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Strategic Planning in Healthcare - Medical University Term Paper

… Strategic Planning in Healthcare - Medical University of South Carolina

How does MUSC deliver its services?

As an academic institution, MUSC delivers its services in the form of education programs, primarily at the graduate and postgraduate level, for health care professionals and biomedical scientists.

As a research institution, MUSC promotes the application of new knowledge and actively supports the fields of biomedical, behavioral and health-related investigations.

As a clinical institution, MUSC provides healthcare services to the community that are otherwise unavailable locally and provides medical services to those who are unable to afford the medical treatment they require.

Question 2. Who needs or will "buy" their services?

Presumably, those community member constituents who require medical services furnished by MUSC who can afford their share of the costs associated with their treatment will "buy" MUSC clinical services.

Presumably, the 2000+ students enrolled in degree programs at six local institutions of higher education will "buy" MUSC educational services. Additionally, 500+ graduate health care professionals receiving residency training at MUSC will "buy" its services. In addition, MUSC employs approximately 850 full-time and 1600 part-time faculty members.

Question 3. What may be the reason that MUSC needs a Strategic Plan and how may MUSC benefit from a new strategic plan? Please explain.

The primary reason MUSC needs a new strategic plan is that the healthcare industry and related educational programs are dynamic rather than static. The new plan must allow for the continual evolution of medical fields and for changes in their myriad interrelationships. The main benefits to MUSC are improved synchronicity in its administration of its programs, better structure to allocate funds in response to changing necessity, and improved ability to provide quality care to more patients.

Similarly, the pace of technological progress in healthcare now means that interdisciplinary programs develop and change so quickly that the lines separating all the individual traditional areas of specialization and clinical units also changes. Therefore, a strategic plan that predates the accelerated pace of current progress is ill-equipped for a more modern institution.

For the same reason, individual (non-integrated) plans that were appropriate for traditional administration are no longer optimal for more highly interconnected educational fields and operational units. The old plans must be replaced with a comprehensive plan that incorporates all the MUSC areas…… [read more]


American Healthcare Term Paper

… American Health Care

Health Care Crisis or Unfounded Fears?"

What impact did the media play in bringing the health care issue onto the federal government/political agendas?

It is a common phrase, "Health care crisis" spoken almost daily by the media as well as the general public, defended against by health care interest and providers as well as many politicians, since it began to come to the forefront of the American mind during the Clinton administration. Though the questions are enduring and have been around far longer, as people began to notice on a daily basis that there was a population, rather large not being served adequately by health care. Yet, it really took the media pointing out the scope of the problem to create the phrase and develop a public idea about the situation. The media has in fact probably played the largest role in surfacing the issues surrounding health care delivery, that give many people pause, as the richest nation in the world still leaves many individuals largely un-served by the health care system of the richest nation in the world. The media, from the beginning formed an adversarial voice to drive the issue public and to ask politicians and policy makers to defend and account for the impact this has had on our culture, population and economy. The media brought to the American public scare tactics which drove the political arena to first defend the system as it is or was and second create stop gap legislation to "resolve" some of its issues. Scare tactics were largely employed by the media to bring health care to the front of the minds of those who make decisions about it, as well as the general public to pressure stakeholders into making changes that better served the population. Sweeping statements based on the situation, as it was seen by the scare tactic media like those that follow lead the charges and brought the issue to the political agenda.

The maternal mortality rate of women of color is three times that of white women. One-half to one-third of these deaths are unnecessary and could easily be avoided using preventive measures, given that they are primarily attributable to lack of prenatal care. Because they come so late to treatment, only 22% of women diagnosed with breast cancer at New York City's Harlem Hospital live five years, compared with 76% of white women and 64% of black women nationwide. A child in Chile or Malaysia is more likely to celebrate his first birthday than a black baby born in the Mississippi Delta. Black men in central Harlem are less likely to reach age 65 than men in Bangladesh. Estimates of HIV infection among homeless individuals go as high as 40%. After controlling for differences in age, sex, race and specific disease, the uninsured are as much as three times more likely to die during a hospital stay than the insured.

These statements went unquestioned by the population and created a situation where policymakers were… [read more]


Nursing Changing Health Care Term Paper

… Nursing

Changing Health Care

The purpose of this paper is to introduce and analyze the topic of health care in the United States. Specifically, it will discuss influences such as an aging population, technological, and the advent of managed care.… [read more]


Healthcare Reforms From 1990s Till Present Time Term Paper

… Healthcare Reforms From 1990s Till Present Time:

In the 1990s, two leading trends have witnessed healthcare- viz. growing enrolment in the Medicaid entitlement program and the huge growth in government healthcare spending. While a third trend that is taking shape has been the proliferation of managed care system. The launching of managed care into Medicaid was viewed as an opportunity to radically minimize healthcare costs of government. Before 1997, states were required to get federal waivers before experimenting with Medicaid managed care systems. The introduction of the Balanced Budget Amendment or BBA of 1997 did away with the need totally and paved the way for Medicaid managed care. Managed Care holds immense capability to benefit Medicaid clients. Greater access, continuous care and quality of care measurements are the guarantees of the new system. Managed care is able to provide these benefits in an efficient manner due to an organizational network and information system capacity. With increased access, doubts are being raised regarding managed care's immaturity in managing populations loaded with high rates of chronic disease and disability. With Medicaid patients in greater numbers converting to managed-care systems, the present safety-net that delivers care for America's underserved- Medicaid patients, the uninsured and the underinsured which roughly constitutes a fourth of the U.S. population is in danger. (Granger; Young, 1999)

Impact of healthcare reforms on nursing:

Nurses deliver a unique viewpoint on the healthcare reforms. Nursing plans for reforms switch to a system which concentrates on the expensive treatment of ailments to a system that stresses primary healthcare services and the promotion, restoration, and maintenance of health. It raises the responsibility of the consumer and role in healthcare decision making and targets on partnership among consumers and service providers. It triggers a new delivery arrangement which prepares healthcare a more crucial constituent of individual and community life. Moreover it guarantees that healthcare services are right, effective, feasible, and concentrated on the needs of the consumer. The bedrock of nursing plan for reform is the provision of primary healthcare services in favor households and people in convenient, familiar places. When health is regarded as a genuine national priority, it is reasonable to provide services in the places in which people work and reside. Optimizing the use of these sites can facilitate in eliminating the fragmentation and absence of coordination that have come to typify the present healthcare system. Besides, it can help in promoting a more 'consumer friendly' system in which services like health education, screening, immunizations, proper child care and pre-natal care would be within reach. ("Nursing's Agenda for Healthcare Reform," n. d.)

Consequences of limited access to health care:

Access can be described as the timely use of personal health services to get the best possible health results. Limited access to healthcare will definitely have alarming consequences. People lacking access to healthcare have less likelihood of getting a regular source of care, more probable to get substandard quality care and will possibly lose their lives in infancy, apart from multitude of… [read more]


Healthcare Institutions Are Seeking New Channels Term Paper

… Healthcare institutions are seeking new channels of distribution in order to reach out to consumers. Considering these possible new channels of distribution, respond to the following discussion questions.

How would you evaluate the impact of these alternative means of reaching out to patients on healthcare cost and quality of service?

One alternative channel of distribution for healthcare is using RNs instead of physicians for routine healthcare operations: "Evidence over the past decade shows that nurses have delivered care that can be substituted for physicians' services in many situations. They can perform physical examinations and health screenings more cost effectively than physicians" (Kantor 1991:1). For many services, nurses may provide comparable care and even superior service to patients, because they may have more knowledge about certain specialty areas of concern to the patient, such as nutritional or gynecological issues. However, if the patient is discovered to have a more serious condition and requires referral to a physician, the physician may not know the patient as well as if the patient had frequently seen the physician for more routine procedures. However, this is a problem with any referral to a specialist from a general practitioner, not just from nurses to physicians.

Perhaps of more concern is the use of walk-in clinics for patients seeking treatment, often located in strip malls or discount department stores like Wal-Mart, which provide a limited amount of services for patients who often do not have appointments or insurance ("Wal-Mart to expand walk-in clinics in stores," 2007, AP Wire). Patients who rely upon such clinics, although these clinics may ease the strain put upon the health-care system by patients who use the ER as their primary care facility, consumers who use these channels also do not develop a rapport with a regular health care provider and, more over, the clinic's rapid turnover of patients may mean that doctors do not spot more serious conditions that develop slowly over time until it is too late. One final venue is the Internet, where patients may buy prescription drugs if they feel they cannot wait for a physician, although these drugs may be of dubious quality as is the online 'consult' for medication. The Internet can provide a great deal of positive information about billing, insurance coverage, and other issues to consumers, but it can also be misused, misread, and simply feel impersonal.

How and why have…… [read more]


Healthcare Channels Term Paper

… Healthcare Distribution Channels and Analyze Their Effect on the Following:

The brand image of healthcare providers

Some new, larger healthcare providers insist that they can offer the same quality of care as smaller healthcare organizations did before -- while others stress the benefits of expanded services when a healthcare consumer becomes part of a large healthcare network. No matter how large the organization, quality of care as well as low cost to the consumer must be a factor in the image presented to the public, to foster a sense of trust.

The type of marketing communication required

One way for large organizations to make the dissemination of information through the Internet is to provide additional online services not provided by healthcare organizations in the past. To "enhance communication," some use Internet services to give more "personalized, branded" services, such as notifying patients about appointments, and to provide other healthcare reminder, enable easier access to scheduling, billing, and insurance information ("About Soundbite," 2007, Soundbite Official Website).

The scale of shopping experience for consumers (patients) with these new, large retail chain healthcare channels

For some customers, the increased ease of 'shopping' online and finding information about healthcare providers in their area can be useful and time-efficient, as they can find out about various aspects of their plan while surfing online, at work, and not have to make lengthy phone calls to individuals at call centers. For others, the scale of shopping at a large venue for healthcare can be overwhelming and impersonal, regardless of what added value the services attempt to provide, particularly for older consumers used to more personalized forms of healthcare service.

The demand at traditional healthcare facilities, such as hospitals and doctor's offices

For traditional doctors and hospitals, some new venues, like the Internet, which can speed up billing and scheduling notification, can be helpful, and can take over some of the administrative burden of finding…… [read more]


Healthcare Pricing Term Paper

… Healthcare Pricing

In my opinion, the main reason why economic theory is generally not applicable to hospitals and healthcare providers in general is due to the fact that, for any private entrepreneurship, the profit maximization is the primary goal, while in the healthcare industry, the primary goal is generally patient - related (offering the best care, treating as many patients as possible, providing the best medication and treatment etc.). Due to the fact that a healthcare organization will tend to maximize its services and offer, as mentioned, the best treatment, it will ignore the importance of cost control and run higher costs than a normal organization. Further more, as a healthcare organization, it is difficult, if not impossible, to deny treatment, even for people who cannot afford it. This is also a particularity to be taken into consideration. Finally, there are other entities that determine the existence and activity of a healthcare organization, such as insurance companies, and these also affect the demand/supply relationship and impact.

