Study "Healthcare / Health / Obamacare" Essays 56-110

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Health Law and Regulations Research Paper

… Under this new program, health care providers will have to pay a $.08 cent fee for every dollar they are charging to help patients make more informed decisions about their treatment options and services available. This is having an effect on their different hospitals by causing the cost structures to increase dramatically. ("A Summary of Fees and Taxes," 2013)

HIPAA is having an effect on Coventry Healthcare by requiring the provider to have greater protections in place to ensure that they are in compliance with these provisions. This means that they will see increasing costs from implementing different polices. That are requiring them to change how they are submitting paperwork to the CMS. At the same time, they must continue to engage in practices that will update these standards and follow them over the long-term. This will result in continuous training and monitoring to ensure that staff members are in compliance with these provisions. ("Health Care Law / Legislation," 2013)

For instance, a study that was conducted by the AMA found that many of these procedures were often very complex. This is because health care providers (such as: Coventry) were forced to follow a long list of requirements in order to be in accordance with these provisions. The problem is that there was a slowdown in the payments and the claims they were receiving. This is because a central clearinghouse was used in the process and there were times when something was completed. Yet, it would come back as requiring more information to be in compliance with these guidelines. For Coventry, if there was a streamlining of these guidelines, they could save $200 billion every year. At the same time, their cost structures and operating environment would become more efficient utilizing them. ("Standardization of the Claims Process," 2009)

Include ways that you have seen this effect in your own life or community.

The way that these laws have taken effect inside the community is to create a change in the kinds of services health care providers are offering. This is occurring through them having to adjust the fees they are charging. It is at this point, when they are seeking out more guidelines from the CMS about possible policy changes and if there will be shifts in the way they are reimbursing Medicare or Medicaid for these services. ("A Summary of Fees and Taxes," 2013)

While the use of electronic filing is leading to increased amounts of training and support to ensure they are following these procedures. This has slowed down their billing cycle and made it more challenging to collect what is owed to the various facilities. When this happens, there has been a shift in their cost structure. It is at this point where these challenges have been impacting the economic viability of some locations moving forward. ("Standardization of the Claims Process," 2009)

Clearly, the Affordable Care Act and HIPAA are having a dramatic impact upon the way different health care services are provided. To deal with these… [read more]

Community Organizing for Health Research Paper

… Oral Health: A Community Health Problem

Oral remains a serious public health issue in the U.S., since it has significant effect on the overall health and well-being of people (Kaylor, Polivka, Chaudry, Salsberry, & Wee, 2011). Oral health has been… [read more]

Healthcare Legislation Healthcare Information Systems Research Paper

… He said then that he had signed an executive order (which is not technically legislation, but it is often followed as such) in which the goal was for most Americans to have electronic medical records by 2014 (EHealthWV, 2004). The initiative was enacted because it would streamline the records keeping abilities of the healthcare system, and make patient records more accessible across the breadth of the healthcare industry. This was an admirable goal that set in motion the next wave of legislation.

State's legislatures began addressing this issue soon after the President mentioned the problem in his State of the Union, and by 2007 many states had at least allocated funds for studies (HITCh, 2007). According to Mertz (2008), 44 states had enacted some type of law that allocated funds, implemented, or regulated health information technology initiatives. For example, Alabama created a new commission called the Health Information Technology Partnership (HITP) that is responsible for funding and overseeing HIT, Missouri established the Healthcare Technology Fund which "consists of all gifts, donations, transfers, and moneys appropriated by the general assembly, and bequests to the fund," and Virginia enacted legislation that would regulate and technology used in state institutions (HITCh, 2007). These various state laws were just the beginning as state legislators were anxious to ensure the progressive nature of their base of healthcare law.

The federal government tried to help people recover from the financial crisis of 2008 by instituting the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009. Within this Act were provisions for medical records and other healthcare information technology. According to the HIMSS (2009), "It includes over $20 billion to aid in the development of a robust IT infrastructure for healthcare and to assist providers and other entities in adopting and using health IT." This money was spread through many different agencies to make sure that it provided the most benefit to the most people. The purpose of the legislation was to stimulate the economy, and this provision was supposed to provide infrastructure building jobs in healthcare.

In 2010, the government passed what has come to be known as Obamacare, but is officially the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (Maruca, 2010). The main provision of the bill that affects healthcare information systems according to Maruca (2010) is it "will reduce or eliminate the need to submit paper attachments with claims, a pet peeve of many healthcare providers." Healthcare providers often still want to give addendums and attachments with a required paper backup because they still do not trust the quality of the electronic systems.


The problem with healthcare privacy is constantly being addressed by the streams of legislation and by the companies that manufacture the HIT systems. Healthcare technology legislation is moving forward slowly now after an initial flush of activity by state agencies. The issue remains that it may cripple in some ways the flexibility of the systems, but the laws are meant to protect patients information.


EHealthWV. (2004). Health information technology backgrounder. Retrieved from… [read more]

Employer Healthcare Benefit Plans Essay

… The process of the Medicaid expansion in its own entity will reduce the number of people who are uninsured down to 8 million again this estimate is relative to the status quo and its projection. Finally when we talk about the employer penalty, it is estimated to reduce down to 1.5 million in relation to the projection of the status quo (IDMC. 1987).

Premiums in the Non-group Market Also Decline

Since PPACA is based on phases, in this respect the non-group market is also expected to grow through major alterations. The major insurance

Market will change which includes guarantee issues, various community ratings and the premium rate banding system. This will however result in the younger and healthier people facing the highest premiums in the non-group markets. This in return will provide the people an incentive to leave their previous plans which will however lead to a death spiral of the always increasing premiums regarding the above mentioned plans (Pauly. 2002). As this process takes places the exchange plans will start becoming more available, this process will be assisted by the risk equalization hence limiting all the adverse selection criteria, the various lower administrative costs; hence it is safe to say that these plans not just attract all those who will be planning on laving the non-group market but it will also assist the previously uninsured people who happen to young healthy but can't afford simple insurance. It can be predicted exactly how all of these transitions will occur but it can assumed safely that the exchange program will eventually replace the non-group market.


In this day and age of uncertainty the need for caution and risk becomes even more evident and essential considering that today's world is being bombarded with economic and political uncertainty from everywhere. Much of the effect of the PPACA and its implication will depend upon the conditioned of the economy. The scope of the legislation will have its own effect on the economy which will have the potential of increasing the impact of other pudding factors. Unfortunately, community needs and operating requirements do not allow health care governing bodies and executives to defer decision-making until the final effects become clear.


I recommend that in any attempt to project the real impact of the Act and the legislation must be taken into account both in literal and the language describing all the individual components of the act and their trajectory should be determined by the total content, the references made against policies and of course concerning the party which is in power including previous historical patterns. In law and politics, the whole often does prove to be greater than the sum of its parts, particularly after the implementing regulations are written.


Manning W. And Marquis S, "Health Insurance: The Tradeoff Between Risk Pooling and Moral Hazard," Journal of Health Economics, Vol. 15, No. 5, October 1996, pp. 609 -- 639.

Manning WG, Newhouse JP, Duan N, Keeler EB, Leibowitz A, and Marquis MS,… [read more]

Affordable Care School-Based Health Clinics Essay

… It has been shown that school-based clinics offer students more visits than students that do not have access to school-based care in urban centers (Rickert, Davis, Riley, & Ryan, 1997). It has also been shown to be an effective alternative model when factors such as rural residence, minority ethnicity, younger age, no driver's license, and other similar items are considered (Crosby & Lawrence, 2000). The cons that the evolving health care environment can be summarized by volatility in the system as the new platform evolves. Many children who have previously been uninsured may gain traditional access through the legislation. Therefore, it is possible that there will be a reduced emphasis on further the school-based clinic solution since other alternatives will now be available.

Personal Views

Personally, I believe that the school-based clinic is one of the most effective ways to engage the youth and engage them in regards to their health while other alternatives may not be able to meet their specific needs as effectively. Although this health delivery system will have to deal with a changing environment, it stands to the potential to further develop as the adolescents preferred choice of health care delivery since it is capable to meeting their specific needs.

Works Cited

Brindis, C., & Sanghvi, R. (1997). SCHOOL-BASED HEALTH CLINICS: Remaining Viable in a Changing Heatlh System. Annual Review of Public Health, 567-587.

Crosby, R., & Lawrence, J. (2000). Adolescents' Use of School-Based Health Clinics for Reproductive Health Services. The Journal of School Health, 22-28.

HRSA Press Office. (2011, December 8). Affordable Care Act support for school-based health centers will create jobs, increase access to care for thousands of children.

Rickert, V., Davis, S., Riley, A., & Ryan, S. (1997). Rural School-Based Clinics: Are Adolescents Willing to Use Them and What Services Do They Want? The Journal of School Health, 144-149.

