"Healthcare / Health / Obamacare" Essays

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Electronic Health Records the Debate About Posting Discussion and Results Chapter

Discussion and Results Chapter  |  2 pages (635 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Electronic Health Records

The debate about posting health information online used to revolve around the right of insurance companies, hospitals, and doctors to allow confidential health data to become accessible through less-than-secure online storage devices. However, increasingly sensitive forms of personal health information are being voluntarily stored by individuals themselves online. Anyone who has known someone with a chronic health condition like diabetes can understand why the patient might be attracted to a device such as the Zuri, which allows users to track health information statistics like blood sugar readings, medicine dosages and reminders, and other personal health statistics. For diabetics, keeping track of blood sugar levels can be difficult and this device could be potentially life-saving. But notions of 'assumed risk' could mean that if the data was compromised, the individual would have little legal recourse, in contrast to data published by a healthcare institution bound by HIPAA guidelines.

There is also the question of medical error. For example, what if the Zuri was in error regarding a dosage, and the individual suffered a medical emergency: who would be responsible? Will individuals eventually be asked to sign a waiver of responsibility using Zuri or similar devices? Recently, Google Health, "a new free service that lets patients keep all their health records in one place," was lambasted in the Boston Globe for reporting (inaccurately) that a patient's cancer had spread to his spine and skull (Wangness 2009, p.1). Inaccurate or incomplete diagnostic information can prove deadly: it could prohibit an emergency room doctor from administering a life-saving drug or encourage the doctor to administer a contraindicated treatment. Google Health and Microsoft Vault allow users to delete inaccurate health information, but monitoring these systems for accuracy seems to detract from the supposed convenience these services are supposed to provide the patient.

In today's cost-conscious environment, also it is hard not to wonder if these private systems that enable…… [read more]

Health Care Providers Case Study

Case Study  |  2 pages (690 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


¶ … health care providers have been facing tremendous financial challenges. Part of the reason for this, is because the underlying costs have risen dramatically. as, these facilities are forced to pass on these increases to: consumers and insurance companies. This is problematic, because these rising costs mean that their profit margins are declining, which is causing a variety of hospitals to face severe financial problems. A good example of this can be seen with a study that was conducted by the American College of Health Care Executives. They found that over the last three years between: 76% and 77% of the CEOs of large health care organizations are concerned about financial challenges (as this is number one issue with these individuals). ("Top Issues," 2011) This is important, because it is showing how all health care facilities must use to tools that will determine how strong they are financially speaking. In the case of the health care organization that we are examining (St. Francis Care), we will look at a number of different ratios to determine the financial strength of our health facility. Once this takes place, it will provide the greatest insights, as to what specific criteria should be used when determining the fiscal condition of a hospital.

Financial Ratios

There are a number of different financial ratios that we can use to determine the underlying strength of the facility. The most notable include: the current ratio and the long-term debt / equity ratio. The current ratio is when you are looking at the hospital's ability to pay its short-term obligations these include: utility bills, employee expenses and other costs involved in the day-to-day operations of the facility. When you see a number higher than 1.00, this will indicate that the hospital has enough income and assets, to be able to cover any kind of short-term obligations. In the case of St. Francis Care, their current ratio decreased from: 3.16 to 2.79 in one year. This is important because, it is indicating that the company has over two and half times enough assets to…… [read more]

Healthcare Management Explaining the Differences Between For-Profit Capstone Project

Capstone Project  |  3 pages (842 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Healthcare Management

Explaining the Differences between for-Profit and Non-Profit Hospitals

Of the many differences between for-profit and non-profit hospitals, the greatest can be found in the regulations and requirements of the Internal Revenue Service (IRS). Over the last five years the IRS has been vigorously enforcing and auditing all healthcare providers that claim to be in compliance to section 501(c)(3) of the Internal Revenue Code (Zaleski, Esposto, 2007). A secondary requirement is Form 990, which includes a series of requirements non-profits must meet in order to be considered for exclusion of state and federal taxes (Carlson, 2010). Both section 501(c)(3) and Form 990 have gone through drastic modifications over the last ten years, with much more oversight being included in each (Greaney, 2006). As a result, the ability to gain non-profit status as a hospital is becoming more difficult and ironically, more costly to maintain (Greaney, 2006). These changes within the industry have also create a much higher level of consolidation as well, with more for-profit hospitals acquire non-profit ones to build out their services portfolios (Speizman, 2009). The intent of this analysis is to evaluate how the differences continue to become more significant between for-profit and non-profit hospitals and how the challenges of operating the latter have continued to escalate.

Assessing for-Profit and Not-for Profit Hospitals

The burden of financial reporting and compliance is much greater on non-profit hospitals compared to their for-profit counterparts, in addition to much greater focus on quality of healthcare and level of information and knowledge sharing throughout their organizations. The for-profit hospitals have far greater control and leverage over their financing options, have potentially more control over their pricing strategies, and also have greater visibility into their long-term costs and capital structures (Zaleski, Esposto, 2007). A for-profit hospital can also create a more leveraged relationship with suppliers, especially fi they are part of a broader medical group, thereby getting a far more attractive price on components and suppliers. In addition to these benefits, the for-profit hospitals have much greater freedom in how much and by which metrics they pay their senior management compared to the non-profit counterparts (Speizman, 2009).

For non-profits, their pricing is highly regulated including their price increases, which must be substantiated after analysis of operating costs in many states (Zaleski, Esposto, 2007). There is also the need for non-profits to create more detail and a thorough analysis of their expenses and create audit trails for all expenses, especially fi the total operating budget is over $500,000, which is the threshold amount for…… [read more]

Alternative Solutions: A Modern Health Proposal Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (589 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Alternative Solutions: A Modern Health Proposal


"Research Plan

Many health care providers indicate that consumers are asking for alternative treatments. You have been asked to research how alternative treatments might be offered in your health care organizations. Acupuncture, herbal remedies, and yoga have been suggested as possibilities. Make a plan as to how you would explore these products. The company policy will always be that modern medicine is the standard but the recent marketing audit revealed that diversification is necessary to maintain the current market share.

It has recently come to the attention of Health Care Corporation, Inc., that many consumers are shifting their focus towards forms of alternative medicine which are not covered under our current packages. These alternatives include but are not limited to: acupuncture, herbal remedies, yoga, and spiritual health. Health Care Corporation may find it in our interests, therefore, to cover these forms of treatment, in a limited manner and under certain prescribed circumstances, in addition to the modern Western medical treatments and practices heretofore insured.

In order to do so, Health Care Corporation, Inc., must determine which of these treatments are effective both in terms of the health of our clients and the costs for all company stakeholders. The following research objectives are therefore designed to ensure that during this period of innovation and transition, Health Care Corporation improves its current standards of customer care and service while maintaining its current market share:

1) Health Care Corporation, Inc., will discover what forms of medical treatment are favored, preferred, and desired by its customers and the general population at large;

2) Health Care Corporation, Inc., will discover the effectiveness of those treatments;

3) Health Care Corporation, Inc., will discern what number of resources may be transitioned from their current…… [read more]

Diffusion of Innovation and Communities of Practice Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  17 pages (5,160 words)
Style: Harvard  |  Bibliography Sources: 20


¶ … healthcare system in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) has developed alongside the economy in general, as one of the most important indicators of modernization and development in that nation (Shihab, 2001; and Al Sadik, 2001). Both the economic development and the attendant development of healthcare have occurred rapidly, fueled by the exploitation of oil reserves. This has generally… [read more]

National Healthcare System One Issue Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  2 pages (598 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 0


¶ … National Healthcare System

One issue that is of great importance in the world today -- and to me personally -- is the need for healthcare reform in the United States. This nation is one of the last in the developed world not to offer some sort of comprehensive health plan to its citizens, despite the fact that it has one of the largest per-capita GDPs in the world and by most measures could easily afford to provide preventative and comprehensive care if its priorities were shifted. Though this might seem like the proper place for yet another diatribe about the United States' military actions in the Middle East (and indeed, the fact that a trillion dollar decade-long domestic health plan is balked at when far more is spent every year on overseas wars is worthy of note), I will refrain in favor of somewhat less politicized lines of reasoning. Namely, I believe for purely logical and pragmatic reasons that health insurance if not care should be federalized, and it should be paid for with higher income taxes.

