"Government / Politics" Essays

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Return of the Market Retreat of the Progressive Agenda and New Public Management Article Review

Article Review  |  2 pages (724 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


Return of the Market

The reinvention strategy is when you are reducing the total amount of oversight and you are changing the focus of government. This occurs by increasing accountability / discretion among administrators, versus eliminating the way the hierarchy is structured. This would have a tremendous impact, upon the way government services are delivered. A good example of this can be seen with Temporary Assistance to Needy Families. As it would specifically address the five different areas that Page identifies for understanding government accountability to include: legal oversight, improved supervision, professional training / norms, political voice and market exit. Legal oversight is when there is greater flexibility in the program and specific objectives that are identified. Improved supervision is when there is more authority is given to individuals that are dealing with the public, versus various bureaucrats. Professional training / norms is when case workers are helping clients to support themselves, instead of ensuring that they qualify for a particular program. Political voice is when the entitlement of guaranteed benefits and rights are removed. Market exit is when the clients are indicating that the new program is more effective in comparison with the previous one. This is significant, because these different changes would refocus the way various government services are delivered to the general public. (Page 166 -- 197)

When you put these different elements together, this highlights how the reinvention strategy is changing the way various services are delivered to the general public. As it is no longer throwing money at the problem, instead, this policy is prudently utilizing government funds where they will have the greatest impact possible. At which point, the effectiveness of the programs increase, because they are holding each person accountable for their own actions. In many ways, one could argue that this is changing the way administrators are interacting with the general public.

Two areas of importance from the Blacksburg Manifesto are: the overall size of government and the relationship between capitalism / government. In this case, these two issues are challenging because the size of the bureaucracy, can mean that the different services being provided are ineffective at addressing the needs of the people.…… [read more]

Gubernatorial Election Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,121 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2



Gubernatorial Election

This country's economic anguish is seeping into the gubernatorial contest in Ohio, that has Gov. Ted Strickland, a Democrat, running against John R. Kasich, a Republican and previous congressman. Ohio may be the most pivotal of swing states, and national administrators know that the victor of the governor's race will also influence which party has the benefit in the 2012 presidential fight (Davey, 2010). This gubernatorial race is set up to be a very good one. Currently polls are showing that the race is a toss up. Strickland's occupancy as Governor has been shaky, as the state has lost both jobs and population. He has come under heavy criticism when an intern misplaced a list of state employees and their social security numbers. His job approval ratings have fell under fifty percent. Strickland originally trailed GOP Congressman John Kasich in their head-to-head matchups. Kasich is a former Congressman and chair of the budget committee that fashioned the country's last balanced budgets. But Kasich has something of a weak spot in the fact that from 2001-2008 he was employed by Lehman Brothers, the investment firm whose fail precipitated the financial system collapse of 2008. Strickland has hit Kasich hard on his connections to the bank, and just might be able to use these connections to seal the congressman's destiny (Ohio Governor - Kasich vs. Strickland, 2010).

Ohio's electoral significance as a swing-state is continually highlighted by operatives on both sides of the aisle. And the resources put into the state's governor's race have altered it into an actual proxy for Obama's 2012 reelection bid. Currently, the effort that national and state-level Democrats have put into the race doesn't show to have put Strickland over the top. While Strickland trails Republican John Kasich in public polls, he closely leads in his own surveys and expects to overcome the gusto gap with organizational force. President Obama sees Ohio as a firewall in his 2012 reelection endeavor, and having a friendly governor would be a key asset (Hayden, 2010).

Economic troubles have hit the state hard. Ohio's unemployment rate of ten percent persists to be higher than the nation's rate of 9.6% after the worst recession since the Great Depression. It is thought that Strickland might pay the price for this. Strickland, disputes that Kasich, embodies Wall Street values and has supported policies that cost Ohio jobs. Kasich, points to what he says is Strickland's failed pledge to turn around the state's stressed economy (Sanner, 2010).

The outcome of the election has repercussions for U.S. House elections in Ohio from 2012 through 2020. The state lawmakers next year will redraw the congressional districts using census data, with boundaries drawn to help or hurt a party. Ohio's next governor will help persuade where the lines are drawn, and also have the authority to veto the plan. Similarly, the next state leader could be vital to supporting or opposing Obama's effort to stay in the White House. Obama won Ohio with fifty one… [read more]

Accountability in the Public Sector Is Largely Article Critique

Article Critique  |  3 pages (1,042 words)
Bibliography Sources: 7


¶ … accountability in the public sector is largely dependent upon the ability to evaluate performance. Any quality improvement initiative requires some type of formal and informal monitoring process so that progress can be evaluated over time. Therefore, performance improvement is linked to the concept of managing for results (MFR), in which some kind of output and outcome performance indicators are institutionalized and monitored, usually in accordance with predetermined goals. Moynihan and colleagues, in their 2003 article, Look for the Silver Lining: When Performance-Based Accountability Systems Work, examine how these goals are stated, and how realistic they are in practice, in the context of results-based government.

According to Moynihan et al. (2003) in order for MFR systems to be effective, "there must be very serious commitment to purposes, processes, and outcomes, as well as to increased transparency-characteristics markedly absent in the implementation of results-based reform at the federal level" (p. 470). MFR systems have been examined at length in the United States, primarily through two key projects: The Government Performance Project (GPP) and its sister project, The Federal Performance Project (FPP). The five primary systems examined in these projects are as follows: (1) financial management; (2) human resources management; (3) information technology management; (4) capital management, and (5) managing for results. Moynihan et al. note that the criteria-based models upon which these assessments were reliant provide an exceptional data collection tool that can be used to assess public management systems both effectively and gainfully. As such, they call for the criteria-based grading of state governments as a means of increasing transparency and providing clearer benchmarks of evaluation.

The first step in developing a performance-based budget format is for government administrators and policymakers to formulate goals and objectives for various activities or services provided by each department or organizational unit. The next step involves developing performance measures that are valid indicators by which to gauge whether goals and objectives have been met. While states vary in their procedures, ultimately, a link between cost and output must be made, thereby permitting an evaluation of the efficiency and effectiveness of the endeavor and the development of management responses. According to Moynihan et al. (2003) MFR legislation in many states details exactly the type of information to be featured in agency strategic plans or budget proposals" (p. 484). However, in some states, this MFR link is only an indirect one whereby objectives, spending levels and trends, and performance outputs for a department or activity are reported in separate sections clustered together in a budget document.

As strong proponents of performance-based accountability, Moynihan et al. are convinced that their inclusion promotes efficiency, effectiveness, and accountability, and ultimately improves management. However, the authors are aware that certain drawbacks exist as well. Opponents complain that performance objectives are often arbitrary and selected purely because "good" data already exist, thereby minimizing the need to establish new, expensive data collection and analytic mechanisms. Another shortcoming is that some indicators selected are not valid measures of the outputs they are… [read more]

Cook, "Franklin Roosevelt's Fundamental Intention Article Critique

Article Critique  |  4 pages (1,110 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


¶ … Cook, "Franklin Roosevelt's fundamental intention by the beginning of his second term was to place public administration at the heart of a new American political system" (p. 98). In fact, the New Deal could be said to be the primary catalyst for the development of public administration as we know it today. Virtually all of Roosevelt's reform and reorganization efforts placed public administration at the center of their implementation.

Roosevelt did not invent public administration per se, but he transformed it into a new system that was designed to cater to the needs of the people by being responsive to the social issues that were souring the public on the concept of democracy. He created many new agencies and government authorities such as the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) and the Federal Housing Administration (FHA),that continue to play extremely significant roles in public administration today. Thus it could be argued, the greatest hallmark of Roosevelt's influence on public administration was not necessarily the implementation of new public administration agencies, but the longevity of those agencies and their continued influence on society.

Cook also points out that the "intents and purposes" of the so-called Third New Deal were the most expressive and influential in terms of their impact on public administration development. The Third New Deal was a launching pad for Roosevelt's second term and his concentration on fiscal economic policy and reorganization of the executive branch of government, as opposed to the labor and social welfare reforms highlighted in his first term.

Works Cited

Cook, Brian J. Bureaucracy and Self-Government. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1996.

Question 2

O'Toole asserts that the concept of separation of powers arose from dissatisfaction with the status quo, rooted in problems with the patronage system that emphasized the need for administrative reform. In his article, O'Toole demonstrates how this tension between administration and democracy created the politics-administration dichotomy that resulted in the separation of powers doctrine. As such, a system of checks and balances arose out of a foundation of mistrust. This is not to say that such a system could ever entirely eradicate suspicions of corruption, misdeeds and personal agendas that did not put the people first. However, it helped to create a stronger sense of transparency and, in turn, reassurance, than that which had previously existed.

The 1883 Pendleton Act indicated that appointments should be made "from among those graded highest." It was understood that Congress, in a separation-of-powers system such as the United States, could not unduly limit the president's powers to appoint and remove executive branch officials. Thus, there had to be some discretion allowed to appointing authorities. The 1921 Budgeting and Accounting Act represented the first time the President was required to submit a budget to Congress, thus decreasing his executive power.

The politics-administration dichotomy was rooted in the notion that the power of public administration fell into the hands of those with most permanent status. It was the administrators' responsibility to carry out programs, while value… [read more]

Causes for the Public to Trust and Not to Trust Government Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (954 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


¶ … Government and trust [...] recent headlines and five causes for the public not to trust government, and five causes for the public to trust government. In today's volatile political world, it is hard to know who to trust and who not to trust. However, the media often reports items with their own "spin," making it even harder to know who to trust and who not to trust. With recent headlines in mind, here are the five reasons for the public not to trust government, and five reasons they should trust government.

Do Not Trust the Government

Lobbyists - While several administrations have decried the great influence lobbyists have on Washington, none of them have come up with any ways to curb this influence. Voters cannot expect their legislators and administration to do what is right for them when they take enormous amounts of money from lobbyists and their Political Action Campaigns (PACs). The people's will can never be served by politicians who owe their elections to lobbyists and PACs, and that is one big reason not to trust government overall.

The Political Parties - There is so much backbiting, fighting, and hatred between both poles of the parties that government comes in second. Republicans fight anything the Democrats try to do, and vice versa. There is no longer working together in government, it is just a battle between the parties, with neither one actually accomplishing anything worthwhile. The health care bill was cited as an example of non-partisanship, but in reality, it is a watered down pathetic attempt at fixing an incredibly complex problem. As long as the parties continue to battle, the American people suffer, and that is another reason not to trust the government. It is not about us, it is all about them and their political aspirations.

Do Not Keep Their Promises - Even in the best of administrations, they make promises they cannot keep. George H.W. Bush said "no new taxes," and then raised taxes. Barack Obama said he would close Guantanamo Bay, and has not done it, and sent more troops to Afghanistan. They should stop making promises they cannot keep, another reason not to trust government.

They can Manipulate the "Truth" - There were no weapons of mass destruction in Iraq, enough said.

They Have Their own Agendas - The governments of North Korea and China show what happens when governments get too much power over the people. Anything or anyone that has that much power is not to be trusted. They serve their own agendas rather than the agendas that are best for the people, and for that reason, they are untrustworthy and often corrupt, as well.

