"Healthcare / Health / Obamacare" Essays

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Mckesson Business Conceptualization: Mckesson's Emergent Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,005 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


Indeed, innovation and ethics could be seen as the two key guiding principles of the firm. According to McKesson's own internal website, "our software, automation technology, distribution and business services play an essential role in addressing the challenges health care organizations face today -- and shaping how they'll overcome them tomorrow. We connect people and organizations, support the quest for higher quality and improved clinical outcomes, and help health care businesses run better. " (McKesson1, p. 1)

This denotes that the firm has worked to cultivate an internal culture of ingenuity, creativity and boldness. The greatest successes that the healthcare field has seen are those which have been achieved in highly open, collaborative and risk-taking settings. McKesson's considerable resources make us more than willing to invest a considerable amount of time, personnel and effort into forging new solutions for long ingrained problems.

Strategic Direction:

The strategic direction of McKesson toward the introduction of new medical IT innovations is especially important as hospitals are scrambling for ways of reducing waste and costs. Indeed, we are in a position to advertise great savings to our clients as compared to the initial investment in our emergent technology. According to the article by Howell (2012), the transition toward digital transferring of medical imaging has the potential to lower unnecessary costs on the healthcare system by a significant margin. Howell reports that "as a significant shift in practice, online image transfer eliminates the possibility that an image-containing CD will be lost when patients visit a new provider or clinical setting. If a patient forgets the CD or if it is misplaced, you face having to either postpone service or repeat scans -- and that's expensive. According to a 2008 McKinsey Global Institute report on diagnostic services, duplicated studies accounted for $26.5 billion in unnecessary healthcare costs." (Howell p. 1)

This informs the strategic direction for McKesson, which already possesses the Research & Development capacity to advance desirable and reliable solutions to this problem. At McKesson, we believe that because we now have the technology for improved sharing of critical medical data and imaging, we also have the responsibility to share it.

Competitive Advantage:

Our competitive advantage is steeped largely in our resources and our reputation. As one of the leading firms in the medical business, we have the financial backing and the personnel to ensure that our approach yields an optimally functional set of products. Moreover, because of our longstanding and positive relationship with so many healthcare facilities, we are also in the unique position to enter into contracts for this new technology integration on good faith.

Works Cited:

CNNMoney. (2013). Fortune500. Money.cnn.com.

Howell, W.L.J. (2012). Taking Medical Image Sharing to the Cloud. Diagnostic Imaging.com.

McKesson. (2013). Enterprise Medical Imaging and PACS Solutions Help Enhance Your Financial, Clinical and Operational Effectiveness. McKesson.com.

McKesson1. (2013). Who We Are. McKesson.com.

Pearce, J.A. II, & Robinson, R.B. (2009). Strategic management: Formulation, implementation, and control (11th…… [read more]

Sky v. Holder Susan Seven Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,675 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


The Court argued that although requiring the purchase of health insurance was an encroachment upon individual liberties such encroachment was no more grievous than requiring hotels and restaurants to serve all customers regardless of race, "… is no more so than a command that restaurants or hotels are obliged to serve all customers regardless of race, that gravely ill individuals cannot use a substance their doctors described as the only effective palliative for excruciating pain or that a farmer cannot grow enough wheat to feed his family. The right to be free from federal regulation is not absolute, and yields to the imperative that Congress is free to forge national solutions to national problems (Key v. Holder, 2011: pp.36-37)."

Although the D.C. Circuit Court's decision is not binding on the remainder of the nation it is considered by many legal experts to be a good harbinger of things to come when the U.S. Supreme Court rules on the constitutionality of the Affordable Care Act this coming fall (Liptak, 2011). The reasoning of the Key Court is considered to be well organized and clearly set forth and incorporates the thinking of some of the more conservative Supreme Court justices whose views will be crucial in the decision making process utilized said Court. If the Supreme Court determines to follow the reasoning set forth in KeyKey, the entire bulk of the Affordable Care Act will likely soon become the law of the land ushering in an entire new era in health care and health insurance in the United States.


Bogen, D.S. (1972). The Hunting of the Shark: An Inquiry into the Limits of Congressional Power Under the Commerce Clause. Wake Forest Law Review, 187-200.

Key v. Holder, 661 F.3d 1 (D.C. Circuit November 8, 2011).

Liptak, A. (2011, November 14). Justices to Hear Health Care Case as Race Heats Up. New York Times, p. A1.

Manchikanti, L. (2011). Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010: Reforming the Health Care Reform for the New Decade. Pain Physician, 35-67.

Wickard v. Filburn, 317 U.S. 111 (U.S. Supreme Court November 9, 1942).

Legal Analysis… [read more]

Codes of Ethics Comparisons Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (617 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Conversely, the ACA instructs counselors to be "aware of their own values, attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors and avoid imposing values that are inconsistent with counseling goals" (ACA Code of Ethics, 2005, p.5).

Technology is another area of difference between the two codes, with the ACA devoting an entire section to technology applications, while the AACC mentions the topic as being in development. Also, the AACC provide guidelines for lay helpers and non-ordained ministers; the ACA uses neither but does have similar guidelines for supervisees.

With respect to fees, both codes recommend that counselors consider the client's ability to pay for purposes of establishing fees. The ACA rejects accepting private fees from patients who are entitled to counseling through an agency or institution. Both codes advise caution in the use of barter, with the ACA pointing out that barter may be a culturally acceptable practice. As long as the barter does not create an exploitive or harmful relationship, the ACA allows it.

Both ethics codes prohibit the abandonment of clients. They each require counselors to make provisions for the continuation of client care for vacations, illnesses and so forth. They also set forth guidelines for termination of counseling which are nearly identical, including referral to other counselors if necessary.

The ACA and AACC treat research similarly in that research is encouraged as long as clients are protected and confidentiality is maintained. Both codes require informed consent and both stress accuracy and discourage deception. Also, both codes specifically mention the obligation to report unfavorable results. Likewise both discourage plagiarism in publishing study findings.

In summary, comparing and contrasting the two Codes of Ethics reveals many similarities, with many of the differences due primarily to their secular vs. pastoral orientations.

Works Cited

ACA Code of Ethics. (2005). American Counseling Association.

Ohlschlager, G. (2004). AACC code of ethics the Y2004 final code.…… [read more]

Codes of Ethics Comparison Both the American Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (853 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Codes of Ethics Comparison

Both the American Counseling Association (ACA) and the American Association of Christian Counselors (AACC) maintain codes of ethics that describe the standards to which counselors are expected to adhere throughout their dealings with clients. In some respects, they provide similar rules; in other respects, they provide very different approaches. For example, the AACC covers sexual and romantically intimate relations between counselors and clients in much greater detail than the ACA. Both codes cover discrimination issues but the AACC reflects a definite theological basis for its code in that area whereas the ACA is limited only to the issues recognized by secular law. Finally, both the AACC and ACA codes address client records; however, while the AACC focuses mainly on ownership, confidentiality, and appropriate handling f records, the ACA addresses their process of documentation, reflecting the more formal and structured nature of professional counseling services in general.

Sexual Relationships between Counselors and Clients

The American Counseling Association Code of Ethics and the American Association of Christian Counselors Code of Ethics both address the issue of sexual relationships and contact between counselors and clients. By comparison, the ACA Code of Ethics is much less detailed and comprehensive in its scope. It prohibits only sexual contact and romantically intimate relationships with clients and their family members during the period of professional association and within five years of the last professional contact. The ACA Code of Ethics allows such contact and relationships beyond that period provided only that the counselor "demonstrate forethought" in written form of the potential for detrimental consequences to the former client.

The American Association of Christian Counselors is much more detailed and particular in this area. First, it strictly prohibits any form of sexual contact or intimate relations between counselors and clients. Unlike the ACA Code, the AACC Code of Ethics prohibits such relationships indefinitely rather than just during the period of the professional relationship or the period immediately following it.

Likewise, whereas the ACA only refers to sexual relations and romantically intimate relationships, the AACC Code goes into much greater detail. For example, it addresses sexually intimate conversation, seductive behavior, and inappropriate intimate disclosure of any kind. Moreover, the AACC even goes so far as to anticipate the possibility that counselors might entertain a sexual interest in clients immediately on meeting them. In that regard, it expressly prohibits counselors from terminating the professional relationship in order to pursue a sexual interest thereafter. The AACC even addresses the anonymous use of Internet communications between counselors and clients. This tremendous detail suggests that…… [read more]

Business of Health Care Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (2,602 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Coverage -- In a move to give health insurance coverage, additional people will generate a new trend of challenges. Failure to improve access means there would be still a problem in care delivery. Medicaid and Medicaid patients have demonstrated it challenging to find a physician or doctor. Having adequate health care providers to take care of new patients will be… [read more]

New Healthcare Challenges for a Divers and Growing Elderly Population Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (3,430 words)
Bibliography Sources: 8


There were an estimated 3.3 million African-Americans over 65 in 2010, according to the Administration on Aging (AoA). By 2050, it is expected that the elderly population of African-Americans will account for about 11% of the 65-and-older population in the United States (AoA).

And although African-Americans are living longer, the majority of those over 65 years of age have had… [read more]

Future of Healthcare Essay

Essay  |  12 pages (3,240 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 12


The corridors should have windows for allowing daylight in and should be inclusive of clocks with the time of day displayed clearly. The light should be filtered so that the hallways are not shadowed so as to confuse someone with cataracts and other vision problems. As well the use of signs that are high in contrast and have a large… [read more]

Healthcare Finance Efficiency and Effectiveness Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (1,068 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


" (p. 3)

Outcome driven treatment essentially means that effectiveness is measured entirely according to the patient's experience.

Works Cited:

Cipriano, P. (2011). Achieving Value in Healthcare Through Efficiency and Effectiveness. Dell, Inc.

Student 3:

Define and describe efficiency and effectiveness. What are the differences between efficiency and effectiveness? How can a healthcare organization use this information?

The healthcare system in the United States is undergoing massive reform right now. Among the many objectives of the Affordable Care Act are the imperatives to create greater efficiency and effectiveness in the healthcare system. The former of these refers to the speed and economic management of treatment while the latter refers to the consequence of that treatment.

Hospitals should use this information as a way of improving their efficiency without sacrificing their patients. The Academy of Health (2006) says that one of the biggest flaws in our healthcare system is that many hospitals work to achieve efficiency but lack consistent ways of measuring it. The Academy of Health reports that "measurement of efficiency is challenging due to lack of definition of terms, lack of an agreed upon framework of efficiency, differential access to data, and unresolved technical issues such as sampling methods." (Academy Health, p. 2)

The outcome is that efficiency is pursued haphazardly and with a negative impact on patients. The drive for efficiency prevents nurses and physicians from devoting the time and energy necessary to produce ideal treatment conditions for every patient. Here, effectiveness of treatment is lost. The hope is that with the focus of current legal reforms on making hospitals more accountable, efficiency and effectiveness will be seen as having equal importance.

Works Cited:

Academy Health. (2006). Efficiency in Health Care: What Does It Mean? The Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality.

Part B:

After giving consideration to this subject, I am inclined to believe quite strongly that we shouldn't find ourselves in the position of choosing between efficiency and effectiveness. Instead, these are two characteristics that should inherently apply to our healthcare system. Today, hospitals are increasingly being held accountable for their effectiveness. Programs related to the Affordable Care Act promise to penalize hospitals that don't effectively make improvements in certain areas such as the reduction of preventable readmissions or the assurance that discharged patients have received the full scope of required treatments and patient education.

As we improve in these areas, I also believe there are ways to step up our efficiency that don't require a sacrifice in quality health outcomes. Streamlining and procedural consistency could contribute substantially to this goal as well. According to the text by Drexler (2010), "there are wide variations in how often doctors order tests, prescribe medicines, do surgeries -- not just in different parts of the country, but in hospitals that are right next to each other. One place may do many, many times more procedures of a particular kind than the place next door." (p. 1) This strikes me as an area where we could begin to make improvements… [read more]

Job Opportunities for Health Care Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (976 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Within the field of healthcare, not only are there increasingly sophisticated machines and tools to detect and treat potential maladies which assists today's aging population, but also there advancements for simple tools for the average laymen to use to monitor and reinforce healthy living. There are several applications for smart phones, for instance, which can monitor factor's related to people's hearts and exercise, count calories, and otherwise assist in salutary living. Increasing sophistication in biotechnology applications also contribute to the fact that people are living longer than they have before, which is why there will be excellent job opportunities in geriatrics.

There are also substantial trends affecting policy at the federal and state level that are responsible for the fact that "employment of medical and health services managers is expected to grow by 22% from 2010 to 2020, faster than the average for all occupations" (BLS, 2010). The Affordable Care Act is making it mandatory for virtually everyone in the country to obtain health care by the year 2014. There are numerous components of this act which will boost the demand for healthcare practitioners, especially for nurses (Wake, 2010, p. 11). Employers will be given benefits to offer more competitive health plans for employees. Individuals will also have options to register for healthcare at the state level -- if they meet certain qualifications -- that will allow the state to subsidize a significant portion of their patients. This piece of legislation, along with general economic indicators that suggest that the recession that began in earnest during the last decade is beginning to taper off, will result in the need for substantial more health care practitioners in 2020 than there currently are. Nursing is one of the professions that is projected to be impacted the most by these new demands. Therefore, health care managers who are involved in geriatrics, perhaps in nursing homes or in conventional hospital facilities, will likely have a copious amount of job security within the coming decade.

In summary, the best opportunities for jobs for health care managers will be in the field of geriatrics. The specific setting in which these individuals are employed may vary. Nursing homes, hospitals, and outpatient facilities are all expected to burgeon to meet the demand for geriatric patients. Developments in technology, lifestyle and fitness choices, legislation and in the economy all attest that this could be a potentially lucrative field in the coming years. As such, it behooves health care managers to work in this area of specialization in settings such as hospitals and outpatient care centers.


