"Gun Control / Rights / 2nd Amendment" Essays

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Gun Control: Restricting Rights Article Review

Article Review  |  3 pages (923 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1

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Guns are still a big problem in the United States. The events of December 2012, where a gunman entered an Elementary School and killed 27 people, 20 being school going children reignited the debate on gun control ("Guns and Gun Control," 2013). This unfortunate event caused the supporters of pro-gun laws e.g. The NRA come up with proposals that would see school guards being armed to prevent a recurrence of the same.

In January of 2013, President Obama called for tougher Congress-backed gun laws that would confront the escalating cases of gun violence and mass murders. In his submission, the president proposed a plan that would see the adoption of stringent background checks, prohibit the sale of assault rifles and tighten the noose on gun trafficking laws. The president further promised an increase in inter-agencies flow of information to ensure that illegal guns not are found in the hands of criminals ("Guns and Gun Control," 2013).

Aside from the president's commitment to Gun control, Governors and other State administrators have also moved to ensure that the escalating problem of gun violence is brought under control. For instance, Governor Cuomo of New York proposed a package of amendments to the gun laws that would see the expansion of State's ban on assault weapons. The amendments will also assure that individuals with mental impairments are not allowed possession of firearms. Gov. Malloy of Connecticut has also made a commitment to pursue the issue of gun control with a bias on school safety ("Guns and Gun Control," 2013).

Statistics indicate that more Republicans own gun than the Democrats do. This disparity in gun possession might be inspired by the fact that Republicans are more pro-gun than the Democrats. Gun possession is seen as a major predicator or determinant of one's political alignment. More pro-gun Bills are lined up for discussion, some proposing a law that will allow people to carry concealed weapons to virtually all places in the guise of self-defense.

Recommendations

From the discourse just ended, it is apparent that pro-gun laws are not ideal for the American people. This assertion has been arrived at after a careful look at the number of fatal gun violence and mass shootings that have been witnessed in the recent past. However, since the Second Amendment safeguards the right to possess a gun, I would move to recommend that stricter gun control laws be legislated and enforced ("Guns and Gun Control," 2013). There should be a complete ban on the possession of assault rifles. Parents should place their guns in secure places away from their children, and persons with a history of criminal tendencies or mental illness should not own a…… [read more]


For or Against Federal Gun Control Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,835 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2

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¶ … Federal Gun Control

Gun control is one of the hot topics today in the U.S. Consequence of the recent events involving mass shootings, the government is seriously reconsidering its policy regarding this aspect and is trying to find solutions to decrease the incidence of such tragic outcomes. However, finding the right approach is far from easy, as U.S.… [read more]


Gun Control in NY State Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (3,571 words)
Bibliography Sources: 15

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¶ … Gun Control in New York State:

The New York State law about gun registration before 1996 required an individual to apply for a handgun permit depending on various factors. This included residence or business permit, hunting and targeting shooting, unrestricted concealed carry, and employment concealed carry. As a result of these requirements, people with any kind of carry… [read more]


Gun Control Laws & Regulations Research Paper

Research Paper  |  10 pages (3,131 words)
Bibliography Sources: 8

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However the NRA is of the contrary view. The advocates of NRA do not accept any relationship with the gun violence, massacre, and crime in relation to loose controls on guns in the country. The country is also facing multiple security and criminal issues instigated by the usage of guns. However most of the influential advocates of gun possession do… [read more]


Second Amendment Should Be Sacrosanct Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (2,169 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

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In Los Angeles however, a child who spending a year in jail for robbery stated that a handgun could be bought of the street for forty dollars. In about five years, since the enactment of the Brady Bill and Assault Weapons Ban in 1993, there have been nine "school massacres." To demonstrate that federal regulations are not enforced, even after the Brady Bill and regulations that keep schools gun free zones, 6,000 children were caught with guns at school in 1997 and 1998. Out of these, 13 were federally prosecuted. In 1997, in Pearl, Mississippi school massacre, sixteen-year-old Luke Woodham stabbed his mother to death and then proceeded to school where he shot nine students, killing two of them. An assistant principal, using a gun, stopped Woodham. The assistant principal kept the gun locked in his car outside the school zone and ran to his car to obtain the gun. The assistant principal controlled Woodham for four and a half minutes before the police arrived. (Skyran, 2003)

In 1988, The NRA developed a gun safety program for schoolchildren As of 1998, the program has reached about 10 million children. The goal of the program is to teach children what to do if they should encounter a firearm. The NRA advocates (during gun training) that the gun should be pointed in a safe direction whether loaded or unloaded. The finger should always be pointed off the trigger until ready to shoot. The guns should be unloaded unless the person was ready to shoot.

The Declaration of Independence and the U.S. Constitutions are documents that should be held sacred by all Americans. Indeed the contents of these documents have been held as beacons of freedom for countries all over the world. Much like arguments about the Bible, these documents have stood the test of time. Except for a few amendments, the wisdom of the founding fathers has had far-reaching consequences. This includes the right to bear arms. This right should be preserved. Or at least it should be debated in a non-biased manner where special interests and panderers are not allowed the only say in the matter. Thomas Jefferson quoted: "Laws that forbid the carrying of arms... disarm only those who are neither inclined nor determined to commit crimes....Such laws make things worse for the assaulted and better for the assailants; they serve rather to encourage than to prevent homicides, for an unarmed man may be attacked with greater confidence than an armed man" (Jefferson, 2003)

Bibliography

CNN. Columbine High School Incident. 1999. Cnn.com. Available:

http://www4.cnn.com/SPECIALS/2000/columbine.cd/frameset.exclude.html. July 16, 2004.

Constitution. Baron V. Baltimore. 2003. Constitution.org. Available:

http://www.constitution.org/ussc/032-243a.htm. July 16, 2004.

Guncite. Presser V. Illinois. 1886. Guncite.com. Available:

http://www.guncite.com/court/fed/sc/116us252.html.2003 July 15.

Hamilton, Alexander. Concerning the Militia: Federalist Papers No. 29. 2003. Memory.loc.gov. Available:

http://memory.loc.gov/const/fed/fed_29.html.2004 July 16.

House.gov. Amendments to the Constitution. 2003. House.gov. Available:

http://www.house.gov/Constitution/Amend.html.2004 July 16.

Jefferson, Thomas. Thomas Jefferson on Politics and Government. 2003. Etext.lib.virginia.edu. Available:

http://etext.lib.virginia.edu/jefferson/quotations/jeff1500.htm#Arms.July 14, 2004.

Kellermann, Arthur L., et al. "Injuries Due to Firearms in Three Cities."… [read more]


Gun Control in the U.S Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (971 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3

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¶ … Gun Control in the U.S.

One of the controversial topics in the United States today is the issue of gun control. The Second Amendment to the United States Constitution guarantees the right to bear arms for self-defense. There is no doubt that the founding fathers of this nation had good reasons to pass the Second Amendment bill, but the circumstances have changed and the American realities today are different. The rate of homicides, including those involving guns, in the United States has reached frightening proportions. The right to carry guns should be allowed for law-abiding citizens but the regulation of gun possession must be stronger, otherwise the use of guns by deranged people who manage to kill human beings with guns will unfortunately continue.

The question of gun control has become an issue of utmost importance. It is important to decree a restrictive gun licensing system because the easy availability of guns leads to more deaths. The homicide and suicide rates in the United States are one of the highest in the world, and the highest in developed countries. Cross-country comparative studies, comparing the United States with countries that have similar political and social culture such as Canada, England, and New Zealand, have revealed that none of those have the same level of homicide and suicide rates (Hemenway). It is true that many of the homicides did not involve guns but it is also true that the availability of guns greatly increased the likelihood of deaths.

When the issue of gun control is raised, supporters of gun possession say that it is a constitutional right. They are right, but the Constitution was written over two hundred years ago and the founding fathers, as smart as they, could not have envisioned the realities of the twenty-first century. The Constitution remains our most cherished document but sometimes the Amendments might be needed to change its provisions. There is no need to make sentimental arguments, as some supporters of gun possession do, that the Constitution cannot be considered outdated. Yes, it can; otherwise, we would never have Amendments that ended slavery and permitted women to vote in national elections.

One of the most oft-repeated claims by gun supporters is that "guns don't kill people, people kill people." That statement is technically correct but is also overly simplistic. Guns do not kill people but they make it much easier to kill. There is no way Jareed Lee Loughner, responsible for shooting in Tucson, Arizona, on January 8, 2011, would have been able to kill six people and wound Representative Giffords without guns. And there is no way the Norway terrorist who took the lives of seventy youth in the Utoya Camp last year in July would have been able to kill so many people with baseball bats of pocket knives (Blodget; Henigan). And there are too many cases when the availability of guns increases the risk of…… [read more]


Guns Control Gun Essay

Essay  |  7 pages (2,351 words)
Bibliography Sources: 7

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Lastly, gun control has the benefit of reduction in assault and domestic violence cases. These are common in family setups that experience frequent disagreements. In U.S., assaults and domestic violence are common and result in separation and divorce between couples. Extreme cases do result in death of one or both parties to the disagreement. Many a times, there is use… [read more]


Gun Control Laws Research Paper

Research Paper  |  10 pages (2,710 words)
Bibliography Sources: 12

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" (Liptak, 2008, p.1) According to Professor Kleck, the "period it studied was too short and the suburbs were a poor point of reference. The place most like D.C. is Baltimore…It's a virtual twin city." (Liptak, 2008, p.1)

Krouse

The work of William J. Krouse (2012), a specialist in Domestic Security and Crime Policy, entitled "Gun Control Legislation" reports Congress… [read more]


Active Learning Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (856 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3

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Gun Control and First Amendment Issues

There are so many varied policies towards gun control here in the United States. It is in the basic fabric of the Constitution, under the Second Amendment, that Americans are allowed to own fire arms for their own protection. Yet, each state differs dramatically in terms of how that privilege should be regulated. There are a number of states which have very loose gun regulations, which allow their citizens to own a wider number of weapons and to carry concealed weapons. For instance, Texas and Arizona, among other states allow for individuals to file for a concealed weapons permit, were firearms do not have to brandished in the open. Many of these states also allow for semi-automatic and automatic weapons to be readily available to the public. Also, in a stat like Texas, there are laws which allow citizens to be very free in shooting their weapons at others if they are on the property. This is based on self-defense, but often has very questionable circumstances.

While on the other hand, some states, for example California and New York have very strict gun regulations. In the state of California, automatic weapons are banned completely, while hand guns are only provided to those individuals that undergo background checks and wait for a period of 10 days to receive clearance to own a fire arm. These states often have stricter gun regulation because of larger urban areas that have had immense trouble with gang violence that is associated with fire arms.

When examining both looser and stricter gun laws, I must say I tend to agree more with stricter gun regulation. It is important that fire arms do not get into the wrong hands, and so regulations like background checks and waiting periods make a lot of sense to me. I am not sure about banning particular weapons, but I definitely think there should be at least some sort of background check for every firearm sold legally.

Part II

There are a number of recommendations that would be made in regards to the designation of First Amendment Zones. First, these zones must be far enough away so that the protests do not disturb the events of the convention. Yet, it would be recommended not to sequester them too far, or to blockade them in with walls or other sort of barriers too much, as this has garnered harsh criticism in the past. The zones should be in plain view of the convention, but far enough away where the attendees are not disturbed entering or…… [read more]


1st and 2nd Amendments Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (952 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 5

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¶ … 2nd Amendments

First Amendment & Second Amendment to the U.S. Constitution

Basically the First Amendment of the Bill of Rights reads: "Congress shall make no law" that restricts the right of American citizens to choose their religion and practice their religion, and Congress cannot pass laws that take away the right of free speech, or the right of the press to print whatever it wishes; and also the right of people to assemble peacefully to protest to the government cannot be restricted (http://caselaw.lp.findlaw.com).

The Second Amendment is short and to the point: "A well regulated militia, being necessary to the security of a free state, the right of the people to keep and bear arms, shall not be infringed" (http://caselaw.lp.findlaw.com).

TWO: (Reporters protecting sources) Recently the U.S. House of Representatives passed legislation that is supposed to ensure the right or reporters to protect their confidential sources. The vote was 398 to 21, and overwhelming victory for the legislators who wish to protect legitimate journalists from being thrown in jail for not disclosing where they obtained information that was used in the writing of their news reports, according to a story in USA Today (Abrams, 2007). The U.S. Senate has not taken up the issue yet.