Trust the Government

Social Security - Social security may have funding issues, but it is a good practice for aging Americans. It was never meant to be the only source of…… [read more]

Impact of Politics on Program Evaluation and Vice Versa Research Paper

Research Paper  |  5 pages (1,467 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Politics and Program Evaluation

Getting from Good to Best:

The Role of the Politics in the Evaluation of Public Programs

Any program designed for the public good is by its nature inextricably linked to politics, not only through motive but in many instances through more practical elements as well. The political system provides the directives and often the financial support… [read more]

Rethinking the Politics of Development in Developing Article

Article  |  10 pages (3,255 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Rethinking the Politics of Development in Developing Countries

This paper discusses developing countries and their politics, largely based on a speech at the Business as Usual Conference in Melbourne earlier this year. The speaker opens her commentary by saying, "The rise of public and scholarly interest in globalization and politics is a new phenomenon. Over the past decade, the liberalization… [read more]

Paradise and Power: Robert Kagan Author Book Review

Book Review  |  5 pages (1,791 words)
Bibliography Sources: 7


¶ … Paradise and Power: Robert Kagan

Author Robert Kagan borrows from the title of a pop culture book -- Women are from Venus, Men are from Mars -- to illustrate the great difference in the 21st Century between Europe and the U.S. On the third page of his book (Of Paradise and Power) he asserts that "Americans are from… [read more]

Cosmopolitanism and Liberalism in Power and Politics A-Level Coursework

A-Level Coursework  |  3 pages (1,457 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Cosmopolitanism and Liberalism in Power and Politics

To under the topic, one must first understand what is involved when talking about Cosmopolitanism and Liberalism. Cosmopolitan is a derivative of the Greek word "kosmopolites" which means citizen of the world. Cosmopolitan views reflect the idea that all humans are from one community that needs cultivating, regardless of political affiliations. The view… [read more]

Trust in Government Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (872 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Trust in Government

Trust in the United States Government: A Tale of Vacillation

The United States of America is a country that has been built on and perpetuated by a series of binary oppositions. The Patriots (or Rebels) and the Loyalists disagreed about the very need for a revolution and the formation of a new country in the New World, the Federalists and the Anti-Federalists disagreed about the degree and level of federal government the fledgling democracy ought to establish, and the current opposition of the Democrats and the Republicans is ostensibly built on a primary difference of opinion about the size and level of intrusion that should be characteristics of the federal government. All of these situations can be seen as emblematic of the issue of trust vs. mistrust of the federal government, and while the pairs listed here coexisted in this disagreement, there are also periods of observably greater trust alternating with periods of more extensive mistrust that can be traced throughout the progress of American history.

The early days of the country following a successful end to the Revolutionary War actually created one of the largest and most profound eras of distrust in American history, when the very loose Articles of Confederation established the only form of national government on the continent. The period leading up to the Civil War was also a period marked by a sharp mistrust of the federal government on both sides of the Mason-Dixon line, and even the relatively recent Republican domination of Congress in the 1990s can be seen as the result of growing mistrust of the federal government on the part of the American people. The effects of this mistrust have been highly varied in degree and direction, but the existence of this mistrust itself is a matter that can hardly be disputed.

The American Revolution established the schism with the British monarchy and government on no uncertain terms, but it did not establish a clear system of government or even a necessarily more trustworthy one; the Articles of Confederation conferred the vast majority of governmental power upon the states, rather than creating a small central government, precisely because there was a mistrust of such strong central power. In the decades leading uyp to the Civil War, both the North and the South feared fro what would become of their country if the representatives in the federal government were too heavily influenced by one side or the other; this mistrust was a large reason for the South's secession and the North's aggressive stance in the government. The election of 1994, which saw an overwhelming takeover of…… [read more]

Politics Space Democratic Transitions Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,931 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+


Modern society also wants certain rights such as the roles of women and the roles of the ethnic and religious minorities. So you see, choosing a particular nation to adopt a democratic foundation is much more complicated than at first it seems.

And finally sir, there is little doubt that our foreign policies will indirectly master the experiences of specific countries who are undergoing democratic transitions but in no way should we promote the possibilities of democratic consolidation. Every democracy is not the same. Consider China. Although they have gradually adopted more democratic principles in the realm of the economic and social tiers, the government has no intention of fully adopting the American style democratic process in the political tier. Each country has their own idea of what democracy means so our foreign policies should do all it can to improve our situation.

We, as a nation, dictate global policy because we are the ones holding the biggest stick. We can point out the constructive view of our proposed foreign policy. There is an idea that suggests that all nations possessing nuclear weapons should be considered to be dangerous and the nation that holds more weapons than anyone else would make them the most dangerous. If the underlying principles of constructivist thinking allows for significant weight in social and subjective force, not objective material force, then our material forces really do matter. At one time, the shoe was on the other foot. Consider the United States foreign policy over two centuries ago before it became a superpower. "Washington's foreign policy focused on keeping what he called 'strict neutrality' in the midst of European conflicts. Great Britain and the other European monarchies were fighting against the French revolutionary republic. Washington came in for more Democratic-Republican criticism when he signed in 1795 the Jay Treaty, a trade treaty with Great Britain. This treaty settled the United States' outstanding disputes with Britain." (Badertscher) When someone else is holding the bigger stick, it is much easy to be humble and compliant. We no longer have to be Mr. President.


Elliot, John. (2000). "How Clinton Created A New Love Affair." New Statesman. 04/03/2000, Vol. 129, Issue 4480, p30, 1p

Badertscher, Eric. (2005). "George Washington." George Washington; edited by Sara Ann McGill. P 1-4, 4p.

Solomon, Jay. (2009). "U.S., India Expand Counterterrorism Cooperation." Wall Street Journal Online. (2009). Retrieved on December 15, 2009, from online.wsj at http://online.wsj.com/article/SB125907299030362349.html

Stein, Janice Gross. (2008). "Foreign Policy Decision-Making: Rational, Psychological, And Neurological Models." Retrieved on December 15, 2009, from http://www.oup.com/uk/orc/bin/9780199215294/smith_ch06.pdf… [read more]

Politics Six Questions &amp Discussion Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (2,113 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


2. Modernist Protestants and Catholics were strongly Democratic

3. Non-Latino Catholics, historically Democratic, shifted the majority of their votes to the Republican candidate.

4. John Kerry gained voters amongst those religious voters who considered themselves unaffiliated, but their turnout overall did not change.

5. Though still largely Democratic, Black Protestants and Latino Catholics supported Bush at levels much higher than in 2000.

6. For voters with strong religious feelings, foreign policy matters and economic issues were much more important than were issues like abortion or same-sex marriage, traditional points of interests for this type of voter. Nonetheless, social religious issues, the latter above, were still more important for religious voters who voted for Bush than they were for Kerry's voters.

Question #6: Polls

Polling is now a standard feature of political campaigns, in which candidates use polls to garner information about voter desires and demands, and how best to tailor the campaign to appeal to a broad enough base to secure victory. It is, in essence, a kind of survey that is used to question a universe -- a universe being a particular group from whom answer are desired. In the case of political campaigns in an election, a typical universe would likely be the entire breadth of potential voters; thus national campaigns would focus on a much larger universe than would local or even state campaigns (Burner and Rosenfield). Modern polls, thanks to the efforts of polling pioneers like George Gallup, take into account a wide slew of demographic information such as age, sex, income, and geographical region in order to determine how voters feel about a particular candidate or issue, and how they are likely to vote. Using these polls, political candidates often make decisions about whether or not they should pursue one course of action over another. Further, criticism has often been leveled at pollsters for creating a bandwagon effect in which in addition to control over politicians actions, it also has an effect on undecided voters by encouraging them to 'go with the flow'.

There are many considerations that must be taken into account when polling besides the makeup of the polling universe. The type of sample taken will inevitably have a profound effect on the results that are produced. Random sampling suggests that any warm-bodied person is a potential candidate for interview, regardless of demographic consideration. It is something of a shotgun approach to polling. Quota sampling attempts to improve upon random sampling by applying demographic controls to potential interviewees in order to enhance the relevance and reliability of the polling results. Cluster sampling works by selecting separate groups out of the larger polling universe to interview in order to tailor results for specific groups such as working mothers, or students. Of these sampling methods, quota sampling should be considered to be the most reliable, at least in those cases when pollsters are interested in understanding trends for the entire polled universe rather than just one cluster within it.

Works Cited

Burner, David and Rosenfield,… [read more]

Electrical Decay Thesis

Thesis  |  6 pages (2,032 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 4


Electoral Decay

In the book, Politics by Other Means, Benjamin Ginsberg and Martin Shefter consider the state of democracy in the United States and its relationship to the format that politics and political goals are assuming at the beginning of the 21st century. The main argument appears to revolve around the generally low voter turnout during presidential elections, and the… [read more]

How According to Aristotle Does Political Rule Differ From the Rule of the Slave Master Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  2 pages (576 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1



Aristotle's Politics

Aristotle covers a great many human relationships that he feels fall under the sphere of "politics," by which he essentially means the wielding of power between human individuals and over other human individuals. There are different political contexts, Aristotle asserts, where different types of political relationships are called for. These contexts are made up of different people, with different objectives and a different derivation of authority.

Two main divisions can be drawn between a master-and-slave type of rule, and a political rule. The former is proper, according to Aristotle, in cases of natural slaves, and even of the rule of a husband and father over his wife and children, though the two cases are not entirely the same (I. 4-8; 12). Political rule, however -- that is, the rule of the state over its population -- must remain more inclusive and equitable by definition, for "a state is a community of freemen" (III.6). If despotic rule were introduced at the state level, the polis wouldn't truly be a polis, but merely the household and goods of the despot/oligarchy.

The goals of these two rule types also differ considerably, though not as much as the modern reader might assume. The master-salve relationship has the ultimate goal of benefiting the master; though the master suffers if the slave dies, the primary goal of the rule is still the benefit of the master. The goal of rule over the wife and children of a man, however, is the greater good of those governed (III.6). This is more akin to the goal of political rule, which endeavors to promote "noble actions" and the good life for al of its citizens (III.9). Just political rule, however, is more inclusive when…… [read more]

International Politics Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (951 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 2


Human Rights

National Sovereignty and Human Rights Violations

It is taken almost for granted in most instances that the sovereignty of every nation on this Earth is guaranteed implicitly by the very concept of a modern nation, as well as explicitly under international law. In reality, of course, such sovereignty is somewhat permeable in certain regions, whether or not it is officially regarded as such. Generally, however, international laws and organizations have upheld the right to sovereignty in most cases. This has led to many verified cases of human rights violations that have been carried out as official practice by sovereign governments within their own borders, as well as allegations of many more cases. It remains unclear exactly how much power the various international bodies and laws have or even desire when it comes to punishing national leaders for human rights violations, especially when these leaders are still in power. Also in question is whether or not there is a true duty or responsibility for a national leader to grant his people human rights.

Moralistically, of course, there is no debate; a human right by very definition is a right that is inalienable to all humans, and therefore the denial of someone's human rights is a morally and ethically repugnant act. In the real world, however, there are very real questions of what exactly constitutes a human right, or if they even exist; what the power of the State is, and what the power of the people; and the very serious question of whether one sovereign state has the right to inhibit, prohibit, or in any way discourage what it perceives as human rights violations in another sovereign nation. This last question has led to many political altercations in the past, and still leads to several a year currently. Much recent attention has been paid to human rights violations in China, with United States' leaders speaking out directly against these acts.

Shortly before traveling to Beijing to attend the Olympic opening ceremony in August of 2008, President George W. Bush used very strong and direct terms to denounce several of China's most well-documented human rights abuses, including the imprisonment of political dissidents and members of the press who do not toe the party line (Abramowitz 2008). In response, the Chinese press and government did absolutely nothing. Despite increasingly strong language from a growing ally and an essential trading partner, the Chinese government was largely unconcerned either by the allegations or the long-standing evidences of the abuses that are conducted there (Abramowitz 2008). China was making major efforts to clean up its city and even to loosen some of its hold on politics and expression, but it did not show the same level of concern in addressing the many explicitly identified and extreme criticisms of the American President.

A similar tone was struck by President Obama…… [read more]

Major Trends Issues and Prospects Thesis

Thesis  |  1 pages (312 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1


Women in Politics

The recent Presidential election was historically noteworthy not only because it marked the first election of an African-American to the highest office in the country (and arguably the world), but also because of some of the other contenders. Hillary Clinton very nearly won the Democratic Party's nomination, and Sarah Palin became an invigorating presence in McCain's Republican bid for the seat. Women have not always been granted such an equal place in politics, and as it turns out there is actually still a lot to be doe before true equality is reached.

