Study "Healthcare / Health / Obamacare" Essays 1-50

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Implementation of the Affordable Health Care Act in State of Kansas Term Paper

… Affordable Healthcare Act in State of Kansas

Access of care and to drop the cost

Expansion of health insurance coverage in state of Kansas

Establishing the health insurance marketplace

Increasing access to Medicaid

Providing new coverage options for young adults… [read more]


Affordable Health Care Act/Obama Research Paper

… There are also substantial benefits to the seniors in the context of New York City. This is because of the facilitation of the medication processes and costs by the federal government through the Patient Protection & Affordable Care Act of 2010 or Obamacare thus putting money into the pockets of the seniors.

This is an essential approach towards the improvement of growth and development indicators in the city. According to the survey following the implementation of the Patient Protection & Affordable Care Act of 2010 or Obamacare by the President and the Congress, approximately 2.5 million young adults have health insurance coverage. Majority of these young adults emanate from New York City thus an improvement towards enhancing healthcare services while minimizing the cost of procuring these services. Majority of the residents of New York City have private health insurance coverage as a reflection of the influence of the Patient Protection & Affordable Care Act of 2010 or Obamacare. Implementation of the healthcare program will also contribute towards reduction of the government and individual spending in relation to the healthcare services. This money is essential in the development of healthcare facilities such as hospitals in New York City and other areas within the context of the United States. Another element of change is the elimination of the concept of being a woman as a pre-existing condition in the procurement of the health insurance.

This enhances the ability of women and men in New York City to procure health insurance coverage to minimize their healthcare costs and spending in case of illness. Families in New York, like in any other part of the United States, will have the opportunity to save massive amount in relation to the healthcare cost. This is through procurement of the health insurance through exchange programs according to the proposal of the relevant changes top take place in 2014. There will be minimal cost in the check-up visits or examinations by the residents thus an opportunity to improve the health conditions and transform the economy of the city. Patient Protection & Affordable Care Act of 2010 or Obamacare will also contribute towards the achievement of the equity in the context of the healthcare system.

This is through increase of the taxation volumes on the high-income earners and subsidizing efforts of the poor citizens in the procurement of the healthcare services from the healthcare centers in the United States. Healthcare centers or hospitals will also benefit from the process of implementation of the Patient Protection & Affordable Care Act of 2010 or Obamacare. This is through minimization of the volume of uncertainties in relation to costs and provision of services to the citizens. This will operate towards the improvement of health conditions in the United…… [read more]


Affordable Healthcare Act (Obamacare) Research Paper

… Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act focuses on sharing the cost of the healthcare services and products within the society as from 2014 thus the opportunity to reduce the overall cost of healthcare for the individuals within the society. Mandatory health insurance programs will oversee reduction of the cost of healthcare in relation to visits to the emergency rooms by the uninsured citizens of the United States. The reduction on the overall cost of healthcare is vital for the growth and development of the organization thus the opportunity to contribute effectively and efficiently towards the enhancement of the economy. Reduction of the cost of the overall healthcare indicates that the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act is a step to the right direction for the achievement of societal goals and objectives.

Another essential illustration on the benefits or effectiveness of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act towards the realization of quality and pertinent healthcare in the United States is the right of the individuals to seek medical needs regardless of their preexisting conditions. According to the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, insurance companies lack the ability and capacity to deny children coverage while focusing on their preexisting conditions. This directive and benefit will apply in the case of all the citizens of the United States as from 2014 following the continuous implementation of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act. This is an indication that insurance companies will have no option or alternative in relation to dropping individuals out of the coverage once they get sick.

Counter-arguments

The uninsured citizens of the United States face a massive problem that requires collective solution by different entities. This is because of two critical issues: essence of human compassion and decency and the problem of the uninsured also affect the insured society members. Despite the fact that Americans are compassionate in relation to their desire to care for the uninsured individuals within the society, there is essence of inefficiency with reference to the systems. Healthcare systems charged with the provision of services and products for the enhancement of health conditions are inefficient.

The level of inefficiency is evident in the application of the affordable healthcare with reference to the case of the United States. The healthcare systems tend to force the uninsured to visit hospital emergency rooms with the aim of seeing the doctors thus making the most expensive components of the healthcare system the default setting of the healthcare. The affordable healthcare focuses on the sending of the bills of the less fortunate to the citizens with the capacity to pay for the bills. Apart from keeping the uninsured citizens away from the most cost-effective means in relation to deliverance of healthcare, there must be some crucial solution in handling the situation. This would contribute to effective and efficient addressing of the needs of the individuals who show up at the expensive centers or emergency rooms for…… [read more]


Affordable Care Act (ACA) Research Paper

… Among individuals getting subsidies, the subsidies are anticipated to be valued at an estimated cost of $6,000 for every family unit, which would viably discount the anticipated cost of protection by two-thirds (Pinger & Kotecki, 2012). Insurance cover will not… [read more]


Obamacare: Healthcare Coverage and Pre-Existing Conditions Creative Writing

… The law also purports to play a role in simplifying the CHIP enrollment process.

Having shed some light on the provisions of the PPACA Act, let's now revisit the issue of "pre-existing conditions" bearing in mind that it was an emotive subject of debate in health care debate in the United States in 2009 and 2010 with majority of people opposing its exclusion by insurance industries and preferring its subsequent ban. Pre-existing condition is a medical condition that occurred before a program of health benefit comes into effect. Based on this definition, it is evident that "pre-existing condition" clause serves no purpose than rationing health care. Regardless of the definition which insurance companies give, "objective standard" or "prudent person," rationing of healthcare is still evident.

Definitions used by insurance companies are dictated by states where these insurance companies operate. Some states compel them to use objective standard definition where as other states require insurance companies to use prudent person standard definition. McCarran-Fergusson Act of 1945 bestows upon individual states within the United States the power to regulate pre-existing condition exclusions in individual and small group health insurance plans. The Act delegated insurance regulation responsibilities to individual states.

Tobacco has particularly been pointed out as pre-existing condition. This therefore implies that those who suffered from lung cancer or cancer of the pharynx as a result of using tobacco products, sought medical intervention, and have since recovered cannot enjoy the full benefits of Obamacare. The federal pre-existing condition exclusion regulation calls for setting up for premiums at standard rate for a standard population while the premiums for older individuals are allowed to be up to 4 times those of younger individuals. Despite the fact that pre-existing condition exclusions are prohibited for children under the age of 19 and in all health insurance plans, premium for tobacco users are only allowed to be up to 1.5 times the premium of non-tobacco users. This is an act of discrimination since you and I only know too well that pre-existing condition rules cruelly deny needy people treatment. Since insurance companies have made it a habit of wanting premiums without any risks, the pre-existing condition rule is most likely make them do anything within their means to make profits. If proper care is not taken, the Obamacare that was initiated to protect individuals from very high costs of health care may as well end up profiting unscrupulous commercial insurance companies that…… [read more]


Obama Care Act Term Paper

… Obama Care Act

Affordable Care Act and Part D Title 3: Improving the Quality and Effectiveness of Healthcare

As the populace ages, individuals desire the safety of understanding that they have healthcare insurance coverage. At age 65, individuals have the chance to be covered by Medicare. Medicare has 4 components to it; Component a which is the healthcare facility insurance, component B. which is the medical insurance, component C. is Medicare Benefit strategy which provides additional protection such as vision, hearing, dental and/or healthcare, and component D. is prescribed medicine protection. The Client Security and Affordable Care Act endured a vote of the Supreme Court justices and modifications will be executed within the next couple of years. As Americans age and the kind of individuals getting in the golden years is expanding, these individuals will be requiring and making use of even more healthcare than previous generations. This paper will concentrate on the modifications that will strike close the current gap in Medicare's prescribed drug usage referred to as "donut hole" or "Donut Crack."

The "Donut Crack" of the prescribed medicine plan is the quantity where the senior needed to pay the cost for the drugs until it reached a point considered, the high end, and then Medicare took control of it again. The prescription gap touched $2,830 and after the expense of $6,440 did Medicare protection settle back in. "As soon as the overall medicine expenses (exactly what the plan paid and exactly what the enrollee paid) reached $2,830, enrouees entered the Donut Crack, where they paid the overall expense of their medicines. This no-coverage attribute continued till overall medicine expenses reached $6,440" (Kaplan, 2011, p. 25). The outcome was that registering in the medicine plan was voluntary. Prior to any reform start, Medicare enrollees desired some modifications made to encourage even more wellness and preventive health programs. A proposition had been made to the previous administration for education, recommendations, and screenings (Kaplan, 2011).

Prescribed medicines are the 3rd leading cost in a family budget plan, particularly for an individual with persistent ailment. Healthcare expenses have actually enhanced progressively ever since the millennium. The acceleration of expenses might be credited to a variety of elements; nevertheless, taking care of the high expenses of prescriptions medicines holds the possible stakeholders to support healthcare expenses without influencing quality of care detrimentally. The expense savings related to common medicines in lieu of trademark name is significant. Common medicines have numerous advantages from a financial position, adding to the efficiency of healthcare reform. Drug stores change generic drugs with well-known brand name drugs to reduce expenses for enrollees.…… [read more]


Affordable Care Act Can We Learn Term Paper

… ¶ … Affordable Care Act

Can We Learn From ACA Implementation and Improve the Law?

Most important aspects

One of the most important aspects of the article is that the Obamacare program that has been implemented in each state is essentially different. This is because the Supreme Court passed a ruling that allowed states to decide whether they wanted to adopt the Medicaid expansion. Many governors also waited for the election results to be announced before making the decision on the expansion. In addition to this, the author states that the ACA places a fundamental burden on states since they are responsible for implementing and administering the program in their state. This is what is anticipated to bring about variation in the implementation as states run these roles differently. This is important because it shows the implementation problem that exists.