Strunk, J. (2008). The Effect of School-Based Health Clinics on Teenage Pregnancy…… [read more]

Laws and Health Care Essay

… I am hoping that this idea of physician-assisted suicide becomes more commonplace in the health care industry due to the compassion that ironically may provide for those wishing to emphasize the quality of their lives over the quantity of their lives. This emphasis may provide a more effective, efficient, economic, and humane environment that allows for more reason and compassion to flourish. Laws and regulations are necessary, but to me it seems the less local the law, the more harmful it is to those of us in the health care industry that are left to deal with the mess.


Anderson, A. (2014). The Impact of the Affordable Care Act on the Health Care Workforce. The Heritage Foundation, 18 Mar 2014. Retrieved from

Emanuel, E.J., Daniels, E.R., Fairclough, D.L., & Clarridge, B.R. (1996). Euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide: attitudes and experiences of oncology patients, oncologists, and the public. The Lancet, 347(9018), 1805-1810.

McClanahan, C. (2012). Cliffs Notes Version of the ACA. Forbes, 9 July 2012. Retrieved from

Pereira, J. (2012). Legalizing euthanasia or assisted suicide: the illusion of safeguards and control. Current Oncology, Apr 2011, 18 (2). Retrieved from

Ward, P.R. (1997). Health care rationing: can we afford to ignore euthanasia?. Health Services Management Research, 10(1-2), 32-41.… [read more]

Health Care Trends Essay

… 13)

Unfortunately, of the two choices given in the carrot and stick approach, the carrot seems to work better at improving the health of Americans. One reason for this is the fact that individual's do not always base their health care decisions on personal factors alone, there are often societal, environmental, and economic factors. For instance, wealthy people are far more likely to join health clubs and eat healthier food than poor people. This is because health clubs and healthy food cost more and poor people often cannot afford to act in ways that promote better health. However, the carrot approach can offer incentives for those unable to afford healthy practices and make it more likely that economically disadvantaged people can engage in healthy lifestyles. What is needed is a comprehensive program which, among other things, offer incentives to those who need them. Incentives have been demonstrated to "work well when they are incorporated into comprehensive programs that provide social services, such as transportation assistance, counseling, and home nurse visits." (Blacksher, 2008, p.15)

Most agree that it is better to prevent health problems rather than to treat them. But in order to prevent health problems individuals must make better, more informed lifestyle choices. Therefore, many private and public organizations are attempting to get people to change their lifestyles so as to prevent possible health problems such as heart disease, diabetes, cancer, etc.. Both incentives to promote healthy lifestyles and penalties for those who do not engage in healthy behavior are currently being used to alter the behavior of individuals with varying results. In the end it seems that in order to promote healthy lifestyle choices, and thus improve the overall health of society while saving precious health care funds, incentives work much better than punishments. Incentives take into account factors other than individual personal choices when promoting healthy behavior.


Blacksher, Erika. (2008). "Carrots and Sticks to Promote Healthy Behaviors." Hasting

Center Report. Retrieved from

Berman, Micah. (Fall 2011). "From Health Care Reform to Public Health Reform."

Journal of Law, Medicine, and Ethics, vol. 39 (3). Retrieved from… [read more]

State Health Care Reforms Essay

… The Employer Fair Share Contribution was $295 per employee paid into the Health Safety Net Trust Fund.

Impacts of ACA on the State of Massachusetts

In many ways, the ACA was based on Massachusetts model and was used as a guiding force in the development of those federal reforms. The ACA did modify Massachusetts' health care reform laws in many ways that were similar to the other states of Vermont and Maine. The application of these new requirements forced the local government to make changes to its rules and laws that were in compliance at a national level.

As a result of the ACA, the MassHealth program had to restructure its categories of coverage to align with federal guidelines. This included reshuffling economic dividing lines and excluding some people who were previous enrolled in this plan. Many of the services that were offered in the Massachusetts Health Reform Act were either modified, upgraded or switched with other federal programs to earn subsidies and fall into compliance with law.

The Federal health reforms also demanded other new requirements that were dedicated to consumer protection and upholding fair and just treatment within the medical community and health care environment. Some of these protections included that new insurance policies must offer free immunizations without copays or deductibles. Also insurance companies, unlike in the past, cannot drop a patient from its coverage because of the size and scope of their claims. Additionally, anyone with pre-existing conditions cannot be denied coverage under these new federal rules and regulations.


Bragdon, T. & Allumbaugh, J. (2011). Health Care Reform in Maine: Reversing "Obamacare Lite.." The Heritage Foundation, 19 July 2011. Retrieved from

Grubb, L. (2013). Lessons From Vermont's Health Care Reform. The New England Journal of Medicine, 4 April 2013. Retrieved from (nd). Individual Health Insurance in Maine. Viewed 6 June 2014. Retrieved from

Vermont State Senator Tim Ashe Website (2011). Vermont Health Care Reform Explained. March 2011. Retrieved from (nd). Massachusetts Health Insurance Requirements. Viewed 6 June 2014. Retrieved from

Tully, S. (2009). 5 Freedoms…… [read more]

Seniors in Healthcare Research Paper

… Affordable Care Act (ACA), signed into law by President Barack Obama in March, 2010, is -- objectively speaking -- the most comprehensive social reform law passed since the Civil Rights Act, the Voting Rights Act, and Medicare, all enacted in the 1960s. The reform legislation is aimed at the whole country but senior citizens in particular are impacted. The legislation holds insurance companies accountable (ACA prohibits companies from dropping your coverage because you get sick or because of a pre-existing condition); it allows young adults to stay on their parents' plan until they are 26; it makes healthcare affordable and prohibits insurance companies from putting a lifetime limit on the amount of coverage an individual can have. Those who cannot afford coverage (by 2014 all Americans will be required to have healthcare insurance) can receive tax credits and other financial support to help them purchase coverage. There is much more to the legislation that this paper is not lengthy enough to cover.

And yet to hear some of the criticisms of the ACA, one would think this plan (among other things) will bankrupt the country, send senior citizens to their graves when they are not ready, and usher in some kind of socialism that goes against the grain of capitalism and democracy. One of the attacks on the legislation that got the most publicity -- and was the most vicious distortion of many distortions that were launched by conservatives to plant doubt in citizens' minds -- was made by former Alaska governor, Sarah Palin. Palin wrote in her Facebook page: My baby "…with Down Syndrome will have to stand in front of Obama's 'death panel' so his bureaucrats can decide, based on a subjective judgment of their 'level of productivity in society' whether they are worthy of health care. Such a system is downright evil," Palin concluded. The truth is, there are no death panels in the bill, and Palin's smear is just one of many outrageous attacks that have made this bill highly controversial. It isn't controversial just because it's new and bold and people don't really understand all its components; it is controversial in large…… [read more]

Public Health Reform Term Paper

… Public Health Reform: The Affordable Health Care Act

The objective of this study is to review a portion of the Affordable Care Act and present the strengths and weaknesses of the plan as well as make suggestions for plan improvement. For this purpose, this study will review the implementation of Electronic Health Records (EHS) and the rules of meaningful use. The Patient Protection and Affordable Health Care Act of 2010 and the Health Care and Education Affordability Reconciliation Act, enacted in March 2010 are focused on providing Americans with "broader access to health insurance coverage and affordable, high-quality health care." (infocus, 2011, p.1)

Electronic Health Records Certification and Meaningful Use

It is reported that the Standards and Certification Criteria Final Rule " represents the first step in an incremental approach to adopting standards, implementation specifications, and certification criteria to enhance the interoperability, functionality, utility, and security of health it and to support its meaningful use. The certification criteria adopted in this initial set establish the required capabilities and related standards and implementation specifications that certified EHR technology will need to include in order to, at a minimum, support the achievement of meaningful use Stage 1 (beginning in 2011) by eligible professionals and eligible hospitals under the Medicare and Medicaid EHR Incentive Programs." (Health, 2013, p.1)

Testing and Certification

The Federal Register (2010) Department of Health and Human Services, Center for Medicare & Medicaid Services reports that a final rule was published June 24, 2010 that established a temporary certification program in which the National Coordinator would provide authority to organizations for testing and certification of complete EHRs and HER Modules and for plans to issue a separate final rule to establish a permanent certification program that would replace the temporary one. This final rule is…… [read more]

Affordable Care Act: Positives and Negatives Essay

… This has some validity when looking at the votes on key Obama legislation: not one House Republican supported the Obama stimulus package and only 3 Republicans in the Senate supported it.

Two potential impacts explained by the Boubacar article

That having been said, in the Boubacar piece, the professor points out that 88.2% of Wisconsin farm owners agree that the healthcare in the U.S. needed reform, but 56.7% said they had no plans "…to accommodate changes in the healthcare reforms" that ACA calls for (Boubacar, 2014, 11). And 53% of those farm owners say they "less likely" to provide health insurance for their employees (Boubacar, 11). That flies in the face of one of the mandates of ACA: employers must provide coverage "or face a financial penalty," Boubacar explains (12).