It would be beyond disingenuous, of course, to pretend that the issue of taxation is not politicized, but it is somewhat more cerebral and less idealistic than the debate over the operations in Iraq and Afghanistan -- among people on both sides of the argument. There are those that claim it is their right to make as much money as they want without the government interfering punitively in the form of increased taxation; they argue that higher taxes would decrease innovation and production, leading to a general slowdown of the economy and less wealth for all. This logic is inherently flawed, however; though higher taxes might mean people make less than they do now, they will always be able to…… [read more]

Healthcare Information System Thesis

Thesis  |  11 pages (3,682 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 13



Healthcare Information Systems

Key Words

HealthCare Information Systems (HIS)

Types and uses

Components of HIS and different kind of users

Advantages of HIS

Improving patient safety

Disadvantages of HIS

Lack of user proficiency

Medical Errors

Relating to Health Care Information Systems

Types of Errors




Factors that contribute to errors

Areas for Improvement

Health Information Systems have… [read more]

Healthcare Costs Electronic Records Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,160 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 6


Consider an emergency department client that is having a heart attack. Obviously, in this situation, the team dealing with this scenario requires some patient history in regard to the immediate problem, the number of related incidents and previous episodes or history of heart problems. At the same time, they do not need childhood problems that may also be in the patient record such as falling off a bike and breaking an arm thirty years before, or that a physical therapist appointment four years ago was not paid for. The key is that the information will have to be presented in a way that is useful at the time of need. The system has to literally improve and facilitate the automation of all critical and clinical pathways data.

Question 1 - It is important to understand that even though the requirements of healthcare information have evolved, "no country has implemented an operational national EHR to date." (Hebda & Czar, 302) This means that standardization on a national level is a global problem for this type of information process. With this in mind, it is important to note that there are several key issues to consider when implementing a complete EHR system. Systems like this at one time were considered to be a luxury: Today, they are a necessity.

The first key then is to understand current and future trends of the overall process. The facility may need to be fully aware of future trends in many areas such as vocabulary and record standardization because if the facility's EHRs cannot communicate with Medicare for example, it may not be usable. Medicare entails many potential future changes in input and is a critical key to consider prior to implementing any new system. The future of e-prescribing and the Medicare Prescription drug program will be the driver of many new systems.

A second key will be verifying that the facility has up-to-date computerized processes and an electronic infrastructure needed as a foundation for EHRs. "While most hospitals have some level of automation, few have attained a fully electronic environment, and many physician offices, ambulatory care areas, and long-term care settings still maintain manual processes." (Hebda & Czar, 294) Included in this infrastructure will be costs of a new system. If a facility is currently at stage 0 where they have little to no electronic systems in place, cost could be staggering where as a fully automated system may only need some system adjustments to be fully operational.

The next key is security and confidentiality. "Though much is now said about more positive goals of enhancing patient autonomy, the early insights and agendas of the new ethos had a much more negative basis -- that medical practice contains profound threats to both patient freedom and well-being." (Wear 30) As more facilities incorporate these systems more people will have access to client's private and personal information. Even though HIPAA has gotten off to a head start in regard to patient privacy, new standards and new situations… [read more]

Healthcare Costs Healthcare Issues Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,450 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 2


Some factors that President Obama and the healthcare industry must face are never going to be mentioned in the Congressional debates regarding if there is or is not going to be a public insurer to compete with private insurers or if a regular citizen will get the same coverage as his or her Congressman. Although never mentioned in the U.S.A.… [read more]

Healthcare Informatics Thesis

Thesis  |  3 pages (893 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+


Healthcare Informatics

A client arrives in the emergency department with shortness of breath and complaining of chest pain. Describe how informatics can help nurses and other health care providers to more efficiently and effectively care for this client.

The use of informatics can provide insights into the patients' previous medical history and the potential treatment plans for their symptoms and guidance on which medications and previous treatment approaches were the most successful. Informatics in emergency room and triage treatment scenarios has proven to significantly increase treatment accuracy and reduce mortality rates over the long-term (Martin, 2007). Informatics then needs to concentrate on integrating the patients' medical history and interactions with those of the potential treatment scenarios and strategies of the healthcare facility (Martin, 2007). The integration of computer-based patient records (CPR) into the broader set of systems comprising emergency support have the potential to provide the insights necessary for the emergency medical technicians and treatment specialists to correctly diagnose shortness of breath and chest pain accurately (Hebda, Czar, 2008). Obviously this could signal cardiac arrest or a heart attack, yet the patients' previous medical condition and history would need to be taken into account to make sure the diagnosis was accurate. In addition to all these aspects of informatics it is also critically important for the healthcare provider to have refined the emergency room series of processes, roles of those healthcare professionals working to serve patients, their skill sets, and the inventory of equipment, drugs, and treatment systems in the emergency room. All of these aspects of the treatment plan must also be taken into account within the informatics systems to ensure treatment plans are achievable (Ostlerlund, 2007). This process-centric approach to managing resources within an informatics system is critically important for making sure the right professionals are available at the right time, with the proper equipment that has been maintained so it can be rapidly deployed in emergencies as mentioned in this question (Hebda, Czar, 2008). All of these factors need to be taken into account in creating a treatment plan that can increase the likelihood of curing the patient and returning them to health.

You are working on a committee that is looking at ways to decrease errors in patient identification that threaten patient safety. You have been asked to consider information technology solutions. What types of applications may be used to ensure correct patient selection?

As a member of a committee concentrating on how to decrease errors in patient identification, I would first take a very process-centric view of the systems, procedures and roles of people involved in capturing and entering patient data into the system. As part of this step of measuring…… [read more]

Should Our Tax Dollars Pay for U.S. Citizens That Are Uninsured for Health Care Thesis

Thesis  |  1 pages (328 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 20


Tax Bibliography

Anderson, R.; Rice, T. & Kominski, G. (2007). Changing the U.S. healthcare system. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

ASPE. (2005). "Overview of the Uninsured in the United States: An analysis of the 2005 Current Population Survey." Accessed 15 September 2009. http://aspe.hhs.gov/health/Reports/05/uninsured-cps/index.htm

Cato Institute. accessed 15 September 2009. http://www.cato.org

Families USa. Accessed 15 September 2009. http://www.familiesusa.org/

Glied, S.; Jack, K. & Rachlin, J. (2008). "Women's health insurance coverage 1980-2005." Women's health issues 18(1), pp. 7-16.

Huttin, C. (2002). "The Role of Different Types of Health Insurance on Access and Utilization of Antihypertensive Drugs: An Empirical Study in a U.S. Hypertensive Population." Disease management and health outcomes 10(7), pp. 419-30.

Kaiser Family Foundation. Accessed 15 September 2009. http://www.kff.org/uninsured/

Kennedy, E. (2009). "Letter to the Chairman of the Congressional Budget Office." June 15. Accessed 15 September 2009. http://www.cbo.gov/ftpdocs/103xx/doc10310/06-15-HealthChoicesAct.pdf

Korock, M. (2003). "Oregon shuns universal care, U.S. voters shun Democrats." Canadian medical association journal 168(1), pp. 80.