The second aspect that is important is that of negotiation. The author states that there is need the current negotiations being conducted over the Medicaid expansion to bear some fruits. Obamacare can only be successful if the Human and Health Services department make agreements with the states that allow them to be flexible and at the same time allow for beneficiaries to be protected. This will bring on more states that had previously voted against the expansion and will also increase the support for the ACA.

The third aspect that is important is that of media coverage. The author states that media coverage is important in affecting the ability of states to learn and adapt towards Medicaid expansion. The author states that if journalists adopt a broader view and look at both what is working and what is not working, they can help the public make informed decisions about the ACA as well as implementation of improvement efforts in the future. This is important because it will portray the real picture of the Obamacare implementation to the public.

Two aspects that are not understood

The author states that 7 different states are planning "active purchaser" exchanges Altman, 2013.

The author then goes ahead to say that these are efforts to control soaring premium prices and that states should look at a more active purchase model. This is confusing because Obamacare is aimed at ensuring health care insurance for all. Therefore there is no need to worry about premium prices for other health insurance covers since this is already the goal of the ACA. This interfered with my understanding of the article since it got me confused about the goals of the ACA.

The second confusing aspect is the issue of journalists. Though it is well-known that media coverage of the ACA implementation seems skewed towards the negative, the media has also focused on the positive aspects of Obamacare. In some areas, the media has even tried to present a case for Obamacare despite its apparent weaknesses. This is confusing since the author seems to be calling for more positive coverage which is already being done.

Question to the author or… [read more]


Affordable Care Act Impact on Businesses Term Paper

… Affordable Care Act is being rolled out at this time and will have been completely rolled-out by sometime in 2014. Under this Act, employers over 50 FTEs will be forced to either provide adequate and affordable health care coverage for… [read more]


Coverage and Discussion of "Obamacare," the Patient Essay

… ¶ … coverage and discussion of "Obamacare," the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act. Discuss how well this legislation addresses issues of effectiveness, efficiency, equity, and other ethical issues.

The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (just upheld as Constitutional by the Supreme Court last week) is an immensely complex piece of legislation, so much so that it is extremely difficult to assess the entire law as either effective or not, etc. However, I believe, that to the extent possible given the complexity of the bill and the avalanche of vituperative coverage that has accompanied the bill since its introduction, the law overall increases the equity with which healthcare is provided to Americans (Fiscella, 2011).

Among the elements of the law that promote more equitable access to healthcare in the United States is that it forbids insurance companies from charging women more than men for comparable policies simply because of their gender, the requirement that insurance companies pay for the entirety of a number of primary healthcare treatments (such as Pap smears) without any charge to the patient, and new forms of payment that allow individuals with lower incomes be able to meet their financial obligations more easily (Fiscella, 2011).

The efficiency and effectiveness of the new healthcare law are difficult to assess yet, because in many ways they rely more on the next step, which is how state governments institute the law. Given that many Republican governors have voiced vociferous objections to it while many Democratic governors have expressed high levels of enthusiasm, it is hard to imagine that there will not be a wide range of difference in the way in which the law is enacted across the nation (Pande, 2012).

Finally, in terms of the ethics of the new law, my judgement on the law is twofold. To the extent that it provides better access to healthcare (especially primary care) to tens of additional Americans who are currently uninsured as well as improving coverage for those who are already insured, it is indeed an ethically admirable law. However, there are holes in its ethical grounding, such as the fact that the only legal medical procedure that is explicitly excluded is abortion,

References

Fiscella, K. (2011). Health care reform and equity: promise, pitfalls, and prescriptions. Annals of Family Medicine 9(1), 78-84.

Pande, A.H., Ross-Degnan, D., Zaslavsky, A.M., & Salomon, J.A. (2011). Effects of healthcare reforms on coverage, access, and disparities: quasi-experimental analysis of evidence from Massachusetts. American Journal of Preventative Medicine 41(1), 1-8.

"Welfare" has gone through many changes over time. How have changes in welfare, specifically food stamps, job training, subsidized housing,…… [read more]


Affordable Care Act Legal Studies Term Paper

… Depending on how this fee is defined, whether it is a penalty, tax, or something else, may determine whether the Anti-Injunction Act (AIA) applies. The AIA is relevant because it contains a ripeness provision that prevents courts from getting involved in suits designed to forestall tax collection before any attempt to collect a tax has been made. In Liberty University v. Geithner the 4th Circuit Court was divided over this issue. In a separate case the 6th Circuit declared it a penalty and therefore not a tax. The D.C. Circuit is currently hearing arguments over this issue in Seven-Sky v. Holder. Whether the ripeness provision of AIA applies may be an issue the U.S. Supreme Court will take under consideration.

Commerce Clause

The ACA was enacted by Congress under the Commerce Clause (article I, section 8, clause 3) and the Necessary and Proper Clause (article I, section 8, clause 18) of the Constitution, thereby giving Congress the authority to impose the individual mandate on all non-exempt Americans (Huhn 140-141). If the individual mandate is declared unconstitutional because the Supreme Court decides the Commerce Clause is insufficient to give Congress such authority, then the primary 'funding' source for many of the other provisions in the ACA will disappear and the Act will fail.

From Congresses' point-of-view the Commerce Clause gives them the authority to impose a penalty for not purchasing qualified health insurance because any activities that have an impact on interstate commerce fall under their jurisdiction (Ittleman par. 2). No one questions that the health insurance industry qualifies as interstate commerce, but past court decisions have always given citizens a way to avoid falling under Congressional regulation in such matters.

In the landmark case Wickard v. Filburn, a farmer (Filburn) wanted to grow some wheat for his own consumption and believed it was none of the government's business (Ittelman par. 3). Congress and the courts disagreed, because if everyone decided to grow their own wheat it would have a dramatic impact on the wheat market nationally. A similar outcome occurred when a farmer felt Congress had no jurisdiction over his growing marijuana for personal use (Ittleman par. 4).

The main point of contention regarding the ACA individual mandate is that contrary to the wheat and marijuana markets, non-exempt citizens are required to participate by either buying health insurance or paying an opt-out fee in order to stabilize the health insurance market (Ittleman par. 6). In other words, in contrast to the farmers citizens can't choose not to participate. Several writ of certiorari are currently before the U.S. Supreme Court concerning this matter and it seems likely the justices will have to weigh in.

Summary

The onslaught of lawsuits challenging the constitutionality of the ACA represents resistance to increased government intrusion into their personal lives. Although most of the suits have been dismissed for lack of standing and other reasons, a few have made it all the way to the door of the highest court in the land. Whether the ACA… [read more]


Affordable Care Act and the Tax Reform Issues of 2013 Essay

… Affordable Care Act

Over the last several years, the U.S. has been dealing with tremendous economic challenges. This is because of the stagnant economy, rising inflation and fiscal problems impacting all levels of government. The results are that these factors… [read more]


Obamacare Good for the Economy? Research Paper

… (Farazmand, 2001)

However social policies have been reflected in a number of areas including education, poverty and Medicare. There has been great progress post globalization where there was a revision of this trend where government moves the welfare services to… [read more]


Patient Protection and Affordable Care Essay

… The act will promote and implement innovations for the training of the health workforce. It also includes the recruitment of new workforce and setting up of new workforce commission. The available workforce will be retained as the new workforce comes on board to supplement the available.

Another part of the act is that which will ensure transparency and program integrity. Under this, the health program will provide information to the public on the health systems available and in addition promote implementation of new set of requirements to curb fraud and abuse in both private and public programs (Wolper, 2004). The workforce will be trained on effective patient handling measures that will increase the trust of the patients in the healthcare providers.

However, there is nothing that is of the human making that is perfect. These progressive steps that the government has taken to improve the health care services are facing opposition because to implement they may be costly (Kovne et al., 2011). Such is the act that seeks to improve on the issue of infrastructure and health provision innovations. The cost of these innovations is quite high and the developing the infrastructure required is relatively expensive. This will affect the expenditure on health budget negatively. But considering the benefits that come with this act, the negative impact can be overlooked.

In view of the healthcare act, all these initiatives for improving the health of Americans are equally significant. However, the single most initiation program that will significantly help provides affordable health care services and protection of the patients is that on the Health Insurance Reforms (Wolper, 2004). The insurance industry has been stealing millions of industrious Americans hard earned income. With all the sections of the health act on insurance in place, these inhuman organizations will have no choice but to give due to what the consumers pay for. Hence the policy will greatly improve on the national health care budget and expenditure (Kovne et al., 2011). Millions of dollars will be salvaged and directed to the right channels for use hence reducing the costs incurred by the government in providing these affordable health services and also for the consumer.

In conclusion, the implementation of the protection of the patients act and the provision of affordable health care is a significant step towards achieving a perfect fair national health management platform.

References

Kovner, A.R., Knickman, J., & Jonas, S. (2011). Jonas & Kovner's health care delivery in the United States. New York: Springer Pub.

Parks, D. (2012). Health care reform simplified: What professionals in medicine, government, insurance, and. S.l.: Apress.

Wolper, L.F. (2004). Health care administration: Planning, implementing, and…… [read more]


Affordable Health Care Act Impact Thesis

… By law, persons who for religious or other reasons are unable to join these schemes are exempted. According to Scott (2013)

, it is this duty of individuals that makes universal coverage possible. Without this legal mandate, a large number… [read more]


ACA Ethics Essay

… Ethical Perspectives

The Affordable Care Act was enacted to address a number of issues in the American health care system. Some of the more prominent objectives of the Act are to increase the number of Americans who have health coverage and to the reduce the overall cost of health care in the United States. A two-pronged approach was used to address the latter. The government will use its bargaining power to drive down costs of many services government pays for, and the use of health care exchanges will increase consumer bargaining power in health insurance, which again should over time reduce the cost of health care (HHS, 2014). It was believed that there was urgency with respect to the timing of the ACA's passage. There was political urgency to be certain since the Democrats held a supermajority and could only reliably hold that for two years, but there was also ethical urgency because of the 40 million Americans who didn't have health insurance. If those people's needs were not addressed, it might be another twenty years or more before another similar opportunity came about.