Bureau of Labor Statistics. (2010). Medical and health services managers. www.bls.gov.

Retrieved from http://www.bls.gov/ooh/Management/Medical-and-health-services-managers.htm

Coombs, B. (2013). Aging baby boomers may find long-term care elusive. www.cnbc.com. Retrieved from http://www.cnbc.com/id/100935149

Wake, M. (2010). Nurses and the Affordable Care Act. American Journal of Nursing. 110…… [read more]

Economic Issue in Health Care Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,560 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


(PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP, 2013).


This paper evaluated inflationary pressures as a current economic issue as it relates to healthcare in the light of two important economic tools, demand and supply and cost analysis. Using the first tool, 'demand and supply', it is been found that shifting trends in healthcare have resulted in a big mismatch between supply and demand options. The costs of healthcare services have been increasing day by day which are putting direct negative pressures on individual patients, hospitals, and the governments. There exists a large gap between the demand and supply of reliable and cost effective medical treatments in rural and urban areas which directly affects the costs of these treatments and general healthcare services for all individuals. The most recent financial crisis also left bad impacts on the overall healthcare spending of the general public. The governmental bodies like ACA has taken initiatives to control this increasing rate of inflation for the healthcare industry by taking cooperation from the hospitals, health care organizations, and pharmaceutical companies.


Mangan, D. (2013, 06, 18). Health-Care Cost Inflation on Track to Slow in 2014: Report Retrieved on August 21st, 2013, from

Nussbaum, A. (2012, 05, 21). Health-Care Costs Rise Faster Than U.S. Inflation Rate. Retrieved on August 21st, 2013, from

PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP, (2013). Factors affecting 2014 Medical Cost Trend. Retrieved on August 21st, 2013, from

Rugy, V. (2013, 07, 16). Is The Slowdown In Health Care Inflation Here To Stay? Retrieved on August 21st, 2013, from [read more]

Insurance Healthcare Research Paper

Research Paper  |  8 pages (2,587 words)
Bibliography Sources: 8


Health Care System

United States Health Care System

An increase in the concentration of the health care costs and quality assurances within the context of the health reforms continue to shift the attention of the federal and state governments towards the potential health information technology. This project seeks to enhance the effectiveness and efficiency of the health care programs as… [read more]

Health Care Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (1,147 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


Address the proposition that health care quality is currently a national priority. Include one or more examples from health policy and/or current events to support your response.

Health care quality is indeed a national priority. In many instances, quality healthcare is a societal priority as lives are significantly impacted by it. To begin, due to the Affordable Care Act of 2010, the healthcare profession is undergoing a fundamental shift in regards to the patient experience. The U.S. health care system is now shifting the focus from acute and specialty care to that of primary care. This shift will alter the skills and qualifications needed to be successful on the job. Also, due primarily to that aging of the baby boomer generation, the need for primary car overall is shifting and will be needed heavily in the future. More individuals due to the act are now insured. This newly formed population will now require services they would otherwise have forgone. Therefore, the need for primary care will also increase over subsequent years, particular within the minority population. The affordable care act helps a disproportionate amount of minorities afford healthcare in manner that they could not before. As such, they too will demand higher quality service. This patient centric approach will require more care predicated on specific communities in a seamless and efficient manner. The healthcare profession is undergoing fundamental changes within the underlying operations of the field. A new regulatory environment coupled with increased scrutiny of the profession will dramatically impact the healthcare profession. The newly enacted Affordable Care Act has profound implications on both the industry and those who practice within it. As a recent IOM report indicates, the health care profession in the near future will have job requirements that are more service and business oriented. Health care practitioners will need to have a better understanding of quality management methods in addition to overall concepts of quality service (Kohn, 2000).

Finally, the health care industry is becoming highly regulated. Licensing and compliance issues are extremely important and must be addressed in a consistent, timely manner. Organizations must work with healthcare providers, healthcare insurers, medical device manufacturers and pharmaceutical clients with respect to applicable state licensing law. In addition, as healthcare providers have developed creative ownership, organizational and delivery solutions in order to become more competitive, regulators have become increasingly concerned about the financial arrangements between providers regarding referrals, compensation arrangements, and marketing. Firms must advise clients with regard to Anti-Kickback and other Medicare and Medicaid regulatory requirements. All these constraints hinge primary on the preservation of quality health care service and its optimal delivery. These regulations are intended to protect individual consumers and clients who rely on the specialized knowledge provided by the industry. As such, as indicated by this extensive regulation and oversight care quality is indeed a priority of national scale.


1) Draper, Elaine, Joseph LaDou, and Dan J. Tennenhouse. 2011. "Occupational Health Nursing and the Quest for Professional Authority," New Solutions 21, 47 -- 81… [read more]

Health Care Drivers for Increased Medicaid Funding Research Paper

Research Paper  |  10 pages (3,735 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Health Care Drivers for increased Medicaid funding: A study in the United States.

The Per capita health care spending has increased to about 2,814 in 1990 to more than $7,000 today. With such increased amounts, it is obvious that everyone in America would not be able to afford such so much. This led to the creation and the need for… [read more]

Healthcare Right or Privilege Research Paper

Research Paper  |  5 pages (1,450 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Health Care: Right or Privilege?

There are those who will argue that healthcare is neither a right nor a privilege, but I do not agree with them. People argue that rights are freedoms of action, not entitlements to what others produce and that a privilege is something authority figures permit us to do at their discretion. Brian Schwartz sums up… [read more]

Funding Health Care Services Scenario Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,040 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


(League of Women Voters, 2010 )

(3) Alabama Department of Public Health. (League of Women Voters, 2010)

(4) Governor's Office -- Influences health decisions through budget and policy recommendations to the Legislature as well as nomination of department heads and other positions such as SHCC. (League of Women Voters, 2010)

(5) Legislature -- Provides funding and oversight for state programs. (League of Women Voters, 2010)

(6) U.S. Government -- Sets mandates for many state programs and impacts state budgets and programs through matching fund requirements. (League of Women Voters, 2010)

It is reported that Alabama has received a total of $9,772,451 in grants for research, planning, information technology development, and implementation of Affordable Insurance Exchanges. In addition, Alabama has received the following stated grants:

(1) $1,180,312 in Planning Grants: This grant provides Alabama the resources needed to conduct the research and planning necessary to build a better health insurance marketplace and determine how its exchange will be operated and governed.

(2) $8,592,139 in Exchange Establishment Grants: These grants are helping States continue their work to implement key provisions of the Affordable Care Act.

Reported as well is that Alabama has received $9,200,000 in grants from the Prevention and Public Health Fund created by the Affordable Care Act. This new fund was created to support effective policies in Alabama, its communities, and nationwide so that all Americans can lead longer, more productive lives." (Healthcare.gov, 2012) Reported as examples of Affordable Care Act grants to Alabama are the following:

(1) $863,000 for school-based health centers, to help clinics expand and provide more health care services such as screenings to students.

(2) $530,000 to support outreach to eligible Medicare beneficiaries about their benefits.

(3) $292,200 for Family-to-Family Health Information Centers, organizations run by and for families with children with special health care needs.

(4) $4,800,000 for Maternal, Infant, and Early Childhood Home Visiting Programs. These programs bring health professionals to meet with at-risk families in their homes and connect families to the kinds of help that can make a real difference in a child's health, development, and ability to learn - such as health care, early education, parenting skills, child abuse prevention, and nutrition.(Healthcare.gov, 2012)

Summary and Conclusion

The State of Alabama has addressed health care funding but the funding does not appear to be sufficient to meet at the needs of Alabamians who are in need of health care services. Alabama does not have a state lottery and it is the opinion of this writer that a state lottery would serve to provide a great deal of necessary funding to Alabama health care services. Alabamians spend their money playing lotteries in adjacent states such as Tennessee and Florida. The money spent on playing the lottery should be retained in the State of Alabama rather than being received by other states.


Facts and Issues: Health Care in Alabama Report of the Health Care Study Committee (2010) League of Women Voters of Alabama. Feb 2010. Retrieved from: http://www.lwval.org/Health_Care_in_AL_F&I/Health_Care_in_AL_F&I.pdf

How the Health Care Law… [read more]

Health INS Healthcare Econ Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (593 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Requirements regarding how long children can remain on their parents' policies, new mandates regarding pre-existing conditions, and a host of other changes that might be viewed favorably by consumers and might create a more comprehensive system nonetheless require extra administrative efforts and thus a higher proportion of healthcare dollars would be going to insurance administration. Any additional profits seen during this period would be the result of over-estimation of cost increases and would likely be seen to diminish after the transitional period.


Slide 6 shows that the rate at which healthcare premiums grew was directly in line with the rate at which benefits grew, meaning every cent of every additional dollar health insurance companies collected during this period went straight to doctors, hospitals, prescription drugs, and other healthcare related expenses, and not to administrative costs or profits for health insurance companies. Given the growth in healthcare expenses overall during this period with no additional expense on the part of health insurance companies themselves, the proportion of each healthcare dollar that goes towards health insurance costs and profits is necessarily diminishing.

An opposing view might be offered to this contention, namely that highly profitable health insurance companies were not willing to cut into their profits at all to provide greater service, and thus increased premiums in line with their expenses in order to maintain or at times even increase profits even with reductions in administrative costs. This graphic alone is not enough to establish a cause-and-effect pattern, and thus it is disingenuous for anyone from the health insurance companies to use this as evidence that health insurance companies had to raise premiums as a means of providing…… [read more]

Government Role in Health Care Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,014 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


3) What lessons can we infer from history around the efforts to enact National Health Insurance and/or Health Reform?

National health care reform has been impeded by a number of factors. Among the most influential are the complexity of the issues, ideological differences, the lobbying strength of special interest groups, a weakened Presidency, and the decentralization of Congressional power.

The public is generally unfriendly to proposals which involve additional financial obligations on the part of individuals towards health care costs. For example, the Committee on the Costs of Medical Care proposed group medicine and voluntary insurance during the 1920's and faced heavy opposition from much of the electorate. Although the American public has always supported the idea of guaranteed health care access for all, they have also been wary of any new financial obligations created by the government, viewing them much in the same way they view new taxes. There is an unwillingness to recognize the relationship between individual contributions and universal health care access.

The history of health care reform suggests that the individual mandate provision attached to the current health care reform law will be a source of public discontent for some time to come. In fact, it has already proved to be the major weakness of "Obamacare," as it has been derisively referred to by its opponents. The individual mandate provision strikes many as a government intrusion on individual liberty and possibly a deprivation of property. It has been pounced on by President Obama's political opponents, tarnishing the centerpiece legislative achievement of Obama's first term. Although the individual mandate provision survived a recent Supreme Court challenge, Justice Scalia defined the individual mandate contribution as a new tax on individuals, leaving it open to continued criticism and challenges.

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Term Paper


health care economic paper please see details for topic


1). Describe the characteristics of the uninsured? Additionally, why are concentrated interests and diffuse costs important when predicting legislative outcomes?

2). What are the economic rationales for different types of government intervention in health care? Additionally, explain the rationale for requiring everyone to purchase health insurance or pay a penalty?

3). Evaluate the following policies according to the public interest and economic theories:

Please limit each to a page . please make sure it meets these requirements

Consistently, concisely and clearly stated new ideas to discuss; contributes solutions to the questions with APA citations from current, peer-reviewed journals; analyzes and evaluates from many positions; consistently uses case studies/examples from interviews or experiences; contribute valuable insight based on recent related research.

Concisely summarizing and moving on with new issues based on the discussion and current literature;

Please make sure there is

Evidence of a strong understanding of the topic

A superior connection to prior learning, experience, and new insights offered.

superior quality; outstanding thought processes; skillful…… [read more]

Health Care Management the CDC ) Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,884 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Health Care Management

The CDC (2012) defines bioterrorism as "the deliberate release of viruses, bacteria or other germs (agents) used to cause illness or death in people, animals or plants. In addition to each local health care system, there are national bodies responsible for preparedness in the event of a bioterrorist attack. These agencies include Homeland Security, the Center for… [read more]

Health Care Reform Has Been a Hot Research Paper

Research Paper  |  4 pages (1,375 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


¶ … health care reform has been a hot button issue across the United States in the form of the Affordable Care Act (ACA) but in the State of Minnesota it has been a hotly contested since the passage of the 2008 Minnesota Health Care Reform Act (Gray) and, most recently, with the extension of the General Assistance Medical Care program (Minnesota Department of Human Services). The fate of the ACA will soon be determined when the U.S. Supreme Court announces its ruling on said Act's constitutionality. The Court's ruling will have a profound effect on the delivery of health care throughout the nation but regardless of how the Court decides health care in the State of Minnesota will be altered.

On the national level, health care has been hotly debated but it has also been a contentious issue within the State of Minnesota as well. The legislature in Minnesota has been aggressively addressing the problems inherent in the delivery of health care services in the state but the changing political climate within the state has altered the playing field and it has caused an aura of uncertainty to exist within the state. In the past several years, new legislation such as the 2008 Health Reform Act and the General Assistance Medical Care has been enacted in an effort to widen the availability of health care within the State of Minnesota. Unfortunately, the executive branch and the legislative branch have not always been in agreement relative to the application of such legislation. As an example, in late 2009 then Governor Tim Pawlenty used his line-item veto authority to fully eliminate the General Assistance Medical Care (GAMC) program and the House of Representatives was unable to override Pawlenty's veto (Berkel). The result of Pawlenty's action was to abolish medical services for over 77,000 low income Minnesotans who had become accustomed to the receipt of the program's services. Pawlenty argued at the time of his veto that nearly all those denied services through the abolishment of the GAMC program would be eligible for alternative Minnesota programs but the premiums in these other programs proved to be too expensive. The result was that a large number of Minnesota residents were suddenly left without healthcare and pressure was again placed on emergency rooms to serve as primary care centers in addition to serving as trauma centers.

