"Healthcare / Health / Obamacare" Essays

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Management of Finances in Healthcare Organizations Research Paper

Research Paper  |  4 pages (1,430 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


¶ … Lead and Manage Using the Balanced Scorecard

The balanced scorecard has proven to be a very significant and important approach and system in strategic management as it has modernized conventional thinking regarding performance metrics (Kaplan, 2002). The balanced scorecard can be defined as a set of financial as well as non-financial valuation of the success factors of a… [read more]

Healthcare in 20 Years Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (1,001 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


¶ … concrete examples, some of the major participants and components of the present health care services sector. It's suggested that you consider all possible areas, which form this huge portion of our GDP!

In terms of components, the Washington State Healthcare Authority website lists a number of different services that are in within the healthcare services scope. These include ambulance services (ground- or air-based), ambulatory surgery, applied behavior analysis, blood/blood administration, behavioral health services (which is itself very multilayered), chiropractic, dental/dentures, detoxification, diabetes education, dialysis, family planning services, rehabilitative services, hearing aids/hearing evaluations, orthodontics, oxygen respiratory services, smoking cessation, vaccinations, vision correction/maintenance, prescription drugs and the list goes on (Washington, 2015).

In terms of the share of the economy that is healthcare-based, the number is indeed staggering. As noted in Forbes, there was the metric in 2009 that federal, state and local governments accounted for about sixty percent of all healthcare spending. The Affordable Care Act is projected to drive that number up to roughly two thirds, that being about sixty-six percent. Conversely, that would mean that the private sector's share of healthcare services and other related spending will only be about a third of all healthcare spending in the United States. At a federal level, the share of spending is only roughly about a third but involving the state and local figures drives up the total figure a lot. The percentage of healthcare spending to GDP is not much less than a fifth of overall GDP (Conover, 2012).

Question Two

During this time, we can debate the ACA reform law and the many alternatives being advocated. Please begin by focusing on one or two significant features of the "Obamacare" reform law and highlighting both their major purported benefits and assertions made by detractors.

One major component of the Patient Protection & Affordable Care Act (aka ObamaCare) is that there is now a specific ban on precluding people from insurance on the basis of pre-existing conditions. There are a lot of people that say that this is a long-time coming while others suggest that it is less than wise as an idea. A major reason that it is hailed and approved of is because there are many people that are unable to get insurance at affordable rates due to chronic and pre-existing health conditions such as diabetes, heart disease, COPD and so forth. Under the Affordable Care Act, those people are now able to become and stay covered for fairly reasonable rates.

However, there is a major downside to that provision being enacted. Indeed, some (certainly not most or all) of the people that were not insured were the young and/or those that simply did not want to spend the money on insurance…for whatever reason. Those people that choose not to do that are not paying into the system. Indeed, everyone who is insured pays into a pool of money and that money is used to pay claims. The bigger the pool of money, the less premiums tend to…… [read more]

Application of Economic Concepts to Health Care Research Paper

Research Paper  |  4 pages (1,485 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


Financial Management for Health Care Operations

The economic theory of regulation holds that politicians are self-interest maximizers, and therefore regulation will reflect their self-interest. The structure of the political system is such that politicians are dependent on financing to get elected, and that this financing comes from corporate backers and interest groups. The regulation that a politician supports will reflect… [read more]

Health Care Laws Essay

Essay  |  12 pages (3,391 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+


Healthcare Law

Informed consent is the doctrine wherein patients can only consent to certain procedures if they have been informed of, and understand, and assent to, the risks involved. Medical staff cannot simply do as they please -- they need to get consent from the patient, but the patient needs to be informed, and understand to what they are consenting.… [read more]

Future Direction of Health Care Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (982 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Future Direction of Health Care: Challenges That Are Defining the Future Strategic Direction of Health Care

The healthcare industry has been, for the past one decade, pressing on with operational priorities -- making it particularly challenging for stakeholders to take major industry issues into a broader perspective. There is, therefore great need to discuss such trends and challenges as the maintenance of a skilled workforce, information technology advancements, and regulatory issues; and the role they are expected to play as far as the changing healthcare landscape is concerned. This text concerns itself with some of the challenges that are expected to define the future strategic direction of health care. A total of five challenges/trends will be highlighted.


Information Technology Advancements

For a long time now, great emphasis has been placed on the relevance of ensuring that the health information of patients (PHI) is protected or secured. Going forward, it is expected that healthcare professionals and institutions will do more to guarantee the secure sharing as well as distribution of patients' protected health information (PHI). Some of the newer developments on this front include, but they are not limited to, Stage 2 Meaningful Use which, according to Alexander and Alistair (2013, p. 12) "is about going 'beyond EHRs'" -- as opposed to Stage 1 which, as the authors further point out, "was 'all about EHRs.'" Going forward, greater emphasis is likely to be placed on how to secure patient information without necessarily frustrating the meaningful sharing of the same. More effective strategies are also likely to be developed as professionals and healthcare institutions seek to meet directives related to patients' health information while at the same time steering clear of regulatory pitfalls.

Maintaining a Skilled Workforce

Today, unlike was the case a few years ago, patient satisfaction is increasingly being used to measure health care providers. As a matter of fact, patients today have access to a wide range of physician review sites to help them make better health care choices. Such sites include, but they are not limited to, Rate MDs, Healthgrades, and ZocDoc. As it is, the number of insurance companies making use of patient satisfaction as a basis of payment is also increasing by the day. According to the Care Quality Commission (2010, p. 86), "delivering a high-quality, integrated and personalized health care and social care system needs a skilled workforce." In the final analysis, therefore, the relevance of maintaining a skilled workforce cannot be overstated.

Access to Health Care, Including the Uninsured and those in Poverty Levels

In the words of Raber and Bailes (2013), "we have more uninsured Americans than before we began the reform process." Going forward, the authors point out that we are likely to witness a variety of insurance models. This is particularly the case as employers seek to assert or enhance their control over expenditures, while at the same time limiting "the amount they are willing to contribute for employee healthcare" (Raber…… [read more]

Prison Health Care Agency in the US Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,235 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


In 1992, a report released by the BOP recognized that the healthcare costs for prisoners have been escalating and this has been a significant concern. The BOP has singled out factors that were contributing to inmate health care costs and initiated programs that seek to contain these costs. Moreover, the BOP has launched corrective actions to regulate the escalating costs. Under the federal regulations, the BOP must provide suitable healthcare to all prisoners in its custody. Under the regulation, the Attorney General has delegated authority to the BOP, to request Public Health Service officers to be assigned to support with the direct medical care delivery to inmates. The BOP has a direct authority to serve medical care and treat prisoners under the directives of the Medical Director. All activities related to the inmates' physical and mental care are administered by the medical director. The BOP initiated inmate health care cost containment initiatives to address skyrocketing costs and to meet the health care demands of an expanding prison populace. These initiatives are geared towards serving quality medical care while containing costs.

The agency's process for accreditation, certification, and authorization

Accreditation Process- The accreditation process requires that the BOP agency must voluntarily participate in the accreditation process. The agency begins by contacting the American Correctional Association (ACA) to request for accreditation. Then, ACA sends the agency a relevant manual that contains standards, policy, procedures and standards compliance checklist. During the accreditation review process, regional manager is appointed to give advice to the agency. The agency should complete a report on self-evaluation and submit it to ACA. The agency will then proceed and schedule an audit. The accreditation audit involves evaluating mandatory and non-mandatory standards. The agency must fully comply with the mandatory standards and is expected to 90% comply with the non-mandatory standards to be accredited (Siegel & Bartollas, 2011).

Certification- The specifications of the certification process are the same for all types of agencies-state, nation, government and private. The agency sign a contract, pay a certification fee, perform a self-evaluation, and acquire a standard compliance audit from qualified ACA advisors before a certification decision by the Board of Commissioners. Once approved, the agency submits an annual certification statement to the ACA. In addition, at the ACA's discretion and expense, a supervision visit may be performed during the initial three-year certification period to ensure ongoing conformity with the appropriate specifications.