In order to make the structure of the law work, the ACA features a controversial element known as the individual mandate. This states that all Americans need to have health insurance, either through their employer, through a government plan like Medicare or Medicaid, or buy purchasing insurance on the open market. The individual mandate is rooted in economics, not ethics, in that by widening the pool of people paying for health care, many profitable (i.e. young and healthy) individuals are compelled to purchase health insurance (or pay a fine) in order that insurance companies can remain profitable while taking on many new, unprofitable customers such as those with pre-existing conditions. Because it was not designed with ethics in mind, the individual mandate runs into some questionable ethical ground, while at the same time it exists as a tradeoff for the greatly expanded coverage and reduced bargaining power of insurance companies. This paper will examine the ethics of the ACA in the context of these two major issues, using the frameworks provided by Kant and Locke.

Kant

Kant's standard of morality revolves around the categorical imperative, and an immoral act is one that violates this imperative. The definition of the categorical imperative is therefore important to the application of Kantian morality to the features of the Affordable Care Act. The categorical imperative can be ill-defined, but as a society we set out laws and it is thus our duty to obey them. Such rationale should probably only apply to democracies where the law reflects the will of the people, and even then only when the laws do not result in direct harm. Further under Kantian morality, we cannot forfeit our own moral goodness in order to obtain some desirable object (Johnson, 2008). Individuals have free will, according to Kant, but are bound by duty in how that will is exercised.

When Kant's moral philosophy is applied to… [read more]


Affordable Care Act (ACA) Essay

… ACA stipulates that the disadvantages can be minimized by ensuring that many people can access the health insurance: this includes providing assurance of access to health care. The promise of health care services with no infrastructures for developing the services raises expectations. This is a disadvantage as it becomes ethically unjust when unmet. Many people have been given insurance to access hospitals. However, all hospitals are filled to capacity because there are no new facilities. The most logical result is that more people are left to wait for long hours and when they get on, they might have to share things such as hospital beds (Praiser, 2012). Another outcome is the increased waiting time, rationed healthcare and the overall healthcare quality will decline. Special interest groups will complain because it will not be appropriate to raise taxes to cater for the increasing costs: the entire system is subject to collapse.

Solution to disadvantages

The only solution to the above disadvantages would be a single-payer Medicaid fashion or government run Medicare system. Patients seeking treatment for skin diseases make a significant percentage of many primary care practices. Recent studies have indicated that dermatologists are superior to primary care physicians when conducting appropriate diagnosis, demanding minimal tests, and saving costs associated with unnecessary tests, hospital visits, and incorrect treatments until the appropriate diagnosis is achieved and treatment prescribed (Shaffer, 2009). Obviously most skin diseases are not life threatening but could generate a profound impact on life quality. ACA interferes with standard measures of quality life for numerous diseases such as skin diseases and this affects the quality of life. This has the potential of affecting life quality more adversely than most serious diseases like diabetes, hyperlipidemia, and malaria.

References

Barr, D.A. (2011). Introduction to U.S. health policy: The organization, financing, and delivery of health care in America. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.

Haas, S. (2013). Debunking Myths Regarding Provisions of the Affordable Care Act. [Electronic version]. AARP The Magazine, 65 (6C), 66-69. Retrieved from http://www.aarp.org/health/health-insurance/info-09-2012/medicare-and-health-care-reform-myths.html

Praiser, D. (2012). Ethical considerations in health care reform: Pros and cons of the affordable care act. A journal on Clinics in Dermatology (2012) 30, 151 -- 155. Department of Dermatology, Eastern Virginia Medical School, 601 Medical Tower, Norfolk, VA 23507, USA

Shaffer, E. (2009). The Affordable Care Act: The Value of Systemic Disruption.…… [read more]


Affordable Care Act Instructions Essay

… Such legislation is within Congress's power to tax.[footnoteRef:4]" In other words, it is within the power of Congress to shape public policy through taxation, as it already does by taxing certain classes of persons and behaviors differently from others. [3: Klein, 2012] [4: Mike Sachs, "U.S. Supreme Court healthcare decision: Individual mandate survives," Huffington Post, 28 Jun 2012, [4 May 2013] http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2012/06/28/supreme-court-health-care-decision_n_1585131.html]

From the point-of-view of the healthcare system, the ACA is an important step forward. Far too many Americans are uninsured, and rely upon emergency rooms as their primary centers of care. The ACA will make healthcare coverage more affordable for a wider number of Americans by broadening the risk pool to include healthier, younger adults and it also relieves many Americans of the fear that they will never be able to find health insurance, based upon a preexisting condition. The financial burdens on the healthcare system as a whole will be enhanced via expanded preventative care. It is necessary to require all Americans to have health insurance to keep the stipulation of the ACA about preexisting conditions in place; otherwise it would be too easy for people to wait until they were very sick to purchase a healthcare plan.

The most persuasive legal argument for the ACA lies in the long-standing power of Congress and other legislative entities to tax a wide variety of behaviors to improve the social good. Still, the law's effect is actually rather modest. "Only about 6% of the population will actually be required to buy health insurance or face a tax under the mandate, since most people already have coverage or will get it through Medicare," and the very poor can always claim hardship (and are more likely to be eligible under Medicaid). [footnoteRef:5] [5: Liz Goodwin, "U.S. Supreme Court upholds individual mandate as a tax,"28 Jun 2012, [23 May 2013] http://abcnews.go.com/Politics/OTUS/supreme-court-upholds-obamacare-individual-mandate-tax/story?id=16669186#.UYWUTMplSZQ]

Bibliography

Goodwin, Liz. "U.S. Supreme Court upholds individual mandate as a tax." 28 Jun 2012,

[4 May 2013] http://abcnews.go.com/Politics/OTUS/supreme-court-upholds-obamacare-individual-mandate-tax/story?id=16669186#.UYWUTMplSZQ

Klein, Ezra. "11 facts about the Affordable Care Act." The Washington Post. 24 Jun 2012.

[4 May 2013]

http://www.washingtonpost.com/blogs/wonkblog/wp/2012/06/24/11-facts-about-the-affordable-care-act/

Sachs, Mike. "U.S. Supreme Court healthcare decision: Individual mandate survives."

Huffington Post. 28 Jun 2012. [4 May 2013] http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2012/06/28/supreme-court-health-care-decision_n_1585131.html… [read more]


Affordable Care Act Health Care Reform Capstone Project

… Affordable Care Act

The Affordable Health Care Act

The hospital industry is comprised of many different sectors including, but not limited to, non-profit and for-profit hospitals, safety net hospitals and teaching hospitals among others. Because the sectors are so varied,… [read more]


Political Structure in Obamacare Essay

… Some political analyst believed that the president had an excessive amount of power in the earlier part of the presidency because the president is a democratic president and the majority members in congress were democratic. The president had the power… [read more]


Healthcare Reform Lowering Costs in Health Care Essay

… Healthcare Reform

Lowering costs in Health Care

Changes in the Health Care Act have sought to lower the costs of health care for Americans. Reports made available indicate that the only change that has seen the light of the day is the opposite of what we had expected. The changes have increased costs of care leading to increased complexities surrounding the already confused system. Collections of new pages about the regulation and higher taxes have led to enormous impacts on the small business community and American families. This has contributed significantly to the slow recovery of the stock market.

Major non-partisan tax and budget authorities have confirmed that the Health Care Act has been amended to impose a trillion of dollars on innocent public members. Small employers and families have demonstrated that they cannot afford this. Similarly, they have been unable to afford the increase in taxes contained in the Act. From these tax changes, fifty percent has affected business owners and families earning below $300,000 per year. It has broken the trust with the job creators' community besides violating the pledge of the ruling government to avoid tax hikes on middle and low-income earners. Creator of job opportunities is likely to bear the burden of these taxes, which the government has tactfully disguised as a fee. Most of the fee under the insurance industry will be legalized and pushed to consumers of insurance in the disguise of higher premiums. When this fee was eliminated, it led to a reduction in the average family premium per year. However, most unions have been avoiding the tax imposed on families and small businesses. Reports have estimated that the tax will increase the health care premiums of each American family by approximately $600 per day. This is a huge sum for the citizens working hard to earn their money.

Government documents have estimated that the changes in the health care Act have increased the level of paperwork for individuals per year. There are more changes in the offing, which reveal that these are mere low estimates. The mandate of the changes on the Law has further separated both the employee and the employer from their choices of health care. Some amendments have spelt out the requirements of the law that appropriate large employers should provide health care coverage according to the subscriptions of the government. This should be applied to all permanent employees or risk paying hefty penalties. Despite the fact the changes in the health care law have generated adverse impacts on families and small business owners, which have prompted multiple battles in the courts and congress, Americans have admitted the Act is here to stay. As much as people have accepted, it does not imply that they have resigned. For…… [read more]


Healthcare Delivery System Challenges Research Paper

… This will help the government reduce health care spending since most of the federal government's savings will come from large-scale savings due to preventive care offered by the health sector. As an example, a cancer patient can be prevented from incurring huge medical expenses by diagnosing them at stage one which is preventive scanning (Blumberg & Holahan, 2009). Such initiatives reduce chances of medications once the disease is at the full-blown stage therefore, there will be little constraints on the existing healthcare costs thus helping medics focus on other medical activities.