Since that time, Pawlenty has left office and the present administration, led my new Governor, Mark Drayton, has established a different approach to the delivery of health care in the State. Drayton signed an Executive Order that established a special Task Force to investigate and recommend strategies to improve the overall delivery of health care in the State of Minnesota. One of the recommendations coming out of this Task Force was the state's participation in a state insurance exchange. The State has been involved in the creation and operation of such an exchange for a number of years and has actually operated a private exchange with some limited… [read more]

Health Care in the U.S Term Paper

Term Paper  |  20 pages (7,032 words)
Bibliography Sources: 20


The Spanish System

The health care system in Spain is still reeling from the recent global recession. High unemployment rates are expected to continue, which places a strain on the ability to support the national health care system (OECD, 2011b). The ability of the national health care system in Spain to provide services depends on an inflow of taxes from… [read more]

Healthcare Management Health Care Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,544 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


However, insurance companies feel exploited because much of their premiums, 85% is used in enhancing quality care (OECD, 2011). This provision can garner support because it promotes a healthier nation through provision of quality care, but it can as well be rejected by those in support of insurance companies.


The proposed health care reforms taking effect in 2011 addresses post -- acute and long-term care, and the insufficiency of financing, lack of care coordination, lack of community and home-based services and poor quality care. The reforms taking effect in 2011 function to enhance provision of affordable and accessible care for the seniors, disabled and children covered under Children Health Insurance Program. These reforms also provide preventive care for those enrolled under Medicare. However, the proposed reforms do not include other millions of people who remain uninsured and, as a result; I would redesign them to include all citizens in efforts of the facilitating provision of universal care.


Vlvar, L.(2011). Obama's health care reform 2010: From change to concession. New York: GRIN Verlag.

Harrington, C.(2011). Health policy: Crisis and reform. Texas: Jones & Bartlett Publishers.

Teitelbaum, J. (2013). Essentials of health policy and law. New York: Jones & Bartlett Publishers.

Gray, V., & Benz, J. (2013). Interest groups and health care reform across the United States. Georgia:…… [read more]

Health and Legislative Issues Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,301 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


This means that either way if one chooses to go with the programs of the Act or chooses not to go with them they have to pay taxes. Therefore this PPACA affects the American citizens more than anyone else.

Socioeconomic, political, cultural, and ethical issues

There are also various socioeconomic and political context factors that surround this issue. These factors have led to the industrialization of the healthcare systems in the U.S. with provision of healthcare as a product being subjected to market forces. Competition from providers has led to the overuse of costly methods of treatment and a subsequent increase in medication cost and rise in insurance (Goodman, 2012). Most of the debates on the PPACA are now being politicized and the issue is slowly taking a political direction as opposed to looking at the needs of the citizens. The PPACA has brought about an important ethical issue under the individual mandate provision.it is quite unethical for individuals to be practically forced to purchase an insurance product which they might not want or even need.it is also quite unethical for immigrants to be excluded from adequate healthcare coverage such as Medicaid which is one of the provisions of this Act (ANA, 2010). There are also some cultural issues which surround this policy for instance the issue of the chip. The chip has faced a lot of criticism from various cultures since it is termed as unacceptable in nay of the cultural beliefs and practices.


There are many stakeholders involved in this policy this include the Federal government, the congress, insurance agents, healthcare organizations and systems, individual citizens an employees. All these are termed as stakeholders since they are affected in one way or another by the PPACA as indicated by Wechseler Jill, (2012).

Positions of stakeholders on the issue

Various stakeholders involved in this issue have their own views and a defined position on the issue. For instance the National Association of Insurance and Financial advisors advocates for bipartisan and targeted reforms which lead to the improvement of affordability and sustainability of private insurance which is a position in line with the PPACA .the ANA continues to advocate for the expansion of health reforms so as to make them available for everyone and make citizens be bale to access affordable healthcare. Consumers are not ready to accept the PPACA as it is because they term it as bringing more harm than good particularly when it comes to the issues on tax. Major political parties would want to see this Act fully implemented since they view it as being beneficial to the American citizens as further discussed by Wechseler Jill, (2012).

Effects of the policy on nursing

This Act is projected to provide more jobs in the nursing field. This because more patients will require nurses to tend to them as a result of the influx of new patients.it is also going to get more nurses interested and involved with political processes through the establishment of National Healthcare Workforce… [read more]

Obama Care Plan Health Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (3,278 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


According to Congressional Budget Office the plan will help reduce deficit by a startling $138 million over ten years (Health Care Reform, 2012). Although the statistics are subject to debate but the new plan ensures that costs are not distributed evenly but the plan actually helps in curbing the overspending crisis currently present in this particular industry. By cutting on… [read more]

Health Care Acts Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (673 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3


Legislative Acts Shaping the Healthcare System: A Look at the Past and Future

With Hillary Clinton's bid for the presidency just ended, the subject of healthcare has been thrust into the spotlight. More specifically, Clinton's bid for the presidency, Michael Moore's provocative documentary Sicko, and this year's Democrat and Republican national conventions have forced the public and government's eyes to the issue of government intervention in health care. Although a variety of critics such as Moore and Clinton have discussed a need for further legislation regarding the relationship between the federal government and the health care industry, congress has addressed the issue in the past. A short summary of the 1974 and 1966 acts regarding public healthcare will allow readers to understand the evolution of the healthcare system and the need for further legislation.

The most recent policy-altering act regarding the national healthcare system was passed in 1974as the National Health Planning and Resources Development Act. Sponsored by Senator Edward Kennedy and signed into law on January fourth, 1975, as H.R. 16204. Intended to establish the effective use of healthcare resources on a federal and state level, the act was passed to amend the Public Health Service Act ("S.2994" nd). According to Rubel, the act "provided a new, unified approach to resolving the problems of access, cost, and quality care" (1976, p.3). This unified approach consisted of the development of state and nationwide agencies "responsible for health planning and resources," federal funding for the creation and modernization of healthcare facilities, and an emphasis on sovereign state and local healthcare agencies backed by federal financial and technical provisions (Rubel 1976, p.4). The act structured the healthcare system by requiring strong, certified state healthcare facilities and programs, backed by federal government resources (Rubel 1976, p.4). What made the act truly unique, however, was its creation of Health Systems Agencies, of HSAs, that serve as community health planning agencies. Eventually, these HSAs would go on to manage local hospitals and regulate the profit hospitals could make from providing services…… [read more]

Public Health Service: A Renewed Research Paper

Research Paper  |  8 pages (2,705 words)
Bibliography Sources: 8


S. Constitution thereby making it mandatory for individuals to purchase health insurance. The Individual Mandate provision of the PPACA (P.L. 111-148, PPACA) requires all Americans must purchase healthcare insurance policy from 2014 or face a federal penalty. The U.S. Supreme Court stroked down the individual mandate provisions stating that they violated the Commerce Clause. The court held that the Individual… [read more]

Health Care Reform Healthcare Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (692 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


It establishes a 'post-graduation routine' of coverage. Finally, to keep national healthcare costs down, it is vital that there are healthy people in the 'risk pool' represented by insurance companies, to defray the costs of insuring the elderly and chronically ill.

In terms of the 'negatives' of Obamacare for young people, some young people over the age of 26 may resist the fact that the individual mandate requires them to purchase health insurance if it is not provided by their employer. (Although there are certain hardship exemptions to the individual mandate, based upon income, and there are no mandates that individuals have to purchase a particular level of coverage). And that is one problem with the extension of the limit to age 26 -- while it does increase the number of covered Americans, it does not address the fundamental problem that many low-level and part-time entry-level jobs do not provide health benefits, and fewer jobs in general in America are providing benefits.

Out-of-pocket costs for all workers are going up, and once an employee turns 27 in a job that does not provide insurance, he has a 'rude awakening.' Either he or she must buy coverage, which may be relatively minimal based upon what he or she can afford, unless the person is so "poor that they don't have to file taxes (income around $9,500 for individuals and $19,000 for married couples)… [or] would have to spend more than 8% of family income" for insurance, in which cases they are exempt from the individual mandate (Kennan 2012).

Overall, this provision of the ACA has had a positive effect. But it is not a panacea for the difficulties of young people in today's economy, in terms of finding jobs with decent benefits. Creating a longer interval of dependence upon parents is at best a Band-Aid solution, albeit a necessary one.


Culp-Ressler, Tara. (2012). Obamacare led to record drop in uninsured young adults. Think Progress. Retrieved: ttp://thinkprogress.org/health/2012/09/10/818231/study-obamacare-drop-uninsured-young-adults/?mobile=nc

Kennan, Joanne. (2012). Five myths of…… [read more]

Health Care Costs Data Analysis Chapter

Data Analysis Chapter  |  3 pages (870 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3



"What's the price of health care?" pinpoints the importance of transparency in health care pricing, given the current very high cost of health care and the fact that consumers are now increasingly required to participate in choosing their health care measures based at least partially on cost (Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, 2012, p. 1). The article illustrates the difficulty in controlling costs and in making educated decisions due to the secrecy about specific costs, the difference between "retail" and insurance-negotiated costs, and the lack of effective programs to gather and disseminate accurate data about those costs (Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, 2012, pp. 1-2). Finally, the article illustrates state-sponsored attempts by Washington, Oregon, Kansas, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, Minnesota, New Hampshire, Tennessee, Utah, Vermont and Louisiana to accumulate and disseminate pricing information through all-payer claims databases (Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, 2012, p. 2). According to the article, these programs are beneficial in that they: cover whole ranges of services; safeguard privacy by concentrating on claims instead of clinical information; promote pricing transparency (Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, 2012, p. 2). The article also claims that these programs are limited in their usefulness because: they usually report "retail" prices rather than actual "allowed amounts"; these States do not actually possess and control the data because the programs are created by state mandate (Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, 2012, p. 2).

The authors' Perspectives Compared with Personal Perspective

Both "What is the National Quality Strategy" and "What's the price of health care?" are authored by the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, a philanthropic organization founded by Robert Wood Johnson II of Johnson & Johnson, a global leader in health care products manufacturing and dedicated to improving the health and health care of Americans through research, publications and grants (Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, 2012). The American Beverage Institute (Doyle, 2003) and the Center for Consumer Freedom (Center for Consumer Freedom, 2007) both criticize the Foundation for being anti-alcohol. However, from the perspective of a health care provider, the perspective of a major health care products manufacturer that is anti-alcohol -- even if the accusation is true - is not particularly troubling, for two reasons: neither article addresses only alcohol per se; alcohol consumption is, in fact, a significant contributor to health care problems in the United States (National Institutes of Health, 2012), so a foundation addressing health care concerns would tend to include alcohol in its discussions.

"What is the National Quality Strategy?" mirrors the basic elements disseminated by governmental publications (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2012) while simplifying the explanations for general… [read more]

Community Health in Nursing Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (908 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Community Health in Nursing

One of the principle aspects of the employment of a nurse is fostering a sense of community health. The nursing industry can actually play a fairly substantial role in encouraging the development of community health awareness and implementing programs that facilitate the awareness of issues germane to a particular community. In the South Florida community of Miami, for example, there are a number of health issues that people in this part of the region need to be aware of. One of the most eminent is the high rate of contraction of sexually transmitted diseases, which is due in no small part to the immense heterogeneity that characterizes this population subset. Furthermore, the proclivity of young people to incur these diseases is significantly higher than that of older people, which is why nursing programs focusing on community awareness should ideally concentrate on this particular demographic.

The high rate of incidence of sexually transmitted diseases can be severely mitigated through the deployment of encouraging youth to get tested for various diseases. Doing so would allow this portion of the population to become aware of its particular status regarding the spread and contagion of diseases, which would enable it to act accordingly and more responsibly in order to curtail further dissemination of such diseases. To that end, it would greatly behoove young people to proactively avoid the spread of these diseases by coming and getting tested on their own. Additionally, nurses can have a direct impact on the future health of people in the Miami community by handing out condoms at health care facilities where people are tested. Properly utilizing condoms and other forms of safe sex can greatly reduce the transmission of sexually transmitted diseases and infections. The dissemination of these materials in health care facilities in which youth are tested would immensely aid the prospects of community health in Miami.

Nursing students and healthcare professionals in general will likely see a big change occurring to the health care industry now that the Supreme Court has approved the constitutionality of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act. The most salient of these changes, of course, will occur in 2014 when health ensure will be mandatory for all citizens -- with the only way to opt out of health insure being to pay a tax that will more than likely be more expensive than the cost of paying for healthcare. This aspect of health reform alone makes this measure worth endorsing and will greatly benefit community health awareness, since mandatory health care coverage will enable people to get check-ups, determine what is wrong with them and ideally counteract any potential negatives. Moreover, this aspect of President Obama's health care reform would enable nursing…… [read more]

Health Care Future Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,374 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Health Care

There are a number of changes that can be expected to health care in the coming years, perhaps none bigger than demographic changes where the entire baby boom generation is approaching 65. This means a couple of key things. The first is that there is going to be a massive shift in health care demand, as health often deteriorates significantly at this age. Baby boomers still try to live active lifestyles, which could delay the onset of ailments, but in general this massive generation of over 75 million Americans will be seeking health care increasingly in the coming decade or so (Sanderson, 2014). There is evidence that they are already making claims on the health care system that cannot be supported or sustained in the long run (Gigante, 2010).