Currently, only seventeen women serve in the hundred-member Senate, and approximately the same proportion of women -- seventy-three out of four-hundred and thirty-five -- currently serve in the House of Representatives (CAWP 2009). Despite making up slightly more than half of the population in the United States, women still make up significantly less than a quarter of our elected representatives in…… [read more]

U.S. Constitution the United States Thesis

Thesis  |  6 pages (1,699 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 2


U.S. Constitution

The United States Constitution

The Philosophical Principles of Liberty, Equality and Democracy

Towards the end of the eighteenth century, the need for a more solid document to regulate and normalize the actions of the American congress and government became impending. The answer came from the delegates of Philadelphia, who conceived and instituted what is today known as the… [read more]

American Government Explain Why in a State Thesis

Thesis  |  3 pages (870 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


American Government

Explain why in a state of nature, free men are willing to relinquish some of their freedoms.

In a state of nature, free men are willing to relinquish some of their freedoms for a variety of reasons, the main one being a desire to live without fear of one's fellow man. A state of liberty is not a state of license, and the law of nature obliges everyone. However, free men recognize that they may have to relinquish some of their freedoms in order to develop a system to compel one another to follow natural law. Under a theory of natural law, every person has the ability to enforce the natural law. The problem arises with the fact that in a state of nature, men can be judges in their own cases, making it unlikely that they will acknowledge their faults. Therefore, in order to ensure that laws will be followed, that crime will be prevented and punished, and that the wronged parties will receive reparation, free men relinquish some of their freedoms.

Summarize the three reasons Locke gives for why property is not protected in a state of nature.

According to Locke, property is not protected in a state of nature because, in a state of nature, everything exists in a common store. Human beings, owning themselves, also own the products of their own labor; to hold otherwise would reduce men to slaves. Therefore, each person has a right to take things from the common store if he uses his labor to do so; for example, by picking fruit from a tree. This does allow men to own private property, once he has combined his labor with the property to exercise possession over it. However, this does not permit a man to own real property, because each individual has the same right to exercise control over the property in the common store. Each individual has the right to take from the common store because nature is a state of plenty, as long as people leave usable property for others. Moreover, taking from nature does not mean depriving anyone else of something as long as individuals only take as much as they can use before it spoils.

3. Define democracy, oligarchy, monarchy and mixed government according to Locke.

According to Locke, once men have united into a society, if they all have the power of the community and then appoint officers who execute laws, then a government is a perfect democracy. If they put the power of making laws into the hands of a few select men, and that power is transmitted by…… [read more]

Superintendent and Politics Thesis

Thesis  |  10 pages (3,141 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 10


Superintendent Politics

The Political Pressures Facing the Superintendent of Schools

The position of superintendent is one which, while affording its holder a degree of gravitas, authority and singular status, may also be personally taxing, professionally difficult and ideologically problematic. For its holder, the top office in a school district can be an extremely embattled spot, distinguishable by the various political… [read more]

Voting Rights Act of 1965 and African-American Politics Thesis

Thesis  |  8 pages (2,609 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3


Voting Rights Act of 1965

Description and Evolution

On February 12, 1909, the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) became one of the nation's first civil rights organizations aimed at promoting equal rights for African-Americans. Although the NAACP was founded mainly to combat racial violence, its overarching goal was "to secure for all people the rights guaranteed… [read more]

China the Political System Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  10 pages (3,103 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 7



The Political System of China

The fundamental law in China is the Constitutional System (China Guide 2009). Its present Constitution was adopted by the Fifth National People's Congress on December 4, 1982. The National People's Congress or NPC is the highest state authority, China's fundamental political system. On the other hand, local authorities head local people's congresses. The people… [read more]

Comparing and Evaluating Chinese Politics in the Mao and Post Mao Era Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  5 pages (1,400 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 4


Mao & Post-Mao Era

Chinese Politics in Mao and Post Mao Era

Chinese politics has been heavily dependent on ideology and the prevailing ideology is clearly manifested in the political leadership and subsequently in the economic and social policies implemented by the government. The rise of Mao as China Chief Executive during the post World War II and at the… [read more]

Media and the Government Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  2 pages (621 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 0


Politicians and the Media

Without a body of voters that have their own opinions, there can be no politics. At its most basic, the art of politics is manipulating these opinions and maneuvering between them in order to attain a specific goal, either of election to office, or the passage of a law, or political/governmental end. Without these opinions, or in situations where these opinions don't matter, the result (or perhaps more often the cause) is a dictatorship, or an oligarchy. The media is only an essential ingredient in the power system of a democratic or republic government then, and there are many ways that politicians in these systems can use the media to their advantage.

The two basic ways a politician can do this are through promoting themselves and their ideas, and through denigrating opposing people and ideas. Specifically, the media provides the essential function of letting the people know what the government is doing. A politician can use this function to inform people of their plan to solve a given problem or change a situation. Though most government activities become a part of the public record almost instantly in this technological age, meaning the information is available without the assistance of the media, most citizens know only what the media tells tem about their government (C-SPAN does not have great ratings). Politicians can use this fact to put forward their own plans and ideas as if they are the most practical and/or advantageous, despite competing plans that might be equally or more beneficial. Likewise, politicians are able to characterize themselves in the public eye by presenting a different image of themselves in the media than the facts and circumstances of their lives and careers support. Less cynically, politicians can also use the media to propagate good and honest reflections of themselves and their ideas, too, which is much…… [read more]

Plato's Republic Forms of Government Research Proposal

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Plato's Republic

Forms of Government in the Republic by Plato

One of the most interesting aspects of the forms of government described in Plato's the Republic is his views on the democratic government and its shortcomings. It is particularly interesting in respect of how democracy is viewed by society today. Indeed, this form of government is seen as ideal in… [read more]

German History German Government: Ancient, 18th Century Thesis

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German History



Between the beginning of the 1st millennium a.D. And 500 a.D., the government of what is now Germany did not exist, for at this time, much of Northern Europe including Germany was controlled by tribal Teutonic warriors and chieftains who mostly came to power by either destroying rival tribes or by killing rival tribal leaders. Sometime in the 1st century a.D., the great Roman Empire invaded Germany and conquered many of the Germanic tribes as they migrated to the south and to the west, clashing in fierce battles with the better equipped and trained Roman army. In 9 a.D., these Germanic tribes, headed by Arminius, destroyed the Roman army of Quinctilius Varus which prompted Augustus Caesar to cease his invasions of Germany. In the 4th century a.D., Huns from Asia conquered the Germanic Ostrogoths, thus creating a new form of government instituted by the Huns.

Between 1770 and 1775, the nation of Germany, then known as Prussia, was ruled by King Frederick II, a.k.a. Frederick the Great, considered as one of Europe's first "Enlightened Despots." He inherited the throne of Prussia from his father Frederick Wilhelm, thus making him a true monarchical power and since Frederick II was a monarchical king, the Prussian government was under his absolute control.

In an essay on the Forms of Government, King Frederick II makes it clear that he is the only sovereign of the state of Prussia and that he "and his people form a single body;" thus, King Frederick II was the head of state and although he did have an administration under him, he decided who held what position and for how long, thus making this form of government closely related to despotism and dictatorship. 2

In the current year of 2008, the nation of Germany is formally known as the Federal Republic of Germany, a.k.a. Bundesrepublik Deutschland. The German government is currently located in the capital city of Berlin and contains the following administrative divisions, broken into sixteen separate states or regions --…… [read more]

Government Contracting Process Thesis

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Government Contracting Process

The Federal Acquisition Streamlining Act (FASA) of 1994 was formulated with the intention of simplifying of the buying procedures of the government in that many competition restrictions on government purchases were removed involving purchases less than $100,000. Now, full and open competition is used in procedures that are much simpler in solicitation and evaluation of bids up… [read more]

Aristotle's Politics Thesis

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Bibliography Sources: 1


Aristotle's Book Three of the Politics emphasizes what takes for a man to be a good citizen and what distinguishes a good citizen from a good man. The issue whether a good man can be a good citizen in the same time is controversial, as being a citizen sometimes implies doing bad for the sake of the community. According to… [read more]

Selling to the Federal Government Marketing Research Paper

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Selling to the Federal Government

Marketing and selling to the federal government requires a highly unique and customized set of processes, systems and contract management strategies compared to selling to private industry. The advantages and disadvantages of selling to the federal government and a recommendation of whether this is a sustainable and profitable strategy is discussed.

Comparing the Advantages and Disadvantages of Government Contracting

The advantages of selling to the federal government include the opportunity to expand into an entirely new market and generate incremental sales, gain the opportunity to have multi-year contractual purchasing agreements with federal government agencies, and gain valuable insights into how the government contract management process works. The disadvantages of selling to the federal government are first the reality that the government has often awarded contracts with little or no competitive bidding (Berrios, 2006). This makes the entire bidding process unethical and nearly impossible to win. Second, the government favors cost-plus contracts which are also difficult to accurately predict at…… [read more]

Human Rights the Contemporaneous Society Evolves Thesis

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Human Rights

The contemporaneous society evolves at a rapid pace, forcing as such groups and individuals to adapt along. The fact that we need to implement changes ourselves to survive in the dynamic environment is already an indisputable fact. The nature of the implemented changes on the other hand is an issue worth analyzing. In other words, are the modifications… [read more]

Woodrow Wilson and Theodore Roosevelt Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  3 pages (909 words)
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¶ … Presidencies of Woodrow Wilson and Franklin Roosevelt

Woodrow Wilson and Franklin Roosevelt were both presidents that changed the American presidency through legislation and actually made the presidency more powerful by doing so. Through legislation, both men illustrated how the power of the president can extend beyond 1600 Pennsylvania Avenue and extend into the cities and towns across the country. Wilson and Roosevelt were able to pass many measures that allowed them to govern legislatively like no presidents before them. Both men had different ideas in mind but both men made giant steps in directing a new path for government to travel down. Government became bigger and more powerful under the leadership of these men, changing the role of the president forever.

Woodrow Wilson implemented a legislative program of progressive reform. With a Democratic Congress Wilson passed many progressive measures. These include the Underwood Tariff Act, the Federal Reserve Act, and Antitrust legislation. Marshall Dimock asserts that Wilson "literally pioneered in the legislative field" (3) when it comes to presidents. He quotes Lawrence Chamberlain, who stated that Wilson was the '"first President to develop systematically the legislative powers of his office'" (Chamberlain qtd. In Dimock 3). Wilson was attempting to apply the same theory of legislative leadership in the office of the president that he did in the office of the governor. Dimock maintains that Wilson's most "durable legislative accomplishments are among the foundation-stones of our individuals enterprise system even today" (Dimock 9) the Federal Reserve System, the Federal Trade Commission Acts, and the Tariff Act of 19134 are all significant to America even today. Dimock claims that Wilson treated all "major segments of the economy fairly" (Dimock 9) and legislated in their behalf. In fact, Dimock states that Wilson legislated more that any president before or since him. Because he had the ability to build and work around timetables, he was able to appeal to public opinion, especially when "congressional leadership tended to stall" (9). Dimock points out how successful Wilson was at communicating by noting that while most presidents today have a staff working for them, Wilson had none. He worked on projects long before he presented them to the public and was always well prepared. He certainly did not believe in springing anything on the public. He had his own method, which was getting "leaders and committees of Congress to do the work for him, once they agreed in principle on what should be done" (10). Wilson was a man with a plan and he was not afraid to make that plan something he could see in action.

Another man with a vision and a plan was Franklin Roosevelt. Roosevelt also changed the presidency while he was in office. Milkis…… [read more]

Sovereignty a Good Thing or a Bad Essay

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¶ … sovereignty a good thing or a bad thing?