The next reform is overhauling doctor's incentives. Currently doctors are paid for services provided as opposed to having a fixed monthly salary a factor that has constantly driven up the cost of getting quality medical assistance thus driving medical costs for most citizens. Therefore, ensuring that medical practitioners charge a flat premium for services offered to patents can help reduce costs incurred by citizens as opposed to charging fees for each individual service offered. This modification of medics' incentives is likely to increase patients' access to medical assistance and doctors will be forced to offer additional services to solving medical problems efficiently.

The other proposed reform is restructuring the private health insurance industry; a major player in the American health insurance sector. It is perceived that reforming the private insurance sector is capable of increasing the number of Americans accessing insurance schemes, but, is unlikely to reduce the rate of growth in health care spending. Nonetheless, there are considerations that should be met first before the private insurance sector is reformed. This will help in eliminating unexpected consequences while ensuring the long-term viability of the reformed system. Moreover, there are speculations regarding the impact of employee 'pay or play requirements' as a way of increasing healthcare coverage with some citizens alleging that current 'pay or play' strategies are limited in their ability to increase coverage among the working poor.

Health care rationing can greatly increase health accessibility to citizens. It is argued that rationing is an economic requirement by detailing that healthcare resources are supposed to be allocated to the required persons. In line with this, it is essential to initiate rationing considering the country's millions of un-funded Medicare liabilities. According to the president, an approximate 30% of healthcare services are administered to elderly citizens; it is agreed that in situations whereby life quality cannot be improved, the elderly should be absorbed into nursing homes as opposed to spending money on their healthcare. Based on this, it is essential that a national healthcare budget be established to assist the government in managing healthcare resources via the development of 'pay-as-you-go' rules requiring increased taxations for increases in spending. Thus, a combination of tax increases and spending cuts is essential in reducing healthcare costs (Reid, 2009).

Finally, debates have been rife regarding medicine distribution in the country. Congress members allude that drugs made outside the U.S. are cheap and as such, they are easily imported to the country though some countries… [read more]


Universal Healthcare Obamacare Term Paper

… Universal Healthcare (Obamacare)

Since its enactment in 2010, the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, otherwise known as Obamacare, has elicited much debate in the United States' health and political realms. This paper seeks to interrogate whether the Universal health… [read more]


Politics and Healthcare Essay

… Affordable Healthcare Act

Recommendations to the President: The Affordable Healthcare Act

I know, Mr. President, how much of a conflict Congress is in right now regarding the Affordable Healthcare Act that was passed in 2010 and is set to fully go into action next year in 2014. There are such strong voices against it, with understandable arguments, but at the same time the lives of thousands of Americans are at risk. Despite personal objections that anyone might have based on increases in taxes, it is clear that we must push forward with getting the last of this legislation implemented because it will undoubtedly save lives -- and that is worth its weight in gold.

It is understandable that so many politicians would be concerned about how the government plans on paying for the massive increases on healthcare expenses in order to provide better coverage for so many more Americans. While already in a recession, the legislation you are proposing, President Obama, is just another added expense to an already long list of expenses that are bogging down American tax payers from recovering from the depths of the recession. Essentially, you are asking the American tax payer to take on the load of the additional increases. Most of these tax increases will hit the higher end of the income scale, with about a 0.9% increase on Medicare and 3.8%tax hike on high income earners. This will ultimately provide a bulk of the funding for the various program extensions and creations, without having to bog down the average wage earner too much. Yet, many of the upper classes are clearly opposed to this, claiming that it is not their responsibility to have to care for the population that cannot afford its own healthcare. It is understandable; no one really wants to spend their hard-earned money on strangers.

However, the situation has become too dire to bicker about 3% tax increases here and there. Thousands of Americans…… [read more]


Affordable Healthcare Act Obamacare Term Paper

… Obamacare

While both President Bill Clinton and President Barack Obama held office, there was a major debate regarding healthcare policies. At a time when people are living longer, it is evident that healthcare is of utmost pertinence. Although the policies… [read more]


Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act Term Paper

… Healthcare

Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act

The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA) was passed to make sure that all Americans have access to quality, affordable health care. This law is expected to create the change within the health care system that is necessary to control costs. The PPACA achieves a basic transformation of health insurance in the United States through shared responsibility. Systemic insurance market reorganization will do away with prejudiced practices such as pre-existing condition exclusions. Attaining these reforms without escalating health insurance premiums will mean that all Americans must be part of the system and must have coverage. Tax credits for people will make sure that insurance is reasonably priced for everyone (the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act Detailed Summary, n.d.).

This law is going to effect employers in a number of different ways. Under PPACA, employers are not directly obligated to offer coverage to their workers. Yet, the measure includes strong inducements for several of them to do so. Starting in 2014, large employers will face monetary fines if any of their full-time workers obtains a premium credit through an exchange. If the employer does not provide coverage to its workers, or if the employer provides coverage that is not reasonably priced based on PPACA standards, a worker may be entitled to a premium credit that would prompt a fine on the employer. If one were to look at this in regards to a hospital, as an employer they will have to make sure that they offer insurance coverage that is affordable so that they do not face any penalties for not doing so. "Employers that provide coverage will be required to provide a "free choice" voucher to low-income employees that meet certain requirements to enable them to enroll in a plan offered through an exchange" (the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act: An Overview of Its Potential Impact on State Health Programs, 2010).

For employers who offer health insurance bene-ts, this new law has a deeper challenge than standard compliance with new regulations. What may once have been a pure HR function now will necessitate coordination and collective leadership with ?nance, tax, risk, and operations. Administrating the bottom-line cost of health insurance may even necessitate some companies to reorganize their workforce models. Health insurance exchanges and other modernizations may provide workers with more choices. The cost-bene-t analysis of failure to offer coverage goes beyond premiums and penalties. Employers need to think about the effects on staffing, maintenance, confidence, and output as well (Employer Health Care Reform: Moving Beyond Compliance, 2011). A hospital organization will have to make sure that there workforce model is one that includes enough staffing to handle any increase in business that the new health laws might bring about.

The PPACA sets up minimum standards for insurance eligibility and coverage for the first time. New full-time workers working at least an average of thirty…… [read more]


IRS Off Your Health Care Essay

… As a result, the refundable share of an individual's claim will be cut all the way back by 10%. The confiscation reduction rate will be affected up until the end of the economic year (Sept. 30, 2013) or superseding Congressional… [read more]


Uninsured Population Insurance Premiums Budget Research Paper

… The Census Bureau released a report in 2011, showed a 1.6% decline in the uninsured employees that age from 20-25. In term of number the 1.6% is a small figure but it accounts for 393,000 people insuring themselves in just… [read more]


Individual Mandate Policy Patient Protection Term Paper

… The individual mandate is thus designed to make the healthcare system fairer even for persons who are currently covered under employer-provided insurance. The costs to them because of the systemic inequalities in the system are considerable as well -- for example, uninsured Americans received care in excess of 57.4 billion in 2008, resulting in the need for health insurers to raise premiums to cover the cost (Tanden & Spiro 2012:1). At present, healthcare costs today account for 17% of the U.S. GDP and "the average family pays an additional $1,000 annually in the form of higher premiums to subsidize the costs incurred by those who receive care but do not carry insurance. The mandate is an indispensable tool for achieving the government's compelling goals of universal coverage and lower costs" (Why the individual mandate matters so much, 2012, The Washington Post).

Another attempt to expand the risk pool includes the provision that young adults up to the age of twenty-six are allowed to remain on their parents' health insurance, which infuses the 'risk pool' with healthier, younger individuals. "This reform has already had a significant impact, covering an additional 2.5 million young adults. In 2014, more than 90% of young people enrolling through exchanges will be eligible for premium tax credits. In addition, young adults under the age of 30 will be able to enroll in a low-cost catastrophic plan" (Tanden & Spiro 2012:11). Because of the recent recession, many young people who would have ordinarily found work with employer-provided insurance have not; allowing them to remain on their parent's healthcare plan has become one of the most popular components of the Affordable Care Act, but without the provisions of the individual mandate it too would likely be impossible to sustain.

However, the provisions of enforcement of the penalty, once the individual mandate takes effect are unclear. "And what happens if you don't buy insurance and you don't pay the penalty? Well, not much. The law specifically says that no criminal action or liens can be imposed on people who don't pay the fine. If this actually leads to a world in which large numbers of people don't buy insurance and tell the IRS to stuff it, you could see that change. But for now, the penalties are low and the enforcement is non-existent" (Klein 2010).

Critics of the bill note that the penalty is still too modest for consumers determined not to buy insurance. "You could pay the penalty for five years and then buy insurance the day you felt a lump" (Klein 2010). Also, even if the individual technically must buy coverage for him or herself under the law, "the individual may claim an exemption due to financial hardship" (Tanden & Spiro 2012: 7-8). As a point of contrast, in the state of Massachusetts, which enacted a similar individual mandate on a state level "the penalty for not having qualified insurance is 50% of the amount that an individual would pay for the lowest-cost plan after taking into… [read more]


Assault on Cost-Sharing Prohibition Mandated by the ACA Research Paper

… CONTRACEPTIVES: A NURSE PRACTITIONER'S PERSPECTIVE

NP Policy

The Contraceptive Debate: A Nurse Practitioner's Perspective

The Contraceptive Debate: A Nurse Practitioner's Perspective

The most recent healthcare legislation to be enacted into law at the federal level is the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) of 2010, but the provisions and mandates included in this law are coming online over a period of years. In 2013, the ACA authorized the provision of preventive services in women's health, including free access to contraceptive services (Sonfield, 2013). The key point in this provision is the elimination of cost-sharing, which was a common practice for most private health care plans prior to ACA implementation. The overall goal is to eliminate economic barriers to preventive healthcare, including contraception. As Annas and colleagues (2014) point out, the wording of the ACA does not guarantee cost-free access to contraceptives, but does mandate the free provision of preventive services for women's health more generally. The minutiae of exactly what would be covered were worked out after the ACA was enacted, by the Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA) within the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS). The HRSA relied on recommendations made by the Institute of Medicine (IOM), which included a list of 20 contraceptives, among which were two intrauterine devices and the emergency contraceptives Plan B. And Ella. All the contraceptives on the list were FDA-approved and not considered to be abortifacients.