Authorization- The authorization process guarantees that all the systems made available by ACA surpass the accreditation requirements when operated with the appropriate management audit. This process involves a continuous security tracking and regular re-accreditations; or when there is a significant change to an agency's system or its atmosphere. Agency authorization is a comprehensive assessment of BOP's management, functional, and technical controls. It records the potency of the controls in a particular functional atmosphere and includes suggestions for new controls to minimize BOP's weaknesses. Agency accreditation results are used to evaluate risks to the agency and upgrade the agency's security plan. ACA's management… [read more]

Quality Care Journal

Journal  |  2 pages (661 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Additionally, there were several components of the physical -- such as blood work and other preventative maintenance that were also included free of charge. The logic behind the issuing of these services was fairly straightforward. By doing more preventative work, the health care system would have the opportunity avoid more costly and serious work later on -- which, of course, could have been detected earlier and treated easier had there been sufficient preventative work done.

In terms of how the allocation of resources has addressed the goal of increasing quality medical care, it is necessary to realize that a number of the various aspects of free preventative care that the Affordable Care Act mandated used to require remuneration on the part of patients. In fact, the costs associated with preventative care and with care in general was one of the deterrents for a number of patients who more than likely could have benefited from the U.S. health care system, yet did not access it because of economic issues. In this regard, then, the financial resources that the system requires for operation have been allocated in a different way. Instead of conserving those resources for patients who are in dire need of emergency or advanced level of treatment, the Affordable Care Act has decided to allocate some of those financial resources to earlier treatment options for patients (such as preventative care). By spending more up front, the health care system is actually able to now save money in the long-term by focusing on preventative care since "it's better to prevent a disease than to try to cure one" (CDC, 2013).


Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2013). Affordable Care Act helping prevent disease. www.cdc.gov. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/features/AffordableCareAct/

Glasser, M. Hensel, B. (2013). Preventive care services and the Affordable Care Act. www.nbclosangeles.com. Retrieved from http://www.nbclosangeles.com/news/local/Preventive-Care-Services-and-the-Affordable-Care-Act-223984451.html… [read more]

Public Health Evaluation Planned Parenthood Research Paper

Research Paper  |  8 pages (2,219 words)
Bibliography Sources: 7


Planned Parenthood Federation of America (PPFA) was established in 1942. It was formerly a previous organization, the American Birth Control League, which was founded by Margaret Sanger in 1921 (Planned Parenthood, 2013). Sanger and her fellow founders of Planned Parenthood had to deal with tremendous controversy regarding their dispensing birth control. Sanger was even arrested for the activities of the… [read more]

Letter to a Congressional Representative Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,300 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


It also limits the possibility of lost time on the job. Besides, it will ensure that maternity care is provided even before and after the baby is born. The bill will also facilitate the provision of inpatient care and treatments (Hitchcock, Schubert & Thomas, 2003).

The Health Insurance Bill will also cater for substance use disorders and mental health services. It will also entail the prescription of drugs. This includes counseling, psychotherapy, and behavioral health treatment. Adoption of the bill will ensure that services are provided to help individuals recover when injured or have chronic conditions/disability. Another advantage is that it will ensure that patients are treated in the infirmary for inpatient care (Chaikind, 2004).

It also entails pediatric services. These services include vision care and dental care for kids. The Bill will also ensure that medical lab tests and trips to the emergency room for patients are available besides catering for outpatient care. The insurance policy on health will also cover preventative services like counseling, vaccines, and screenings to keep individuals healthy. This will care and manage chronic diseases like cancer when detected on time (Boychuk, 2008).

However, a number of shortcomings will be associated with the implementation of the Health Insurance Bill. First, it costs a lot of money through monthly premiums that an individual will have paid. Besides, this does not imply that constantly rising premiums will lead to higher coverage. Various insurance companies are limiting the amount of care covered and strictly limiting it to those signing for new policies (Ross & Ross, 2013).

Secondly, the Health Insurance Bill contains complicated rules and regulations. Many policies will require referrals instead of patients going straight to see a specialist. The health insurance may exclude certain prescriptions from coverage and may refuse to pay for some elective procedures that may not be stipulated in the cover. Thirdly, the insured in most cases will be unable to choose the hospitals to visit or which doctor to see. Some policies may offer a wide range of choices while others do not give freedom to the patients (Hitchcock, Schubert & Thomas, 2003).

Request for support

For a very long time, I believe that individuals have been discouraged from accessing proper care because of the increasing high cost of insurance. The health care sector continues to make profits at the expense of the patients. The Health Insurance Bill will help reform the health care sector and curb the disparities that are currently being experienced. The implementation of this Bill will provide a striking a balance between profit making health care system and a system that puts the patient's need first. The focus is to provide quality and affordable health care. The reforms of the bill will assist in regulating the health insurance industry. Even with its limitations, the bill is a great step in controlling funds and implementing them into the health care system. I request you to support the bill. I believe this will go a long way in curbing the… [read more]

Coffee Regional Medical Center, Inc SWOT

SWOT  |  3 pages (688 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


However, if the organization does not uphold high quality standards then they could see some of their clientele traveling for services. Therefore, even without direct competition, the organization must still strive for competitive excellence.


Medicare/Medicaid, Federal Government, and private insurance companies will represent the biggest regulatory challenges to the organization. It is expected that these factors will undergo major transitions consistent with the changes amongst the other factors.


There overall social climate is one in which more individuals have become aware of their health needs and have actively sought to improve the overall state of their health. Many people have stopped smoking, made dietary changes, began exercising, and make more frequent and more informed trips to their healthcare organizations. CRMC has the opportunity to led this charge in the local community through education and outreach as well as offering their core services.


The economic considerations are rather grim for this region. The Coffee County unemployment rate is (2012) 10.4% which is much higher that the State of GA's unemployment rate which stands at 7.2% as well as the national unemployment rate: 6.7%. Furthermore, 19.1% of population in Coffee County, GA is below the poverty line and has a median income of only $35,936 per year. These figures amount to the fact that many potential clients in the regional market will unlikely be able to pay for medical services. It is likely that the federal and state changes will help many people in the local market, but not all. Therefore it is still expected that the healthcare system will have absorb some of the community's inability to pay for services.


Sole local provider

Solid Reputation


Limited service offerings

Efficiency Challenges


Leverage growing market size

Adopt innovations in technology for operational excellence


Economic challenges in the local market

Turbulent industry changes ahead


Coffee Regional Medical Center. (N.d.). 2013 Community Health Needs Assessment.

Pozin, I. (2013, October 17). Industry to Watch in 2014: Healthcare Tech. Retrieved…… [read more]

Health Policy Influence Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (769 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


That is part of the reason that it is so confusing for leaders who are dealing with Obamacare. They want to make policies that work for them and their organizations, but they also have to follow the policies that were created by the Obama Administration. In other words, they cannot simply make a policy that works for health care, unless it works with a specific type of health care (i.e. Obamacare). The Obamacare policy will affect health delivery in organizations because of the requirements that so many people join up and get coverage. While getting health care coverage is very important, the large number of people with insurance is going to inundate those who are offering health care, like doctors and hospitals (Torrens, 2013). That inundation can lower the quality of care given to people who need it, and stop leaders in the health care field from making policy changes that would be beneficial to everyone involved.

As a health care leader, it would be impossible to seamlessly integrate the policy. However, there are ways in which it can be made easier. One of those would be to be as prepared for it as possible before it officially takes effect on January 1st of 2014. Doing that can allow for changes to be made that will ease the flow of new patients and make things easier for the health care workers and the patients who are being treated by them. Until the policy really takes effect and has been used for some time, it is hard to tell how well it will work out. Leaders in the health care industry will have to keep their focus on what they have been doing right for years, and determine what kinds of changes have to be made as the policy takes effect. Only then can they make more adjustments and lead their workers in the right direction as Obamacare continues to require changes into the future.


Barr, D.A. (2011). Introduction to U.S. health policy: The organization, financing, and delivery of health care in America. NY: JHU Press.

CCH (2010). Law, explanation and analysis of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act: Including Reconciliation Act impact. CCH Incorporated.

Torrens, P.R. (2013). Chapter 13 Understanding health policy. Introduction…… [read more]

Health Care Theory the Modeling Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (580 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


The nursing profession therefore has needed to change in order to accommodate the changing needs of society with particular emphasis on the baby boomer population. As these demographic ages, they will typically become more prone to sickness or other forms of detrimental illnesses. As such, the importance of nursing in the coming years will be even more profound. Theories therefore have been impacted due to the changing occurrences within the profession (Janie, 2010).

