Study "Gun Control / Rights / 2nd Amendment" Essays 111-164

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Pay Maybe Term Paper

… ¶ … Supreme Court's recent decision to uphold gun rights in the famous DC gun ban case, the issue of gun control has become a topic of great discussion in recent weeks. While the Supreme Court's decision to uphold the second amendment in terms of private citizens answers some constitutional questions about the issue, it does not put an end to all firearm regulations. For instance, the sale of firearms can still be regulated; criminals and the mentally ill can still be banned from carrying weapons; bans in certain areas, like schools, are still permissible; and conceal and carry laws are still in place (Doherty). Despite the regulations that remain, lifting the Washington, D.C. gun ban has implications for both legal and criminal justice fields. While this decision will greatly impact the law by questioning the constitutionality of other city-wide handgun bans, such as Chicago's, the decision's impact on criminal justice is equally severe. With the ban lifted, police officials in Washington, D.C. are likely to now see a rise in gun and gun related crime. It is not only Washington D.C., however, but states and cities worldwide that suffer from this interpretation of the second amendment. Because allowing citizens over the age of eighteen to own handguns increases both gun related death and injury in addition to crime, handguns should be banned not only in cities, but also across states nationwide.

Without a federal gun ban, the number of injuries and deaths caused by guns is likely to rise, especially in the demographically vulnerable such as juveniles and the mentally ill. According to the Harvard University Gazette, each year 30,000 people suffer fatal gunshot wounds, while 65,000 suffer non-fatal injuries at the trigger. Thus, nearly 100,000 people are either killed or injured by guns each year. According to these statistics, only ten years would be necessary for a million U.S. residents and visitors to be killed as a result of gun use. Not only are these numbers rather drastic, but also they affect a disproportionate amount of the vulnerable, namely juveniles and the mentally ill. In fact, the U.S. justice department has discovered a direct link between gun use and homicides. Of the nearly 100,000 killed each year by guns, 20,000 are children and adolescents under twenty (Reich, Culross, and Behrman 5). In fact, the department found that the surge in juvenile homicide that occurred between 1987 and 1993 "involved gun-related killings," and the subsequent de-escalation in the mid-1990s "was fueled by a "drop in gun-related killings" ("Juveniles and Guns"). Despite this drop, guns have become a major issue in juvenile delinquency, crime, and safety, according to a 2002 study by Reigh, Culross, and Behrman, who assert that "the lethality and widespread availability of guns have worsened youth violence in this country" (5). Gun injuries and deaths also pose a very real threat to children and adolescents who may cause injury to themselves and others through accidental firings. A 2001 Yale University study gives credence to these finds when… [read more]

Value for a Specific Test Research Paper

… ¶ … value for a specific test that can be used to compare people with Parkinson's disease and people without Parkinson's disease (suppose also that the distribution of reaction times is for people without Parkinson's disease). Reaction times are typically positively skewed with the majority of scores being near the lower values of the distribution and as reaction time values get longer less and less scores being located in that area of the distribution. Thus, in a classically positively skewed distribution the mean value is larger than the two other values of central tendency (Hyperstat, 1999). Knowing the mean in a positively skewed distribution tells me that that is the largest of the three values of central tendency. The mode for the distribution would be lowest value in the distribution followed by the median and then by the mean. The mean reaction time value in a positively skewed distribution is higher than the other two measures of central tendency and therefore not necessarily a good summary score. On the other hand, if we are given the mean value for a distribution with a negative skew, our conclusions would be reversed. Either way the median is a more realistic measure of central tendency as a descriptive statistic in highly skewed distributions.

2. When a researcher decreases the probability of making one of these statistical errors in decision-making (type I or type II) the result is an increase in the probability of making the other error (Runyon, Coleman, & Pittenger, 2000). Researchers and clinicians have understood this principle for some time and have used it to their advantage. Often in diagnostic testing where researchers are dealing with a very devastating or potentially fatal condition where the treatment is not equally as potentially damaging it is generally considered to be more advantageous to avoid false negatives because of the potential severe consequences involved in actually having the disease and thinking that you do not have it. Likewise if the treatment is radical and is potentially fatal and there is a chance that the disease itself can simply burn out or pass researchers and clinicians might be more motivated to avoid false positives due to the potentially devastating effects of the treatment.

Currently, the Zeitgeist in liberal politics regarding gun control appears to be pointed towards reducing false negatives and ignoring false positives. For example, even though very few gun owners actually commit horrendous acts with their weapons very strict gun-control laws would automatically punish all gun-control owners at the expense of controlling the few who may appear to be harmless but in effect our potential shooting spree killers. Thus, many politicians point out that reducing false negatives at the expense of limiting the rights of others and not worrying about false positives is in the best interests of the country and we need very strict gun control and gun ownership laws. Of course the repercussions of such potential bills simply create friction amongst the differing political factions and in reality never really solve… [read more]

Federal and State Legislation Domestic Essay

… Federal domestic violence statues support state and local laws in order to fight against domestic violence. Domestic violence is such a significant problem that federal laws are necessary to help guide state and local legislative action. The idea is collaboration between all groups, but with the power and influence of the Department of Justice as a foundation. Often federal laws help serve as a blueprint. In the state of Illinois, law makers created the Illinois Domestic Violence Act (IDVA) to allow abuse sufferers to go to court to obtain orders of protection without notice to the offending party. This is important because the idea of no contact order gives many victims more courage to come forward. If the abuser were to find out about the impending legal action, they might inflict even more harm on them.

Similar to the definitions used in the VAWA, the IDVA defines abuse in broad terms such as physical abuse, harassment, intimidation, deprivation of food or shelter, harassment, withholding children, threatening physical force, creating a disturbance at the victim's place of employment by phone or in person, creating a disturbance at the victim's home or residence, and stalking behavior (Eulich, 2013). Under the IDVA, orders of protection are considered to be the first step towards relief and protection. They can prevent an abuser from continuing threats and abuse, bar them from a home that is shared with the victim, require them to get treatment or counseling, prevent children from being taken out of state, grant temporary legal custody of the kids to the safest parent, and help protect personal property.

Different states do things in different ways with different punishments as well. However, stiffer sentences and restrictions are almost always enforced if there is evidence of repeated abuse, drugs, alcohol, and sexual abuse or if minor children are involved. Whether a federal or state domestic violence issue, the accused also have rights, namely to be heard at a court hearing.

Whenever possible, both federal and state legislation try to keep families together and focus on rehabilitation. Examples of federal legislative action against domestic violence include the VAWA as described above and The Family Violence Prevention and Services Act (FVPSA) which supports victims and children who need help and also offers communities violence prevention education. ( (

Examples of state legislative action in response to domestic violence include the Primary Domestic Violence Prevention Law of Massachusetts which operates very similar to the IDVA. Also, the Domestic Violence Prevention and Treatment Act of Michigan is a great example of state support for victims. It seeks to protect women and children from harm by setting aside funds for escape from abusive households, placement in shelters, funding assistance for permanent relocation and also much needed counseling services. ( (


Eulich, W. (2013, February 13). In U.S., big strides in reducing domestic violence. Christian Science Monitor. p. N.PAG.… [read more]

Bowling for Columbine by Michael Moore Term Paper

… Bowling for Columbine

Irony and 'slice of life' cinematic techniques in "Bowling for Columbine"

The cinematic techniques used by the documentary "Bowling for Columbine" by Michael Moore are entirely crafted upon the use of carefully delineated irony. The film contrasts the real need to protect the nation's citizens with the zealous love affair that Americans have with guns. The title of the film refers to the tragedy at Columbine High School, Ohio where the all-too typical adolescent angst of a group of troubled teens was the tinder that combined with the spark of easy access to guns. This cumulated in a conflagration of violence, as they vented their frustrations upon their fellow pupils. Only in America, Moore suggests, could such a horrific event occur. It is not that teens are not unhappy or bulled in other lands, but no other land makes it so easy and acceptable to wield the deadly power of firearms as a way to vent anger. In one of the first ironies highlighted in the film, Moore notes that violence was so unremarkable and causal to these children that they actually went bowling before embarking upon their suicidal and homicidal crime spree.

Moore's documentary takes the viewer on a tour of American violence and America's obsession with violence that is nearly, perhaps even more epidemic than American violence itself. Again and again he returns to Columbine. He uses specificity, in combination with hard facts and statistics, to make a perhaps unconsciously persuasive case to his viewer for greater regulation of handguns -- despite the fact that Moore admits that he himself was reared in a culture of guns. Moore states that he embarked upon his film as a kind of voyage of discovery. He said he did not have answers as to why people would kill for the sake of killing or if gun control would provide an effective solution. However, only by engaging in a truth-seeking mission would he find at least some inkling of how Americans should strive to alter their legislation and their cultural beliefs regarding guns and prevent tragedies like Columbia from occurring again.

Bowling for Columbine" is compelling because, rather than simply craft a tale with his own footage, solely under his control, Moore uses slice-of-life film in 'real time' to show how he, along with the viewer is searching for answers as to what is real, in a culture where so much unreality characterizes the depiction of American violence. For example, he interpolates security-camera footage of the Columbine, massacre, using its jerky verisimilitude to brand an intense image of horror on the mind of the viewer, with his own footage. Moore, in the role of an investigative reporter as well as a filmmaker, interviews two of the students who nearly died at Columbine, their injuries creating a dark, ironic contrast with the smiling facade of Kmart, where the bullets still lodged within the students' bodies were bought by the gunmen. This juxtaposition of what is clearly not Moore's invention and… [read more]

Presidential Candidates of 2004 Term Paper

… Maybe Same-Sex Marriages Didn't Make the Difference: New York Times. Nov. 7, 2004.