At least two things can result (or have resulted) vis-a-vis the farmers in Wisconsin as they consider the ACA and the health of their employees. Low-cost insurance has been made available through the "exchanges" as part of the ACA; however, small firms (including farmers) with lower-wage workforces "may stop providing coverage for an estimated 8 million to 9 million employees despite the option to purchase individual, subsidized, and comprehensive coverage through exchanges" (Boubacar, 13). On the other hand, those farmers who employ workers could be protected against "…costly out-of-pocket expenses" if they provide "revamped and high performance health systems" that offer reduced long-term costs of coverage (and are available through the ACA) (Boubacar, 13). Moreover, those farmers purchasing insurance for their workers could have payment arrangements "that improve patient experiences and health outcomes" (Boubacar, 14).

In conclusion, Boubacar expresses the notion that there is a need to "expand farm owners' education about the ACA" so those farmers will be able to "maintain a viable financial environment for their businesses." In the end, notwithstanding the drumbeat of negativity from Republicans and from media people like Rush Limbaugh and Sean Hannity, the ACA will become a helpful, healthy alternative to those who have no insurance, and to farmers who need affordable alternatives for the coverage their employees need.

Works Cited

Boubacar, I, and Foster, S. (2014). Analysis of Small Business Owners' Perception of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act: Evidence from Wisconsin Farmers.

Economics, Management, and Financial Markets, 9(1), 11-20.

CNN. (2009). Obama calls for health-care reform in 2009. Retrieved June 13, 2014, from

O'Keefe, E. (2014). The House has voted 54 times in 4 years on Obamacare. Here's the full list. The Washington Post.…… [read more]

Patient Centered Medical Homes (Pcmh) Essay

… Here the focus of the medical staff remains on the issue or disease that has brought the patient to the hospital. However, the notion of medical homes ensures that people receive health care by expert practitioners who are equivalently good… [read more]

Health Care the Overall Research Paper

… Recommendation

To remedy many of the negatives occurrences described above regarding per diem associates, reform must occur within the industry overall. My recommendation would be to help streamline processes within organizations to make a seamless transition for per diem nurses. This transition will mitigate many of the negative aspects mentioned above. Technology should be used that is simple and intuitive for per diem nurses to use without the risk of error. For example, the document discusses the rapid evolution of technology. Firms should not adopt innovative technology unless the general population of workers can easily implement the proposed technological solution. In addition, training will become vital to the increase the efficiencies of the overall nursing profession. My recommendation will encourage proper training of associates to better prepare them for the coming technological evolution in minimal time. In addition, I would create a seamless integration of technology that is seamless to help minimize the risk of error from per diem nurses. I would also institute training to help nurses better acclimate to the culture of my department within the health care firm.


In conclusion, as discussed in detail above, per diem nurses have numerous pros and cons in regards to management. For one, there is declining number of qualified nurses. Second, technological advances require massive amounts to training. Third, particularly due to legislation, the skill set needed to perform the job has changes. All of which has created a negative atmosphere regarding per diem nurses. However, many nurses have skill sets that transcend tradition roles. These skills include leadership, business, motivation, and team building. All of which is needed to compete in a more dynamic environment. In addition management can place nurses in high demand areas within the firm which reduces client wait times, while also enhancing customer service. When the nurse is no longer needed, management can simply allocate the labor to more productive areas within the firm. As such, as with many industries, there are many pros and cons to per diem nurses. However, when viewed in a holistic manner, the benefits seem to outweigh the costs associate with them.


1) Draper, Elaine, Joseph LaDou, and Dan J. Tennenhouse. 2011. "Occupational Health Nursing and the Quest for Professional Authority," New Solutions 21, 47 -- 81

2) Fang, D., Wilsey-Wisniewski, S.J., & Bednash, G.D. (2006). 2005-2006 enrollment and graduations in baccalaureate and graduate programs in nursing. Washington, DC: American Association of Colleges of Nursing

3) Levsey, K.R., Campbell, D., & Green, A. (2007). Yesterday, Today, and Tomorrow; Challenges in Securing Federal Support for Graduate Nurses. Journal of Nursing Education, 46(4), 176-183

4) Lucia, Patricia R.; Otto, Tammy E.; Palmier, Patrick A. (2009). "Chapter 1

Performance in Nursing." Reviews of Human Factors and Ergonomics 5: 5 -- 39

5) Charles Maynard and Michael K. Chapko. Data Resources in the Department of Veterans Affairs Diabetes Care. May 2004. 27:b22-b26; doi:10.2337/diacare.27.suppl_2.B22

6) Journal of Clinical Epidemiology Volume 54, Issue 12, December 2001, Pages 1195-1203

7) Accuracy of the VA databases for… [read more]

Pending Legislation Research Paper

… Adam Searing, a health policy expert at the N.C. Justice Center, an organization which actively advocates for the poor and opposes the Republican-driven legislation, has expressed his professional appraisal that low-income citizens who fail to meet the qualification standards for… [read more]

Mental Health the Recent Changes Research Paper

… Mental Health

The recent changes to the health care sector (from the passage of the Affordable Care Act) have raised concerns about its long-term effectiveness in dealing with the uninsured, rising costs and quality. To fully understand the lasting impacts… [read more]

Universal Healthcare Obamacare Term Paper

… Universal Health Care

On March 23, 2010 President Obama signed into law the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (i.e. Obamacare). This regulation radically transformed the way health care solutions are provided to the public and the practices of insurance companies. A few of the most notable include: increasing competition, making it illegal to deny coverage for preexisting conditions and expanding coverage for states / employers. This was in response to the 86 million Americans that have no health insurance or restrictions. To understand what is happening, there will be a focus on three different positions to include: the White House, moderates and Tea Party members. Together, these areas will highlight the benefits and drawbacks of Obamacare. ("Fact Sheet") ("Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act")

The Position of the White House (i.e. position one): The White House and leading Democrats believe that the passage of Obamacare will prevent costs from spiraling out of control. According to Klein (2012) it will stop insurance companies from discriminating against individuals, it is extending coverage to the middle class / poor, there is a tax cut for small businesses needing assistance, a focus on primary care and using technology to improve efficiency. The combination of these factors will enhance quality and reduce costs. (Klein) ("Fact Sheet") ("What is the Affordable Care Act")

The Position of Moderates (i.e. position two): Moderates believe that something must be done to address the current crisis. However, they do not want to see Obamacare have some type of universal coverage. Instead, they need to ensure that the free markets control certain elements with the federal government playing less of a dominate role. According to Lueck (2010) the current law does not have a universal mandate. This is because there is a marketplace where insurance companies will compete against nonprofits and other organizations to offer coverage. In the future this will reform the insurance industry, slow the growth in costs and expand coverage. Yet, there are concerns that this may create too much regulation. When this happens, there could be a slowdown innovation, quality and cutting edge techniques. The key for moderates is maintaining some kind of balance that will address the problems and protect the integrity of the free market system. (Lueck) ("Health Care") (Gibson)

The Tea Party Position (i.e. position three):…… [read more]

Pre-Existing Condition and Denial Research Paper

… Rockefeller IV and President Obama stated that beginning in 2010 that insurance companies "will be banned from denying insurance coverage to children with pre-existing conditions." (New York Times, 2010)

The New York Times report states "The authors of the law… [read more]

How Healthcare Policies Are Changing Research Paper

… ¶ … NPR podcast, from a survey conducted by Rice University, and other sources, to point out the kinds of competition that are out there within the health insurance field. The NPR podcast covers a number of important issues relative… [read more]

Inpatient Care to Outpatient Research Paper

… " The particular Health Reform Legislation will lead to substantive modifications all through the medical care community, such as (1) broadened protection for hundreds of thousands of Americans without-insurance, (2) decreased Medicare process paying, (3) elevated State Medicaid programs registration as well as spending, along with (4) purposeful health insurance coverage business reform (Barry et al., 2013).

Initially, during FY 2013, medical facilities will obtain higher basic price per discharge bills for fulfilling specific medical quality procedures for specific circumstances, such as intense myocardial infarction, cardiovascular system malfunction, specific surgical treatments, healthcare-linked transmissions as well as pneumonia. Starting within FY 2014, HHS should make sure that this payment strategy consists of proficiency guidelines, like Medicare expending per named beneficiary. Financing of these bills will probably be produced via decreased in-patient PPS bills to medical facilities within the following quantities for the subsequent financial years: One Percent for The year 2013, 1.25% for the year 2014, 1.5% for the year 2015, 1.75% for the year 2016, and also Two Percent for the year 2017 and afterwards (Barry et al., 2013).

The Health Reform Legislation demands the institution of the voluntary, nationwide pilot program which will package bills for doctor and medical center (out-patient and in-patient) in addition to post-acute therapy (SNF, IRF, LTCH) solutions, according to an "episode of care" for specific disorders chosen through the Secretary of Health and Human Services. The particular "episode of care" issue towards the packaged compensation is 3 days before the admission, the duration of stay as well as Thirty days after release. The objective, clearly, would be to enhance client care as well as decreased spending. Therefore, instead of DRG bills to medical facilities as well as separate RBRVS expenses to doctors, for services provided to some Medicare receiver while in an "episode of care," Medicare is going to "test" packaged payments, known as an "episode centered-payment (Barry et al., 2013).