Freedom of the press is fundamental to our democracy and it is fundamental to our security," said the Speaker of the House, Nancy Pelosi (Abrams, 2007). But the White House said it would veto the bill if it passes the Senate; the freedom that journalists have to report and protect their sources "could severely frustrate - and in some cases completely eviscerate - the ability to investigate acts of terrorism or threats to national security," Jim Abrams of AP writes. The bill was co-sponsored by a Republican (Mike Pence of Indiana) and a Democrat (Rick Boucher of Virginia); Pence said the legislation is not about "protecting reporters; it's about protecting the public's right to know." The issue has come up before Congress because over the past 3 years, more than 40 cases have come to light where reporters were ordered identify their sources or go to jail. One of the more high-profile cases of a reporter going to jail for refusing to reveal sources was Judith Miller, a journalist with the New York Times, who served 85 days in prison in the Valerie Plame Wilson CIA leak case.

TWO: (Separation of church and state) Recently the state of Illinois has allowed a "mandatory moment of silence" at the beginning of the day in its public schools; this has stirred the debate about the separation of church and state. The moment of silence was not necessarily for prayer, according to the sponsor of the legislation, Will Davis, who is quoted in the Boston Globe article as saying that offering an opportunity for kids to "...settle down at the beginning of…… [read more]


Gun Control vs. Crime Capstone Project

Capstone Project  |  10 pages (2,852 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 5

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In order to be able to get a better understanding of firearms and the degree to which they are available to the masses one needs to focus on types of firearms and the attitudes that the authorities put across them. Machine guns, for example, are considered to be extreme firearms and it is required that every machine gun in Virginia… [read more]


Gun Control: Restricting Rights Research Paper

Research Paper  |  4 pages (1,201 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5

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The measures of procuring a gun are also equally to blame for the cases of gun violations. There are no clear guidelines as to who should own a gun (Spitzer, 2009). Moreover, when the person is buying a gun, the background checks on the buyer are not effective. Additionally, the period of waiting after ordering an arm is short to facilitate scrutiny of the gun buyer. In addition, the federal law is ambiguous since it does not set a minimum age for one to own a firearm. Therefore, these weaknesses in the constitution cause the call for the strict gun control by the liberals who are on the lookout for protecting the larger interests of the society.

However, the opposition of the gun control measures has the view that these laws will deny the people their individual rights. According to the American bill of rights, those in opposition of gun control argue that they have the right to secure their homes and property (Spitzer, 2009). Also, the people have right to possess an arm according to the Second Amendment. This is the first reason why the gun control is facing stiff challenges. The law itself allows for people to argue that their personal right is being restricted. They have the right to guard their possessions and own the arms, thus the reason they have the lee way to own guns.

Secondly, vested interests in the industry of ammunition such as National Rifle Association and other parties are of the view that their personal corporate rights to trade are being violated. This causes that not in favor of guns control to have access to the guns easily. Also, the making and involvement of government in regulating the guns is thwarted from these parties with vested interest in the industry (Nemerov, 2008). Moreover, the argument that people with guns can help to curb those with the thugs is also another reason. Those with guns argue that the thugs and those who cause these unnecessary shootings are the ones who ignore the present laws. Therefore, it is not fair to deprive them of their right because of a few elements that are negative.

The republicans and even democrats have tried to bring forth amendments that seek to regulate the guns ownership and access. Still, it is notable that nearly all of these proposed amendments never pass the test of the House due to political interests in the industry (Nemerov, 2008). The politicians have fallen into the quick gun violence solutions such as arming and deploying more police officers. This is not solution to the problem; the only effective measure is to ensure proper gun control laws. Moreover, the people need to understand that the rights of the larger society are more significant as compared to the rights of an individual. Therefore, the argument that gun control is interfering with their personal rights does not convince.

In conclusion, the implementation of gun control laws and their enactment is not a violation to the rights… [read more]


Gun Control as a Social Problem Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  5 pages (1,735 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4

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Gun Control as a Social Problem

A recent report in the Washington Post states the following:

More than 4,000 children and teenagers are killed by guns every year in the United States. That tragedy is drawing thousands of marchers to Washington this week. The organizers, who are calling the Mother's Day event the Million Mom March, want stricter gun laws.… [read more]


Gun Control Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,411 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

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So there appears to be a political motive to gun control, just as there is a political motive to arguing against gun control.

This leaves us with a challenge in trying to determine whether we should stand on the side of gun control or not. Clearly, you cannot trust the statistics. One minute somebody highlights an increased murder rate, the… [read more]


Gun Control and Crime in the Black Community Literature Review Chapter

Literature Review Chapter  |  2 pages (698 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6

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Gun Control and Crime

In the literature review, we will examine the impact that possible gun control laws could have on: the African-American community and violent crime rates. This will provide specific insights about how this could affect: homicide and fatality figures that are being reported.

The article that was written by Blumstein (2000), discusses the impact of various gun control laws during the 1990's on the crime rate. As they found, that they helped to: reduce the number of available weapons and they gave the police the tools; to effectively go after some of the most violent offenders. However, the author also discovered that this approach was effective, because it was used in conjunction with stiffer drug control laws. The information from this source is important, because it shows how various gun control laws were effective at addressing the rises in violent crimes within the African-American community.

The article that was written by Kwon (1997), talks about the impact that state and municipal gun control laws had on violent crime rates. They found that while they did have some effect, other factors played a major role that contributed to the decline. The most notable include: poverty levels, the unemployment rate and alcohol consumption. These different elements are important, because they are illustrating how there are other factors that will have an effect on the underlying unemployment rate. As a result, this information is useful in showing how these factors are playing role in gun related homicide rates.

The piece of literature that was written by Carter (2002), discusses the history of gun control laws. as, a variety of statues have been enacted to address the underlying problems with gun related violence. However, this has proven to be challenging for many advocates of gun control. With a host of organizations (such as the NRA) watering down: the legislation and enforcement (based on Second Amendment concerns). The information from this source is useful, because it illustrates the heated contention about any kind of: possible changes or stepped up enforcement standards of these laws. (Carter, 2002, pp. 308 -- 309)

The…… [read more]


Gun Control Debate Aside Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (2,831 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 10

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Gun Control Debate

Aside from a very few other problems of contemporary import in American society, gun control ranks as one of the most hotly contested issues. From semantic arguments over the Second Amendment of the U.S. Constitution to statistical analyses of crime rates to philosophical debates about individual vs. collective rights, there seems to be little room for moderate… [read more]


Gun Control Is Not Effective Against Criminals Thesis

Thesis  |  6 pages (1,910 words)
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Gun Control Is Not Effective Against Criminals

If criminals want guns, they will get them, whether there is a law against it or not. What gun control laws do is make it more difficult for ordinary citizens to obtain firearms to protect themselves. Most criminals don't visit a gun shop and register, then wait the mandatory time, and then go… [read more]


Anti-Gun Control Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,328 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 5

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Anti Gun Control

Despite Constitutional protection of the "right of the people to keep and bear arms" embedded in the Second Amendment, gun control remains a hotly debated political issue. As if the Constitution did not clearly state that the right to bear arms is as fundamental as the right to free speech, gun control advocates continue to barrage the media with misleading messages about the damage weapons do to American society. The Second Amendment guarantees that the right of the people to keep and bear arms "shall not be infringed," meaning that gun control is a moot point: an issue that should not be debated in the first place. Gun violence is a problem; criminal behavior is a problem. However, guns are not the root cause of the problems endemic in American society. Guns have become a convenient political scapegoat to avoid dealing directly with the core issues that prompt gun-related violence, deaths, and massacres. If the children responsible for the Columbine incident or Virginia Tech did not have access to guns, they would have used other weapons at their disposal. In fact, the problems with American society are not related to the possession of firearms but to deeper causes including an unraveling of ethics and morals.

Preserving civil liberties such as the right to bear arms embedded in the Second Amendment demands a consistent application of the law. Restricting one civil liberty can unravel the whole fabric of the system, enabling hypocrisy and the slow, steady erosion of the rights Americans hold dearest. For example, any restriction on the freedom of speech can be viewed as a violation of civil liberties. Any restriction on the right to bear arms not only violates constitutional law -- which clearly states that the right to bear arms "shall not be infringed" -- but also violates core American values. Freedom is the essence of American society.

The Brady Campaign remains the most vocal political lobbying group for gun control. Started by Jim Brady in the wake of his being shot during the assassination attempt on President Reagan, the organization is now responsible for spearheading anti-gun programs in Washington. Granted, the issues the Brady Campaign and other gun control groups raise are plausible. Guns often fall into the hands of immoral, violent criminals. Lax gun laws allow criminals to get a hold of guns, and therefore, argues the Brady Campaign, laws should restrict access to firearms.

However sound on the surface, the Brady Campaign argument fails to acknowledge the power of the black market in supplying weapons to criminals who want them. By definition, criminals usurp the law. Criminals will stop at nothing, including breaking the law, to get what they want. If guns are what they want then they will retrieve them on the black market. Therefore, gun control does little if anything to curb criminal possession of firearms such as those used to shoot President Reagan or the litany of students at Columbine or Virginia Tech. Another similar argument against the… [read more]


Controversial Topic of Gun Control in America Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,421 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 4

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¶ … Controversial topic of gun control in America [...] why tighter gun control laws are necessary and how to achieve these laws. Gun control is one of the most contentious arguments in America today. Proponents of gun control maintain it will save lives and keep guns out of the hands of criminals and gangs. Opponents believe the Second Amendment… [read more]


Difficulty of Starting a Gun Control Debate Essay

Essay  |  8 pages (2,928 words)
Bibliography Sources: 8

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¶ … difficulty of starting a gun control debate in the United States. At first blush, the topic itself seems ridiculous. Between the NRA and extremist groups on the left, one would assume that the United States already has a vigorous gun control debate. However, these special-interest groups do not comprise the entirety of the public sphere. On the contrary,… [read more]


Gun Control Legislation Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,450 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4

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Consider what would happen if suddenly private citizens in America were no longer permitted to obtain or possess firearms legally. There would be social upheaval. There would be political upheaval. The country would be discontent. Consider the example of the illegalization of alcohol during the early 20th century in America. When prohibition was in effect, there was still alcohol consumption… [read more]


Gun Ownership and Gun Control Term Paper

Term Paper  |  15 pages (4,682 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

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(Youth Violence Statistics, Pg 2) In 2002, gang members were responsible for over three hundred homicides. (City Declares War on Gangs, Pg 2)

Gang culture - much like militia culture - revolves around respect for firearms. Gang members take a great deal of pride in their guns and they take pride in their killing. Violence by gang members in big… [read more]


Gun Control in the US Research Paper

Research Paper  |  5 pages (1,731 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 4

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Our country obtained its independence with guns, kept its independence with guns, and weapons will perform an important move in maintaining our independence. Why would some incident in Chicago, Illinois warrant the banning of all guns that we have the right of using to safeguard ourselves? Lawfully they cannot. The attractiveness of the constitution is that it can be modified. The ancestors realized they could not anticipate the future, thus made the constitution a pliable document (Goss 70). The simple remedy is to change the constitution in order to curb the incidences that have occurred in recent times. Nevertheless, modern times still seem to be very suitable with weapons. There is no questioning that this discussion is very sensitive. Ultimately, people have to consider gun control a violation on self-defense, an overblown public anxiety, and most significantly of all, oppression against the law-abiding people of this great country.

Works Cited

Bruce, John M, & Clyde Wilcox. The Changing Politics of Gun Control. Lanham, Md: Rowman & Littlefield, 2008. Print.

Carter, Gregg L. Gun Control in the United States: A Reference Handbook. Santa Barbara: ABC-CLIO, 2006. Internet resource.

Crooker, Constance E. Gun Control and Gun Rights. Westport (Conn.: Greenwood press, 2013. Print.

Goss, Kristin A. Disarmed: The Missing Movement for Gun Control in America. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2010. Internet resource.