Another major shift that will occur with the baby boomers is that they will be moving away from their employer-based insurance plans and onto Medicare. There are questions about how sustainable Medicare will be, and there seems little doubt that one of the boomer-related outcomes for health care is that payouts will be squeezed as the government seeks to control the budget (Barr, 2014). Indeed, that is already one of the outcomes of the Affordable Care Act, which was brought about in part to deal with this situation. The problem for health care is that when payouts are squeezed in an environment of rising costs, it can be difficult to operate profitably without compromising on service. The standards of care for some patients will be negatively affected, based on their Medicare status.

One of the positives, however, is that baby boomers are relatively technologically-savvy, which provides opportunity to incorporate more technology into primary care. Technological developments are a driving force, but in general boomers are accepting of technology, so things like teleconferencing with providers can be facilitated. Technology that can monitor patient in their homes and instantly relay that information to medical care professionals will allow boomers to enjoy old age in their own homes to a degree that has not been the case in the past (Rudansky, 2013).

The reality is that health care has been looking forward to this time for many years. The baby boomer generation has been expected by the industry, but the pace of changes is so rapid, with new technology, the ACA and other changes, that it is difficult to predict entirely what effect the boomers will have on the health care industry will be. We know already that seniors are the biggest consumers of health care, and that there are millions of them about to enter the market. This will put a huge strain on capacity, especially in an industry where they know that payouts are going to be reduced over time, and where the cost of adding capacity can be very high. There are significant challenges with respect to how to manage this demographic bubble, where to find the trained staff to deal with all of these seniors, and to attempt… [read more]

Federal Role in Healthcare Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (880 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


The recent healthcare.gov and Veteran's Administration debacles proved that government is too lumbering and inept to get the job done, and in fact both of those services should be farmed out to the private sector so that people, especially veterans, get the healthcare that they need. The recent VA reform bill did this in part but it should be done in full for veterans and regular folks alike. The premiums of private citizens should be indexed based on income with regular working people paying the full price. However, the system can be scaled and adjusted to help those that cannot afford the full premium.


In the end, the current economic and political climate in Washington DC is going to preclude any real progress. The contentiousness between the Obama administration and the House of Representatives is going to prevent any significant legislation from passing from now until when Obama leaves office in 2017, at the very least. However, if a more moderate candidate, Republican or Democrat, can emerge from the ether and champion a more moderate solution, then the amount of progress that could be realized would be immeasurable.


Corbett, J., & Kappagoda, M. (2013). Doing Good and Doing Well: Corporate Social

Responsibility in Post Obamacare America. Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics, 4117-21. doi:10.1111/jlme.12032

An assessment of what businesses could or should be responsible for after the passage of the Affordable Care Act, aka ObamaCare.

Gottschalk, M. (2011). They're Back: The Public Plan, the Reincarnation of Harry and Louise, and the Limits of Obamacare. Journal Of Health Politics, Policy & Law, 36(3), 393-400. doi:10.1215/03616878-1271009

This article talks about the idea of having a publicly-run non-profit healthcare insurance plan could act as a competitor to private firms. This is contrasted with the approach that was actually taken via the ACA.

Knoblauch, H. (2014). A Campaign Won as a Public Issue Will Stay Won. American

Journal Of Public Health, 104(2), 227-236. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2013.301585

This article speaks of the "propaganda" used by anti-ACA advocates during the time just before passage of ObamaCare.

Nash, K. (2009). What's your experience? Does ObamaCare place too much emphasis on primary care?. Urology Times, 37(13), 22.

Assesses where primary care gets too much focus in the Affordable Care Act at the expense of specialists.

Snowden, L.R. (2012). Health and Mental Health Policies' Role in Better Understanding and Closing African-American-White American Disparities in Treatment Access and Quality of Care. American Psychologist, 67(7), 524-531.

Looks at the disparities that exist in healthcare relating to African-American people and others…… [read more]

Healthcare Access Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,423 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Without access to healthcare people can suffer from anxiety, depression, sickness, and stress, and other symptoms that affect not only individuals, but families and communities of that individual as well (ProCon, 2014). Many of the conditions that afflict people are easily treated through primary care and a health person is not only a more successful member of a family, but… [read more]

Why Is Healthcare in Germany so Much Better Than in the US? Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (791 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Standard prices for medical services are negotiated ahead of time (cutting administrative costs to 6%, "a quarter of what they are in the U.S."), and healthcare providers must stick to those prices.

In the UK, just 2 or 3% of citizens skip doctor's visits when ill but in the U.S. "…a full 25%…didn't visit the doctor when sick because we couldn't afford it…and 23% did not fill a prescription…" or show up at a follow up treatment recommended by a doctor (Klein, 2007). And although Americans pay "more than twice as much as anyone else, we have the lowest satisfaction with our healthcare system," according to Klein, a Washington Post reporter.

In conclusion, the latest data on the Affordable Care Act shows that over 5 million Americans have signed up for health insurance through the market set up by the legislation, and notwithstanding snags in the system as it went into effect, the "Obamacare" law is delivering much of what it promised to deliver (you can't be denied coverage because of existing conditions, etc.). But meanwhile, the polarized situation between Democrats and Republicans in Congress gets more attention than the healthcare issues. The House of Representatives, led by conservative Republicans, has voted 50 times to either de-fund the Affordable Care Act, or drastically change its components.

In conclusion, in Germany everyone is covered completely when it comes to health care and to receive that care they pay according to their ability into an insurance policy. The one downside is that doctors and other healthcare providers in Germany do not feel adequately compensated. In the U.S., the Republicans (and conservative talk show hosts) mercilessly, viciously attack the Affordable Care Act with misinformation and vitriol. Politics has actually made healthcare a more difficult system to develop in the U.S. As it is obvious every proposal from the Obama Administration is met with immediate push-back by Republicans. Right now people in Europe are likely astounded at the lack of civility in the American government and no doubt are incredulous at the way Americans go about reforming a broken system.

Works Cited

Frontline. "Sick Around the World." Public Broadcast System. Retrieved March 27, 2014, from http://www.pbs.org. 2007.

Klein, Ezra. "Ten Reasons Why American Health Care Is so Bad."…… [read more]

Quality Indicator Healthcare Quality Indicators Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (853 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


For many hospitals, a key step to be taken is the improvement of staffing conditions. A great many hospitals and nursing homes struggle with staff shortages, especially in the area of registered nurses. The direct correlation between adequate staffing and positive healthcare outcomes is especially relevant to a discussion on the readmissions indicator. Here, we project that more adequate nurse to patient ratios would have a positive impact on reducing preventable readmissions.

Specifically, on focus of prevention of readmissions is taking the steps leading up to discharge to ensure that the patient has been provided with a proper and effective treatment plan. Part and parcel to this is providing the patient with a clear understanding of the nature of his or her condition, with comprehensive instructions on taking medication and with a clear set of referrals for follow-up treatment, appointments or self-care steps. This means that in addition to staffing the facility adequately, it will be incumbent upon us to provide comprehensive training and resources so that our nurses can execute these important functions.

Another strategy that will be put into place is informed in the text by Johnson. This outlines a program which has proven successful in the Jersey City Medical Center in New Jersey. Under the terms of the Affordable Care Act, the Center has worked to reduce readmissions by heightening its focus on taking follow-up action for patients who have been discharged. This includes offering home visitations and follow-up phone calls from paramedics and nurses. The primary goal is to ensure that patients who have been released from the hospital have everything they need to execute their personal health plan and that they fully understand the instructions for post-hospitalization treatment. (Johnson, p. 1)

Finally, it will be important to create a working environment in which a patient-centered philosophy of treatment is sought. Here, the focus on the patient as an individual with individual needs, rather than as a collection of symptoms, offers a path to treatment with attentiveness and compassion. This too will reduce the likelihood of a patient being readmitted.


Though the Affordable Care Act is seen by many as controversial, the pressure that it creates to reduce preventable readmissions is likely to produce positive results. By drawing a direct connection between financial imperatives and this quality indicator, the legislation demands that hospitals work toward making performance improvements.

Works Cited:

Brink, S. (2013). Hospitals Seek to Avoid Penalties by Minimizing Readmissions. U.S. News and World Report.

Johnson, M. (2013). For Hospitals, Obamacare Rollout Makes Readmission Penalties a Top-of-Mind…… [read more]

Objective Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (1,911 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


" (Christensen, 2013, p. 1) However, as noted by Christensen not everyone purchasing insurance through the exchanges will be on the receiving end of a government subsidy. The result reported is that "people will be forced to see the doctors who agreed to the treat people for a low price rather than their favorite doctor or a specialist across town. The New York Times article freely quotes from consumer advocates who are outraged that these subsidized insurance plans will not be as generous in the choice of providers as those policies purchased in the private market." (Christensen, 2013, p. 1) Ritger states that the determination of whether the "quality of care in the new market is comparable to private offerings remains to be seen." (p. 1)

Summary and Conclusion

Obamacare has both pros and cons to consider although it is yet to be seen whether the positive aspects of Obamacare can offset the negative aspects of this health care reform plan set out by the present administration in Washington. Conflicting reports exist and it is difficult to ascertain in the present what the exact impact the plan will have on the costs associated with insurance for families, employers, insurance companies and the government although it appears that the taxpayers will bear the largest burden for the costs associated with the health care reform plan.

There is also certainly going to be problems associated with the quality of care received in health care services especially in light of the fact that so many more individuals will be accessing health care services at a time when there is already a shortage of doctors and the news demands for healthcare will further stress an already stressed health care provider system.

The costs of insurance are predicted to rise for both families and individuals as well as costs of insurance rising for employers. In addition, the cut-off points for subsidies are so abrupt that even a small raise in pay could result in a family losing their health care subsidy. There are many quirks to be worked out in the health care reform laws of Obamacare and it is likely that many more problems with the plan are yet to be identified.

Works Cited

Christensen, J (2013) Doctor Shortage, Increased Demand Could Crash Health Care System. 2 Oct 2013. Retrieved from: http://www.cnn.com/2013/10/02/health/obamacare-doctor-shortage/index.html

Dorfman, J.(2013)On October 1 Obamacare's Price Tag Will Surprise Americans. Forbes. 26 Sept 2013. Retrieved from: http://www.forbes.com/sites/jeffreydorfman/2013/09/26/on-october-1-obamacares-price-tag-will-surprise-americans/

Mandatory…… [read more]

Social, Cultural, and Political Influence Research Paper

Research Paper  |  13 pages (4,282 words)
Bibliography Sources: 12


S. (Crinson, 2009).

An alternate factor in the health care access issue is recognized in instances of urban poor. Information from urban slums shows that newborn and under-five death rates for the poorest forty percent of the urban populace are as high as the remote ranges (Crinson, 2009). Urban inhabitants are extremely powerless to macroeconomic stuns that undermine their earning… [read more]

Healthcare Leadership &amp Prejudices Article

Article  |  5 pages (1,543 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5



Healthcare Leadership Prejudices

Healthcare leadership has become a more and more important topic over the recent years and decades, and for a number of major reasons. There are unfortunately a number of prejudices that exist even in the upper echelons of leadership of healthcare organizations and not all of them are as simple or as obvious… [read more]

Health Reform Health Care in a Free Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (574 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Health Reform

Health Care in a Free Market System

Who influences whom? Where is the U.S. going with "reform"? What would you recommend?

For many decades, the primary influences driving the U.S. healthcare system have been private interests such as insurance companies, commercial healthcare systems and medical supply distributors. Their financial imperatives have driven priorities, which has resulted in a system that is highly profitable to a select few and otherwise excluding of countless Americans. Indeed, the thrust of 'reform' is the redressing of this exclusion through a greater distribution of coverage. The Affordable Care Act pushes for the creation of coverage for a wider cross-section of Americans. However, I would recommend the beginning of a push for universal healthcare coverage through Medicare, Medicaid and a coordination of private insurance programs. Until the cost of healthcare is not an obstacle to the receipt of quality treatment for tens of millions of Americans, the system will be deeply flawed.

- Health Planning and Regulation

Is Government a help or a hindrance in health systems? Be sure to read the Pauly article about Maryland's system of health regulation...

In spite of the objections of some partisan forces to the involvement of government in the regulation of healthcare, the role of government is refining the healthcare system is absolutely critical. The greatest hindrance to achieving a system of quality healthcare in the U.S. has been the role played by wildly unregulated private players. The government has taken decidedly too small a role in regulating the affairs of insurances and providers over the last several decades and the result has been a profit-hungry, exploitive and radically wasteful healthcare system. Because there has been an absence of regulation in the area of…… [read more]

Ethical and Legal Perspectives in Health Care Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (1,296 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Ethical and Legal Perspectives in Health Care

False Claims Act (FCA) was enacted during the Civil War to arrest frequent fraud against the United States government. An individual or a corporation that knowingly presents, or causes to be presented, a false claim of payment to the Federal Government can be prosecuted under this Act (WilmerHale, 2013). The FCA has a very broad scope. It is therefore imperative for any company doing business with the government to be very vigilant to guard against liabilities that come in the context of damages and penalties. A company is deemed to have violated FCA when it knowingly and materially misrepresents the nature of good or service that it provides to the government (WilmerHale, 2013). Misrepresentation can be in form of contractual language or other communications that leads to a government payment. A company can be prosecuted using this Act when it conspires to present a false claim to the government or causing a third party to submit a false claim. Companies can also incur reverse false claim liability when they improperly conceal, avoid, or decrease an obligation to pay the government. The origin of an FCA case is two-pronged. First, the United States itself can originate a case. Second, an FCA case can be filed through a private litigant who brings action on behalf of the United States government under the qui tam provision (WilmerHale, 2013). Private litigants are also called relators. A relator can receive 15 and 30% of any judgment or settlement in the government's favor (Sturycz, 2009). A suit originated by a relator remains under seal while the Department of Justice (DOJ) investigates the claim. The United States Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) in its resolve to implement Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA), under the Center for Medicare and Medicaid Service came up with a regulation that required that all overpayments be reported and returned within sixty days of recovery, or by the date a cost report is due, if that date is later. Under PPACA, a person retaining an overpayment past this deadline faces FCA liability.

