and momentum in the party creates internal mechanisms to control infrastructure and funding. Funds are necessary for the party to function in and out of the election process and the party must have some semblance of control over this issue

The education aspect is also important in regards to funding as it is usually the third most important funding direction in the system. Funding has been a major issue regarding how the cost of elections dominate the election field, creating strong two or limited party completion for real control in government. Funding is of course also necessary for the functioning of the party itself and for it to fill the party role of educator to the public, some who support it and others who are in contention but most importantly the party serves as the main source of information about not only opinions but candidates for office themselves, which to some degree allows the party to dictate what information the populous gets regarding the candidate (Ware, p.106). This effects the system in that it creates a sense of homogeneity between the party platform and the candidates, themselves if one exists or not. Funding internally and externally will likely continue to be a huge issue for political parties, especially in the U.S. As regulations and demand for them dominate the climate of the party system.


Katz, R.S. (2008) "Political parties," in Daniele Caramani, ed., Comparative politics.

(Oxford: Oxford University Press,), pp. 293-317.

Sartori, G. (2005) Parties and party systems: a framework for analysis. Colchester, UK: University of Essex Press.

Ware, A. "The classification of party systems," Chapter 5 in book Political

parties and party systems (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1996), pp. 147-183.

Ware, A. (2008) The American direct primary:…… [read more]

Characteristics of the Nation State and Transnational Entities Essay

… ¶ … Institutions

Describe the characteristics of the modern nation-state.

With the collapse of the pluralistic empires in the 19th Century, there arose the nation states as well as the continued development of the transnational entities that have widely influenced… [read more]

Theory and Context: Institutional Choice Essay

… However, the role that bureaucracies play as organizations is not well examined from that specific view which is one that is reported to "run counter to principal-agent relationships that must be predicated on a zone of acceptable behavior between such parties." (Meier, 2003) Meier states that what is needed are models that give consideration to the "utility functions of politicians and bureaucratic agencies without relegating the latter to a constraint on the optimization problem facing the former." (2003) Moe notes the fact that the "…norm of reciprocity within Congress are not products of explicit choice but have emerged informally over time through repeated interaction and adaptive adjustment among participants." (2011, p.215)


From the literature reviewed in this brief study it is clear that there are many theories and accompanying models that attempt to explain the processes of bureaucracy however, each of these touches upon normative principles and the manner in which bureaucratic structures and accompanying actions, reciprocal actions and reactions are established within the framework of what is considered as 'normal' thereby demonstrating that no matter what theoretical framework one may construct the model and understanding of bureaucratic organizations upon the normative theory comes into play in gaining an understanding of the structure, processes and workings of any bureaucratic agency.


Derthick, M. (1990) Agency under Stress: The Social Security Agency in American Government. Washington, DC: The Brookings Institution.

Meier, K and Krause, G (2003) Conclusion: An Agenda for the Scientific Study of Bureaucracy, u in Krause and Meier (eds.) Politics, Policy and Organizations: Essays in the Scientific Study of Bureaucracy.

Miller, Gary (20000 Rational Choice and Dysfunctional Institutions.u…… [read more]

Establishing a New Government Essay

… Establishing a New Government

In order to construct from zero a country with a functioning government based on democratic principles several steps are necessary in order to identify the most suitable opportunities available.

The first steps are to make an external non-biased analysis of the new country taking into account the most important elements: geography, demography, social and economic conditions of inhabitants and especially recent history. The latter would allow an understanding of the political and people's psychological situation as the new country of Kramer might have been born out of a conflict with another state or states, or from an interior conflict. This, alongside identifying the main leaders of the society, is very important in the construction of any new state as it lowers political pressures on the future governments. Therefore, a serious analysis should be made on the solidity of the people that have requested assistance in organizing a new government, of their background and most of all influence and trust of the Kramerian population.

A government can be organized by either an external party or an internal number of actors. As no institution appears to exist in Kramer, it appears logic that the first steps in creating fundamental laws and institutions could be made by representatives of the people in conjunction with the external party which should be a recognized international authority like the United Nations. A temporary working group of representative leaders from the Kramerian society and international advisors should be formed to put into motion the first steps towards a free and democratic society.

As the most important act in the political formation of the country is the Constitution, the temporary working group should identify national and international experts and community actors that would engage in a closed doors debate on drafting the Constitution. After the final draft is ready, this should be opened for a public debate that would also involve citizens, creating therefore a sense of responsibility and unity. As such a process takes time and a country needs to also develop its basic skeleton, the temporary working group should either request international logistics support or use the existing one (if the case) to offer citizens some of the basic needs: security, shelter, basic nutrition and health resources and communication methods.