Lott, John R. More Guns, Less…… [read more]


Gun Control, Including Counter Arguments Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (2,316 words)
Bibliography Sources: 8

SAMPLE TEXT:

Another expert writes, "Three decades of polling have painted a clear picture of public opinion about gun control. These polls show that public support for the regulation of firearms is strong, deep, and widespread" (Smith, 2002). Many proponents believe gun control would reduce violent crime, and that specific gun control measures, such as handgun control, would be even more suitable… [read more]


Gun Control Is One of Today Thesis

Thesis  |  5 pages (2,289 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 4

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Gun control is one of today's more divisive political issues, and people on both sides of the issue have stereotypes about what types of people support and oppose gun control. Increasingly, the question of gun control has become politicized, with the far right asserting that Republicans are the party for gun rights and Democrats advocate gun control. However, that assertion… [read more]


We Should Increasing Gun Control to Increase Safety Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,750 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 6

SAMPLE TEXT:

¶ … Gun Control to Increase Safety

We Should Increase Gun Control to Increase Safety

The aim of this paper is to tackle the sensible topic of gun control and the individual approach to recur to violence in desperate times. Without any doubt, if the individual is not guided in the right direction, he is not capable to make the… [read more]


Gun Control and the Supreme Court Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,990 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5

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¶ … gun control and the Supreme Court. The writer explores the issues, debates and decisions as well as the constitutional applications. There were five sources used to complete this paper.

When authors of the United States constitution penned the document they had no way of knowing that almost 300 years later it would become the center of controversy with… [read more]


Sensible Gun Control Laws an Analysis Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,796 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

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¶ … Sensible Gun Control Laws

An Analysis of the Need for More Sensible Gun Control Laws in the United States Today

Introduction common assertion heard among gun control opponents in the United States has been, "They will take my gun from me when they can pry it from my cold, dead fingers." This unwavering position has largely been based… [read more]


Gun Control and Laws Regulating This Issue Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,035 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

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Gun Control and laws regulating this issue in the United States have been a controversial topic of debate for more than a decade. Since the inception of extreme gun control laws during the end of the 1980's, the debate of how much crime is really prevented by gun control laws has raged on. It appears that the government and other anti-gun extremists have sided together against others in society who feel that public possession of guns should not be subjected to such extreme laws. Below then is an exploration of these varied opinions, including that of the Bush Administration, some of its opponents, the NRA and issues sparked by the Brady Law.

The Bush Administration

The 1994 assault weapons law entails that the manufacture and importation of certain types of semi-automatic rifles are banned, along with magazines of more than 10 rounds. Public outrage and debate has been sparked by an assertion from the Bush administration that this law will be reauthorized, as it was set to expire in September 2004. The Libertarian Party acts as one of the representatives of the public outcry. According to the Party, the fact that the President has renewed the ban on assault rifles results in a certain message being relayed to terrorists and criminals in the United States. Indeed, specifically the objection is that homeland security is being undermined by a law that is primarily aimed at law-abiding citizens. Criminals on the other hand deem themselves above the law, rendering any gun control laws obsolete and absolutely ineffective. The Party argues that Americans are vulnerable to criminals when they are not allowed to protect themselves. Furthermore it is said that the government cannot protect everyone in the country at the same time, and the only other reasonable recourse is to let law-abiding members of society protect themselves. The law then, according to these critics places power in the hands of criminals and terrorists, while disempowering those in society most in need of protection.

According to Thurman, on the other hand, the Bush administration appears to have changed its stance during 2002, and when it declared that the right of an individual to own a firearm is constitutionally protected, outcries rose from the opposite extreme, represented by anti-gun forces. The opinion in this case is that gun violence would be perpetuated by allowing individuals not so required by their profession to possess guns. Indeed, the Violence Policy Center has required a complete ban of all firearms (Thurman). This extreme position, while curbed by the new position of the Justice Department, is nonetheless advocated and advanced on the state and local levels of government.

The National Rifle Association

According to Schneider, the NRA found that the 1989 import ban on guns was aimed against military personnel returning to the United States from overseas duty. Previously, federal firearms law permitted such personnel to return from service with up to three non-Title II firearms and 1,000 rounds of ammunition (Schneider). Many of these were purchased privately overseas,… [read more]


Gun Control Is Largely Term Paper

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To the founders of the United States, private citizens were vital to the freedom of the nation, and their right to be armed with firearms was an essential part of this right. Federalist Noah Weber wrote "supreme power in America cannot enforce unjust laws by the sword; because the whole body of the people are armed, and constitute a force superior to any band of regular troops that can be, on any pretence, raised in the United States" (Lee).

Opponents of gun control also argue that guns themselves are not the cause of crime. Further, they argue that the number of guns in a society is not linked to the amount of crime. Bans on the sale of specific types of weapons have not been shown to reduce violent crime. In Switzerland, pistols and fully automatic assault rifles are owned by all adult males and handguns are available to all adults without mental defects or a criminal record. However, the country has far less crime per capita than the United States, and has low levels of gun-related crime (Kopel).

In addition, gun ownership seems to act as a deterrent against crime. In some studies, criminals have stated that they have failed to commit a crime out of fear that the victim would have a gun. Similarly, a highly publicized training program (where Florida police trained 2,500 women in gun use) saw a reduction in rape by 88% the next year. Felonies dropped significantly during a 1974 police strike in Albuquerque where armed citizens patrolled shops and neighborhoods (Kopel).

Further, it can be argued that gun control has been linked to racial discrimination. African-Americans were once banned from owning guns, and the earliest gun control laws in the south were described by a federal judge around 1900 as "passed for the purpose of disarming the negro laborers . . . [and] never intended to be applied to the white population" (Kopel). Further, blacks are more at risk for racially motivated violence, burglary, and robbery, thus placing them at greater risk from controls that limit their ownership or use of guns (Kopel).

These arguments can also be applied to women. Only seven percent of rapists use guns, thus gun control would not likely dramatically reduce rape. At the same time, gun control could dramatically reduce the ability of a woman to defend herself against a would-be rapist (Kopel).

In conclusion, the arguments for gun control seem to be outweighed by arguments that gun control is not effective. Gun control violates the Constitution and the wishes of the founding fathers, potentially placing American's liberty at risk. Further, guns themselves are not necessarily the cause of crime, while gun ownership can control crime. When combined with the argument that gun control often discriminates against blacks and women, the case for gun control seems weak.

Works Cited

Lee, Robert W. Firearms and Freedom. The New American, Vol. 16, No. 25, December 4,

2000. 20 March 2005. http://www.thenewamerican.com/tna/2000/12-04-

2000/vo16no25_firearms.htm

Kopel, David B. Trust the People: The… [read more]


Anti-Gun Control Term Paper

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Anti-Gun Control

Gun control is an issue of passionate debate in the United States. In fact, the issue stirs almost as much passion as the abortion issue. Both sides are adamant about their beliefs and rights. Both sides believe that they are points are logical and true, the issue of gun control is not quite that simple, nor it is… [read more]


Gun Control Changed by Customer in Comments A-Level Outline Answer

A-Level Outline Answer  |  3 pages (1,082 words)
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Gun Control

Changed by customer in comments

Public problem: Why gun laws need to be changed

Causes of the problem

A number of recent, highly-publicized incidents involving firearms, including the shooting at a movie theater in Colorado and the Sandy Hook Elementary School massacre in Connecticut, have brought the issue of gun violence to the forefront. Advocates for gun control have pinpointed the problem of insufficient background checks (particularly for private sales, gun show sales, and Internet sales) and the availability of high-powered firearms that have no use in legal forms of sportsmanship, such as target practice and hunting. However, the American culture of gun ownership, the lobbying power of the NRA, and a strict constructionist interpretation of the Second Amendment have all been cited as reasons why even moderate gun control proposals are so difficult to pass, despite polls that indicate that the American public as a whole overwhelmingly supports such measures.

Potential remedies

A number of proposed solutions to the problems of gun violence have all been defeated in some form by the American political system, including the recent Manchin-Toomey gun control bill (Pickler 2013). One of the most commonly proposed forms of gun control is an assault weapons ban. The argument for banning such weapons is that they make it considerably easier for violent acts to have far-reaching consequences, given the speed with which the shooter is able to fire bullets without reloading.

Expanded background checks and a national database to keep track of gun owners have also been proposed, to ensure that persons who are mentally ill or have criminal records cannot have access to firearms. The defeated senate bill had a "requirement that background checks cover every firearm sold, whether at gun shows, the Internet or private sales" (Johns 2013). However, President Obama is attempting to use his powers to circumvent this: "Federal law bans certain mentally ill people from purchasing firearms, but not all states are providing data to stop the prohibited sales to the FBI's background check system. A federal review last year found 17 states contributed fewer than 10 mental health records to the database, meaning many deemed by a judge to be a danger still could have access to guns. The Obama administration was starting a process Friday aimed at removing barriers in health privacy laws that prevent some states from reporting information to the background check system" (Pickler 2013).

Some cities, such as Washington D.C. have attempted to deal with gun violence through outright bans. However, Washington D.C.'s handgun ban was declared unconstitutional by the U.S. Supreme Court in D.C. v. Heller, and was held to be a violation of Second Amendment rights. This was not only a blow to supporters of the ban, but also meant that the Court explicitly defined Second Amendment rights to gun ownership for recreational and safety use, not exclusively to arm a 'well-regulated militia,' in contrast to the Second Amendment as it is often interpreted by gun control advocates.

Policy subsystems expected to deal… [read more]


Gun Control Legislation Term Paper

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There are also several competitions throughout the country in bull's eye, bench rest, silhouette, practical pistol, trap and skeet, and other shooting sports. Men, women, older children, and even individuals with certain disabilities can enjoy these sports since shooting does not require much agility or physical strength. Even without formal competition, shooting can be enjoyed as a hobby. Recreational shooting may involve paper targets, tin cans, or other suitable targets. This hobby can be appreciate at indoor target range, but is typical practiced outdoors. In fact, shooting can often be combined with other enjoyable outdoor activities, such as hiking, camping, and sight seeing.

Throughout history, violence has overwhelmed the human race. Since ancient times the brawny has preyed on the weak and the meek. We have approved laws to protect society, but the violence continues. Laws attempt to change human deeds, but laws are not able to change human panorama. Laws are not enough to protect people from hostility. We must allow people the means to protect themselves. Protection is a major reason that about half of all Americans own a firearm. Everyone deserves to be safe, but not everyone has the physical ability to defend himself or herself. Firearms are the most effective tools used today for self-defense, but they are only useful if they are accessible.

Firearms can be dangerous in the wrong hand that is why I consider firearm training is important. The best training consists of parents passing on our firearm heritage, respect for people and property, and some common sense safety rules to their children. For many people this training will be enough. Formal firearms training courses, like Hunter Safety Courses and the course required to gain a concealed carry permit, are also very useful. These courses reinforce the fundamental safety rules that everyone who handles firearms should know. They also teach the legal requirements specific to hunting or self-defense, depending on the course. Society does benefit from firearms in the hands of responsible citizens. It is our responsibility to use them properly and safely.

A recognize that criminals have misused firearms, often with tragic results, but I must point out that only few individuals committed those crimes. We should punish the individuals who commit these crimes, and we should imprison those who pose a threat to society so that they do not have the chance to cause harm. Punishing law-abiding citizens by passing restrictive gun laws is erroneous. Guns are not the cause of this country's crime problem Criminals are. Effective crime control legislation must control criminals, not…… [read more]


Gun Control Problems Term Paper

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2.The federal government should aid and maintain state efforts to raise the standard and encourage consistency of state gun laws, along with intensification of achievement and enforcement.

3.At least, all state gun laws should be in harmony with the federal law. At present, this would mean a minimum age limit of 18 for ownership of any gun, and 21 for purchase of a handgun from a dealer.

4.All states should move in the direction of dependable rigid frameworks based on licensing of firearm owners and registration of guns. States should execute basic anti-trafficking measures, in particular one-gun-a-month laws.

5.States should close the ambiguity between the regulation of primary and secondary sales, by necessitating the same age limits and background assessments for new and used guns.

6.principal state legislators on the subject of gun violence prevention from all 50 states should form a countrywide network to organize efforts and develop model legislation.

7.Investigators should carry out well-designed studies to assess various gun laws and assess the role of completion and other factors in their effectiveness.