Barry, D.M., Luband, C.A. And Lutz, H.T. (2013). The Impact of Healthcare Reform Legislation on Medicare, Medicaid and CHIP. Accessed from:

Rossi, P.H., Lipsey, M.W. And Freeman, H.E.…… [read more]

Patient Centered Medical Homes Term Paper

… Practices of this sort are equipped with an integrated health information technology system. In addition, are supported by an adequate payment arrangement that distinguishes the added value of patient-centered components (Bates, 2010).

In the model of patient centered medical home, the patient is put in the center of the care model where all of the needs and concerns are taken care of. The top priority is to satisfy the patients with quality care and safety. The treatment provided in PCMH are cost-efficient, in addition the physician payments reflects the PCMH's added value. In a PCMH, the patient works together with the family physician in order to ensure the wellness of a patient.

In 1967, the term medical home was made use of by the American Academy of Pediatrics in order to describe the concept of a single centralized source of care. Before completely making a shift towards the PCMH model, it is the duty of health care organizations to address the issue of space. As traditional primary care practices don't really have space for physicians to have private conversations or activities with the patients. With use of a fully integrated EMR, PCMHs are able to carry out team-based care for chronic conditions by permitting their members to visualize the patient right there and then. Although, for transitioning primary care practices, developing an EMR that implements the principles of PMCH has been hard.

All through the U.S., there has been increase in support of the PCMH. Since, PCMH is foundational to Accountable Care Organizations (ACOs), often referred to as medical neighborhoods. As a result, PCMH is expected to attain a lot for eminence as ACOs keep on developing in the marketplace. According to the research conducted, PCMH has turned out to be an efficient way of providing primary care and is helpful in transforming the U.S. health system. In order to control the costs, improve patient experience and to improve the health of Americans, majority of the insurers are driving PCMH efforts nationwide. It is true that in order to implement the features of a PCMH time is required. But the long-term cost saving are just striking. Due to offering high quality health care via PCMH, the results show a decrease in unnecessary ED visits and inpatient hospital admissions.


Aysola, J., E.J. Orav, and J.Z. Ayanian. 2011. "Neighborhood Characteristics Associated With Access To Patient-Centered Medical Homes For Children." Health Affairs no. 30 (11):2080-2089.

Bates, D.W., and A. Bitton. 2010. "The Future Of Health Information Technology In The Patient-Centered Medical Home." Health Affairs no. 29 (4):614-621.

Nutting, Paul A., William L. Miller, Benjamin F. Crabtree, Carlos Roberto Jaen, Elizabeth E. Stewart, and Kurt C. Stange. 2009. "Initial Lessons From the First National Demonstration Project on Practice Transformation to a Patient-Centered Medical Home." Ann…… [read more]

Propositions That Pertain Term Paper

… If the true outcome of ObamaCare was intended to be that everyone get insured, the penalty would (and should) be a lot higher, even with the concerns about Commerce Clause violations. Free riders are a problem in healthcare but ObamaCare… [read more]

Individual Mandate in PPACA Essay

… ("PPACA: Detailed Summary") And for the benefit to society provided by this new mandate, supporters point out that the mandates will not even go into effect until 2014, and even then those who choose not to enroll in an insurance plan only have to pay a measly $95. ("PPACA: Detailed Summary") And while this penalty does increase over time, eventually reaching $750 in 2016, that is still much less than an individual would have to pay for their own insurance today. And in response to those who claim that the PPACA will cost jobs, supporters can demonstrate that this is not true; any business that chooses to opt out of providing insurance to their employees only has to pay a penalty of just $750 per employee. This is hardly a major imposition, either financially or morally.

In the end the supporters of the individual mandate have a more cogent and moral argument. Without everyone contributing to the overall health of society, it will end up costing each American more in the long run. As healthcare costs have skyrocketed, the only reasonable, financially responsible, and morally correct thing to do is to impose an individual mandate. Much like states often require insurance for those who drive cars, the federal government must require health insurance for all those who potentially may need it; and that means everyone.

Works Cited

"PPACA: Detailed Summary." Responsible Reform for the Middle Class. Web. 25

Oct. 2012.

"PPACA: Executive Summary of the Government Expansions, Vast New Taxes,

Damaging Medicare Cuts, and Increased Health Costs and Premium."

Web. 25 Oct. 2012.


"Summary of Benefits and Coverage (SBC) and Uniform Glossary."

Web. 25 Oct. 2012.… [read more]

Dimensions (Criteria) Research Paper

… v. United States Department of Health and Human Services (3:10-CV-91-RV/EMT). Most of the federal laws are based on the "Commerce" clause of the U.S. Consitution, which says that the federal government has the ability to regulate things that affect commerce… [read more]

Non-Insured Individuals Term Paper

… Non-Insured Individuals

According to an article that appeared last September in USA Today, a record number of Americans lacked health insurance. Wolf (2010) cited a report from the Census Bureau that showed 50.7 million uninsured, a figure representing nearly one… [read more]

Individual Mandate of the PPACA Term Paper

… ¶ … Founding Fathers of the United States went to great lengths to ensure a division of power between the three branches of government and a system of checks and balances was put in place for this purpose. Over the… [read more]

Mckesson Business Conceptualization: Mckesson's Emergent Essay

… Indeed, innovation and ethics could be seen as the two key guiding principles of the firm. According to McKesson's own internal website, "our software, automation technology, distribution and business services play an essential role in addressing the challenges health care organizations face today -- and shaping how they'll overcome them tomorrow. We connect people and organizations, support the quest for higher quality and improved clinical outcomes, and help health care businesses run better. " (McKesson1, p. 1)

This denotes that the firm has worked to cultivate an internal culture of ingenuity, creativity and boldness. The greatest successes that the healthcare field has seen are those which have been achieved in highly open, collaborative and risk-taking settings. McKesson's considerable resources make us more than willing to invest a considerable amount of time, personnel and effort into forging new solutions for long ingrained problems.

Strategic Direction:

The strategic direction of McKesson toward the introduction of new medical IT innovations is especially important as hospitals are scrambling for ways of reducing waste and costs. Indeed, we are in a position to advertise great savings to our clients as compared to the initial investment in our emergent technology. According to the article by Howell (2012), the transition toward digital transferring of medical imaging has the potential to lower unnecessary costs on the healthcare system by a significant margin. Howell reports that "as a significant shift in practice, online image transfer eliminates the possibility that an image-containing CD will be lost when patients visit a new provider or clinical setting. If a patient forgets the CD or if it is misplaced, you face having to either postpone service or repeat scans -- and that's expensive. According to a 2008 McKinsey Global Institute report on diagnostic services, duplicated studies accounted for $26.5 billion in unnecessary healthcare costs." (Howell p. 1)

This informs the strategic direction for McKesson, which already possesses the Research & Development capacity to advance desirable and reliable solutions to this problem. At McKesson, we believe that because we now have the technology for improved sharing of critical medical data and imaging, we also have the responsibility to share it.

Competitive Advantage:

Our competitive advantage is steeped largely in our resources and our reputation. As one of the leading firms in the medical business, we have the financial backing and the personnel to ensure that our approach yields an optimally functional set of products. Moreover, because of our longstanding and positive relationship with so many healthcare facilities, we are also in the unique position to enter into contracts for this new technology integration on good faith.

Works Cited:

CNNMoney. (2013). Fortune500.

Howell, W.L.J. (2012). Taking Medical Image Sharing to the Cloud. Diagnostic

McKesson. (2013). Enterprise Medical Imaging and PACS Solutions Help Enhance Your Financial, Clinical and Operational Effectiveness.

McKesson1. (2013). Who We Are.

Pearce, J.A. II, & Robinson, R.B. (2009). Strategic management: Formulation, implementation, and control (11th…… [read more]

Sky v. Holder Susan Seven Term Paper

… The Court argued that although requiring the purchase of health insurance was an encroachment upon individual liberties such encroachment was no more grievous than requiring hotels and restaurants to serve all customers regardless of race, "… is no more so than a command that restaurants or hotels are obliged to serve all customers regardless of race, that gravely ill individuals cannot use a substance their doctors described as the only effective palliative for excruciating pain or that a farmer cannot grow enough wheat to feed his family. The right to be free from federal regulation is not absolute, and yields to the imperative that Congress is free to forge national solutions to national problems (Key v. Holder, 2011: pp.36-37)."

Although the D.C. Circuit Court's decision is not binding on the remainder of the nation it is considered by many legal experts to be a good harbinger of things to come when the U.S. Supreme Court rules on the constitutionality of the Affordable Care Act this coming fall (Liptak, 2011). The reasoning of the Key Court is considered to be well organized and clearly set forth and incorporates the thinking of some of the more conservative Supreme Court justices whose views will be crucial in the decision making process utilized said Court. If the Supreme Court determines to follow the reasoning set forth in KeyKey, the entire bulk of the Affordable Care Act will likely soon become the law of the land ushering in an entire new era in health care and health insurance in the United States.