Legislation in particular has had a profound impact on the overall nursing profession. First, due to the Affordable Care Act of 2010, the nursing profession is undergoing a fundamental shift in regards to the patient experience. As noted in the above theory. Patients will now demand a more unique experience, catering to their specific needs. A "one-size-fits-all," approach will no longer are tolerated by consumers. This will be particular true of minority patients who now have health care but who possesses differing needs. These needs have occurred primarily due to hereditary characteristics rather than behavioral characteristics. For instance, African-Americans are more prone to sickle cell anemia. However, the African-American population historically has had the highest numbers of uninsured individuals. As such, the U.S. health care system is now shifting the focus from acute and specialty care to that of primary care which requires a shift in business operations. Also, due primarily to that aging of the baby boomer generation mentioned above, the need for primary care overall is shifting to one that required individualized care. The last 10 years in particular has seen an increasing influx of retiring baby boomers that subsequently need care. A positive impact on the ACA legislation is that more… [read more]

Cornerstone Beliefs of the American Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (678 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


The actual amount of money paid is determined by the ranges of services that are provided, the number of patients involved, and the period of time during which the services are provided" (Alguire 2013). This is to ensure that physicians are not incentivized to provide more care that might be necessary simply to profit. The downside is that there is an incentive to accepting more patients than the physician can feasibly care for to get the payment and that because there is no financial incentive to provide additional care, the physician might withhold needed services. In another model of this attempt at cost control, physicians might even be financially rewarded by MCOs for keeping costs down rather than for providing services alone, which again raises fears that necessary services will be rationed.

Other common features to limit the use of care include requiring patients to pre-authorize or submit to a utilization review for services with the insurance company (which presumably will be less willing to allow for care than the profit-taking physician); forcing patients to get referrals for specialists that justify the services they are seeking and "quality improvement programs and payment systems that make…providers financially accountable for cost and quality of medical services" (Tobin 1997). This level of scrutiny has the advantage of reducing the incentive to submit patients to possibly unnecessary, costly tests and procedures but can also result in patients being denied experimental treatments that are not approved or result in higher costs later on because of a lack of monitoring which does not catch a disease in its early stages.


Alguire, P. (2013). Understanding capitation. ACP (American College of Physicians).

Retrieved from:


Healthcare value index. (2009). Business Roundtable. Retrieved from:


Tobin, C. (1997). What is managed healthcare? AADE News, 23 (1). Retrieved from:

https://nfb.org/images/nfb/publications/vodold/mngdcare.htm… [read more]

Problems Principles and Potential Solutions Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (689 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


¶ … health care denoted within Dr. Arthur Garson Jr.'s article entitled "The U.S. healthcare system: problems, principles and potential solutions." One of the most eminent of these which will be severely impacted by the 2014 completion of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act is alluded to in Garson Jr.'s "Problem 4: Administrative Nightmares for Patients and Physicians" (Garson Jr., 2000). The projected increase of healthcare patients will have serious ramifications on the practitioner, care and administrative side of health care. Health care will essentially be mandatory in 2014, meaning that there will be a substantial increase in the number of patients. The most salient issue regarding this increase revolves about building up an infrastructure of healthcare professionals who will be able to accommodate the sudden demand in services.

Garson Jr. alludes to this issue from the administrative side, and discusses the fact that more patients could result in longer wait times for patients who simply have to go through several measures of administrative bureaucracy before they can be aided. The author implies that converting records into electronic form will help to spur the administrative process along expediently and also streamline approval and payment issues (Garson Jr., 2000).

However, the author fails to address another high significant aspect of this potential administrative backlog, which will reverberate into the patient-care sector, as well. For years now, individuals within the health care industry have been predicting a shortage of nurses and physicians to properly service patients. Until this issue gets addressed, all of the health care plans and their ubiquity will not be able to aid people, who will simply need qualified professionals to treat them.

There are a number of specific ways in which this problem can be addressed. Some of the proposed solutions have been readily implemented within the last several years, and may be in the process of helping to alleviate the upcoming shortage of qualified healthcare professionals to treat people. One of the most efficacious means of remedying this problem is to train and employ more faculties for nurses. There is…… [read more]

Caring for Aging Baby Boomers Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (636 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Caring for Ageing Baby Boomers

There are a number of things that have surprised me about this report. The report avers that the economic burden associated with caring for the aging baby boomers by 2030 would not exceed the cost of raising them back in the 1960s (Knickman & Snell, 2002). I find this interesting because the cost of living has kept increasing over the years. The economy of the United States has also had to grapple with myriad gloom economic conditions over the years that finally culminated into the year 2008 economic slow down. The financial markets have severely been hit with attendant inflationary risks. I therefore find it over optimistic to say that economic burden of raising baby boomers back in the sixties would not outweigh attendant costs of caring for this aging population in 2030. It is surprising that the report indicates that the real challenge of caring for frail baby boomers would be making sure that the society develops payments and insurance systems for long-term care better than the ones currently in place (Knickman & Snell, 2002). I find this observation outrageous bearing in mind that a comprehensive health care program was rolled back way back in 2010. The Obama Care when completely rolled out will be responsive to issues that this report raises (GPO, 2013). Finally, report finding that advocated for taking advantage of advances in medicine and behavioral health to keep the elderly healthy and active is sport on. The U.S. is renowned for technologically innovations that have further advanced delivery of health care services. I don't understand why the aged should succumb to non-communicable diseases like cancer. The government devotes a lot of resources to Research and Development and this should go a long way in mitigating these NCDs.

Review of this article has made me appreciate that there are real challenges that have to be addressed with regards to meeting…… [read more]

Electronic Health Records EHR Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (652 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Electronic Health Records


Electronic health records are a realization that has been common across the information technology and personal computer markets over the last twenty years or so. The technology capabilities that have become visible over that time frame have greatly increased what people can do with computers but it has also made it a lot harder to get people trained and up to speed on the technology and it has also made it a lot easier to screw things up immensely all at the same time. This reply will cover all of this as it pertains to electronic health records the barriers that exist to getting them used in wide rotation in the hospital and broader healthcare industry.

Challenges in EHR

As noted by the electronic health records assignment that is being completed within this response, implementing EHR can be very formidable and complicated. It has gotten to the point, no matter how specious it may sound, that some people say that there is no benefit to using electronic health records and that could not be farther from the truth. This report will explore why this is the opinion of some and why it is simply wrong (Murphy, 2010).

Based on the resources made available for this assignment as well as the author of this paper's own personal research and observations, problems in EHR implementation fall under one of two major categories. The first is the quality (or lack thereof) of the implementation. The system being set up has to be top notch and attention to detail has to be part and parcel of the setup. This includes the training and educating of the people that will be using the system. This in particular is very important because if the end-users and administrators are not up to speed or are even aloof about what they are doing and why, it will tend to have disastrous effects on the overall setup. After all, when talking…… [read more]

Economics of Medical Errors Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,317 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


The fines and penalties that hospitals will begin to incur under ACA provisions may shift this balance sheet to favor patient safety over the goals of past cost-cutting measures. Up to 1% of the operating margin for the worst performing hospitals could be lost under ACA, which may be sufficient for causing poor performing hospitals to close their doors.

Andel and colleagues (2012) base their predictions on studies that examined the effects of pay-for-performance incentives on physician behavior and patient outcomes. Based on these studies, a difference of $5 is sufficient to influence physician behavior.

To further support their prediction that patient safety reforms can produce large savings in health care costs, Andel and colleagues (2012) cite several examples of healthcare systems that have implemented such reforms and reaped large benefits. Intermountain Healthcare in Utah is one example and they implemented changes to reduce treatment variations, which if implemented nationally, could total $3.5 billion annually in healthcare savings. These savings were achieved by establishing evidence-based decision trees for making costly care decisions, thereby eliminating inter-provider variation in how care was provided. This reform resulted in significant improvements in the quality of care provided, while also providing large savings.