Conclusion

The dearth of firearms is not conflicting with orderly public life, nor is it an essential or an adequate condition of social peace. A condition can and sometimes does lend itself to disaster. Whether one deems the matter theoretically as one of theory or concretely as one of experience, universal disarmament is no more a hopeful road to public amity

The case for an armed citizenry is not to promote the project of making war on one's neighbor with arms but to oblige with one's neighbor in the use of arms. The Constitution's Second Amendment is unequivocally of this cast of mind. As the Supreme Court has accepted, the Second Amendment contemplates that the militia -- "all males physically capable of acting in concert for the common defense" -- will, when called, "appear bearing arms supplied by themselves and of the kind in common use at the time."(United States v. Miller)

Works Cited

News Brief. The Daily Texan. 101, No. 158, 14 June, 2001. http://www.tsp.utexas.edu/webarchive/06-14-01/PF2001061403_s01_Brief.html

Briggs, B. Bruce. The Great American Gun War. PUBLIC INTEREST. 45 (1976).

Wright, James, Rossi, Peter and Daly, Kathleen. UNDER the GUN: WEAPONS, CRIME, and VIOLENCE in AMERICA Aldine Publishing Company (1983).

Scherer, Ron and Lafranchi, Howard. "New Gun Trade: Turning Them in" in: THE CHRISTIAN SCIENCE MONITOR, 4 May 2000.

Vass, Nathan, "Extra time for gun crimes." SUNDAY TELEGRAPH, Sydney 28 FEBUARY 1999.

Australian Bureau of Statistics, MEDIA RELEASE, 28. June (2000).

Olson, Joseph,…… [read more]


Gun Controls "Studies Have Shown Term Paper

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Contrarily, such revelations findings recommend that high saturations of guns in places or something associated with that condition, have impediments to the illegal hostility. Gurr has revealed that handgun ban would criminalize much of the citizenry however, have little influence on criminals, while overemphasis on such proposals dissuade attention from the kinds of settings that are liable for much of… [read more]


Stricter Gun Control Laws Term Paper

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The opposition however, is backed by the multibillion dollar enterprise of gun manufacturers who promote slogans such as: "Guns Don't Pull Their Own Triggers" and "Ted Kennedy's Car Has Killed More People Than My Gun."

Statistically 13 children die each and every day in America from gun violence. In family members of gun owners have a 22 times higher incidence of being harmed by that gun then being harmed by a possible intruder's gun.

For one to answer the question of the danger of guns in the hands of the general public one only has to look at the headlines (Cannon PG).

On Oct. 1, 1997, a teenaged killer in Pearl, Miss., was captured by Assistant Principal Joel Myrick, who by chance had his.45-caliber pistol in his car. The following April, a 14-year-old in Edinboro, Pa., killed a science teacher and wounded several students at a school dance, but was held by James Strand, the owner of the hall, who subdued the youth at the point of a shotgun (Cannon PG)."

These and many other cases are becoming common place on American soil.

It is time to re-evaluate the laws about gun purchase, and ownership in this country. The constitution does talk about the right to bear arms but it was meant in the light of the nation arming itself against attack from other nations. Nowhere in the constitution does it mention individuals owning guns for the purpose of shooting others. Guns will never be completely eradicated, however the time has come to be tougher on who can purchase them and what they must do as owners (Senate PG). Trigger lock programs, gun safety education and extremely strict background checks are all things that need to be implemented and enforced daily when it comes to firearms in America. The gun owners who end up with accidental shootings in their home or family should face long prison terms with no possibility of early release. If gun control laws get stricter and are enforced with more consistency gun owners will become more responsible in their "right to bear arms." In addition any crime that is committed with the use of a loaded gun should carry a mandatory life sentence.

If these measures are strictly adhered to, the nation will see a decrease in gun violence.

Works Cited

MORE BACK GUN CONTROL SINCE MASSACRE, POLL FINDS.(News)(Statistical Data Included)

National Journal

GUN CONTROL: The Great Gun Divide

Byline: Carl M. Cannon

Section: GUN CONTROL

SENATE…… [read more]


Smith & Wesson Safety Reform Essay

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This agreement stripped Smith & Wesson from the list of defendants in 15 of the 30 lawsuits filed by several cities and the states of New York and Connecticut.

Reactions by the Primary Stakeholders

Smith & Wesson's signing of the agreement was viewed as a capitulation by the other gun manufacturers, who almost uniformly vowed to continue the fight against stricter gun control laws (Dao, 2000). The president of the National Shooting Sports Foundation, the largest gun maker trade association, predicted that Smith & Wesson would be the lone deserter. In contrast, the National Rifle Association, the largest organization representing gun owners in America, chose not to comment on the day the agreement was announced.

While gun makers, gun owners, and their lobbying organizations have vowed to boycott Smith & Wesson handguns, AG Spitzer countered this proposal by suggesting that states and large cities purchase firearms only from manufacturers who conform to the policy goals contained within the agreement (Dao, 2000). This is not an empty threat, since law enforcement personnel and agencies are responsible for 25% of all handgun purchases in the U.S.

A bit surprisingly, some gun control advocates were not overly thrilled with the agreement (Dao, 2000). Kristen Rand of the Violence Policy Center suggested that enforcing the background check provision of the agreement is next to impossible. Rand also mentioned a loophole that would permit Smith & Wesson to avoid incorporating technology preventing use by anyone other than the owner, by marketing a firearm as a collector's item. A Temple University law professor, David Kairys, would have felt better about the agreement if Smith & Wesson had been forced to turn over records believed to hold insights into disreputable marketing strategies.

Conclusions

Rarely does a gun manufacturer capitulate when pressured by advocates of gun control. The agreement signed between Smith & Wesson and the state of New York represented a truly remarkable event in the long history of conflict between gun owners, gun makers, and gun control advocates. While there may be problems with oversight and implementation of the agreement, the recognition by Smith & Wesson of the need to change gun designs and distribution policies represented a significant victory for advocates of gun control and victims of gun violence. The conflict between Smith & Wesson and the state of New York was thus resolved successfully, pending successful implementation of the agreement.

References

Dao, James. (2000, Mar. 18). Under legal siege, gun maker agrees to accept curbs. New York Times, pp. A1, A8. Retrieved 1 Feb. 2013 from http://www.nytimes.com/2000/03/18/us / under-legal-siege-gun-maker-agrees-to-accept-curbs.html?pagewanted=all&src=pm.

New York Attorney General Press Office. (2000). New York becomes first state to sue gun companies. AG.NY.gov.…… [read more]


Gun Control in the American Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (765 words)
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Kip was reported to have received from his father, Bill, a 9 mm Glock semi-automatic pistol, one of the guns he had in possession when he went on his 'killing spree' in Thurston High. Clearly, Kip's father's toleration of his son owning a weapon contributed to his easy manipulation and accomplishment of a violent and deadly act (that is, killing innocent people, including his own parents). Also, mass media and the businesses who benefit from manufacturing and producing weapons, specifically guns, are also responsible for the proliferation of young Americans having easy access to weapons. Because mass media promotes violence and desensitizes the youth by advocating violence on TV, and businesses staunch supporters of the "youth gun culture," strict gun control sanctions and the dangers of gun use are not, or even ignored, by the youth.

Lastly, the legal system of the country regarding gun control is ineffective in implementing strict control of gun possession among individuals under the legal age of 18. An article by the Violence Policy Center (VPC) cited that the U.S. federal law does inhibit gun acquisition/purchase for individuals under the age of 18, but gun possession restrictions aren't the same in all states in the country. As was stated in the report, "possession of handguns and rifles by juveniles is regulated solely at the state level. In many states it is legal for juveniles to possess shotguns and rifles, although other states regulate or prohibit possession of long guns." Thus, through this statement, it is evident that the law regarding gun ownership, acquisition, possession is inadequate to fully implement a strict and legal gun control measures to prevent another episode of youth violence from happening again in the American society. In effect, the society and its institutions play a vital role in preventing or further accelerating the rapid increase of youth violence and inadequate gun control rules and measures in the country.

Works Cited

Navasky, Miri. "The Killer at Thurston High." PBS Online and FRONTLINE. 13 November 2002 http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows.kinkel/.

Recruitment of Kids to the Gun Culture." Violence Policy Center Web site. 13 November 2002 http://www.vpc.org/studies/startcon.htm.… [read more]


2nd Amendment the Right to Bear Arms Term Paper

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Second Amendment Rights: A Discussion

The Second Amendment, while developed long ago, is still extremely relevant today as evidenced by the huge political and cultural firestorm created any time gun rights are put into question. We will take a look at the Second Amendment; determine its relevance, the pros vs. cons, and whether gun control works. We will also discuss… [read more]


Current Controversy of 2nd Amendment to the U.S. Constitution Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (656 words)
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¶ … gun control: why the Bill of Rights does not specifically allow everyone to carry firearms

Although one of the most frequently-cited arguments for prohibiting restrictions on firearms is the Second Amendment, in recent years even largely conservative Supreme Courts have been reluctant to interpret the Second Amendment as a firearm free-for-all. In fact, the Court has routinely denies to hear almost all Second Amendment cases that argue all citizens have an unlimited right to bear arms. "In 1983, for example, it let stand a 7th Circuit decision upholding an ordinance in Morton Grove, Illinois, which banned possession of handguns within its borders" ("Gun Control," ACLU, 2002).

The reason for this reluctance may be that unless the Constitution is interpreted to protect the individual's right to own every kind of arms available, there is no legally valid way to oppose even the most reasonable restrictions on handguns, like a waiting period. Also, theoretically, the term arms is not limited to guns, but could include "Uzis or semi-automatic rifles...even nuclear warheads" and weapons of mass destruction that the musket-touting militiamen of the Founding Father's day could never have dreamed of, except in science fiction ("Gun Control," ACLU, 2002). As soon as reasonable governmental regulation weapons to protect public safety are accepted, "we have broken the dam of Constitutional protection. Once that dam is broken, we are not talking about whether the government can constitutionally restrict arms, but rather what constitutes a reasonable restriction" ("Gun Control," ACLU, 2002)

The last U.S. Supreme Court case to address firearms restrictions was a 1939 case, "U.S. v. Miller," when the Court unanimously ruled "that the Second Amendment must be interpreted as intending to guarantee the state's right to maintain and train a militia," not for citizens to bear every kind of arm as an individual right ("Gun Control," ACLU, 2002). "In the absence of any evidence tending to show that possession or use of a shotgun having a barrel of less than…… [read more]


We Should Abolish the 2nd Amendment Term Paper

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2nd / Second Amendment

Why the 2nd Amendment Should be Abolished: An Economic Perspective

Hundreds and thousands of dollars have been spent in recent years arguing for or against the right of individuals to bear firearms. Gun control and related legislations is often a hot topic among private citizens and government officials alike. The impact gun control legislation and gun… [read more]


Gun Control Bringing the United Kingdom Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (1,204 words)
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Gun Control

Bringing the United Kingdom's gun laws to the United States: A policy case study

When President Barak Obama was a state senator in Illinois, and also during his years as a senator in the U.S. Congress, he supported mainstream efforts to limit access to firearms, such as "better enforcement of existing gun laws, tighter background checks on gun buyers and a permanent assault-weapons ban" (McCormick 2009). Despite Obama's advocacy of relatively moderate gun control policies that would enable more stringent control of illegal gun trafficking yet still allow unfettered access to handguns (provided the citizen pass a background check for mental illness and a criminal record), gun sales and sales of ammunition soared when the President was elected in 2008. In the United Kingdom, in contrast, handguns as an entire class of firearm have been banned for all citizens, although shooting for sportsmanship is still allowed. "The ban on ownership of handguns was introduced in 1997 as a result of the Dunblane massacre, when Thomas Hamilton opened fire at a primary school leaving 16 children and their teacher dead" (Handgun, 2001, BBC).

To adopt a national policy regarding firearms similar to that of the British, Obama might first be tempted to use the U.S. Constitution and the existing laws of the land as justification for his policy. Of course, despite restrictions upon First Amendment free speech rights, advocates of guns claim that the language of the Second Amendment gives unfettered access to the use of firearms. However, the actual text of the Second Amendment reads: "A well regulated Militia, being necessary to the security of a free State, the right of the people to keep and bear Arms, shall not be infringed." Gun control advocates argue that this suggests that such a provision merely allows for there to be an extant army, and point out that the Constitution was written before the modern system of conscription.