Bogen, D.S. (1972). The Hunting of the Shark: An Inquiry into the Limits of Congressional Power Under the Commerce Clause. Wake Forest Law Review, 187-200.

Key v. Holder, 661 F.3d 1 (D.C. Circuit November 8, 2011).

Liptak, A. (2011, November 14). Justices to Hear Health Care Case as Race Heats Up. New York Times, p. A1.

Manchikanti, L. (2011). Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010: Reforming the Health Care Reform for the New Decade. Pain Physician, 35-67.

Wickard v. Filburn, 317 U.S. 111 (U.S. Supreme Court November 9, 1942).

Legal Analysis… [read more]

Codes of Ethics Comparisons Research Paper

… Conversely, the ACA instructs counselors to be "aware of their own values, attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors and avoid imposing values that are inconsistent with counseling goals" (ACA Code of Ethics, 2005, p.5).

Technology is another area of difference between the two codes, with the ACA devoting an entire section to technology applications, while the AACC mentions the topic as being in development. Also, the AACC provide guidelines for lay helpers and non-ordained ministers; the ACA uses neither but does have similar guidelines for supervisees.

With respect to fees, both codes recommend that counselors consider the client's ability to pay for purposes of establishing fees. The ACA rejects accepting private fees from patients who are entitled to counseling through an agency or institution. Both codes advise caution in the use of barter, with the ACA pointing out that barter may be a culturally acceptable practice. As long as the barter does not create an exploitive or harmful relationship, the ACA allows it.

Both ethics codes prohibit the abandonment of clients. They each require counselors to make provisions for the continuation of client care for vacations, illnesses and so forth. They also set forth guidelines for termination of counseling which are nearly identical, including referral to other counselors if necessary.

The ACA and AACC treat research similarly in that research is encouraged as long as clients are protected and confidentiality is maintained. Both codes require informed consent and both stress accuracy and discourage deception. Also, both codes specifically mention the obligation to report unfavorable results. Likewise both discourage plagiarism in publishing study findings.

In summary, comparing and contrasting the two Codes of Ethics reveals many similarities, with many of the differences due primarily to their secular vs. pastoral orientations.

Works Cited

ACA Code of Ethics. (2005). American Counseling Association.

Ohlschlager, G. (2004). AACC code of ethics the Y2004 final code.…… [read more]

Codes of Ethics Comparison Both the American Research Paper

… Codes of Ethics Comparison

Both the American Counseling Association (ACA) and the American Association of Christian Counselors (AACC) maintain codes of ethics that describe the standards to which counselors are expected to adhere throughout their dealings with clients. In some respects, they provide similar rules; in other respects, they provide very different approaches. For example, the AACC covers sexual and romantically intimate relations between counselors and clients in much greater detail than the ACA. Both codes cover discrimination issues but the AACC reflects a definite theological basis for its code in that area whereas the ACA is limited only to the issues recognized by secular law. Finally, both the AACC and ACA codes address client records; however, while the AACC focuses mainly on ownership, confidentiality, and appropriate handling f records, the ACA addresses their process of documentation, reflecting the more formal and structured nature of professional counseling services in general.

Sexual Relationships between Counselors and Clients

The American Counseling Association Code of Ethics and the American Association of Christian Counselors Code of Ethics both address the issue of sexual relationships and contact between counselors and clients. By comparison, the ACA Code of Ethics is much less detailed and comprehensive in its scope. It prohibits only sexual contact and romantically intimate relationships with clients and their family members during the period of professional association and within five years of the last professional contact. The ACA Code of Ethics allows such contact and relationships beyond that period provided only that the counselor "demonstrate forethought" in written form of the potential for detrimental consequences to the former client.

The American Association of Christian Counselors is much more detailed and particular in this area. First, it strictly prohibits any form of sexual contact or intimate relations between counselors and clients. Unlike the ACA Code, the AACC Code of Ethics prohibits such relationships indefinitely rather than just during the period of the professional relationship or the period immediately following it.

Likewise, whereas the ACA only refers to sexual relations and romantically intimate relationships, the AACC Code goes into much greater detail. For example, it addresses sexually intimate conversation, seductive behavior, and inappropriate intimate disclosure of any kind. Moreover, the AACC even goes so far as to anticipate the possibility that counselors might entertain a sexual interest in clients immediately on meeting them. In that regard, it expressly prohibits counselors from terminating the professional relationship in order to pursue a sexual interest thereafter. The AACC even addresses the anonymous use of Internet communications between counselors and clients. This tremendous detail suggests that…… [read more]

Business of Health Care Term Paper

… Coverage -- In a move to give health insurance coverage, additional people will generate a new trend of challenges. Failure to improve access means there would be still a problem in care delivery. Medicaid and Medicaid patients have demonstrated it… [read more]

New Healthcare Challenges for a Divers and Growing Elderly Population Term Paper

… There were an estimated 3.3 million African-Americans over 65 in 2010, according to the Administration on Aging (AoA). By 2050, it is expected that the elderly population of African-Americans will account for about 11% of the 65-and-older population in the… [read more]

Future of Healthcare Essay

… The corridors should have windows for allowing daylight in and should be inclusive of clocks with the time of day displayed clearly. The light should be filtered so that the hallways are not shadowed so as to confuse someone with… [read more]

Healthcare Finance Efficiency and Effectiveness Essay

… " (p. 3)

Outcome driven treatment essentially means that effectiveness is measured entirely according to the patient's experience.

Works Cited:

Cipriano, P. (2011). Achieving Value in Healthcare Through Efficiency and Effectiveness. Dell, Inc.

Student 3:

Define and describe efficiency and effectiveness. What are the differences between efficiency and effectiveness? How can a healthcare organization use this information?

The healthcare system in the United States is undergoing massive reform right now. Among the many objectives of the Affordable Care Act are the imperatives to create greater efficiency and effectiveness in the healthcare system. The former of these refers to the speed and economic management of treatment while the latter refers to the consequence of that treatment.

Hospitals should use this information as a way of improving their efficiency without sacrificing their patients. The Academy of Health (2006) says that one of the biggest flaws in our healthcare system is that many hospitals work to achieve efficiency but lack consistent ways of measuring it. The Academy of Health reports that "measurement of efficiency is challenging due to lack of definition of terms, lack of an agreed upon framework of efficiency, differential access to data, and unresolved technical issues such as sampling methods." (Academy Health, p. 2)

The outcome is that efficiency is pursued haphazardly and with a negative impact on patients. The drive for efficiency prevents nurses and physicians from devoting the time and energy necessary to produce ideal treatment conditions for every patient. Here, effectiveness of treatment is lost. The hope is that with the focus of current legal reforms on making hospitals more accountable, efficiency and effectiveness will be seen as having equal importance.

Works Cited:

Academy Health. (2006). Efficiency in Health Care: What Does It Mean? The Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality.

Part B:

After giving consideration to this subject, I am inclined to believe quite strongly that we shouldn't find ourselves in the position of choosing between efficiency and effectiveness. Instead, these are two characteristics that should inherently apply to our healthcare system. Today, hospitals are increasingly being held accountable for their effectiveness. Programs related to the Affordable Care Act promise to penalize hospitals that don't effectively make improvements in certain areas such as the reduction of preventable readmissions or the assurance that discharged patients have received the full scope of required treatments and patient education.

As we improve in these areas, I also believe there are ways to step up our efficiency that don't require a sacrifice in quality health outcomes. Streamlining and procedural consistency could contribute substantially to this goal as well. According to the text by Drexler (2010), "there are wide variations in how often doctors order tests, prescribe medicines, do surgeries -- not just in different parts of the country, but in hospitals that are right next to each other. One place may do many, many times more procedures of a particular kind than the place next door." (p. 1) This strikes me as an area where we could begin to make improvements… [read more]

Job Opportunities for Health Care Research Paper

… Within the field of healthcare, not only are there increasingly sophisticated machines and tools to detect and treat potential maladies which assists today's aging population, but also there advancements for simple tools for the average laymen to use to monitor and reinforce healthy living. There are several applications for smart phones, for instance, which can monitor factor's related to people's hearts and exercise, count calories, and otherwise assist in salutary living. Increasing sophistication in biotechnology applications also contribute to the fact that people are living longer than they have before, which is why there will be excellent job opportunities in geriatrics.