2. In my opinion, due to the specific characteristics of the industry, we can already talk about consumer-driven…… [read more]


U.S. Universal Healthcare Can it Happen Term Paper

… ¶ … universal healthcare in the U.S. And the hurdles that the process must overcome in order to make it possible. Universal healthcare is not a new idea in the United States, Congress and the people have debated it for… [read more]


Health Care Financing Term Paper

… Health Care Financing ISSUE ANALYSIS

In the past decade, the increasing financial crisis faced by the medical profession has emerged as a significant concern among medical professionals, student residents, patients, and health care researchers. In recent years hospitals have faced… [read more]


Causes of the Problems of the Healthcare System in California Term Paper

… California Healthcare System

California's health care system is in a deep crisis. There is a vicious cycle. On the one hand, the mounting premium costs discourage people from opting for insurance while on the other hand treating the uninsured leads to hospitals transferring uncompensated costs to the insurance company and consequently the rising premiums. Immediate redressal of the situation is necessary and the government is just doing that.

California's health care system is in a deep crisis. With more than 6.5 million people lacking any form of medical insurance, the state tops the list of the number of uninsured Americans. [State of California] the consequences are a very high premium for people with medical insurance, and hospitals shutting down their emergency wards unable to handle the costs of uninsured emergency cases. Leaving aside the financial costs and the burden on the hospitals, the fact that emergency medical care could not be accessible for each and every citizen (insured or not) of the state is in itself a deplorable and despicable reality. The recent proposal by the Californian governor to reform the medical care system from its present ailing state to a more responsible and comprehensive system is good news for the people of California. Let us have a brief overview of the discrepancies in the prevailing system and the urgent need for a positive and inclusive change whereby medical care is made available for every individual irrespective of their insured status.

Cost Shifts and Insurance Premiums

With a huge number of uninsured people, hospitals across California are struggling to cope up with the financial burden. The costs accrued by hospitals due to treating of uninsured people are usually shifted to insured people resulting in the insurance company having to pay for larger bills. This in turn has had the effect of increasing the insurance premium by around 10% per annum per individual. As a paper from the New American Foundation states, "When medical bills go unpaid, many health care providers shift the costs onto those who can pay -- those with health insurance. This cost-shifting amounts to a hidden tax levied by providers on behalf of those who cannot pay, the uninsured and underinsured." It is found that the hidden tax amounts to $455 per person annually and around $1,186 per family per year. [Author not available]

Asides the insurance costs implications there are other issues to be concerned about. Statistics show that with roughly one in every five Californian being uninsured the problem is assuming enormous proportions. Most people lacking insurance are from the lower economic layer of the society and more than two thirds of this group are full time workers. The lack of insurance coverage implies that these poor people are putting off their medical attention until an emergency situation arises. In majority of the cases such medical emergencies could have been averted with timely medical intervention. "Many people simply put off medical care until they end up in the ER - much sicker and requiring more… [read more]


Challenges for Health Care Managers Term Paper

… ¶ … Health Care Managers

Challenges for healthcare managers

Current trends show that American healthcare system has been consistently on the decline. A gloomy picture depicted by World Health Organization (WHO) is a mere reflection of the current state of… [read more]


Is the Health Care Industry a Business? Term Paper

… Nursing

Healthcare = Business

Yes, the healthcare industry is a business. It has evolved into a business for a number of reasons, from nationwide healthcare reforms to rising medical and prescription costs. In fact, for many analysts and experts, questioning healthcare as a business does not exist. To most experts today, healthcare is a business, and to think of it as anything else is simply shortsighted. Some experts write of managing risk in the healthcare industry, noting it is vital to manage risk in order to manage opportunity and profit. They write, "To take advantage of the opportunities, risk must be treated as a core business activity for which responsibility is taken at senior level, rather than as a technical skill to be handled by specialists" (Mulligan, Shapiro & Walrod, 1996, p. 94). Thus, the most important roles in healthcare are now management and risk assessment, rather than treatment specialists, and this indicates a shift to business rather than medicine in the healthcare field.

These three experts illustrate this again in another analysis. They note, "By understanding care provision in terms of risk as well as average cost, a payor or provider can evaluate all the available risk management roles and strategies to optimize its performance. The winners will be those that excel at this and integrate risk management thinking into all aspects of their operating strategy" (Mulligan, Shapiro & Walrod, 1996, p. 94). Thus, risk management and assessment of each "payor" (rather than patient) are at the core of a successful healthcare business. Thus, the focus and the face of the healthcare business has changed dramatically from the time when most healthcare facilities were non-profit, to a time when they are for-profit, money making endeavors. Healthcare has evolved into a business, and it seems there is little way to nudge it back to its roots in this industry-oriented age.

Another aspect of the growing healthcare business is the rising cost of the uninsured. A…… [read more]


Is the Health Care Industry a Business? Term Paper

… ¶ … healthcare industry a business?

The healthcare business industry is not a business or, at the least, certainly isn't managed like one. A true business creates value for their customers and has intelligent consumers who understand the products and services they are buying and who shop around for the best value. In contrast, the healthcare industry doesn't create services that offer unique value; they offer as many services as they possibly can. Consumers don't have much information to compare medical services and prices. and, even if consumers were informed, payment of medical services and coverage by intermediaries such as insurers, employers, or government provide a disincentive for consumers to take the same care when purchasing medical services as they do when buying other products and services they most directly pay for.

Successful businesses focus on creating value for their customers, but healthcare institutions define their businesses in a way that is misaligned with customer value. According to business management experts Porter and Teisberg (Mullen, 2006), competition should focus on specific medical conditions. Instead, institutions define their businesses too broadly, obscuring the differences in competencies they offer. Health plans see themselves as health insurance providers, but they should be aiming to add value by overseeing care for a series of medical conditions. Further Porter and Teisberg (Mullen, 2006) argue that competition is too narrow in that the system takes place at the level of discrete services, interventions, or specialties, or acute care vs. chronic care. To drive the value of care, it should address medical conditions over the full cycle of care in an integrated way that considers monitoring and prevention, diagnosis, treatment and the ongoing management of the medical condition. and, care is too local with providers offering too many services. Porter and Teisberg (Mullen, 2006) recommend a system where providers manage networks of services across geography.

Unlike conducting a transaction with a business, a consumer in the healthcare industry does have easy access to information and…… [read more]


Strategic Management of Health Care Organizations Term Paper

… Health Care Management

Environmental Factors

In planning its strategic management effort, Methodist Healthcare should take into account several environmental factors. Primarily, the external environment needs to be assessed for its climate in accommodating and integrating the services provided by Methodist Healthcare. As such, any problems related to the current environment need to be eliminated. A current problem is for example that the variety of businesses and structures historically created to address specific health trends over the past decades, no longer serve this specific purpose. The diversity of these systems is too large to be effective in terms of the current, needs, vision and mission of Methodist Healthcare. This lack of focus tends to drain energy from the core business.

Environmental factors that therefore need to be taken into account to return to a more acceptable sense of focus include Market position, financial performance, managed care positioning, staff commitment, and required resources. Issues of the internal environment that need to be taken into account include the organization's mission, vision, values, goals, and strategy to reach the goals. With an integration of all these elements, Methodist Healthcare can position itself strategically in a way that both addresses the community's needs and ensures the organization's success.

2. SWOT Analysis

Internal Strengths

Internal strengths include an understanding of the importance of effective communication among branches and managers of the organization. Methodist Healthcare is a patient-focused organization, priding itself upon its excellent customer service. As such, internal communication plays a vital role in delineating the exact standards of customer service required by all associates.

In terms of infrastructure, another strength includes state of the art, standardized information technology, such as the Cerner Millennium package. The system was selected for its ability to provide solutions to most of the initiatives planned for the organization. Basically, the core strength of the organization is its focus on excellence in patient care - all other strengths lead back to this paradigm.

Internal Weaknesses

The greatest internal weakness faced by the company is in the area of its finances. While many financial analyses show favorable growth, the current revenue still does not sufficiently cover elements of strategic planning for the future. On issue included in this is the projected information system focused on helping Methodist Healthcare attain its goal of service excellence.

External Opportunities

Methodist Healthcare has historically expanded very successfully. The organization currently has successful associates in several locations, including Tennessee and Memphis. A continuing trend of consistent and clear communication in terms of vision and goal ensures good relations with these associates internally, and with patients externally. More expansion opportunities are explored and likely to be implemented successfully.

External Threats

External threats exist mainly in the form of the organizations competitors. The strongest of these is Jackson Hospital in Madison County, with a consistent market share of 46%-47%, as opposed to Methodist's share of 26.1%. Methodist's growth in terms of the market and patient numbers are encouraging in this regard. The only potential problem relates to finances, which… [read more]


Canadian Healthcare System Pros and Cons Term Paper

… Canadian Healthcare System

Pros and Cons of the Canadian Healthcare System

The Canadian Healthcare System is considered as among the best in the world. This is because it is controlled and paid by the government, thus equal access to health care is given to every citizen of Canada. Moreover, because Canada devotes budgets to health care, the spiraling of health care costs is monitored and controlled. However, despite of these benefits, there are also some difficulties in Canada's health care system that require attention.

A ping the issues in Canada's health care system is the quality of care. For instance, there are complains regarding delays in the public healthcare system of Canada. As indicated by a high court, from Walter Williams' article Why Canadians Purchase Private Health Insurance,

The evidence in this case shows that delays in the public healthcare system are widespread, and that, in some serious cases, patients die as a result of waiting lists for public healthcare. The evidence also demonstrates that the prohibition against private health insurance and its consequence of denying people vital healthcare…… [read more]


Russia Healthcare Russia- Healthcare Concerns Term Paper

… Russia Healthcare

Russia- Healthcare Concerns

The objective of this work is to review the healthcare concerns of Russia and specifically as related to AIDS/HIV, the blood supply and other major health concerns in the country.