Yet the current U.S. Supreme Court has been hostile to radical handgun reform. In 2008, the U.S. Supreme Court struck down a 1976 ban on handgun possession in the District of Columbia, which has one of the highest murder rates in the nation. This landmark decision held "for the first time in the nation's history that the Second Amendment guarantees an individual's right to own a gun for self-defense" (Barnes 2008, p.1). Justice Souter, the justice currently leaving the U.S. Supreme Court to be replaced by Obama's selection of the liberal justice Sonia Sotomayor, agreed with the minority's support for Washington D.C.'s right to enact such a ban, so creating a new ideological balance on the Supreme Court regarding gun control is not a policy option for the administration with the appointment of Sotomayor. Changing the laws of the U.S. through congressional legislation is Obama's only available option.

The political obstacles the President must overcome are formidable to create more stringent gun legislation: when Obama was elected, fear spread actors the nation that all guns would be banned. Despite the fact the… [read more]


Gun Control in the 21st Century Term Paper

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Bibliography Sources: 5

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Gun Control

In the 21st century, the legislature should make the ability to bear arms a privilege instead of a right.

Whether American citizens should have the unfettered right to bear arms and own guns, has been one of the most hotly debated and contentious issues ever since the Second Amendment was added to the U.S. Constitution as part of… [read more]


Gun Trafficking Term Paper

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¶ … Gun Control and Gun Trafficking

The objective of this work is the research the relationship between gun control and gun trafficking in an argumentative style of work with the goal of persuading a college-educated audience of the consequences of tighter gun control. Used will be a supply and demand argument such as in the case of alcohol and… [read more]


Guns Legislation and Information Term Paper

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Gun control has become a growingly controversial topic within national politics. Both gun control and gun rights advocacies have utilized and applied different rhetoric in explaining their platform. Gun control legislation has evolved during the past two decades, in some states restrictions have increased while in others restrictions have been decreased. In either case, gun legislation has been challenged by special interest groups in an attempt to justify their various positions. The following analysis will go into detail and analyze the specific strengths and weaknesses of gun policy and their impact upon society. After a close scrutiny on the impacts of guns on society in both their use and actual impact upon society, it is evident that information on the dangers of gun abuse are over exaggerated within the media to manipulate gun legislation in favor or against specific policies.

Information presented through special advocacy groups are frequently exaggerated in their claims. One of the keys to influencing legislation within gun control is to use information that dramatizes their cause. Both sides of the gun advocacy sides use misinformation in order to direct public sentiment. For instance, one of the chief arguments of gun control advocates is that gun violence thousands of people every year. However, in actuality many of those deaths results from suicides rather than homicides. The Brady Campaign states as fact that almost 30,000 people are killed from gun related incidents. However, almost 20% of those individuals die as a result of suicide. Gary Mauser of Simon Fraser University argues that gun control has very little to do with unavoidable deaths such as suicide. He uses international data to show that gun control will have little to know actual impact upon death rates as related to suicide. In effect, gun control groups use a collection of data that oftentimes are misleading. As a result, they dramatize the actual impact of their legislative actions. This problem is not limited to gun control groups; gun right organizations also use dramatization and misinformation to spread their campaign. One of the principle arguments of this group is that gun rights has been a foundation of American democracy, with its use during the colonial and pre-Civil War era was crucial for the defense and expansion of this country. However, as historian Randolph Roth notes, gun ownership within the United States was very limited during the pre-Civil War era. Less than one in five men had access to a gun during this period, the majority of them local militia men. In reality, guns have been a rather minor part of the American social and cultural tradition until the modern era. The purported "historical" and "cultural" value of gun ownership and gun rights are both highly exaggerated. It is evident that both sides of the conflict use hyperbole and dramatization as one of their strategies for influencing public opinion.

Another important tactic of misinformation for gun control advocacies is to establish a link between crime and gun ownership. Through the use of both grassroots… [read more]


Public Problem Why Gun Laws Should Be Changed Literature Review Chapter

Literature Review Chapter  |  4 pages (1,123 words)
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Gun Control

Changing the Gun Laws: Literature Review and Recommendations

Recent events have highlighted the fact that the United States has a serious and unchecked gun violence problem. In December of 2012, Adam Lanza, a 20-year-old man with mental illness and a stockpile of automatic and semi-automatic weapons, entered the Sandy Hook Elementary School in Newtown Square, opening fire on students and teachers. The shooter killed 20 young students and 6 faculty members before turning the gun on himself. The event would highlight the degree to which lax gun laws have allowed individuals like Lanza to access his implements of murder. It would also hasten a vote in Congress by April of the following year aimed at expanding background checks for prospective gun owners. Driven by a strong effort on the part of President Obama, the rational gun control standards were nonetheless defeated by the entrenched Republican and Tea Party elements of Congress. This defeat would demonstrate beyond a reasonable doubt the intense difficulty of serving in a leadership capacity over controversial public administration issues. The literature review and recommendations here below demonstrate that in spite of the obvious need for and public support of reasonable gun control laws, the process of public administration is inherently beset with ideological and political obstacles.

Leadership Theory and Public Administration Literature Review:

According to Barrett & Cohen (2013), in spite of clear public support in the aftermath of the Sandy Hook shooting, politically powerful lobby groups would stand in the way even of modest strengthening of gun laws. The article reports that "fierce opposition by the powerful National Rifle Association led a backlash by conservative Republicans and a few Democrats from pro-gun states that doomed key proposals in the gun package, even after they had been watered down to try to satisfy opponents." (Barrett & Cohen, p. 1)

This article contributes the finding to our discussion that public administration often has less to do with serving the public will than navigating the various institutional forces designed to obstruct change. The article by Barrett & Cohen highlights the divided nature of America's political vanguard, demonstrating that the thrust toward public administrative change must clear a number of pronounced hurdles. This is why, the text by Rainey (2009) will ultimately show, public administration is typically seen as a process of maintenance and stability rather than change and progress.

Indeed, to an extent, the executive government is incapable of making any type of rapid or radical change. Even the most progressive legislation such as that which President Obama attempted to pass into action with regard to expanded background checks, would be tempered by the demands, expectations and pressures of countless public officials, agencies, lobby groups and corporations which have been long-entrenched in the affairs of our government. This is to say that incremental decision-making is the only feasible way to approach this entrenchment and bring about some meaningful elements of change. As the text by Rainey denotes, "incrementalism in decision making means concentrating on increments to… [read more]


Gun Control Is One of Today Essay

Essay  |  7 pages (2,117 words)
Bibliography Sources: 7

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Gun control is one of today's more divisive political issues, and people on both sides of the issue have stereotypes about the types of people who support and oppose gun control. Moreover, the gun control debate is a relatively recent one, because the lack of available affordable mass-reproduced firearms throughout most of America's history meant that most Americans could not… [read more]


Problems and Solutions Regarding the Gun Control Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (870 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3

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¶ … Speaking Outline (Full text follows)

Attention Step:

One sunny day in March, at a gun store in Virginia, a young man named Cho Seung-hui walked into a gun shop. Despite having extensive documentation of mental difficulties at his college, Cho easily purchased what he desired. The end result? 33 dead on the campus of Virginia Tech.

Rapport Step:

Receipt Glock 9 mm pistol. Cho had committed no crime

Credibility Step:

According to CBS News, the gunman held eligible to buy a handgun ("More Gun Control? Don't Hold Your Breath," CBS News, 2007).

Preview Step: The time has come, after the tragedies of Virginia Tech and Columbine to create a safer society by making guns less available and more difficult to obtain in America.

Body

Describe the situation

Glock 9mm semi-automatic pistol available only to police in virtually every other country, ("America's tragedy," the Economist, 2007)

Political motive Democrats lost the House of Representatives in 1994 shortly after passing an assault-weapons ban. ("America's tragedy," the Economist, 2007)

Transition) -- but the sanctity of life, not the sanctity of political advancement must determine the laws of the land

B. Evaluate the situation as a problem

1. There are 240 million guns in America, most handguns

2. Powerful guns made killing easer ("America's tragedy," the Economist, 2007). Need for checks.

Transition) 33 people might still be alive today, if it were not for this nation's liberal background check laws, and its willingness to allow its citizens, and non-citizens with Green Cards like Cho to buy almost any kind of weapon, over the counter like a candy bar.

C. Propose a solution

1. The assault-weapons ban must renewed, Can buy the weapon for a cost at less than a month's groceries -- only $379.99 ("America's tragedy," the Economist, 2007)

2. Also, there should be a waiting period before ANYONE can purchase a weapon.

Transition) Why are Americans so afraid to take the guns out of the hands of potential madmen -- is waiting that hard to buy a rifle? Is an automatic weapon really necessary for a civilian to have in the home?

Argue for the solution

Second Amendment as a defense, but the full wording of the speech is as thus: "A well regulated Militia, being necessary to the security of a free State, the right of the people to keep and bear Arms, shall not be infringed." The purpose of the Amendment is to allow the army to have firepower, not civilians.

III. Conclusion

A. Cowardly American Politicians

B. Review

For the sake of the Virginia Tech victims and the future safety of the nation.…… [read more]


1st and 2nd Amendment Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (581 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0

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¶ … 2nd Amendments

According to the United States Constitution, the First Amendment, ratified on December 15, 1791, declares "Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people to peacefully assemble, and to petition the Government for a redress of grievances," meaning that the American government cannot support nor encourage the belief or practice of any religion; that the freedom of speech and the press cannot be restricted nor taken away, and that American citizens have the right meet in peace and ask the U.S. government to explain any and all inconsistencies in policy. The Second Amendment, ratified on the same date, declares "A well-regulated Militia, being necessary to the security of a free State, the right of the people to keep and bear Arms, shall not be infringed," meaning that a militia (organized armed forces or able-bodied male citizens subject to military service) and the American public cannot be restrained from owning firearms.

In today's America, both of these amendments have come under much attack and are linked to numerous social and political controversies. In the case of the 1st Amendment, many current politicians, especially those in the Republican Party and serving in the U.S. Senate and House of Representatives, highly endorse Christianity as the religion of the United States via the suggestion that the "Founding Fathers" were Christians. Also, certain monuments have been erected in government buildings that advocate Christianity, the most recent example being a court house that contained a monument of the Ten Commandments which after some legal maneuverings was removed. Although the 1st Amendment forbids Congress and its members from endorsing any…… [read more]


Land Without Guns: How Japan Article Review

Article Review  |  2 pages (625 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1

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Afterwards, their family members are expected to hand it back to the authorities. Nonetheless, every rule has got a few exceptions. There are some Japanese citizens, though very few, who are permitted to legally buy short guns and air riffles. Nevertheless, the process is not easy as they have to undertake a whole day written exam and pass a shooting test in order to prove their competence. In addition, the police must verify that the applicant has no past criminal records or taken part in some extremist group. After receiving the gun, the owner must have it inspected once every year by the police and he or she must provide a written documentation about its location (Fisher, 2012).

The author acknowledges that cultural and historical differences could have played a big role in variations of laws relating to gun ownership. For instance, in America, gun ownership law starts from a premise that all citizens have a "right" to own a gun before narrowing down. On the other hand, in Japan, it is totally illegal for any citizen to own a gun. However, a few exceptions are permitted. In view of this, and in the wake of Obama's government lobbying to introduce laws restricting the ownership of firearms, it is undeniable that America needs to act expeditiously to save the vulnerable citizens.

In conclusion, this article by Fisher is very informative and a challenge to America as well as other nations still struggling with crimes related to illegal shooting. It is hard to trust a man with a gun. This is because you never know when he can get berserk and opt to vent his anger on the person in his proximity. Such was the case in Colorado - Aurora Movies Theater. Much can be said but the buck stops with the government.

Reference

Fisher, M.…… [read more]


Regulated Militia, Being Necessary Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,121 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

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Regardless of his assumptions he takes on a scholarly tone which reads as if he has a great deal of knowledge on the subject. One feels that his didactic tone is appropriate and educational.

The second article is a transcript from an address made by John Ashcroft to a Senate Judiciary Committee concerning the second amendment and the responsibility of the people to own firearms. Ashcroft makes a compelling argument that the framers of the constitution knew exactly what they were doing when developing the second amendment. He points out that a populace that is armed is a populace that will have the right to free speech and democracy. He identifies reasons for historical gun ownership including fear of the government and great distances between settlements and law enforcement. And lastly, Ashcroft identifies a number of reasons that one should own a gun in today's society. Among these he lists empowerment and responsibility. In his speech, Ashcroft said, "anyone who has fired a gun knows the awesome feeling of responsibility and empowerment that comes with it." He continues, stating, "gun ownership also fills an individual with a sense of responsibility and of the need to ensure public safety through the proper use of firearms."