The international political scene is in a constant state of change, transformation and development. Since the Concert of Europe was established in 1815 states have officially been engaged in different types of organizations, alliances that have often placed the idea of sovereignty and that of state authority over its territory… [read more]

Qustions to Answer on Human Rights Essay

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¶ … qustions to answer on Human rights, order and Justice

The protection of human rights represents one of the most important achievements of the international community. It offers a sine qua non-conditions for the well being of our global community. Nonetheless there are several key aspects which are yet to be clearly represented in the legislation of human rights… [read more]

Immigration Term Paper

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immigration is one of the most important elements confronting the United States in terms of public policies taking into account that this policy has received wide attention in particular in the 2008 election due to the increase in the number of illegal immigrants. The focus has been on the ideas promoted in particular by the Republicans and the Democrats which… [read more]

John Locke's Political Theories Term Paper

Term Paper  |  19 pages (5,073 words)
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One of the single most influential characters in the history of nation building is John Locke. His theories and writings demonstrate a basis for support of actions that had already been taken to eliminate monarchical rule as well as in the development of doctrine for new nations that came from such changes. This work will be a summation of… [read more]

Outsourcing of Government Functions a US Study Term Paper

Term Paper  |  35 pages (10,988 words)
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Government Outsourcing

The Outsourcing of Government Functions: a U.S. Study

Outsourcing of government functions is one of the most highly controversial practices of the 21st century. There are several prevailing positions regarding the outsourcing of government contracts to private companies. Valid arguments exist for increasing government outsourcing and for limiting future outsourcing as well. Regardless of which side one happens… [read more]

Ontario Provincial Politics Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (3,196 words)
Bibliography Sources: 9


Ontario Provincial Politics

Ontario, Canada's largest province by population has been facing great economic obstacles since the early 90s, after the severe fallout of that time. Although social policies have been directed towards accomplishing some degree of economic improvement, there are still many reforms to be made in order for Ontario and the whole of Canada to achieve a greater… [read more]

Communism the Main Conflict Between Western Democracy Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (890 words)
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¶ … Communism

The main conflict between Western democracy and Communism was not ideological, but political. The Soviet Union had taken control of Eastern Europe, and the encroachment of its political dominance over the Warsaw Pact nations was threatening to the West's interests in the region. Had the Soviet Union simply existed as a repressive regime with no apparent intent upon expanding its outreach and spheres of influence, the Cold War likely would not have played such a critical role in international politics. It must be remembered that the U.S. And the U.S.S.R. were allies during World War II, when the Soviet's political interests with America had coincided

The pure form of Communism as created by Marx and Engels was not practiced by any communist nation, as all were totalitarian regimes, rather than worker's collective republics. The leaders of every communist block, from Stalin, to Mao, to Castro, to Tito in Yugoslavia, created cults of personality around their personas, class-based societies where class was defined on party loyalty. The degree to which certain aspects of a collective economic system were emphasized depended upon the degree of industrialization that has existed in the nation before communism took root. In Russia, there was a particular emphasis on rapidly industrializing the country to compete with the West.

Discussion 3

Most Communist governments fell because of economic inefficiency rather than internal political revolt or external political and economic pressure. This is shown by the fact that the communist regimes that still exist in North Korea and Cuba, and even vaguely in name in China, that were able to support their populace with some minimal standard of living still stand. Their existence is based upon these nations' ability, in the case of China, to rapidly improve the standard of living in relative terms for the populace, or in the case of the island of Cuba and North Korea, to isolate the nation from exposure to images of Western, higher standards of living and to provide a better standard of living than had existed for most of the population beforehand.

Communism vs. Terrorism

Discussion 1

In the excerpt from the Modern Middle East (2004), Akram Fouad Khater succinctly states that a threat to one's interests is not a threat to one's self, in short that a government in Iraq (or Vietnam during the Cold War) that is antidemocratic is not a personal attack upon America. It is an expression of regional, nationalist conflicts and ideology that have little to do with America as a whole. Khater's tone is scholarly, but also chiding, as he stresses the lack of historical and international perspective of even U.S. policy makers

Discussion 2

Khater's point…… [read more]

Why Are Typologies Useful in Comparative Politics? Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (433 words)
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¶ … typologies useful in comparative politics?

Typologies are an essential part in the study of comparative politics. They are used on a constant basis for expressing the wide range of differences that only comparative studies can identify. Typologies represent the fundament of the political analysis because they offer reference for the theoretical approach.

There are different typologies; they can refer to particular types of leaders, such as the dictatorial type or the democratic one. One of the most significant areas of analysis in which typologies are the basis for interpretation is the study of different forms of government. In this sense, for instance the discussion over the best means of government is placed on the analysis of different typologies: monarchy, republicanism. Also, there are taken into account its leaders, such as kings, elected leaders, imposed rulers, or dictators.

There are both advantages and disadvantages to typologies in comparative politics. One of the advantages of using typologies in the political analysis is the fact that a theoretical framework is created for a particular subject (Goodin and Klingeman, 2000). In this sense for instance, the analysis over the best governing practices is available since ancient times, from Plato and Aristotle. They were the one who theorized the discussion over the perfect society, the democratic rule, the advantages…… [read more]

Defining and Describing Culture Term Paper

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Dismantling Identity Politics: The Canadian Context

Identity politics has long been perceived as supremely important to the continued success of political and social institutions. Constructing and maintaining a strong national identity that includes the entire scope of the state has been considered a prerequisite for this kind of success. However, there are indications that this approach to understanding national identity is incorrect, or at least exaggerated. An examination of the role that identity politics plays in the Canadian context (Kymlicka, 2003) suggests that identity politics may no longer be a driving consideration in the success of political and social institutions. Since Canadian "uniqueness" among Western democracies is largely mythical, we can conclude that the decreasing importance of identity politics in Canada points to a larger shift among Western democracies towards societies in which unity of identity is no longer the crucial factor in the success of the state.

When nation-states first began to develop as distinct political entities -- think back to the Treaty of Westphalia in the mid-17th century -- critical importance was placed on the existence of a national identity. While this importance wasn't necessarily consciously spelled out, it was nonetheless a consistent feature of early and developing nation states. Without a strong sense of nationalism, the likelihood of the mergence of a new political entity that was capable of transcending old rivalries and cultural differences was quite unlikely. Nation-states effectively called for the nullification of old political powers and cultural points of focus. In order for groups to embrace this change in Western politics, the construction of a national identity was important to unifying the disparate groups and people under a single national banner. This unification might have occurred along the lines of common language, shared history, common racial characteristics, or any number of other factors. Whatever the unifying principle(s), though, the presence of a singular national identity was important for the success of the nation-state.

Three hundred fifty years later, the notion that identity politics is crucial to the success of political and social institutions has persisted largely unchallenged. Throughout the intervening centuries, national foci have been squarely centered on assimilation and the evaporation of internal cultural differences, all the while trying to craft a unique national identity to make the nation as a whole distinct from other nations. In Canada, these trends have been quite persistent. Up until the 1960s and 1970s, Canadian policies on Aboriginal groups, immigration, and the Quebecois had focused on complete assimilation into the larger Canadian identity (Kymlicka, 2003: pp. 369-373). More recently, that focus has shifted as the Canadian people and the nation's institutions have come to accept that these groups will most likely remain forever distinct within the larger pan-Canadian identity (Kymlicka, 2003:…… [read more]

American Citizenry Elects a Democrat as President Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (372 words)
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¶ … American citizenry elects a Democrat as President in the 2008 elections, then what will be some of the changes evidenced shortly thereafter, due to those results?" Understanding the fact that politicians make promises during their campaign(s) and that they will, for the most part, at least attempt to keep some of those promises leads to the conclusion that there will indeed be changes in a number of areas if a Democrat is elected. Hillary Clinton knows that some of those changes will be made but that others will be impossible. She recently said, "The challenge is to practice politics as the art of making what appears to be impossible, possible" (Clinton, 2006). She is cognizant of the fact that she is making promises she will probably never be able to fulfill.

The differences, however, between the approaches to government offered by both parties (Democrat and Republican) are as glaring as they are divergent. The Republicans believes in lower taxes, a right to life policy and a preemptive policy in regards to war. The Democrats, on the other hand, believe in strong social programs, a…… [read more]

History of the Early National United States 1789-1848 Term Paper

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History Of the Early National United States, 1789-1848

The history of the United States has been marked by important factors which determined its evolution into what has come to be known as the most efficient democracy in the world. However, in order to reach this status, the republic had to undergo several changes, both at the level of the political conduct, as well as at the level of the political thought. Republicanism is widely considered as having been a milestone in both these aspects. It was the cornerstone of the political conduct in the early days of the republic and at the same time it enshrined the basic thoughts on politics at the time. Despite its use in that historical context, by the late 1960s, the term of republicanism as analyzed by scholars came to signify a different perspective and thus its interpretation gave rise to new meanings and points-of-view.

In the early days of the creation of the state, republicanism represented a set of ideas and values that motivated the revolutionary spirit of the Founding Fathers. It stood up for the beliefs that justified their actions which set them apart from the British rule. In this sense, the early history of the United States saw in the elements defining republicanism ideas related to liberty, the respect for human right, the equality of men, and, above all, a new set of norms based on the constitutional order.

The emergence of republicanism as a political thought is attributed to the early revolutionary forces that continuously viewed the British rule as a sign of corruption and inherited power. In turn, the advocates of this trend sought liberation from the old ideas related to the monarchic rule which limited the exercise of basic human rights. This was considered to be a flaw in the system of the monarchy that also confronted the colonies under the British rule. The right to exercise a chosen religion for instance was thought to be forbidden in the Empire, taking into account the fact that Anglicanism was the dominant and decisive force in England. By comparison, Republicanism advocated a new sense of considering the freedom of choice and of belief and rejected these imperatives.

There were also other considerations which led to the establishment of Republicanism as the framework for the conduct of politics in the era prior to the American Revolution. Unlike the apparently corrupt political system in Britain, which was hereditarily constructed, with inherited titles and positions often accessed through favoritism, the American political scene would be one in which the population would be properly represented according to the will of the people, and not through the power of influence of the representatives. In this sense, there was a wide interest in the construction of a representative system of elections which would set the basis for the democratic system.

The power of the law was yet another aspect that was taken into consideration by the Republican advocates. Personalities such as John Adams considered that the equality… [read more]

Government Bureaucracy Term Paper

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Government Bureaucracy

Personal Experience with Bureaucracy

When the average person hears the term bureaucracy, the typical image that is conjured up in the mind is probably that of smoke filled backrooms full of politically connected people whose only interest is the advancement of their own goals and objectives, or perhaps the endless backlog of paperwork which keeps progress from occurring. Whatever the case, by looking at a personal situation that resulted in a brush with bureaucracy, and comparing that experience with classic views of bureaucracy is quite interesting.

The personal experience with bureaucracy involves the payment of a personal income tax for the municipality in which I live. Where the complication came in was that surprisingly enough, I one day received a delinquent tax notice which was startling because I always paid my taxes on time and in full. Trying to find out what the reason for the delinquent tax notice was became a nightmare, as telephone calls to the tax office became a tangled maze of confusion, as each person to whom I spoke said they could not answer my questions- clearly, the interest to assist me was long gone. Ultimately, the error was acknowledged and fixed, but in the meantime, many problems occurred which could have been avoided.

What is seen in the example presented is that somehow, the goal of bureaucracy to assist the general public somehow was changed into a situation where the interests of the individuals became the goal, rather than a team…… [read more]

Sociology Urban Crisis and the Government Essay

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Bibliography Sources: 2



Urban Crisis and the Government

Dear Editor:

I am the author of "Origins of the Urban Crisis," and my name is Thomas Sugrue, and I would like to bring this book to the attention of your readers. I show in my book that the federal government's cuts in urban spending since the Reagan administration, combined with public-private attempts at revitalizing the city have cost the city money, jobs, and reputation, and that all of these lead to lack of financing and ability to revitalize the city, leading to an urban crisis there.

I believe this crisis situation applies to many areas of the country, from New Orleans and the reaction to Hurricane Katrina, to any urban area that suffers from a depressed economy and a lack of support from the government. I believe the government is ignoring the plight of many of its most needy and deserving citizens, and leaving the solutions up to cities and counties that cannot bear the load.