Russia is located on the Northern Asian continent between Europe and the Pacific Ocean and spans an area of 17.075,200 square kilometers and is slightly larger (1.8 times) the size of the United States. Russia's climate is said to range from "steppes in the south through humid continental in European Russia" to subartic temperatures in Siberia and in the polar north to have a tundra climate. Winter weather is a variation from cool in the Black Sea coastal area to frigidly cold in Siberia with variation in the summer characterized by warm weather in the steppes to cool air along the Artic coast. (Russian Demographics, 2005) the population of Russia as of July 1994 is stated at 149,608,953. (Ibid)

U.S. Embassy Travelers Advisory

According to the U.S. Embassy in Russia all Americans traveling to Russia should make sure that their diptheria immunization is up-to-date as well as their typhoid immunization. The U.S. Embassy warns that travelers should be careful of what they are consuming in foods and beverages and that they should drink only bottled water or water that has been boiled. Reported October 31, 2006 is that a court in Russian has ordered a regional blood bank to pay thousands to a woman who caught AIDS via a transfusion. (United Press International, 2006) According to many reports the blood supply in Russia is severely contaminated.

II. Russian Health Reform recent report entitled: "Russia Readies Radical Health Care Reform" states that: "According to an age-old proverb, it is better to be rich and healthy than poor and sick - a saying made all the more true in a country where some say the public health care system is nearly as ill as its patients. Russian health care has not been seriously reformed since the collapse of the former Soviet Union in 1991. But earlier this year, the Russian government launched a so-called national projects plan that aims to improve four sectors of Russian life, including health care." (McAdams, 2006) in fact it is reported that over the last ten years the health of the "average Russian has grown 'significantly worse'. Life expectancy is stated to have "fallen from 70 years to 65 with Russian men at particular risk." (McAdams, 2006) Stated to be the three major causes of illness in the country of Russian are those of: (1) respiratory disease; (2) circulatory disorders; and (3) alcohol related injury and poisoning." (Ibid) Furthermore the rates of infection of HIV / AIDS and Tuberculosis is "sky…… [read more]


Health Care Services for the Homeless Research Paper

… Health Care Services for the Homeless

An Analysis of Health Care for the Homeless, Milwaukee, Wisconsin

Today, one of the most significant problems facing underserved populations is an inability to obtain health care services in the marketplace. In fact, there… [read more]


Health-Care Data at Euclid Hospital Term Paper

… And helps in protecting the privacy of the patient. Since healthcare is a multidisciplinary process, a UPI facilitates the integration and the availability of critically needed information from multi-disciplinary areas and multiple care environments. Thus, the integrity and security of… [read more]


Nationalized Health Care v. Private Term Paper

… Yet, they disagree on the best ways to address the rapidly escalating health care spending; privatizing advocations encourage a free market competition approach, but public health care proponents stress the ultimate demise of a free market system in provision. Ultimately, the government needs to embrace the fact that while capitalist approach is the foundation of the United States' success, its commitment to preserving a democratic republic demands universal single-payer, not-for-profit health care system. The current health care struggle between private and public funding throws millions of Americans into poverty, leaves many more uncovered, and denies the heart of government's role: providing a safe and secure society for its citizens.

Appleby, J. "More Insured Workers Unable to Pay Medical Bills." USA Today. 29 April 2005.

Bodenhimer, T. "High and Rising Health Care Costs. Part 2: Technological Innovation.' Annals of Internal Medicine. June 7, 2005: 142(11): 932-937.

California Health Care Foundation. "Health Care Costs 101 -- 2005." 02 March 2005.

The Commonwealth Fund. "Wages, Health Benefits, and Workers' Health." Issue Brief, October 2004.

The Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation. "The Uninsured: A Primer, Key Facts About Americans without Health Insurance." 10 November 2004.

The Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation. "Employee Health Benefits: 2004 Annual Survey." September, 2005.

Kinsley, Michael. "The Lord and Richard Scrushy." The Washington Post. Sunday, 3 July, 2005; Page B07.

National Coalition on Health Care, "Health Insurance Cost." Washington, D.C.: The National Coalition on Health Care Printing Service, 2004.

RAND. "Cost Sharing Cuts Employers' Drug Spending but Employees Don't Get the Savings." 2002.

Smith, C., Cowan, A., Sensenig, A., and Catlin, A. "Health Spending Growth Slows in 2003." Health Affairs. 24:1, 2005: 185-194.

National Coalition on Health Care, "Health Insurance Cost." Washington, D.C.: The National Coalition on Health Care Printing Service, 2004.

Smith, C., Cowan, A., Sensenig, A., and Catlin, A. "Health Spending Growth Slows in 2003." Health Affairs. 24:1, 2005: 185.

The Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation. "Employee Health Benefits: 2004 Annual Survey." September, 2005.

Ibid.

Smith, C., Cowan, A., Sensenig, A., and Catlin, A. "Health Spending Growth Slows in 2003." Health Affairs. 24:1, 2005: 187.

Centers for Medicare and Medicare Services, Office of the Actuary, National Health Statistics Group; also U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of Economic analysis, and the Bureau of the Census. Available online:

California Health Care Foundation. "Health Care Costs 101 -- 2005." 02 March 2005.

Ibid.

The Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation, 2005.

The Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation. "The Uninsured: A Primer, Key Facts About Americans without Health Insurance." 10 November 2004.

Ibid.

Kinsley, Michael. "The Lord and Richard Scrushy." The Washington Post. Sunday, 3 July, 2005; Page B07.

Appleby, J. "More Insured Workers Unable to Pay Medical Bills." USA Today. 29 April 2005.

Smith, Cowan, Sensenig, Catlin, 2005. p. 192.

The Commonwealth…… [read more]


Health Care the Staffing Policies Term Paper

… The market demand for medical care is expected to increase. Overall, this should improve employment in the health care sector. The demand for each occupation will be inline with growth in that occupation. This means that there will be limited demand for dentists, optometrists, and lab technicians. There will be a medium level of demand for vocational nurses, physicians, and registered nurses. Finally, there will be a high level of demand for physical therapists, speech-language pathologists and audiologist, dental hygienists, respiratory therapists, and physician's assistants.

3. Future Employment Needs

While there is uncertainty in the demand for health care workers, employment needs are expected to increase as the demand for health care increases. One thing that organizations can do to meet their future needs is to focus on retaining good staff. Since employment is not expected to decrease, health care organizations can reasonably assume that they will not need to reduce staff numbers. This means that there is little risk in a strategy based on retaining staff, while keeping current staff members reduces the need to recruit new employees. At the same time, retaining staff means that the organization will have a higher number of long-term employees with experience within the organization. This can help the organization to introduce new staff members effectively, while also limiting the problems associated with introducing new staff.

Another key issue is that a particular health care organizations ability to recruit staff depends not only on the employment market overall, but also on the individual organization. This means that even if the employment market is suffering from a lack of qualified staff overall, a particular organization may not suffer if it is a desirable place to work. Health care organizations can prepare for the possibility of needing to recruit from a relatively small pool of employees by ensuring that the organization is desirable to potential employees. If this is managed effectively, the desirable organization will gain suitable staff, while less desirable organizations will suffer. This can become a potential source of advantage for health care organizations.

4. Porter's Competitive Strategies

In Competitive strategy: Techniques for analyzing industries and competitors, Porter (1980) described three possible competitive strategies. These were differentiation, cost leadership, and focus. These three strategies can all apply to health care organizations.

Differentiation refers to a strategy based on differentiating products and services from those of competitors. Since health care organizations are competing against others, this strategy can apply. This may become especially significant as more health care organizations become part of HMOs.

Cost leadership refers to a strategy focused on reducing costs and applying tight controls to improve efficiency and profitability. This is the major strategy that the HMOs have used and will continue to be an important strategy for many health care organizations.

Focus refers to a strategy where an organization concentrates on a specific niche market or buyer group. This may be an effective strategy for some health care organizations. For example, a health care organization could target expectant and new… [read more]


Health Care A) the Different Forms Term Paper

… Health Care

a) the different forms of long-term care for elderly Americans provide choice for patients and their families and so give at least a sense of control to people in a time of need. These people face differing circumstances.… [read more]


Conflict Resolution in Healthcare Term Paper

… This helps encourage equality and a feeling of personal strength. Allowing all the people involved to feel like they are on equal footing is very important in the successful resolution process. Attempting to resolve the conflicts in the early stages of discussion is also important, and so is efficient communication between all the parties. The institution also needs to create a protected and neutral environment for discussion and initial problem solving. This lets the parties know they are not in litigation, but rather in discussion. The organization also needs to make sure that relationships are improved or preserved throughout the process, and that they do not break down or deteriorate as the process continues. And finally, the institution should be adaptable and open to change, especially in creating and using ADR processes that fit their healthcare industry and offer the best conflict management techniques.

References

Hayes, Lorraine Sanchez, JD; Dale C. Hetzler, MSCM, JD; Virginia L. Morrison, JD; and Debra Gerardi, RN, MPH, JD. Curing conflict: A prescription for ADR in healthcare.

Robson, Rob. (2003). Speed bumps on the yellow brick road: Using ADR in healthcare. Retrieved from the Mediate.com Web site: http://www.mediate.com/articles/robson2.cfm 14 June 2005.… [read more]


Healthcare Strategic Management Term Paper

… Similarly, providing free healthcare service to such people can lessen the whole nation and the government with problems in national health.

The poor health of the people in a nation is one factor that causes poverty. In an objective of providing free healthcare service, it is therefore not only beneficial to the recipients of the service but also to the entire nation. Similarly indicated in the MassResources Online, I found the following services to be ideal as coverage of the free healthcare programs and services.

Services that would:

prevent illness or diagnose illness prevent the worsening of a medical condition correct or cure conditions that are life-threatening, cause suffering or pain, or result in illness or disability.

Bibliography

What Benefits Will I Get?