The popular thinking among both Republicans and Democrats is that the Republican strategists - namely, Karl Rove - used the parties' differences on gay marriage to divide… [read more]

Marijuana Is a Gateway Drug Discussion Chapter

… Marijuana Is a Gateway Drug That Leads to the Use of Other Drugs

One of the most hotly-disputed claims in the media is the notion that marijuana is a 'gateway' drug that leads to further drug abuse. There is strong… [read more]

Homicide in America the Imagination Term Paper

… (Homicide and Suicide in America, 1900-1998) At the other end is the growth of the offenders, and they come from juveniles. They grow up to be criminals as they are neglected and abused, or they do not have any positive role models, or they do not have suitable leaders, or the violence that they keep seeing, or the influences on them from alcohol, drugs and poverty; or their own psychological problems. (Juvenile homicide in America: how can we stop the killing?)

It is also interesting to note that executions of these criminals have come down. In 1950 there was one execution for every 67 homicides, but by 1960 this rate fell to one in 151. Then the position worsened and the courts did not permit any execution from 1968 to the end of 1976, and during the next four ears there were only three executions. At the same time, it may be noted that the highest rate for homicides was reached in 1980, after the period of low executions. After this period, the rate of executions increased and in 1992 there were 31 executions for 23,766 homicides, or one execution for 766 homicides. In 1995, the number of executions increased to 56 and this made it one execution for 306 homicides. (Homicide and Suicide in America, 1900-1998) This may be a reason for the recent drop in homicides. Another point is made about gun laws, and very few laws existed in 1900s when there were no such laws. Yet the homicides and suicides occurred even then. Then the laws started coming in because of immigrants, union organizers and communists. There was also a law not permitting blacks to own guns. The largest effort came through the Gun Control Act of 1968. These compelled the sellers to keep records of buyer's identity and banned sales through mail or to persons known to be of unsound minds. The point is that homicides still continued their rise during this period. Thus the reasons for rise or fall of homicides are really very difficult to determine.


Today, the police are making their best efforts and there are a large number of Americans who have been identified as criminals. There are 3.9 million persons on probation, .7 million persons on probation and 2 million persons in jails. While this may help to reduce crime, at the same time it costs the honest citizens to pay much more in taxes. The supporters of gun laws keep saying that laws are working when homicides or suicides are increasing or decreasing. Even when these crimes rise among some groups distinguished by age, gender, ethnicity or region, the answer is for more laws to be passed. This seems to be only blind faith and not based on any logic.


Figure 1

US Homicide and Suicide Rates -- 1900 to 1998

Figure 2

From 1900 to 1999

Rates are per 100,000 of population


Hallinam, Joe. California leads in justifiable killings. 30 July 1993. Retrieved from Accessed… [read more]

Guns the Recent School Shooting Term Paper

… Therefore, the sanctity of private property will be maintained in accordance with the Texas Concealed Handgun License rules ("Texas CHL," n.d.).


Texas's state legislature should take note of the Colorado ruling and act accordingly. The facts of the law are clear; Texas state colleges and universities are to be considered public property, as they were considered in the State of Colorado Supreme Court. The primary solution is to develop a robust political lobbying campaign that will alert legislators in the State of Texas to the devastating effects a lawsuit would have on state schools and their students. If the State of Texas wants to avoid the issue being decided in the courts, lawmakers would be wise to lift the ban on carrying concealed weapons on any campus in the State of Texas prior to lawsuits being filed. The lobbying campaign starts now, with well-developed presentations revealing the problems mentioned in this White Paper. Ultimately, the presentation should encourage lawmakers to act swiftly on this issue to avoid placing undue pressure on Texas universities. However, the issue must also be framed as a matter of public safety, which it is. The proposed solution therefore involves two distinct but related marketing and lobbying campaigns. One will be aimed at encouraging voters to reconsider their stance on the issue because of the clear need to protect students from terrorist attacks. The campaign will emphasize the fact that allowing handguns on campus would encourage student gun awareness and safety. All the concealed weapons allowed on campuses would be properly registered; the student body would therefore become a more reliable campus security force than the state has ever seen.


The need to allow concealed weapons on campuses throughout the State of Texas was proven a long time ago: with incidents like Virginia Tech and now with Oakland. Students in this great state are frightened, because they do not know when the next gunman might kill them or their friends. Students who attend public school in the state of Texas deserve to be treated with the full rights of residency in the state. This means being able to carry concealed weapons in accordance with state law. Any adult student who is eligible for, and receives, a license to carry a concealed weapon must be allowed to do so on any public property including college campuses. The issue is a matter of protecting civil liberties and a matter of public safety. This White Paper proposes a solution that will encourage lawmakers to sign off on this bill now.


Coffman, K. (2012). Colorado court says students can carry guns on campus. Reuters. Mar 5, 2012. Retrieved online:

Soderstrom, E. (2012). Shooting highlights fallacy of gun-free schools. Students for Concealed Carry. Retrieved online:

"Texas CHL." (n.d.). FAQs. Retrieved online:… [read more]

Reducing Youth Firearm Tragedies Through Community Mobilization Research Paper

… The process of dialoguing can be started using motivational interpersonal interviews. An emotional trigger is used to elicit the interest of the community member in the issue and then a short series of questions are used as a dialogue framework. Motivational interviews are invaluable because they can inform community members about the issue, inform experts about community member perspectives, and create relationships that will increase the critical mass needed to achieve success. Again, copious field notes are taken without the use of audio recorders; audio recorders tend to discourage open and honest dialogue. Other important methods for engaging in dialogue with the community include focus groups, call-in radio programs, town hall meetings, community (church/political/government) and business newsletters, and newspaper articles and advertisements. For example, some gun shop owners may agree to provide printed information about the proposed CAP legislation, along with a coupon for a free gun lock.

The preventive information that would be included in printed material, on radio programs, or presented to focus groups represents the action component of the Freirian approach to community mobilization (McLean, 1997). Action, therefore, represents experts communicating evidence-based recommendations to the wider community.


According to the NRA (2013) gun ownership continues to set records. For example, between 1991 and 2011 Americans purchased 120 million new firearms, including over 10's of millions of high-capacity semi-automatic rifles referred to as assault weapons. The threat this trend represents to the health of children and adolescents is clear, especially since gun-owner parents are more likely to store their guns unlocked and loaded (Coyne-Beasley, Schoenbach, & Johnson, 2001). The findings of several empirical studies have revealed that CAP laws are effective for reducing child firearm accidents and suicides and the best chance for getting this legislation enacted is through the mobilization of the community through collaboration.


Brindley, M. (2013, February 12). Keeping guns loaded, unlocked at home with children can be deadly. Retrieved from

Center for Prevention Research and Development. (2006). Evidence-based practices for effective community coalitions. Champaign, IL: Center for Prevention Research and Development, Institute of Government and Public Affairs, University of Illinois. Retrieved from

Children's Safety Network. (2013). Prevention of firearm-related injuries & death: Resource Guide 2013. Retrieved from

Clark, N.M., Doctor, L.J., Friedman, A.R., Lachance, L.L., Houle, C.R., Geng, X. et al. (2006). Community coalitions to control chronic disease: Allies Against Asthma as a model and case study. Health Promotion Practice, 7(2), 14S-22S.

Coyne-Beasley, T., Schoenbach, V.J., & Johnson, R.M. (2001). "Love our kids, lock your guns." A community-based firearm safety counseling and gun lock distribution program. Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine, 155, 659-64.

DeFilippis, E. & Hughes, D. (2014, June 17). Guns kill children. The overwhelming evidence that pediatricians are right and the NRA is wrong. Retrieved from

DeSimone, J., Markowitz, S., & Xu, J. (2013). Child access prevention laws and nonfatal gun injuries. Southern Economic Journal, 80(1), 5-25.

Hepburn, L., Azrael, D., Miller, M., & Hemenway, D. (2006). The effect of child access prevention laws on… [read more]

Gun Safety Be Taught Article Review

… 9% believed police or military should do the teaching. Six main themes were identified: gun handling, societal violence, schools as a place of learning, schools as a necessary place for teaching about gun safety, school violence and personal histories. Two subthemes were drawn from respondents who felt gun safety should not be taught in school, schools are not the right place and content of lessons.

The authors concluded that a majority of respondents were in favor of having gun safety taught in schools. A majority also indicated that such instruction must be given by personnel qualified in firearms. The low percentage of respondents saying that gun safety should be taught before grade one indicates that this curriculum should be held off until later in school years. The author noted that respondent's warnings that teaching gun safety will possibility unnecessarily draw children's attention to guns and exacerbate gun related incidents needs further inquiry. Limitations mentioned included that there were no face-to-face interviews and respondent's had no immediate source of clarification with regards to the questionnaire if needed, and the study only involves two counties in one Midwestern state thus limiting the ability to generalize the findings over a greater population. The author concluded that addressing the issue through the implementation of a curriculum that involves a multidisciplinary approach; one that involves teachers, nurses, physicians, police, and parents might be beneficial.

While I am all for the safety of children, and I personally am divided on the issue of gun ownership in this country, I was surprised to find that there were only 3,006 gun related deaths in 2005 of children under the age of 15. I would be interested to know what percentage this is of the overall population. Furthermore, a majority of these were homicides. Are these instances of children deliberately shooting other children, or adults shooting children? In either case this issue of gun safety is secondary to the issue of gun availability. Finally, if one-third of the homes with children have guns and the number of accidental deaths is 212 it would seem that statistically gun safety is not a major issue as compared to other causes of…… [read more]

Stand Your Ground: Constitutionality Essay

… The Court struck down all provisions of the DC law, including those mandating that firearms be "kept nonfunctional even when necessary for self-defense" in the home (D.C. v. Heller, Cornell University Legal Information Institute). In Heller, the Court stated unequivocally that the Second Amendment protects an individual's right to possess a firearm in a manner unconnected with service in a militia, and stated that a citizen can be ready and able to use that arm for traditionally lawful purposes, such as self-defense within the home.

One of the arguments against Heller was that of United States v. Cruikshank, a 1876 case which had stated exactly the opposite, that the Second Amendment did not, in the Court's interpretation, "provide any individual right to keep and bear arms; it only guaranteed a state's right to maintain a militia" (United States v. Cruikshank, Shmoop). This finding was affirmed yet again in Presser v. Illinois (1886) which prohibited the creation of personally-run militia, given that the Second Amendment specifically stated that only well-regulated militias were protected under the Amendment.