There are also substantial trends affecting policy at the federal and state level that are responsible for the fact that "employment of medical and health services managers is expected to grow by 22% from 2010 to 2020, faster than the average for all occupations" (BLS, 2010). The Affordable Care Act is making it mandatory for virtually everyone in the country to obtain health care by the year 2014. There are numerous components of this act which will boost the demand for healthcare practitioners, especially for nurses (Wake, 2010, p. 11). Employers will be given benefits to offer more competitive health plans for employees. Individuals will also have options to register for healthcare at the state level -- if they meet certain qualifications -- that will allow the state to subsidize a significant portion of their patients. This piece of legislation, along with general economic indicators that suggest that the recession that began in earnest during the last decade is beginning to taper off, will result in the need for substantial more health care practitioners in 2020 than there currently are. Nursing is one of the professions that is projected to be impacted the most by these new demands. Therefore, health care managers who are involved in geriatrics, perhaps in nursing homes or in conventional hospital facilities, will likely have a copious amount of job security within the coming decade.

In summary, the best opportunities for jobs for health care managers will be in the field of geriatrics. The specific setting in which these individuals are employed may vary. Nursing homes, hospitals, and outpatient facilities are all expected to burgeon to meet the demand for geriatric patients. Developments in technology, lifestyle and fitness choices, legislation and in the economy all attest that this could be a potentially lucrative field in the coming years. As such, it behooves health care managers to work in this area of specialization in settings such as hospitals and outpatient care centers.


Bureau of Labor Statistics. (2010). Medical and health services managers.

Retrieved from

Coombs, B. (2013). Aging baby boomers may find long-term care elusive. Retrieved from

Wake, M. (2010). Nurses and the Affordable Care Act. American Journal of Nursing. 110…… [read more]

Economic Issue in Health Care Essay

… (PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP, 2013).


This paper evaluated inflationary pressures as a current economic issue as it relates to healthcare in the light of two important economic tools, demand and supply and cost analysis. Using the first tool, 'demand and supply', it is been found that shifting trends in healthcare have resulted in a big mismatch between supply and demand options. The costs of healthcare services have been increasing day by day which are putting direct negative pressures on individual patients, hospitals, and the governments. There exists a large gap between the demand and supply of reliable and cost effective medical treatments in rural and urban areas which directly affects the costs of these treatments and general healthcare services for all individuals. The most recent financial crisis also left bad impacts on the overall healthcare spending of the general public. The governmental bodies like ACA has taken initiatives to control this increasing rate of inflation for the healthcare industry by taking cooperation from the hospitals, health care organizations, and pharmaceutical companies.


Mangan, D. (2013, 06, 18). Health-Care Cost Inflation on Track to Slow in 2014: Report Retrieved on August 21st, 2013, from

Nussbaum, A. (2012, 05, 21). Health-Care Costs Rise Faster Than U.S. Inflation Rate. Retrieved on August 21st, 2013, from

PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP, (2013). Factors affecting 2014 Medical Cost Trend. Retrieved on August 21st, 2013, from

Rugy, V. (2013, 07, 16). Is The Slowdown In Health Care Inflation Here To Stay? Retrieved on August 21st, 2013, from [read more]

Insurance Healthcare Research Paper

… Health Care System

United States Health Care System

An increase in the concentration of the health care costs and quality assurances within the context of the health reforms continue to shift the attention of the federal and state governments towards… [read more]

Health Care Essay

… Address the proposition that health care quality is currently a national priority. Include one or more examples from health policy and/or current events to support your response.

Health care quality is indeed a national priority. In many instances, quality healthcare is a societal priority as lives are significantly impacted by it. To begin, due to the Affordable Care Act of 2010, the healthcare profession is undergoing a fundamental shift in regards to the patient experience. The U.S. health care system is now shifting the focus from acute and specialty care to that of primary care. This shift will alter the skills and qualifications needed to be successful on the job. Also, due primarily to that aging of the baby boomer generation, the need for primary car overall is shifting and will be needed heavily in the future. More individuals due to the act are now insured. This newly formed population will now require services they would otherwise have forgone. Therefore, the need for primary care will also increase over subsequent years, particular within the minority population. The affordable care act helps a disproportionate amount of minorities afford healthcare in manner that they could not before. As such, they too will demand higher quality service. This patient centric approach will require more care predicated on specific communities in a seamless and efficient manner. The healthcare profession is undergoing fundamental changes within the underlying operations of the field. A new regulatory environment coupled with increased scrutiny of the profession will dramatically impact the healthcare profession. The newly enacted Affordable Care Act has profound implications on both the industry and those who practice within it. As a recent IOM report indicates, the health care profession in the near future will have job requirements that are more service and business oriented. Health care practitioners will need to have a better understanding of quality management methods in addition to overall concepts of quality service (Kohn, 2000).

Finally, the health care industry is becoming highly regulated. Licensing and compliance issues are extremely important and must be addressed in a consistent, timely manner. Organizations must work with healthcare providers, healthcare insurers, medical device manufacturers and pharmaceutical clients with respect to applicable state licensing law. In addition, as healthcare providers have developed creative ownership, organizational and delivery solutions in order to become more competitive, regulators have become increasingly concerned about the financial arrangements between providers regarding referrals, compensation arrangements, and marketing. Firms must advise clients with regard to Anti-Kickback and other Medicare and Medicaid regulatory requirements. All these constraints hinge primary on the preservation of quality health care service and its optimal delivery. These regulations are intended to protect individual consumers and clients who rely on the specialized knowledge provided by the industry. As such, as indicated by this extensive regulation and oversight care quality is indeed a priority of national scale.


1) Draper, Elaine, Joseph LaDou, and Dan J. Tennenhouse. 2011. "Occupational Health Nursing and the Quest for Professional Authority," New Solutions 21, 47 -- 81… [read more]

Health Care Drivers for Increased Medicaid Funding Research Paper

… Health Care Drivers for increased Medicaid funding: A study in the United States.

The Per capita health care spending has increased to about 2,814 in 1990 to more than $7,000 today. With such increased amounts, it is obvious that everyone… [read more]

Healthcare Right or Privilege Research Paper

… Health Care: Right or Privilege?

There are those who will argue that healthcare is neither a right nor a privilege, but I do not agree with them. People argue that rights are freedoms of action, not entitlements to what others… [read more]

Funding Health Care Services Scenario Essay

… (League of Women Voters, 2010 )

(3) Alabama Department of Public Health. (League of Women Voters, 2010)

(4) Governor's Office -- Influences health decisions through budget and policy recommendations to the Legislature as well as nomination of department heads and other positions such as SHCC. (League of Women Voters, 2010)

(5) Legislature -- Provides funding and oversight for state programs. (League of Women Voters, 2010)

(6) U.S. Government -- Sets mandates for many state programs and impacts state budgets and programs through matching fund requirements. (League of Women Voters, 2010)

It is reported that Alabama has received a total of $9,772,451 in grants for research, planning, information technology development, and implementation of Affordable Insurance Exchanges. In addition, Alabama has received the following stated grants:

(1) $1,180,312 in Planning Grants: This grant provides Alabama the resources needed to conduct the research and planning necessary to build a better health insurance marketplace and determine how its exchange will be operated and governed.

(2) $8,592,139 in Exchange Establishment Grants: These grants are helping States continue their work to implement key provisions of the Affordable Care Act.

Reported as well is that Alabama has received $9,200,000 in grants from the Prevention and Public Health Fund created by the Affordable Care Act. This new fund was created to support effective policies in Alabama, its communities, and nationwide so that all Americans can lead longer, more productive lives." (, 2012) Reported as examples of Affordable Care Act grants to Alabama are the following:

(1) $863,000 for school-based health centers, to help clinics expand and provide more health care services such as screenings to students.

(2) $530,000 to support outreach to eligible Medicare beneficiaries about their benefits.

(3) $292,200 for Family-to-Family Health Information Centers, organizations run by and for families with children with special health care needs.

(4) $4,800,000 for Maternal, Infant, and Early Childhood Home Visiting Programs. These programs bring health professionals to meet with at-risk families in their homes and connect families to the kinds of help that can make a real difference in a child's health, development, and ability to learn - such as health care, early education, parenting skills, child abuse prevention, and nutrition.(, 2012)

Summary and Conclusion

The State of Alabama has addressed health care funding but the funding does not appear to be sufficient to meet at the needs of Alabamians who are in need of health care services. Alabama does not have a state lottery and it is the opinion of this writer that a state lottery would serve to provide a great deal of necessary funding to Alabama health care services. Alabamians spend their money playing lotteries in adjacent states such as Tennessee and Florida. The money spent on playing the lottery should be retained in the State of Alabama rather than being received by other states.


Facts and Issues: Health Care in Alabama Report of the Health Care Study Committee (2010) League of Women Voters of Alabama. Feb 2010. Retrieved from:

How the Health Care Law… [read more]

Health INS Healthcare Econ Essay

… Requirements regarding how long children can remain on their parents' policies, new mandates regarding pre-existing conditions, and a host of other changes that might be viewed favorably by consumers and might create a more comprehensive system nonetheless require extra administrative efforts and thus a higher proportion of healthcare dollars would be going to insurance administration. Any additional profits seen during this period would be the result of over-estimation of cost increases and would likely be seen to diminish after the transitional period.