Student 2

Some of the latest developments in federal settlements, judgments, and complaints filed in the health care realms involve GlaxoSmithKline LLC. GlaxoSmithKline LLC agreed to pay $3 billion to resolve criminal and civil allegations that the company had unlawfully promoted certain prescription drugs, failed to report certain safety data to the FDA, and engaged in false price reporting practices in violation of the FCA (WilmerHale, 2013). GSK is alleged to have engaged in off-label promotion of certain drugs and payment of kick-backs to health care providers. GSK entered into a corporate integrity agreement (CIA) with the HHS OIG. Under this agreement GSK executives had to forfeit up to three years of annual performance pay if found to be involved in significant misconduct or aware of unreported employee violations. Another healthcare settlement involved Abbot Laboratories Inc. Abbot reached a $1.5 billion criminal and civil settlement with the federal government, 45… [read more]

Minorities in Healthcare Services Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (615 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Minorities and Healthcare

Healthcare is not the same for everyone here in the United States. Many minority groups, like Hispanic or Latin American individuals have greater trouble accessing quality healthcare, primarily because of the high costs of insurance today. As a result, the quality of the care they receive suffers dramatically. Still, all Americans pay for healthcare to one extent or another. If they are not paying private insurance companies, they are helping support funding of government sponsored healthcare programs, like Medicare and Medicaid; thus, tax payer funds help support the meager public programs that currently exist in healthcare today.

Mexican-Americans, Hispanics, and Latinos often find themselves in situations where they may be receiving poorer quality healthcare compared to white individuals. According to the research, "racial and ethnic minorities are more likely than non-Hispanic whites to be poor or near poor" (Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, 2010). As such, they often are forced to deal with sub-quality healthcare. Often times, Hispanic minorities are often the largest group of uninsured individuals within a number of communities around the United States. Therefore, "Hispanics under the age of 65 were less likely than non-Hispanic whites to have health insurance (66.7% compared with 87.5%)." (Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, 2010). As a result, the quality of the care many receive suffers dramatically. When not able to access more expensive facilities, many have to accept sub-par healthcare treatment from urgent care centers that take cash. Here, the research suggests that "Hispanics received worse care than non-Hispanic whites for about 60% of core measures" (Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, 2010). Many within Hispanic groups here in the United States have trouble accessing quality care, partly because of the high costs of healthcare here in the United States. Healthcare must be made more affordable, especially for those who need it most.…… [read more]

American Health Care After Leading Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (621 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Meanwhile, Democrats have been more concerned with reducing the influence of the private health care sector. Instead of outright intervention, all the government would have to do to promote meaningful health care reform would be to pursue the private option and eliminate the lobbying process that perpetuates fundamental conflicts of interest in Washington. At the operational level, the fee-for-services model of health care compensation has been proven to increase the cost of national health care while simultaneously providing lower quality of care than results-based compensation in health care (Tumulty, Pickert, & Park, 2010).

As many analysts have pointed out, the model of health care in the U.S. In which eligibility for affordable health care services is dictated more by employment status than by anything else is fundamentally flawed (Reid, 2009). At the same time, the substantially unregulated aspect of the private health insurance industry promotes continual cost increases, especially when combined with government programs that reimburse health care providers for services rendered to program beneficiaries.

A realistic approach to meaningful and comprehensive health care reform in the U.S. would require adopting the positions famously advanced by former Democratic congressman Anthony Weiner and Independent Senator Bernie Sanders throughout 2009 to establish a public option and reject the largely Republican position that health care reform focus primarily on Medicare reform. More broadly, the entire concept of political lobbying must be reevaluated as a matter of public policy. When matched with a shift to a results-based reimbursement model, those three elements should make significant improvements in American health care.


Dykman J. (2008). "Five truths about health care in America." Time, 172(22): 42-51.

Kennedy E. (2006). America: Back on Track. New York: Viking.

Reid T. (2009). The Healing of America: A Global Quest for Better, Cheaper, and Fairer Health Care. New York: Penguin.

Tumulty K., Pickert K., and Park A. (2010). "America,…… [read more]

Illinois Health Care Initiatives Reform Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (569 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Illinois Health Reform

Healthcare Reform Initiatives in Illinois

The federal Affordable Care Act had and continues to have many ramifications for state health insurance regulations and healthcare delivery systems, and several concurrent and/or attendant state initiatives have also reformed healthcare in the individual states. In Illinois, the Affordable Care Act had near-immediate effects on healthcare reform and sparked several state initiatives for healthcare reform, and other healthcare and budgetary concerns in the state were responsible for further or concurrent initiatives. The following paragraphs briefly outline some of the most recent healthcare reform initiatives seen in Illinois.

Along with all other states, Illinois gained the authority to regulate health insurance premium increases following the signing of the Affordable Care Act into law, including the ability to deny proposed rate changes that the state deems are inappropriate for private insurance companies to levy (Graham, 2010). The Illinois Comprehensive Health Insurance Program or ICHIP will also be significantly changed, with cost burdens shifted from enrolled member premiums (which ranged from $12,000 to $16,000-year per person) to a greater reliance on general revenue, cutting most premiums in half or more (Graham, 2010). Perhaps most significantly, Illinois' national record-holding rescission rate was markedly reduced due to the Affordable Healthcare Act's ban on rescissions that occurred for any reason other than fraud (Graham, 2010). With insurance companies less able to drop people found to have a prior reason that would have allowed denial of insurance or a higher rate of insurance premiums, more people would remain covered through their private policies and burdens on taxpayers and on the state would be significantly reduced (Graham, 2010).

Also in response to the Affordable Care Act but showing more initiative and more comprehensive…… [read more]

Healthcare Reform Initiatives in California Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (691 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


The point of programs like this isn't just to use state and federal money to help those who can't help themselves vis-a-vis health care coverage; it is to "…decrease the hospital emergency room use," according to the California Healthline (November 5, 2012). The LIHP program is only available to people without children whose income is less than $7,500, the California Healthline explains. Interestingly, when presidential candidate Mitt Romney spoke about why he would like to remove the Affordable Care Act from federal law, he said there is a healthcare service that is available to everyone everywhere -- the emergency room.

Other recent health reform initiatives signed into law in California include: a) AB 1453 (protects consumers from "junk insurance" and requires insurers to offer "minimum health benefits"; b) AB 1083 (small businesses "…don't get additional premium spikes based on the health of their workforce"); c) AB 1761 (no entity or individual may falsely represent themselves as "the California Health Benefits Exchange"); d) SB 1410 (allows consumers to appeal the denial of benefits and addresses "health equity issues" such as a person's ethnicity and language); e) AB 1580 (streamlines the enrollment process for Medi-Cal); f) AB 1526 (prevents insurers from denying benefits based on pre-existing conditions); g) AB 1869 (requires programs like Medicare and Medi-Cal to "coordinate with veterans programs" (Health Access, 2012).

In conclusion, California has always been a progressive state when it comes to consumer issues. This paper illustrates how the state has created programs that fill in the gaps until the Affordable Care Act is fully implemented in 2014. Californians who are in the low-income group are no different in terms of their healthcare needs, and the state's leaders have worked to see to it that they are given opportunities to achieve healthy lives.

Works Cited

California Healthline. (2012). LIHP in Sacramento County to Cover Only Poorest Residents.

Retrieved November 6, 2012, from http://www.californiahealthline.org.

Colliver, Victoria. (2012). California is most prepared for health care law. San…… [read more]

Healthcare Reform List Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (628 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 2


This has been one of the most contentious aspects of the ACA. However, despite people's complaints about the government 'forcing' them to buy health insurance, there are many exceptions to the rule and someone 'determined' not to be covered might very well find an applicable exception. Employers will also be subject to more stringent requirements to offer coverage to employees. The ACA will further expand healthcare coverage to the poor by expanding "Medicaid to all non-Medicare eligible individuals under age 65 (children, pregnant women, parents, and adults without dependent children) with incomes up to 133%" (Summary of new healthcare reform law, 2012, Kaiser Permanente). These methods of expansion are different than the Annals rather vague emphasis on using taxes to fund expanded, subsidized healthcare insurance.

The ACA will also "create state-based American Health Benefit Exchanges and Small Business Health Options Program (SHOP) Exchanges, administered by a governmental agency or non-profit organization, through which individuals and small businesses with up to 100 employees can purchase qualified coverage" (Summary of new healthcare reform law, 2012, Kaiser Permanente). Also commensurate with the Annals demand for objective determinants of treatment quality, the ACA will establish "a non-profit Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute to identify research priorities and conduct research that compares the clinical effectiveness of medical treatments" (Summary of new healthcare reform law, 2012, Kaiser Permanente). Thus, in terms of expanding coverage to the uninsured, creating highly regulated but competitive exchanges where individuals can buy insurance, and creating objective quality review boards, the ACA seems to reflect many suggestions from healthcare experts.


Arrow, Kenneth. (et al. 2009). Towards a 21st century healthcare system. The Annals of Internal

Medicine. 150 (7): 493-495. Retrieved: http://annals.org/article.aspx?articleid=744430

Summary of new healthcare reform law. (2012). Kaiser…… [read more]

Healthcare Policy Issues Research Paper

Research Paper  |  4 pages (1,046 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Healthcare Policy

Hospital policy issues related to access to care:

Administrator. From the administrator's point-of-view, access to care represents an ethical dilemma. Ideally, all patients would have equal access to care, but the hospital cannot afford to finance care for all. Thus, there needs to be a balance between providing care for those who have insurance coverage, and finding ways to provide the means for those without coverage to pay as well. The administrator therefore must balance the standard of care, the availability of care and the finances of the institution.

Patient. The patient is oriented towards receiving the care that he/she needs. Cost of care is not relevant to the patient, who only wants to get better. This becomes an issue when the patient cannot afford the care he/she needs.

Physician. The physician is guided by the Hippocratic Oath to provide the medical assistance that all patients need. The ability to deliver the highest standard of care is the greatest concern. The physician therefore is oriented towards the highest availability of care.

The politician is oriented towards his/her constituency's needs. In the United States, this varies by party platform. Some politicians therefore are oriented towards the provision of health care, while others are oriented towards the budget aspects of the health care industry. At present, the politician's views of Medicare, Medicaid and the Affordable Care Act can vary strongly by political affiliation but there are few politicians without a plan or an opinion on the availability of health care.

Tax payers must balance the desire for health coverage with the cost of that coverage. As with politicians, views on this issue vary dramatically, ranging from a view to minimize taxes to a view to maximizing care availability in the society.

Board members are oriented towards the mission of the institution. In some cases, the mission is to maximize profit. This can be done by optimizing other outcomes, such as patient outcomes, quality of care or other aspects that can give the business a competitive advantage. Board members are a diverse group, however, and some may not put the financial perspective first, and instead would choose to broaden care.

Staff members are oriented towards a high level of health care, and that also means maximizing the availability of health care.

The cost of care within the system:

The hospital administrator wants to balance the cost of care provision with the revenues generated by that care. The administrator also wants to ensure a high quality of care, but again cost is important.

For the patient, cost is not necessarily important, unless it becomes a barrier to care. Patients whose care is not prescribed by an insurance plan may prefer to receive a number of different options at different price points. Depending on the patient and the ailment, cost could be no issue, or cost could be a major deciding factor in the patient's views on care.

The physician is not typically oriented towards cost, as this is subordinated to medical decisions.… [read more]

Healthcare Industry Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (566 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


"ObamaCare's Secret History." Wall Street Journal. 11 June 2012. Web. http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424052702303830204577446470015843822.html?KEYWORDS=healthcare+merger

Examines the alleged collusion that took place under the auspices of pursuing a cost containment strategy within the Affordable Care Act. Article details the secret, quid pro quo interactions and agreements between the White House, Congress, and Big Pharma that eventually led to the creation and passage of the Affordable Care Act. Highlights the interconnectedness of policy decisions and big business.

"For Hospital CIOs, Mergers Complicate Move to Electronic Records." Wall Street Journal. 13 June 2012. Web. http://blogs.wsj.com/cio/2012/06/13/for-hospital-cios-mergers-complicate-move-to-electronic-records/?KEYWORDS=healthcare+merger

Details the challenges facing hospitals moving from paper to electronic health records. This move to electronic medical records, justified on the grounds of improved efficiency, is complicated by the escalation of merger activity, in itself a cost containment measure. These competing cost containment approaches are not always complementary.

Works Cited

Keckley, Paul. "Health Reform Memo- June 11, 2012." Wall Street Journal. 11 June 2012. Web. http://deloitte.wsj.com/cfo/2012/06/11/health-reform-memo-june-11-2012/?KEYWORDS=health+cost+containment

Matthews, Anna Wilde. "Hospitals Consider Merger." Wall Street Journal. 7 June 2012. Web. http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424052702303753904577451252116466554.html?KEYWORDS=healthcare+merger

Matthews, Anna Wilde. "WellPoint to Buy 1-800 Contacts." Wall Street Journal. 4 June 2012. Web. http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424052702303918204577444953508462104.html?KEYWORDS=healthcare+acquisition

"ObamaCare's Secret History." Wall Street Journal. 11 June 2012. Web. http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424052702303830204577446470015843822.html?KEYWORDS=healthcare+merger

Schectman, Joel. "For Hospital CIOs, Mergers Complicate Move to Electronic Records." Wall Street Journal. 13 June 2012. Web. http://blogs.wsj.com/cio/2012/06/13/for-hospital-cios-mergers-complicate-move-to-electronic-records/?KEYWORDS=healthcare+merger… [read more]

Health Care Politics and Policy Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,441 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


¶ … categories of health policy.