However, the U.S. Supreme Court's Heller finding seemed to invalidate these previous precedents. By affirming a constitutional right to bear arms and an implied right to defend one's person and home by declaring it unconstitutional to require citizens to disable firearms, the U.S. Supreme Court's most recent decisions thus seem to support the 'stand your ground' concept. This is further supported by the Beard decision, which unlike the Cruikshank decision is still a viable precedent.

Works Cited

Beard v. United States (1895). Find Law. [30 May 2012]

Beard v. United States (1895). Justia. [30 May 2012]

D.C. v. Heller (2008), Cornell University Legal Information Institute. [27 May 2012]

Stand your ground and castle doctrine laws. Bill of Rights Institute. [27 May 2012]

United States v. Cruikshank. Shmoop. [27 May 2012]… [read more]

Support for Concealed Carry Research Paper

… It is not rational nor is it realistic to expect the U.S. government to provide omnipotent protection to its citizens. For the sake of the argument the assumption will be made that this capability exists but the question that must be posed is at what costs does this capability exist and specifically at what costs to the freedom and liberty of American citizens. The right to bear arms is a Constitutionally guaranteed right in the Bill of Rights and as such is to be a right that is not to be diluted although the regulation of this right does exist in the form of requirements for registration and licensing of guns. These regulations and licensing requirements ensure that criminals do not obtain guns in the legal forum but the underground black market for guns is a thriving business in today's world. If the Smiths, Browns, and Thompsons choose not to be armed and fail to protect themselves and their families, and if every city in the U.S. outlaws guns in their city limits nevertheless, one can be sure that the criminal faction in the United States and globally will make sure that they have access to guns and that they will be carrying them concealed on their person with or without registration and licensing of the guns.

Summary and Conclusion

In theory, banning of concealed carry on college campuses sounds like a nice pat solution to a very scary problem or that of guns being used in killings on college campuses however, theory is often inapplicable to real life situations and such is the case regarding the concealed carrying of guns on today's university campuses. The fact is that if students and professors are armed the would-be gunman will have much more to consider before entering onto a campus and starting to shoot because the likelihood that they themselves will be gunned down is much greater. In addition, it is time that U.S. citizens come to the realization that the government cannot protect all individuals at all times and to understand that part of liberty and freedom is the necessary component of autonomy or doing for oneself in the area of self-protection and protection of one's home and property. In fact, when the Constitution and its accompanying bill of rights were written, the forefathers had faced a great unknown and suffered many hardships and many died in the struggle to gain that autonomy which resulted in freedom and liberty which were highly treasured and so much that the vast ocean was crossed to escape a society that was not conducive to the autonomy of liberty and freedom and the accompanying right to carry concealed weapons in society toward protection of oneself and others in the institutions of society against would-be gunman deterred because they know that the citizenry is protected and ready to take them out should they violate the societal standards of appropriate conduct such as is the case when pulling a gun with the intent to use it… [read more]

People Should Be Able to Own a Handgun Essay

… ¶ … Handguns

Argument: People Should Be Allowed to Own a Handgun

As laid out in the Bill of Rights to the U.S. Constitution, Americans have the right to own guns. The second amendment was essential to the formation of a free and democratic state, and it remains a fundamental right for all Americans.

When the second amendment was drafted, it promised Americans the right to bear arms as a protection against a repressive government. That is, early Americans feared the situation so many of them had fled: a powerful, dictatorial government that was armed, inflicting its whims on an unarmed and therefore helpless populace. By guaranteeing the right to bear arms, Americans were therefore assured that their new government would lack the power to bully or coerce them. These concerns are alive and well today, with many Americans fearing an over-powerful government. Individuals who are allowed to own a handgun will be protected from abuse by corrupt government officials. This is a fundamental right according to the Constitution.

Perhaps even more than the government, Americans have cause to fear crime. If handguns are outlawed, the saying goes, only outlaws will have handguns. That is, making it illegal to own guns only applies to law-abiding citizens. Criminals have no respect for the law (by definition), and they will find guns on the black market. The result will be a society with armed criminals and un-armed targets. Allowing responsible citizens to own handguns allows them to defend themselves against violent crime and robbery. Criminals are aware of the legality of personal guns and may therefore tread more carefully when approaching a potential victim; without knowing for sure who has exercised his or her right to own the gun, criminals likely assume everyone is armed. Through deterrence, the legality of owning a…… [read more]

Concealed Weapons Inroduction Term Paper

… In addition, one wonders who needs to have a loaded, concealed weapon who cannot already get permission to carry it. Private detectives and police personnel as well as air marshals already have permission to carry a loaded weapon. People who carry valuables, such as jewels or bank deposits, can already get a permit. There is a large population of people, however, who do not yet have any criminal history but who might want a weapon for all the wrong reasons. Many bank robbers wait until after their 23rd birthday (the minimum age in Missouri) to rob their first bank. Many men and women who eventually become abusive spouses have committed no violence or stalking toward the opposite sex that early in life. A spouse who intended to keep an obsessive hold on another might well now apply for a gun permit before the other person had any cause to get a restraining order. Many, many people who have serious substance abuse problems have never been arrested for driving under the influence. Inevitably, loaded, concealed weapons will end up in the hands of people who are sometimes or even often under the influence of some kind of intoxicant. Finally, there might be concern about gang members. Not all gang members have a criminal history, and unfortunately, owning a weapon is a status symbol among gang members of all backgrounds.

Those who argue in favor of the right to carry a loaded and concealed weapon point to the Second Amendment of the Constitution, claiming that the right to bear arms is protected. However, all our constitutional rights exist only in the larger society. Thus we have free speech but not the right to shout "FIRE!" In a crowded theater unless that theater is really on fire, because others might get hurt by our exercise of free speech.

The law has always made exemptions for people who have a real need to carry a concealed weapon. The new laws opens the door for anyone who lives in a "concealed weapon" state to get a weapon so long as they haven't shown a major problem with judgment yet. Gun laws should restrict the right to carry a loaded and concealed gun to those who have a clear and urgent need for such a weapon.

Source: "Concealed guns at a glance," in Southeast Missourian, April 18, 2004. Accessed via the Internet 4/18/04.$rec=132115… [read more]

Handguns Should Be Banned Argue Yes as Point Essay

… Gun Ban

Safety and Legality in the Gun Ban Debate

On June 26, in a monumental 5-4 decision, the U.S. Supreme court overturned the Washington D.C. gun ban, citing that the "right to bear arms" phrase of the second amendment… [read more]

Columbine Bill Nichols Argues That Documentary Term Paper

… Columbine

Bill Nichols argues that documentary can be divided into six modes. One of these modes is the participatory mode, and this mode can be seen in a film like Bowling for Columbine, made by Michael Moore in 2002. The documentary modes cited by Nichols are six in number and are seen as being linked to different periods in documentary filmmaking. The participatory mode is one in which the filmmaker interacts directly with his subject matter, making himself a character in the film. Moore does this in most of his documentaries, not just asking questions of subjects but putting himself in roles as a sort of bomb-thrower to get things in motion and to make something happen.

Bowling for Columbine has as its subject the gun culture in America. The title refers to the school shooting in Columbine, and Moore uses that as the image of what happens when the sort of gun culture that America has allows the mentally ill and criminals to get guns freely. Moore appears in the film as the voice asking questions of the audience about why we allow guns to be sold and traded so freely, why we see the Second Amendment as an absolute that prevents us from stopping the carnage, and why there are so many people and groups dedicated to keeping guns in the hands of everyone if they want a gun.

In the film, Moore acts as the reasonable observe who sees what is happening and asks questions about why. This includes not just the obvious question about guns but about other related issues, such as why the news is so given to presenting images of violence every night, why Americans watch these reports and yet do not do something to stop it in the future, why entertainment programs also feature gun violence as if it were expected, and why at the same time we live as a nation in fear. We clearly have something to fear, though we often exagerat cetain unusal circumstances and fear them when the real fear we should have about guns everywhere is ignored. Moore notes, for…… [read more]

There Are Lessons to Be Learned From Littleton Term Paper

… ¶ … Lessons from Littleton

There are No Lessons to be Learned From Littleton"

The title of Gary Kleck's essay, "There Are No Lessons to Be Learned From Littleton," is at first glance a cynical way to begin an essay.… [read more]

Why the NRA Supports Certain Politicians Research Paper

… Public Policy

Do some interest groups have too much power when it comes to passing legislation, influencing federal policy, and blocking legislation? This is a key question for this paper. The answer is yes, some interest groups (also called "special interest groups") do wield too much influence. Although the practices of groups like the NRA may technically be legal, they are not always fair, ethical, or helpful for most Americans. This paper will point to information that shows the different types of interest groups and their goals.

Types of Interest Groups

The Britannica Encyclopedia refers to interest groups as "pressure groups" or "special interest groups." Very simply the great majority of groups simply seek to influence public policy, and their ability to sway the legislative process depends on their savvy, their numbers, their funding and the impact of what they are advocating.

The way Britannica breaks down the groups begins with "economic interest groups." These economic interest groups are "most prominent in all countries"; there are business groups, labor groups, farm groups, and they all seek addition funding in some context.

There are professional "cause" groups (which include churches, religious organizations, veterans' groups, groups supporting the elderly, and groups supporting people with disabilities). What they have in common is they all are seeking to advocate for some cause, be it veterans hoping for better care through the Veterans Administration or evangelical church groups seeking an end to abortion (Britannica).

Or the AARP, which advocates for measures that help older people. The AARP also advocates for healthcare policies and social justice that is not limited to only older people. On its website the AARP advocates for fairness for "Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender (LGBT) Americans" (AARP). The AARP also advocates for fairness in estate and inheritance taxes: these taxes "…should effect only the largest transfers, and surviving spouses, domestic partners, and family farms and businesses should be protected from excessive burdens" (AARP). The AARP also urges "freedom from discrimination" no matter the age, gender, race, ethnicity, disability, religion, national origin "or sexual orientation" of the person (AARP).