Slide 6 shows that the rate at which healthcare premiums grew was directly in line with the rate at which benefits grew, meaning every cent of every additional dollar health insurance companies collected during this period went straight to doctors, hospitals, prescription drugs, and other healthcare related expenses, and not to administrative costs or profits for health insurance companies. Given the growth in healthcare expenses overall during this period with no additional expense on the part of health insurance companies themselves, the proportion of each healthcare dollar that goes towards health insurance costs and profits is necessarily diminishing.

An opposing view might be offered to this contention, namely that highly profitable health insurance companies were not willing to cut into their profits at all to provide greater service, and thus increased premiums in line with their expenses in order to maintain or at times even increase profits even with reductions in administrative costs. This graphic alone is not enough to establish a cause-and-effect pattern, and thus it is disingenuous for anyone from the health insurance companies to use this as evidence that health insurance companies had to raise premiums as a means of providing…… [read more]

Government Role in Health Care Term Paper

… 3) What lessons can we infer from history around the efforts to enact National Health Insurance and/or Health Reform?

National health care reform has been impeded by a number of factors. Among the most influential are the complexity of the issues, ideological differences, the lobbying strength of special interest groups, a weakened Presidency, and the decentralization of Congressional power.

The public is generally unfriendly to proposals which involve additional financial obligations on the part of individuals towards health care costs. For example, the Committee on the Costs of Medical Care proposed group medicine and voluntary insurance during the 1920's and faced heavy opposition from much of the electorate. Although the American public has always supported the idea of guaranteed health care access for all, they have also been wary of any new financial obligations created by the government, viewing them much in the same way they view new taxes. There is an unwillingness to recognize the relationship between individual contributions and universal health care access.

The history of health care reform suggests that the individual mandate provision attached to the current health care reform law will be a source of public discontent for some time to come. In fact, it has already proved to be the major weakness of "Obamacare," as it has been derisively referred to by its opponents. The individual mandate provision strikes many as a government intrusion on individual liberty and possibly a deprivation of property. It has been pounced on by President Obama's political opponents, tarnishing the centerpiece legislative achievement of Obama's first term. Although the individual mandate provision survived a recent Supreme Court challenge, Justice Scalia defined the individual mandate contribution as a new tax on individuals, leaving it open to continued criticism and challenges.

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Term Paper


health care economic paper please see details for topic


1). Describe the characteristics of the uninsured? Additionally, why are concentrated interests and diffuse costs important when predicting legislative outcomes?

2). What are the economic rationales for different types of government intervention in health care? Additionally, explain the rationale for requiring everyone to purchase health insurance or pay a penalty?

3). Evaluate the following policies according to the public interest and economic theories:

Please limit each to a page . please make sure it meets these requirements

Consistently, concisely and clearly stated new ideas to discuss; contributes solutions to the questions with APA citations from current, peer-reviewed journals; analyzes and evaluates from many positions; consistently uses case studies/examples from interviews or experiences; contribute valuable insight based on recent related research.

Concisely summarizing and moving on with new issues based on the discussion and current literature;

Please make sure there is

Evidence of a strong understanding of the topic

A superior connection to prior learning, experience, and new insights offered.

superior quality; outstanding thought processes; skillful…… [read more]

Health Care Management the CDC ) Essay

… Health Care Management

The CDC (2012) defines bioterrorism as "the deliberate release of viruses, bacteria or other germs (agents) used to cause illness or death in people, animals or plants. In addition to each local health care system, there are… [read more]

Health Care Reform Has Been a Hot Research Paper

… ¶ … health care reform has been a hot button issue across the United States in the form of the Affordable Care Act (ACA) but in the State of Minnesota it has been a hotly contested since the passage of… [read more]

Health Care in the U.S Term Paper

… The Spanish System

The health care system in Spain is still reeling from the recent global recession. High unemployment rates are expected to continue, which places a strain on the ability to support the national health care system (OECD, 2011b).… [read more]

Healthcare Management Health Care Essay

… However, insurance companies feel exploited because much of their premiums, 85% is used in enhancing quality care (OECD, 2011). This provision can garner support because it promotes a healthier nation through provision of quality care, but it can as well be rejected by those in support of insurance companies.


The proposed health care reforms taking effect in 2011 addresses post -- acute and long-term care, and the insufficiency of financing, lack of care coordination, lack of community and home-based services and poor quality care. The reforms taking effect in 2011 function to enhance provision of affordable and accessible care for the seniors, disabled and children covered under Children Health Insurance Program. These reforms also provide preventive care for those enrolled under Medicare. However, the proposed reforms do not include other millions of people who remain uninsured and, as a result; I would redesign them to include all citizens in efforts of the facilitating provision of universal care.


Vlvar, L.(2011). Obama's health care reform 2010: From change to concession. New York: GRIN Verlag.

Harrington, C.(2011). Health policy: Crisis and reform. Texas: Jones & Bartlett Publishers.

Teitelbaum, J. (2013). Essentials of health policy and law. New York: Jones & Bartlett Publishers.

Gray, V., & Benz, J. (2013). Interest groups and health care reform across the United States. Georgia:…… [read more]

Health and Legislative Issues Term Paper

… This means that either way if one chooses to go with the programs of the Act or chooses not to go with them they have to pay taxes. Therefore this PPACA affects the American citizens more than anyone else.

Socioeconomic, political, cultural, and ethical issues

There are also various socioeconomic and political context factors that surround this issue. These factors have led to the industrialization of the healthcare systems in the U.S. with provision of healthcare as a product being subjected to market forces. Competition from providers has led to the overuse of costly methods of treatment and a subsequent increase in medication cost and rise in insurance (Goodman, 2012). Most of the debates on the PPACA are now being politicized and the issue is slowly taking a political direction as opposed to looking at the needs of the citizens. The PPACA has brought about an important ethical issue under the individual mandate is quite unethical for individuals to be practically forced to purchase an insurance product which they might not want or even is also quite unethical for immigrants to be excluded from adequate healthcare coverage such as Medicaid which is one of the provisions of this Act (ANA, 2010). There are also some cultural issues which surround this policy for instance the issue of the chip. The chip has faced a lot of criticism from various cultures since it is termed as unacceptable in nay of the cultural beliefs and practices.


There are many stakeholders involved in this policy this include the Federal government, the congress, insurance agents, healthcare organizations and systems, individual citizens an employees. All these are termed as stakeholders since they are affected in one way or another by the PPACA as indicated by Wechseler Jill, (2012).

Positions of stakeholders on the issue

Various stakeholders involved in this issue have their own views and a defined position on the issue. For instance the National Association of Insurance and Financial advisors advocates for bipartisan and targeted reforms which lead to the improvement of affordability and sustainability of private insurance which is a position in line with the PPACA .the ANA continues to advocate for the expansion of health reforms so as to make them available for everyone and make citizens be bale to access affordable healthcare. Consumers are not ready to accept the PPACA as it is because they term it as bringing more harm than good particularly when it comes to the issues on tax. Major political parties would want to see this Act fully implemented since they view it as being beneficial to the American citizens as further discussed by Wechseler Jill, (2012).

Effects of the policy on nursing

This Act is projected to provide more jobs in the nursing field. This because more patients will require nurses to tend to them as a result of the influx of new is also going to get more nurses interested and involved with political processes through the establishment of National Healthcare Workforce… [read more]

Obama Care Plan Health Term Paper

… According to Congressional Budget Office the plan will help reduce deficit by a startling $138 million over ten years (Health Care Reform, 2012). Although the statistics are subject to debate but the new plan ensures that costs are not distributed… [read more]

Health Care Acts Essay

… Legislative Acts Shaping the Healthcare System: A Look at the Past and Future

With Hillary Clinton's bid for the presidency just ended, the subject of healthcare has been thrust into the spotlight. More specifically, Clinton's bid for the presidency, Michael Moore's provocative documentary Sicko, and this year's Democrat and Republican national conventions have forced the public and government's eyes to the issue of government intervention in health care. Although a variety of critics such as Moore and Clinton have discussed a need for further legislation regarding the relationship between the federal government and the health care industry, congress has addressed the issue in the past. A short summary of the 1974 and 1966 acts regarding public healthcare will allow readers to understand the evolution of the healthcare system and the need for further legislation.