Health policies are a form of the broader field of public policy. What constitutes public policy is difficult to define but it is generally assumed to include any activity by government that affects the lives of ordinary citizens (p.5) in the text public policy was defined "as authoritative decisions made in the legislative, executive,… [read more]

Pennsylvania Health Care Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (703 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


The basic role of the organization is to:

Identify opportunities for Pennsylvanians to use HIT and HIE to improve healthcare.

Educate the public providers and policy makers regarding the benefits and challenges of HIT and HIE.

Coordinate the efforts of all Pennsylvania HIT and stakeholders.

Identify opportunities to coordinate with and benefit from federal initiatives.

Develop statewide consensus on established and emerging standards (e.g., data, communication and reporting).

Work with providers, payers, policy makers to define business cases for HIT and HIE (Pennsylvania eHealth Initiative, 2011).

House Bill 2053, Session 2009 -- Freedom of Choice in Health Care Act to provide the rights of individuals to purchase private health care insurance and prohibit certain Federal government action. Designed to make it easier and more cost effective for individuals or employers to pay directly for lawful health care services without penalties or taxes (House Bill 2053, 2009)..

Pittsburg Regional Health Initiative -- Frontline health care initiative in place over last decade to provide patient outcomes, reduce costs, and increase satisfaction. Use of technology and systems to provide excellent care at lower cost. In Pittsburg regional area only at present (PRHI, 2012).

Pennsylvania Health Care Quality Alliance -- Nonprofit coalition of Pennsylvania health care providers and issuers. Designed to improve quality of patient health by developing a consistent, uniform, statewide approach to quality measurement that will:

Enable consumers to find high quality care

Allow health care professionals to evaluate and improve the quality of patient care

Help insurers evaluate the performance of their provider networks (Pennsylvania Health Care Quality Alliance, 2012).


House Bill 2053.(2009). General Assembly of Pennsylvania. 2829. Retrieved from:


Pennsylvania. (2012). Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. Retrieved from:


Pennsylvania EHealth Initiative. (2011). Retrieved from: http://www.paehi.org/about-paehi/

Pennsylvania Health Care Quality Alliance.(2012). Retrieved from: http://www.phcqa.org/

Pittsburg Regional Health Initiative. (2012). Retrieved from: http://www.prhi.org/

The State of Healthcare in Pennsylvania. (2007). Pennsylvania Health Care Cost

Containment Council. Retrieved from: http://www.phc4.org/reports/sos/07/docs/sos2007report.pdf… [read more]

Health Care Politics and Policy Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (637 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Ron Paul on Healthcare Quality:

A summary of Ron Paul's beliefs is that the Health Maintenance Organizations have a negative impact on the quality of healthcare services due to the limitations on the available options to patients. I agree with these beliefs because these organizations have primarily increased premiums on healthcare coverage, increased medical costs, and hindered patient access. As one of the major ways for providing managed care, health maintenance organizations are theoretically expected to lower healthcare costs by providing the care providers with rewards to keep the patients healthy.

However, the HMOs have developed as ineffective systems that have negative impact on the quality of healthcare since they facilitate a closed provider network because their approach to cost-containment is problematic. The ineffectiveness of these systems and their negative effect on healthcare quality is evident in the fact that patients have started to revolt against them despite of the popularity in the 1980s and 1990s. Moreover, several concerns have been raised about the ability of the systems as patients have questioned physicians' and insurance companies' motives when denied care services.

In agreement with the views of this politician, the Health Maintenance Organizations were not developed due to free-market demand but because of government monopolies or mandates. As a government mandate, the system has failed to deliver the theoretical benefits and resulted in unexpected consequences (Paul, 2006). Similar to other government intervention mechanisms in the private market, the HMOs have contributed to spiraling medical costs and poor quality of care. Therefore, an outright socialized medicine system or free market health care system could be the most suitable method of reducing health care costs and enhancing quality because every stakeholder in the field is actively involved.

Newt Gingrich Views on Healthcare:

As an individual who is committed to a better health care system for all Americans, Newt Gingrich has been involved in various initiatives that are geared towards improving…… [read more]

Health Care Focus Any American Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (849 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


As seen in Kansas, as the health care system is such a large part of the statewide economy, allowing for thousands of workers to remain employed to handle the steady stream of business that is funneled in and out of the many health care facilities throughout the state, profits are easy to come by. In allowing the states to act in their own best interest with less regulation and government intervention, could the national economy flourish? Such a question may be answered sooner rather than later with upcoming elections and a growing wish for the nation's health care system to be modified.

Works Cited

Twiddy, David. 2012 March 1. "Health Care Generates $10.2B Payroll in Kansas."

Kansas City Business Journal. Web. Retrieved from: http://www.bizjournals.com/kansascity/news/2012/03/01/health-care-generates-102b-payroll.html?ana=e_vert [Accessed on 6 March 2012].

Health care generates $10.2B payroll in Kansas

Kansas City Business Journal by David Twiddy, Reporter

Date: Thursday, March 1, 2012, 5:23pm CST

Health care remains one of the biggest industries in Kansas, generating a $10.2 billion payroll in 2011 and employing more than 11% of the state's job holders, according to a new report.

Of that total, hospitals are the largest contributors with close to 74,000 jobs and $4.2 billion in direct labor spending.

The Kansas Hospital Association on Thursday released the results of an annual study done in collaboration with Kansas State University Kansas State UniversityLatest from The Business JournalsReport: NBAF changes dramatically decrease risks http://www.bizjournals.com/wichita/print-edition/2012/03/02/andover-stakeholders-collaborate-to.html

http://www.bizjournals.com/wichita/morning_call/2012/02/kansas-leaders-consider-alternative.html Kansas leaders consider alternative funding sources for NBAF labFollow this company that looks at how health care contributes to the state economy.

The report found that all health-sector businesses, encompassing those such as medical labs, veterinarian services and fitness centers, employed a total of 212,252 people in 2011, up from 184,483 the year before.

Total payroll in the sector rose 20% from 2010 with the only area seeing a decline being fitness and recreation centers, which fell from $85 million to $60 million in direct labor income.

Health care operations also were estimated to generate almost $4.7 billion in retail sales in their communities and $295 million in sales taxes.

Last year, hospitals saw their collective labor force swell by 18% to 73,890 and their payroll grow by 30%.

"Hospitals and health services truly represent an economic anchor in our state," association CEO Tom Bell said in a release.

Link: http://www.bizjournals.com/kansascity/news/2012/03/01/health-care-generates-102b-payroll.html?ana=e_vert… [read more]

Health Care Reform Recommendations Healthcare Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (801 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Finally, the American College of Physicians' third recommendation was actually made in concert with a number of other professional medical organizations and called the "Patient-Centered Medical Home Model." Specifically, "a medical home is defined as a primary care that is accessible, continuous, comprehensive, family-centered, coordinated, compassionate, and culturally effective." (Calvo, 2008, p. 10) Medical Homes, called "Accountable Care Organizations" in the new ObamaCare Law, will manage sick patients in a comprehensive fashion, complete with an ethics panel to avoid unnecessary and costly surgical procedures, as well as the ability to decide if plan managers have provided inadequate, or poor care to their patients. Finally, "if it is effective at saving money for a given patient/disease state, it will receive bonuses from Uncle Sam; if not, it will get less money" (Dorin, 2012) Not only does ObamaCare seem to implement the recommendation, it is doing so in an effective and economically logical manner.

The American College of Physicians made a number of recommendations for reforms to the nation's healthcare system, three of which have been specifically incorporated into the "Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act." These recommendations were to increase access for more people to more Primary Care Physicians, reform the payment system for Primary Care Physicians, and to implement the Home Medical Model. These three recommendations are part of the new health care law and are currently being implemented in the real world. Once these benefits are recognized by the majority of the American people, they will see that the new health care law is beneficial to all Americans and will help to preserve the finest health care system in the world.


"ACP Issues Recommendations for Healthcare Reform." (3 Feb. 2009). Medscape Today

News. Retrieved from http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/587754

Health Home: Using the Expanded Care Model of the Collaboratives." The

Disparity Reducing Advances Project. Retrieved from http://www.altfutures.org/draproject/pdfs/Report_08_05_ComprehensiveHealthHome_UsingExpandedCareModelCollaboratives.pdf

Dorin, Adam, M.D. (15 Jan., 2012). "ObamaCare: Healthcare's 'New World Order'."

The Washington Times. Retrieved from http://communities.washingtontimes.com/neighborhood/medicine-and-politics-america/2012/jan/15/obamacare-healthcares-new-world-order/

Gould, Brian, M.D.. (24 July, 2009). "Why Doctors Don't Fear ObamaCare." Real Clear

Markets. Retrieved from http://www.realclearmarkets.com/articles/2009/07/24/why_doctors_dont_fear_obamacare_97326.html

Nash, David, M.D.. (n, d.). Medicaid Physician Payment Rates Hurts Primary Care

Doctors." KevinMD.com. Retrieved from http://www.kevinmd.com/blog/2010/04/medicaid-physician-payment-rates-hurts-primary-care-doctors.html… [read more]

U.S. Health Care System 2010 Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (580 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


9 million uninsured in 2010 (U.S. Census Bureau.gov. 2010. P. 27), leaves "one third of U.S. adults without recommended care, and one fifth of U.S. adults having major problems paying medical bills" (Schoen, C. Osborn, R. Squires, D. Doty, M. Pierson, R. & Applebaum, S.P. 2). A point that does resonate however is that income is the ultimate "Mendoza Line" for individuals receiving health services. "The uninsured rate was higher among people with lower incomes and lower among people with higher incomes" (U.S. Census Bureau.gov. 2010. P. 27). As a result the proclivity for individuals without insurance coverage is to ignore the necessary care, mainly preventative, which could dramatically impact the long run cost curve downward on health service affordability.

Access and Cost

The Affordable Care Act expands the pool of the insured through private sector exchanges, tax credit enhancements, and greater access to Medicaid. Affordable coverage under either a private health plan, or Medicare and Medicaid allows individuals to utilize the services requisite for long-term health. A legitimate question however, is whether expansion of coverage will in fact explode costs even beyond their already significant upward trajectory? With coverage expansion there will be greater demand pressure on providers, yet this should also drive competitive rigor, allowing for cost containment across the system. As such the Commonwealth Fund, a private health reform organization, estimates that "expenditures for the whole health care system will be reduced by nearly 600 billion in the first decade" (Orszag, P. & Emanuel, E. August 12, 2010. P. 2). The bending of the cost curve downward though requires that the delivery system change concomitantly; with focus on coordinated care across "three 'I' platforms: information, infrastructure,… [read more]

Health Care Reform in the US Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (926 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


U.S. Healthcare Reform

Since the inception of Social Security spearheaded by Franklin D. Roosevelt in 1935, Democrats had desired to include some government health insurance plan for those who could not afford coverage (New York Times, 2011). Historically, insurance companies were notorious for creating barriers for insures who had pre-existing conditions or for the insured who became sick during the coverage term. Such disparities continue to divide the U.S. On monumental proportions between the haves and the have-nots. Subsequently, the issue contains both social and economical underpinnings that have created a gap: 1) people who do not have insurance; 2) costs imposed on employers and insurance companies. Bridging the gap has been addressed by several presidential administrations; however, much momentum was not gained until the Obama administration.

Issue Defined

Undoubtedly, insurance companies make money. In fact, during the recession, the industry was unscathed by societal economic conditions, while all other industries were immensely affected, thus needing government bailouts. Hence, the issue stems from simply financial greed, which required federal government intervention. People need and opponents do not want to pay. Dissension between the Democrats and Republicans continue, as the Republicans appeal the law by eliminating certain provisions, plus will stall financial efforts to enforce state's compliance. Despite all the complexities of diversion surrounding a societal problem, the issue is fundamental. Legal roadblocks purporting violation of certain rights, unfairness of federal mandates imposed on states, cries of financial burdens by insurance companies and employers, and government subsidies all have positive effects on the delivery of health care services in the United States. However, this premise is based on the beneficiary's perspective: uninsured and government.

Effects on Healthcare Delivery

The issue improves access to health care services and accountability of insurance companies. Although the costs must derive from a financial source, all must share in the burden to ameliorate such dichotomy in society. Currently, oversight of health insurers, the expansion of coverage to one million young adults and more protections for workers with pre-existing conditions are already well cemented and popular (New York Times, 2011). Additionally, the law, along with economic pressures, has forced major institutions to wrestle with the relentless rise in health care costs.

Potential Variable Tradeoffs

With any public program or federal mandates, potential trade-offs exists between increased costs and access. Increased costs will be borne by insurance companies who will be required to insure pre-existing conditions and will not be able eliminate coverage for insurers who become ill during the coverage term. Additionally, the law will cost the government about $938 billion over 10 years, according to the Congressional Budget Office, which has also estimated that it will reduce the federal deficit by $138 billion over a decade (New York Times, 2011). Insomuch, the law will require employers with more than…… [read more]

Healthcare Economics Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,524 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Healthcare Economics

Explain the term Moral Hazard. Explain how the level of morale hazard affects an individual's use of health services.

A moral hazard exists when the possession of an insurance policy increases the likelihood of incurring a loss. Moral hazard comes about because a person does not take the full responsibility for their actions, and thus has a tendency… [read more]

Health Care Past, Current Research Paper

Research Paper  |  7 pages (2,421 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


On page 155 Sultz explains that the university medical facilities were given federal grants to research "causes of death: heart disease, cancer, and stroke." By the early 1980s, thanks to taxpayer dollars, the federal government had helped increase the number of bona fide medical schools to 127, and though these medical schools were valuable to Americans, their services were 20%… [read more]

Healthcare in the United States Research Paper

Research Paper  |  5 pages (1,881 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


What can the United States learn from the case of India? The two nations seem to represent opposing extremes in healthcare. The United States needs to rein in costs on its existing healthcare infrastructure while India suffers from a lack of funding and poor infrastructure. The United States has extensive regulations governing private insurance and medical practice while India's consumers still pay direct fee for service payments to their loosely regulated physicians. The United States is overdeveloped, India is underdeveloped. Both, however, adopt free market principles for determining the price of medical services. The cost and complexity of U.S. healthcare has created a demand for affordable services that India meets through medical tourism at the expense of its own citizens. While medical tourism can be financially beneficial for a nation that lacks healthcare investment, India and the U.S. need to address concerns at home to properly care for the well-being of their respective populations.