There are also professional cause groups like The American Medical Association (AMA), The Screen Actors Guild, and the American Bar Association -- the three "most influential associations in America" -- that give money to candidates that may support issues important to them (Ragone, 2011).

Public interest groups seek to put forward environmental protection, consumer rights or human rights; they include the Sierra Club, Amnesty International, and the International Campaign to Ban Landmines) (Britannica). There are also private and public groups that push for "institutional interests"; think tanks are examples of institution interest groups, according to the Britannica.

The NRA's Abusive Power

How powerful is the National Rifle Association? There are countless examples in which the NRA put political pressure on elected officials to vote a certain way or block a certain confirmation or legislation that was up for a vote. One example is the nomination of Vivek Murthy to serve as U.S. Surgeon General… [read more]

Firearm Evidence Term Paper

… Psarreas, Tricia. Crime scene investigations: Firearm evidence, Retrieved February 12, 2010 from

This article provides a general overview of the types of firearm evidence that can be used at a crime scene to help identify the gun (and hopefully the shooter). It begins by discussing how bullet matching takes place, describing how the markings in the barrel of each gun is different, so forensics experts can use look at the markings on the bullet to help determine whether or not a certain gun was used in the shooting. The author then proceeds to discuss how to use discarded cartridge cases as an identification method, by comparing the markings to various parts of the weapon, such as the firing pin, the breechblock, the firing chamber, the extractor, and the ejector marks. The next method discussed in this article is automated firearm search systems. These are computer databases that help crime labs link information together that can help solve the crime. The final method of obtaining firearm evidence that is discussed in the article is serial number restoration, which is used when someone has attempted to scratch off the serial numbers of a gun.

"Firearms Evidence Collection Procedures" Physical Evidence Bulletin, California Department of Justice, Bureau of Forensic Services, Retrieved February 12, 2010 from

This is newsletter put out by the California Department of Justice, Bureau of Forensic Services that is designed to give crime scene investigators and overview of how to collect firearm evidence safely and accurately. This article recognizes that there are many firearm evidence collecting techniques other than just the standard bullet and cartridge matching. Other types of firearm evidence include: "distance determinations based on powder residue or shot spread; examination of firearms for functioning or modification; sequence of shots fired and trajectories; list of possible weapons used; serial number restoration and ownership tracing." The article emphasizes that safety is always the first priority when handling any sort of firearm. The second priority is not tainting the evidence. Therefore, step-by-step procedures are given to achieve both of these goals. For example, it is suggested that investigators should mark the original position of the cylinder before moving it, and that the weapon should be delivered to the lab in person as opposed to trusting a third party with it.

Schehl, Sally a. "Firearms and Toolmarks in the FBI Laboratory Part 3," Forensic Science Communications vol. 2 April 2000.

This article begins by listing every possible piece of equipment that could be tested when obtaining firearm evidence. Everything from rifles and pistols, to accessories like silencers and holsters, to bullets and wads are included in the list. The author then goes on to describe the different types of tests that may be used after the initial examination. These include trigger pull tests which measure the amount of force it takes to pull the trigger, and gunshot residue tests which look for gunpowder residue on a suspect's hands. The last part of the article discusses how important…… [read more]

Alcohol Tobacco and Fire Arms Term Paper

… Recently, even the law enforcement part of this relatively small agency had endeavored to cover a great deal of ground. In the arousal of grave bombing events, expert ATF programs were established to give specialist help. Further scheme were developed… [read more]

Analyzing Research Ethics Paper Essay

… Alka Johar

EDD 9972- Milestone

Dr. Jodi Owens-Kristenson


Human Participant Risk

Philosophical, Legal, and Moral Base

General Implication for the Professional Projects

Specific Implication Related to Capstone Project

Site Permission

Philosophical, Legal, and Moral Base

General Implication… [read more]

Ethics of Leadership Applied to Clinton Application Essay

… ¶ … broke of an alleged affair between the sitting President of the United States, William Jefferson Clinton and a former White House intern, Monica Lewinsky. Clinton at first denied the affair had taken place but later retracted his statement,… [read more]

Research Ethics When Using Human Subjects Research Paper

… ¶ … Zimbardo Prison Experiment and the Robbers Cave Experiment. For both cases, a total of five questions will be answered. Those questions include the ethical principles that are at issue in each case, the strategies that were used to… [read more]

Analyzing the Death With Dignity Act Essay

… Medical Law or Ethics Issue

Euthanasia or physician-assisted suicide is one of the more controversial issues in medical practice. The issue framed in a number of ways, from being an issue about the individual right to self-determination to an issue… [read more]

Nuts and Bolts of Ethical Dilemmas in the Workplace Research Paper

… ¶ … Ethical Perspectives and a Real-World Ethical Business Dilemma

As the marketplace continues to become globalized, managers in all sectors are increasingly confronted with ethical business dilemmas that defy easy solutions. Although every business dilemma is unique, they can be examined using the three ethical perspectives of virtue, care, and justice described by Russ Shafer-Landau in his text, Ethical Theory: An Anthology (2nd ed.). To this end, this paper provides a discussion concerning the most important principles of each of these three theories, followed by an examination of a real-world ethical business dilemma reported in the peer-reviewed literature. Finally, a summary of the research and important findings concerning these three ethical perspectives and real-world ethical business dilemmas are provided in the conclusion.

Review and Discussion

The ethical perspective of virtue refers to the capacity of human beings to resist taking the easy way out in favor of doing the right thing irrespective of the personal sacrifices that may be involved. In other words, virtue means doing the right thing even when no one is watching. Conversely, the ethical perspective of care refers to the concern that people demonstrate for their own welfare and the welfare of others. The ethical perspective of justice is more nebulous, but generally refers to achieving an equitable and mutually satisfactory resolution to a conflict between two or more parties. Clearly, each of these three ethical perspectives exists along a continuum wherein people exhibit these qualities in varying degrees from time to time and over time, but all three form the foundation of ethical decision-making, a quality that is desperately needed in the 21st century workplace as discussed further below.

In their case study, "Watson Water Technologies: An Ethical Dilemma in the Workplace," Bargerstock and Shi (2014) describe the ethical dilemma faced by a certified management accountant (CMA), Melissa Parks, who was employed as an eXtensible Business Reporting Language (XBRL) Specialist in the Securities…… [read more]

Ethical Solutions to Implementing Quarantine Case Study

… ¶ … ethical principles that should be applied to situations regarding pandemic influenza response. The situations are based on the following expected issues where ethical considerations may need to be considered. The major issues are mandatory vaccinations and quarantining, with… [read more]

Utilitarianism Profit Maximization and Universalism Case Study

… ¶ … Decisions

The two key decision options facing the new controller for this small construction company are as follows:

Decision A: Whether to attempt to persuade the CEO of the overarching need to reveal the shaky financial predicament faced by a firm that owes the construction company a major material receivable to an auditor in order to comply with relevant guiding rules and laws concerning accounting practice even though doing so might jeopardize a pending bank loan needed for the company's survival..

Decision B: Whether to conceal the shaky financial predicament of this firm from the auditor in order to increase the likelihood of receiving a bank loan needed for the company's survival for which application has already been made based on the expectation that "business will pick up" in the future.

To help determine the most ethical course of action, a stakeholder analysis of this situation is presented in Table 1 below.


Stakeholder analysis of construction company


Persuade CEO to reveal shaky financial position of debtor firm

Assist CEO in concealing shaky financial position of debtor firm






Total Positives



Section II. Analysis of Decision Options from Ethical Standpoints

Utilitarianism. Applying a strictly pragmatic, utilitarian decision option to the foregoing decisions indicates that persuading the company's CEO to reveal the shaky financial position of debtor firm, is the optimal ethical choice.

Profit maximization. Because companies have a fundamental need to maximize their profits as part of their responsible stewardship of their corporate resources, this ethical standpoint would hold that assisting the company's CEO in concealing the shaky financial position of the debtor firm represents the most ethical decision.

Universalism. Applying the so-called "categorical imperative" to this case indicates that in order to remain compliant with relevant accounting guidelines and laws, persuading the company's CEO to reveal the shaky financial position of debtor firm is the optimal ethical choice from a universalism standpoint.

Section III. Formulated Decisions and Consistency with Ethical Perspectives

Utilitarianism. Considering the decisions to be made in terms of which one will produce the "greatest good for the greatest number" indicates that "doing the right thing" in this case by coming clean with the auditor concerning the doubtful nature of collecting this account receivable. For example, Deckop advises from a utilitarian standpoint, "The decision that results in the most total benefit compared to harm is the best decision. The utilitarian is often portrayed figuratively as holding a scale, with the benefits on one side being weighed against the harm on the other" (2).

As shown in Table 1 above, the decision to persuade the CEO to reveal the shaky financial position of the debtor firm in compliance with relevant accounting guidelines outweighs the alternative decision, assisting the company's CEO in concealing the shaky financial position of the debtor firm from the auditor four-to-one. Indeed, some researchers maintain that a utilitarian standpoint is the most appropriate decision-making approach for all types of business decisions. In this regard, Hollingsworth and… [read more]

Public Policy Case Study

… The survey/focus group angle of this case study was fairly good, the problems with the facilitator and the regulation of the direction of the study aside. It's easy to get caught up in all that especially when the victims are first graders (like the kids in Newtown) but getting too caught up in tragedies can lead to very short-sighted or even flat-out wrong or unfair solutions to prevent those events from happening. The whole "never let a tragedy go to waste" ideology needs to stop. If it can't be justified during normal times and only after a shooting, there is almost certainly something wrong with the line of thought being engaged in and that is true of focus groups as well as public policy creation and passing as well. The symbols and metaphors that are often used in this regard tend to be propagandist and demagogic in nature and that should be avoided rather than embraced or condoned.


As for what's next, getting to the nut of what is truly causing mass shootings, in school or anywhere else, is the best way to move forward and that can be very hard in a focus group environment with people that are not trained in public policy and just how damaging certain tactics and speech patterns can be when debating and raging about such things. What is best is to determine what brings the most good to the most people and everyone involved must realize that is not possible to prevent all mass shootings. However, they can certainly be limited in size and scope.