After the finalization of the Constitution, that would lay in theory all the necessary institutions and relations of the state with citizens and other states, a significant number of the population should give its agreement on the document either in a massive public gathering or, if in place, by voting. More technical issues that are also very important relate to the creation of a flag, an anthem, a capital city and to identify or build state buildings.

The next steps would be related to the final actions of the temporary working group…… [read more]

Political Compromise and Politics Public Essay

… Fritz Hollings (Congressional Record 1990:S4901) which asserted that tariff's on footwear were needed because these "protected" the American consumer yet again from "threats of runaway prices" for shoes (Boudreaux & Lee, 1997). Other examples cited by the authors include Rep. Ed Jenkin's (Congressional Record 1986: H9386) argument that all "basic industries" in the United States had to receive protection from "imports" because if they were not, the U.S. "would not be able to lead the free world that all of us want to lead" (Boudreaux & Lee, 1997). Such statements are illogical and used to brainwash people into thinking the government is acting on behalf of the people, when self-interest is at heart.

Compromise IS necessary, but the politicians governing compromise must consider how much the weight of their decisions will affect others. Glaser (2006) makes an important point, noting that when compromise is necessary, it is much more beneficial to redirect attitudes of the political minority so they understand why the prevailing ideology is important to pass. Much of the time the consideration involves the vote of consumers. Every politician has to pay a price for their choices, and typically this comes in the way of votes. Voters typically vote for those politicians who constantly support the majority ideology at the time; thus a politician will "compromise" to provide such an ideology, whether or not it matches their own. Sometimes the desire for voting rewards leads to the passage of policies that are not beneficial when one performs a cost-to-benefit analysis, which can damage the country over the long-term (Boudreaux & Lee, 1997).


The long-term ramifications of political compromise can be beneficent or damaging, depending on how well special-interest campaigns mesh with the needs of voter's and the nation as a whole (Glaser, 2006). It is critical that a government remember they are in place to represent a people, and not merely special interest campaigns whose goals include securing votes. When the needs of the majority are met, then more likely than not the government will remain viewed as a solid structure in the minds of the governed. However, as more and more compromised are demanded, the legitimacy of governmental bodies can only come into question in the future.


Bourdreaux, Donald & Lee, Dwight R. 1997 Winter. Politics as the art of confined compromise.

Cato Journal, 16(3). Cato Institute. Retrieved:

Bovard, J. 1991. The fair trade fraud. New York: St. Martin's Press.

Glaser, J.M. (2006). Public support for political compromise on a volatile racial issue: insight from the survey experiment. Political Psychology,…… [read more]

Government: An Unviable Solution Essay

… e., America's Civil War) and would be foolhardy to suggest that a "one-size-fits-all" governance solution is available to satisfy the needs in this increasingly globalized setting.

In this regard, Weiss also notes that, "Applying the notion of 'governance' to the… [read more]

Urban Politics Brick City - Season Essay

… Urban Politics

Brick City - Season One, Episode Four: Circus

"Circus," the fourth episode of the documentary television series Brick City, contrasts the garish entertainment of the Ringling Bros. And Barnum & Bailey Circus with the gritty, daily existence of life in Newark. Newark's Mayor Corey Booker has been attempting to revitalize the reputation of Newark, which has often been stereotyped as crime-ridden and depressed. Attracting major entertainment figures, particularly 'family' entertainment figures such as the circus to Newark, is part of Booker's campaign. The episode contrasts the circus with images of the city's residents, to show the distinction between the image that Newark is attempting to project to the world and what is real -- both the images of a former gang member turning his life around as well as that of urban residents talking about the costs violence has had upon their lives and families.

Brick City contrasts hopeful gestures, like the measurable reduction in homicides by the Newark police and the attempts of characters like to forge a new existence, with the fact that deaths still happen. The video shows how both gang members and police officers alike mourn the deaths of members of their group and also how members of the circus dare to do the impossible -- just like the residents, everyone lives in hope. One of the greatest strengths of this video is the humor and the evident earnestness of Corey Booker as he welcomes the animals and performers to Newark. The contrast between the beautiful elephants and the highways of Newark is poignant and effective, illustrating how the circus and the constructed, urban environment of Newark both look unnatural. However, as well as tragedy and difficulty there is also joy. The image of a tightrope performer, suspended over Newark's buildings becomes a symbol of Booker's attempt to walk a tightrope between sensitivity to the crime that still exists and his desire to create a new and better Newark. "Every day my life is a circus," the mayor admits.