MassResources Online.

http://www.massresources.org/pages.cfm?contentID=50& pageID=13& subpages=yes& dynamicID=695#benefits… [read more]


Health Care Issue and Operation Term Paper

… The tie-up between the American Hospital Association and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (Kaiser et al. 2001) take stock of the entire gamut of environmental issues in a systematic way. The amount of wastes generated, the volume of water used by the facility, the water quality emitted, the amount of energy consumed by the facility, and the opportunities that exist in eliminating the unnecessary uses of energy, and the types of pollutants proceed from care delivery and operations comprise the concerns of the alliance's total quality effort in which it comprehends and pursues its role in the community. Furthermore, current and future social and technical forces will continue to shape its administrative challenges in delivering quality health care. It will also continue to view its accountability for the health of the community as including its environmental performance and this involves holistic approaches spanning health care facilities and supply chain and disposal strategies. It also requires an understanding of environmental outputs and inputs and an identification of opportunities in providing better service and quality care within a cleaner, safer, more livable and greener way. It considers the necessity of shifting the focus of environmental issues from mere disposal costs to a broader focus of systems, whereby the quality of health care is neither sacrificed for the environment while incorporating environmental performance as an integral part of the natural evolution of quality health care. #

BIBLIOGRAPHY

1. Joint Commission News. (2005). Health Care Issues. Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations. http://www.jcaho.org/news+room/health+care+issues

2. Kaiser, B, et al. (2001). Solutions to Health Care Wastes: Life-Cycle Thinking. Environmental Health Perspectives. EHP vol 109 nu8mber 3. http://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/members/2001/109p205-207kaiser/kaiser=full.html

3. World Health Organization (2005). Wastes from Health Care Activities. Fact sheet # 253. http://who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs253/en/print.html

4. Water, Sanitation and Health (2005). Water, Sanitation and Health. World Health Organization. http://www.who.int/water_sanitation_health/about/en/index.html

5. -- . Water, Sanitation and…… [read more]


Strategic Healthcare Management Term Paper

… Identify an environmental factor that would require immediate attention by a healthcare organization? How does this environmental factor affect this organization?

A recent environmental factor that could not be planned for, but required immediate attention was this winter's anticipated flu vaccine shortage. Healthcare organizations thus had to anticipate the need for rationing, once they heard of this unexpected and immediate downshift in likely vaccine supply. To addresses the problem, many organizations contacted government authorities to answer the question of who should have priority in getting flu shot, under the changed circumstances. As they could no longer give the shots on an as-request basis as before, changes in policy had to be made.

Also, healthcare workers must be briefed in additional methods to protect themselves against the flu, given that although "influenza vaccination of health-care personnel and long-term care facility residents can help prevent outbreaks, this year's shortfall in vaccine production" require increased reliance on other measures to prevent transmission, such as added care for hygienic procedures, and also added care in dealing with angry parents and patients, who did not meet the needed requirements for the rationed shots. (CDC, 2005)

Works Cited

CDC. (14 Nov 2005) "Patient Screening Form: Who should and who should not get a flu shot?" Retrieved 12 May 2005 at http://www.cdc.gov/flu/professionals/flugallery/shortageflyers.htm

CDC (20 Jan 2005) "Updated Infection Control Measures for the Prevention and Control of Influenza in Health-Care Facilities Retrieved 12 May 2005 at http://www.cdc.gov/flu/professionals/infectioncontrol/healthcarefacilities.htm

Medicare Payment Advisory Commission. (March 1998) "Report to the Congress: Medicare Payment Policy."

Prospective Payment Assessment Commission (ProPAC). (June 1995) Medicare and the American Health Care System. Report to the Congress, Washington, DC: Prospective Payment Assessment Commission.… [read more]


Healthcare in the New Millennium Term Paper

… Requirements Stated by Those in the Industry

Data-driven clinical care, advanced disease management, enhanced quality and outcomes in reporting, acceleration of technological implementation, evolution toward electronic health records, leveraging the web to empower consumers, finding new solutions to old problems through collaboration, consolidation of functions in reduction of overhead expenses, managing capacity, addressing new markets, recognizing the problem of obesity and managing outsourcing are all stated as "action" priorities for the healthcare industry for 2005.

Summary and Conclusion

While all of the aforementioned requirements stated are vital in the provision of quality healthcare with positive outcomes the critical nature of having enough nurses to provide care to patients is the number one challenge facing the industry at this time which calls for making a priority of beckoning, educating, and employing the services of future nurses for the industry.

Recommendations

Recommendations are for a new education imitative coupled with added benefits to attract future nurses to the field that so desperately needs their commitment to a challenging undertaking in the collaborative provision of healthcare in the new millennium.

Works Cited

Global Best Practices Among Themes at First Annual World Healthcare Innovations in Technology Congress Presented by the ENBC, PR Newswire 23, June 2004.

Healthcare's Top Business Issues and Responses for 2005 A Capgemini Forecast

Hunter, Derek (2004) New Data on Health Insurance, the Working Poor and the Benefits of Health care Tax Changes WebMemo #492-2004 Apr 12. Online available at http://www.heritage.org/Research/Healthcare/wm492.cfm

On the Minds of Americans: The Crisis of Skyrocketing Health Care Costs 2004 Online available at http://www.house.gove/georgemiller/middleclass/middleclass.html

Salsberg, Edward (2003) Making Sense of the System, How States Can use Health Workforce Policies to Increase Access and Improve Quality of Care. Milbanks Report 2003 September.

National Healthcare Quality Report. High quality healthcare is not yet a universal Reality Online available at www.qualitytools.ahrp.gov/qualityreport… [read more]


Healthcare Finance Term Paper

… " But "others are attempting turnaround strategies to help them break even on their investment. Ensuring that expenses do not exceed revenues in a primary care network can be achieved by implementing initiatives on network-wide and practice site levels and may require draconian measures." But by being willing to set "a financial target of break-even, primary care practices can experience dramatic improvements." (Halley & Lloyd, 2000)

Reducing the number of provider and nonprovider staff, closing practice sites, consolidating resources into fewer physical locations, and revising compensation and benefit plans are the most obvious 'draconian' measures. Networkwide initiatives include expense reduction and control to achieve break-even benchmark targets. Within the hospital, documenting the baseline revenue and expense ideas for performance tracking, identifying revenue shortfalls, or gaps, in key revenue and expense areas that are barriers to achieving break-even financial operation, ensuring that every physician and nonphysician caregiver has a productivity target in terms of visits and instituting quality control measures nad reviews are all essential.

Works Cited

Halley, Marc D. & Lloyd. (Nov 2000) "How to Break Even on an Acquired Primary Care Network." Healthcare Financial Management. Retrived 17 Apr 2005 at http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m3257/is_11_54/ai_66936335/pg_2… [read more]


Relevance of Healthcare Administration to Society at Large Term Paper

… Relevance of Healthcare Administration to Society at Large

This paper addresses the relevance of healthcare administration to society at large as well as how it affects the technological and ecological environment, the commercial and industrial economies, the political and civil establishments, and the cultural and educational communities in society. Further this work will explain how healthcare administration is responsive to what happens to or directly affects societal at large on a local, national, and international basis.

The effects and impacts of healthcare administration upon society at large are of great import and deserving of consideration and research. Many are the initiatives under development that are proposed to solve critical problems in the administration of healthcare and just as well there are many crucial issues to be solved. One of these initiatives is the Family Pediatrics Task Force on the Family.

Family Pediatric: Task Force on the Family

Why a task force on the family?" is the question asked in the Pediatric 2003 Journal article entitled "Family Pediatrics: Task Force on the Family." The reason given, as an answer is that "Families are the most central and enduring influence in lives the health and well-being of children is inextricably linked to that of their parents." (Schor, 2004) This article states that due to the impacts in today's society of divorce that the pediatrician must pay attention to the financial capabilities of the child's legal guardian due to the fact that the proportion of children who live in poverty is "five times higher" than in the 1970's. The article states as well that: "Family-centered care, requires a productive partnership between the pediatrician and the family." However it is also stated that the "definition" of exactly what comprises a family is a problem in itself.

II. Community Issues

Access to medical care is a critical issue in today's world. In the report entitled "Shared Destiny: Community Effects of Uninsurance" the identification is made of "an array of potential societal consequences of uninsurance, beyond the well-known implications, for individual persons, families and uninsured persons as a group." The data reviewed is that which is associated with uninsurance and efforts in communities of access to care as well as the economic conditions and overall status.

The committee on the "Consequences of Uninsurance" through a series of case studies has found that "the adverse effects of uninsurance on the uninsured and the associated financial strain have spillover effects on health care institutions and providers." There is evidence that suggests negative outcomes on the availability of primary and preventive services, specialty services, emergency care and certain hospital services."

III. National & International Impacts

The World Health Organization (WHO) Amir Attaran has concluded that: "Patents only infrequently constrain access to WHO-classified 'essential medicines' in poor countries. However, Connie Liu, Global Health Chairman, American Medical Student Association states that those findings as well as the methodology applied are 'problematic'. Stated in the article of Liu is that there are forty million persons who need medications which are out of… [read more]


Technologies Impact on Healthcare Term Paper

… Technologies Impact on Healthcare Level of School

Technologies impact on healthcare

Technology and especially information technology has been in the forefront of making big impact in the delivery of healthcare facilities (Ferri & Klein, 2000). While almost all of the… [read more]


Health Care Privatization Term Paper

… Health Care Privatization

Unlike a government-operated, tax-funded system -- the type of system, generally referred to as national health care, currently operated in Canada, Europe, Australia, New Zealand, and elsewhere, the majority of healthcare funding in the U.S. comes from the private sector. With respect to these private funds, health insurance has replaced out-of-pocket consumer spending as the major source of payment. Many critics of the American system point out that there are too may uninsured Americans, that there is too much money being spent and that many employees receive restricted coverage. They claim that national health care would eliminate these problems while providing better service at a lower cost. However, existing evidence shows that taxes would skyrocket and health care services would dramatically deteriorate under national health care.

Advocates of national health care ague that it would reduce costs by: eliminating unnecessary, duplicative paperwork; adopting mechanisms to stretch health care dollars such as bulk purchasing of medications; and implementing measures to control future health care costs such as negotiating fair fees with doctors and budgets with hospitals.

But, some economists put the cost of national health care reform at $339 billion per year in additional taxes. A look at a proposed legislation by Representative Marty Russo and Senator Paul Wellstone to establish national health care reveals a huge tax outlay for American taxpayers. Their plan requires employers and the self-employed to pay a tax equal to 7.5% of wages. The top individual tax rate would rise from thirty-one to thirty-eight percent. Corporate income taxes would increase from thirty-four to thirty-eight percent. and, Social Security benefits would be taxed at eighty-five percent rather than the current fifty percent.

Those in favor of national health care also believe that our health care is inadequate compared to other countries with national health care. The U.S. spends more per person on health care than any other country in the world, but the World Health Organization ranked the U.S. 37th in the overall quality of health care that it provides. We are the only industrialized country that lacks universal health care. More than forty-two million Americans have no health insurance, with access distributed unequally among rich and poor and among the races. In addition to leaving broad segments of the population uninsured or under-insured, there are significant gaps in coverage for: prescription drugs and medical supplies; dental, vision and hearing care; long-term care; mental health care; preventive care for children; and treatment for substance abuse.