Clemons, R.S., & McBeth, M.K. (2009). Public policy praxis: a case approach for understanding policy and analysis (2nd ed.). New York: Pearson / Longman.… [read more]

Law Enforcement Subculture and Racial Profiling Essay

… Crime

Arm New York

To curb crime, in recent years, New York City has enacted a "Stop, Question, Frisk" program, which involves a law enforcement officer briefly detaining an individual for a patdown to see if that individual is carrying any weapons or contraband. The biggest problem with the program is not the invasive nature of the search, but claims that the peace officers disproportionately target people of color, i.e. minorities. Facts would suggest those claims are accurate.

According to the New York Times, there were a record 580,000 stop-and-frisks in the city in 2009. Most of those stopped (55%) were black (a large portion were also Hispanic), most were young and almost all were male. For reference, according to the Census Bureau, there were about only 300,000 black men between the ages of 13 and 34 living in the city that year. A mere 6% of the stops resulted in arrests" (2010).

This is obviously a very delicate situation. But there is a rather simple and direct solution to the problem: eliminate the "Stop, Question, Frisk" program. it's inefficient and it disproportionately affects minorities. As Martin Luther King Jr. said in his letter from Birmingham Jail, April 16, 1963, "Injustice anywhere is a threat to justice everywhere" (McKnight 1998). What's going on in New York is injustice, plain and simple. it's immoral to discriminate against someone based on his/her race, ethnicity, gender, etc. NYPD is doing this everyday; whether consciously or subconsciously, there's no justification for it (NOTE: the SQF program is an acceleration of standard police protocol. While police should maintain the right to patdown suspicious individuals, they should reexamine the meaning of 'probable cause' and take a less aggressive SQF posture).

The truth is that under the auspices of Mayor Bloomberg, New York has become a soft tyranny. New Yorkers are no longer free. To explicate, Republican Presidential Nominee Ron Paul said, "Your safety has always, ultimately been your own responsibility, but never more so than now. People have a natural right to defend themselves. Governments that take that away from their…… [read more]

Fast and Furious Weapon Traffic Between USA and Mexico Term Paper

… Operation Fast and Furious has turned out to be one the Justice Department's biggest scandals in recent years, not only because of the seemingly obvious problems in allowing known members of violent drug cartels to buy military-grade weapons and carry… [read more]

Gang Violence Interventions: Pulling Levers Research Paper

… Between 1990 and 1997 Stockton had averaged 35 homicides per year and it was believed that a significant percentage of these were due to gang activities (Braga, 2008, p. 334). A working group was formed in the fall of 1997 and a pulling levers strategy was implemented and maintained until the end of 2002. Over the next four years the average homicide rate dropped to 18.75 per year, representing a nearly 50% reduction. Using a Poisson regression model, which controlled for a number of confounding variables, the pulling levers program accounted for a statistically significant 42% decrease in gun homicides (p = 0.045; Braga, 2008, p. 338). When compared to homicide trends in other similarly-sized California cities, Stockton was the only city that experienced a statistically significant reduction in gun homicides during this period (Braga, 2008, p. 340).


Based on the analysis by Braga (2008) the pulling levers program in Stockton was responsible for a significant reduction in gun violence. Unfortunately, once the pulling levers program ended gun-related homicide rates slowly returned to near normal levels. This is a common outcome of pulling levers programs. Assigning officers to 'police' a few offenders is therefore a short-term solution, with an unknown cost in both taxpayer dollars and overall crime rates. No information was provided by Braga (2008) concerning how many gang members took advantage of the social services that were offered, so the relative contribution of this strategy to the success of the pulling levers program is also unknown. As mentioned by Braga (2008) the effectiveness of such programs won't be known until well-controlled studies are performed. If such studies are undertaken, we might be able to better understand whether such programs are nothing more than a knee-jerk reaction to a perceived crime crisis or have some value in addressing gang related crime over the long-term.


Braga, Anthony A. (2008). Pulling levers focused deterrence strategies and the prevention of gun homicide. Journal of Criminal Justice, 36, 332-343.

Fisher, Herrick, Gardner, Frances, Montgomery, Paul. (2008). Cognitive-behavioral interventions for preventing youth gang involvement for children and young people…… [read more]

Personal Protection Equipment and Use of Force Essay

… Personal Protection and the Use of Deadly Force

Personal protection has become an increasingly important issue in today's crime-ridden and danger-filled society. Debates over how far self-protection can go before it becomes a crime in and of itself continue to… [read more]

There Are Lessons to Be Learned From Littleton Term Paper

… ¶ … Lessons to Be Learned from Littleton

The times in which we live are highly turbulent, for young and old people alike. Unfortunately, the turmoil of modern life and the toll it takes on those who are all too human and vulnerable results at times in violent, and deadly outbursts, such as the 1999 school shooting which took place in Littleton, Colorado, during which two students went on a murder spree in their own high school, killing many of their fellow classmates and teachers, wounding many others with gunshot, and leaving everyone wondering why the whole tragic event had to take place, and what can be done to avoid such an event from occurring again. While the popular mindset was to try to extract any possible lesson or warning from the Littleton massacre, one writer, Gary Kleck, put forth the idea that there is not much to be gained from an analysis of this single event; this idea was presented by Kleck in his essay "There Are No Lessons to Be Learned From Littleton." In this paper, Kleck's essay will be summarized and critiqued, in an effort not only to better understand Kleck's viewpoint and its validity (or lack thereof). Upon conclusion of this paper, not only will the essay be more fully explained, but the underlying issues that the essay presents will be as well.

Summary of the Work

There Are No Lessons to Be Learned From Littleton," upon close study of the essay itself, is part history lesson, part social commentary, and can fairly be categorized as a work of criminal justice/social work research, for lack of better terms. However, it must be understood that Kleck's essay, while discussing the events of the Littleton mass murder case, would not be accurately summarized by simply being called an essay about that case itself; rather, it would be more accurate to say that Kleck uses Littleton as a launching pad for his arguments. As a general overview and summary of Kleck's work, it was written with Littleton as its starting point, but from that starting point, the exploration of what caused Littleton, and other school shootings to occur is examined. Many people would automatically assume that the essay would blame all of the commonly cited reasons for such crimes, but that is clearly not the case when presenting direct quotes from Kleck's actual text. The best example of this can be seen when Kleck collects all of the "usual suspects" that are blamed for such atrocities and dismisses them wholesale, as seen in this quote:

partial list of the problems that have been blamed for the recent mass killings in schools would include: guns, "assault weapons," large-capacity ammunition magazines, lax regulation of gun shows; the failure of parents to secure guns, school cliques, and the exclusion of "outsiders"; bullying and taunting in schools, especially by high school athletes; inadequate school security, especially a lack of metal detectors, armed guards, locker searches, and so forth; excessively large high schools; inadequate… [read more]

Looking Into Intergration of Ethics Research Paper

… Cmp9500e-8

Integration of Ethical Principles

This research study explored the ethical behaviour that should be observed while conducting researches, in context of implementation of school advisory program and that if ethical dimensions are kept in mind, more clarity can be… [read more]

Ethics Competency and Informed Consent Chapter

… Counseling

The ethical considerations made by the organization involved in delivering the program are based on the ethical principles/standards of the American Counseling Association (ACA). In terms of competency, confidentiality and informed consent, the counselors of this program will follow the ACA's standards in the providing of its services to the individuals connected to the school program.

For the area of competency, the counselors will not practice outside the range of their competence or professional training. The education that they have, the training, the experience under supervision, and the credentials they have obtained are all factors in determining their competency. However, there will arise situations in which the counselor will not have acquired the experience, training, or credentials to provide counseling for that particular situation. For instance, a counselor who is not trained in treating suicidal patients will not be the one to deliver care to that individual. Instead, the patient will be transferred to a counselor trained in providing care to such patients once that need is seen to arise. This is the core of the competency standard that the program will adhere to. Likewise, just as the ACA (2014) states that "multicultural counseling competency is required across all counseling specialties," the same requirement for knowledge of all cultures will be used in the program so that no cultural background is excluded in the program.

In terms of providing confidentiality, the ability to confide is important for all patients and should be respected by every counseling organization (Schultz, 2010). However, confidentiality matters can become complicated, especially if persons are seen to be at risk or are noted to be potentially putting others at risk. For example, if over the course of a session, a patient confides in the counselor that he or she intends to harm another person, the counselor may be required…… [read more]

Ethics in the News Media Essay

… Leadership Letter

The author of this response has been asked to review a video relating to Dan Rather and his thoughts about media ethics. The questions and answers that will be addressed as part of answering to the subject of ethics will include why a company needs a code of ethics, how this code of ethics addresses the current challenges that employees face in the organization and, if implemented, what example may or should this document set for others in the news media industry. While a stated code of ethics is just words unless or until it is actually enforced and followed, it is a necessary starting point when it comes to using a guiding light of ethics for an organization.

The reason that a company needs a code of ethics is pretty simple. There has to be a stated and clear set of guidelines that a company or organization purports to follow and stick with. While stating those guidelines is one thing and sticking with them is another, the stated guidelines is one way of showing what sort of commitments and patterns a company has committed to sticking to. For example, a news organization could state that they are going to stay with real and "hard" news rather than injecting opinion and editorial ideas that are beyond just stating the "what," "where" and "when" of a story. Of course, many news outlets deviate from this all of the time and call it "analysis." Regardless, the stated values are a way for the organization to "connect" with society so that society can gather whether or not there is any authenticity and realism to what is being stated (Mazutis & Slawinski, 2015).

One main issues is that not all organizations are concerned about codes of ethics and the associated corporate social responsibility. However, this is something that is very real and needs to be taken seriously as this is the direction that the world is going when it comes to business. These sorts of questions are even being posed in countries like Iran (Soltani, Syed, Liao & Iqbal, 2015). As for the YouTube video suggested for this assignment, Rather is very specific about the toils and travails of the media and the transgressions of the media. He noted that news has gone from something where the "buck" stops with management to a situation where "fluff" and other blatant problems with news media have become the norm (Rosaryfilms, 2008).