Around the time the ACA women's health provisions were implemented, two private corporations, the Hobby Lobby and Conestoga Wood Specialties, challenged the contraceptive mandate on religious grounds (Annas, Ruger, & Ruger, 2014). Based on their beliefs, the two IUD devices and emergency contraceptives were abortifacients, thereby violating their antiabortion stance. According to the Supreme Court, owners of closely-held corporations would experience an undue burden on their free exercise of religion if the government required them to pay for these contraceptives, since the justices responsible for the majority opinion could not find a compelling government interest for guaranteeing the employees of these corporations access to these four contraceptives.

All three female Supreme Court justices dissented, along with one male justice (Annas, Ruger, & Ruger, 2014). The author of the dissenting opinion, Justice Ginsburg, highlighted a number of perceived weaknesses in the majority opinion, including the possibility that the ruling could open the floodgates to all kinds of ACA challenges based on a long list of religious objections. For example, Catholic owners of a closely-held company could object to the provision of all contraceptives. Within the dissenting opinion, Justice Ginsburg gets to the heart of the matter from the perspective of women's health. The ACA provision, as interpreted by Annas and colleagues (2014), is about moving the healthcare system closer to gender equality and Justice Ginsburg seems to agree. In her words, putting "health care decisions . . . including the choice among contraceptive methods . . . In the hands of women, with the aid of their health care providers," moves American society closer to… [read more]


Affordable Care Act a Current Essay

… Also, hospitals nationwide will be paid based on the quality of care they deliver, not just on the "quantity of care provided" (White House). It will be easier for healthcare organizations to coordinate the care needed by patients through the "Accountable Care Organizations" established by the Act (White House).

What are the Arguments for and against the Law?

It should be noted that this legislation passed through the House of Representatives with no Republican votes. It passed the U.S. Senate with no Republican votes. The arguments against the legislation were several; the opponents of Obama and of the legislation attacked the Act: a) the legislation is socialized medicine; b) the legislation is a government takeover of healthcare; c) Obamacare will increase the national deficit; d) America has a decent healthcare system so why create a big government program? And even though the United States Supreme Court has ruled that the Act is within Constitutional limits, there still are conservatives who oppose the Act.

State Senator Phil Berger (North Carolina) is passing a petition around to "Stop Obamacare in North Carolina." Berger says that the Act means that the government "…[will be] turning our health records over to the IRS" and there will be "billions in new taxes on businesses and on the people of North Carolina" (Frank, 2013).

The arguments for the Act are numerous: a) As previously mentioned, the Act will prevent insurance companies from arbitrarily cancelling a person's policy because of a pre-existing condition"; b) young people can stay on their parents' policies until they are 26; c) preventative healthcare is now available for seniors at no cost; d) starting in 2014, insurance companies can no longer charge women more than men or deny coverage because you get cancer or another disease.

What are the potential ramifications if the law is not followed?

First of all, the Act contains legal protections against discrimination on the basis of gender identity or sexual stereotyping (re: Section 1557). Those who feel they have been discriminated against may file a complaint with the Office of Civil Rights. Furthermore, if people are denied healthcare because "of the way they look," they can file a complaint based on Section 1557.

The Act prohibits discrimination on the basis of disability "in electronic information and technology" and the Act prohibits discrimination on the basis of "…race, color and national origin in child placement decisions in adoption and foster care"; it also prohibits discrimination on the basis of gender in Federally Assisted Health Training Programs (www.hhs.gov).

Meanwhile if insurance companies violate the law they will be held accountable in an appropriate legal context.

In conclusion, it is clear that since the U.S. Supreme Court has ruled that the Act is Constitutional, it is the law of the land. Getting it passed through Congress was an enormous task for President Obama, and during the informational period, when legislators held "town hall" meetings, those opposed to the act were loud, rude, and intentionally disruptive of the proceedings, making it… [read more]


Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act Essay

… PPACA

The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA) is a federal U.S. statute dealing with health care. This act was passed by the Congress and signed into law by President Barack Obama on March 23, 2010. The law constitutes… [read more]


Obamacare Essay

… Obamacare

There are a number of pros and cons to the Affordable Care Act, and whether a factor is a pro-or a con will also depend on your role in health care, your socioeconomic status, your role in society (employer, health care provider, government official, etc.), your health status, and of course your political views.

PROS

CONS

Increased access to health insurance for millions

Healthcare.gov launch was a debacle

Coverage for children is expanded

New plans have more bells and whistles, so cost more for many people

Medicaid is expanded up to 15.9 million people below poverty level

Young people who do not normally buy insurance must now buy insurance -- Insurance companies win, customers maybe not as much

System of tax credits to help defray costs

Subsidies are complex and there is a lack of information about them

Insurance exchanges improve buyer knowledge, improving competition

Health care orgs are worried about potential negative impacts

Young adults can stay on their parents' plans until age 26

Increased costs for younger consumers

Curbs growth in health care spending

Payouts to many health care providers, pharma companies might be lower

You cannot be dropped from your coverage based on minor technicalities

Lower profits leads to lower innovation and investment in the health care industry

You cannot be denied coverage for a pre-existing condition

Steep learning curve about the law will lead to problems for several years

(Sources: Obamacarefacts.com, Amadeo (2013).

The effect of the ACA on nursing remains yet to be seen. The patient is the focus of the act, and payment is a key element of the act. However, the act also seeks to reduce payouts to health care providers, and this is where the ACA could affect nursing. Reduced payouts mean reduced profits, and that can hurt nursing wages, and the quality of the equipment with which nurses must work. Nurses may also see reduced staffing levels as health care providers try to maintain…… [read more]


More People Insured Under ACA Chapter

… GAPS & EFFECTIVENESS

Public Policy the Affordable Care Act

Gaps

There are two gaps in particular that the Affordable Care Act was meant to address. The first gap in particular that was meant to be addressed is to provide affordable… [read more]


Accounting Implications of ACA Research Paper

… The ACA comes with an excise tax that creates a liability for many companies, in particular ones that prefer to move their employees onto the health exchanges rather than maintain coverage. This excise tax can be reasonably estimated, and this creates the need for internal controls within companies to mitigate this liability (CalCPA, 2014).

Whitehouse (2014) also notes that when company reduce a benefit that has already been promised to their employees -- as is certainly the case with retiree health benefits, this might open those companies up to legal action. Class action suits are likely, as retirees forced to look at other alternatives may choose legal action. While the company might reasonably determine that any settlement is likely cheaper than continuing to provide this benefit, the company also has to understand that if the threat of a lawsuit is real, and can approximately be quantified, that it creates a reporting obligation under ASC 450 -- this is a foreseeable liability that must be recorded. That will have a negative impact on the profits of the company, as the liability will need to be reported before it is even realized, as a foreseeable future expense. Certainly, should one or two such lawsuits be successful, the FASB will have no choice but to clarify that such legal risks need to be reported under ASC 450.

As the rollout of the Affordable Care Act continues, it is worth remembering that not all of the ways that it will affect accounting are going to be understood immediately. There is the risk that further issues will come to light, and the FASB will need to make other statements that address some of the key issues. Because the ACA is affecting things like health plans, retirement benefits and other complex accounting issues, some of the issues that look minor today could prove to be major tomorrow. It is necessary for the FASB to continue to examine the ACA and some of the issues that arise, so that statements can be issued to close loopholes and address new problems quickly as they arise.

References

CalCPA. (2014). ACA mythbuster. California CPA Education Foundation. Retrieved May 2, 2014 from http://www.calcpa.org/content/27238.aspx

FASB (2010). Contingencies (Topic 450). Financial Accounting Standards Board. Retrieved May 2, 2014 from http://www.fasb.org/cs/BlobServer?blobkey=id&blobnocache=true&blobwhere=1175823559187&blobheader=application%2Fpdf&blobheadername2=Content-Length&blobheadername1=Content-Disposition&blobheadervalue2=309726&blobheadervalue1=filename%3DProposed_ASU_Contingencies_Topic_450_Disclosure_of_Certain_Loss_Contingencies.pdf&blobcol=urldata&blobtable=MungoBlobs

FASB Summary of Statement No. 158. Financial Accounting Standards Board. Retrieved http://www.fasb.org/summary/stsum158.shtml

Kastrup, L. (2013). Financial reporting implications under the Affordable Care Act. American Academy of Actuaries. Retrieved May 2, 2014 from http://www.actuary.org/files/HPFRC_White_Paper_on_ACA_and_FR_final_062513.pdf

Nussbaum, A. (2013). GE, IBM ending retiree health plans in historic shift. Bloomberg. Retrieved May 2, 2014 from http://www.bloomberg.com/news/2013-09-09/ge-to-ibm-ending-retiree-health-plans-in-historic-shift.html

Whitehouse, T. (2014). Benefits trend raises accounting issues, PwC warns. Compliance Week. Retrieved May 2, 2014 from http://www.complianceweek.com/benefits-trend-raises-accounting-issues-pwc-warns/article/345238/… [read more]


Multicultural Counseling Case Study

… Preferred Course of Action

Section F.1.a on Client Welfare, it is a major obligation on the part of a counseling supervisor to meet with the supervisee regularly in order to monitor and review the latter's work (ACA, 2014). At the same time, regular meetings prepare him to serve a range of different clients, including those from diverse cultures. The African-American supervisor should have firmly enforced this obligation to the new supervisee rather than allow him to ignore it or agree to meet at 5:00 PM that Friday. Friday is the last working day and 5:00 PM is the last hour of the last working day, which will not leave them sufficient time to review the supervisee's work. It could be that the African-American supervisor yielded to a cultural inclination of leniency in allowing the supervisee to take the first supervision session lightly. And it may also be typical among Middle Eastern people, especially young ones like the supervisee, to take the value of time lightly.