National Center for Policy Analysis. Accessed 15 September 2009. http://healthcare.ncpa.org/

National…… [read more]

Leadership in Healthcare Management Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  4 pages (1,189 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 10


Innovations in technology and telecommunications in recent years have provided the healthcare industry with the ability to deliver high quality services that have improved the quality of life for Americans of all ages. Despite these advances in technology, though, the nation's healthcare organizations are faced with a critical shortage of nursing staff and everyone is feeling the effects of a recessionary economic period. Compounding the problem for healthcare organizations of all types and sizes is the increasing use of managed care which is focused on profitability rather than the quality of healthcare services being provided. Moreover, the United States is becoming increasingly multicultural in composition in ways that demand culture-sensitive healthcare services. In addition, the elderly segment of the nation's demographic is growing larger and age-related healthcare issues will consume an inordinately large share of the nation's healthcare services for the foreseeable future. In this dynamic environment, identifying opportunities to improve healthcare management through informed and effective leadership represents a timely and relevant enterprise, which is the focus of the study proposed herein. The proposed study will seek to determine what leadership styles and development programs have been shown to be most effective in improving the performance of healthcare organizations in terms of the level of patient and staff satisfaction experienced as well as their profitability. To achieve this goal, the proposed study will use a critical review of the relevant peer-reviewed and scholarly literature concerning organizational leadership in general and what types of leadership are deemed most effective in healthcare settings in particular. A summary of the research, salient findings and recommendations will be presented in the concluding chapter of the proposed study.

Identifying Opportunities for Improving Healthcare Management

Problem/Issue/Improvement Project

The healthcare industry stands at a crossroads today and the direction it takes will depend on what type of leadership is available to model the way. In this regard, Froeschle and Donahue (1999) emphasize that, "Health care today is between paradigms. This state of fluctuation places extraordinary challenges on leaders of health care facilities. New leadership skills are needed to overcome this dilemma" (p. 60). Indeed, an increasing emphasis on market-driven cost-containment strategies in recent years has resulted in some fundamental changes in the provision of health care services as well as the management techniques required in this dynamic environment. For instance, according to Mizrahi and Berger (2005), "Most hospitals have restructured to achieve flatter organizational frameworks by eliminating professionally defined departments such as social work, nursing, and physical therapy. Many have moved to a more service line approach or to more integrative structures" (p. 155). As a result, healthcare management today is focused on fiscal accountability rather than on potentially more important clinical indicators of care or on quality improvement initiatives (Mizrahi & Berger, 2005). Not surprisingly, the professional cadre of healthcare providers who have been affected by these changes has become alarmed at the changes. In response, a growing number of practitioners in healthcare organizations that have experienced fundamental organizational and managerial changes in recent years… [read more]

Healthcare Finance Thesis

Thesis  |  3 pages (914 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 2


Healthcare Finance

A Prospective Payment System is the method that Medicare uses to reimburse payments based upon a predetermined set amount. The payment amount for a particular service is determined based on the classification of a particular service. "CMS uses separate Prospective Payment Systems for reimbursement in regards to acute inpatient hospitals, home health agencies, hospice, hospital outpatient, inpatient psychiatric facilities, inpatient rehabilitation facilities, long-term care hospitals, and skilled nursing facilities" (Prospective Payment Systems-General Information, n.d).

The inpatient hospital benefit that Medicare provides covers a person for 90 days of care per illness with an additional 60 days of lifetime reserve. Illnesses are considered to begin when a person is admitted and end after they have been out of the hospital or Skilled Nursing Facility (SNF) for 60 consecutive days. The Inpatient Prospective Payment System is based on two national base payment rates. The first one covers operating expenses and the second is for capital expenses. These national base payment rates are then adjusted to account for a hospital's costs in furnishing care. These costs take into account a person's condition and what treatment will be needed along with local market conditions (Acute Inpatient Prospective Payment System, 2009).

All discharges are assigned to a diagnosis related group (DRG). These groups consist of patients with similar conditions that are expected to require similar amounts of hospital care. Each DRG has a relative weight that reflects the expected cost of inpatient treatment for all patients in that group. "The payment rates for DRG's in each local market are determined by adjusting the base payment rates to reflect the input price level in the local market which is then multiplied by the relative weight for each DRG" (Acute Inpatient Prospective Payment System, 2009).

There are several factors that can affect a hospitals final payment. These factors include such things as the fact that an operating payment rate is increased for facilities that train residents in approved graduate medical education programs. Operating and Capital payment rates are increased for facilities that treat an unequal share of low income patients. Rates are reduced for certain transfer cases, and outlier payments may be added for cases that are extremely costly. In addition, hospitals may be paid an additional amount for treating patients with new technologies. Add on payments for technologies may be approved if the technology is approved as new, costly, and a substantial clinical improvement over existing treatments (Acute Inpatient Prospective Payment System, 2009).

IPPS payment rates are intended to cover the average costs that a provider incurs in furnishing care for one type of case in relation to another. The steps that are used to figure payments are as follows:

1) "A standardized amount (a dollar figure) is divided into labor…… [read more]

Non-Financial Barriers to Health Care Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (584 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 2


Cultural and Linguistic Barriers to Healthcare

Of the many barriers to receiving and providing equal healthcare to all individuals, few are as complex and prevalent in modern society than the barriers presented by cultural differences. These barriers can be especially difficult to identify and combat due to their very nature. Cultural differences create different needs and, perhaps more importantly, different perceptions, which can lead to unforeseen problems and require seemingly unconventional solutions.

The different barriers to healthcare that arise due to cultural issues are as varied as the many cultures that exist. The barriers also work both ways. The provider's culture, combined with a lack of knowledge of a patient's culture, can lead to a misinterpretation of patient-reported symptoms, as well as a general miscommunication in the style and administration of care. The culture of potential patients can also inhibit them from seeking proper and available care. One report found that cultural differences among Southeast Asian refugees in the United States caused the immigrants not to seek out care because of cultural beliefs regarding the nature and causes of the disease, and certain stigmas associated with healthcare, especially Western methods (Uba, 1992).

In addition, many immigrants and other cultural pockets within our society might simply be unaware of the diversity and extent of services available to them (Uba, 1992). Under-use of healthcare services is believed to be the simple result of the unavailability of reliable non-folk healthcare in many of the regions of the world; attitudes and beliefs regarding the scarcity and suspicion of healthcare providers persist among many immigrant populations today, even amongst individuals born in this country (Uba, 1992). These represent some of the complex yet very concrete cultural barriers to healthcare that exist, but there are even more direct…… [read more]

Adult Day Care Center Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  2 pages (596 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 2


Adult Day Care Center

What does adult day healthcare (ADHC) offer to the public? According to the New York Health Department, ADHC is a service that is available daily, weekly or on a monthly basis; and it includes round-the-clock nursing care; a "clean, healthful, sheltered environment"; proper supervision by trained staff; activities and recreation; pharmacy and diagnostic services; assistance "with activities of daily living...including toileting, bathing, and feeding"; optometrist and physical therapy services; dental and doctor services; and access to catheters, syringes and needles, and "irrigation outfits" (New York Health Department).

In Brooklyn, New York, the Palms Gardens Center was built in 1970 and offers what it calls "...an unusual depth of knowledge and experiences" for elderly people who struggle on their own or have other reasons to need healthcare at this level, according to New Lifestyles Web site. One of the main purposes of the Palms Gardens Center is to give regular caregivers a break during the day, since many family members and friends who normally would assist an elderly person have to work during the day and cannot provide all-day services because of their jobs. Taking the patient to Palms Gardens Center for the day relieves that caregiver of the responsibilities for that period of time, and also there is a sense of security in knowing that professional healthcare is focused on one's elderly aunt, or parent, or friend.

The Palm Gardens Center offers new patients a "complete medical examination" along with an examination conducted by, according to www.palmgardencenter.comapsychiatrist, physicians, nurses, physical and occupational therapists, pathologist services for speech and language, social workers, dieticians and "discharge planners." These specialists are there at the initial entrance of the new patient not necessarily to make a positive impression but to set up a "treatment plan" for the arriving…… [read more]

Communication and Information Technologv in Healthcare Thesis

Thesis  |  3 pages (880 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 4


Communication and Information Technologv in Healthcare

The objective of this work is to examine a new technology for communication such as electronic medical records, voice recognition, or some other communication technology and the impact that it is having in healthcare. This work will consider how efficient and effective communication is with this technology as well as the advantages, disadvantages, impact on consumers, and financial impact on organizations in the short- and long-term. Finally, this work will identify any technological improvements that could be made in the future with this new technology and make recommendations of the same.