The Ashcroft article is not as concise as the first article. Ashcroft has a great deal on his mind concerning gun ownership and the result is that some elements of his argument become muddled. He lists great distances and fear of tyranny as reasons for gun ownership. The distances he talks of don't exist anymore and modern tyrannical governments tend to have trained soldiers that could easily defeat armed citizens (1). It is not until he begins to talk of personal responsibility that his argument becomes fluid. His belief that one should have the ability to protect family and to understand the complex responsibilities of gun ownership are intelligent and enlightened.

One thing that both Ashcroft and Claus agree on is that gun ownership is a right which is rife with responsibility. To own a gun is to be responsible for the weapon and one's own actions with said weapon. Gun control is not about to go away. Indeed, it will come back with a vengeance next time there is a massacre or a school shooting. It is important to filter these incidents through reality. Those who are involved in this type of action are not responsible gun owners. In many cases they are not even legal gun owners. To keep guns out of the hands of criminals, those who own firearms must be responsible for them. They must also be responsible for educating family and friends about both the advantages and dangers involved in gun ownership. Handling a loaded firearm is a tremendous responsibility. If the public wishes to continue to have this right, responsibility is paramount. It is those who are not responsible gun owners who threaten the second amendment the most.

Works Cited

1) North, Gary. "Gun Ownership in Iraq." Lew Rockwell. 7… [read more]


Philosophy Required in High School Gun Control Stem Cells Receiving Federal Support Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (1,096 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3

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Philosophy required in high school? Gun control?; Stem cells receiving federal support?

To be alive is to be a philosopher. Of course, young children famously pester their parents 'why is the sky blue?' But even the tiniest toddlers also ask themselves such soul-searching questions as 'are my parents always right' or 'is it wrong to cheat for the sake of a friend?' Human life for the young as well as the old is filled with ethical dilemmas, and having a class that would allow students to explore such debates would be extremely valuable.

Ethics is not a separate subject from the rest of human existence. History classes raise the question of whether it was ethical to drop the atomic bomb on Hiroshima. English classes raise ethical questions about the ways characters behave in the tragedy of Hamlet. Science classes raise questions about whether science can be reconciled with deep faith. Students are already asking philosophical questions in school, but a philosophy class allows greater systemization of such searching queries, and enables students to structure their quest for knowledge in a more effective fashion.

For students who go on to pursue business, philosophy classes will enable them to ask 'is this right' when they make decisions that affect everyone in the marketplace, as well as shareholders and their employees. If only some of the individuals who sold subprime mortgages had applied ethics and philosophy to their decision-making processes! Future doctors will also benefit from having a grounding in ethics at an early age. Even students who excel in sports must make ethical decisions about what priority the pursuit of winning and scholarships will have in their academic lives.

Finally, philosophy helps students cope with an increasingly diverse world. Philosophy forces students to ask not only 'why do I think as I do,' but 'how have others thought about life in the past,' and 'how did people approach ethics differently in other historical time periods and nations?' Recently, the George Washington University MBA program announced "that it is transforming its curriculum with its current first-year graduate students, emphasizing ethical business practices and globalization" but students should not have to wait until graduate school to grapple with a world of ethical shades of gray -- their questioning must begin now (Kinzie 2008).

Question 2: NRA

Advocacy of gun control is not limited to Republican Administrations. Sarah Brady, the wife of one of the victims of John Hinckley's failed attempt upon President Reagan's life, has been a longstanding advocate of reasonable restrictions upon handguns and other weapons. School shootings, such as those which took place at Columbine and Virginia Tech are often coupled with bipartisan, community-based demands for more vigilant controls upon who can purchase a firearm. However, the National Rife Administration continues to rally support for its ideology by claiming that any attempt to control guns is a slippery slope, and will result in the wholesale banning of all firearms.

When Barak Obama was elected the presidency, many ammunitions retailers used the event… [read more]


English 103 Critical Thinking and Composition Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,694 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+

SAMPLE TEXT:

English Literature

Gun Control

The debate over whether people should be allowed to carry concealed weapons has been going on for a long time. In the article by Sarah Thompson her point-of-view is that anyone should be able to carry gun that wants to. She feels that our second amendment right to keep and bear arms should be upheld and… [read more]


Gun Control Gun Availability Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (1,926 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0

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Gun Control

Gun availability has become a very much discussed and very intensely debated item of discussion in the United States. According to statistics there are over 230 million guns privately owned, about half of households in the United States are the owner of at least one gun and according to a Kleck and Gertz, 1995 there are 2.5 million… [read more]


2nd Amendment to U.S. Constitution Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (580 words)
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In the matter of District of Columbia, Et Al., Petitioners v. Dick Anthony Heller, brought before the Court by Heller, the Court overturned the District of Columbia legislation that had prevented Heller from registering a handgun to keep in his home.

This paper reviews and critiques the decision by the Court majority and the dissenting opinion of two justices. Moreover, it brings into the discussion legal opinions by scholars on the specific case at hand. The High Court had not considered the 2nd Amendment in almost seventy years hence, all eyes -- not just gun owners and gun rights advocates like the National Rifle Association -- were on this decision.

District of Columbia v. Heller

"A well regulated militia, being necessary to the security of a free state, the right of the people to keep and bear arms, shall not be infringed" (2nd Amendment to the U.S. Constitution).

This case stemmed from a suit brought by Anthony Heller; he was a special policeman bucking up against the District of Columbia's (DC) gun laws. The DC law -- put into place because of the high rate of gun violence and gun murders -- required residents to keep "…lawfully owned firearms unloaded and dissembled or bound by a trigger lock or similar device" (law.cornell, 2007). In an attempt to get a permit to have a handgun, Heller applied to the DC police chief and was turned down. Hence the suit -- on Second Amendment grounds -- which was dismissed by the District Court, but reversed by the DC Circuit Court. The case ended up in the Supreme Court and the majority opinion was issued by Justice Anthony Scalia.

Justice Scalia's Opinion

In Scalia's delivery of the… [read more]


Gun Control and the Regulation Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (808 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1

SAMPLE TEXT:

'" Subsequently he concluded that "I see no compelling reason to think that owning a gun is a fundamental interest."

The philosopher saw no major reason to argue in favor of gun-possession and felt that since it was not a serious-citizenship-rights matter, it ought to be discussed on moral grounds. And morally, he assumed, gun-possession didn't serve any social or public interest. Another good aspect of the discussion was reference to empirical data. The author has used less anecdotal evidence and has referred to empirical data from Department of Justice to support his arguments against gun-control.

The weaknesses of the article are numerous. For one, the author never mentions his stance on the issue clearly. It can only be extracted from various points raised by the author in the article such as " ... If fundamental rights should, as far as reasonably possible, have equal value to their possessors, then the state has a duty not to prohibit possession of "equalizers," especially since it recognizes no duty whatsoever to protect any individual from violent victimization." Secondly it appeared absolutely unnecessary to include Aristotle's views when they failed to bring any valuable point to the discussion. The author also fails to reach sound conclusions. The notes provide some background information on vital issues such as strict gun-control and general gun-control but since these points are not mentioned within the text, the notes do not account for much. The author doesn't recognize weaknesses of his article though he mentions the futility of Aristotle's views.

Further research would be required where references to empirical data are concerned. According to the authors, firearms incidents are declining and there is no co-relation between gun possession and rising rate of homicides and suicides in the country. This needs to be cross-checked and if it is true, then these conclusions can have positive impact on social control policy and gun control laws. For one, the conclusion that firearms incidents are consistently declining should have an impact on strict gun control laws. The opponents of gun-control cannot base their arguments of empirical data at least. Secondly, the conclusion that state has a duty towards its citizens and it must provide full protection can also been used as premises for arguments in favor of gun possession.

Work Cited:

Lance K. Stell: Gun Control and the Regulation of Fundamental Rights.…… [read more]


Gun Control Legislation the Availability Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,708 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3

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Retrieved from Government Printing Office website:

http://www.bjs.gov/content/pub/pdf/htus8008.pdf

Koper, C.S. (2007). Crime gun risk factors: buyer, seller, firearm, and transaction characteristics associated with gun trafficking and criminal gun use. Report to the National Institute of Justice, U.S. Department of Justice. Journal of Quantitative Criminology, 1-31. Retrieved

from https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/nij/grants/221074.pdf

Lemstra, M.E., Nielsen, G., Rogers, M.R., Thompson, A.T., & Moraros, J.S. (2012). Risk indicators and outcomes assoicated with bullying in youth aged 9-15 years. Canadian Journal of Public Health, 103(1), 9-13.

Lupkin, S. (2013, September 19). U.S. has more guns -- and gun deaths -- than any other country, study finds. ABC News. Retrieved from http://abcnews.go.com/blogs/health/2013/09/19/u-s-has-more-guns-and-gun-deaths-than-

any-other-country-study-finds/

Martosko, D. (2012, December 15). After school massacre, 100,000 americans petition white house for gun control. The Daily Caller. Retrieved from http://dailycaller.com/2012/12/15/after-school-massacre-100000-americans-petition- white-house-for-gun-control/

Perkinson, A. (2013, January 16). What's in obama's gun control proposal. The New York Times. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2013/01/16/us/obama-gun-control- proposal.html?_r=0

U.S. Department of Justice. Bureau of Justice Statistics, (2011). Nonfatal firearm violence,

1993-2011, special tabulation from the bureau of justice statistics' national crime victimization survey, provided to national institute of justice.

Retrieved from Government Printing Office website http://www.bjs.gov/content/pub/pdf/fv9311.pdf… [read more]


Right to Bear Arms Gun Control Term Paper

Term Paper  |  9 pages (3,902 words)
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¶ … Right to Bear Arms

Gun control became an issue for Americans in the 1960s when President Kennedy, Dr. Martin Luther King, and Senator Robert F. Kennedy were assassinated, all with guns. People began to demand that the government do something to stop the spread of guns and murder (Ruhl, Rizer, & Wier, 2003/2004). Since then, although a large… [read more]


Handguns Should Be Banned Argue Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,021 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

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Gun Control

Wouldn't it be great to significantly reduce murders and violent crime by simply banning all handguns? Those who favor gun control base their support on this type of emotional appeal. However, the facts show that their opinions rely on a series of faulty assumptions, most notably that the right to bear arms is not a constitutional right, the gun control will deter crime and that you can somehow disarm criminals.

This paper examines these misperceptions and explains why they simply aren't true. It concludes with a recommendation that citizens should not support gun control.

The interpretation of the 2nd amendment has polarized the American people among two different views (Greenslade, 2004). Those in favor of gun control argue that there is no individual right to keep and bear arms because the Amendment refers to the people's collective right as members of a well regulated State militia. In contrast, the individual rights view holds that individuals may bring claims or raise challenges based on a violation of their rights under the 2nd Amendment just as they do to vindicate other individual rights secured by the Bill of Rights. This view appears to be the most valid after placing the Amendment in appropriate historical context. Prior to the Constitution, the right to arms was consistently a personal one. "Beginning with the right of individual English subjects to have arms for their defense, it was supplemented in revolutionary America with the notion that a citizen militia, comprising the armed citizenry, was a particularly important means of securing free government." ("Whether the Second Amendment Secures an Individual Right," 2004) American leaders such as Thomas Jefferson proposed that "no free man shall ever be debarred the use of arms," and Samuel Adams called for an amendment banning any law "to prevent the people of the United States who are peaceable citizens from keeping their own arms." ("The Right to Keep and Bear Arms," 1982). Following the American Revolution, several states included explicit right-to-bear-arms provisions in their declarations of rights which sought to protect an individual right and these provisions served as a basis for the 2nd Amendment ("The Right to Keep and Bear Arms," 1982).