The African-American's apprehension over the supervisee's assumption of the Waller case is warranted. She is aware of the warning made many times by Department of Child and Family Services that one more abuse will lead to the removal of one child from the Waller household. The supervisee informed him about Mr. Waller's admission of, in fact, hitting his youngest daughter many times the night he came home drunk. That was all that the DCFS needed to warrant the removal of that child from the Waller's custody. The African-American should have emphasized this to the supervisee. She should have also corrected the supervisee's naive perception and admiration of great progress of Mr. Waller's regret in hurting his youngest daughter several times. The supervisee's refusal to report the development as damaging to his growing closeness with Mr. Waller was certainly not justified. She should now report this most recent violent act by Mr. Waller.

Prospects

The supervisor should sit down in earnest with the supervisee and emphasize some very important rules and realities. She should make him aware or remind him of professional and ethical standards as well as legal responsibilities he has breached with his actions. They first work out to solve their differences and the failures of the supervisee. When there is disagreement or when the violations are repeated, the relationship should be terminated and the supervisor should make the necessary referrals for an alternative supervisee. These are the provisions of Sections E.4.c and E.4.d.

In considering and hiring a new supervisee, a supervisor must make sure that he is she is qualified for the position (ACA, 2014). She must base the qualification on the applicant's education, training, experience, professional credentials and experience. She is prohibited from exercising any kind of discrimination against prospective supervisees as to age, culture, disability, ethnicity, race, religion, gender or gender preference, language preference, or socioeconomic status. She should check or verify the applicant's claim of professional qualifications. The applicant's credentials should be current and prove that she or he… [read more]


Supreme Courts Decisions Regarding the Affordable Care Act Essay

… Supreme Courts Decisions Regargding the Affordable Care Act

Ramifications of the Affordable Care Act

The Supreme Court's decision regarding the Affordable Care Act will have a significant impact on a number of different people affiliated with the healthcare system in the United States. Chief among these is patients, who will have substantially greater access to treatment and resources pertaining to treatment. School children will benefit from this act due to its correlation with funding to the School-Based Health Center Capital Program, which is projected to disseminate approximately $200 million dollars from 2010 to 2013 to school-based health care programs. In the latter part of 2011, over $14 million dollars was allotted to school-based health care centers throughout the nation (HRSA 2011). Subsequently, children with debilitating conditions will have greater opportunities to attend a school setting due to the increased level of care and treatment offered in such facilities. Specific services enhanced by this relatively recent awarding of funds include mental and primary health care, dental services, substance abuse counseling, as well as education and promotion for nutrition and general health. Additionally, the expanded Medicaid coverage will allow increased access to healthcare for people with low incomes.

Another group that is significantly impacted by the change in legislation regarding health care in this country is nurses, which include advanced practice and practicing nurses. Due to the increased access in care, there is projected to be a shortage of qualified nurses to accommodate the influx of patients. Therefore, nurses are seeing greater amounts of loans offered to them to help them complete their schooling so that they can join the workforce quicker. This is a fairly substantial change for nurses, since it has been more than 10 years since the amount of loans was increased (No author, 2011). Also, specific funding has been provided for nursing care facilities throughout the country, totaling approximately $50 million.

Other aspects of Affordable Health Care that specifically have targeted nurse practitioners include…… [read more]


Georgia Website Analysis: healthcare.org Term Paper

… ¶ … Georgia (http://Www.healthcare.org)

What does the website reveal about health insurance in the state?

According to the website healthcare.org, the state of Georgia has one of the percentages of insured persons in the United States, even after the passage of the ACA (Affordable Care Act). "About 18% of Georgia's residents lack health insurance coverage, which is a very high number, above the national average" (Georgia health insurance, 2014). Part of this may be due to the fact that such a low percentage of employers offer insurance: most Americans do not purchase their insurance on the open market but rather acquire it as a condition of their employment. "Approximately half of Georgia's employers offer health benefits to its employees, and most of the employees take advantage of these benefits offered. Nevertheless, Georgia's division of public health, and Georgia's department of insurance need to come up with more options to offer more alternatives to those who have no current access to health insurance coverage" (Georgia health insurance, 2014). Once the ACA takes effect, theoretically more employers may be required to extend health benefits to employees (depending on the state's enforcement of the law) but the website still suggests that more creative responses are needed to address Georgia's healthcare deficits.

Q2. What is listed about general health statistics of population in the state?

The health statistics about Georgia are listed as below average compared to the rest of the U.S. population. There is a great divide in terms of access to care based upon geography and relatively few physicians are based in George, relative to the concentration of the population in the state.

Q3. What is the state's health ranking?

Despite some positive developments, Georgia ranks 41st of all states, in terms of health ranking.

Q4. Does the ranking have any correlation to health insurance?

Health insurance is a major component of why it ranks so low.

Q5. What are the health highlights?

One positive statistic is that the low rate of binge drinking. "Only 12% of the population in Georgia are binge drinkers, a low number when compared with the rest of the country" (Georgia health insurance, 2014). Also, there is a relatively high rate of childhood immunizations -- 80% of infants and toddlers receive complete immunizations despite Georgia's high poverty rate. (No state statistics are offered on immunizations for influenza and other illnesses). Almost 21% of all children in Georgia live in poverty.

Smoking is also dramatically decreasing: from 31.8%t to 19.4% over the past twenty years (Georgia health insurance, 2014). However, state healthcare funding has been cut dramatically, which is likely to severely impact patient care. Obesity is increasing (30% of residents are obese and this number is on the rise). Obesity is linked to a number of severe health problems, including diabetes and heart disease and the combination of a high obesity rate is very worrisome.

Georgia also has a high rate of air pollution: "with 15.9 micrograms of fine particles per cubic meter," which can exacerbate asthma… [read more]


Healthcare Reform History of Socialized Medicine American Term Paper

… Healthcare Reform

History of Socialized Medicine

American Health care history

Allopathic vs. Homeopathic Approaches to Healing

The medical industrial complex

The Affordable Care Act in Detail

Impact of the Affordable Health Care Act on Nursing Profession

The New Face of… [read more]


Stakeholders in Healthcare Industry Term Paper

… However, the strategy has not gone well with them recently when they commissioned deceitful study in order to scare voters to believe that reforms in health care could break their banks. This shows how they have lost their powers in the health care reforms.

AARP

Since the elderly do not believe much on the reforms, the republican took advantage of this like was evidenced during the summer when it was full of false warning concerning the death panels and cuts to Medicare. The elderly as well vote and their early and continued support of their main lobby is very important. There is likely for administration return to Medicare whenever attention is turned to pressing fiscal challenges where AARP will likely to play a greater role. As they do this they secured the closing of the Medicare prescription drug coverage gap thereby allowed the government to rein in Medicare Advantage overpayments, in addition to other reforms. Recently they even endorsed the House health care bill.

The American Hospital Association

This stakeholder has been an extensive and a bigger player in the reform fight in healthcare. They accepted a $155 billion in payment cuts over 10 years in order to assist in covering the cost of the overhaul. As a return they were to be provided with a new treatment landscape such as reduced bureaucracy, electronic records, limited number of uninsured patients, yet not taking a significant hitproft-wise. This is the reason they became concerned about a public option originally conceived as a main insurer who were responsible for paying Medicare rates to health care providers

The American Medical Association

Though their powers are reduced since they are not Washington's most influential lobby, the doctors tend to be fairly loved and in case they raise concerns regarding reform, but not the republican, where the ones who were involved in warning against government bureaucrats that came between them and the doctors, then democrats could have been having difficult time calming voters' fears. Generally, doctors never accept pay cuts, and would feel comfortable dealing with less bureaucracy. They are not in support of public option, and even became disappointed when the republican and part of the democrats did away with a bill that may have reformed Medicare's physical payment formula. However at the end, they managed to get what they wanted, and recently endorsed the House Health care bill.

Health Care for America Now

These are pro-reform groups (unions and consumer groups and health care issue organization) working to pass a bill. Some such as the Service Employee International Union have played the inside game, while others like AFL-CIO have less beholden to the White House's line, however, most of them have aligned under the wide umbrella of HCAN,( Novick, Tom, 2010). Millions of dollars have been spent by HCAN on a campaign for a comprehensive health care bill, that have made liberals and reformers to settle at a single understanding of what entails a public option. Even though efforts by HCAN have not… [read more]


Health Care Changes and Trends Essay

… The same is true of aging, which must be treated with greater care and attentiveness as individuals live longer.

Technology

As noted above, system-wide changes such as the advance EHRs are valuable but require an evaluation of new technology. (Elmore, p. 1) This evaluation should include a cost-benefit analysis in which we assess the risks to privacy as compared to the benefits to system efficiency.

Other areas of technological advance include the introduction of new medicines such as "an intelligent pill that can be programmed to deliver targeted doses of medication to patients with digestive disorders such as Crohn's disease, colitis, and colon cancer." (CSC, p. 1) New devices such as advanced imaging machinery and surgical robotics are also leading to incredible advances in treatment capabilities.