The potential savings in healthcare costs nationally, through the implementation of decision trees that eliminate variations in the care provided, were believed capable of reducing healthcare costs nationally by 40% (Andel, Davidow, Hollander, and Moreno, 2012). Based on 2009 data, the U.S. outspent other nations in terms of healthcare by a wide margin (Squires, 2012). A 40% savings would reduce the 17% of gross domestic product (GDP) allocated to healthcare costs in the U.S. currently, to about 10% of GDP. This would bring U.S. healthcare spending down to levels equivalent to other Western nations.


The primary stakeholders are patients, providers, and public and private insurers. In light of the IOM (2000) report, patients are faced with deciding whether seeking medical care will do more harm than good under the current system. The vast majority of physicians, nurses, and other medical care professionals want to provide good service without causing additional harm and will do so if the current environment is changed to foster those goals. Private insurers will keep shifting the cost of care to the shoulders of both patients and providers unless changes are made. Public insurers, like Medicare, are more concerned with controlling costs because they are answerable to Congress and a growing budget deficit.


Andel and colleagues (2012) reviewed what was known about potential healthcare cost savings if patient safety reforms are implemented and discovered that a realistic estimate is about $20 billion annually. These savings have not been realized in the past because the U.S. healthcare system was structured to reward negligence, but with passage of the ACA, negligence will instead be penalized through Medicare and Medicaid. However, there is still a lot of room for more improvement based on the savings already realized by some providers.


Andel, Charles, Davidow, Stephen L., Hollander, Mark, and… [read more]

Community Health Nursing Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (587 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Others have suggested that the key is to maintain an awareness of the lack of one's cultural competence to address disparities in health care. There is no easy answer how to address these disparities and it is likely that different groups will respond to different approaches better than others.

The recent passage of the new health care reforms, commonly referred to as Obamacare, Many of these reforms were crafted to specifically target disparities in outcomes among the U.S. population. However, simply providing access to healthcare will only marginally improve outcomes. "The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, if fully-funded, will improve but not eliminate disparities. Health-care coverage and lack of access is only part of the problem of why race disparities exist and we have to look at societal issues" said Thomas LaVeist, director of the Hopkins Centre for Health Disparities Solutions (Devi, 2012). It is likely that building cultural competencies as well as also developing the awareness lack of cultural competencies will be necessary for a comprehensive solution to the disparities.

Works Cited

Devi, S. (2012). Getting to the root of America's racial health inequalities. The Lancet, 1043-1044.

Kane, J. (2012, October 22). Health Costs: How the U.S. Compares With Other Countries. Retrieved from PBS: http://www.pbs.org/newshour/rundown/2012/10/health-costs-how-the-us-compares-with-other-countries.html

Krieger, N., Chen, J.W., Rehkopf, D., & Subramanian, S. (2004). Painting a Truer Picture of U.S. Socioeconomic and Racial/Ethnic Health Inequalities: The Public Health Disparities Geocoding Project. American Journal of Public Health, 312-323.

Murray, C. (2010). Ranking 37th -- Measuring the Performance of the U.S. Health Care System. The New England Journal of Medicine, 362-398.… [read more]

Merger and Acquisition Mergers Essay

Essay  |  6 pages (1,932 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


4: Confidentiality

4.1: To guide against competition, all physician shall keep confidential information about their services, personnel, sales strategy, research and development, finance, system, accounting and plan.

Plan to Appoint or Hire Specialists for the Clinic

The proposal will place an advert in the local newspaper or through the internet to advertise the intent to recruit physician specialized in surgery, heart disease, gastroenterology, dermatology, surgery, gynecology, and respiratory disease. The recruitment term will be explained to make physician understand the term of service and payment.

To make recruitment more competitive, the payment term will be discussed in detail and physician will be paid based on the years of experience and additional skills that might benefit the health sector.

The payment term will be fee-for-service compensation plan based on the fee schedule for service provided by physician. (Gaynor & Mark,1999). The proposal will shortlist qualified applicant and arrange the interview for the final selection.

Justification to accept Medicaid

Medicaid is federal program used to assist low-income people and people above 65 years. The proposal will use Medicaid as source of finance to take the advantages of recent federal government funding on healthcare for low-income people in the United States. The proposal will accept Medicaid to generate awareness from large number of population towards the newly formed physician merger. The proposal will take advantage of increase in funding for Medicaid to source for finance because the federal government estimated funding for Medicaid is approximately $458.9 billion in 2012. In 2010, President Obama signed Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act to provide healthcare for more than 30 million uninsured people in the United States. Moreover, the program also cover more than 50.7 million senior citizens categorized as low income. Based on the large number of population covered under the Medicaid, the merger will enjoy a significant large amount of finance from Medicaid program.


The paper proposes merger for physician in different specializations. The organization will attract market from both private individual and the government and the increase in the overall government funding for the healthcare will assist the organization to enjoy large market advantages. The paper also provides contract term for physician and inclusion of Medicaid for additional source of finance will assist the merger to accelerate its growth rate.


Aharon, D.Y. Gavious, I. & Yosef, F. (2010). Stock Market Bubble Effects on Mergers and Acquisitions. The Quarterly Review of Economics and Finance.

Brown, T.C. Werling, K.A. Walker, B.C. et al. (2012). Current Trends in Hospital Mergers and Acquisitions. Healthcare Financial Management. 66 (3) 114-120.

Carter, R.…… [read more]

Urgent Care Centers Filling a Gap for PCP's and ER Research Paper

Research Paper  |  6 pages (2,432 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


Urgent Care Centers filling a gap for PCPs and ERS

All over America, ER and PCPs are losing themselves to the Urgent care centers. It is clear that they are taking over because they are the more reasonable source of emergency care. This essay show that these urgent care centers are more beneficial because they are able to give walk-in,… [read more]

Sustainability of Democracy Essay

Essay  |  6 pages (1,691 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


The Mercer study found that "savings for those enrolled in the HAS plans came from reduced utilization and lower intensity of services. The study found no evidence that participants avoided care; to the contrary, migration was "virtually a one-way flow" from the PPO option to the HSA plans, and if participants were having adverse experiences this would not be the case." In addition, there was "no reporting over the study period of any such issues of adverse results from deferred care." (Nix and Senger, 2012, p.1) The study concludes by stating that sources of savings "appear to come from better use of healthcare resources and more cost conscious decision-making." (Nix and Senger, 2012, p.1)

Cost-Reduction Achieved

Patients in this program were reported to have had "lower hospital admissions and shorter lengths of stay when they were admitted." (Nix and Senger, 2012, p.1) It is concluded as well that health care costs "…can be positively influenced if patients are motivated to be better consumers, empowered with information about provider quality and treatment options, and given access to the tools and support required to understand and improve their health status. Obviously, these individuals and their employers also benefit from improved health status, energy and productivity." (Nix and Senger, 2012, p.1)

Summary and Conclusion

It is not the government's function within the realms of democratic principles and government to make health care choices across-the-board because it is not possible to consider all the diversity of health care needs from the view of government. Cost reduction in health care can only be accomplished through consumer driven health care services and through the principles of democratic representation and the leaving open to consumers of choices concerning their own individual health care.


Berenson, RA (2003) Health Affairs. At the Intersection of Health, Health Care and Policy. Health Affairs. Retrieved from: http://content.healthaffairs.org/content/early/2003/12/10/hlthaff.w3.586.full.pdf

Nix, K. And Senger, A. (2012) The Promise of Consumer-Directed Health Plans: Studies Show Success at Reducing Costs and Maintaining Quality. The Heritage Foundation. Retrieved from: http://www.heritage.org/research/reports/2012/07/promise-of-consumer-directed-health-plans-studies-show-success-reducing-costs-maintaining-quality

Smith, J. (2008) Democracy and Sustainability. Can We Survive in Freedom: The Relationship Between Democracy and Sustainability. Retrieved from: http://www.open.edu/openlearn/society/international-development/environmental-decision-making/democracy-and-sustainability-can-we-survive-freedom

Sustainable Democracy (2000) Policy for Government by the People in the 2000s. Report of the Government Commission on Swedish Democracy. Official Government Reports-SOU 2000:1…… [read more]

Rising Cost of Health Insurance Coverage Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,163 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


¶ … rising cost of health insurance coverage has hurt people who desperately need the coverage but cannot afford it. And because many people choose insurance plans with high deductibles -- because the premiums are much lower -- n find it difficult to cover the "deductible" when they are ill or injured, hence, many do not report their medical / health problem to their providers. Moreover, the there are many other issues revolving around healthcare coverage, and this paper delves into several of those issues.