While the above critiques of the American system may be valid, service would be far worse under national health care as evidenced by service shortage situations that currently exist in many countries. For example, in Great Britain, a country with a population of only fifty-five million, more than 800,000 patients are waiting for surgery. In New Zealand, a country with a population of just three million, the surgery waiting list now exceeds 50,000. In Sweden the wait for heart x-rays is more than eleven…… [read more]


Higher Health Care Costs Term Paper

… Buffett Taylor & Associates say that the software tracks, analyses and generates reports quantitatively and qualitatively. It also reveals return on investment as well as organizational trends in areas such as absenteeism, productivity, disability/benefit costs, company morale, employee attitudes, program… [read more]


Health Care Quality Management Term Paper

… Lessening the number of staff in an organization concentrates on health care professionals and administrative staff and plans to advance efficiency while diminishing pay expenses. Case management strictly watches each individual patient's improvement with the aim of making sure effective… [read more]


Health Care Information Management and Internet Term Paper

… Health Care Information and the Internet

Due to the Internet, the health care information that is being passed along to consumers is changing greatly. This can be good or bad, depending on who is being asked the question and how… [read more]


United States and National Healthcare Term Paper

… A report released at the beginning of this year (2004) made note of just these arguments. As reported by the Washington Post, however, "the Department of Health and Human Services rewrote what was to be a scientific road map for change to put a positive spin on a public health crisis: Minorities receive less care, and less high-quality care, than whites, across a broad range of diseases." (Vedantam, Washington Post, 14 January 2004) And during the recent presidential campaign, George W. Bush lambasted his democratic opponent, John Kerry, for favoring what he saw as massive and expensive government intrusion in private citizens' lives.

I'm running against a fellow who has got a massive, complicated blueprint to have our government take over the decision making in health care," Bush said, drawing boos from the crowd in a hangar in Muskegon, Mich .... "His plan, if you listen carefully to what he says, would have bureaucrats become the decision makers, and that would be wrong for America."

(Allen, Washington Post, 14 September 2004)

These and other government programs, claimed the President, would cost the American People two trillion dollars over the course of the next ten years. These remarks prove that, in the minds of many Americans, the words "federal program" are tantamount to "big budgets," and huge tax increases.

So no matter how many facts and figures each side brings to the table, the basic argument remains -- is the field of Healthcare appropriate for federal intervention? Regardless of the scope of European successes, regardless of the contribution to the general welfare, and regardless of its equalizing propensities, the use of federal dollars to pay for Healthcare in the United States will remain controversial. It is not that one side does not wish to help the other, the well-off to help the unfortunate, but rather that there is a difference of opinion on the ultimate extent of personal responsibility. For so long Americans have made so much of the concept of "self-reliance" that the mere mention of the creation of a new government program conjures up images of an uncontrollable and meddlesome monster. We do not have long traditions of one class being pitted against another, nor of an entrenched underclass that requires the help of the rest of society to live at a decent level. If the United States is ever to have a system of national Healthcare, paid for by the federal government, the American people must first come to the realization that government is there to help, and not hinder, their fellow citizens.

References

1. Allen, Mike. (14 September 2004). "Bush Assails Kerry on Health Care; Democrat's Plan Would Mean More Taxes, He Says." The Washington Post.

2. Clark, C., & Mceldowney, R. (2000). The Performance of National Health Care Systems: A "Good News, Bad News" Finding for Reform Possibilities. Policy Studies Review, 17(4), 133.

3. Kaus, M. (1995). The End of Equality (2nd ed.). New York: Basic Books.

4. (1996). Living as Equals (P. Barker, Ed.). Oxford:… [read more]


Gbmc Healthcare Hospital Case Study

… In addition, GBMC has taken the latest steps and arms of law and technology to provide protections required to maintain appropriate privacy and confidentiality of health information.

4 -- The policy has been though successful in the short-term will require continuous revision for making it successful in the long-term. The reasons for it are because today the health record is not just a paper file. It includes documentation, data, records, and "information" that might reside, for a single individual, in a number of entities and locations. It might be in the individual's own possession and be in paper or "electronic" media or a combination of both. The task of ensuring privacy and confidentiality of an individual's health information, therefore, becomes all the more challenging as the nation moves into an electronic healthcare world and the industry moves between paper and computer. Moreover, current laws do not adequately address the new technology, systems, and processes that affect health information or the various ways institutions, professionals, and the individual might access or transmit information, especially today through the Internet, intranets, or other networks. Comprehensive and non-conflicting rules and regulations are needed to deal with health information in the total environment

There is a public need to share health information, including, at times, information that can identify a specific individual, for appropriate national needs such as maintaining public health, medical research, or preventing medical fraud. The balance between an individual's right to privacy and this public good and the need for a national healthcare information infrastructure must be resolved

The history and breadth of the privacy issue is long and wide, because privacy cannot be sacrificed for expediency (Roberto and Flynn, 1997). The need continues for a uniform federal law preempting all others, so that protection and administration are uniform. Therefore, it is important that to ensure that an individual patient should have the right to:

access his or her health information in any setting (with minimal limits); have an understanding of his or her privacy rights and options; have the right to appropriately challenge the accuracy of his or her health information; and have the right, in certain electronic or Internet situations, to opt in or authorize the collection or use of information beyond what is originally authorized by the individual or law.

References

Courtney S. Campbell, The Crumbling Foundations of Medical Ethics, Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics, Volume 19, Issue 2, April 1998, Pages 143-152

Roberto, M. And Flynn, E.P.,…… [read more]


Access to Healthcare Term Paper

… The United States is the only industrialized country that does not offer health coverage to all its citizens (Health and social justice). The World Health Organization ranked the United States 37th in the world in overall health system performance and 72nd on population health in 2000. We have become a "majority minority" nation where there is significant evidence of disparities in healthcare and the problem is only growing worse. For example, death rates from cancer, heart disease, and diabetes are significantly higher in racial and ethnic minorities than in whites. These disparities are unacceptable; every person seeking healthcare have the opportunity to receive the best possible care and treatment, regardless of race, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, gender and religion.

Bibliography

36 million Americans lack access to basic health care (2004, March 23). EndoNurse. Retrieved May 9, 2004 from Web Site: http://www.endonurse.com/hotnews/43h2382840.html

Health and social justice. America's HealthTogether. Retrieved May 9, 2004 from Web Site: http://www.healthtogether.org/healthtogether/programs/justice.html

Marks, Alexandra (2002, April 3). Healthcare 'crisis' grows for middle class.

Christian Science Monitor. Retrieved May 9, 2004 from Web Site: http://www.csmonitor.com/2002/0403/p03s01-uspo.html… [read more]


Health-Care System by Lewis Thomas Term Paper

… Instead, he should be grateful for the life that he has and not worry so much about all of the things that could happen to him. While it is true that those things could happen, it is more likely that they will not happen. Most people are living long and dying peacefully, instead of dying young and suffering from horrible diseases. The medical propaganda, however, makes these same strong people fear for their lives and their health when they are very young, and it is almost impossible to get away from this propaganda and not be afraid of it. Thomas concludes with the idea that people are paying so much attention to what is going on with their health that they have ceased to worry about the greater problems that are affecting society. Because of this, these strong people who should be out there fixing society's problems are hiding in their beds for fear of catching something and dying from it, a fear which is largely unfounded in the…… [read more]


Health Care and the Law Term Paper

… " (Pear, 2004) However, a judge easily utters this caveat. But it places an additional burden on physicians. Doctors must decide if the patient's medical necessity is justifiable enough to make such an exception, based upon the patient's condition and income.

How does such a list function? In the case of Michigan, the state established a list of preferred drugs. It first identified what it considered the "most effective products" in forty therapeutic categories. Among those drugs, the least expensive were automatically covered under Medicaid and two other health programs operated by the state. Other, more expensive products could be listed only if manufacturers paid supplemental rebates to the state, in effect reducing prices to the level of the preferred drugs. Thus the list was not entirely impregnable but "before dispensing drugs not on the list, pharmacists must obtain approval from the state's pharmacy benefit manager." (Pear, 2004)

According to the legal standards applied to this case by the U.S. Appeals Court, the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit said, "The available data confirm that in practice, the prior authorization requirement has proved neither burdensome nor overly time-consuming," to either the patients, physicians, pharmacists, or the drug companies. Thus the list was allowed to stand as a statute.

Also significant was the fact that the drug companies bringing the suit "had argued that Michigan was improperly using the Medicaid program to benefit elderly people and pregnant women at the expense of Medicaid recipients." But the court decided the state was in its rights, noting that more resources will be available for existing Medicaid beneficiaries." (Pear, 2004)

Indeed, Janet Olszewski, director of the Michigan Department of Community Health said that by encouraging doctors to use the list of preferred drugs, the state had sharply reduced the growth of Medicaid drug spending. "In the three years before the program took effect, Ms. Olszewski said, that Michigan saw annual increases of 11% per prescription, "now it's just 4.2%." (Pear, 2004)

However, the director did not note if health care, in terms of quality, had been maintained or improved, amongst the pregnant or elderly or any of the individuals in question supposedly benefiting from the program. Cost alone was mentioned, quantified, and cheerfully reported.… [read more]


Ethical Analysis of Healthcare Rationing Term Paper

… If "innovation grows faster than our ability to pay for it," is his justification to support rationing, then he is also advocating reducing expenditures in the medical research and development field, forcing us into a medical standstill. Given this to be the case, then medical rationing could work nicely since there would be fewer technologies to argue over providing to patients. This demonstrates the irrational justification of diverting money from medical developments as a subsequent action to medical rationing. Forcing private money to pay for medical care above the "norm" proposed would result in those same individuals having to pay for the private development of new drugs and medical advancements. This would harshly impact the medical technologies field.

The essayist is likely a health care economist rather than an ethicist, basing his viewpoint on the unequal monetary allocations of medical resources benefiting some individuals over others. His theory stems from his concern regarding the rising rate of health care, exponential to the nation's budget. While not explicitly stated, the primary criterion he presents for the current state of medical care distribution is a patient's ability to pay. He defends the argument that it is "better to ration procedures than to ration people," where a certain standard of practice can be provided to all patients, with the use of private doctors supported by private money retained for those who can afford it. While it can appear moral to allow the majority to benefit, it would be at a cost to those who want more than the average medical allowance. Thus, the ability of this essay to persuade readers to the opinion that rationed health care is a fair and equitable solution to our nation's health care dilemma is lacking in bioethics from a Utilitarian perspective; the modern theory practiced by the majority of Americans. On a grading scale, this essay can muster a C+ for effort and for its reasonable consideration of a managed solution to rising health care costs and the exclusion of a sector of the American population.