According to one reviewer of Brick City: "There is tragedy aplenty in these five hours, but also comedy and political intrigue and, yes, black people having a good time" (Sepinwall 2009). The mayor's staff is shown relaxing and interacting with one another as human beings and ordinary residents are shown in a full manner, in their strengths as well as their weaknesses. One of the most powerful feats of strength shown on the video is not that of the…… [read more]

European Union a State Research Paper

… Whereas, the democracy provided by the EU is mainly "with the people" and "for the people" and is mostly done through this vast process of the intermediation of the interest; this is also known as "Community Model" (Schmidt and Monnet,… [read more]

Government Preferable in a Presidential Essay

… The federal government originally was far weaker than it now is, states held far more responsibility in concerns such as currency, trade, and even the states military.

One problem of a divided government is the presence of considerable deadlock and conflict between issues among the divided parties. This problem does not happen in parliamentary systems, since the ruling party controls all functions of government, and the minority party can merely voice its opinion. The slowness of the presidential system is frustrating for many observers, as controversial legislation is often not even presented in divided congresses, so that one party can seek to pass that legislation during a time of one party rule. This means legislation that is passed during divided government is usually weaker, less controversial, and less costly than in divided congress times.

Ultimately, the presidential democracy system's strengths in stability outweigh its negatives in speed of enacting legislation. A weak executive branch is important to such a powerful country as the U.S., and a breakdown in responsibility to the legislature allows the executive branch to manage a country the size of the U.S., and a divided system of houses in the legislature allows smaller states some more say in the nations affairs. I believe the founding fathers of the United States setup government in this manner to ensure the maximum amount of balance and stability inherit in the system, unwilling to risk the dominant ability of a parliamentary system. Enabling the balance of powers is what the founders sought to unite the states, both big and small, but also to undermine the powers of the president, a position which was feared to be as powerful as a monarch, which had just been shed in the…… [read more]

Would the World Better Without Government Essay

… Govt

A world without government sounds great. The governments of most countries are corrupt and politics presents many problems for people. In some places, the elected officials end up suppressing the rights and freedoms of individuals. Other countries have tyrannical… [read more]

Politics International Relations Analysis Essay

… Group dynamics in a particular ethnic context, coupled with negative perception of "the other" and subjective images have been and often are a recipe for disaster. This was the case in the Rwandan Genocide and in the Bosnian Wars in the 1990's, and is, sadly, the norm in the Democratic Republic of Congo today. This part of the paper, due to limited writing space, will only focus on the Rwandan Genocide and the Bosnian Wars of succession in the break-up of Yugoslavia in Europe with an attempt to explain these traumatic events for the countries involved, and what can be done to avoid them in the future.

Such seemingly singular events in humanity as the Rwandan Genocide and the Bosnian Wars should have no precursor and no successor. They should be anomalies. Sadly, this is not the case. Not only was the Rwandan Genocide not the first such event (it was preceded by the Holocaust, after all) it was not the last. Around the same time that Rwanda was happening, the Bosnian-Serbian wars began in Eastern Europe. Though the two issues are completely different in causes and events, they are similar in that the perception of "other" led to mass atrocity.

When looking at these nations (Rwanda, Bosnia and Serbia), all of which are peaceful today, it is hard to believe that less than two decades ago people were being slaughtered in their streets, in their houses, and thrown in mass graves with no respect. This kind of inhumanity towards fellow man is hard to accept, much less describe. But some nations, as seen from this analysis, do engage in genocide. They can do so because various groups are threatened by various factors, including a negative concept of "the other" (which may be a person with a different ethnicity or religion or both) or simple financial and political reasons. Often, the negative concepts within society reinforce other reasons, and vice versa, creating a complex cause to violent conflict. The negative concepts fostered in these societies are also further reinforced by factors such as financial differences, ethnic dominance of one group over the other, media encouragement, etc. In fact, both in Bosnia and Rwanda, the media played a great part in facilitation and even encouraging the mass killings. In both, financial or political differences (such as those between Hutus and Tutsis in Rwanda historically), also played a big part in both conflicts.