The Literature on Health Insurance in 2012

Andrew Wilper and colleagues report that the U.S. "…stands alone" among all industrialized countries in the fact that the U.S. does "not" provide health coverage for all its citizens (Wilper, 2009, p. 1). In fact there are some 46 million Americans that do not have health insurance coverage, Wilper explains. But the most salient issue that Wilper addressed is the relationship between Americans that are not insured and their mortality. In other words, how many people die in America each year because they don't have health insurance coverage?

A study that used data from 20 years ago found that 18,314 Americans between the ages of 25 and 64 die annually due to lack of health insurance (Wilper, 1). But Wilper and colleagues conducted their own study using more recent data. They used information gathered from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, and analyzed in particular those 9,005 participants that were age 17 through 64, to determine "…whether [a lack of] insurance at the time of their interviews predicted that they would die. Among those 9,005 without insurance, adjusting for several factors (leisure exercise, smoking, alcohol use, etc.) 3.1% died, Wilper writes (1). The conclusion: being uninsured is associated with morality.

Dr. Uwe Reinhardt -- professor of Economics and Public Affairs at Princeton University, notes that the people who don't have health insurance that are most at risk are the "low income working stiffs" because they are not "poor enough to qualify for Medicaid" but their employer doesn't provide insurance and they can't afford the "…six to eight thousand for a family of four" (Reinhardt, 2008, p. 1). For those who are provided health insurance by their employer, Reinhardt explains that disaster strikes when they lose their job. "…at the worst moment in your life, you also lose your insurance coverage… [and for] 50-year-olds, when their company gets bought out, restructured, they're on the street" (Reinhardt, p. 2). This can't happen in Canada, in France, in England or Germany, since, unlike the U.S., health insurance comes with citizenship.

Echoing what Wilper asserted, Reinhardt notes that "…uninsured people die earlier and die at a higher rate from the same illnesses simply because they go to late" for care (p. 4).

There are many issues with the recently enacted legislation called the Affordable Care Act (or "Obamacare"), and among those is the requirement that by 2014, everyone in the U.S. must have health insurance or be penalized with a… [read more]

Role Development for Advanced Nursing Essay

Essay  |  7 pages (2,098 words)
Bibliography Sources: 7


Advance Nursing Practices

In the last few decades, advance nursing has emerged as a healthcare system to provide better and expertise services in nursing fraternity. It has however, forced governments around the world to recognize nursing contributions to health care through expanding their role as an effective way to improve healthcare service delivery to patients in various health care facilities… [read more]

Hospitals Health Care Case Study

Case Study  |  3 pages (1,191 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3



Explain the difference between inpatient and outpatient care.

"Inpatient Care" is health care provided to a patient who is admitted to a hospital, nursing home, or other extended care facility. Inpatient hospitalization, in particular, tends to involve major diagnostic, therapeutic and/or surgical services when a patient's condition and/or response to medication must be constantly monitored (Hays Companies, n.d.). "Outpatient Care" is health care provided to a patient who is not admitted to a facility. In this instance, care may be provided in a hospital's outpatient department, in a clinic, at a doctor's office or in the patient's home (Hays Companies, n.d.).

Discuss how the growing aging population impacts hospital care.

"Baby Boomers," those U.S. residents born from the mid-1940's through the mid-1960's and who compose the largest age-related segment of our population, started reaching the age of 65 in 2011. As of 2002, 34.7 million Americans were 65 or older; however, that figure will rise to 69.4 million by 2032. In 2002, there were 9.2 million Americans who were 80 or older; however, by 2050, 31.6 million Americans will be 80 or older; finally, by 2050 there will be approximately 1 million Americans who are 100 years of age or older (Setness, 2002). Setness also observes that there will be a significant shift in the number of retirees vs. The number of employees, resulting in an "unimagined" use of Social Security, Medicare and Medicaid benefits while the traditional funding for those programs understandably shrinks along with the workforce. Finally, longevity often results in more chronic disease such as arthritis, heart disease, Alzheimer's disease and osteoporosis, and as more Baby Boomers reach later and later ages, the healthcare system will see a significant increase in the need for treatment of those chronic diseases (Setness, 2002). The three factors of aging Baby Boomers, increased use of Social Security, Medicare and Medicaid accompanied by decreased traditional funding, and a logical rise in elderly-related chronic disease will mean that hospitals will need to allocate greater resources and personnel to treating the elderly and their chronic diseases while funding for that treatment will need to be adapted by governmental and private sectors.


From the earliest days of our Republic, government and private providers have struggled to meet the challenges of providing and funding adequate medical care to individuals living within the Country. Notably but not exclusively due to wars and depressions, the government and private providers saw individuals "falling through cracks" in the health care system, and repaired the cracks with legislation, funding and monitoring. The result has been a uniquely American health care system. Furthermore, that health care system will become even more unique as Baby Boomers increasingly join the ranks of the elderly, resulting in the need for greater health care, the need for some alternate funding for Social Security, Medicare and Medicaid, and the need for a greater concentration on chronic diseases of the elderly.

Works Cited

Barton, P.L. (2010). Understanding the U.S. health services system, 4th ed. Chicago, IL:… [read more]

Schlesinger Describes Four Main Themes Article Review

Article Review  |  9 pages (2,742 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


e. staff) and the health of individuals surrounding the individual. Health should be a popular 'people's movement'. Instead of health care being nested in bureaucratic and financial institutions, it should be nested in larger beneficial social groups with health care coming to the people, instead of the people seeking it, and with all (including hospital environment) designed around he needs… [read more]

Health Policy Current Events Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (757 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2



American Hospital Association Committee on Research. (2010). Accountable Care Organizations: AHA research synthesis report. American Hospital Association. Retrieved Oct. 22, 2011 from http://www.hret.org/accountable/resources/ACO-Synthesis-Report.pdf

Berwick, Donald M. (2011, Oct. 20). Making good on ACO's promise -- The final rule for the Medicare Shared Savings Program. NEJM.org. Retrieved Oct. 22, 2011 from http://www.nejm.org/doi/pdf/10.1056/NEJMp1111671

Gold, Jenny. (2011, Jan. 18). Accountable Care Organizations, explained. National Public Radio. Retrieved Oct. 22, 2011 from http://www.npr.org/2011/04/01/132937232/accountable-care-organizations-explained

International Agency for Research on Cancer. (2011). IARC classifies radiofrequency electromagnetic fields as possibly carcinogenic to humans, Press Release No. 208. World Health Organization. Retrieved Oct. 22, 2011 from http://www.iarc.fr/en/media-centre/pr/2011/pdfs/pr208_E.pdf

Parker-Pope, Tara and Barringer, Felicity. (2011, May 31). Cellphone radiation may cause cancer, advisory panel says. New York Times. Retrieved Oct. 22, 2011 from http://well.blogs.nytimes.com/2011/05/31/cellphone-radiation-may-cause-cancer-advisory-panel-says/

U.S. Executive Branch

President Barack Obama

The White House

1600 Pennsylvania Avenue NW

Comments: [HIDDEN]

Switchboard: [HIDDEN]


U.S. Congressional Representatives

Senator Jerry Moran (R)

Russell Senate Office Building

Washington, D.C. 20510

Phone [HIDDEN]


23600 College Blvd Suite 201

Phone [HIDDEN]


Senator Pat Roberts (R)

109 Hart Senate Office Building

Phone [HIDDEN]


11900 College Boulevard

Suite 203

Overland Park, KS 66210

Phone [HIDDEN]


Representative Kevin Yoder (R), District 3

214 Cannon HOB

Phone [HIDDEN]

7325 W. 79th St.

Overland Park, KS 66204

Phone [HIDDEN]


Kansas Executive Branch

Governor Sam Brownback

Capitol, 300 SW 10th Ave., Ste. 241S


Local - [HIDDEN]

For the Hearing Impaired - [HIDDEN]