Sadly, these areas suffer from the "politics of race," and little is done to stop those politics from occurring. The government must…… [read more]

Getting Started in Local Politics Term Paper

Term Paper  |  16 pages (5,791 words)
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¶ … Local Politics

The political system in America is a rather important issue to be taken into consideration when discussing the definition and content of the notion of democracy. Although its structure is of British, it is through the struggle of people such as George Washington, Thomas Paine, but also Abraham Lincoln and John Kennedy that its full content… [read more]

Africa Government Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (393 words)
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Africa Governments

In the majority of African countries, the economic and social conditions are critical, with the poverty levels high, translated with extremely low purchasing power, explosion of deadly diseases and lack of access to potable water unfortunately an integrant part of the current reality. According to several authors, "the process of economic development must be viewed as the means of reducing and/or eliminating poverty, ignorance and diseases; and achieving improvement in the deteriorating human conditions" (Abjibolosoo, 1995, pp. 9). In this paper we shall propose actions that the Central Authority can take in order to improve the social and economic conditions.

The African Government must design policies that are shaped according to African societies, with its particularities and special conditions, not to Western ones. The failure of the Western approach was caused by the differences between the two types of societies.

Government should reduce corruption, which is currently at important levels and impeding the durable economic development of the African countries. Corruption disables new companies to be set-up, to freely compete on the market based on their unique comparative advantages rather on special advantages provided through corrupted means. Legislation in this case should be elaborated…… [read more]

Law Making Process of the United States Government Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (2,496 words)
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¶ … Law making Process of the U.S. Government

The Law Making Process of the United States Government

The law making process in the United States government is carried out by the Congress, which consists of the House of Representatives and the Senate. In fact, law-making is the chief function of the Congress, and the legislative powers have been provided… [read more]

Affairs of Honor National Politics in the New Republic Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,351 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


American History

Affairs of Honor

The purpose of this paper is to introduce and analyze the book "Affairs of Honor: National Politics in the New Republic" by Joanne B. Freeman. Specifically, it will contain a book review of the book. This American history volume discusses the early American Republic and its stability. It describes a fledging nation not united under a new found freedom, but a nation deeply divided over political power, control, and governing, all based on a complex code of honor that helped decrease the division between parties, people, and politicians by creating a complex set of rules that governed the "gentlemen" of the New Republic. The author notes, "Particularly in a nation lacking an established aristocracy, this culture of honor was a crucial proving ground for the elite" (Freeman xv). Set in the early years of the American Republic, this politically charged book engages the reader and uses detailed research to illustrate the author's main thesis. This thesis contends that a strict code of honor helped lead political relationships and debate in the early years of the United States, and that this code of honor was crucial in maintaining civil relationships in a time of torment, discontent, and revolution, even after the Revolutionary War ended.

The author's purpose is clear throughout this text. She presents a detailed look into the lives and political histories of some of America's greatest leaders like Thomas Jefferson, Alexander Hamilton, and Aaron Burr. She delves into their personal lives in an attempt to illustrate how the accepted code of honor permeated every aspect of their lives, and led to some rash decisions such as the duel between Hamilton and Burr that resulted in Hamilton's death. This code of honor was so deep, it could lead to destruction and mayhem, even as it attempted to keep the peace and maintain order. Freeman writes, "Convinced that Burr was a threat to the republic, personally invested in his public role to an extraordinary degree, Hamilton perceived the duel as both a public service and a personal sacrifice" (Freeman 198). If the reader attempts to find any modern politician so deeply invested in his "public role," it could prove impossible. Freeman shows how this code of honor led to disagreements and political suicide by many early American politicians, but also helped maintain an element of decorum and civility in dealings that could quickly turn into arguments, disagreements, and misunderstandings.

Delving deep into the early history of our country is not a new endeavor, but this author manages to uncover new and thought-provoking material that helps explain some of the chaos that greeted the country and politicians in 1789. It would seem the new government and its representatives would be eager to get to work in creating a new democracy, but in fact, the country's government was disorganized, even haphazard, at first. The reader is thrown into the middle of the political mayhem, which might seem a little disheartening at first glance. I wondered if the country… [read more]

New Jersey Political Campaigns Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (2,363 words)
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New Jersey Political Campaigns

Politics in the United States spurs rather hated debates, especially among the two main forces of the political system, the Republicans and the Democrats. Democrat Congressman Frank Pallone has been strongly involved in the issues affecting his constituency in New Jersey and his political activity focused deeply on problems related to the community such as health… [read more]

Machiavelli and Hobbes Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,373 words)
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¶ … Machiavelli and Thomas Hobbes influenced the entire direction of political thought within their respective generations. Their influence resulted from political documents that changed the way we view the nature of humanity and political science. They brought a scientific understanding to the perception of politics, rather than a humanistic and rhetorical understanding. The profound difference in the ways in which they approached politics as a science rather than a philosophy challenged traditional thinking and transformed our understanding of politics forever.

Machiavelli's "The Prince" was a revolutionary political document that influenced how we perceived European politics. This document, which was originally written as a political codex for the Medici family of Italy, turned European thinking inside out by explicitly stating rules for pragmatic governance. Many critics argue that Machiavelli's legacy in the long-term is to explain political phenomena in scientific terms. He resided in an era of flourishing scientific thought and an evolving definitional system. Ethics, science, mathematics, and many other fields were no longer thought of as conceptual frameworks, but executable concepts. For Machiavelli, politics was not an arena of rhetoric or ethical understanding, but rather a process that can be documented and understood by governing principles and rules much like any other scientific process. Therefore, his book revolutionarily reduced political governance to its core components.

Prior to the Prince, politics was caste within the light of conceptual rhetoric. The likes of Plato, Aristotle and Roman philosophers approached politics as an understanding of how idealized government and governors operate. Machiavelli's approach however, was to look at governance in a pragmatic setting. He attempts to understand how an individual can govern effectively given the political circumstances of the status quo. This is a unique approach because it focuses on execution rather than conceptualization. As a codex for government, his ideas were not unique nor were he the first one to advocate them, but he is the first to publicly state them in an open and challenging light. Machiavelli's main contribution and his revolution of political science are to understand it as a reality, with governance as a template for how individuals must govern, rather than should govern. Although many critics throughout history have argued the immorality of the rules advocated by the Prince, Machiavelli argues that all moral principles must yield to every circumstance. The essential revolution within Machiavelli's political rhetoric is that he does not believe that there is a tangible connection between ethics and politics, which has been implicitly assumed by all previous philosophers. Machiavelli departs from classical conceptions of virtue, unlike Plato and Aristotle who assert that virtue is the principle quality of all great managers. His politics focuses on real and tangible guidance for leadership; Machiavelli's chief contribution is that he no longer makes politics synonymous with justice.

Specifically, Machiavelli's founding principle is the focus on achieving pragmatic ends of governance and stability. When viewed from an ends perspective, the majority of his rhetoric coincides with other philosophers. For instance, he argues that a Prince must… [read more]

George Washington's Farewell Term Paper

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George Washington's Farewell Address

Washington's Farewell Address 1796 Major Points:

Washington's main point to this address comes in the first two paragraphs, when he notes he will not seek reelection and why he has made that choice. He asserts he cares about the country and the government, but he really hopes to retire and lead a quiet life, and he feels he is past the age of great usefulness, (the "weight of years" he refers to), and the country would be better served by another, younger leader. He also thanks the country and the people for the many honors they have given him, and that he will remember them the rest of his life.

He also is adamant that the Constitution should be "sacredly maintained" and that the government should always be "stamped with wisdom and virtue." He also hopes the success of the nation will inspire other nations to attempt their own democratic governments. He also has several observations about the country and the people, and especially their "love of liberty," that he begins to share as the speech continues.

He stresses the importance of national unity in the face of opposition and criticism, and that the country must always remain unified to remain strong. He urges people to remember their pride in their patriotism, and the common cause that came together in the birth of a new nation. He urges people to remember their commonalities, rather than their differences, as well. He also maintains the difference between the North and South is industry in the North and agriculture in the South, something that will prove prophetic in the results of the Civil War. He also notes improvements in communication and production, and acknowledges as the country grows it must remain united and avoid infighting and backbiting. He also stresses the country must remain free from foreign alliances and dependence. He also believes that the agencies of the federal government will learn to organize and divide themselves effectively, and that the government is still learning what…… [read more]

Political Science: Argentina Democracy Term Paper

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Political Science: Argentina

Democracy in Argentina

How well has democracy been consolidated in Argentina? Things are certainly much better than they were between 1976 and 1983, when "as many as 30,000 people disappeared, thousands were imprisoned for political reasons, and thousands more were killed" (Bonner 2005) during the last military dictatorship (when democracy was only a distant dream of the people). The publication Latin American Politics and Society explains that today in Argentina the main thrust of citizen action for fairness and justice comes through the human rights organizations (HROs). And the political leadership in Argentina responds more quickly and thoroughly when HROs address "family relationships." But the article explains that Argentina's political system may not have paid any attention to HROs if those human rights groups had not put pressure on Argentina's leaders through the leverage of international courts. The obstacles facing HROs include the fact that paying attention to today's families in Argentina allows to some degree the government to overlook the children of the "disappeared."

Meanwhile, in an article in the British Journal of Political Science (Gelineau, et al., 2006), the authors review and analyze the issue of how decentralization in Argentina is affecting the political dynamics in "subnational" (local and regional) areas. In other words do local (often rural) citizens vote and participate in democracy based on how they are responding socially to the national political scene? The authors note that there is an international trend of late for governments to pass administrative, political, and economic responsibilities along to local and regional authorities; "decentralization" in effect amounts to the national political establishment washing its hands of the decisions in the outlying areas; in another way, it is passing along power to local and regional authorities.

The results of this research indicate that, "...vote choice in provincial elections is heavily influenced by the track record of the national administration" (Gelineau et al.). That having been said, it is also a finding in the article that if things are going well on the national level, and the economy is "booming and presidential popularity high," the chances of political success for candidates at the local level are "more likely to be shaped by partisan affiliation than by the effectiveness" of the politicians at the local level who identify with the political party of the national leaders. And when things are not going well at the national level, those in local government aligned with the president politically, will suffer, no matter how well they do in their jobs.

Another article, this on in the Journal of Latin American Studies (Wolff 2007) the writer, Jonas Wolff, a research associate with the Peace Research Institute in Frankfurt, Germany, explains the rise in the "piquetero movement" as protests broke out around the country in the 1990s in response to unemployment and poverty. Those protests started in the country's interior but it "quickly spread across Argentina and, especially, into the de-industrialized suburbs around Buenos Aires." By 1997, there were 170 piquetes and by 2001… [read more]

Erin Brockovich Movie Term Paper

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¶ … Erin Brocovich

Movie Review: "Erin Brockovich" How did the movie contribute to your understanding of American politics?

It can't happen here.' No American will say this after seeing the movie "Erin Brockovich" (2000). The film suggests that massive government cover-ups that endanger ordinary citizen's lives are possible, even in a representative democracy with a free press. Thus, Americans cannot trust their elected legislators to protect their health and well-being. Americans must take responsibility for monitoring what is going on in their own communities, or special interests such as large corporate entities will dominate the political decision-making process. Not even the news media can entirely be trusted to bring problems that affect the public to light. Without crusaders like Erin Brockovich, ordinary Americans not associated with powerful special interest groups are apt to lose their voices in their own government, even though it is elected by the people to serve the people. As noted by T. R Dye (2002), although every citizen only has one vote, the existence of interest groups defies such notions of…… [read more]

Comparison in Comparative Politics Term Paper

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Comparison in Comparative Politics

Comparative politics seek to find the similarities and differences
between different countries in order to help explain the cause and effects
of political actions. In this way, even studies of comparisons covering
vastly different topics can have much in common. Peter Uvin, in his 1999
article "Ethnicity and Power in Burundi and Rwanda: Different Paths to… [read more]

Florida Government in the Sunshine Act Term Paper

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¶ … Sunshine Act

The Government in the Sunshine Act is likened to the Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) in that the former also mandates that meetings be conducted as "open meetings" -- that is, full disclosure of the proceedings of the meetings, specifically applied to "collegial" agencies. These "collegial" agencies are identified if these agencies are composed of more than one member or person (Hall, 2006:285). And similar to the FOIA as well, there are certain exceptions to this law, which include the non-disclosure of procedural meetings that divulges personal information about an individual, unless mandated to be disclosed by an Executive order; or the disclosure of business or financial information that are considered confidential or "trade secrets" by the owner of said information (286).