Although gun control advocates argue that guns should be banned because they are responsible for crime, there is no evidence to support this claim. There is no direct statistical correlation between gun ownership and homicide or other violent crimes (Kopel, 1988). As supporting evidence, Kopel reveals that in the first 30 years of this century, U.S. per capita handgun ownership remained stable, but the homicide rate rose tenfold. and, between 1937 and 1963, handgun ownership rose by 250%, but the homicide rate fell by 35.7%. Kopel also points to a compelling country example to illustrate that guns do not cause crime. Switzerland actually distributes both pistols and fully automatic assault rifles to all adult males and requires them to store these weapons in their home. The country has practically no regulation on long-gun purchases and handguns are available… [read more]


District of Columbia v. Heller Term Paper

Term Paper  |  15 pages (4,967 words)
Bibliography Sources: 8

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For a start, we must realize that there are competing versions of history (and indeed of the English language) which are at stake behind the differing approaches taken by Scalia and by his many critics. Hardy cites Joyce Lee Malcolm's history to demonstrate that Stevens' claim of "no new scholarship" on the subject was hardly well-informed. Stevens, relying here on… [read more]


Second Amendment Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,155 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0

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Gun-related crime is not the domain of the gun manufacturer. Most homicides committed with a firearm are not accidental; they are intentional. If domestic crime reduction is the aim of the gun control lobbyists, then those lobbyists are aiming at the wrong tree. The proliferation of firearms is a fact and there is no reasonably way to recall weapons already sold. That being the case, future restrictions on gun sales would do nothing to curb homicides. Black markets thrive and create more crime than liberal, open markets do. Instead of limiting sales and purchases of guns, legislatures need to spend more time and money on the proper enforcement of existing laws. Treating gun control as top priority drains money from a needy police force. Crime control must take precedence over gun control.

All firearms owners should possess a fundamental understanding of the nature of their weapon(s). Individual guns have unique characteristics; owners should study their weapons as they would their breed of dog. Guns should be treated with respect as if they are loaded at all times. They should be pointed in a safe direction when handled casually, fingers away from the trigger. Mechanical safeties fail, so owners shouldn't rely on them. Guns kept in storage should never be loaded, and if children are present, great care should be taken to prevent misuse. Protective gear and correct ammunition, along with common-sense knowledge about shooting can help prevent accidents. And of course, the use of alcohol or drugs around firearms must not be permitted any more than driving while drunk. If safety measures like these are taken to ensure safe gun possession, cumbersome, unfair, and unjust laws will not be required to reduce accidents.

The basis of the Second Amendment of the constitution is founded in the need to organize militias. While many things have changed since the 18th century, people are still people; politics still politics. Two hundred-odd years is a speck of time. We live under the illusion that somehow we have evolved permanently and that the government of the United States is incapable of infractions against which we must fight. Especially in the wake of September 11, citizens need to bear personal arms not only for self-defence, but also in defence of the rights and principles upon which our country was founded.

If the cause of states or local militias to rise up against a tyrannical government seems anachronistic, imagine an extreme case: fear of terrorism reaches paranoia. The United States government imposes atrocious rules that regulate our speech and our behavior. Gradually, without the luxury of shock, Americans become subjected to tyrannical rule. The transition was smooth but suddenly the reality of the new world order sets in. In order to break free from an oppressive regime, we all do need the right to bear arms.

Gun control is not the solution to the problems besetting our society: violence is inherent in human nature. What we need is enforcement, education, and respect. We need to enforce existing… [read more]


Policy-Making Issues and the Second Amendment Research Paper

Research Paper  |  5 pages (1,616 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5

SAMPLE TEXT:

Policy Brief: Gun Law Changes

The highest and most authoritative source of law in the United States is the Constitution and its several amendments. The Second Amendment to the U.S. Constitution makes it clear that the Founders believed gun ownership was a fundamental right and all public policies flow from this right. As a result, making substantive changes to the… [read more]


Bowling for Columbine Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (624 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

SAMPLE TEXT:

BOWLING for COLUMBINE and GUN CONTROL ISSUES in the U.S.

In his 2002 movie Bowling for Columbine, Michael Moore examines the issues of gun ownership and violence in the United States. The movie's title is a reference to the 1999 shootings at Columbine High School in Littleton, Colorado by two students heavily armed with firearms. Initially, Moore considers the prevalence of gun ownership as a causal factor in the massacre and as the reason for the high rate of gun violence in the U.S. Moore does illustrate the fanaticism of the National Rifle Association and its thousands of supporters. Eventually, however, he concludes that violence in the U.S. is more the result of a culture of aggression and violence than simply the result of access to firearms. Moore suggest as much through imagery of U.S. foreign policy in action.

Opinion of Issues

The National Rifle Association

Moore actually visits the home of the late President of the National Rifle Association (NRA) unannounced to challenge the former actor on the issue of responsibility for gun violence. When confronted by Moore's argument that the widespread availability of firearms in the U.S., Heston replies that Moore should refer his questions to the Framers of the U.S. Constitution.

That suggestion is based on the familiar position of the powerful NRA political lobby (and many others) supporting the belief that the Second Amendment to the U.S. Constitution specifically guarantees the "right to bear arms." In reality, the issue is much less clear because many legal scholars (including the members of the U.S. Supreme Court to date) argue that the Second Amendment merely authorizes the individual states to maintain armed state militias (Dershowitz, 2002).

In my opinion, the more restrictive interpretation may make more sense, mainly because the Constitution was drafted at a time when states' rights and federal rights were a principal concern. It is also unreasonable…… [read more]


Gun Regulation Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (745 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1

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Still, despite the clear benefits of such regulatory measures, Congress still shows clear signs of a showdown among bipartisan lines (Calabresi 1). Republicans are fighting Democrats' initiatives on gun control every step of the way, which is making it difficult for any regulatory measures to pass. Congress needs to push aside its party differences and understand that these current regulations are not taking such guns off the market completely, but rather just making it harder for criminals to purchase and use them in violent attacks against America's communities.

The concept of gun regulation is one which is always a sensitive subject here in the United States. Americans demand access to weapons through their Second Amendment Rights, and thus gun enthusiasts see gun regulation of any sort as a violation of their Constitutional Rights, according to an article by Devi in 2012. Such thinking has caused many states to be extremely conservative with their own gun regulation, allowing for citizens to purchase dangerous weapons with little regulations or background checks. Unfortunately, "many people don't realize that, in most states, individuals convicted of violent misdemeanors with court-issued restraining orders for domestic violence, or who have a serious history of mental illness or substance abuse, can legally possess firearms" (Devi 1545). Without greater restrictions, dangerous weapons like fully automatic guns and assault riffles are being bought and sold by those who have a motive to use them against others and incite violence within American communities.

The lack of regulations essentially allows dangerous weapons to fall into the hands of those who would abuse them. Thus, Congress needs to enact greater regulations, not banning these weapons entirely, but enforcing greater restrictions on who has access to them. It is the right of normal Americans to own weapons, they just need to prove their ability to own them responsibly.

References

Calabresi, Massimo. "How Gun Control Ends: Not with a Bang, But with a Whimper." Time Magazine. 2013. Web. http://swampland.time.com/2013/03/11/how-gun-control-ends-not-with-a-bang-but-a-whimper/

Devi, Sharmilla. "Researchers Call for Reform of U.S. Gun Control Policies." The Lancet. Vol. 380, Issue…… [read more]


Ownership of Guns Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,603 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

SAMPLE TEXT:

8 to 13.0 suicides per 100,000 population...At most...this huge increase in the gun stock might have caused a mild increase in the percentage of suicides committed with guns, which shifted from 53.3 in 1972 to 60.3 in 1994, and thus a mild corresponding increase in the gun suicide rate." (Kleck pp. 265)

So should gun control be implemented? By the evidence provided above, I conclude guns should be totally done away with. The issue is very sensitive and the lives of people depend upon the availability and free ownership of guns. A gun in the house means that the person is liable to use it. Prevention is better than the cure, it has been repeated many times, but its implementation in the gun case is of esteemed importance. Think about it, who would use a gun if there were no guns. Nature and instinct, to use something which he has bought and owns bind a person. A gun in the hands of a nervous or otherwise trigger-happy person can result in serious damage to the lives and property of innocents. So it does serve better to remove the root cause of such accidents or premeditation: to destroy the guns.

Works Cited

Federal Bureau of Investigation, "Uniform Crime Rep" 1999.

A www.fbi.org (Accessed March 20, 2002)

Kleck, Gary. "Targeting Guns: Firearms and Their Control." New York, Walter de Gruyter, Inc., 1997

Kellermann, Arthur L, MD, "Suicide in the Home in Relation to Gun Ownership." The New England Journal of Medicine, Vol. 327, (1992): pages 34-36.

Anonymous. "An improvement in emergency medical services and hospital trauma centers, so that many gunshot victims who might have died in the past are now saved." New York Times News Service, New York, 1996

Roth, Jeffery A.,…… [read more]


State or Local Policy Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (876 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1

SAMPLE TEXT:

Government - Policy

GUN CONTROL in NEW YORK CITY Introduction:

Gun control has been a very controversial issue in American society since the enactment of state and local restrictions against gun ownership by private citizens.

According to proponents of private gun ownership, the Second Amendment of the United States Constitution specifically guarantees the rights of citizens to bear arms.

Conversely, gun control regulation advocates maintain that the only right granted by the Second Amendment is the right of individual states to maintain armed militias, such as state national guards and police forces.

That particular argument suggests that the original motivation for the proposal of the Second Amendment related to the concerns of the anti-federalists during the constitutional ratification period of American history. Those concerns were primarily that the individual states never be disarmed by the federal government and not the rights of individual citizens to possess firearms. Last week, the U.S. Supreme Court rendered a potentially pivotal decision in the Heller case, striking down the prohibition in the District of Columbia against private firearm ownership. The implications of Heller include likely challenges in other states like New York, particularly in the New York City, where private gun ownership has been effectively prohibited since 1976.

Gun Control in New York City: Prior to 1976 private citizens in New York City were required to register guns with the city. In 1976, New York City stopped registering guns for private citizens, enacting very stringent requirements instead that operate in fact, if not in law, as an outright ban against guns for New York City residents. At that time, New York City was plagued with one of the highest crime rates in the country with one of the highest rates of violent crime, crimes effected through the use of firearms, and shootings of police officers.

As a result, the Koch administration enjoyed considerable support for restrictions on firearm ownership in the community. Traditionally, New York City has been considered a liberal city on the spectrum of political orientation, which likely accounted for the relative lack of opposition to gun control measures at the time. By contrast, similar proposals in traditionally more conservative states would have inspired considerably more opposition by virtue of social norms that pertained to gun ownership.

The combination of high crime and lack of a traditional emphasis on gun ownership in New York as compared with other American States both contributed to the relative ease with which New York City enacted the administrative codes of 1976 that, in effect, banned gun ownership by private citizens throughout all five counties of New York City.

Specifically, those administrative codes replaced the…… [read more]


Can Schools Shootings Be Prevented Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (816 words)
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Violence - School Shootings

IS it POSSIBLE to PREVENT SCHOOL SHOOTINGS?

School shootings have occurred periodically in the United States and the rest of the world ever since Charles Whitman, a University of Texas engineering student, took up his sniper position in the Bell Tower above the campus, killing 16 people and wounding another 31 before being killed by police in 1966 (USSS & UDDOE 2002).

Since then, some of the most infamous incidents include the 1999 shootings at Columbine High School in Colorado that took 15 lives and the 2007 Virginia Tech massacre that accounted for more deaths (33) than any other American school shooting.

Public safety officials and many local, state, and federal government agencies have devoted significant resources to understanding the phenomenon. A collaborative effort between the U.S. Secret Service and the Department of Education produced a comprehensive manual for addressing the threat on school campuses, but it is unlikely that even the best approaches can ever eliminate future school shootings for several specific reasons.

School Bullying and Other Psychological Factors:

Adolescence is a difficult period of development even in the best of circumstances. One of the most common, age-old dynamics of childhood and public education is the social phenomenon of bullying behavior, which, in some cases, can even leave emotional scars that last into adulthood. Whereas the vast majority of bullying victims never resort to murdering their victimizers or to indiscriminately murdering others, social ostracism and peer rejection is a commonly shared trait among many of those who perpetrate school shootings (USSS & USDOE 2002).

Other psychological factors that play a role in many school shootings include dysfunctional family relationships, domestic violence, and in some cases, even excessive parental expectations and self imposed educational performance anxiety or perceived failure to achieve personal goals. Sometimes, these factors trigger clinical depression and suicide attempts; other times, they may manifest themselves in externally-focused violence.