Government

The role of the government in the healthcare reform process has been especially controversial and impactful over the course of the Obama Administration. Obama's Affordable Care Act introduced sweeping new standards aimed at lowering the costs of healthcare across the boards. Among its many points in favor of the change, the Administration would indicate that "the rising share of health expenditures also has dire implications for government budgets. Almost half of current health care spending is covered by Federal, state, and local governments. If health care costs continue to grow at historical rates, Medicare and Medicaid spending (both Federal and state) will rise to nearly 15% of GDP in 2040." (White House, p. 1)

The new legislation resulting in what continues to be a vitriolic confrontation between liberal and conservative political values. Though the legislation is projected to reign in costs and improve efficiency, conservative lawmakers and lobbyists argue that the legislation is too laden with regulations over private enterprises.

Trends to Watch

Among the many trends to look out for in the immediate future, perhaps nothing is more concerning than the mass retirement of baby boomers. This, combined with a lower birth rate across the last two decades, means that we are in danger of over-burdening the healthcare system. The result may be low nurse patient ratios, rationing of available healthcare facilities and skyrocketing rates of uninsured Americans.

The Affordable Care Act has introduced a number of regulatory advances that may improve prospects, including more acute comparative effectiveness research, and the promotion of more intuitive quality measures such as hospital readmission rates. These measures are used to promote a pay-for-performance structure that will make hospitals more accountable. Additional advances include the promotion of improved technologies such as the use of robotics in medical procedures, more refined regulatory oversight of natural remedies, and greater reliance on the opportunities afforded by the use of the World Wide Web. Indeed, the web paves the way for strategies such as the use of Virtual MCOs for low-risk patients and promotion of greater personal responsibility through improved independent health literacy.

Works Cited:

Bernstein, J. (2009). Impact of the Economy on Health Care. Robert Wood Johnson Foundation.

CSC. (2010). 10 Emerging Healthcare Technologies. CSC.com.

Elmore, R. (2013). Moving… [read more]


Health Care Reform FDR's New Term Paper

… Insurance is one method of draying risk through market mechanisms and the government could potentially insure every American if it had the political support to do so. If every American was insured then this would provide millions access to preventive and basic care that could vastly improve public health on the aggregate. Many treatable diseases and conditions could be treated as soon as they are identified for millions of Americans rather than waiting until these conditions progressed and became more expensive. It is estimated that inefficient and poor quality health care costs the United States somewhere in the neighborhood of fifty to one hundred billion dollars annually in opportunity costs that could be gained by reducing waste.

Furthermore, there are also many administrative costs that could be reduced by centralizing much of the health care industry and providing access for everyone. For example, if everyone had access to health care then there would be less administrative costs associated with bill administration and collection. There would also be savings in the court system because the bankruptcy levels would lessen. Furthermore, there would also be savings that could be gained by allowing the government to negotiate with vendors such as drug companies which would lower the costs of prescription medication for the entire market. The cost per transaction would also lessen if the government took on the role of insurer for all because the transaction cost would benefit from reaching quantities of scale.

Despite all the potential benefits for the society on the whole, there are many groups that will be disadvantaged economically with the introduction of sweeping health care reforms. The drug companies for example could no longer charge premiums in the market place and would be subjected to more competition from different industry players. They argue that this would work to hamper the technological innovation that is present in the U.S. health care industry because companies would no longer have the same levels of revenue that are necessary to fund research and development. They would be subjected to more competition from the market as well and be virtually forced to lower their prices.

Besides just the drug companies, there are many other industry players that would also be effected. By having access to preventive care, many individuals would get there conditions treated earlier in their development and therefore this would likely decrease demand for services that many doctors and specialist currently receive. Therefore, many doctors and medical professionals could also experience a decrease in revenue. There are also many organizations that have created specialty niches in the current health care industry that are incredibly profitable yet feed on many of the current inefficiencies in the system. With common sense healthcare reform many of such organizations would become redundant and no longer be able to operate. This analysis will cover the economic principles that are present in the modern health care system in the United States and attempt to determine which types of reforms would make the most sense economically.… [read more]


Healthcare Economics Evaluation Essay

… ) use (CDC, 2011)(SAPRP, 2013).

Another main dimension of healthcare costs being inflated artificially by bad choices and behaviors is mostly through chronic and/or catastrophic events like heart disease, Type II Diabetes (but not Type I) and other maladies that… [read more]


Obama Health Care Essay

… Other reforms in this law include mandated breaks for breast feeding in companies with fifty or more employees, elimination of referrals from primary care physician for gynecological services, smoking cessation coverage and 100% Medicare reimbursement for midwives (Robertson and Collins 2011).

Perhaps the most controversial aspect of the Affordable Care Act is the individual mandate that requires everyone in the United States purchase health insurance coverage. Proponents of a mandate argue that requiring 'free riders' to join the health insurance system will combat "adverse selection" in non-group insurance markets -- which occurs when a disproportionate number of sicker-than-average individuals enroll in a health plan and incur costs above what the insurer expected. Without a mechanism to prevent adverse selection, these proponents note, insurance market reform is close to impossible. Opponents of the mandate, meanwhile, argue that it infringes on individual freedoms, and that it might force some people to buy purchase insurance they cannot afford. Under Obama Care, most households will have room in their budgets for health insurance premiums and that only 10% of families above the federal poverty line ($10,890 for an individual and $22,350 for a family of four) will need the subsidies (Gruber and Perry 2011). Many poor families do not report all income, especially what they earned in cash, and they borrow from others and use their savings for consumer goods, which leads to the conclusion that most people can afford health insurance (Gruber and Perry 2011). This may well not be true, of course, since the levels of real poverty in the U.S., particularly for minorities, are usually underestimated.

From a moral and ethical perspective, Canada's single payer system is far preferable to the American system based on private insurance. Even from an economic point-of-view, the U.S. spends more per capita on health care than any other Western nation, but has never in its history achieved universal coverage. In Massachusetts and other states that have passed laws requiring the purchase of private health insurance, which is also the core of Obama Care, those in the lower income brackets are supposed to receive government subsidies. In reality, the private insurance companies have been raising premiums on the grounds that they now have to cover the uninsured and those with preexisting conditions, and the individual mandate has meant a considerable boost for their bottom lines. In the U.S., the insurance industry, with its considerable influence in Congress, was also able to block even the semblance of a public option or competing government insurance plan. As of now, Obama Care is awaiting review by the U.S. Supreme Court and the individual mandate may well be overturned. In any case, the requirement to purchase private health insurance was originally formulated by the conservative, pro-business Heritage Foundation, and is far removed from the Canadian single-payer model of national health insurance that most American healthcare reformers have always advocated.

WORKS CITED

Abrams, M. et al. How the Affordable Care Act will Strengthen Primary Care and Benefit Patients, Providers, and Payers.… [read more]


Healthcare Nursing Policy Essay

… Healthcare Bill

The Economic, Resource Allocation and Administrative Impacts

of the Affordable Care Act

The number of Americans who are uninsured or uninsured continues to rise by frightening margins. Today, the demand for policy intervention that can improve the costs of healthcare and made critical medical treatment coverage accessible to ordinary Americans is as high as it has ever been. The Obama Administration would respond to this imperative by authoring sweeping Healthcare industry reforms aimed at improving the efficiency of the system and improving the permeation of its coverage on a nationwide scale. The massive body of legislation would be comprised of a wide variance of bills intended to address the myriad dimensions and complexities of the currently tangled and dysfunctional healthcare system. Specifically due for consideration is the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, which has begun to permeate the health system with full compliance projected for 2014. The discussion here below considers the various levels of impact that this legislation is likely to have on trends in healthcare.

Economic Impact:

First and foremost to consider are the implications of the Affordable Care Act to the economic orientation of working American families. Most assuredly, the testimony by Collins (2011) indicates, families are deeply impacted by the pressures of mounting healthcare costs. And for those who pay health costs out-of-pocket due to a lack of insurance coverage, their participation in America's saving and spending economy is significantly diminished. Collins reports that "a combination of rapid growth in the cost of health insurance, greater exposure to healthcare costs, and declining incomes means that growing numbers of families are spending more of their earnings on healthcare. Nearly one-third (32%) of working-age adults, or an estimated 49 million people, spent 10% or more of their income on out-of-pocket costs and premiums in 2010, up from 21%, or 31 million people, in 2001." (Collins, p. 4)

The Affordable Care Act would counteract some portion of this living expense through the institution of tax credits for uninsured and underinsured Americans. This would offset some of the lost income for the average household and would in turn help to bring these households back into the fold of the consumer spending and saving economy. The outcome would be a boost for America's lagging economy and would significantly reduce the vulnerability of working Americans to sustained illness or injury as occurs more frequently among the uninsured. This would have an impact of increased productivity for America across the boards.

Resource Allocation Impact:

Resource allocation is another area in which significant new opportunities are likely to be facilitated with the inception of the Affordable Care Act. Specific among them is that which targets the distribution of healthcare benefits to the demographics which demonstrate the greatest need. For example, the testimony provided by Collins assesses some of the clear benefits to the population where coverage distribution is concerned. Accordingly, Collins tells that "the Affordable Care Act's new provision tat allows children up to age 26 stay on or join their… [read more]


Health Care Debate Research Paper

… Just as these reforms were announced, they spurred a debate in the entire society. The capitalists in turn argue that the health care reform in the employment sector is there so that nothing happens to the workforce. Functionalists believe that if all the people in the society were given equal health care then none would fall sick and the society would keep working. This health care reform only targets the working force and those who are working in business. Again, this sets apart those persons who aren't working or are not eligible to work in thus situations.