The reality of genocide is acute, as these examples show. It is also quite disheartening that mass killings are still happening around the world today, most notably in the Democratic Republic of Congo. However, there are solutions to ending mass violence. Often, even in our society, there is intra-group hostility. This kind of hostility can contribute to ensuing chaos, and must be one of the most important issues examined to help bring about an end to mass violence. What can prevent this kind of hostility is often help: be it social, financial or political. For example, in the Congo… [read more]

Karl Marx Communist Manifesto Book Report

… Karl Marx and Frederick Engels argue for the empowerment of workers in the Communist Manifesto. The historical context in which Marx and Engels wrote was one in which labor was devalued and the owners of the means of production had… [read more]

American Government the Five Main Principles Essay

… American Government

The five main principles that form the basis of the Constitution are Popular Sovereignty, Separation of Powers, Checks and Balances, Limited Government, and Federalism. Popular Sovereignty indicates that people have the most important role in government. Today, it… [read more]

American Government Branches of the Federal Essay

… American Government

Branches of the federal government

The Federal Government consists of three distinct branches and they are the legislature represented by the Congress, judiciary represented by the Supreme Court and the executive represented by the President of the United… [read more]

Political Philosophy Research Paper

… Government

Political Philosophy

Political Philosophy: Government

The role and function of government has over the centuries been at the centre of debate and even conflict among various political theorists and activists. The question of what the "job" of government should… [read more]

Habits of the Heart by Robert Bellah Term Paper

… Habits Heart

Creating a Government of Citizens

In his book Habits of the Heart, Robert Bellah makes an argument that the individualism embedded in modern American society and culture is having a detrimental effect on the government of the United States, and specifically on the relationship between the citizens and their government. There are definitely benefits to the American sense of individualism, at least in a pragmatic (Bellah uses the term "utilitarian" or "economic") sense, but Bellah argues that the cynicism and suspicion with which people view their government is ultimately counterproductive and inefficient. The argument that is built in Habits of the Heart is multi-faceted and quite complex, but and examination of certain of the key points Bellah makes regarding individualism and its conflict with the collective good in this country leads to some understanding of the issues facing our government as framed in this book. One very clear fact emerges from this examination: striving towards collectivism is fraught with too many disagreements and barriers to be accomplished in a way that still upholds the ideals of democracy.

A large part of the problem that Bellah notes in the citizens' relationship to their government in the United States comes down to the definition of success that is associated with individualism, at least in Bellah's view. Bellah contends that, "Americans define success in terms of the outcome of free competition among individuals in an open market" (198). The concept of citizenship, then, has more to do with the way individuals can take advantage of the current system of government and business, rather than a sense of civic duty or a striving towards the common good. As this is how success is defined throughout society, it makes sense that the individuals who hold government offices would define success the same way, and it is precisely this striving towards individual gain by…… [read more]

2007 Election in Kenya Was Bitterly Research Paper

… the 2007 election in Kenya was bitterly contested but it was the events following the election that caused the most concern. In an election campaign that took place over an entire year, incumbent president, Mwai Kibaki, was re-elected to be President. His re-election, however, required the intervention of the United Nations secretary Kofi Annan and the brokering of a deal in which Kibaki's election challenger, Raila Odinga, was appointed prime minister. The deal ended a long period of violence that broke out following the December 2007 election.

Entering the period of the election Kenya had been considered by political experts to be the most stable government in Africa but this claim was belied by the fact that bitter fighting broke out subsequent to the election. Incumbent Kibaki was declared the winner by the country's election commission but Odinga supporters were unconvinced and charged that the commission had rigged the tallying of the votes (Ongiri).

In the severe violence that followed the election more than 1,000 people were killed and thousands more fled what had been ethnically mixed areas. In a nation where segregation had never been an issue it suddenly became one (Amnesty International).

The primary issue in the election and the reason for the subsequent violence was related to alleged corruption in the Kenyan economy . Kibaki's government had some successes in the area of education and had been able to bring some growth to the Kenyan economy but Odinga and his followers questioned Kibaki's methods. Kibaki had entered office in 2002 on the coattails of promising that he would address corruption in the Kenyan government. Corruption in Kenya, based on old tribal connections, had been a problem for some time prior to Kibaki's election and, in the view of Odinga and his supporters; it had not improved in Kibaki's tenure in office. For Odinga and his supporters, Kibaki's re-election was further proof of this corruption.