"Wi-Fi, Health Care and HIPAA: WLAN Management in the Modern Hospital" states that wireless networking "has quickly become a critical aspect of daily life in the hospital it environment. With the maturation of the 802.11 standards (collectively known as Wi-Fi), hospital staff can remain connected to their critical systems regardless of their location in a facility. Additionally, a new breed of mobile applications has evolved that provide caregivers and administrators with on-demand access to the information and systems they need to better serve their patients. This has led to an increase both in the accuracy and efficiency of hospital operations, which has in turn led to patients that are more satisfied and better served." (2006)

The work entitled: 'Hospital Goes Wireless to Improve Patient Services' relates the story of Inova Fairfax Hospital, a 656-bed regional medical center located in the northern Virginia suburbs of Washington DC. Nurses at Virginia's Inova Fairfax Hospital don't stop to take phone calls any more. That's because hundreds of nurses and other hospital employees answer their phones while they're on the go. This is the result of Inova Fairfax's wireless telephone system, which enables key employees to carry portable, full-functioning phones with them anywhere in the hospital. SpectraLink's Wireless Telephone System saves hospitals such as Inova Fairfax thousands of hours per year by helping employees stay in touch without incurring airtime charges." (TechRepublic, 2009)


The work entitled: "On the Use of Wireless Network Technologies in Healthcare Environments" states that the "suitability of wireless technologies in healthcare/hospital environments is investigated specifically that of the Wireless Personal Area Network technologies, namely, Bluetooth and the low-rate specifications described in the IEEE 802.15.4 standard. (TechRepublic, 2005) in fact, hospitals are stated to be presently in the midst of improving communications "...m making telephone tag and overhead paging a thing of the past. Wireless telephone systems can reduce the time spent searching for a particular doctor or nurse and provide a more responsive and effective healing environment. Hospitals around the country have switched to wireless telephone systems allowing them to save…… [read more]

Healthcare Communication Theory in Healthcare Research Thesis

Thesis  |  3 pages (1,121 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3


¶ … Healthcare

Communication theory in healthcare

Research has suggested that groups are more productive than any single individual and that groups typically outperform individuals when the tasks being done require multiple skills, judgment, and experience" (Stephens 1999). No better description could be made of a healthcare setting -- every effective place where such care is dispensed demands employees with a variety of skills. Healthcare requires different paradigms to assess health and the quality of patient life. Employees frequently have different levels of experience, spanning the gamut from new employees, young workers fluent in new technologies, and older, seasoned professionals. This means that effective group communication is essential in a healthcare setting to improve productivity and to use the benefits of teamwork to their utmost. Communication is also essential because very often, decisions must be made quickly and as a collective unit when a patient's life is at risk.

At a nursing home facility, the members of different units may perform specific and separate functions, but all must work together to improve the quality of patient care. Additionally, the individuals involved in decision-making often include patients and relatives of patients. Their unique perspectives must be taken into account, as must the different backgrounds of the workers on the unit. Because resources are finite, managers and healthcare insurance companies are often part of the group that is coming to a consensus about care decisions. In short, communication and group decision-making is intensely collaborative in healthcare.

A number of theories have emerged in terms of how small groups function. One of the most well-known theories is that of 'groupthink' which results "when group cohesion leads all members of the group to abandon realistic evaluation of the situation and follow the corporate group ideal" (Lane, 2000, Groupthink). In our unit, one of the counterweights to groupthink is that we all have different perspectives on patient care because of our professional backgrounds and training. A physician's assistant or orderly may focus more on a patient's immediate needs than a physician, and a nurse might have more concern for the patient's psychology and level of comfort than a doctor who looks at the patient more from the medical model of disease. The debates that occur because of these different perspectives are part of the unit's strengths, although if a patient's family is very much opposed to the medical model, or takes a point-of-view of the patient very different from all of the medical staff and personnel dealing with the patient, an 'us vs. them' mentality might result. Fortunately, this has proved rare, and through using rational and compassionate dialogue, the family is usually able to gain a more realistic point-of-view of their loved one's state of wellness.

One of the reasons for the strength of the unit is that it is able to know when workers should listen to and trust a particular individual's greater experience and knowledge in a specific area. A hierarchy is defined. A doctor is most often the head of a… [read more]

Quality and Performance Improvement Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,266 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 2


¶ … medical errors in the healthcare system in the United States, including the types of errors and what can be done to reduce/prevent errors. Medical errors, no matter how much healthcare professionals do not want to admit they occur, do occur, and for some with alarming regularity. Preventing and reducing these medical errors not only improves patient safety and reduces patient fears, it provides peace of mind for healthcare professionals, as well.

Errors, even in medicine, are an unpleasant fact. No person is infallible, and there is always a margin for human error. Two writers note, "Nobody in your organization deliberately makes a mistake. In fact, it's human nature to avoid things that will harm you or someone else. Still, people commit errors that lead to tragic results" (Turner, and Kurtz, 2008). These authors believe there are two reasons people make mistakes. The first is a lack of "technical expertise." The second is a lack of teamwork. The authors also maintain that the individuals and teams have to recognize and/or understand where they tend to make mistakes in order to correct them (Turner, and Kurtz, 2008). These two areas of healthcare can be controlled and errors can be eliminated if healthcare workers recognize how and why people make mistakes, and they stay on the lookout for them.

The types of errors committed run the gamut from miscommunication between labs, doctors, and patients, to items remaining in a patient after surgery, to misdiagnosis and lack of patient understanding. Another author notes, "Communication failures are a central factor in medical errors. According to an article in Annals of Internal Medicine, invasive procedures done on the wrong patients occur far more frequently than reported" (Berntsen, 2004, p. 28). This is only one example of medical errors. Other cited errors include misdiagnosis and miscommunication regarding patient diagnosis, performing surgery on the wrong patients, performing tests and x-rays on the wrong person or affected area, misinterpretation of written instructions and prescriptions, inappropriate medications, and the list goes on infinitely. Many of these errors could be easily corrected using better communication techniques, and healthcare professionals need to be aware of the importance of communication in all areas from the doctor's office to surgery, pharmacy, and beyond.

Many of the most common medical errors occur again and again, making them stand out in the public's memory. Sponges and other surgical devices are often left inside a patient, and that can lead to massive infection and even death. Patients are often given an overdose of medication due to misinterpretation of doctor's orders, or they can receive the wrong information. The wrong limbs or organs may be removed or replaced, and patients may be misidentified. Labs can confuse results, or not report the correct results, and nurses can forget orders. In all of these instances, better communication could have helped solve the problem, and often, that includes communication with the patient. Patients are often extremely cognizant regarding their illnesses and diseases, and many mistakes occur even after patients… [read more]

Wireless Networking in Healthcare Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  2 pages (649 words)
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¶ … technology of wireless networking in healthcare applications. Wireless networking allows computers and their users to communicate without "plugging in" to the infrastructure, as traditional computers must do. That means computers equipped with wireless capabilities can communicate with each other just about anywhere, and this is a boon to the healthcare field in any number of ways. Traditionally, wireless networking is used in personal computers, so users can go just about anywhere there is wireless capability and log on to the Internet, and it is used in business applications to give greater mobility and access to users. In the healthcare field, it has numerous possibilities and uses.

Wireless technology can be used to quickly connect all areas of a healthcare facility, including remote clinics and doctors offices, with all the departments of a healthcare facility. Clearly, this speeds up the process of communication, and computer users are not tied to a desk or exam room, they can take their computers with them wherever they go, and quickly and effectively communicate with who ever they need to talk to at once. It can also be used to set up mobile labs or clinics, while still keeping in touch with the main facility.