The Government in the Sunshine Act primarily aims to keep the public informed about the issues dealt and activities conducted by government agencies, a step towards establishing honesty and transparency of the government…… [read more]

Urban Government Term Paper

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Urban Govt

Over a century before the age of industrialization and urbanization in America, the Founding Fathers held conflicting visions of what form localized governments should take. Federalists like James Madison, though they may not have envisioned the sheer size to which American cities would grow, espoused a strong centralized system of government. The Federalist model would be evident in… [read more]

New Public Management and Democracy Term Paper

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New Public Management Reforms

The Implications of New Public Management for Democracy Today

Among the plethora of issues arising out of the preeminence of New Public Management (NPM) reforms over the past decades is the question of democracy - the changing nature of Public Administration under managerialism is said to be altering the concept of governance and affecting democratic politics.… [read more]

Max Weber in "Politics as a Vocation Term Paper

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Max Weber

In "Politics as a Vocation," Max Weber frames politics as a function of the state, and thereby defines the state as that social organization that has the unique right to use physical force or violence. The first portion of his lecture is devoted to illustrating how and why the state should be defined in terms of its command over the "legitimate," or legal, use of physical force over the populace. Therefore, Weber does not frame politics or statehood primarily in terms of economic or legal powers but basic physical power. In other words, political power automatically entails physical power and political control is wielded through physical control.

Next, Weber describes what he calls the "legitimations of domination," including patriarchal tradition, charisma, and legal authority. Politicians can secure their power through any of these means. Weber also shows how politicians can either "live for" politics or "live off" politics as a vocational choice. The author also calls the political life a "calling."

Then, Weber describes in details the ways in which political bureaucracies function in the modern world, using several examples from Western and Eastern societies to illustrate his points. Weber also points out…… [read more]

21st Century American 'Democracy Term Paper

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What made these early Americans so different from 21st century ones was (1) the relatively tiny size and homogeneity of their group, and (2) their commitment to a single common cause (Tocqueville). Further, John Winthrop's "A Model of Christian Charity" (1630), originally delivered as a sermon onboard the Arbella bound for the New World, suggests how "every man might have need of the other, and from hence they might all be knit more nearly together in the bonds of brotherly affection" (p. 215). However, as America has expanded over time and space, individual citizens have become more distant from and indifferent toward one another; more spread out geographically, and perhaps too autonomous, to the point of near total self-interest.

Moreover, all of that was accurately predicted by Tocqueville (Democracy in America). Politics, then, the raw material of democracy (or any form of government) is today in America, not only remote, distasteful, and unfathomable to the average citizen; it is personally irrelevant as well, a fact that then allows special interest groups to thrive, and politicians who pander to them to be elected and re-elected, to the equivalents of lifetime terms in office (consider Strom Thurmond). Our Founding Fathers considered political office only a part-time civic duty, from which a person would then return to a previous profession or trade, not as a permanent job. Because of America's size; its lack of anymore common threads that bind all Americans together; corporate greed and zealous selfishness by special interest groups, a lack of term limits for politicians, voter mistrust, and voter apathy, America of the 21st century possesses only a pseudo-democracy, a.k.a. 'the best government that money can buy'.

Works Cited

"Democracy." Webster's New American Dictionary. New York: Merriam-

Webster, 1995, p. 138.

Tocqueville, Alexis de. Democracy in America. New York: Signet, September

2001. 42-43.

Winthrop, John. "A Model of Christian Charity." The Norton Anthology of American…… [read more]

American Government Question One (Interest Groups) Term Paper

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American Government

QUESTION ONE (Interest Groups): There are a number of political experts and observers who believe interest groups - or, according to Democracy Under Pressure (Cummings, 224-241), also called the "power elite" - in reality are the forces that make public policy at the federal level. And so, with this system entrenched, it will not be easy to change… [read more]

Three Branches of Government Term Paper

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¶ … Branches of Government

An Analysis of the Three Branches of U.S. Federal Government Today

According to one observer, considerable debate has lingered within the field of political science as to which of the three branches of American government is the most powerful or influential. To answer this question, this paper provides a review of how the Founding Fathers envisioned the hierarchy of power for each of the branches, following by a personal assessment of which branch has emerged as the most powerful and influential branch of American government today together with the supporting rationale. A summary of the research will be provided in the conclusion.

According to Black's Law Dictionary (1990), checks and balances are an "arrangement of government powers whereby powers of one governmental branch check or balance those of other branches" (238). This separation of powers, of course, has been a fundamental feature of the American federal government from the outset, but the intent, purpose and net effect of this approach has not been exactly what the Founders may have envisioned. When the nation's Founders gathered to forge a constitution, Goldwin and Schambra (1980) suggest that the checks and balances provisions that were adopted were not intended to keep the forces of government under control, but were rather intended to keep the popular majority from exercising any substantive degree of influence over its operation. "In keeping with their desire to contain the majority," the authors say, "the founders inserted 'auxiliary precautions' that were designed to fragment power without democratizing it" (46). By keeping the three branches of the federal government (the executive, legislative, and judiciary functions) separate and by providing a system of checks and balances among the various branches (including staggered elections, executive veto, Senate confirmation of appointments and ratification of treaties, and a bicameral legislature), these delegates intended to diminish the impact of popular will. "They also contrived an elaborate and difficult process for amending the Constitution," Goldwin and Schambra add, "To the extent that it existed at all, the majoritarian principle was tightly locked into a system of minority vetoes, making sweeping popular actions nearly impossible" (46). Despite these early intentions at keeping the popular will at bay, much has changed over the years and today, the system of checks and balances serves to address the respective roles, responsibilities, and relationships among these three branches of the federal government (Clark, Gardner, Grace et al., 63); the current system of checks and balances also provides protections for the citizens of the country from the inordinate and arbitrary exercise of a branch of government rather than the other way around (Jasper 27).

For example, in his essay, "The Continued Need for the Prerogative Presidency," Martin S. Sheffer (2002) points out that, "It has been more than a quarter-century since the Congress enacted the War Powers Act, the National Emergencies Act, and an additional half-dozen or so pieces of legislation to effectively end a constitutional crisis and simultaneously apply long-overdue constraints to the 'runaway' or 'imperial'… [read more]

Three Branches of Government Term Paper

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Branches of Government

The three branches of government are the Executive, the Legislative and the Judiciary. Considerable debate has lingered in the political and legal circles as well as American history as to which of these branches is assigned the most powers. On the surface, all three appear equally powerful with one dominating the other on some occasions maintaining a proper system of checks and balances. The framers of the Constitution wanted to create a system where each branch of government would keep a watchful eye over the others in order to prevent any abuse or misuse of powers. Hamilton explained in the Federalist Paper # 23:

The principal purposes to be answered by union are these: the common defense of the members; the preservation of the public peace, as well against internal convulsions as external attacks; the regulation of commerce with other nations and between the States; the superintendence of our intercourse, political and commercial, with foreign countries."

It appears that Executive is the most powerful branch of our government. This is primarily because of the misinterpretation of some of the powers granted to the President and secondly because the courts have often supported these misinterpretations. While the Constitution was framed in such a way as to assign equal or almost equal powers to all branches, the provision in Article II, Section 1 which states that executive power shall be rested in the President has turned the balance in Executive's favor. It is believed that since the President is part of the Executive and he actually makes all the decisions, thus Executive is by far the most powerful branch.

Article II, Section 2 and 3 clearly state the powers granted to the President which are not as ambiguous as they have become in recent times. The reason why President has been able to exercise greater influence over the decision making process than any other branch is because of that precise provision in Article II, Section 1 that gives him all executive powers. This must be made clear here that framers of the constitution did not believe in the same definition of executive power as we do today. For them 'executive power' referred to set of limited powers granted to the President and…… [read more]

Liberalism as an Ideology Term Paper

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This is largely due to the fact that, in line with the ethos of freedom, liberal thought emphasizes free trade and economic exchange with the minimum of governmental interference.

In an economic context this means that the marketplace should not come under the control of any individual or group, but should be allowed to adjust itself naturally to bring supply and demand into equilibrium. Only minimal interference is needed by governments in enforcing basic rules of conduct for the general welfare, such as respect for individuals and contracts. To protect the market, the state should promote competition, prevent monopolies, and promote consumer information. By enforcing these rules, governments make spontaneous order possible.

(Jackson and Jackson 1997, p.175)

The later development of reformed liberalism led to the modern ideologies of liberalism, which allowed for the democratic principles of mass participation. This differed for the earlier classical mould of liberalism, where the emphasis was on government by the propertied classes as the decision makers. (Jackson and Jackson 1997, p.158)

Another foundation of modern liberalism is the extension of the meaning of political freedom where it is not seen only as the freedom from coercion, but also as the freedom of the " positive power or capacity of doing or enjoying something worthwhile" ( ibid) This ideology of personal freedom has led to the justification of the welfare state.


Throughout the history of the liberal ideology, as this brief discussion indicates, the freedom and autonomy of the individual was emphasized as the central facet of political government and liberal policy. While there are a number of different viewpoints on how this should be achieved in liberal thought, the central impetus in this ideology is towards the best balance between freedom and political order. It is this motivation and drive towards the expression of freedom, on both an individual and social level, that has ensured that the ideology of liberalism has emerged as the most effective and acceptable political philosophy.


Ashby, W. 1997, A Comprehensive History of Western Ethics: What Do We Believe? (W. A. Ashby, Ed.). Amherst, NY: Prometheus Books.

Avnon, D. & De-Shalit, A. (Eds.). 1999, Liberalism and Its Practice. London: Routledge.

Baum, Bruce. 1998, J.S. Mill on Freedom and Power." Polity 31.2 pp.187.

Christman, J. 2001, Liberalism, Autonomy and Self-Transformation. Social Theory and Practice, 27(2), 185.

Freeden, M. 1986, Liberalism Divided: A Study in British Political Thought,1914-1939. Oxford: Oxford University.

Hall, J.A. 1988, Liberalism: Politics, Ideology, and the Market. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press.

Hayek F.A. 1978, Liberalism. [Internet] Available from: http://www.angelfire.com/rebellion/oldwhig4ever/intro.html [ Accessed 15 may 2005]

Jackson J. And Jackson D, 1997, A Comparative introduction to Political Science, Prentice hall: New Jersey

John Stuart Mill's "On Liberty." [Internet] Available from: http://faculty.washington.edu/himma/bls308/lect4.htm [ Accessed 15 may 2005]

Kerlinger, F.N. 1984, Liberalism and Conservatism: The Nature and Structure of Social Attitudes. Hillsdale, NJ: L. Erlbaum Associates.

Mattson, K. (2004). Christopher Lasch and the Possibilities of Chastened Liberalism. Polity, 36(3), 411+. Retrieved May 17, 2005, from Questia database,… [read more]

Government Do We Dare Term Paper

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She was a burden to him, nothing more, and he was able to convince the state to have her killed by starvation. A Harvard student, who suffers from cerebral palsy, writes that he fears for his own life: "This disrespect is the devaluation of lives of people like Terri Schiavo. In the Schiavo case and others like it, non-disabled decision makers assert that the disabled person should die ... we have arrived at the point where we starve people to death because he or she cannot communicate their experiences to us. What is this but sheer egotism" (Ford) The government's willingness to let people die is evidenced as well by the fact that evidence strongly suggests Bush knew about the September 11th attacks before they occured and allowed them in order to justify wars against Afghanistan and Iraq which were already on the drawing board. "Several cases from recent years have come to light in which FBI agents complained of being held back by superiors from investigating Islamic extremist groups. In each instance, it was alleged that high-ranking officials acted out of concern that these inquiries could lead back to America's closest Arab ally: Saudi Arabia." (Ackerman) This guilt is so obvious that even people in Europe are commenting on it: "The U.S. goal is...world hegemony, built around securing by force command over the oil supplies... this Pax Americana... provides a much better explanation of what actually happened before, during and after 9/11 than the global war on terrorism thesis" (MacAskill)

Murder and profiteering aren't the only reasons why one shouldn't trust the government. Currently crimes in rural counties are sky-rocketing, and nothing productive is being done. Poverty is the most likely cause, and yet little is done to ease poverty of Americans. Frustration with the government itself is also part of the proble, "both major political parties walked away from the problems of rural America. People there felt alienated, they had no voice in the political process." (Davidson) In fact, much is being done to worsen such poverty. The government is actually talking about making it worse by dismantling social security. "The reason Social Security was created in the first place was due to the Great Depression and the inability of the free market to correct itself. . . privatization requires its own costs and risks and rarely helps the people who need social security the most: the poor." (The Daily Campus)

So why should we trust the government? Well, to start with, because if we do trust… [read more]

Government and Society Term Paper

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Common Sense and Letters From an American Farmer

Thomas Paine was a true revolutionary. In his pamphlet "Common Sense," he repeatedly cried for independence from England. He believes the cause of America is the cause of all mankind. He writes that the king of England has undertaken in his own right, "to support the parliament in what he calls their, and as the good people of this country are grievously oppressed by the combination, they have an undoubted privilege to inquire into the pretensions of both, and equally to reject the usurpations of either" (Paine pp).