Arora, N., Banerjee, A.K., (2010) Emerging Trends, Challenges and Prospects in Healthcare in India. Electronic Journal of Biology, 6(2), 24-25

Berman, P., Ahuja, R., Bhandari, L. (2010) The Impoverishing Effect of Healthcare Payments in India: New Methodology and Findings. Economic & Political Weekly, 45(16), 65-71.

Ma, S., & Neeraj, S. (2008) A Comparison of the Health Systems of China and India. RAND Center for Asia Pacific Policy. Retrieved from http://www.rand.org/content/dam/rand/pubs/occasional_papers/2008/RAND_OP212.pdf

Manchikanti, L., Caraway, D.L., Parr, A.T., Fellows, B., Hirsch, J.A. (2011) Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010: reforming the health care reform for the new decade. Pain Physician, 14(1), 35-67.

National Public Radio: Compare International Medical Bills (2008) National Public Radio. Retrieved from http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=110997469

Roberts, J. (2009) A History of Health Insurance in the U.S. And Colorado. University of Denver: Center for Colorado's Economic Future. Retrieved from http://www.du.edu/economicfuture/documents/HistoryOfHealthInsurance_CCEF.pdf

Shetty, P. (2010) Medical tourism booms in India, but at what cost? The Lancet, 376(9472), 671-672. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(10)61320-7

Shiva Kumar, A.K., Chen L.C., Choudhury, M., Ganju S., Mahajan, V., Sinha, A., Sen, A. (2011) Financing health care for all: challenges and opportunities. The Lancet, doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(10)61884-3.

Varatharajan, D., Thankappan, R., and Sabeena, J. (2004) Assessing the Performance of Primary Health Centres Under Decentralized…… [read more]

Healthcare Reform and Occupational Therapy Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (683 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Health Care Reform and Occupational Therapy

Because occupational therapy is such an integral part of health care, it is logical that any health care reform would also affect this profession. However, occupational therapy has historically been all but ignored by health care legislation, leaving professionals in the field obliged to frequently make their own interpretations of laws that appear relevant to them. With the newest Health Care Reform Act, the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010 (PL 111 -- 148), a new era has arrived for many professionals in the field, as well as for the public.

The new act is President Obama's attempt to make all forms of health care more affordable and accessible to all citizens. This has significant financial and work load implications for health care professionals. During the first phases of implementation, for example, it is expected that care giving facilities such as hospitals will see an influx of patients. These patients will have to be managed more efficiently in less time than the case was before. Occupational therapy can play a significant role in this. (SG2 Report, 2010, p. 7).

Occupational therapists are, for example, often required to provide on-site or home services to patients. With the increasing numbers of patients in hospitals, physicians in these settings may then refer more patients to other care providers, including occupational therapists. When hospital care is non-essential, occupational therapists might then also see an increase in patients who require at-home assistance.

For all care providers, the SG2 Report (2010, p. 7) also states that an increasing focus on excellent it systems will be necessary to handle the increase in patients and to refer them to the relevant specialist care workers. In this way, a more integrated network may be built among hospitals, individual physicians, occupational therapists, and other care providers. In this way, quality care can be assured within a fraction of the time it would require without these integrated communication systems. Overall, this will benefit not only the public, but also care providers in terms of…… [read more]

New Health Care Reform Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (2,167 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Health Care Reform Through the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act

The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act ("PPACA") is one of the most controversial pieces of legislation in modern memory. This landmark legislation addresses the nation's long-dysfunctional health care system during one of the most challenging economic periods in the nation's history. The United States is one of the… [read more]

Why Is Covering Pre-Existing Conditions Important to Health Care Policy? Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (846 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Pre-Existing Conditions and Health Care Policy

Pre-existing condition is a health condition that client had before he enrolled in an insurance plan. Many insurance companies across the country can deny coverage to people with pre-existing conditions or for that particular condition. Pregnancy, for example, if seen as a pre-existing condition and while a person may coverage for other health issues, she may be denied coverage for her existing pregnancy based on pre-existing clause. This problem affects millions of Americans and each year, a large number of people find themselves without insurance coverage due to some existing health issue. But denial, which works well for insurance companies, hurt those with chronic or prevalent conditions like heart diseases which affect 1 in 3 Americans. [1] It is very more disturbing when a condition like cancer or some other life altering health problem surfaces and a person is denied insurance.

In some cases, the companies may not totally deny coverage but would charge very high premiums for pre-existing on-going condition like asthma or a lingering injury.

Americans are faced with this problem in one a few states. In fact 45 states across the country would discriminate against people with pre-existing conditions by either denying coverage or charging exorbitant premiums or refuse to offer coverage for that precise problem.

In pure statistical terms, 12.6 millions adults were denied coverage recently according to a survey. This is about 36% of adults who sought coverage directly from an insurance company in the last three years. [2]

Another survey showed 10% of all those suffering from cancer were denied coverage or their insurance was cancelled because of this life-changing diagnosis. [3]

In about nine states, even domestic violence is considered a pre-existing condition and a person who has been injured in such an incident will not be covered by their insurance policy because domestic violence existed before they applied for insurance. [4]

There have been solutions to this problem but none has worked well and hence health care reform is strongly needed. For example in some states, there is a high-risk pool that offers medical insurance to otherwise uninsurable adults. However they charge very high rates and generally don't work for most individuals with pre-existing conditions. It was found that only 8% of all uninsurable adults were able to get coverage and the rate was still incredibly high and generally unaffordable. [5] Other problems like annuals caps on enrollment can also leave many uninsured people without any solution.

For this reason, we need to bring changes to our national health…… [read more]

Health Care Reform to Place Our Nation Thesis

Thesis  |  6 pages (1,898 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 10


Health Care Reform

To place our nation's health care under the very government that is now at the center of our fiscal problems, and which is piling up debt by the trillions even without health care, while the jobless rate continues to skyrocket, is not only fruitless, it is scandalous if not immoral. It is also implanting too much authority… [read more]

Healthcare System in the Netherlands Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (4,143 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 14


Healthcare System in the Netherlands

The Netherlands has a unique concept of 'family physician' known as 'Huisarts' who the primary Doctor responsible for coordinating physical and mental care of patients in his neighborhood. January 2006 saw the launching of a new healthcare system which requires citizens to avail a basic health insurance package. It covers medical treatment alongwith services delivered… [read more]

Healthcare Policy Issue and Nursing Strategies Essay

Essay  |  8 pages (2,765 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10



Policy Issue Analysis: The National Nursing Shortage

The healthcare industry is afflicted by a wide array of internal problems, policy issues and systemic flaws. Included among them are the prohibitively high costs of medical treatment, the inaccessibility of healthcare coverage for many system users and the frequency of preventable occurrences like medical error or health system negligence. One of… [read more]

Healthcare Canada Essay

Essay  |  6 pages (1,953 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


¶ … Health Care Systems

Comparison of Canadian and American Health Care Systems

The purpose of this paper is to examine the relative merits of the Canadian and American health care systems in an attempt to determine what the future of health care might be in the United States. The present system is dying under the weight of increasing costs… [read more]

UK Healthcare Term Paper

Term Paper  |  36 pages (9,250 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


According to Enthoven, the focus was directed towards enabling private practice to develop and forcing more elderly people to independent private nursing homes, where they had to pay from own resources until their money ran out. Within this approach, the goals of the government as addressed by Enthoven were:

To improve its ability to control the NHS financially by separating… [read more]

Human Resource Issues in Health Research Paper

Research Paper  |  5 pages (1,627 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 4


This is the case in developing economies where funding for the health sector is significantly limited. Combining such an environment with long working hours compromises the health practitioners' ability to ensure that patients are treated in the right manner. This is also one of the main factors attributing to the increasing number of instances pertaining to medical negligence (Fried & Fottler, 2011).

Another intervention would probably involve conducting public awareness campaigns on proper health care. Health ailments relating to eating habits, hygiene, are attributed to a significant percentage of persons in need of health care services. These campaigns would involve informing and educating the society on the various lifestyles that promote healthy living. This is highly effective in decreasing the demand of healthcare since most of the health ailments are preventable simply by changing lifestyles.


The proper management of human resources is fundamental in ensuring quality service delivery in the health sector. Although there are many challenges that plague human resources in the health field, most of these are founded with funding. With adequate funding, it will lead into an increase in health care professionals, adequate infrastructure and consequently deal with some of the issues relating to poor service delivery. In addition, there is the need to transform the operating culture within medical practitioners in order to deal with the cases of increasing negligence. Effective human resource management strategies are greatly required in order to achieve enhanced outcomes from and access to health care around the world (American Society for Healthcare Human Resources Administration, 2012).


American Society for Healthcare Human Resources Administration. (2012). American Society for Healthcare Human Resources Administration ... membership directory. Gainesville FL: Naylor.

Fried, B., & Fottler, M.D. (2011). Fundamentals of human resources in healthcare. Chicago: Health Administration Press.

Fried, B., & Johnson, J.A. (2002). Human resources in healthcare: Managing for success. Washington, DC: AUPHA Press.…… [read more]

EHR Mandate the Electronic Health Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,220 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 4


Internal resistance to change seems to be a major obstacle (Hanson, 2013), as many of the physicians in particular are older and not particularly tech-savvy. They invent a wide range of excuses as to why EHR is a bad idea, to the apparent frustration of the IT department. The problem, however, is that this resistance has become embedded, and management also returns excuses. It drags its feet on making decisions, and in that time the technology changes, forcing IT to explore the new options, and sending the decision back to management.

There is a high degree of frustration within the IT department, as they feel that they could have implemented EHR a long time ago, but these roadblocks have left the health care provider with ad hoc solutions, and apparently well behind implementation targets. This state of implementation is, however, not uncommon, as many health care providers have resisted the implementation of electronic health records for years, usually for many of the same reasons.

Analysis of Challenges

There are a lot of challenges at this organization, which seems to be behind even others in the area with respect to EHR implementation. There is strong resistance to change, from physicians, management and patients alike. Management seems the most motivated to change, as some in leadership realize that the transition to electronic health records is inevitable and there may be legal consequences should they delay too long. Resistance usually is accompanied by varying excuses, but it is probably futile to give those reasons much credence. At the heart of the problem in this organization is a lack of willingness to change and to embrace new ideas. This is a major problem with EHR implementation throughout the U.S.

Overcoming the challenges is not as simple as education and training, though both of those are required. There is resentment over the idea that EHR is being "imposed" on the organization rather than something that the organization wants to do because it is good. Thus, many people do not seem to see the benefits of electronic health records. It is worth considering that organizations of all types face change, and that there are time-honored techniques for making organizational change happen. Health care organizations that are struggling with EHR implementation would do well to examine some case studies and find ways to overcome resistance.

Another key challenge is the slow pace of change, even where change does occur. While other industries move quickly to introduce new technologies because of the competitive advantages they provide, this organization does not see new technology as an opportunity, but rather as a challenge. Even the framing of this question in this assignment highlights how the industry feels about EHR -- the word challenge is used rather than opportunity. For some reason, the mindset is a problem, and ultimately to properly and effectively implement electronic health records my nearby organization will need to have a shift in its mindset from the very top of the organization.


Davies, N. (2006). Making… [read more]

President Clinton's and Obama's Health Research Paper

Research Paper  |  5 pages (1,567 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Romney presented these claims in opposition to the recently enacted health care reform plans as he discussed what he would do to improve the current health care system. While some of his claims are true, most of them have been exaggerated as he attempted to win the 2012 U.S. presidential elections. However, Obama's health care policies have raised serious concerns to policymakers, politicians, and the general public, especially with regards to their effectiveness in improving accessibility and affordability of health care services.

Notably, the policy consensus that has characterized Democrats attempts for a major overhaul of the American health care system no longer exists because of the removal of insurance mandate off the table. Nonetheless, Obama's health care policies face further complications since ObamaCare has consistently generated negative poll numbers. Romney's criticism seems to reflect the mood of the public, half of whom have opposed the law since its enactment while 75% oppose the mandate. Furthermore, most Democrats have expressed their political and economic concerns regarding the effectiveness of health care reform. Therefore, the opposition against the policy should not be dismissed as a politically-driven agenda but an issue to be addressed.


Klein, J. (2012, December 17). Obamacare vs. Medicare. Time, 180(25).

Levin, Y. & Ponnuru, R. (2012, February 6). Romney vs. Obamacare: What the Presumptive

Nominee Should Say, National Review, 34-35.

Santana, A. (2012). Obama vs. Clinton on Health Care. Slope Media Group.

Suderman, P. (2012, July). What's Next if ObamaCare is Struck Down? Reason, 44(3).

"The Obama-Biden Plan." (2009). Health Care Agenda. Retrieved…… [read more]

Health Information Improving Healthcare Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (519 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


The CMS indicates that "PHRs help providers get the information they need to treat you in an emergency by quickly sharing information on your medications, allergies, and emergency contacts. You can let others have access to your PHR for just this situation."