Wireless technological devices can replace traditional desktop computers in most applications, and the benefits of the technology far outweigh the initial cost. Making healthcare personnel more efficient is cost-effective, and raising the quality of patient care is the ultimate goal of any healthcare organization, and having mobile technology makes care and diagnosis quicker and more effective. The training necessary would be similar to computer training, and if new technologies, such as Blackberries, are used, then training might be necessary for these items, but for the most part, if the person were computer literate, there would be little training necessary. The only cons to using this technology is installing and maintaining the technology - the facilities it staff might have to get new…… [read more]

Self-Care on Stress Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,251 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 4



This case study is a self-assessment and self-care evaluation of a 41-year-old married woman with two children, a part-time job and who is a part-time nursing student. The current personal health status includes: Weight: 190 lbs, BP 118/78, RR 16, Pulse 72, height 5'6. This work will identify measurable goals to improve personal health, include literature search techniques, including database searching to find our resources for planning health care interventions, implement interventions, including learning and utilizing CAM techniques, Evaluate the attainment of the stated goals. Use past and present behavior patterns, present objective and subjective data, symptoms and signs experiencing, identify factors contributing to present health status. Finally, this work will identify two specific outcome measurable goals and plan up to three interventions towards problem-resolution.


There are three primary components of self-care, which include those of: (1) physical; (2) mental; and (3) spiritual. Physical self-care involves exercise of the body whether it be walking, stretching, dancing, or any type of physical activity. Mental and emotional self-care includes self-acceptance and self-forgiveness. This also includes setting reasonable expectations for oneself and nurturing oneself however, this does not mean overindulgence. Spiritual self-care involves development of some type of practice that gives the mind and soul a workout whether it be meditation or prayer or attendance of church services and gathering with others of the same faith, values and principles. While it is commonly believed that putting, oneself first is selfish this is a myth because one cannot provide care for others if they do not practice self-care. Oftentimes life's demands and the demands of work and parenthood makes it seem that one does not have time for self-care however, this must be a priority if one is to fulfill their desire to provide care for those they love and to whom they are responsible for providing care such as their children.


Subjective data includes any information that the individual answers when asked questions such as "how do you feel"? This information is subjective because the individual level of tolerance for pain of the person may be quite different from another person and furthermore, while some individuals are very aware of the symptoms signaling sickness, tiredness, or depression. The nurse who is working with a patient regarding subjective data may be required to ask the extra question or two digging a little deeper to discover needed knowledge to counsel the patient concerning self-care practices.


This individual is overweight for her height by approximately 47 pounds. Blood pressure is in the normal range as well as the pulse rate being in the normal range. Presently there is no cardiovascular risk however, in nine years should the individual's weight and blood pressure remain the same as it is now this female will be in the 20% risk bracket for cardiovascular disease.


In the case of this patient, the specific goal, which is set, is for this patient to… [read more]

Use of Mobile Devices in Hospitals to Help Reduce Healthcare Costs Term Paper

Term Paper  |  14 pages (3,494 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 10


¶ … Mobile Devices in Hospitals to Help Reduce Healthcare Costs

Healthcare technologies are constantly evolving in what is an industry that requires high volumes of information be retained. The impact that technology has had upon healthcare is enormous and the improvement to communication in healthcare between healthcare professionals and among healthcare departments in the hospital has enabled optimization of… [read more]

Presidential Candidates Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (343 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Healthcare/Presidential Candidates


No one is happy when taxes go up, but few people recognize the benefits of taxation especially with regards to essential services like health care and education. Americans often forget that public education is fully funded by taxpayer money; citizens simply accept the fact that education is a universal right and that even individuals without children in school know that our society is better off with socialized school systems. Using the same argument, our society would be a much better place if health care were universal and no individual were excluded from receiving the care he or she needs. Rather than suffer, the poor and middle class would boon from universal health care. Taxes would be raised, sure, but the benefits would more than outweigh the costs for almost all taxpayers. The cost of insurance premiums and medical care costs are completely out of reach of the poor and middle class; the amount of taxation required to fund a universal health care program would not even come close…… [read more]

Public Health Systems Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,347 words)
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Public Health Systems

The value of quality primary care for low-income urban populations is significant as the primary care doctor and her or his staff can serve as an outlet to eliminate or reduce feelings of alienation that this community frequently expresses as a barrier to seeking health care. (Holcomb-Mccoy, 2004, p.188) the office itself can serve as a place where people know the individual patient as more than a set of symptoms, such as would be seen in an emergency room or immediate care center, and can follow the progress of their health and well-being. Additionally, the primary care office can serve as a hub for community information and additional health resources, such as low cost dental and vision clinics, low cost or assistance insurance resources and contact information and even the locations and schedules of low cost or free activities for health, such as open community gyms, cooking classes and even food assistance programs or farmer's markets.

Despite the magnificent march of science, the human being remains a complex animal whose body and mind, self and family, person and community are linked in ways that will resist the effort to compartmentalize every pain or blemish as the domain of an expert but narrow specialist. (Mullan, 2002, p. 5)

Health promotion is clearly a much larger concept than simply making sure than an individual gets a blood pressure check every month. Healthy eating, healthy physical activity and healthy lifestyle choices all play a significant role in holistic health. (Cassell, 2003, p. 8)

Though it is clear that not all primary care offices offer these services or this information the point is that many do and those that do not could if given the opportunity of information to do so. A primary care office serves the purpose of following the care and health of an individual through long periods of time, rather than simply treating them for whatever symptom they have currently and hoping it resolves. (Mullan, 2002, p. 77) the context of this long-term treatment can include variations of health that have little to do with physical symptoms. Some examples include understanding the functioning of the individuals family, knowing to some degree what kinds of activities the patient engages in for recreation and health and even knowing what family member to call if an elderly patient needs assistance understanding and being compliant with a new treatment plan. (Cassell, 2003, p. 8) (Netting & Williams, 2000, p. 233) None of these things can be done by specialized care providers, or emergency/immediate care physicians who have not specifically dealt with this individual over a long period, without extensive patient involvement.

The community-based primary care physician and her or his staff is a locust of information and support for many urban low-income patients. Those who seek change and those who do not can be reached to some degree through long-term care of a quality primary care staff. The resolution of primary care physicians to be a part of the community in which… [read more]

Innovation and the Future of Health Care Policy Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (2,637 words)
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Innovation and the Future of Health Care

Contrary to popular belief the Canadian Health Care System is not a universal public health care system. The Canadian system is made up of a collaborative provision and finance system. Part of the cost of health care is paid for by the Provincial government and part by the federal government but most delivery… [read more]

Access to Healthcare for Middle Class Incomes Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (644 words)
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¶ … uninsured and I vote.' Will this be the new political rallying cry of 2008? Perhaps. According to Catherine Arnst's article "The politics of healthcare reform" in Business Week, 15% of all Americans have no health insurance at all or 47 million people. This represents a 5% increase from 2006 and the largest increase in four years, even though poverty levels have fallen and household incomes have risen. However, these apparently contradictory statistics are not so surprising. Quite possibly, more of the poorest Americans have gotten slightly better-paying jobs. This means they no longer qualify for government assistance even though their current entry-level positions provide no healthcare insurance benefits. This hypothesis is substantiated by the fact that percentage of people covered by insurance through their jobs fell to 59.7% in 2006, down from 60.2% in 2005. And these statistics do not even reveal the whole truth about the nation's healthcare crisis. Even the insured may be underinsured or have to pay high premiums for private insurance (Arnst 2007:1).

These are sobering figures -- for current Presidential hopefuls. There are 6 million more uninsured Americans than there were in 2000. 30% of respondents to a recent poll said that health care is one of the top two issues they want to hear Presidential candidates talk about, second only to Iraq (Arnst 2007:1). The problem is that healthcare reform is very difficult to reduce to a series of sound bites, and as current Democratic frontrunner Hillary Clinton discovered when she was First Lady, addressing the specifics of a healthcare plan can alienate just as many Americans as it satisfies (Arnst 2007:2). Hence, when candidates talk about healthcare in stump speeches, they tend to be short on details or specifics, and long on rhetoric, even those candidates that have released fairly detailed policy statements in writing.

Candidates must strike a delicate balance. They strive to differentiate themselves from their competitors, of course, but they…… [read more]

Healthcare Costs Are Out of Control Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,265 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Healthcare Costs Are Out of Control

How can we as consumers get better value and reduce costs?