America is not a communist state where those other than the elemental figures involved in the patient's case govern the benefit of optimal medical care. This essay roots for a numbers-based guideline for medical benefits rather than a needs-based one. America is considered the "land of opportunity," for the reason that Americans have the options to get what they want, including medical care. By rationing that care their civil rights are violated and their health placed at risk. As compassionate as this essay portrays the rationing of medical resources, its policy of omitting that which could potentially save someone's life lacks in ethical justification.

Bibliography

Cook, D & M. Giacomini. 1999. "The Sound of Silence: Rationing Resources for Critically Ill

Patients." Critical Care. 3: R1-R3.

Devettere, RJ. 1993, Feb. "Clinical Ethics and Happiness." Journal of Medical Philosophy.

Devettere, RJ. 2000. Practical Decision Making in Health Care Ethics: Cases and Concepts, 2nd ed. Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press.

Norheim OF. 1999. "Healthcare… [read more]


Health Care Management Obstacles Term Paper

… According to the Mercer/Foster Higgins 2002 national survey of employer-sponsored health plans, the average cost of healthcare benefits for active employees increased 7.3% in 1999, 8.1% in 2000 and 11.2% in 2001. In 2002, costs were expected to rise an additional 12.7% or more (Becker, 2002).

Data from the American Assoc of Health Plans.

From this chart, the health care manager can see that only a small sector of the cost increase factors can be influenced by the health care manager. The health care manager can positively affect the provider expenses, by making good decisions the medical facilities manager can steer his organization away from litigation, and the medical staff has a direct influence over waste / fraud / and abuse. But these areas only account for 30% of the cost increases. The rest are outside of the control of the facilities management staff.

Everybody looks out into the future and says things can't continue the way they are now. But, they can't see any answers on the horizon," says Robert Reischauer, president of the Urban Institute, Washington, D.C. While most experts agree that the health care systems serious flaws will require serious innovations to correct, "We have a real reluctance to jump off into the unknown," he says. (Haugh, 2002)

Health care reform has been attempted a number of times. The passage of Medicare and Medicaid are the closest the United States has even come to enacting legislation that "reformed" at least a part of the health care system. The attempt at national reform by the Clinton Administration was the fifth such attempt during the 20th century.(Longo, 1993) But now, with the national and international agenda dominated by terrorism and its ongoing threat of biological and chemical warfare, as well as the many ethical issues around cloning and bioengineering, it is likely that health care reform, at least on a grand national scale, will not be realized in at least the next decade.

So, until the public pressure accumulates under the topic of health care reform again, the health care management staff is those who must most aggressively address the crises of rising health care costs. Health care cost inflation and the ranks of the uninsured continue to rise, (Holahan, 2001) and research continues to explore a number of issues that may better inform decision makers as they ponder the future of this fragile commodity called health care. The unknown is exactly what health care faces, says Drew Altman, president of the Kaiser Family Foundation, Menlo Park, Calif. The foundation produced a report documenting various attempts to corral cost pressures. After initial success with each, the upward cost spiral returned.

No approach our nation has tried over the past 35 years to control health costs has had a lasting impact. At the moment, we have absolutely no meaningful solution as a nation," Altman says. "What's next? Who's going to win and who's going to lose when we bring that line back down again the next time?" (Haugh, 2002) U… [read more]


Health Care Administration Profession Term Paper

… In order for the health care facilities to stay in operation, I am responsible to balance needed care options with the most economical methods for delivering those health care services. In the civilian world, nearly one third of health care expenditures are spent on hospital care. When patients, employers, insurers, and the government worry about rising health care costs, they put pressure on hospitals to provide more efficient care. This pressure lands on the shoulders of the health care administrator. (Shah, Reed, Francis, Ridley, and Schulman, 2003) Unfortunately, these choices can lead to legal issues, and further to ethical considerations. Health care premium rose 13.9% this year, according to a recently released survey of more than 2,800 companies by the Kaiser Family Foundation and the Health Research and Educational Trust. (Knight-Ridder, 2003) This reflects the rising costs of health care. When faced with the daily decisions of operating the hospital or field medical office within budget, and providing the best medical care for my patients, I am often faced with a decision with no good options. If the treatment cost exceeds the likelihood of successful treatment of illness of injury, then my responsibility to the patient is opposed by my responsibility to the hospital. These ethical issues can lead to legal ramifications if a hospital unit is operating with it's eye only in the bottom line, and chooses to limit care for financial reasons. These choices are not representative of the reasons I became a health care professional.

Keeping a military unit operational in the highest level of readiness is a combined effort that requires dedication from many disciplines. Medical services are one of those areas which must serve the needs of the patient, and the overall military. We must balance the needs of today with those of tomorrow within a changing world.

Works Cited

Kirkman-Liff, Brad. Keeping an eye on a moving target: quality changes and challenges for nurses. Nursing Economics. 11/01/2002;

South Florida Employees Face Higher Health-Care Premiums, Fewer Benefits. Knight Ridder/Tribune Business News. 10/12/2003

Shah, Bimal R. Reed, Shelby D. Francis, Jennifer Ridley, David B. Schulman, Kevin A The cost of inefficiency in U.S. hospitals,…… [read more]


Health Care Marketing Term Paper

… For home health care products, these can be sold through traditional retailers, through health care professionals, or through organizations specializing in home care services. Place strategies are the means of using 'channels of distribution'. The choice of effective channels of distribution will most often be determined by the type of product.

The prices charged for the products and services are determined by the expectations of the people that are targeted. Prices are most often a function of the expected benefit rather than a multiple of cost. However, they are also influenced by the corporate objectives, the activities of the competition, the cost of the product and external factors such as the economic climate.

The combination of the other P. strategies in the marketing mix creates the position strategy for a product in people's minds. The market's perceptions and expectations have a great influence over its choice of products. Therefore great care is required to position the products and services. Image and reputation are the result of positioning strategies; hence the 'information feeds' for good promotion make a major contribution to positioning. Information feeds are the means of getting messages to people, such as talking, writing, broadcasting, putting up signs, displays and many other forms of advertising.

How to communicate the features and benefits of a product or service is called promotion strategies. A variety of communication channels, or 'message delivery systems', are available to fulfill promotion strategies. The main ones are:

Personal contact (sales representation)

Advertising Sales promotion Publicity Point-of-sale displays and signs

Direct mail

Relationships with health care service providers

Promotional strategies usually involve a combination of all the message delivery systems. This is also referred to as 'the tactical mix'.

References

Steckler A, Allegrante JP, Altman D, et al. Health education interventions strategies: recommendations for future research. Health Ed Q. 1995;22:307-328.

Cowan EL. In pursuit of wellness. Am Psychol. 1991;46:404-408. As quoted in: Murdaugh, Carolyn L. Vanderboom, Catherine. Individual and community models for promoting wellness.Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing. 04/01/1997.

Study of Post-Acute Care, A Final Report, HCFA No. 17-C98891 (University of Minnesota, School of Public Health, Institute for Health Services Research and Policy, October 1993), p. i. As quoted in: Murdaugh, Carolyn L. Vanderboom, Catherine. Individual and community models for promoting wellness.Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing. 04/01/1997.

Home health…… [read more]


Social Security and Healthcare Term Paper

… Currently, healthcare remains an important issue for many retirees and the elderly, a problem that was not addressed in the original "three-legged stool" of financial solvency upon retirement.

The issue of healthcare is a major difference between the social insurance system of the United States and that of the true welfare states in Europe. Thus, despite the country's undisputed leadership in scientific research, it is a sad irony that an estimated 44 million Americans could not afford adequate medical care (Japsen 2002). A growing number of Americans do not have health insurance and live in fear of an unexpected illness and financial ruin.

Because of this growing problem, many lawmakers are agitating for further changes to the social insurance system. In the early 1990s, for example, Senator Edward Kennedy, for example, is pushing for a universal health coverage program that would help allay the number of uninsured people, the prohibitive price of long-term care, the rising costs of medical care and the impending collapse of many health care institutions (Kennedy 1990).

Proposed Solutions

In these discussions, two problems emerge regarding the current social insurance system for the United States. First, unlike its European counterparts, the American Social Security system does not provide for universal health coverage. As a result, a growing number of Americans cannot afford much-needed medical treatment. There is thus a clear need to reform the current Social Security plan to provide health insurance for all those who need it.

Second, and related to the first, these provisions for health coverage must be made amid a fund in crisis, one that threatens to run out by the year 2037.

This paper makes several recommendations towards these twin goals. First, there should be recognition that the simple, income-based program is ultimately inadequate, because it does not take into consideration complexities like disability and health care programs. Second, despite current Generation X complaints that Social Security will run out before their retirement, the government should continue to mandate the compulsory participation in this program.

To help alleviate problems associated with health care, it is recommended that the purchase of catastrophic health insurance be made mandatory for all employees who earn a certain income, with consideration given for expenses such as mortgage payments and dependent children. This insurance should be enough to include all major health expenditures such as physician and hospital fees and prescription drugs.

To finance such a program, Graetz and Mashaw recommend a.5% increase in payroll taxes. This small increase, the authors argue, would be more than offset by expenditures related to a displaced worker or by the government footing the bill for a citizen's medical needs (Graetz and Mashaw 1999).

In conclusion, however, perhaps the greatest problem faced by the current social insurance system is the growing agitation against Social Security. Thus, despite the projected shortfall, there is a strong need to maintain Social Security. Part of the strategy is making this program responsive to everyone's basic needs - including health coverage.

Works Cited

Graetz, Michael J.… [read more]


Marketing in Health Care Term Paper

… If the area in which the facility is located is saturated with beds then the ELGSS tries to stay within the market price according to its projected expenses.

There is definitely a relationship between the cost of providing the services that are offered by The ELGSS and the price of those services. In a Cost-Plus Strategy, the first consideration is the cost.

There are a great number of factors that determine pricing for The Evangelical Lutheran Good Samaritan Society. The fact that they are located in several states across the country requires individual facilities to consider their market for both expense and revenue. Being a non-profit organization does not hamper the Society from setting prices with a profit in mind, however it is not the over arching guide used in their pricing strategy. Their Cost-Plus strategy keeps them in line with other facilities in their area while enabling them to provide a competitive product.

Bibliography

American Management Association. A Baker's Dozen of Pricing Strategies. 1997-2003. Retrieved 9 Aug. 2003 http://www.amanet.org/seminars/editorials/pricing_strategies.htm.

The Evangelical Good Samaritan Society. 7 August. 2003 http://www.good-sam.com.

Gebo, Paula. E-mail to the Good Samaritan Society Business Office. 8 Aug. 2003.< >… [read more]


Healthcare in Marketing (Lasik) Term Paper

… Firstly, profiles can be created of organizations and business persons who would be likely to sponsor a non-profit organization. Several sponsoring options can also be included, to determine part of the profile by means of surveys. Thus, during each sponsoring period, the organization might know whom to target for future funds.