Rather links up with a very important facet of doing a job and that is meaningfulness. Indeed,…… [read more]

Business Ethics Case Study

… Ventria

'Part II: Company Analysis

Ventria is a small company that does not yet have a commercially-viable product. Its main strengths lie with its technology, which holds significant promise. The company does not appear to have too many other strengths.… [read more]

Analyzing Ethical Implications of Cultural Abuse Research Paper

… Ethical Implications of Power Abuse

History has it that executives play a huge role in the companies they lead. Researcher Aubrey (2012) argues that top leaders play the biggest role in the establishment and growth of organizational culture. In the same way that transformational or positive leaders will bring success to their organizations, toxic leaders (those who abuse their power) cause the downfall of their companies. Toxic executives are full of self-interest, destructive mindsets and they go against the interest of the company. The harm that is caused by such leaders might go beyond the company's boundaries and influence the clients' and stakeholders views' of the company. The financial and human prices of toxic management are "below the waterline" and that these effects are likely to cause the most negative effects according to Aubrey. If toxic leadership is not contained quickly, it will compromise the company's ethics and facilitate the emergence of non-ethical conduct. Toxic leadership not only harms the company's workforce, but also its bottom-line (Aubrey, 2012). Toxic leadership has also been described as compromising an organization's reputation, ignoring non-ethical conduct of employees and noncompliance with the normative standards of the organization (Aubrey, 2012).

Counter-cultural leadership (CLL) theory is a leadership theory that explains unethical leadership about its transactional utilization of reward, coercive and positional power bases, to breed a host of uncritical subordinates in contrast to ethical leadership with calls for principled ethics and virtue. The CLL theory is based on power-influence theories and social-science leadership theories. Two of the most commonly used power influence theories i.e. the social exchange approach and social power approach, are important in the understanding of the principles of leadership practices in the use of authority and power on followers. Based largely on social power base approaches, counter-cultural leadership basically uses positional authority to bring about paternalistic following. The use of social power bases also brings about compliant followership. According to Choong's (2011) concept on followership styles, CCL results in followers who are alienated, uncritical in thinking, conformists and passive in their engagements with the organization. Choong's (2011) study helps in the understating of followership influence processes especially with regards to counter-cultural leadership. The author reiterates that the use of reward, legal and coercive power bases are some of the unique characteristics of toxic leadership (Choong, 2011).

Leading an organization with high-diversity is often a challenging job. However, if a high-diversity workforce is properly led, this can result in increased returns. However, quite often it is observed that highly diverse workforces result in conflicts among employees. And leaders ought to act to stop these conflicts. Managing such conflicts requires a sense of influence and properly learned and applied power strategies. Once skilful power strategies are developed, the leader can produce responsible and effective power dynamics. These power dynamics are…… [read more]

Ethics and Theory Regional Approaches Research Paper

… Middle Eastern Approaches to Ethics and Theory

For purposes of this discussion, I will concern myself with two articles; U.S. Business' Code of Ethics as an Instrument to Comply With the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act by Da La Pena and Presha Neidermeyer, and; the Formation of Trust and Commitment in Business Relationships in the Middle East: Understanding Et-Moone Relationships by Ibrahim Abosag and Joong-Woo Lee. These articles present ethical dilemmas that are largely specific to either/both the Western and Middle Eastern regions.

With regard to the first article, the moral dilemma has got to do with the payment and acceptance of bribes. It largely concerns itself with FCPA, an act that "makes illegal bribing foreign officials by any U.S. issuer, domestic concern, any major type of organization with major place of business in the U.S. and any U.S. citizen." It is important to note that given the nature of global business, with competition becoming more intense as the world increasingly becomes a global village, companies may find it profitable to influence persons of interest via the issuance of rewards or other forms of payment so as to gain favors of some kind. While these favors could result in the advancement of the business agenda which could be beneficial to shareholders and other key stakeholders, engagement in foreign corrupt practices disadvantages other business entities and works against the leveling of the playing field. The authors of the very first article come with up some key concerns that relate to consequentialism. Consequentialism, in essence, focuses on "the question of what is the ethically right thing to do in a particular situation ... "(Hope, Savulescu, and Hendrick, 2008). On this front, an action is regarded right or desirable if the consequences it promotes are deemed favorable. Contravening FCPA provisions could lead to legal sanctions. It is, therefore, important to note that Western ethical theories largely focus on the wrongness or rightness of a…… [read more]

Philosophical Framework of Confucius Essay


Confucius' Youth and his Philosophical Works

According to the Analects Confucius suffered the loss of his father at a very tender age of 3 years (Wilson, 2002). Although raised in a slight sense of struggle, his single mother provided education through private education and home schooling. Confucius learned history, poetry, and rituals among other arts. Instead of playing with other children in school Confucius is said to have carried out some sacred rituals that were not just empty gestures. The rituals learned in schools related to order and harmony both on earth and the cosmos. In the ancient China's view of the world, the rituals were essential for life on earth to continue (Bonevac, Phillips, & Stephen, 2009).

In Confucius' youth time, China was slowly transcending from a state of stability to a state of chaos and a ruthless cycle war. Tribal invasion from the west and rebellion among the Lords splinted the Chinese empire to independent states. The collapsed and disintegrated Chinese society acted as a catalyst for Confucius groundbreaking philosophy. It is seen that as Confucius entered adulthood, he comes to the realization of an existent disparity between the ancient ideals and the reality of life. The comparison depicted that there was a conflict in the current status of affairs depicted by the chaos that surrounded the society. When in employment Confucius observes turmoil and suffering among the people of China. To seek solutions to the conflict Confucius left his hometown abandoning his family and a job with the government (Bonevac et al., 2009).

While on his journey of exploring and understanding the nature of things Confucius comes across a society of people who had renounced the civilized society and chosen to live with nature. From the interactions with this society, Confucius observes that the developed world had imposed artificial means into the natural way of life. This observation indicated that people had diverted to artificial ways of life ignoring the spontaneous forces in…… [read more]

Ethics in Business Movie Review Essay

… Ethics in Business: Movie Review

Ethical decision-making is a crucial segment of businesses and organizations. How ethical an organization's decisions are determines how the organization is viewed by the public. Movies do a perfect job in demonstrating how the concept of ethical decision-making plays out in the contemporary world. This text reviews two movies, Roger & Me and the Insider, to determine exactly how ethics come into play in the decision-making process.

Movie Review: Ethics in Business

The Insider

Plot Summary

The 1999 movie, The Insider, is one filed with controversy, suspense and ethical dilemmas. The film puts Russell Crowe (acting as Dr. Jeffrey Wigand) at loggerheads with Brown & Williamson, one of the largest tobacco companies in the country, and at which Crowe initially served as Vice President. The tobacco industry, at the time, denied allegations that nicotine was addictive, and that continued tobacco use had an adverse effect on people's health. Upon being fired from his position in Brown & Williamson, Wigand decides to come forward with information that, for years, the tobacco industry had known that nicotine causes cancer, yet they still used cigarettes as a delivery device for the same. More so, the companies took advantage of nicotine's addictive properties by adjusting, manipulating them, and adding chemicals to make the drug more rapidly absorbable into the bloodstream. Wigand saw the CBS News Show, 60 Minutes, which was produced by Lowell Bergman, as the best vehicle to use to move his allegations. Bergman shows his willingness to invite Wigand for an interview on the show; however, CBS' management suppresses the story, fearful that Brown & Williamson would file a lawsuit against them, placing at risk the company's proposed merger with Westinghouse and the financial incentives associated with the same. Brown & Williamson, on the other hand, move to protect their business interests at whatever cost -- they threaten Wigand's family, put up an image assassination campaign against him, and get the state to issue a gag order banning him from speaking publicly.

Ethical Issues

Two ethical issues are at play in this case. First, in a bid to protect their future profit streams, Brown & Morrison are determined to keep information about the negative effects of nicotine hidden from the public even as hundreds of people continue to die from illnesses related to cigarette smoking. Despite being well aware of the negative effects of nicotine, Brown & Williamson's CEO, Thomas Sandeford, issues a public statement alleging that nicotine and cigarettes did not meet the classic definition of addiction. Besides that, they issue threats and engage in other malpractices to silence Wigand. The second ethical issue is CBS' management attempt to suppress Wigand's story on their show, just so their financial interests could be protected, to the detriment of thousands of innocent citizens. These instances illustrate the concept of corporate greed -- both companies sow more concern for profits than the welfare of human beings and the communities within which they operate.

Connection to Readings

In his book… [read more]

Business Ethics Projection and the Cash for Kids Scandal Essay

… ¶ … high school student go to prison for making fun of the school's assistant principal on social media? This is what happened to 14-year-old Hillary Transue in January of 2007 (Pilkington 2009). Transue had made a hoax MySpace page for her high school's assistant principal, only to find herself brought into court in Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania, on a criminal charge of harassment (Pilkington 2009). Less than a minute into Transue's court hearing, Judge Mark Ciavarella issued his verdict of "adjudicated delinquent" and Hillary Transue was sentenced to three months in a juvenile detention center (Pilkington 2009). What Transue did not know at the time was that she was one of hundreds of children being sentenced by two Pennsylvania judges in Luzerne County, Judge Mark Ciavarella and Judge Michael Conahan, who were accepting "kickback" money from a privately-run juvenile detention facility, run by a corporation called "PA Child Care" (Urbina 2009). In other words, for each child that Ciavarella and Conahan sentenced to juvenile detention, the judges received a fee from the corporate owner of the private prison to which these children were sent. Together, Ciavarella and Conahan admitted to taking over 2.6 million dollars in exchange for sentencing children, when they pleaded guilty to fraud charges in February 2009, in what is now referred to as the Pennsylvania "Kids for Cash" scandal (Urbina 2009).