The most recent policy-altering act regarding the national healthcare system was passed in 1974as the National Health Planning and Resources Development Act. Sponsored by Senator Edward Kennedy and signed into law on January fourth, 1975, as H.R. 16204. Intended to establish the effective use of healthcare resources on a federal and state level, the act was passed to amend the Public Health Service Act ("S.2994" nd). According to Rubel, the act "provided a new, unified approach to resolving the problems of access, cost, and quality care" (1976, p.3). This unified approach consisted of the development of state and nationwide agencies "responsible for health planning and resources," federal funding for the creation and modernization of healthcare facilities, and an emphasis on sovereign state and local healthcare agencies backed by federal financial and technical provisions (Rubel 1976, p.4). The act structured the healthcare system by requiring strong, certified state healthcare facilities and programs, backed by federal government resources (Rubel 1976, p.4). What made the act truly unique, however, was its creation of Health Systems Agencies, of HSAs, that serve as community health planning agencies. Eventually, these HSAs would go on to manage local hospitals and regulate the profit hospitals could make from providing services…… [read more]

Public Health Service: A Renewed Research Paper

… S. Constitution thereby making it mandatory for individuals to purchase health insurance. The Individual Mandate provision of the PPACA (P.L. 111-148, PPACA) requires all Americans must purchase healthcare insurance policy from 2014 or face a federal penalty. The U.S. Supreme… [read more]

Health Care Reform Healthcare Essay

… It establishes a 'post-graduation routine' of coverage. Finally, to keep national healthcare costs down, it is vital that there are healthy people in the 'risk pool' represented by insurance companies, to defray the costs of insuring the elderly and chronically ill.

In terms of the 'negatives' of Obamacare for young people, some young people over the age of 26 may resist the fact that the individual mandate requires them to purchase health insurance if it is not provided by their employer. (Although there are certain hardship exemptions to the individual mandate, based upon income, and there are no mandates that individuals have to purchase a particular level of coverage). And that is one problem with the extension of the limit to age 26 -- while it does increase the number of covered Americans, it does not address the fundamental problem that many low-level and part-time entry-level jobs do not provide health benefits, and fewer jobs in general in America are providing benefits.

Out-of-pocket costs for all workers are going up, and once an employee turns 27 in a job that does not provide insurance, he has a 'rude awakening.' Either he or she must buy coverage, which may be relatively minimal based upon what he or she can afford, unless the person is so "poor that they don't have to file taxes (income around $9,500 for individuals and $19,000 for married couples)… [or] would have to spend more than 8% of family income" for insurance, in which cases they are exempt from the individual mandate (Kennan 2012).

Overall, this provision of the ACA has had a positive effect. But it is not a panacea for the difficulties of young people in today's economy, in terms of finding jobs with decent benefits. Creating a longer interval of dependence upon parents is at best a Band-Aid solution, albeit a necessary one.


Culp-Ressler, Tara. (2012). Obamacare led to record drop in uninsured young adults. Think Progress. Retrieved: ttp://

Kennan, Joanne. (2012). Five myths of…… [read more]

Health Care Costs Data Analysis Chapter

… 2).

"What's the price of health care?" pinpoints the importance of transparency in health care pricing, given the current very high cost of health care and the fact that consumers are now increasingly required to participate in choosing their health care measures based at least partially on cost (Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, 2012, p. 1). The article illustrates the difficulty in controlling costs and in making educated decisions due to the secrecy about specific costs, the difference between "retail" and insurance-negotiated costs, and the lack of effective programs to gather and disseminate accurate data about those costs (Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, 2012, pp. 1-2). Finally, the article illustrates state-sponsored attempts by Washington, Oregon, Kansas, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, Minnesota, New Hampshire, Tennessee, Utah, Vermont and Louisiana to accumulate and disseminate pricing information through all-payer claims databases (Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, 2012, p. 2). According to the article, these programs are beneficial in that they: cover whole ranges of services; safeguard privacy by concentrating on claims instead of clinical information; promote pricing transparency (Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, 2012, p. 2). The article also claims that these programs are limited in their usefulness because: they usually report "retail" prices rather than actual "allowed amounts"; these States do not actually possess and control the data because the programs are created by state mandate (Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, 2012, p. 2).

The authors' Perspectives Compared with Personal Perspective

Both "What is the National Quality Strategy" and "What's the price of health care?" are authored by the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, a philanthropic organization founded by Robert Wood Johnson II of Johnson & Johnson, a global leader in health care products manufacturing and dedicated to improving the health and health care of Americans through research, publications and grants (Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, 2012). The American Beverage Institute (Doyle, 2003) and the Center for Consumer Freedom (Center for Consumer Freedom, 2007) both criticize the Foundation for being anti-alcohol. However, from the perspective of a health care provider, the perspective of a major health care products manufacturer that is anti-alcohol -- even if the accusation is true - is not particularly troubling, for two reasons: neither article addresses only alcohol per se; alcohol consumption is, in fact, a significant contributor to health care problems in the United States (National Institutes of Health, 2012), so a foundation addressing health care concerns would tend to include alcohol in its discussions.

"What is the National Quality Strategy?" mirrors the basic elements disseminated by governmental publications (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2012) while simplifying the explanations for general… [read more]

Community Health in Nursing Term Paper

… Community Health in Nursing

One of the principle aspects of the employment of a nurse is fostering a sense of community health. The nursing industry can actually play a fairly substantial role in encouraging the development of community health awareness and implementing programs that facilitate the awareness of issues germane to a particular community. In the South Florida community of Miami, for example, there are a number of health issues that people in this part of the region need to be aware of. One of the most eminent is the high rate of contraction of sexually transmitted diseases, which is due in no small part to the immense heterogeneity that characterizes this population subset. Furthermore, the proclivity of young people to incur these diseases is significantly higher than that of older people, which is why nursing programs focusing on community awareness should ideally concentrate on this particular demographic.

The high rate of incidence of sexually transmitted diseases can be severely mitigated through the deployment of encouraging youth to get tested for various diseases. Doing so would allow this portion of the population to become aware of its particular status regarding the spread and contagion of diseases, which would enable it to act accordingly and more responsibly in order to curtail further dissemination of such diseases. To that end, it would greatly behoove young people to proactively avoid the spread of these diseases by coming and getting tested on their own. Additionally, nurses can have a direct impact on the future health of people in the Miami community by handing out condoms at health care facilities where people are tested. Properly utilizing condoms and other forms of safe sex can greatly reduce the transmission of sexually transmitted diseases and infections. The dissemination of these materials in health care facilities in which youth are tested would immensely aid the prospects of community health in Miami.

Nursing students and healthcare professionals in general will likely see a big change occurring to the health care industry now that the Supreme Court has approved the constitutionality of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act. The most salient of these changes, of course, will occur in 2014 when health ensure will be mandatory for all citizens -- with the only way to opt out of health insure being to pay a tax that will more than likely be more expensive than the cost of paying for healthcare. This aspect of health reform alone makes this measure worth endorsing and will greatly benefit community health awareness, since mandatory health care coverage will enable people to get check-ups, determine what is wrong with them and ideally counteract any potential negatives. Moreover, this aspect of President Obama's health care reform would enable nursing…… [read more]

Health Care Future Term Paper

… Health Care

There are a number of changes that can be expected to health care in the coming years, perhaps none bigger than demographic changes where the entire baby boom generation is approaching 65. This means a couple of key… [read more]

Federal Role in Healthcare Research Paper

… The recent and Veteran's Administration debacles proved that government is too lumbering and inept to get the job done, and in fact both of those services should be farmed out to the private sector so that people, especially veterans, get the healthcare that they need. The recent VA reform bill did this in part but it should be done in full for veterans and regular folks alike. The premiums of private citizens should be indexed based on income with regular working people paying the full price. However, the system can be scaled and adjusted to help those that cannot afford the full premium.


In the end, the current economic and political climate in Washington DC is going to preclude any real progress. The contentiousness between the Obama administration and the House of Representatives is going to prevent any significant legislation from passing from now until when Obama leaves office in 2017, at the very least. However, if a more moderate candidate, Republican or Democrat, can emerge from the ether and champion a more moderate solution, then the amount of progress that could be realized would be immeasurable.


Corbett, J., & Kappagoda, M. (2013). Doing Good and Doing Well: Corporate Social

Responsibility in Post Obamacare America. Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics, 4117-21. doi:10.1111/jlme.12032

An assessment of what businesses could or should be responsible for after the passage of the Affordable Care Act, aka ObamaCare.

Gottschalk, M. (2011). They're Back: The Public Plan, the Reincarnation of Harry and Louise, and the Limits of Obamacare. Journal Of Health Politics, Policy & Law, 36(3), 393-400. doi:10.1215/03616878-1271009

This article talks about the idea of having a publicly-run non-profit healthcare insurance plan could act as a competitor to private firms. This is contrasted with the approach that was actually taken via the ACA.

Knoblauch, H. (2014). A Campaign Won as a Public Issue Will Stay Won. American

Journal Of Public Health, 104(2), 227-236. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2013.301585

This article speaks of the "propaganda" used by anti-ACA advocates during the time just before passage of ObamaCare.

Nash, K. (2009). What's your experience? Does ObamaCare place too much emphasis on primary care?. Urology Times, 37(13), 22.

Assesses where primary care gets too much focus in the Affordable Care Act at the expense of specialists.

Snowden, L.R. (2012). Health and Mental Health Policies' Role in Better Understanding and Closing African-American-White American Disparities in Treatment Access and Quality of Care. American Psychologist, 67(7), 524-531.

Looks at the disparities that exist in healthcare relating to African-American people and others…… [read more]

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