Kansas Congressional Representatives, Zip codes 66219, 66220, 66227, 66285

Anthony R. Brown, (R), District 38

State Capitol

300 SW 10th St.

Topeka, Kansas 66612

Room: 151-S

Seat: 96

Phone [HIDDEN]


Home Information

799 East 2200 Road

Eudora, Kansas 66025

Phone [HIDDEN]

Julia Lynn, (R), District 9

State Capitol

300 SW 10th St.

Topeka, Kansas 66612

Room: 234-E

Seat: 17

Phone [HIDDEN]


Home Information

18837 West 115 thTerrace

Olathe, Kansas 66061

Phone [HIDDEN]


Kansas Congressional Representatives, Zip code 66215

Ron Worley, (R), District 30

State Capitol

300 SW 10th St.

Topeka, Kansas 66612

Room: 167-W

Seat: 25

Phone [HIDDEN]


Home Information

8957 Woodstone

Lenexa, Kansas…… [read more]

Health Care Cost Containment Techniques Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (2,462 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


¶ … equal access to a comprehensive package of health care has been the theoretical goal of the American health care system for some time (Epstein 2004). It has been debated extensively in many forums including the U.S. Congress but until very recently no such program has been enacted. One of the goals of the Obama administration upon entering office… [read more]

Managed Care Is an Approach Case Study

Case Study  |  2 pages (654 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


This forced healthcare providers to discount their prices resulting in a more competitive and efficient healthcare industry.

Current State of Managed Care and Potential Impact of Reform Initiatives:

While managed care is everywhere in the United States, it has attracted huge criticism since it has significantly failed in the general objective of controlling medical costs. Consequently, the proponents and opponents of this concept are sharply divided on the overall impact of managed care on the quality of healthcare delivery in America. The omnipresence of managed care in the United States has contributed to the huge percentage of enrollment to managed care health insurance policies by Americans.

Healthcare reform initiatives will have a significant impact on the business models of healthcare insurance and managed care sectors in the United States. Premium increases is one of the potential impacts of reforms since insurance and managed care plans will include the costs of recruiting new individuals to their coverage base and transform their benefit structures (Boyle, Deaton & Maddigan, 2010). This increase in premium costs is likely to arise because of the requirement for insurance and managed care sectors to change some funding practices and benefit structures. The other potential impact is probability of insurers and managed care sectors to receive new customers when the insurance mandate is implemented. This likely impact will result from the requirement by the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act for most Americans to acquire health coverage or face penalties.


Boyle, B., Deaton, D. & Maddigan, M. (2010, March 30). United States: The Health Care

Reform Legislation and its Impact on the Health Care and Life Sciences Industries. Retrieved September 24, 2011, from http://www.mondaq.com/unitedstates/article.asp?articleid=97086

Carlson, G. (2009, May 5). Managed Care: Understanding Our Changing Health Care System.

Retrieved September 24, 2011, from http://missourifamilies.org/features/healtharticles/health39.htm

"Managed Care." (n.d.). East Coast Health Insurance. Retrieved September 24, 2011, from http://echealthinsurance.com/managed-care/… [read more]

Universal Healthcare Universal Health Care Thesis

Thesis  |  10 pages (3,288 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10


In other words, this country cannot provide for its citizens, but has no problem providing for strangers across the world who are also helped by non-governmental organizations. [10: Glow, J. "What countries have universal health care?" (2007). AOL. Retrieved July 4, 2011, .]

To further cement the necessity for universal health care in the United States, one only needs to… [read more]

Sleeping Under a Rock Research Paper

Research Paper  |  6 pages (2,136 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


Traditionally, health care data was kept by written and typed records but the increased need for the sharing of information and the need for efficiently doing so has led to the development of sophisticated, computer based, record-keeping systems. Pressure is being applied to the information technology industry to develop a uniform system that is universally accessible while still maintaining the privacy expectations of the patients. Presently, proprietary programs are easily obtainable but jurisdictional disputes still plague the operation of the system that creates a breakdown in the quality of services.

There is a breakdown in the delivery of health care in the United States relative to who is going to control how health care services are going to be delivered (Roland, 2009). This battle largely revolves around physicians, health care insurance agencies, and the government but there are collateral battles raging as well. HMOs, Medicare, Medicaid, insurance pay or private pay all contribute to the scenario. Everyone has a vested interest in the system and there is no coordinated effort to eliminate waste and duplication of services. Everyone wants to hold onto their own little sphere of influence. The plethora of problems in this area are too numerous to address but they are considerable and add greatly to the health care problem both in the areas of cost and efficiency. In essence, the United States does not have a health care system. It has many competing systems.

All the other issues in the health care system pale in comparison to the overriding problem of health insurance. What the future holds here is in doubt. Whether the present program enacted by the Obama administration will hold up is anyone guess or whether the traditional private insurance payment system will survive remains to be seen. In reality, the final arrangement will likely be some form of hybrid system. The interests of the private insurance companies are too strong to allow any wholesale change at least at the present time. Supporters of the present system argue that the United States has the best health care in the world and point to availability of high tech equipment and procedures while opponents point out that the U.S. ranks poorly in overall health care, life expectancy, and infant mortality statistics. How one feels about the overall state of health care and its future depends somewhat on where one is involved in the system. This is most unfortunate.

Where will health care be in the United States in the next few decades? Predicting anything to a certainty is impossible. The variables are too numerous and the human factors too complicated. What can be predicted is that the need for health care services will increase and that this increase will have to be addressed. Health care is too important to be ignored and a coordinated effort by all concerned is necessary. Political, financial, and personal factors should be put aside and a unified system should be organized. Presently, there is far too much bifurcation and competition. Hopefully, whatever… [read more]

U.S. Health Policy Decision Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (664 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Medicaid Changes

US Health Policy Decision

Examine how the proposed Medicaid changes would impact your state's public health insurance program. Overall, would your state benefit from the proposed changes or would it experience greater challenges? What barriers do you see in implementing the proposed changes?

One of the cornerstones of President Obama's recent healthcare legislation was the expansion of healthcare services to the working poor. The Affordable Care Act allows more adults to avail themselves of the federal health insurance program Medicaid by raising eligibility levels nationwide to a national floor of 133% of the federal poverty level (which is $14,404 for an individual and $29,326 for a family of four). This will reduce state-by-state variation in eligibility for Medicaid and will also include non-Medicare eligible adults under age 65 without dependent children, in contrast to previous eligibility restrictions. Children currently covered by the Children's Health Insurance Program (CHIP), the health insurance poverty program for children, from households with income between 100% and 133% of the poverty level would be transitioned to Medicaid coverage (Medicaid and CHIP in the new health reform law, 2010, KFF).

But the Obama Administration has had to take into consideration the needs of state healthcare budgets, which are overburdened because of lower tax revenues due to the recession. Even before healthcare reform, in fiscal 2010 Medicaid made up 22% of state budgets, more than was spent on public schools. Medicaid's share of states' budgets was particularly high in Illinois: 37.1% -- as compared with 7.3% in Wyoming and 7.5% in Texas (Fletcher 2010)

On a state level, Illinois has been attempting to curtail, rather than expand social health services to the poor, including ending free health insurance for 3,100 eligible children who were allowed access to state health insurance programs regardless of their family income. Families of four earning more than $66,150 annually no longer qualify for the coverage of their dependent children. Additionally, applicants for government-subsidized health care will have to prove they are residents of…… [read more]

Need for Health Care Reform in the United States Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (1,021 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


¶ … Healthcare Reform in the United States

Why did President Barack Obama push so hard in 2009 to pass legislation -- a bill that was signed into law in March 2010 as the "Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act" -- that offers some reforms for America's healthcare system? What is wrong with the system that needs fixing? This paper looks into those issues -- including the most salient reasons that healthcare reform was launched in 2010 -- and uses valid references to zero in on the issues in terms of what reforms are still needed.

What reforms were needed prior to the new healthcare bill?

The need for healthcare reform was on many minds in the years leading up to 2008; during the U.S. presidential campaign candidate Barack Obama promised that if he was elected to the presidency, he would launch legislation to reform healthcare laws.