Paine depicted a desire for an ideal society, however, he did not romanticize colonial life and its society in general, as Hector St. John de Crevecouer did in his writings, "Letters from an American Farmer."

Paine was a man of politics and given the title of his writing, common sense concerning the affairs of the world. While, John de Crevecouer's writings, on the other hand, in general, seem at times tainted with an almost patronizing quality. His writings seem elaborate, sentimental, flowery, and lacking the spark of realism that Paine creates.

Perhaps Paine's most famous quote is "Society in every state is a blessing, but government even in its best state is but a necessary evil, in its worst state an intolerable one" (Paine pp). Paine did not sugarcoat his sentiments. He presents a clear understanding of the affairs of the world in his essay. He does not paint colonial life as a utopian society, however, John de Crevecouer depicts colonial life as an almost communal society, all striving for the same ideals, when in truth, there were a myriad of factions, political and religious. John de Crevecouer writes, "We are all animated with the spirit of an industry which is unfettered and unrestrained, because each person works for himself" (Crevecouer 67). As Paine says, "for when we suffer, or are exposed to the same miseries by a government, which we might expect in a country without government, our calamities is heightened by reflecting that we furnish the means by which we suffer" (Paine pp).

John de Crevecouer writes, "Here are no aristocratical families, no courts, no kings, no bishops, no ecclesiastical dominion, no invisible power giving to a few a very visible one; no great manufacturers employing thousands, no great refinements of luxury" (Crevecouer 67). He also comments on the fact that the rich and poor are not as distant in status as the two classes are in Europe. John de Crevecouer goes on to describe Americans as a people of cultivators who communicate by means of "good roads and navigable rivers, united by the silken bands of mild government, all respecting the laws, without dreading their power, because they are equitable" (Crevecouer 67). Again, his writing creates a society that appears almost too utopian, too idealistic, and even says, "we are the most perfect society now existing in the world" (Crevecouer 68). Even religion is painted as ideal, "a congregation of respectable… [read more]

How to Survive Organizational Influence Power and Politics Term Paper

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Organizational Politics and Power: How to Survive and Even Prosper in the Political Environment of One's Organization

Hardly any employee, when asked about what he or she likes about his or her organization is likely to say, "oh the politics of the organization" unless Machiavelli is that individual's personal hero! However, effectively managing organizational politics and deploying one's personal power in an effective fashion is key to a worker's career success. In fact, "to help us understand organizations, we might consider them as political systems, rather than viewing the organization's politics as a negative thing. (Ratzberg, 2000) Some organizations function in their political networks as totalitarian systems, where one actor dominates the organizational hierarchy from on high, others are more democratic or at least interactive in their model. A worker rarely has a choice as to how his or her organization functions as a political model, but can use this knowledge of the overall organization to negotiate his or her relations with the executive and managerial staff, as well as to embark upon his or her own decision-making and problem- solving. (Ratzberg, 2000)

As in politics as well, organizational actors seek to satisfy not only the organizational interests of the collective but…… [read more]

Locke the Ironies of Philosophy and Politics Term Paper

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The ironies of philosophy and politics -- John Locke's definition of tyranny and its applicable to the modern British Commonwealth nation of Zimbabwe

The history of colonialism and the history of political philosophy have given rise to many ironies. One early manifestation of the irony was when the British 17th century philosopher John Locke's Second Treatise on Government gave… [read more]

Benchmarks in Government 1901-1981 Order Term Paper

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II. Common Law gets the Axe:

The Supreme Court did the unthinkable in 1938 when 150 years of 'common-law' was overturned. The common-law is that which expresses our 'human rights' and 'civil liberties" As written by one author:

The Common Law is the fountain source of Substantive and Remedial Rights, if not our very Liberties. The members and associates of the Bar thereafter formed committees, granted themselves special privileges, immunities and franchises, and held meetings concerning the Judicial procedures, and further, to amend laws "to conform to a trend of judicial decisions or to accomplish similar objectives."(Hardison 1999)

III. The Federal Register Act:

President Roosevelt by Executive Order created The Federal Register Act in the year of 1935 (Title 3 sec. 301 et seq) Within this order was an initiated Executive Order. Roosevelt in effect granted himself the power to create federal agencies and appoint a head of the agency. Roosevelt then re-delegated his authority to make law (statutory regulations) to those agency heads. However, the president has no constitutional authority to make law. Constitutionally the act of re-delegating that which is a delegated authority in considered to be a felony breach. Next the agencies were given authority by and of the President in an initiative to tax the U.S. Citizen.

'Government by appointment is not Constitutional and government by appointment represents taxation without representation. We now have government by appointment running this country. 'This is the shadow government sometimes spoken about, but never referred to as government by appointment. This type of government represents taxation without representation. (Hardison 1999)


Since 1938 The Uniform laws or as they are now called the Uniform Commercial Laws as well as the creation of the Federal Reserve System altered and changed that which the U.S. Constitution established to a degree that the original Constitution would be unrecognizable today. Just prior to the assassination of President John F. Kennedy he made it known that he intended to address the problems that existing within the realm of the Federal Reserve and the Internal Revenue system of 'big government'. Sadly, he didn't not live long enough to accomplish that. It appears that the government grew of its own accord and toward the aim of another agenda other than that of the Constitution.


Hardison, Bob (1999) Who Is Running America? The Bankruptcy of America, the Corporate United States, and the New World Order [Online] at: http://www .barefoot sworld.net/usfraud.html

From Revolution to Reconstruction: An Outline…… [read more]

Socialism Is a Highly Charged Term Paper

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"In Great Britain, where orthodox Marxism had never been a powerful force, the Fabian Society, founded in 1884, set forth basic principles of evolutionary socialism that later became the theoretical basis of the British Labour party." ("Socialism ") Though there was conflict from the very beginning the power structure of the parliamentary system was challenged and the results were to… [read more]

Political Structure and Philosophy Term Paper

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Perhaps the most substantial change of the 1987 amendment was conducting the presidential elections by direct, and secret ballot. The president is, of course, the chief executive and holds the right to approve or veto all legislation passed by the National Assembly, and to "refer important policy matters to a national referendum, declare war, conclude peace and other treaties, appoint… [read more]

French Government, State, and Regime Term Paper

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Total government spending, which may be regarded as essentially devoted to these services, accounts for something like 50% of GDP." (Fournier, 2001)

Because of the creation of the European Union, France's adoption of the Euro and eschewing of the Franc, and standardization of business procedures, particularly in agriculture, France has been forced to change with changing political and economic times. "From the nineteenth century on, French agriculture enjoyed strong protection at the nation's borders." (Vial 2001) In the 1960s the development of French agriculture was "to a very large extent shaped by the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP), the most comprehensive and integrated European policy."

But "the CAP now faces the pressure of globalization, through the EU's involvement in various multilateral or bilateral negotiations; it must also deal with the new concerns of consumers, who have long forgotten the difficulties that can result from breakdowns in supply or sharp fluctuations in food prices and are worried about the quality of the products on offer." Thus, "CAP must correct the imbalances and the environmental damage inherited from earlier modes of agricultural development." (Vial 2001) Despite the EU's pressures and globalization, many French farmers have resisted the incursion, not simply of American fast foods, but of standardized European safety protocols, such as requiring the pasteurization of dairy products. Even French office workers have bridled at the EU's standardization of working hours, disallowing the long, leisurely lunches that focus on savoring and tasting French cuisine. French rhythms of life have become standardized, disrupting traditional modalities of relating to family, the land, and thus to commodities such as foodstuffs.

The current French state's ruling political regime, however, has demanded a change in the French state -- it is not only the European community and the rest of Europe that is crying out for France to heed the calls of standardization and modernization in a more holistic European country, anymore. Change, even when called upon by the current French government, has proved difficult for a nation that has for so long prided itself on its differences from the rest of Europe, and its unique literature, cinema and culture. But the facts speak for themselves, to use an American phrase -- in France, the proportion of young people in work is the lowest among the countries of similar socioeconomic status, and France has been criticized for its poor job creation rate in private industry, because of its overwhelming state sector that absorbs so many promising and increasingly scarce young workers into state jobs.

Un the future, the state system beleaguered by the generous retirement pensions it owes, after the profligate post war period, cannot afford to be relied upon to generate so many jobs. The current governmental regime has stated as much, and said that the state method of generating French jobs must change. It has set the ambitious goal "between now and 2010" to create approximately twice the number of jobs" projected, "at least 300,000 per annum, rather than the 160,000 suggested by the conventional projections… [read more]

Social and Political History Term Paper

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Although Americans do invest power in the leaders of the government, the "taking" of power by the present administration has become unacceptable to most Americans who want protection "from" terrorists instead of becoming "suspected" terrorist themselves. Americans desire a "just" or "balanced" form of government rule and not the invasive and violating standards of the Patriot and Homeland Security Acts recently implemented in the United States.

In a sense, the "protection" afforded our leaders in the present administration has incurred daily violation of American citizens since the implementation of the legislation passed since 9/11. For example, the recent G8 Summit in the Georgia Islands should not have caused the massive descent of Homeland Security complete with Humvees and machine guns on the small town of New Brunswick, Georgia. This is one example of the abuse of power as well as the interference with the full-functioning of individuals in society because of the sovereignty of the government.

2. Bio-Physiological Theories of Crime:

How can social scientists integrate biology into the study of criminality and criminal justice? How can law enforcement take into account the thesis of biological predispositions toward criminality in the administration of justice? What are your thoughts about the significance of the apparent relationship between anti-depressant use among adolescents and elevated suicide rates? What does research on neurotransmitters tell us about deviant and criminal behavior? Suggest any biological/genetic / congenital / physiological explanations accounting for the behavior of law enforcement personnel? Might there be biological reasons that predispose people to select law enforcement as a career? Are there any inherent factors that seem to you to explain the behaviorial patterns… [read more]

Japanese Political History Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (1,899 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Further, there are term limits that apply to the council members as well as the premier consisting of two consecutive five-year terms.

The official heads of state are the president and vice-president who are appointed by the National Peoples Congress, again, limited by two terms of five years. Additionally, there exists a national legislature made up of the Unicameral National People's Congress (consisting of delegates representing each province, municipality, autonomous regions and the military). Further, there are local people's congresses as well.

The actual power base of the Chinese government lies within the nine person political bureau of the CCP, which decides on policy, political, judicial, and administrative appointments. The CCP is currently under general secretary Hu Jintao.

6. List and discuss political participation in Nigerian politics.

The current state of political participation in Nigerian politics is under significant international debate. Although Nigerian's themselves are largely concerned with basic economic survival, many believe that the economic problems that have plagued Nigeria is a main reason for its political instability.

Although Nigeria has a wealth of natural resources, chief among them, oil -- there remains a real lack of political accountability in the government. However, in the most recent election, which took place in 2003, Olusegun Obasanjo was re-elected, with his party, the PDP, also winning a majority in both houses of the Nigerian National Assembly. Of course, this reality causes much concern for the ability of minority groups, or even majority groups that are underrepresented, or disenfranchised to participate politically. Most specifically, women have been denied full voice and participation and because of that there is much concern over the future of women's voices in Nigeria.