Prewriting for a Thesis recently visited the Emergency Room in a nearby hospital with my brother, who broke his arm. He was admitted for an overnight stay for observation. While his care was more than adequate, I was shocked to see the bill for his services. Although my family paid only a small amount (for co-pay), the itemized costs appeared completely out of line. I would argue that these high expenses are not justified, and that the primary culprit is the lack of personal responsibility to pay the bill and the willingness of the health care provider to increase prices.

There were four items on the bill which support the point. Ibuprofen was billed at $10 per pill. Administrative overhead was booked separately at $100 for the Emergency Room visit. The cost of the room for an overnight stay (12 hours) was $800. And the doctor's charge, which came separately, was $500 for a total of 1 hour of work.

Hospitals and physicians may argue that my brother's bill was high because they needed to provide care to indigent patients or those without insurance coverage. In addition, they may argue that the higher cost insures that patients like my brother would have additional, expensive services available should the need arise.

I can see that the healthcare system must support non-paying patients. With 20% of Americans not covered, that means that the average hospital may add a 20% "indigent tax" for those who cannot pay -- but these services were billed at a much higher rate than that. It also makes sense that a hospital must provide back-up services whose cost must be covered. For those who have relatively simple needs, perhaps a hospital is not the best place to have such treatment and pay such high overhead.

As consumers of medical services, we have a responsibility to question our bills, and to push for reforms that allow for greater transparency in billing. We should not simply accept high charges, and look for alternatives, such as emergency-care offices and HMO's, which may offer lower-cost care.

The reason that healthcare costs are so high in this country is that each of us, as consumers, does not feel the actual cost of the healthcare services we use. If we were to directly pay our insurance premiums, and a significant part of our medical services, we would be more discerning consumers.

Plan of Argument

The cost of healthcare is too high.

We as consumers bear the primary responsibility to control healthcare costs.

If we pay our own insurance premiums, and a significant part of our healthcare expenses, we will help to bring down the costs of healthcare.


Why should a hospital bill $10 for an aspirin pill? Our healthcare expenses are too high, and we as consumers must do something about it. Our healthcare system has managed to insulate itself from consumer pressures for too long.… [read more]

Health Promotion Theory Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,506 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+


Health Promotion Theory

Description and purpose of the Health Promotion Model (HPM) / Theory

The health promotion model of nursing was originally developed out of frustration by the nurse Nola J. Pender when again and again, she witnessed that "health professionals intervened only after people developed acute or chronic disease and experienced compromised lives. Attention was devoted to treating them… [read more]

Ethics for the Health Care Provider Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (638 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Ethics for Health Care Provider

The foundations of traditional medicine are based on the idea that all people need health care. Without such care the whole of the community of man becomes weaker and more challenged to live whole and healthy. As a part of the transformation of an individual into a practitioner of Oriental Medicine, in my case an acupuncturist is the development of a full understanding of the need to balance the fundamentals of a clinical practice, as well as serving the community yin the best and most healthy way possible. In the United States, there is a current and enduring health care crisis, in part due to the fact that medical care is frequently not provided to a large part of the population.

There are many reasons why there is an underserved population, though the most common reason is due to the fact that they cannot pay for care. The growth of "complementary" medical care, such as many options for care provided by traditional healers and practitioners of oriental medicine is in fact in part due to the rising costs of allopathic medicine and the rising cost of insurances that pay for such care. Even the mainstream medical industry is finally taking notice of "alternative" care, as the validity of such care is reexamined daily by the medical scientific community to provide more cost effective and sorely needed care for what the mainstream thinks of as intractable conditions.

Acupuncture is therefore becoming a big business, in high demand in many areas. Seeking to become an acupuncturist, was of course driven by both my desire to serve and help through this ancient healing art as well as to earn a living. To serve an underserved population is therefore a key factor in my desire to help as many people as I can with my growing skill and must therefore remain paramount in my desire to balance the…… [read more]

GM and Starbucks Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (701 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3


Healthcare is one of the most important and hotly contested issues within the American corporate landscape. While some companies are providing exceptional health care provisions, others are being buried under the weight of healthcare expenses on company wide level. Two companies are moving in polar opposites on the healthcare divide. Starbucks, one of the nation's fastest growing companies is continuing to invest tremendous revenues into employee healthcare and is one of the nation's leading employers. General Motors in contrast is steadily cutting healthcare benefits while attempting to maintain their company afloat. The following will examine the legitimacy of these two company's policies.

General Motors, for the 74th consecutive year is the world's largest car company, however in recent years it continues its slide towards negative profitability as the company continues to lose billions per year. GM's CEO blames much of their problems upon healthcare, the company argues that they are a "welfare state." In 2003, GM's pension fund needed an infusion from the largest corporate debt offering in history. Furthermore, to cover its 1.1 million employees, GM must spend an estimated 5.6 billion dollars in 2005, which averages to 1,525 dollars per car produced. This cost is greater than the actual steel used within car manufacturing. The immense GM healthcare bill accounts for a majority of its 1.1 billion dollar losses in the first quarter of 05. The fact is that healthcare, especially for a company that has been in existence for the past century, has much more financial obligations in terms of healthcare than younger companies. As a result, its financial burden for healthcare expenses truly inflates its overall costs. This is the primary reason for its decision to cut many of its benefits, and to reduce benefits to retired workers. GM's corporate culture influences its stance of healthcare, their industry is facing dramatic cutbacks and as a result, employees are willing to accept cuts in order to help the company stay above financial water.

Howard Shultz's Starbucks is one of the nation's fastest growing companies, it also has committed itself to providing top-notch healthcare coverage for all of…… [read more]

Health Insurance Last Year the State Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (725 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3


Health Insurance

Last year the State of Massachusetts made health insurance a mandatory requirement for all citizens above 18 years of age. The health bill is touted to be a successful outcome after more than 2 years of lobbying and politicking. It is based on a collective responsibility where health insurance costs are shared between the people, businesses and the government. Making health insurance a legal necessity, the Bill requires all citizens of Massachusetts possess some form of health insurance before July 1st 2007 and that all employers with more than 10 employees contribute towards employee insurance or be penalized at the rate of $295 per employee every year. (Pam Belluck). The Gov Mitt Romney told in an interview, "We insist that everybody who drives a car has insurance. And cars are a lot less expensive than people" (David a. Fahrenthold). It is definitely a prudent and wise measure to insist on employers to offer health insurance coverage of their employees.

With a huge number of uninsured people, hospitals across the nation are struggling to cope up with the financial burden. The costs accrued by hospitals due to treating of uninsured people are usually shifted to insured people resulting in the insurance company having to pay for larger bills. This in turn has had the effect of increasing the insurance premium by around 10% per annum per individual. As a paper from the New American Foundation states, "When medical bills go unpaid, many health care providers shift the costs onto those who can pay -- those with health insurance. This cost-shifting amounts to a hidden tax levied by providers on behalf of those who cannot pay, the uninsured and underinsured." In the state of California, for example, it is found that the hidden tax amounts to $455 per person annually and around $1,186 per family per year. [Author not available] Employees are the assets of an organization. Making employee insurance compulsory would bring more people under insurance coverage and also indirectly help in controlling the ever-increasing premium costs.

2) Surviving and succeeding in the globalized environment is all about maximizing efficiency and improving the productivity, while at the same time being a…… [read more]

Scarce Resources Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (869 words)
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Scarce Resources

Access to Healthcare: The Solution to This Scarce Resource May Be as Simple as Prevention and Education

Increasingly the government and other agencies are turning their attention toward a growing healthcare crisis. Healthcare for many is becoming a scarce resource. Rising costs coupled with lack of insurance or inadequate attention is forcing individuals to realize a decline in health. This paper will address the causes for scarcity of healthcare and lack of access of healthcare among the population, and present an innovative approach to addressing the problem.

Rapidly rising healthcare costs accompanied by a lack of a national program providing health insurance to every citizen has led to an increasing lack of access to healthcare among citizens (Giffords, et al. 2005). While citizens uniformly feel the impact of rising healthcare costs, evidence suggests women and children with inadequate insurance and individuals of low socioeconomic status or no insurance are most at risk due to the scarcity of healthcare resources and choices available to them. This paper will investigate this scarce resource and attempt to identify a plausible solution to the problem.