The reasons reform was badly needed were outlined in 2009 by Jacqueline Garry Lampert for the U.S. Senate Democratic Policy Committee: a) roughly 14,000 Americans were losing health insurance every day in 2009, due to the downturn in the economy, loss of jobs, high cost of healthcare; b) every hour about 171 Americans were having their home foreclosed because medical bills were prohibitively expensive; c) every minute and a half, another family was filing for bankruptcy "due to medical bills that they cannot pay"; d) in the year 2000, typically a family's insurance through an employer was $6,772, but by 2008, the average family health insurance purchased through an employer was an outrageously high $12,680; e) when people are ill or injured and can't pay for the medical care they need, the cost are "shifted to those who can pay" -- and that increases individual insurance premiums by $410 annually; f) the U.S. loses "as much as $207 billion in lost economic productivity due to the poor health and shorter lifespan of the uninsured" (Lampert, 2009).

In an op-ed piece authored President Obama -- published in the New York Times -- the president alluded to a 2007 survey that showed, "…insurance companies discriminated against more than 12 million American in the previous three years because they had a pre-existing illness or condition" (Obama, 2009). The president also condemned some of the "wild misrepresentations that bear no resemblance to anything that anyone has actually proposed"; he was alluding in part to the absurd smear by some opponents of the legislation that a "death panel" would be set up to decide if older people should live or die.

Some of the reforms resulting from the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (AKA "Affordable Care Act") will not come into play until 2014. But the reforms that are already in place, and helping Americans with healthcare issues include the following: a) approximately 102 million consumers of health insurance no longer have a lifetime limit on their policy (as of March, 2010); b) for those purchasing a health insurance policy on or after Sept. 12, 2010, preventative… [read more]

Federal Public Budget Problem Research Paper

Research Paper  |  6 pages (1,819 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Budget Problem

Health care is viewed by some as the biggest point of crisis in the federal budget. Americans currently spends $2.2 trillion on health care every year and this cost is expected to rise to over $4 trillion by 2017 at current estimated rates of growth. The federal government is responsible for part of this, through the Medicare and… [read more]

Against the Health Care Reform Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (880 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … Goodbye to another unprincipled Democrat." April 9, 2010. Retrieved April 10, 2010 from http://www.washingtontimes.com/news/2010/apr/09/goodbye-to-another-unprincipled-democrat/

Democratic Congressman Bart Stupak recently announced that he will not run for re-election. Stupak became an instrumental figure during the recent health care reform bill, and his eventual approval of the bill helped solidify the legislation. Representative Stupak was one of just a few Democrats who initially opposed Obama's health care reform out of fear that the bill would lead to federally-funded abortions. Stupak eventually came to support the health care bill, just days before he announced his retirement.

In a scathing editorial, the Washington Times accuses Rep. Stupak of being a dishonest and "opportunistic politician." If Stupak was so "opportunistic," then he would probably not be retiring from Congress. An opportunistic politician is one who uses political maneuvers for personal gain. Stupak is apparently easing his way out of, not into Washington.

Stupak arguably agreed to support the health care reform bill under pressure from his party. On this point the Washington Times is correct. However, doing so did not mean that the Michigan congressman sacrificed his core ideals. Stupak was concerned that the health care reform bill would allow taxpayer dollars to fund abortions directly, a fear that President Obama and other Democrats proved was not the case. According to a CBS summary of the health care reform bill, "No health care plan would be required to offer abortion coverage." States can also "pass legislation choosing to opt out of offering abortion coverage through the exchange," (CBS).

Moreover, the bill effectively separates public and private health care funds. The segregation of public and private funds appeases rabid anti-abortion activists by disallowing any direct public money to go towards abortions. Unfortunately, the segregation of private from public funds also complicates the payment process for those who might need an abortion.

The Washington Times seems to have forgotten or seems to be ignoring the efficacy of Roe v. Wade. Abortions are legal in the United States, and the procedure is one that saves many women from being conscripted into premature parenthood. In extreme cases such as rape or incest, abortions should absolutely be funded as a human rights concern. Even the Hyde Amendment, which the Washington Post mentions in the editorial, allows for federal funding of abortions in tragic cases such as rape.

The abortion ethic debate aside, the Washington Times misses the mark on several issues. For one, Rep. Stupak did the right thing by signing the health care reform bill because to stall the entire plan based on a spurious abortion-related claim would have been a grave mistake. The United States needed…… [read more]

Political Views Thesis

Thesis  |  3 pages (940 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 5



Intro of the Representative

Senator Edward Kennedy is a democrat from Massachusetts. He has served as a senator since 1962 and has served the country for forty six years. He is currently the second most senior member of the senate. He has also served as the Chairman for the Committee on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions along with Senator Kennedy

Kennedy is one of the most outspoken senators as it pertains to healthcare reform.

Although he is currently quite ill, he continues to works toward the goal of providing affordable healthcare to all Americans. He is also committed to improving the healthcare delivery system in America. Kennedy wants to ensure that Americans have the best quality care that is inexpensive ("Healthcare"). He also believes in the promotion of prevention and wellness to decrease overall healthcare costs. Overall Kennedy believes that "Our health system, in short, does not meet the needs of our citizens, or our country. It fails to honor the daily sacrifices of our physicians, nurses and others who work heroically every day to provide the best care possible ("Healthcare")."

As it pertains to abortion Senator Kennedy is pro-choice and believes that women should have control over their reproductive rights. It has also been a staunch supporter of the plan b contraceptive as a way to prevent the need for abortion. He has also been a supporter of Medicare for the elderly and Medicaid for the poor ("Healthcare"). He believes that America has a responsibility to provide funding to continue these two programs.

The current bill before congress was actually drafted by senators Edward Kennedy and Christopher Dodd. Senator Kennedy's past action as it relates to voting and the sponsorship of bills includes the reauthorizing of the Children's Health Insurance Program that occurred in January. Kennedy plays a vital role in developing this particular legislation. Kennedy is also a supporter of the February stimulus package which included provisions to invest $20 billion in the health information technology infrastructure.

An individual from the Republican party that shares many of the views of Senator Kennedy is Senator Susan Collins a moderate republican from Maine ("Biography"). Collins was first elected in 1996 and again in 2002 and 2008 ("Biography"). She is a ranking member of the Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs Committee ("Biography"). This committee governs the Department of Homeland security. She also served on the for six years on the Committee on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions along with Senator Kennedy ("Biography").

As it pertains specifically to the issue of healthcare Collins has long been an advocate of affordable healthcare insurance. She has been particularly encouraging of healthcare designed to assist those living in rural areas. In addition she coauthored the Access to Affordable Health Care Act. This bill is designed as a way to introduce universal healthcare to America.…… [read more]

Obama Clinton Reform Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (567 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Perhaps never before has such a diverse and, at times, impassioned group -- a kind of "epistemic community" on steroids -- taken form to supply historical perspective on a public policy issue.

One of the themes that was produced by such studies was that the Clinton plan focused more on crafting an effective policy than on how the policy was perceived by the population and the media.

Other criticisms included the language that was used in the proposed Act. Haynes Johnson and David Broder, two well-respected newspaper reporters who combined efforts on a scholarly examination of the Clinton reform, noted that such terms as "alliances," "managed competition," "mandates," and "cooperatives" had proved incomprehensible as well as alienating (Donnelly & Rochefort, 2012). These lessons were studied intensely by the Obama administration and many attempts were made to improve on Clinton's attempts. Obama made an immense effort to present his reforms to the public in a positive light with language that was not alienating. He also was advantaged by the fact that there were technological advancements and new ways to present information to the public such as on social media and blogging. Although the Clinton proposal may have been a more effective design, the Obama proposal was more politically feasible.

Works Cited

Donnelly, K., & Rochefort, D. (2012). The Lessons of "Lesson Drawing": How the Obama Administration Attempted to Learn from Failure of the Clinton Health Plan. The…… [read more]

Evolution of Health Care Marketing Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (984 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Religion dominated the establishment of hospitals in India during the middle ages between the years 1100-1500 AD. The arrival of the industrial revolution saw a significant increase in the development of hospitals across India to meet the needs of an increasing population. In specific, hospitals, in India embraced the use of the new technologies in the diagnosis, managing, and monitoring of different conditions. By 1950, a significant proportion of the hospitals incorporated geriatric nursing for the old to reduce the burden facing the families involved in the provision of care to the old. Currently, India is among the best countries known globally for providing quality health care to its citizens and international clients (Berkowitz, 2011).