7. Analyze and evaluate the current Nigerian political framework

The current political framework of the Federal Republic of Nigeria consists of 36 states and what is known as the Federal Capital Territory. These areas are governed by a legal system based on the colonial legacy of English common law, under which laws are devised by the National Legislature (Senate and Legislature).

Both the President as well as the Legislature are elected officially by universal suffrage for four-year terms. However, since beginning of the transition from a military to a civilian government, there remain significant indications of flaws in the voting process, including altered voting results, bloated numbers, underreporting, lack of accountability or recourse, and significant barriers…… [read more]

Man and the Right Government Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (2,799 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Rousseau referred to a small village or civic community, but the concepts he provided were also applied to great sovereign nation-states, so Rousseau ironically became the forefather of nationalism although he personally wished for a federal Europe, stating that "if we could realize a European republic for one day, it would be enough to make it last for ever" However,… [read more]

American Citizenry Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,787 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Lack of civic involvement allows extreme civil groups such as the Ku Klux Klan and the right-wing militias to pave the way for their end goals. The more people involved in the process, noted Fiorina, the more diluted the far right and far left become. You want a country run by people who have a broader range of beliefs.

Some people believe instead that the more individuals involved in the political process, the greater the chance that there is greater quantity and less quality. However, the information in Culture War negated this. When more people are involved, a consensus of opinion is formed that is rational and reasonable. It is also not clear that activists are more informed and better at making decisions for the country than the general public. As noted previously, the activists are the ones who are trying to widen the rift between the "supposedly" reds and blues.

Finally, I'm concerned about Fiorina's warning that the intermediate level of participation seen today might in fact be the worst of all worlds. He stressed that encouraging more involvement is the best way to limit the strength of the professional one-sided advocacy groups that are discouraging so many Americans from the political process. In other words, he said, civic renewal demands some form of increased involvement by ordinary citizens. Americans cannot continue to sit passively while the political parties make all the decisions. Both parties have extreme sides that the majority of people do not like. We have an obligation to participate in the process. The last election surely showed that every vote does count.


Fiorina, Morris et…… [read more]

Hearing the Name of Nobel Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,840 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Gradually, they erased recognizable signs of democracy, justice, education and freedom. It is happening here. But it hasn't gone as far as Lewis described in his book.... yet. One test will be how the nation responds to the shame of the Abu Ghraib prison. If the stupid white men who support Bush fail to wake up after this latest slap in the face to American honor, integrity and respectability, it will be a sign that it can indeed Happen Here.

Then there are the true skeptics, like myself, who believe that all presidents should be closely watched, regardless of their political bent. How can a person who goes as far as the presidency be anything but power hungry and a control freak? And how can a politician reach the top without making numerous promises to supporters, which may or may not be in the best interests of the country? This does not mean, however, that a dictator will get into office. For now, I believe, America is free from having a Hitler come into power. Our most recent presidents may be considered unethical by some of their actions, but they have remained within the guidelines of the Constitution. Thus far, political activists have seen to that. The above quotes from organizations show that as soon as a U.S. President (or even candidate for president) sways too far from what is believed to be the law of the country, he is criticized by his detractors.

Electing someone as bad as Windrip (from the far right or left) would necessitate that the paranoia and name calling by all American political parties has come to an end and that everyone in the U.S. has become completely unconcerned and apolitical. Based on history, this scenario does not appear probable. Like it or not, the activists will continue with their biased watchfulness and not let anyone slide by unnoticed.


Lewis, Sinclair. It Can't Happen Here. New York: New American Library, 1970.… [read more]

Federalist Paper #10, James Madison Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,547 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


S. Constitution, para 1), it is important to maintain the idea of liberty in any argument to ratify it. The paper does this successfully, and in fact not only maintains the idea, but also implies that liberty would be enhanced through ratification. The Constitution also includes the ideas of representation by population (U.S. Constitution, Article I), and the Federalist Paper defends that idea thoroughly by providing reasons for the masses not to govern themselves directly.

The only weakness of this paper was that the factions were presented in a slightly negative manner. Had James Madison not portrayed the faction members in quite such a negative manner, he may have been able to broaden his audience, and make more people likely to ratify the Constitution. Although the attempts to downplay the negative aspects of factions helped, more could have been done to portray factions as possible problems, but still positive groups.

In general, James Madison provides a well thought out, well argued paper on the justifications for ratifying the Constitution, based on Article I, that of representation. While his arguments may create a negative view of factions, his arguments are in line with the majority of people at that time. His points are well written, and his overall tone is that of educating the people, rather than dictating their actions.


James Madison. "Appendix D: Federalist Nos.…… [read more]

Politics Notions of Modern Democracy Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (717 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


A pure democracy must be small, and often the majority can be just as tyrannical as a minority.

Thus, America has formulated a conception of minority rights. Even members of unpopular minorities have rights cannot be impinged upon by all of the majority's concerns.

Even today, America's own representative system has received criticism from other country's interpreters of the democratic political concept. America's political environment takes the form, by and large, of a two-party structure. Within European Parliamentary systems in Italy, Germany and France, and also in nations such as Israel, diverse political interests are represented by the voices many political parties. This creates an unstable political environment, but conceptually allows a greater influx of ideas into the political public discourse. Is this more democratic? Some might answer yes.

Even in the relatively more coherent political environment of England, the Parliamentary system results in a less divided form of government. When the people speak through elections, the popular will can be more swiftly enacted in a system with less checks and balances built into its structure than America's. Is this more democratic? Again, many might concur.

However, the answer to both questions might be that it is better, in for instance Israel's case, in certain specific national instances to have certain democratic forms of discourse that might not be appropriate to all nations. In smaller nations, for instance, with a great deal of ideological diversity and discussion as to what democracy means within that nation, a multi-party system may be more appropriate. In a nation with few regional bases of political discourse, a more heated political environment might be required, where more can speak in a variety of ideological voices.

But in the United States, which has more diversity in levels of government on local and regional levels, less party diversity on the national level may be necessary, as local ideological and practical concerns have other venues in which they may be aired. Thus democracy's strength as a political concept lies in its flexibility, rather than a rigid understanding of the idea of 'majority rules.'… [read more]

Democracy in America: Analysis Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,571 words)
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We can thus conclude that while the government may claim to be taking all these actions to protect us, the fact remains that it is not letting us decide how we want to be protected. The government doesn't include the public in major decisions because it has somehow assumed that it can control the public opinion easily with the help of false media reports. The question is not whether the government is doing the right thing or not, but is it letting us think for ourselves. Are we allowed to decide for ourselves how we would want to be protected? Are we permitted to think for ourselves and decide what exactly is terrorism and who is behind it? Does the government give us enough freedom to use our own yardstick to judge Moslems or other religious groups? The answer to all these questions is No. In the light of recent actions taken by the government, it is clear that we are not allowed to think for ourselves. Our lives and minds are being subtly controlled by the government.


Susan M. Akram, The Aftermath of September 11, 2001: The Targeting of Arabs and Muslims in America, Arab Studies Quarterly. Publication Year: 2002. Page Number: 61+.

Joyce Howard Price. Newspaper Title: Poll Shows Public Wants Saddam Targeted; Government Opinion Split, The Washington Times. October 26, 2001. 6.

John Gray. Happy to Be Handcuffed by the State: Liberals Refuse to Accept That the Greatest Threat to Freedom Comes Not from an Over-Mighty Government but One That Is Too Weak to Guarantee Its Citizens' Safety. New Statesman. Volume: 131. Issue: 4601.…… [read more]

Stability in Government Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,131 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


But in recent years, there have been questions as to whether the U.S. must be having succession problems that less stable countries have faced (Rhodes). If and when this happens, political stability in the Continent will be vastly imperiled. Its economic gains will be affected and so will that of other nations that depend on the economy of the U.S. Its stability cannot fail or other nations will lose confidence in it with a loss of legitimacy as the established world political and economic leader.

All nations need to work out their own systems of government. History shows that the American and British systems have performed better than that of other nations and for a longer period of time. Political instability or uncertainty is expected in smaller, less powerful and politically stable nations, but not in the American system of government. Recent scandals, terrorist attacks, wrong decisions in the White House and other developments illustrate that American political stability cannot be over-estimated or taken for granted any more. This is clearly a new and jolting experience for the American people and their friends in the world and presents itself as a fertile ground for opportunist-enemies to take advantage of.

Elsewhere, economic pressure from without can render a government to become unstable (Marinov 2003), as a study indicates. It is a political reality that many nations are controlled by stronger world powers like the United States and Great Britain, to which state leaders of these weaker governments are exposed. Findings show that such leaders are very often replaced. Sanctions do not prove very effect in many cases but only serve to bring a weaker government down. Destabilizing state leaders who are exposed to outside pressure is a preference.

Sanctions are also an instrument of intervention (Marinov), either as economic recession or civil insurgency. Outside pressures then become more discriminating and less wasteful. Losses from economic growth must be borne by the targeted civilian population as an overwhelming risk.

Domestic political accountability is viewed as a desirable solution to the problem. Those state leaders who are exposed to outside pressures must be more cooperative with the international community, since they are frequently more replaceable. Democratization is a favored approach to re-establishing fully cooperative relationships with such states and domestic political accountability paves the way for that cooperative world order.

The application of civil insurgency and a resulting bloodless popular revolution restored democratic rule in the case of the Philippines in 1986. That popular revolution, now known as EDSA People Power, removed the dictator President Ferdinand Marcos and installed the widow of a slain senator and foremost foe of the President, Benigno Aquino. Marcos ruled the country with an iron had un-interruptedly for 20 years. Marcos was a state leader who was exposed to external pressure, which asserted itself and removed him to install his widow-successor, President Corazon C. Aquino, who was named Woman of the Year by Time Magazine the year after.


Center for Voting and Democracy. IRV Promotes Government Stability,… [read more]

Politics of Rage: George Wallace Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,092 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


For example, he recounts the story of one black man in Greenwood who struggled to register to vote. "The first time he went, the registrar told him he had to know how many seeds were in a watermelon and how many bubbles in a bar of soap, questions of the sort that registrars often asked as a form of teasing Black applicants" (Payne 136). Payne eloquently shows the struggles of Black Americans for their freedom, and how difficult the struggle really was.

Each author uses complete and compelling evidence to illustrate his thesis and viewpoint. It is clear they both did meticulous research, and interviewed countless witnesses to the events as they happened in both books. They present both sides of their arguments decently, and try to portray the people in their books as real people, complete with flaws and problems. Carter shows Wallace as a family man and a womanizer, and Payne shows the community of Greenwood as a cotton community ruled by whites and populated by Black workers who support the whites for survival. These are professional historians, who know how to present both sides of an argument, and present compelling information on both sides for their readers.

These books seem as if they could be quite comparable, and they do cover much of the same time in history in the same location. However, they are quite different in their content and perspective. One is a biography of one man that looks at the events occurring around him certainly, but centers on the man, his life, and his influence on others. The other is a compellation of people and events that merge into a cohesive movement that changes history and a nation. These books complement each other nicely, but they are really two different voices from the same era. Reading both of them gives a more complete and balanced picture of what was happening in the South in the sixties, and shows exactly what each side was thinking, and how they simply could not meet in the middle, their needs were far too different. George Wallace may have eventually apologized for his racism, but that does not mean it still does not exist in the South, and that Blacks do not still have to continually fight to be recognized as equals in the minds of many.

Both books were interesting and compelling. Reading them one after the other was far more interesting than simply reading one by itself. The complement each other because they give a more balanced view of the times, but they also are written from different perspectives, so the information presented in each really gives a full view of the South and how Southerners view each other. In addition, they both illustrate the intricacies and back rooms of national politics. Carter shows how one vocal man could influence politics on a national scale, and Payne shows how it took a huge movement to change politics and laws on a national scale. It is an interesting… [read more]

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