Secondly, profiles should be created for potential users of services provided by the non-profit organization. This information can then be beneficially used to determine areas that would most benefit from such an organization. Services are thus effectively targeted where they are most needed. Furthermore the way in which these services are provided can be determined by means of geo-demographic, psychographic and lifestyle data. In a profession where people are the target, it is essential that services be provided in a manner that these people find most accessible. Geo-demographic information then provides a guideline for the area in which an organization can focus its services. Psychographic and lifestyle data provides the organization with important information about the intrinsic values and habits that may not otherwise be apparent. These are key aspects in providing healthcare; especially in cases where sensitivity and understanding are a prerequisite for quality services.

Thus, for in both the areas of funding and services to the community, non-profit healthcare organizations will benefit substantially from customer profiling. Such practices determine the ability of funders, and the needs of the community being served.

Bibliography

Barber, F.A., R.K. Thomas, M. Huang. "Developing a profile of LASIK surgery customers." Marketing Health Services, Iss. 2, Vol 21. Chicago: Summer 2001.

Business Wire. "New Customer Wins Position Lawson as Dominant Enterprise E-business Solution Provider to Healthcare Industry." New Orleans, 2001.

Winterhalter, K. "Customer profiling in the healthcare industry." Weber Shandwick, 2002. http://www.browna2.fsnet.co.uk/PMLive/doctor_who_frame.htm… [read more]


Healthcare in Sweden Term Paper

… si.se/docs/infosweden/engelska/fs76.pdf).

In Sweden, all employees are entitled to cash benefit compensations for income lost during illness, in fact the Social Insurance Office pays them 90% of their normal income (Hadenius 1991). To qualify one merely has to phone and tell the office that he or she is sick, no waiting period and the benefit is paid from the first day of illness (Hadenius 1991). However, if a person is ill for more than a week, a doctor's certificate is required as evidence of illness (Hadenius 1991). Moreover, everyone who reaches age 65 is entitled to a basic pension, whether he or she is employed or not and those with physical or psychological disabilities are eligible for public pensions at even earlier ages (Hadenius 1991).

Swedish health services have access to some fifty national health care quality registers, each of which contains data on health care outcomes and treatment measure in an equal number of illness categories (http://www.si.se/docs/infosweden/engelska/fs76.pdf).These registers serve as a knowledge base for continuous improvement efforts (http://www.si.se/docs/infosweden/engelska/fs76.pdf).

In 1996, Sweden's costs for health services amounted to SEK 128 billion, 7.6% of the Growth Net Profit (http://www.si.se/docs/infosweden/engelska/fs76.pdf).Roughly 90% of the costs were spent on care provided or financed by the country councils. Residents of Sweden pay an average tax rat of 10.2% (http://www.si.se/docs/infosweden/engelska/fs76.pdf).

Works Cited

Fact Sheets on Sweden: The Health Care System in Sweden. Swedish Institute. May 1999. http://www.si.se/docs/infosweden/engelska/fs76.pdf.(accessed 06-27-2003).

Gennser, Margit. "Sweden's Health Care System." http://oldfraser.lexi.net/publications/books/health_reform/sweden.html.

A accessed 06-27-2003).

Hadenius, Stig; Lindgren, Ann. "Sweden: On Sweden Health care." Countries of the World. January 01, 1991.

Healthcare in Sweden. http://www.vardforbundet.se/index.asp?page=/vardforbundet/index/health_care_in_sweden_.asp.(accessed 06-27-2003).

Hjertqvist, Johan. "Health Care Reform: What Canada Could Learn From Sweden."

Speech before the Montreal Economic Institute. April 15, 2002. http://www.iedm.org/conference5_en.html.(accessed 06-27-2003).

Social welfare: Sweden. http://www.randburg.com/sw/general/general_10.html.

A accessed 06-27-2003).… [read more]


Structure of the American Healthcare Term Paper

… In any case the problems in the American healthcare system seem so complex but yet so fixable. It just seems as though the powers that be don't really care about the health and well being of Americans. In a country as wealthy and as powerful as America, 16% of the population should not be without health coverage. It is a very sad state of affairs and needs to be dealt with in a swift and efficient manner. (Richardson)

Conclusion

The purpose of our discussion was to examine the structural changes in the delivery of healthcare services. We discovered that the healthcare system changed dramatically during the twentieth century. These changes included the advent of healthcare plans and the development of Medicare. We also found that many structural changes have also occurred within the institutions that make up the healthcare system. We concluded that rates of change for the institutions are at different levels which have left the healthcare system broken.

Works Cited

Healthcare Crisis: Healthcare Timeline. Public Broadcasting Station. http://www.pbs.org/healthcarecrisis/history.htm

Richardson, William C.. Let's build a safer system for healthcare. Healthcare Purchasing News Feb, 2000

Shortel, Stephen M. Slowly Remaking the U.S. Healthcare System. Health Services Research. April, 2000

Bibliography

Beadle, Joan. "The Arts in Healthcare: Learning from Experience." British Medical Journal. March 18, 2000

Bohmer, Richard M., Edmondson, Amy C., Pisano, Gary P. "Disrupted routines: Team learning and new technology implementation in hospitals." Administrative Science Quarterly. Dec, 2001

Donahue, Ann. Federal cuts spur layoffs at hospitals.(Los Angeles, California). Los Angeles Business Journal. Sept 6, 1999

Healthcare Crisis: Healthcare Timeline." Public Broadcasting Station. http://www.pbs.org/healthcarecrisis/history.htm

JCAHO Adds New Patient Safety Standards."(Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations). Healthcare Review. April 23, 2001

Mitchell, Lori J. "Professional and personal chapters of change." Healthcare Financial Management. May, 1999

Reynolds, Max. "Gainsharing: A cost-reduction strategy that may be back." Healthcare Financial Management. Jan, 2002

Richardson, William C.. Let's build a safer system for healthcare. Healthcare Purchasing News Feb, 2000

Shortel, Stephen M. Slowly Remaking the U.S. Healthcare System. Health Services Research. April, 2000

Windows on Healthcare V to Provide Strategic Knowledge for…… [read more]


How Technology Will Help in Developing Optimal Patient Care Essay

… Healthcare Management:

First Student's Response:

The use of technology in the patient care field is mainly for preventing errors and undesirable events such as miscommunications, medication errors, and treatment delays. The earliest use of technological devices in health care was… [read more]


Terrace Hospital Marketing Plan Marketing Plan

… Higher level of QC set from industry benchmarks (e.g. reduction of errors from 1.5% industry standard to .5% overall).

Process Reengineering -- Annual review of processes and reevaluation of purpose and objectives based on service volume, error ratio and customer feedback. Strive for community presence; become known as the "place for quality healthcare."

Competition- Smaller clinics and 24-Hour Emergency Walk Ins, Large Urban Hospitals. However, noting that the larger hospitals tend to be less personal while also having the fiscal resources to offer more specialized care, Terrace Hospital embraces relationships with other clinics and hospitals that help with the overall message to provide high-quality and accessible care to 100% of the population. A potential competitive plan could also include personalized services for the shut-ins or nursing homes in the area, sponsorship with the community for healthcare fairs and activities (2K run for Diabetes, for example). Encouraging a warm and congenial relationship with the Urban Hospitals and their specialists (visiting lectures, seminars, etc.), or even sponsorship of specialists in residency a few times a year, engenders more of an overall mission of global and community health care. Additionally, ensuring that there are at least 10% Spanish speakers in the hospital to act as translators will help with the Latin population.

Human Resources as a Competitive Advantage Move Human Resources from a personnel department to a strategic planning function that plays a major role in staffing, training and retention of employees. Use HR to reach out to nursing and medical programs to actively recruit new staff, as well as reach out to medical equipment and pharmaceutical corporations to act as beta testing facilities (will increase visibility and reputation of hospital). HR take an active role in preparing and solidifying new job descriptions and advanced/enhanced training materials for all staff; as well as participating (using data mining and other electronic means) techniques to identify and promote internal candidates as well as define opportunities to retain top employees.

Community Health Planning Event -- The most effective strategy for healthcare planning within a community is two-fold: education and focus. Terrace Hospital will continually work with all schools to provide a broad and comprehensive educational program that is age appropriate and in line with community and educational standards. In addition, at least once per year, there will be a community health fair, sponsored by the hospital and other interested clinics, doctors, dentists, alternative medicine providers (Acupuncture, Massage, etc.) that will focus around a theme. First theme could be a program to promote nutritional education and exercise. The even would tie in a community run, seminars for all economic levels on preparing healthy meals (could be in combination with local grocers or health stores), bringing in the local school bands or choirs to increase parental involvement, contests for students to make posters or other art projects dealing with the health theme, at least one or two nationally renowned speakers (will bring media attention), and a fair-like atmosphere in which, in this case, instead of serving popcorn or… [read more]


Medical Coding Ethics Ethical Concerns Research Paper

… " (AHIMA House of Delegates, 2008, p. 1) Coding professionals, in fact, are required to provide assistance and education to physicians and other clinicians through advocating proper practices in documentation, and in re-sequencing or including diagnoses or procedures when needed to more accurately reflect the acuity, severity, and the occurrence of events." (AHIMA House of Delegates, 2008, p. 1)

Summary and Conclusion

This study has demonstrated that the code of ethics is such that the coding professional is expected to play a primary role in the implementation and maintenance of medical coding and in the dissemination of proper medical coding procedures to the physician's staff and practice. This means that the physician and staff must be willing to listen to the medical coding professional and to learn from the employees who are likely to posses less educational attainment than other staff members. However, the knowledge of the medical coding professional will be such that will save the physician practice a great deal of time and money if they are allowed to lead the other staff in the practice in the proper use of medical coding and billing.