Political corruption in Kenya is based upon the century old tribal alliances. Tribal members take care of their own by providing jobs and overlooking the criminal and unethical activities of their members. For many years the Kikuyu tribe, the largest in Kenya, has dominated politics and economic life in Kenya. Other…… [read more]

U.S. Government the United States Democracy Term Paper

… U.S. Government

The United States democracy and government can be considered to be one of the most important political structures of the modern times. From the point-of-view of the principles it entangles, it is created according to the 18th century… [read more]

Return of the Market Retreat of the Progressive Agenda and New Public Management Article Review

… Return of the Market

The reinvention strategy is when you are reducing the total amount of oversight and you are changing the focus of government. This occurs by increasing accountability / discretion among administrators, versus eliminating the way the hierarchy is structured. This would have a tremendous impact, upon the way government services are delivered. A good example of this can be seen with Temporary Assistance to Needy Families. As it would specifically address the five different areas that Page identifies for understanding government accountability to include: legal oversight, improved supervision, professional training / norms, political voice and market exit. Legal oversight is when there is greater flexibility in the program and specific objectives that are identified. Improved supervision is when there is more authority is given to individuals that are dealing with the public, versus various bureaucrats. Professional training / norms is when case workers are helping clients to support themselves, instead of ensuring that they qualify for a particular program. Political voice is when the entitlement of guaranteed benefits and rights are removed. Market exit is when the clients are indicating that the new program is more effective in comparison with the previous one. This is significant, because these different changes would refocus the way various government services are delivered to the general public. (Page 166 -- 197)

When you put these different elements together, this highlights how the reinvention strategy is changing the way various services are delivered to the general public. As it is no longer throwing money at the problem, instead, this policy is prudently utilizing government funds where they will have the greatest impact possible. At which point, the effectiveness of the programs increase, because they are holding each person accountable for their own actions. In many ways, one could argue that this is changing the way administrators are interacting with the general public.

Two areas of importance from the Blacksburg Manifesto are: the overall size of government and the relationship between capitalism / government. In this case, these two issues are challenging because the size of the bureaucracy, can mean that the different services being provided are ineffective at addressing the needs of the people.…… [read more]

Gubernatorial Election Term Paper

… Politics

Gubernatorial Election

This country's economic anguish is seeping into the gubernatorial contest in Ohio, that has Gov. Ted Strickland, a Democrat, running against John R. Kasich, a Republican and previous congressman. Ohio may be the most pivotal of swing… [read more]

Accountability in the Public Sector Article Critique

… ¶ … accountability in the public sector is largely dependent upon the ability to evaluate performance. Any quality improvement initiative requires some type of formal and informal monitoring process so that progress can be evaluated over time. Therefore, performance improvement… [read more]

Cook, "Franklin Roosevelt's Fundamental Intention Article Critique

… ¶ … Cook, "Franklin Roosevelt's fundamental intention by the beginning of his second term was to place public administration at the heart of a new American political system" (p. 98). In fact, the New Deal could be said to be… [read more]

Causes for the Public to Trust and Not to Trust Government Research Paper

… ¶ … Government and trust [...] recent headlines and five causes for the public not to trust government, and five causes for the public to trust government. In today's volatile political world, it is hard to know who to trust and who not to trust. However, the media often reports items with their own "spin," making it even harder to know who to trust and who not to trust. With recent headlines in mind, here are the five reasons for the public not to trust government, and five reasons they should trust government.

Do Not Trust the Government

Lobbyists - While several administrations have decried the great influence lobbyists have on Washington, none of them have come up with any ways to curb this influence. Voters cannot expect their legislators and administration to do what is right for them when they take enormous amounts of money from lobbyists and their Political Action Campaigns (PACs). The people's will can never be served by politicians who owe their elections to lobbyists and PACs, and that is one big reason not to trust government overall.

The Political Parties - There is so much backbiting, fighting, and hatred between both poles of the parties that government comes in second. Republicans fight anything the Democrats try to do, and vice versa. There is no longer working together in government, it is just a battle between the parties, with neither one actually accomplishing anything worthwhile. The health care bill was cited as an example of non-partisanship, but in reality, it is a watered down pathetic attempt at fixing an incredibly complex problem. As long as the parties continue to battle, the American people suffer, and that is another reason not to trust the government. It is not about us, it is all about them and their political aspirations.

Do Not Keep Their Promises - Even in the best of administrations, they make promises they cannot keep. George H.W. Bush said "no new taxes," and then raised taxes. Barack Obama said he would close Guantanamo Bay, and has not done it, and sent more troops to Afghanistan. They should stop making promises they cannot keep, another reason not to trust government.

They can Manipulate the "Truth" - There were no weapons of mass destruction in Iraq, enough said.

They Have Their own Agendas - The governments of North Korea and China show what happens when governments get too much power over the people. Anything or anyone that has that much power is not to be trusted. They serve their own agendas rather than the agendas that are best for the people, and for that reason, they are untrustworthy and often corrupt, as well.

Trust the Government

Social Security - Social security may have funding issues, but it is a good practice for aging Americans. It was never meant to be the only source of…… [read more]

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