Johnson (2012) highlights the primary question in evaluating such ethical lapses as whether it is due to "bad apples or bad barrels," which is to say whether "unethical individuals (the 'bad apples') spoil those around them, or do unethical organizations (the 'bad barrels') spoil their employees?" (Chapter 2). The ethical violation in this case is glaring and horrifying. Judges are expected to uphold the law, not to violate it routinely in exchange for cash. The very concept of justice was undermined by what happened in the "Kids for Cash" scandal. We could perhaps understand if Judge Ciavarella sentenced somebody like Hillary Transue for a moral or ethical purpose. Bullying on social media is a real problem for high schoolers, and it might be possible to justify the excessive sentence handed down for a fake MySpace page if Ciavarella was trying to set an example in response to a real moral problem. But Ciavarella did not even listen to Transue's case. He sentenced her in less than a minute in exchange for a bribe (Pilkington 2009).

How did this egregious breach of ethics occur? In the case of the "Kids for Cash" scandal, we must note that this was not a widespread phenomenon in Pennsylvania. It was limited to the two judges in Luzerne County, who are both currently in prison for the crimes. This would appear to focus the ethical lapse on the individual behavior of Ciavarella and Conahan. Johnson (2012) invokes the Jungian concept of the "shadow" self, the dark side of our everyday personality. When judges of the law become breakers of the law, or men with power become abusers of…… [read more]

Ethical Analysis Looking Into Palliative Care Strategy Research Paper

… Palliative Care: Ethical Analysis / Ethical Analysis in Healthcare Sector

Communication to move strategy forward

The term 'leadership' is defined as a person's behavior when he/she guides a group's activities in pursuit of a common aim. The main elements of… [read more]

Challenges That Women Face While Working in the Military Essay

… Diverse Groups in the Military and STEM

Women have served the nation in each and every other American conflict courageously and honorably. In 1901, the inception of the Army Nurse Corps facilitated the formal inclusion of women in the U.S.… [read more]

Whistleblowing Ethics in Business Term Paper

… Whistleblowing

Whether to become a whistleblower or not to become is not only a question of significant ethical intricacy, but also one of personal relevance .However, it is not just a question of theoretical importance. With a regards to a… [read more]

Cost Benefits Analysis Versus Ethics Case Study

… Ford Pinto Ethics

When it comes to ethics, safety and car companies, more recent events like the protracted Toyota or General Motors recall issues or the Ford/Firestone fiasco probably come to mind for many people. However, those ethical and procedural dilemmas were both preceded by a much nastier and more lethal example of ethics and cars gone completely wrong and that was the Ford Pinto case. Ford Pintos were literally becoming incinerated when being struck from the rear due to the location and vulnerability of the gas tank and a number of people were burned to death as a result of these crashes. This brief case study will review what happened during this period of time for Ford, what could have been done differently and how the car world was changed forever after the Pinto problem became front-page news. While there obviously some calculating when it comes to recalls and such, absolutely anything that relates to public safety such as brakes, steering or anything that can be a fire hazard (e.g. gas lines/tanks) should be an automatic recall -- no questions asked.


A confluence of three factors seemed to lead to the Ford Pinto gas tank mistake happening. First of all, Japanese cars of the day were very cheap and the quality of those cars was much the same At the same time, then Ford Motor Company president Lee Iacocca (later of Chrysler fame) asserted that the company needed to produce a car that weighed no more than two thousand pounds and cost no more than two thousand dollars. Lastly, the overall development window for the Ford Pinto was artificially compressed under pressure from Ford executives that wanted the Pinto on the market as soon as possible. The 1970 and 1971 model year Pintos were crash tested in terms of rear-impact at speeds of 20 and 30 miles per hour and they failed miserably. The crash tests that revealed this to be true came about the same time that a production timeline deadline was passing. They had the choice to either fix the design or they could just sell the car they had designed at that point. Inexplicably, they not only chose the latter but the flawed design was the same one that was sold to the public for more than half a decade, six years to be precise. Even worse, the extra cost per vehicle, for example, to protect against one of the worst kind of accidents would have only cost eleven dollars per vehicle ... barely one half of one percent of the cost of the vehicle. However, there was actually a cost/benefit analysis done comparing the "benefit" of fixing the vehicle and the cost of making the fixes. The total measured benefits came to $49.5 million and the costs came to $137.5 million. For that reason alone, Ford decided against making the fixes that ethics and decency would seem to require (Shaw, 2015).

However, that decision was a very deadly one. Indeed, even "conservative" estimates… [read more]

Stand-Your-Ground Laws to Persuade Essay

… Stand-your-Ground Laws

To persuade

Stand-your-ground laws should be repealed in Florida and across America.

Attention-getter: When George Zimmerman was convicted of shooting unarmed teen Trayvon Martin he ultimately argued the killing was justified by self-defense, not by Florida's 'stand-your-ground laws.' However, the law become much-discussed nation-wide as a result of the trial ("Zimmerman to argue self-defense, will not seek 'stand-your-ground' hearing," CNN).

Many argued that Zimmerman and other shooters have acted more aggressively because they believe stand-your-ground laws will protect them.

Reason to listen: Stand-your-ground laws allow people to defend themselves with deadly force anywhere -- not just in their homes -- instead of retreating if they "reasonably believe doing so is necessary to 'prevent death or great bodily harm to himself or herself or another or to prevent the commission of a forcible felony'" (Sullivan 1). Since Florida first passed its stand-your-ground law in 2004, at least 24 states have adopted stand-your-ground legislation. All of us should be concerned about the implications of these laws as a result (Doyle 1).

C. Thesis Statement: Stand-your-ground laws run the risk of making our society much less safe.

D. Credibility statement:

1. I followed the Zimmerman trial extensively and read much of the legal analysis pertaining to stand-your-ground.

2. I have friends who feel strongly about this issue on both sides of the debate.

E. Preview of main points: In order to persuade you of the need to repeal stand-your-ground laws, I will discuss the following points:

1. First, will discuss how stand-your-ground laws have increased violence rather than made people safer.

2. Second, I will tell you how the laws have been applied in a discriminatory and arbitrary fashion.

3. Finally, I will discuss how they have been applied in ways the framers of the law clearly did not intend.

II. Body

A. Stand-your-ground laws have increased rather than decreased crimes

1. Since passing stand-your-ground laws, the rate of justifiable homicides in Florida has tripled (Sullivan 1).

a. There has been a rise of anecdotal crimes that seem to have been motivated by the knowledge of the fact that stand-your-ground laws protect the perpetrator.

b. For example, when Florida resident Billy Kuch accidentally knocked on the wrong door while drunk, the homeowner shot him at point-blank range and was acquitted. The homeowner did instruct Kuch to leave but after Kuch did not understand, the homeowner shot rather than closing the door, locking it, and calling the police as he admitted he might have done before the passage of the law (Fischer & Eggen 1).

2. This is not an exceptional, anecdotal case: "those who invoke 'stand-your-ground' to avoid prosecution have been extremely successful. Nearly 70% have gone free" (Hudley, Martin, & Humburg 1).

3. Even if Zimmerman did not use stand-your-ground as his ultimate defense, it is arguable that this attitude towards using guns contributed to his use of violence on that fateful night.

Transition: Now that you understand how stand-your-ground laws have made it easier to justify 'shooting first and… [read more]

Current Event on December 14 Essay

… Wal-Mart has been found to violate gun ordinances in the past. In 2005, Wal-Marts in California were found to have broken several gun laws, including "selling to people that the AG's office had notified Wal-Mart were prohibited from owning firearms; delivering guns to customers before they passed a background check; and sometimes even failing to ascertain a customer's identity" (Zornick).

It is an easily drawn conclusion that if people can easily purchase heavy artillery and dangerous weapons then they will be more likely to fall into the hands of people who are willing to use them. The fear is that the guns will be purchased by people with criminal intentions or the mentally ill. By making guns less able to be acquired, there are less guns which will be on the street and fewer inappropriate people will be able to get their hands on them. It is therefore logical that stricter gun regulations will mean that there will be fewer instances of violence. Therefore companies which profit from the sale of guns have a moral responsibility should the guns they sell be involved in violence. If they sell a gun to someone who is mentally or ethically unsound and that person then perpetrates violence, the seller of the gun allowed the situation to unfold.

Given the situation and the history of guns sold by Wal-Mart, it is concluded that stricter sale restrictions put out by the retailer will inevitably lead to less gun violence in the United States. Wal-Mart sells a great deal of guns in the United States and also has been found to use unsafe practices regarding the guns in their inventory. They have proven to be near-sighted in their handling of the situation, even selling ammunition and weapons to people who have no business with guns and should not have legally been allowed to acquire them. The company, if it hopes to retain its reputation as a family store and that they are interested in what is best for the population, must take accountability for their products and the actions of their consumers.

Works Cited:

Dudley, R. "Wal-Mart Being Pressured to Halt Some Gun Sales." Standard Examiner. 2013.


Sanburn, J. "Wal-Mart's On-again, Off-again Relationship with Guns." Time. N.p., n.d. Web. 20

Feb. 2013.

Zornick, G. "How Wal-Mart Helped Make the Newton Shooter's AR-15 the Most Popular

Assault Weapon…… [read more]

Gang Violence Essay

… When a light sentence is handed down by a court, it shows the offense has a low priority and that is wrong, Pollack asserts. Typically, a gun-related murder in Chicago follows this equation: "Two young men + stupid beef [grudge or argument] + gun = dead body" (Coates, p. 6).

How are Christians supposed to address gang / gun violence?

The Christian Science Monitor presents a Christian perspective of the increased gang violence in Chicago. God's presence is felt even in "urban wasteland" neighborhoods with "boarded-up homes" -- and the "goodness" from Christian-based creative ideas can break through "repetitive thought patterns" (Carlson, 2012). In other words, Christians should confront hatred and violence because it is within God's authority to do so; and humans have "God's likeness" so in order for humans to be "God-like," they must resist and condemn gang violence and show goodness as the true lasting Christian approach to society. In other words, by practicing goodness a person in the most violent, depressed urban area can have a positive impact.