Five Influencing Factors

Many factors influence one's access to healthcare. Most notably, these include: (1) whether they have insurance; (2) their socio-economic status; (3) their gender; (4) a lack of knowledge of healthcare services available to them and (4) increasing costs associated with providing insurance and healthcare services to people (Guercia et al., 2005).

Research Data

Data collected from the Long Island Association and Health Access Monitoring Project suggests that in New York; where healthcare is regulated more so than in any other state, more than 3 million residents go without care because they have no insurance (Derrington & Shapiro, 2004; Liska, Brennan & Bruen, 1998). The same report revealed nearly half a million residents are underinsured, thus more likely to skimp on prescriptions or much-needed doctor methods (Liska, Brennan, & Bruen, 1998). Derrington and Shapiro (2004) note that those most affected by scarce resources include children and individuals who live at or below the poverty level.

Challenges and Consequences of Ignoring Issue

Boylan (2001) notes that every person at some point in their life will require healthcare, and lack of access due to lack of insurance or other causes can jeopardize one's life. Healthcare according to Boylan constitutes "over 15% of our economy" with every company attempting to address the "health care insurance issue" a critical factor resulting in lack of access to healthcare (p. 197).

Boylan supports a community rights theory and solution to the healthcare crisis suggesting healthcare become an institution providing an operative right to the community,…… [read more]

World Health Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (561 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


World Health

According to the World Health Organization (WHO), tremendous advances are being made in human well-being with new medicines and technologies, but these coexist with extreme deprivation. In some of the poorest countries, life expectancies fell to half the level of the richest, because of devastating diseases such as HIV / AIDS in parts of sub-Saharan Africa. These setbacks are accompanied by increasing fears in all countries of new infectious threats such as SARS and avian influenza and behavioral conditions such as mental disorders and domestic violence. WHO stresses the importance of global healthcare professionals to meet this need: "At the heart of each and every health system, the workforce is central to advancing health." I hope to become part of this important workforce by going into the field of medicine.

The world as a whole has tremendous financial resources and technologies to fight most of today's health challenges. However, many national healthcare systems do not meet the people's needs. Countries have to make healthcare an essential national issue and work with other nations worldwide to analyze resources, collect knowledge and develop strategic plans for treating and preventing disease and promoting overall population health.

Building a network of skilled and dedicated healthcare workers is critical to develop and achieve national and global health goals. Healthcare is a labor-intensive service industry, where providers treat and care for patients, reduce or eliminate pain and suffering, prevent disease and reduce risk.

WHO explains that the number and quality of healthcare workers are positively associated with immunization coverage, outreach of primary care, and infant, child and maternal survival. The quality of physicians and the reach of their care are shown to correlate with…… [read more]

Reasons a City or Region May Need a Level I Trauma Hospital Term Paper

Term Paper  |  17 pages (4,675 words)
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East Asian Culture

The health care system in the United States is often a point of pride within and outside the U.S. Here we have some of the best facilities, doctors and researchers as anywhere in the world. Clearly historically healthcare has been a number one priority of the culture and the government, despite the inability of the nation to… [read more]

Problematic for a Variety of Health Care Case Study

Case Study  |  3 pages (1,019 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


¶ … problematic for a variety of health care organizations. One reason why this is occurring is because, many facilities have become overwhelmed with patients and are starting to face various ethical / legal challenges. A good example of this can be seen at Massachusetts General Hospital. Despite, being ranked as one of the top health care facilities by U.S. News and World Reports, they have been seeing an increase in the number of medical related errors. ("Massachusetts General Hospital," 2011) Recent evidence of this occurred, when the staff gave a 76-year-old patient the wrong medication resulting in her death. At which point, the family would file a law suit against the facility for negligence. This is troubling, because it is highlighting the legal and ethical challenges that a number of health care organizations are dealing with. (Valencia, 2011)

In the case of California Hospital Medical Center, they have been facing a number of their own problems. Some of the most notable include: a lack of attention / follow up and negligence by many staff members. This is troubling, because if left unaddressed these factors could eat away at the reputation of the facility and their underlying profit margins. Once this takes place, it means that the odds increase that they will begin to see the total amount of mistakes rise exponentially. This could lead to negative perceptions and it can increase the costs for medical malpractice insurance. Unless some kind of drastic action is taken, this will lead a number of challenges down the road. To fully understand how this is occurring requires: examining the issues affecting the facility and the possible strategies for addressing them. Once this takes place, it will provide the greatest insights as to the underlying challenges facing the hospital and how they can be effectively mitigated.

The Legal and Ethical Issues Affecting California Hospital Medical Center

Like what was stated previously, it is: the lack of attention / follow up and the amount negligence of many staff members that are hurting the facility over the long-term. What has been happening is the management of facility has been showing a lack of leadership in these areas. As, they have been seen as very bureaucratic and wasteful. This is troubling, because it means that the staff will follow the same philosophy that managers are using on a daily basis. This has caused many employees to have a sense of indifference about the patients that they are serving and their well being. Over the course of time, this can lead to a loss of favorable perceptions of the facility in the community. At which point, a number of patients will begin to go to other hospitals in the region. Given the large amounts of competitors, this is currently taking place with: select departments seeing declining quality of services that are being provided. Once this occurs, it means that it is only a matter of time until these kinds of issues will become a major problem for California… [read more]

Economic Evaluation Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (489 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2



Economic evaluation

When would it be appropriate to use a cost-minimization analysis?

Cost-minimization analysis is only used when researchers are comparing drugs that are equally effective and are equally well-tolerated in the population being studied. This means that cost-minimization analysis is never the first study used when evaluating the costs and the benefits of two different drug treatments. Preliminary studies must first establish each drug's effectiveness, side effects, and tolerability in an independent fashion. If they are deemed to be relatively equitable then their relative costs when treating the affected population can be compared (HTA 101: IV. Cost analysis methods, 2011, U.S. National Library of Medicine).

Explain when you might use a cost-utility analysis?

Cost-utility analysis is a form of cost-effectiveness analysis comparing monetary costs with outcomes in terms of their utility for the patient. Mortality or other forms of patient 'utility' are given monetary values. A general unit of measurement called QALY is given, enabling cross-comparisons between different treatments in a variety of health-related fields. It can be distinguished from a cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) which compares outcomes in non-monetary terms. Health insurance companies when evaluating the costs of potential approved treatments and national health care systems that engage in a certain degree of rationing of care, based upon quantifiable outcomes, often use this system (HTA 101: IV. Cost analysis methods, 2011, U.S. National Library of Medicine).

What type of economic evaluation should be used when determining if a new drug that reduces…… [read more]

Health Insurance for the Less Fortunate Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (961 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


Health Insurance for the Less Fortunate

It is a well-known fact that there are a lot of kids who have no insurance who are entitled to SCHIP and Medicaid but who don't utilize it on a regular basis. Experts have projected that more than sixty percent of all kids without insurance, in 2002, were entitled to public coverage, a number that rose to seventy four percent in 2005. Reduced preservation in Medicaid and SCHIP has a serious affect on the continuing occurrence of kids without insurance in the United States. In 2006, a third of all kids without insurance had lost Medicaid or SCHIP insurance the prior year. Basically, if public programs kept all kids who were signed up and there were no alternatives to insurance in a certain year, the quantity of uninsured U.S. kids would decrease by almost a third (Sommers, 2007). When those kids who are entitled for insurance don't access it there are many more problems that result. A study done in the Journal of the American Medical Association has determined that kids that are uninsured might fail to benefit from vaccinations that are totally covered for kids who are uninsured or who are on Medicaid. These kids can expense out for immunizations or get them for nothing at federally financed health clinics or country health centers if they live in the area of one. Hypothetically, they have access to care, but they may have to travel many miles to the closest clinic to obtain care, which is frequently just not possible. States can moreover supply vaccines to private physicians who care for kids with no insurance and to public health clinic, but experts have established that a lot of states do not have monetary support and are not providing newer, more costly immunizations for these kids. The CDC says that instead of prioritizing immunizations founded on insurance kind, there should be labors to move forward treatment, augment financial support and build up the Vaccines for Children program. It is the financing system that needs fixed and not prioritization that needs to be done (Manning, 2007).