Even though functionalism explains the righteous acts and actions in a society, it fails to address the negative aspects of the society. Surely, this reform would lead to medical quality being enhanced for the entire population. However, the functionalist would ignore or not attend to the joblessness and economic distress that would fall on the employer and the masses at large. Functionalism therefore is weak in assessing the negative aspects like economic distress and divorce in a society. It doesn't present with ways or how the person should act to change a certain situation. Changes or drastic movements are not approved or even mentioned in the functionalistic theory. This is because problems can arise in attempting to bring the situation back to equilibrium.

References

Berkman, L. et al. (2000) from social integration to health: Durkheim in the new millennium. Social Science & Medicine 51 (2000), 51 p.843-857.

Gerhardt, U. (1979) The Parsonian paradigm and the identity of medical sociology. The Sociological Review, 27 (2), p.229-251.

Napsha, J. (2011) Small Business Owners Fret over Health Care Law's Fallout . Tribune-Review/Pittsburgh Tribune-Review, 24th March.

Unknown. (2012) Supreme Court Ruling Dooms Small Business; Obamacare Increases Taxes and Red Tape Burden . The Washington Times, 29th June.

Unknown. (2005) http://www.sociology.org.uk/as4i4b1.pdf. [e-book] http://www.sociology.org.uk/as4i4b1.pdf [Accessed: 27th January 2013].

Unknown. (2011) SOCIAL THEORY AND THE SOCIOLOGY OF HEALTH AND MEDICINE. [e-book] Available through: Medicine, Health and Society http://www.sagepub.com/upm-data/46238_Bradby.pdf [Accessed: 27th January 2013].… [read more]


Patient Protection and Affordable Care Research Paper

… While federal government has the capability of maintaining deficits, states do not have this luxury. They have to balance out their budgets, so the PPACA is likely to present Since states are required to balance their budgets and not maintain deficits like the federal government, this will present an untenable affliction on spending costs (Owcharenko, 2005).

For a little over two years now, the PPACA is a law, with several intricate provisions addressing increased access to overall healthcare. Incrementally, the cost containment and improved care quality will be placed throughout various stages over the next decade. Health care administrators must comply with all elements and provisions listed in the PPACA law, so as to guarantee optimum patient care and ensure compliance with laws that affect insurance providers and businesses. The administrator may hire, train, and supervise staff, purchase supplies and equipment and prepare official reports (FLAHEC,

2007).

The most influential dispute in the PPACA may be the long-term effect on the American economy. As of now, we are slowly recovering from the great recession of 2008, but it will be many years before we make a full recovery. Health care reform is complicated and it hopes to identify all facets of the health care system, with a single piece of legislation. While we may obtain better access to quality care, there may also become a financial burden with greater coverage, as well as penalties for not having insurance. . Employers must also conform to all requirements to cover their employees, but their costs will increase as well, especially with penalties for non-compliance. As a domino effect, the greater cost to employers could be passed to employees with lower hourly wages and decreased salaries. Continuing the domino effect, there will be higher prices for goods and services, while incurring cuts in salaries. Increased government spending is guaranteed and they will be solely in charge of providing care and financing for U.S. Citizens for many years. The questions that metaphorically speaking, remain the giant elephant in the room include:

Can the federal government obtain adequate savings to detract the cumbersome spending increases?

Can State governments follow federal PPACA guidelines?

Last but not least, is the PPACA legislation viable for long-term healthcare reform?

In conclusion, the analysis of PPACA legislation does not seem feasible for two reasons: the downtrodden state of our modern economy and the fact that this new law will increase government spending by over 250 billion dollars over the course of a decade. It does not seem the PPACA that has currently been enacted will be maintainable in it's original form. There will be many changes in state and federal government leadership over the next few years. All of the aforementioned problems will be challenged as new politicians enter the arena. In order to keep health care reform on track to benefit all Americans, many components of this law will be changed or repealed. It is the only way we may experience a more effective, less expensive health care system.… [read more]


Role of Government in Health Essay

… The problem with health care and government's role in it is multi-faceted. As such, finding a solution to the problem would be exceedingly difficult (LeClerc & Moldoveanu, 2013). First, there is no single solution that would appease all of the relevant parties. For example, some people count on government involvement in the form of Medicare and protection for pre-existing conditions. However, others want little to no involvement with healthcare. Any solution to the problem would have to address both concerns or it would be considered a failure to at least some stakeholders and interested parties. This makes sense because there need to be multiple solutions based on level of need and consumer preference for those that have the discretion and resources to make their own choices and not be limited by finances.

What different analytical techniques could you use to identify potential solutions and weigh the value of each?

There are a variety of ways to analyze the healthcare dilemma and come to a conclusion. The amount of complexity involved, as noted above, makes a singular solution a non-starter but a flow-chart-based solution based on what is needed and/or preferred would be best so that everyone can get the healthcare they need and that solution may or may not directly involve a government program but it would almost certainly involve some level of regulation. . One analytical techniques include looking at cause and effect. In other words, if choice A is made, then X will happen (or might happen) and if B. is done, then Y will happen (or might happen). A good example of this in a ACA context is that many employers are cutting employees to less than 30 hours a week to avoid having to give them health benefits as a matter of law requirement (Elson & Ferrere, 2013). Another analytical method is to use the scientific method to post a theory, test it and then evaluate the results (Blute & Armstrong, 2011). The problem with the scientific method in a United States healthcare context is that it's nearly impossible to test solutions in a sterile and enclosed environment. Most times, the real-world economy, either past or present, has to be the proverbial guinea pig.

References

Blute, M., & Armstrong, P. (2011). The Reinvention of Grand Theories of the Scientific/Scholarly Process. Perspectives On Science, 19(4), 391-425.

Elson, C.M., & Ferrere, C.K. (2013). Executive Superstars, Peer Groups, and Overcompensation: Cause, Effect, and Solution. Journal Of Corporation Law,

38(3), 487-531.

HHS.gov. (2013, September 13). Affordable Care Act. United States Department of Health and Human Services | HHS.gov. Retrieved September 13, 2013, from http://www.hhs.gov/opa/affordable-care-act/index.html

Leclerc, O., & Moldoveanu, M. (2013). Five routes to more innovative problem solving.

McKinsey Quarterly, (2), 80-91.

Williams, S.J., & Torrens, P.R. (2008).…… [read more]


Overwhelming Connections Between Healthcare Costs Term Paper

… This is largely due to the change in incentives and compulsions to get insurance. Approximately 800000 fewer people will join the workforce (compared to the baseline scenario of no healthcare reforms) by 2021.

There were three broad mandates introduced through… [read more]


Sick: The Untold Story Book Report

… There will be many benefits.

Conclusions that impact or healthcare system and/or the pharmaceutical industry

Indeed, recent years have revealed an overall detrimental decline in many areas of the health care system. Most organizations and state legislatures have been challenged to support health programs at the required level while contending with declining revenues (Goodman, 1991). There are tough questions about how insurers, pharmaceutical organizations, and the government can collaborate and work in harmony with shifting agendas and strategies (Gardner, 2012). The most important part of the equation, however, is how to truly meet the health care needs of the country's most vulnerable and needy. Hopefully, the Affordable Care Act and other reforms will prove sustainable.

Proficient healthcare leaders know that at the crux of the matter are those who need help the most and are often the last heard -- the patients (Gardner, 2012). As healthcare in our society evolves to meet demands, public health needs will not go away. In fact, they will continue to grow. The healthcare system's chief responsibility remains providing quality care to those most in need. This requires compassion and dedication -- an understanding how everyday people such as those presented in "Sick" are impacted.

References

Aaron, H.J. (2011). How Not to Reform Medicare. New England Journal of Medicine. pp. 1588-1589. doi:10.1056/NEJMp1103764.

Cohen, J. (2007). Sick: The Untold Story of America's Health Care Crisis -- and the People Who Pay the Price. New York: Harper Collins.

Deinard, A., & Russell, B.D. (2011). APHA Health Home. Access, 25(7), 20-23.

Gardner, D.B. (2012). Quality in Life and Death: Can We Have the Conversations?. Nursing Economics, 30(4), 224-227.

Goodman, J.C. (1991).…… [read more]


US Health Care System Letter to the Senate Essay

… Healthcare Reform Letter

To Senate Majority Leader Harry Reid;

First, allow me to offer my most sincere and respectful gratitude for your service to the country. As a public office holder on one of the highest and most visible stages in the world, your job and its attendant responsibilities are considerable and quite challenging. Certainly, we have all seen the firsthand evidence of this over the battle involving the Affordable Care Act (ACA). That this landmark piece of legislation was both passed into legislation and defended by the United States Supreme Court represents a tremendous and exciting step forward in the quest to secure health coverage for all Americans.

Indeed, the facts and figures giving prelude to this legislation provide ample demonstration that the need for reform has been substantial. According to an a Health Affairs article dating to the early part of the Obama Administration, "our health care system is hemorrhaging funds at the rate of 16% of our GDP." (Redig 2009) This observation would underscore a troubling set of realities relating to the general wastefulness of a healthcare system that is inherently designed to maximize corporate profitability over the prioritization of high quality healthcare.

The efforts of which you have been a vocal supporter, to bringing regulatory oversight to private healthcare operations and to extending health coverage to all Americans, are important and admirable. But it is quite clear that this battle is far from over. In protection of the private and corporate interests that form so critical a part of their constituency, Republic leaders have continued their assault on the viability of the Affordable Care Act, or Obamacare. Today, this assault takes the form of constant road-blocking of federal funds.

You yourself acknowledged in an interview the other day that a failure of the federal government to secure the proper…… [read more]

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