Symbolic Interactionism

In the theory that George Herbert Mead developed, the meaning that people make of objects, events, and behaviors "…comes from the interpretation people give them" (in other words, gang members tend to view themselves according to "other people's appraisals") (University of Minnesota -- The way gang members see themselves in the Symbolic Interactionism approach is also based on how they imagine the appraisals other people have of them. Mead believed that people don't necessarily respond directly to events; they act "…based on their interpretation of the meaning of events" (

Deviants (and it is fair to refer to violent, gun-carrying gang bangers as deviants), like other people, live in a world that is "socially constructed," and in that social construct "certain identities are available and others are not available" ( Some of those identities offer the individual "prestige and respect" and other identities are "deprecated or punished." Hence, when a gang member wishes to be given (or achieve) an identity that has respect and prestige -- and his gang views shooting a cop or killing an innocent pedestrian as earning respect -- that is what he will strive to do. In summary, people tend to pay attention to "…stimuli that help further an ongoing activity," and in the case of gang members out to prove they belong, they are thus stimulated to conduct violent behaviors because that helps secure their prestige and respect among other gang members (Reynolds, 2003).

In conclusion, Howard Pollack has some very positive approaches to closing some of the loopholes that help young men acquire guns; and it is clear that fewer guns on the streets of Chicago should translate into fewer deaths. It is also a positive idea to approach violence and urban decay with a Christian attitude that promotes goodness, no matter how hopeless situations seem to be. Moreover, by studying Symbolic Interactionism, a researcher can come to a better understanding gangs and gun violence, which is a positive… [read more]

Firearms on College Campuses Thesis

… ¶ … violent shootings at Virginia Tech in April of 2007 placed a great deal of emphasis on the presence of firearms on college campuses. The very open and public nature of college campuses makes them difficult to secure. The purpose of this discussion is to examine the issue of "Firearms on U.S. College Campuses." The research will focus on current policies and trends and whether those policies make the campuses safer.

Utah is the only state in the union that has a state law allowing firearms on college campuses and it only allows firearms on the campuses of public colleges and universities. According to an article entitled "Utah only state to allow guns at college," "Nationwide, 38 states -- including Virginia -- ban weapons at schools. Of those, 16 explicitly prohibit weapons on college campuses, according to the National Conference of State Legislatures. In other states, each school is allowed to formulate its own policy ("Utah Only State to Allow..." 2007)." As it pertains to Utah, the law allowing firearms on campus is an extension of a state law that permits concealed weapons on all state property ("Utah Only State to Allow..."2007).

In 2008 alone at least twelve states have proposed bills to allow firearms on the campuses of public universities. These states include Virginia, Arizona, Georgia, Alabama, Washington, Indiana, Kentucky, Ohio, South Carolina, Tennessee, and Michigan. Many students have stated that they feel unsafe and that they would feel helpless if someone went on a shooting rampage and they had no way to defend themselves. Many students seem to already have licenses to carry concealed weapon but go to school in states that have banned firearms from campus (Bello).

An article entitled "12 states debate guns on campus,"

School is the only place I'm not allowed to carry my weapon...I felt defenseless, and it started to bug me, especially with all the school shootings...We're not talking about convincing people to get licenses, we're talking about people who already have their licenses. And for the most part, they are older students (Bello, 3A)."

Students and faculty on college campuses throughout the country share this same sentiment. Many would feel safer if they could carry weapons to defend against attacks.

The question of whether or not to allow firearms on college campuses is a controversial one. Proponents of the idea believe that having firearms on campus makes students safer. They contend that shooting such as the Virginia Tech massacre would not have been so severe had another student or professor been carrying a gun. Proponents assert that in allowing concealed weapons to be carried student or faculty will be able to stop a gunman and loss of life can be avoided. Proponents also argue that even though most college campuses have police officers that carry weapons, it often takes officers many minutes to arrive at the scene of the crime. These minutes are precious and many people were killed at Virginia Tech before the police officers arrived on the scene.… [read more]

Organizational Ethics Public and Private Application Essay

… Ethics are best taught and understood using examples rather than theory. The Department of Defense's Encyclopedia of Ethical Failure highlights the instructional value of ethical violations and the consequences of those violations. One of the main reasons why negative examples prove effective is that they can help supervisors recognize warning signs or problem behavior before those initial transgressions get out of hand and become more serious infractions. Another reason why negative examples can be particularly instructive is that they drive home the real reasons for policies and regulations that might otherwise seem frivolous or trivial in nature. Similarly, knowing what specific types of behavior would constitute an ethical violation might help individuals make more ethical decisions. Many conundrums could be solved through the examples of how other people may have innocently acted in ways that were later deemed unethical, such as wearing one's Army uniform while representing an outside organization -- something that has been disciplined as misrepresenting the Army's connection with that outside organization. Therefore, behavior that seems innocent might actually not be so.

2. One of the least offensive examples on this list is the Army staff sergeant wearing her uniform on the website of an outside organization. The officer might have believed that she was simply proudly representing her position in the military and did not realize that the image "gave the impression that she was participating in an official capacity or that the federal government had endorsed the organization." Moreover, military officers often do proudly wear their uniforms to outside events and are sometimes expected to proudly represent their position. Another less offensive example is the Department of Treasury agent who tried to convince a police officer during a traffic stop that she had credentials. This is not an offensive example because often the police will take into consideration a person's credibility based on their profession. If she was a woman of color, she might have felt additional pressure to convince the officer. Looking at it another way, military personnel receive special treatment when boarding flights, and that could also constitute a use of one's position for personal gain.

On the other hand, there are several offensive examples in the list. The accountant working for the National Science Foundation who used her government-issued travel card to make personal purchases and cash withdrawals for personal use flagrantly embezzled taxpayer money. As an accountant, she also used her position of power to try and "purge her illegal transactions." Her behavior as well as her professional training in accounting laws clearly indicate that the employee knew what she was doing was wrong.

3. All employees should be held to a high ethical…… [read more]

Ethical Issues in Teaching Latin American Studies Research Paper

… Latin America: Approaches to Ethics and Theory

Identify and discuss two ethical dilemmas specific to business in Latin America or between Latin American businesses and other global vendors, customers, and partners.

In 2010, the petroleum sector witnessed the greatest maritime crisis oil spill in its entire history called Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill. This accident was triggered by an outstanding explosion that led to the death of eleven people. Here, the first ethical dilemma is about pre-event planning. In this case, the deep-water horizon crisis is adequate evidence that before the disaster, the BP environmental strategy was merely a Greenwashing. In fact, BP did not adopt a culture of safety as seen from its lack of an emergency plan: it made no effort to avoid such a disaster (Cecilia & Granado, 2013). Moreover, research into the issue demonstrates that BP ignored crucial signals days before the incident. The second ethical dilemma relates to the expression of empathy and concern to the stakeholders, including victims (Becker-Olsen, 2011). Indeed, while the initial messages presented by a firm during a disaster must substantially influence public opinion regarding disaster as well as the company's management of the crisis, BP was neither fast nor consistent and accurate in their response to the accident. Consequently, their initial messages and response produced massive harm to its reputation and image. As such, the company was accused of being rather slow to acknowledge the issue and did not respond fast enough. It took BP four days to notice that the well had been leaking.

What ethical theories, values, or moral frameworks did scholars use to frame research conducted on the selected ethical dilemmas?

Many disaster communication theorists have recommended various theoretical frameworks for framing research on this crisis communication problem. However, the Situational Crisis Communication Theory (SCCT) and the theory of image restoration are the most relevant theories in this case. These theories identify various strategies that BP could have used to confront the crisis. The aim of image restoration theory is to help manager preserve a company's positive reputation via communication. Although it was originally not devoted to crisis communication, researchers in this field presume that it is useful in this area because disasters tend to elicit adverse perceptions among stakeholders regarding an organization, hence affecting its reputation and image. This theory concentrates on the content of crisis communication messages. It suggests five major reputation restoration tactics namely, evade responsibility, corrective action, mortification, reduce offensiveness and denial (Bissieres & Herl, 2011).

Besides the five image restoration tactics, before the crisis, BP should have engaged in a great deal of planning and devise a crisis management plan (CMP). Such pre-disaster preparedness could have reduced response time, thus potentially prevented missteps in BP's initial crisis response. The other attribute of the theory of image restoration is to identify the nature of the disaster. When the crisis occurred, this theory suggests that BP should have had a clear knowledge of the accident's nature and the charged that were brought forward. Understanding these… [read more]

Ethics of Outsourcing Research Proposal

… ¶ … hone a specific research topic that involves global business and the environment that it operates in. While several intriguing topics come to mind, the author of this proposal has decided to focus on the ethics of outsourcing in… [read more]

Business Social Performance Realities Chapter

… ¶ … Besser and Miller's "The company they keep: How formal associations impact business social performance." This article provides empirical evidence into the tendencies towards business social performances that various organizations evince when a part of business associations. For the sake of the research performed, such associations include those pertaining to specific vertical industries and to community relationships, the latter of which is typified by a chamber of commerce (Besser and Miller, 2011, p. 504). The research performed in this article demonstrates that businesses are unequivocally influenced by their social performances of the businesses in their peer group within these associations -- a fact which has implications for both imparting and reinforcing critical standards of ethics within business. However, it is important to realize that such an influence has much less to do with the ethical guidelines dictated by the business associations, and much more to do with the actual behavior of the fellow organizations that organizations are linked together with in the aforementioned associations.

In many ways, the basis for the research performed in this article is the conception of institutional theory. Although there are several different codifications of institutional theory and its applications to businesses, primarily this theory serves as a hypothesis for the authors because it denotes that companies in business fields are influenced by one another (Besser and Millers, 2011, p. 506). The authors are able to prove that this theory is applicable to organizations within professional organizations by distributing a questionnaire with closed-ended questions about certain facets of organizational behavior. The data obtained from this research illustrated that organizations tend to adhere to the tendencies of their peers in such organizations in terms of business social performance -- which is defined by the authors as a form of social accountability, public largess, and ethical behaviors (Besser and Miller, 2011, p. 503-504). Such behavior may be…… [read more]

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