When public health insurance was expanded to include dental care, SCHIP was anticipated to advance poor kid's access to and use of dental care. Yet, having community dental insurance does not assure access to dental care. Medicaid enrollees, who are eligible for complete dental services, frequently have less access to dental care, principally due to a lack of partaking dental providers. One basis for the small level of dentists' partaking is low reimbursement rates. SCHIP has augmented eligibility for public dental coverage and encouraged the improvement of dental care delivery structures. Additionally, by way of its overflow effect, it has aided Medicaid-eligible kids to enroll in Medicaid and attain dental insurance. Nevertheless the degree to which SCHIP has enhanced access to dental care and utilization of dental services amid poor…… [read more]

Core Functions of Public Health Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (590 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


¶ … Functions of Public Health

In the course of their daily activities nurses are provided with unique opportunities to observe and gather information concerning public health issues. Interactions with community members in a variety of capacities enable nurses to integrate knowledge about the entire population with personal and clinical understandings of the health and illness experiences of individuals and families within the population. This knowledge can be vital in assessing trends and containing issues that may threaten the well-being of the general population.

The core functions of public health are assessment, assurance, and policy development. Assessment involves monitoring health status in order to identify health issues within the community, investigating identified issues, and evaluating the effectiveness, accessibility, and quality of the health services within the community. Assurance involves communicating to the community that they can count on a competent public personal care workforce, linking people to personal health services and providing these services and health care when it may not otherwise be available, informing and educating people about health issues and empowering them to take control of their own health, and arranging community partnerships in order to identify and solve health problems. Policy development involves producing policies and plans that support health efforts on both individual and community levels, enforcing laws and regulations that protect health and ensure safety, and conducting research to develop new insights and innovative solutions to health problems.

The Public Health Leadership Society ("Principles of the Ethical Practice of Public Health," 2002) state that ethical practice should address the fundamental causes of disease and requirements for health, aiming to prevent adverse health outcomes in a way that respects the rights of individuals in the community. Other considerations are: 1) to develop programs and priorities with community input, 2) to advocate…… [read more]

Health Disparities in the U.S Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (728 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Health disparities in the U.S.A.

Quality health care for all citizens is a desired element of any modern society. Countries that are described as developed nations pride themselves as having a good health care system that promotes longevity and ensures access to quality health care. This can be observed in the U.S.A. through the extensive debate during passage of the changes to the health care system advanced by President Obama. Unfortunately, despite the excessive rhetoric on the topic the reality is far different. Within the U.S.A. health care in terms of access and health status, is differentiated along socioeconomic variables. Wealthier persons have greater access to health care.

The gradient between socioeconomic variables and disease risk is an inverse gradient (Dressler, Balieiro, Dos Santos, 1988). Consequently, the wealthy are less likely to be ill and when they do become ill, they are more likely to seek medical attention and care. This reality slopes the landscape in favor of persons of wealth and means. The disparity is larger between the upper echelons and the lower segments of society. Additionally, this gap exists for a wide range of morbidities from "cardiovascular disease to reported symptoms of psychological distress" (Dressler, Balieiro, Dos Santos, 426).

The rising cost of health care is a significant problem. The magnitude of the problem appears to threaten the economic stability of the country. The economic dimension of the issue is readily ventilated in the media and can be the source of much hysteria. The cost to specifics groups of individuals is given cursory attention. As health care cost rises and insurers increase their rates to compensate for the rising cost the major sufferers are women, the poor and the elderly ().

Health care quality can be considered the extent to which the service is likely to increase the "desired health outcomes" and is in harmony with the existing "professional knowledge" (Institute of Medicine 1990). Using this definition, we are able to examine the quality of care within the country. The definition however is inadequate, as it does not actively relate to issues of process and how the technical elements of affect quality and access. Despite this limitation, it is useful since it…… [read more]

U.S. Health Care and Benchmark Developments Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (750 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


¶ … Commonwealth Fund, a New York-based foundation, released survey results from a number of physicians in eleven countries. That survey found that the United States lags far behind other developed nations on quality and use of information, health care access, and a general view of overall care. In fact, sixty percent of U.S. doctors said that quite a large number of their patients had trouble paying for medication, preventative care, and out of pocket expenses. (Casale, 2009). Ironically, the United States spends more per capital on healthcare than any other country in the world. Despite having such a large economy, the percentage spent to the quality and services provided is out of whack. This is particularly true because of technological shifts, changes in healthcare policy, and a general inefficiency in the way the government interacts with HMOs, Medicare and Medicaid (Kaiser Family Foundation, 2007).

Direct comparisons between countries are difficult, due to GNP and other demographic and psychographic factors. However, countries that have a less high-tech approach, more preventative and general practioner care (e.g. Scandinavia, for instance), tend to have both a higher degree of customer satisfaction with their healthcare, and in fact, a healthier population. Preventative care, while seemingly low-tech and expensive, actually saves money in the long run, by providing a long-term health model for disease prevention early in life, inoculation, and the ability to receive care when needed rather than sporadically. Additionally, by adopting a more generic wellness model allows the GP to get to know the individual and that individual's health concerns; often alleviating the need for expensive and invasive testing (Kaiser).

Part 2 - The American system of healthcare is, admittedly, fractured. There are hospitals, clinics, outpatient rehabilitation centers, private practice doctors, and more -- yet due to economic constraints, employees are moving in the direction of providing limited care packages in which the burden of healthcare coverage is on the employed. When one adds the market costs (e.g. pharmaceuticals, technology, real estate, human resource salary and benefits, etc.) to the bill, we find that prices are growing in healthcare faster than wages. In our capitalistic market, however, someone must share the cost burdens associated with care. One of the challenges is that many pharmaceuticals are non-subsidized and must…… [read more]

Non-Hospital Entities Ambulatory Care Long-Term Care and Mental Health Services Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (905 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


¶ … society that has a much higher percentage of older adults than any previous generation. The global median age is increasing due to a decline in fertility and a 20-year average increase in life span during the Post-World II era. In the United States alone, the proportion of the population aged > 65 is expected to increase from 12% in 2000 to almost double that, 20% in 2030. What that means from an economic perspective is that there will be far more older adults who need medical care than any other time in history (Public Health and Aging, 2003). There are several reasons that Americans should, but do not always, plan for medical care as they age. Many think Social Security and Medicare / Medicaid will handle everything or that the government will take care of them; many feel their finances are messy and they need every dollar for the moment, or that savings will handle a crisis; still others are both frustrated by the process and cannot even imagine retiring, let alone needed healthcare as an older adult (Neumann, 2010). Quite possibly the two most effective ways of bringing awareness to this issue would be for the Social Security Administration to do public service announcements (since there may be no social security), combined with a larger bill that would allocate Americans with some tax advantages if they invest in certain types of long-term care through their employer. That certainly will not completely solve the problem, but it would be a beginning.

Part 2 -- For the past few decades, many health care organizations have, for various reasons, been forced to rethink the way they do business, handle patients, technology, insurance, and rising healthcare costs. This has changed the paradigm of hospital care vs. home care, ambulatory care services, and/or rehabilitation centers. Additionally, and for the better, technology has helped with more procedures that can be done on an out-patient basis, requiring only a stay during the day. The marked shift towards home and ambulatory care was primarily financial -- an overnight stay in a historical can be upwards of $800/patient per night. Many studies found that medical staff were using hospital stays "just to be safe," or "just to be sure," particularly with new mothers, when it is just as appropriate to stabilize the patient and return them to a more nurturing and comfortable environment. Finally, there is the simple matter of services -- many hospitals no longer have the staff and services to handle larger number of patients who require only minimal care, preferring and needing to transfer that care load to those who need more attentive procedures (Paul, 2006; Mahant, Peterson, & Campbell, 2008).

Part 3 -- More…… [read more]