Works Cited

American Health Information Management Association Standards of Ethical Coding. (2008) AHIMA House of Delegates. "AHIMA Standards of Ethical Coding. Sept 2008. Retrieved from: http://library.ahima.org/xpedio/groups/public/documents/ahima/bok2_001166.hcsp?dDocName=bok2_001166

Know your ethical obligations regarding coding and documentation (2009) Association of Clinical Documentation Improvement Specialists, August 4, 2009 HCPro. Retrieved from: http://www.hcpro.com/HOM-236942-5728/know-your-ethical-obligations-regarding-coding-and-documentation

Weaver, J. (2013) Miami Beach's 'Rock Doc' busted on Medicare fraud charges. The Miami Herald. Retrieved from: http://www.miamiherald.com/2013/09/30/3660611/miami-beachs-rock-doc-busted-on.html#storylink=cpy

Sufficient documentation a major hurdle for ICD-10 (2013) APCs Insider.…… [read more]


Public Health as a Discipline Essay

… In general, there are ten critical services that local departments perform on a regular level: 1) The monitoring of the health status of the local community based on statistical averages and community health hazards; 2) Assisting in the diagnosis and investigation of both health problems and hazards within the community; 3) To provide critical information that educates and empowers the community to prevent and solve health issues; 4) To act as a central agency to mobilize community partnerships that will solve health issues; 5) Assisting local governments and institutions in developing policies and plans that support the overall health directives from the federal and state government; 6) Enforcement of laws and regulations that help protect the community in both the health and safety realms; 7) Providing services that help link individuals to particular helath services and health care, particularly for at risk populations; 8) To continually evaluate the effectivness and accessibility of all community health services; 9) To ensure that there is a competent and expert level of public health workers to support the individual community; and 10) To assist in research that provides new and innovative health-based solutions for a wide-range of health concerns (Centers for Disease Control, 2012).

Because of the enormity of issues on a state and national level, local public health agencies are key in their roles to aid and respond to epidemiological concerns. For instance, almost every year communities are hit with a new form of influenza. A recent study actually found that at the local community level the performance of health workers tends to be extraordinary and vital for the survival of that community. Local public health workers are ofen willing to adapt to challenges, unknown risks, to respond to crises, and to form the very basis of the modern publoic health system (Barnett, D., et al., 2011).

Conclusions -- Most of the major endemic diseases are under control in the developed world, and with the advent of more global cooperation there has been a great deal of improvement over the past few decades. At the local level in developed countries there are chronic lifestyle diseases and regular influenza outbreaks; but at the regional and global levels there are still major issues with bacteria that has become resistant, HIV and STDs that remain critical issues. In the developed world, issues surrounding sewage and potable water remain public health issues. The trends, though, in public health have been to take a more expanding role in educating and preventing disease vectors. For example, public health not only regularly ensures that food is monitored and protected, but has expanded into sold waste disposal monitoring, noise control, housing materials control, and any other issue that can significantly control and improve the health of the population (Rosner, D., et al., 2010)

Bibliography

Breslow, L. (Ed.). (2002). Encyclopedia of Public Health. New York: Macmillan.

Centers for Disease Control. (2012, April). National Public Health Performance Standards - Local Public Health Systems. Retrieved from cdc.gov: http://www.cdc.gov/od/ocphp/nphpsp/documents/Local_v_1_OMB_0920-0555.pdf

National Association of County and City… [read more]


Ethical and Legal Perspectives in Health Care Case Study

… Health Care

How would you resolve this dilemma?

If I was present in this case, I would work to convince the mother about how futile this ventilator support really is. Being a mother, the woman surely doesn't want anything to happen to her child. It only seems necessary to try to explain the congenital abnormality to the mother and to show her no amount of ventilator support or treatment will fix her daughter. Despite the court proceedings, I would remove the baby from the ventilator. Surely, at that time there would be more cases in the hospital that would require the use of ventilators. Regardless of how big the hospital is, the resources are bound to be scarce at one time or another.

Studies have shown that anencephalic babies tend to have a very limited life span even with the use of ventilator support. Anencephalic babies are now being used as a source of organ donation because there is no chance of their survival. It was seen that between 1978 and 1982, 205 anencephalic babies were delivered alive in California. It was seen that most of the babies were not given support and they tended to live only till about a week. It is true that modern intensive care facilities have increased the survival time but that is the only thing they do. Pomerance and Morrison et al. (1989) stated that with the use of seven to 14 days of ventilator support the infants can survive to a significant time and become competent organ donors.

The fact that these infants are being considered and research for organ donors is enough evidence in itself that these infants would not survive. There is no point in keeping someone alive if they cannot interact, feel or even recover from the condition that they are in.

Question 2: In a time of scarce resources is it reasonable to require the hospital to provide seemingly futile services?

In my opinion, it is not reasonable for the hospital to provide seemingly futile services. Anencephaly is a condition that results from a neural tube defect and can be detected by ultrsonography. It is seen that 95% of the women who find out that their child suffers from anencephaly would chose to go for an abortion. (Doyle, 2010) It is seen that in most or all of the cases, anencephalic infants are not resuscitated because there is zero chance of these babies reaching a normal conscious existence. (Doyle, 2010) Our brain is the major organ behind human functioning and if that is absent or missing, the person far away from being medically healthy. Most of the doctors and hospitals normally just price hydration, comfort and nutrition to the babies and allow nature to take its course.

Clinicians have stated that anencephaly and brain death are the two conditions which do not require any medical intervention. There is no point in treating these conditions, thus it is better for doctors and staff to direct their efforts to someone who… [read more]


Issues in Healthcare Management MBA Discussion Chapter

… ¶ … Healthcare Management

Comparing Websites

In accordance to the Internet World Stats (2008) the net has around 51.4 million individuals within the United Kingdom (UK), for that reason a brand-new technique for advertising healthcare counted on the use and extent of the internet. Regrettably big bulks of internet sites are uncontrolled, out-of-date and incorrect, triggering them to be possibly unsafe for clients who actively inquire about their medical diagnosis online. As a registered nurse it is our responsibility to offer clients with exact and safe info whilst making use of the very best readily available proof (NMC, 2011); for that reason when informing clients about their condition, any internet sites we advise need to be precise, safe to utilize and approximately dates in the recent months, properly cited and quickly available.

Sites should be individual, friendly, attractive, offer navigation with convenience, while a business invests in a progressing item, the client's desires and needs should constantly be at the center, while exactly what a business needs to provide is of excellent value, exactly what the business's clients are looking for is exactly what is very important. To this end a client who sets out to research info on health care companies, can now do this with relative convenience. They can compare businesses as well as evaluate rates, research items being provided all within a time space of twenty-four hours and get to an educated and fully aware healthcare choice based upon exactly what has actually been offered by the business they've searched. The development of "Meaningful Use" has actually for life altered the means of how healthcare is provided in between healthcare suppliers and their clients in a significant way, with facilities such as e-prescribing. The statute points out…… [read more]


Ethical and Legal Perspectives in Health Care Essay

… Ethical and Legal Perspectives in Health Care (Discussion Questions)

"Because Congress passed ARRA after passing HIPAA, any conflicting provisions between the two statues will be governed by the provisions of ARRA. The two statues can be reconciled because of a provision in ARRA that states any HIPAA statutory provision or regulation remains in effect to the extent that it is consistent with AARA. Discuss one conflicting provision between the two laws and explain how the conflict would be resolved. Include a brief explanation of ARRA and HIPAA."

First student

The 1996 Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) was primarily designed to protect patient privacy after the explosion of electronic record-keeping in the 1990s. Electronic records are encouraged by the federal government because they have been proven to reduce medical errors and enhance patient safety (Provisions, 2008, AIHA). However, the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA) substantively expanded the provisions of HIPAA. "Previously, HIPAA applied only to the use and disclosure of individually identifiable health information (known as 'protected health information') by health care providers, health plans, and health care clearinghouses (known collectively as 'covered entities')" (Kastel 2009). While other vendors were not covered by HIPAA, under ARRA they are now subject to the same privacy guidelines as direct providers. This ensures that all companies employed within the healthcare industry, not just simply healthcare providers, are similarly subjected to privacy restrictions as direct providers. No third parties with vested interests can gain access to private healthcare data (like insurers) nor can such indirectly involved entities profit off of patient data. This also establishes the principle that it is not the question of 'who' has private patient data that matters regarding privacy protections, but the fact that on principle patient data must be private.

References

Kastel, G. (2009). ARRA changes. Faegre Baker Daniels. Retrieved:

http://www.faegrebd.com/8969

Provisions of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009, Public Law 111. (2009).

AHIMA. Retrieved: http://www.ahima.org/downloads/pdfs/advocacy/AnalysisofARRAPrivacy-fin-3-2009a.pdf

Second student

Protecting patient privacy is of greater importance than ever. The explosion of online technology, as originally governed by HIPAA, has changed a great deal since the law was first passed. It is essential that privacy laws pertaining to patient records are continually updated to reflect changes in it and also cultural attitudes towards what constitutes private information. There is always concern that sensitive patient data will fall into the wrong hands, either of potential employers or insurers, and will be used in an unconstitutional fashion. According to ARRA, now all entities handling patient data are bound by the guidelines of HIPAA and "must comply with administrative, physical, and technical safeguards and with documentation and policy requirements" regarding their handling of data, lest they be fined (Rosati 2009). Thus, it may be required that entities create new methods of encryption of data and set new in-house policies which they did not before to ensure ARRA compliance -- complying with HIPAA alone will not be a defense or an excuse if data is illegally released.

Reference

Rosati… [read more]


French Health System Essay

… To make matters worse, the system is losing billions of Euros every single year from not raising prices to cover the costs of treating patients. This means that the government must make up for the shortfalls and it opens the door for potential abuses to occur. These disparities have led to many people going overseas to seek out the treatment they need. ("The Awesome French Healthcare System," 2013) (Torsoli, 2013)

Country's Healthcare Financing Mechanisms (e.g., Fee for Service, Free or Supported by Taxation)

The French healthcare system is funded mainly through a government program called Social Security. The way it works is those who are employed will pay a tax into the program. For a visit to their physician, they will be responsible for a set fee of € 9. To help offset these costs, individuals can purchase private supplemental insurance to cover what is not included in the program (through the General National Insurance Scheme). This is regulated by the government and it ensures that the premiums remain affordable for everyone. (Herzlinger, 2004)

Anyone who is unemployed or homeless is offered with full benefits. However, their costs will be completely covered by Social Security. If there is any kind of funding shortfalls, the government will make up for the difference. This is showing how the French system is a combination of the fee for service and universal care models. It is supported in the form of an income tax to Social Security. (Herzlinger, 2004)

References

The Awesome French Healthcare System. (2013). Reach Financial Independence. Retrieved from:

http://reachfinancialindependence.com/french-healthcare/

Herzlinger, R. (2004). Consumer Driven Healthcare. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.

Taylor, A. (2012). The U.S. Could Learn a lot from the French Health Care System. Business Insider. Retrieved from:

http://www.businessinsider.com/french-healthcare-system-2012-7

Torsoli, A. (2013). France's Healthcare System is Going Broke. Business Week. Retrieved from:

http://www.businessweek.com/articles/2013-01-03/frances-health-care-system-is-going-broke

APA Format. http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/01/… [read more]

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