Since the Columbine tragedy in 1999, school authorities have devoted considerably more attention to excluding weapons from educational facilities and in several instances, public awareness of the potential danger of school shootings has led to the identification of potential perpetrators before the fact. Unfortunately no school is completely impervious to the threat of smuggled weapons.

Gun Control:

Gun ownership is a highly charged political issue with many Americans equating the right to bear arms as a fundamental component of constitutionally protected freedoms. The National Rifle Association (NRA) enjoys a powerful lobbying position in…… [read more]


Block Scheduling Education Term Paper

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Gun Control

Advocates argue that gun control laws reduce the incidence of violent crimes by reducing the prevalence of firearms. Gun laws control the types of firearms that may be purchased, designate the qualifications of those who may purchase and own a firearm, and restrict the safe storage and use of firearms. On this view, fewer guns mean less crime.… [read more]


Secretary of State Transition From Hillary Term Paper

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Secretary of State Transition From Hillary to John Kerry

For the past eight years the Secretary of State position has been held by a woman. Despite criticism that Obama's new administration lacks the female power it has held in the past four years, John Kerry was announced as being Hillary Rodham Clinton's Secretary of State successor. Kerry has fully acknowledged… [read more]


United States, in Accordance Research Paper

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Restricting the import of all spare firearms of military and various other weapons with the exception of sport purposes

Therefore the main law in The Gun Control Act of 1968 obliges the licensing of all the guns related to manufacturers, dealers, importers, collectors or common citizens. There are various limitations with The Gun Control Act of 1968. Firstly, the public… [read more]


Brady Act Policy Evaluation Research Paper

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However, as the next section notes, there are some discrepancies in the performance of this policy that must be addressed.

Gaps Between Policy and Reality:

To this end, one of the largest and most problematic gaps between the intention of the Brady policy and the actuality of the policy in execution is that its focus is limited to only federally licensed gun deals. Unfortunately, the firearms business is characterized by a wide range of independent sellers and unmonitored transactions. The result is that the background check program has a decidedly limited reach when it comes to a statistically significant number of gun sales. According to Senator Levin, "the Coalition to Stop Gun Violence [reports that] two out of every five guns acquired in the United States; including guns bought at gun shows, through classified ads, and between individuals; change hands without a background check. The Coalition to Stop Gun Violence also estimates that extending criminal background checks to all gun transactions in the United States could prevent nearly 120,000 additional illegal gun sales every year." (Levin, p. 1)

This means that we are only really catching a little more than half of all gun buyers who are likely to be unfit for firearm ownership. Because the Brady Act has been prevented from reaching into such sales contexts as private weapons shows, it is difficult to truly determine its impact. Most particularly, we have know way of knowing what percentage of legally unfit buyers prefer to pursue their acquisition in a context without background checks. However, we may assume that being unfit for purchase from a legal dealer is a strong inventive to purchase a handgun through an alternate channel.

This likelihood may in fact account for the finding reported in the article by Cook. Here, Cook points out that if we choose to measure the Brady Act's effectiveness using an alternate metric, it is appropriate to consider its impact on actual gun violence. Here, Cook points out that the very purpose of the Brady Act was in fact to stem the occurrence of gun violence rather than to simply restrict purchase. According to these terms, the "study did not find significant trend differences between the Brady and non-Brady states in the most reliably measured gun crime - homicide. Thus the direct effect on gun crime that advocates expected from denying disqualified adults in the Brady states does not reveal itself in our data." (Cook, p. 1)

Conclusion:

Scrutinizing this claim a little more closely, we can see that the finding is somewhat disingenuous, primarily because the states which did not adopt the Brady Bill in 1994 already did employ some form of background check-based gun control. A better basis for comparison would be the rate of change in gun violence following policy initiation vs. other crimes. According to Butterfield (2000), "Justice Department figures have shown that crimes committed with handguns fell 52% from 1993 to 1998, which is twice the rate that crimes fell over all." (p. 1)

The distinction… [read more]


Should Handguns Be Banned Term Paper

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Handgun Control

The great majority of people want to live in a safe society. In order to do this, they willingly pay taxes that are used to pay for fire and police protection. Police protection in particular serves the purpose of preventing crimes by being a presence in the community. We arm our police because sometimes they will face criminals who are armed. The police are highly trained in how to use firearms to help preserve peace, but civilians are not. Some people feel that citizens should be allowed to arm themselves for protection against criminals as well, but civilians are not trained in the safe use of firearms for protective purposes. For this reason, handguns should be restricted to use by police personnel.

Laws are passed for the purpose of serving the greater good of the community that passes the laws. At the federal level, we have the Constitution. Those who support the right of private citizens to carry handguns point to the Constitution, which clearly protects the right to bear arms. However, it can be argued that the founding fathers included this rule so citizens could form citizen militias, which played an important part in the American Revolutionary War. Nowhere in the Constitution does it say a person can keep a handgun in his or her home, keep it loaded, and shoot people who try to intrude into their homes. In fact, depending on the circumstances, someone who shoots an individual trying to enter his or her home might be praised as a hero or arrested for breaking the law. The laws vary from state to state regarding handguns.

In fact, handguns really only have one use, and that is to shoot other human beings. They are not suitable for hunting, because they are not accurate at longer distances. Handguns were not common when the Constitution was written, and pistols were used by officers in close combat, and for…… [read more]


Ineffectiveness of Gun Control: Violence Term Paper

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Indeed, lax gun control measures contribute to the prevalence of these killings. The legal system of the country regarding gun control is ineffective in implementing strict control of gun possession among individuals under the legal age of 18. An article by the Violence Policy Center (VPC) cited that the U.S. federal law does inhibit gun acquisition/purchase for individuals under the age of 18, but gun possession restrictions are not the same in all states in the country. As was stated in the report, "possession of handguns and rifles by juveniles is regulated solely at the state level. In many states it is legal for juveniles to possess shotguns and rifles, although other states regulate or prohibit possession of long guns." Thus, through this statement, it is evident that the law regarding gun ownership, acquisition, possession is inadequate to fully implement a strict and legal gun control measures to prevent another episode of youth violence from happening again in the American society, whatever the intentions of an individual are in possessing the said weapon (whether it is for self-protection or not).

In effect, the society and its institutions play a vital role in preventing or further accelerating the rapid increase of youth violence and inadequate gun control rules and measures in the country. Since legal measures take time to be formulated and implemented, it is vital that society should be vigilant in ensuring that gun possession are not easily accessible to minors. This can only be achieved if parents can practice safety precautions and measures that inhibit children and teenagers from accessing these weapons. Thus, gun control can be implemented effectively by a "watchful" society always alert on the adverse effects of gun accessibility among children, avoiding occurrences of violence (especially) from happening again.

Works Cited

Navasky, Miri. "The Killer at Thurston High." PBS Online and FRONTLINE. 28 November 2003 http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows.kinkel/.

Recruitment of Kids to the Gun Culture." Violence Policy Center Web site. 28 November 2003 http://www.vpc.org/studies/startcon.htm.… [read more]


Sandy Hook School Shooting Research Paper

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Positive and Negative Impact Analysis

It is very difficult to find anything positive in the Sandy Hook School Shooting. Many people died, seemingly senselessly. Some believe there is a reason for everything, but others do not see it the same way, and struggle to find meaning. If positives are to be found in the short-term, it could be that the… [read more]


Right to Bear Arms Thesis

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Right to Bear Arms

In order to understand the importance of the right to bear arms, one must have a clear understanding of the events leading up to the American Revolution. The American colonists were being subjected to a form of government that they viewed as a form of tyranny. They confronted that tyranny with an armed rebellion, which they… [read more]


Gun Violence Research Paper

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Gun Violence

According to the Coalition to Stop Gun Violence (2010), the agenda of the National Rifle Association "includes weakening the requirements to obtain a concealed handgun permit, expanding the number of places...where concealed handguns can be carried, and enacting "Shoot First" laws that remove an individual's duty to retreat from potentially violent confrontations." The aggressive support of Second Amendment rights has possibly gone beyond the boundaries of personal freedom. As Lott (2000) points out, the net effect of gun control laws on gun violence statistics is difficult to determine due to flaws in research methodology and the variance in laws from state to state, county to county. One thing is sure: gun violence remains a tremendous problem in the United States.

The Legal Community Against Violence (2010) points out that gun violence alone leads to about 100,000 injuries and 30,000 deaths per year. Over half of all gun deaths are suicides, and over 40% are homicides (Legal Community Against Violence 2010). The level of gun ownership is statistically linked to both murder and suicide rates, worldwide (Gun Control Network 2007). Gun violence is the "second most frequent cause of death overall for Americans aged 15 to 24 (Violence Policy Center nd). The prevalence and severity of gun violence warrants a pointed and proactive public policy response.

The United States especially contends with a major gun violence epidemic. Gun violence rates are three to four times as high in the United States than in any other developed nation in the world (Gun Control Network 2007). Clearly, the gun lobby clings to the Second Amendment without taking into account sociological and criminological data. The Second Amendment protects the rights of Americans to protest their government if that government should become tyrannical; the Second Amendment does not protect the rights of Americans to proliferate gun violence and create a society riddled with gun crime (Cornell 2006).

Background of the Problem

Before the War of Independence, the Colonialists brought guns with them for "utilitarian purposes," (DeConde 2001, p. 17). Those purposes included the basic fact that hunting was the main source of sustenance for many colonialists, and that skirmishes with indigenous peoples were common (DeConde 2001). As trade with Native Americans expanded into the exchange of items for European firearms, gun violence proliferated in the colonies (DeConde 2001). Thus, gun violence preceded the Second Amendment in the United States. The Second Amendment is not…… [read more]


Right to Bear Arms - A Constitutionally Term Paper

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Right to Bear Arms - a Constitutionally Protected Right

Today, the interpretation of the Second Amendment has polarized the American people among two different views (Greenslade, 2004). Those opposed to private ownership of firearms argue that there is no individual right to keep and bear arms because the Second Amendment refers to the people's collective right as a members of… [read more]


American Citizens Should Have the Right Term Paper

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American citizens should have the right to bear arms because depriving law-abiding citizens of the right to own and carry a handgun takes away a powerful deterrent to crime. It is the right of every citizen to defend and a gun offers the protection that most people are searching for.

The debate generated by the possession and use of guns… [read more]


Right to Bear Arms Arguing Term Paper

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Right to Bear Arms

Arguing for the right to bear arms is a more complex and challenging task than arguing against it. The key, then, to a successful argument for the position I have chosen is to point out facts and information that would be relevant and convincing to the audience I am going to address. There are various audiences to which my arguments will be addressed. These audiences include the general public and specific sectors relevant to the issue of gun control. These specific sectors include gun owner groups and anti-gun ownership groups. Between these two groups, anti-gun ownership groups would prove to be a more challenging sector to convince than gun owners. The general public is also susceptible to the popular belief that gun ownership is generally harmful to civil society, which could promote a gradual dissent to gun ownership or the right to bear arms.

For the general public and anti-gun ownership groups,…… [read more]


Right to Bear Arms Essay

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¶ … Right to Bear Arms

The issue of exercising the right to bear arms is, more often than not, associated with the debate on whether or not gun control should be imposed to civil society. The rationale behind gun control is that it is a detriment and threat to civil society, wherein gun ownership could lead to an individual's tendency to resort to using guns or arms as an immediate response to conflicts or misunderstandings. On the other side of the coin lies the issue of one's right to bear arms, an individual right that, ultimately, cannot be questioned because this is a privilege and right already given to the individual prior his/her entering the social contract that led to the creation of the civil society and the government.

Given these opposing arguments for and against the right to bear arms, this research looks at the debate once more, with a thorough analysis of each side to the issue. This research assumes the position that an individual must be given the privilege the right to bear arms or guns. In arguing this position, this research argues that the right to bear arms is not only a measure for self-defense, but also to increase the behavior of preparedness and self-reliance among the citizenry or members of the civil society.

Reynolds' (2007) report on the increasing occurrence of gun ownership among communities in the U.S. supports this argument. In his report, he stated that societies such as those found in Idaho have already imposed ordinances that support citizens to practice gun ownership. In a particular ordinance, Ordinance 208 in Greenleaf, Idaho, the imposition of gun ownership is a legal step that does not aim to counteract an increase in violence in communities, but rather, as a "statement about preparedness in the event of an emergency, and an effort to promote a culture…… [read more]

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