Faster, more seamless sharing of health information is seen as an important way of promoting a continuity of care. This continuity of care means that following hospitalization, a patient's care strategy can remain in place and be easily communicated to a primary physician, specialist or other caregiver. In turn, this denotes an opportunity to reduce the likelihood of a patient returning to the emergency room within close proximity to an initial visit. Because there is such a great pressure on hospitals not simply to reduce the occurrence of high readmission rates but also to substantially improve the integration of Information Technologies with which to do so, the Health Information Systems Managers is a critical role-player in the future of most hospitals and healthcare facilities.


In light of the sweeping changes impacting the healthcare industry today, finding technology-driven solutions for high readmission rates is the most salient issue for the Health Information Manager. Certainly, by exploring ways of improving the infrastructure, format and usage of these health records, said manager may go a long way toward helping patients get better health outcomes, helping hospitals improve their performance and helping the healthcare industry on the whole reign in the wasteful patterns in its past.

Works Cited:

Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS). (2012). Personal Health Records…… [read more]

Public Policy and or Program Term Paper

Term Paper  |  17 pages (4,884 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10


Home and Community-Based Care

Today, we face many challenges in society. Some of these relate to the costs of living, while others relate to political, social, educational, and a myriad of other issues. One major challenge facing society today, and for which we are somewhat ill prepared, is the increasing number of years an average human being might expect to… [read more]

Health Care Reform Is Term Research Paper

Research Paper  |  6 pages (1,648 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


This bill was introduced on the 10th of February 2011 and on the same day presented to the House Committee on Health Policy. The bill pushes the congress to amend the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act to adopt tax-favored health plans that compensate the costs of over-the-counter medication (National Conference of State Legislatures, 2012 ).

Health Care Insurance

Out of the four basic functional components of the U.S. health care delivery system, Insurance is more important than the other three. There has been much debate on the healthcare reform with numerous proposed bill, but none draws greater attention than that of insurance (Turner, 2012). This makes insurance the most controversial and the most critical of the three components of the U.S. healthcare.

Human rights organizations are most likely to lobby for insurance in the health care sector. It is highly unlikely for any for profit organization to lobby for such a course; the insurance sector would be lobbying against most popular insurance bills such as the universal coverage. Therefore, those organizations that fights for basic human rights are the most likely to feature prominently in this activity.


The debate on health care in the United States includes issues of right to health care, access issues, fairness, sustainability, and quality as well as the amounts spent by either the state or the federal government. As seen in the preceding paragraphs, there are numerous pending bills waiting approval by various state governments as well as the federal government most concerning the reforms in healthcare. According to World Health Organization (2009), the healthcare in the United States which is a mixed of both public and private care system is the most expensive in the world. This is the reason for such heated denate on the healthcare reform and also the reason for so much legislation on issues related to healthcare on the federal and the statelevel.


Legislative Information System. (2012). Illinois General Assembly. Retrieved October 7, 2012, from www.ilga.gov.

Michigan House Republicans. (2012). Michigan House…… [read more]

Health Policies Medicare Research Paper

Research Paper  |  5 pages (1,952 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


In conclusion, the United States is not the only Western nation that is going through this challenge; however we are very probable in the worst location in handling the situation, because of our traditional unusual medical ethos and the high public prospects it has shaped. Somewhat than despair, nevertheless, we need to really start viewing the issues being brought here in medicare as a challenge. It is important that we are using the same inventiveness that has provided us the New Deal and style an essentially more reasonable and maintainable health-care organization-one that talks to the moral needs at all heights. If America fails to accept a widened vision along these positions, the viewpoint for health care in America's long-term upcoming is threatening certainly.

Work Cited:

Wenzlow, Audra T., et al. "Effects of a Discharge Planning Program on Medicaid Coverage of State Prisoners with Serious Mental Illness." Psychiatric Services 62.1 (2011): 73-8.

Sommers, Benjamin D. "Loss of Health Insurance among Non-Elderly Adults in Medicaid." Journal of General Internal Medicine 24.1 (2009): 1-7.

Verdier, James, and Allison Barrett. "How Medicaid Agencies Administer Mental Health Services: Results from a 50-State Survey." Psychiatric Services 59.10 (2008): 1203-6.

Harman, Jeffrey S., Allyson G. Hall, and Jianyi Zhang. "Changes in Health Care use and Costs After a Break in Medicaid Coverage among Persons with Depression." Psychiatric Services 58.1 (2007): 49-54.

OMalley, Cynthia, D., et al. "Medicaid Status and Stage at Diagnosis of Cervical Cancer." American Journal of Public Health 96.12 (2006): 2179-85.

Morrissey, Joseph P., et al. "Medicaid Enrollment and Mental Health Service use Following Release of Jail Detainees with Severe Mental Illness." Psychiatric Services 57.6 (2006): 809-15.

Morrissey, Joseph P., et al. "Assessing Gaps between Policy and Practice in Medicaid Disenrollment of Jail Detainees with Severe Mental Illness." Psychiatric Services 57.6 (2006): 803-8.

Levy, Robert A., et al. "MARKETWATCH: The Cost of Medicaid Annuities." Health affairs 25.2 (2006): 444-51.

Lee, Jinkook, Hyungsoo Kim, and Sandra Tanenbaum. "Medicaid and Family Wealth Transfer." The Gerontologist 46.1 (2006): 6-13.

Galbraith, Alison A., et al. "Medicaid Acceptance and Availability of Timely Follow-Up for Newborns with Medicaid." Pediatrics 116.5 (2005): 1148-54.

Alison, Evans Cuellar, et al. "Medicaid Insurance Policy for Youths Involved in the Criminal Justice System." American Journal of Public Health 95.10 (2005): 1707-11.

Tang, Suk-fong S., Beth K. Yudkowsky, and Jean C. Davis. "Medicaid Participation by Private and Safety Net Pediatricians, 1993 and 2000." Pediatrics 112.2 (2003): 368-72.

Landon, Bruce E., and Arnold M. Epstein. "Quality Management Practices in Medicaid Managed Care: A National Survey of Medicaid and Commercial Health Plans Participating in the Medicaid Program." JAMA 282.18 (1999):…… [read more]

Director of Critical Care Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (614 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Furthermore, the goals of lowering costs, raising productivity levels and developing programs/processes to improve the speed and quality of healthcare are deeply ingrained in my personal practice method. In addition to my detailed career-long achievements in those areas, I am familiar with the nationally-accepted Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA) and am eager to implement FMEA to accomplish those objectives by proactively assessing risks and potential system failures while creating and refining superior practice systems.

In achieving the ideal of excellent patient care, administrative roles have become second-nature to me. I have welcomed and effectively fulfilled administrative roles as staff nurse, ER Manager and Director of Nurses in critical care settings, necessarily establishing a good rapport with all personnel and employing strong planning and problem-solving skills in the process. Those administrative roles have allowed me to create and refine healthcare systems, measure departmental and practice goals, train and supervise staff, evaluate staff performance, and act as liaison between patients and nurses throughout my career. To that end, I have become accustomed to an interdisciplinary approach that has honed my communication and leadership skills and allowed me to readily work closely with the Departments of Human Resources, Finance, Information Technology and Communications to advance programs and capably manage hospital units and resources.

I am eager to discuss my qualifications at your convenience. Meanwhile, please do not hesitate to contact me for any further information/documentation that will aid in your decision about my enhancement of Critical Care as Director of Nursing III.


Mark E. Ingold…… [read more]

Administrative Law &amp Health Reform Essay

Essay  |  10 pages (3,260 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


On the state level there are similar problems. States must create new insurance exchanges that offer consumers a choice of insurance plans, establish common rules regarding the offering and pricing of insurance, and provide information to assist consumers in understanding the options available to them. States must also establish high risk pools that provide a safety net for the medically… [read more]

U.S. Health Policy Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (780 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Health Policy

The health care setting for this paper on health care policy is the insurance industry ("insurers") that provides coverage for Americans who can afford to pay the ever-higher prices charged for policies. During his campaign for the presidency in 2007 and 2008, during the primaries and during the presidential election campaign against Senator John McCain, Barack Obama again and again mentioned the need for health care reform in the United States. He proceeded as an elected president to carry out his promise to institute reform through legislation.

The Affordable Care Act -- the Legislative Process in America

In 2009, the president began putting together a package that would eventually become legislation. He worked with mainly Democratic members of Congress -- albeit he offered to enlist the support of the GOP, but that relationship never jelled -- to hammer out the bill. Then members of Congress began to hold "Town Hall" meetings around the country to explain the proposals to the public. This portion of the legislation process was a disaster for many if not most of the elected officials that tried to conduct civil meetings.

Headlines told the story: "Town hall meeting on health care turns ugly" (CNN); "Audience shouts Down Sebelius, Specter at Health Care Town Hall in Philadelphia" (Fox News); "Town Hall Meeting Shouted Down…" (Yahoo). One after another town hall meeting became boisterous -- some even violent -- and outside some of the venues men with rifles stood menacingly by, as though they expected to find something to shoot at. The New York Times reported that the disturbances (at least some of them) were being orchestrated by the "tea party" and others "who oppose health care reform" (http://Opinionator.blogs.nytimes.com). Memos from "FreedomWorks" and other lobbying organizations tied to the tea party movement urged protestors to "rock-the-boat early in the Rep's presentation; Watch for an opportunity to yell out and challenge the Rep's statements…the goal is to rattle him, get him off his prepared script…" according to the New York Times reporting.

That having been reported, the actual legislative process and its limitations came into full view in Washington for any citizen who cared to observe. First, what did the Affordable Care Act offer to Americans? To wit: a) holding health insurance companies accountable by making it illegal for them to simply drop a child's coverage due…… [read more]

Healthcare Policy Analysis of Nurse Practitioner in Primary Care or Prescriptive Authority Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (2,237 words)
Bibliography Sources: 7


¶ … healthcare has been changing over the last decade. The role of nurse practitioners has become ever more important. This paper conducts a policy analysis as a systematic investigation of alternative policy options, for the emerging nationalized healthcare plan and the increased use of nurse practitioners. It looks at the goals of nationalized healthcare's use of nurse practitioners and… [read more]

Healthcare Finance Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,429 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


Medicare Diabetes Prevention Act of 2013

Healthcare Finance

Senator Franken (D-MN) introduced a bill (S. 452) into the Senate on March 5, 2013 that provides a mechanism through which Medicare and Medicaid recipients, who are at risk for developing diabetes, can receive preventive care services (Medicare Diabetes Prevention Act, 2013; Civic Impulse, 2013). The Senate version of the Medicare Diabetes… [read more]

Ethical Issue of Poor People Not Receiving Same Care as Rich Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (2,295 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Spring Health Uninsured Share Policy Ethics

Scarcity ethics nursing

Imagine two possible extremes of either zero safety net at all, or every consumer receiving identical care regardless of ability to pay. A mixture of the two extremes may actually maximize care, but require inequity in burden of cost. But that also adds an inherent level of unfairness if the result… [read more]

Health Reform Act Research Paper

Research Paper  |  14 pages (4,387 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10


" (Flanagan, Miller, Pagano, and Wood, 2010) Starting in 2010, a small employer[footnoteRef:9] is reported to be eligible to "apply for a tax credit if they offer health insurance and subsidize, on a uniform basis, at least 50%[footnoteRef:10] of the cost of coverage." (Flanagan, Miller, Pagano, and Wood, 2010) The tax credit is to be paid in full for employers… [read more]

Health Insurance Costs Name the Four Acts Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,079 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Health Insurance Costs

Name the four acts controlling hospital costs through regulations, describe one in full detail. Discuss the evolution of health insurance as a third party payment system and discuss the role of government in health care funding.

Name the four acts controlling hospital costs through regulations, describe one in full detail.

The 1974 Health Planning and Resources Development Act

This Act created a national network of local health systems agencies, state health planning and development agencies, and state health coordinating councils. It shifted federal control of health resources to local agencies in a radical fashion, in an effort to contain healthcare costs. The National Council for Health Policy was created to aid in health planning on a federal level and a new provision was made for federal financial assistance for construction and modernization of health care facilities, specifically outpatient facilities, to contain costs. To further decentralize government health and resources planning, the day-to-day operation of the program was given to ten regional offices (Rubin 1974).

The Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1980 and 1981

The Acts repealed two increases in tax deductions scheduled to become effective on October 1, 1982. One provision would have, according to a summary of the words of the Act: "liberalized the medical deduction for the elderly and disabled by: allowing elderly or disabled people to deduct medical costs exceeding $25 rather than $35; and by including in the deduction the medical expenses of spouses who were not elderly or disabled."

The Health Insurance Portability Act of 1996

The purpose of the Act, in its own words was to contain costs through streamlining healthcare record-keeping "by encouraging the development of a health information system through the establishment of standards and requirements for the electronic transmission of certain health information."

The Balanced Budget Act of 1997

The Balanced Budget Act of 1997 encompassed the largest cuts in the history of Medicare. Cuts in Medicare accounted for almost one half of the total reduction in federal expenditures. The Act reduced Medicare payments by $119 billion, including $2.3 billion in graduate medical education (GME) payment reductions. "Medicare is the largest single source of financing of GME, which accounted for 7% of Medicare expenditures by 1999" (Phillips et al. 2004, p.71).

Q2: Discuss the evolution of health insurance as a third-party payment system

Healthcare only became a necessity when medical treatment became relatively safe and accurate. In 1929, "the first modern group health insurance plan was formed. A group of teachers in Dallas, Texas, contracted with Baylor Hospital for room, board, and medical services in exchange for a monthly fee. Several large life insurance companies entered the health insurance field in the 1930's and 1940's as the popularity of health insurance increased. In 1932 nonprofit organizations called Blue Cross or Blue Shield first offered group health plans. Blue Cross and Blue Shield Plans were successful because they involved discounted contracts negotiated with doctors and hospitals. In return for promises of increased volume and prompt payment, providers gave discounts… [read more]

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