Comparison of Hospitals in the U.S. And India

Comparative analysis of the hospitals of the two countries in terms of their evolution and effectiveness in the provision of quality patient care makes the U.S. far more effective than India. India has a large population with a greater percentage of it (40%) living under the poverty. Most of the Indian population faces the challenge of accessing and affording to pay for the health care services provided in its hospitals. In contrast, a significant proportion of the U.S. population does not live under the poverty. The citizens face minimal challenges associated when accessing and paying for the health care services. As such, the variance makes the United States become more effective in providing the required patient care (Speziale, 2012).

Looking back on the status of the hospitals from the times of the Civil War to the present puts the U.S. hospitals ahead of those of India. The hospitals in the U.S. have been ahead in adopting the required technology to facilitate the provision of quality health care alongside reduced incidences of shortage of health care providers. In contrast, Indian hospitals have faced numerous challenges from the Civil War to the present. Some of the common challenges include sanitation and shortage of the health care providers. This made India's hospital system lag behind the U.S. one. In addition, it is inarguable that the U.S. hospitals are ahead of the Indian hospitals in terms of the use of new technology and procedures in the management of different conditions. The variance in the methods of disease management, in the hospitals of the two countries, places the U.S. hospitals ahead of those of India (Shi & Singh, 2010). However, not all hospitals in the U.S. are good, and not all in India are bad, but comparative analysis places United States hospitals far ahead of those in India.


Berkowitz, E.N. (2011). Essentials of health care marketing. Sudbury, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning.

Shi, L., & Singh, D.A. (2010). Essentials of the U.S. health care system. Sudbury, Mass: Jones and Bartlett Publishers.

Speziale, F. (2012). Hospitals in Iran and India, 1500-1950s. Leiden…… [read more]

Managed Care Is Used in Modern Medical Article Review

Article Review  |  2 pages (580 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


¶ … managed care is used in modern medical practice as a variety of fiscal techniques used in a supposed dual role -- to reduce the cost of providing health benefits and to improve the quality of health care. The idea of managed care, now more typically known as the HMO, or Health Maintenance Organization, was a result of the 1973 Health Maintenance Organization Act, initially providing grants and loans to expand HMOs and improve care while reducing costs (Public Law 93-222). In the United States, managed care is really ubiquitous but has been part of the recent controversy of health care in the United States. Largely, the conundrum surrounds the fact that the overall goal of HMOs were to control costs while still providing increasingly higher quality of health care for the majority of the population. Many believe that neither goal has been met, which affects medical care in every branch; mental health, hospitals, clinics, dentists, pharmacies, and more (Health Care Costs, 2007).

Concerns about managed care and how it has impacted the practice of psychology are the topic of a study by Rupert and Baird entitled, Managed Care and the Independent Practice of Psychology (2004). Unfortunately, using their own data, plus data from two national surveys (1996 and 2001), managed care payments and regulations are a large source of stress that requires a number of unnecessary constraints, additional bureaucratic paperwork, and a tangible negative effect upon the individual psychologists, often taking their focus and time away from patient care simply in order to survive in the "system."

Researchers have known for some time that managed care tended to negatively impact the lives of medical personnel from all fields. From the basic issue of being part of a network;…… [read more]

Healthy People 2020 Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (821 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3


Health Prmotion Proposal

Advanced Nursing Practice

Review of course materials and objections in relation to Healthy People 2020

One of the Healthy People 2020 objectives is to "improve access to comprehensive, quality health care services," ("Access to Health Services," 2014). The United States Department of Health and Human Services defines healthcare access in terms of gaining entry to the healthcare system; accessing an appropriate health services location; and being able to communicate with a caring and trustworthy provider ("Access to Health Services," 2014). The primary barriers to achieving access to health care including lack of availability in underserved, underprivileged, or disadvantaged areas, as well as cost impediments and a lack of insurance coverage. The underinsured population are not only less likely to receive the medical care they need, but they are also more likely to have a poor health status and poor outcomes including premature death ("Access to Health Services," 2014). This proposal addresses health care accessibility from the perspective of a family nurse practitioner. One underlying theme of this course is the critical role of the family nurse practitioner in providing access to care; this role will likely increase in the future, given the educational services nurses can offer which improve and address health promotion.

Review of plan in relation to discussion questions: Asking questions

As noted in our discussions for this class, two questions which continue to dog the healthcare establishment is how to improve healthcare access to rural communities and how to ensure access to all economic groups. The plan's foundation is thus devoted to improving infrastructure in underserved and rural communities.

Review of the literature and data sources

As the Kaiser Family Foundation (2011) points out, 65 million people in the United States live in areas with a critical shortage of primary care providers. There are shortages of health care staff, including nurses but also primary care physicians.

Synthesis of the literature

To address the staffing shortage, nursing education institutions and universities need to develop their programs to attract more students. This may entail working with grade schools to help discover young minds willing and able to work in the health care industry and encourage career development in this area. Attracting foreign students with the necessary skills and credentials is also vital. It will be helpful to study the critical needs of patients in disadvantaged communities, to discover whether there are language and cultural gaps that need to be filled by foreign health care workers who…… [read more]

Managed Care and Money Problems Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (814 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Sherman (2012) suggested that healthcare needs to shun some of its responsibility and allow people to make more proactive decisions regarding their health care choices. He wrote "patients share some of the blame for often demanding that doctors do something, anything, to make them feel better. It is easy for a patient who is covered by insurance to get pulled into this "therapeutic cascade." It usually starts with screening and frequently leads to more tests, and often unnecessary medical procedures and drugs. Sometimes people just need to be told to stop smoking, lose weight and exercise."

Eliminating Waste By Increasing Quality

Waste and wonton abuse of the medical insurance system is prevalent in so many areas of the managed care industry that is difficult to locate where to begin to address the problem with a solution that is not based on identifying root causes. The recent events point towards even more managing by the Affordable Care Act. This new policy has created new opportunities for waste by having the federal government take it upon themselves to employ stricter rules and even more micro managing.

Eliminating waste requires less action and not more as counter intuitive as that may seem, in many aspects. It appears that the system is overloaded and throwing more money at the system, while demonstrated fully, does not really help the problem in the long-term. Quality and not quantity needs to be emphasized if this transformation is to occur. The reliance on more is better is typical of our societies impulses and it is difficult to simply just walk away from some problems. Since individual's view quality in a subjective manner, it is impossible to gather any clear consensus on the topic, which puts even more importance on the individual taking more responsibility for their own health and not relying so much on those within the over burdened health care system to run every aspect of their life as if they are children.


"The Hippocratic Oath." Modern Version translated by Louis Lasagna, 1964. Retrieved from http://guides.library.jhu.edu/content.php?pid=23699&sid=190964

Pope, T. (2012). Overtreatment Is Taking a Harmful Toll. The New York Times, 27 Aug 2012. Retrieved from http://well.blogs.nytimes.com/2012/08/27/overtreatment-is-taking-a-harmful-toll/?_php=true&_type=blogs&_r=0

Sherman, D. (2012). Stemming the tide of overtreatment in U.S. healthcare. Reuters, 16 Feb 2012. Retrieved from http://www.reuters.com/article/2012/02/16/us-overtreatment-idUSTRE81F0UF20120216… [read more]

Advocating for Public Health Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (719 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


A big part of the campaign is to support the Affordable Care Act (including its "Prevention and Public Health Fund) (PPHF), which is important because the House of Representatives has voted over 50 times to either dismantle the Affordable Care Act or to cut major portions of the legislation out. In fact "funding for the PPHF has been reduced" by 50% (APHA).

The campaign plan calls for advocates to challenge Congress to take a "public health approach to gun violence"; this campaign program is several pages long and gives advocates specific, meaningful steps to take in approaching Congressional members about gun violence. For example gun violence cost the U.S. $174 billion in 2010, and APHA offers step-by-step points to follow when meeting a member of Congress in your district: a) arrive on time; b) bring two or three colleagues with you; c) deliver your message in three minutes or less; d) prepare yourself to answer questions; e) become a resource for your representative (offer time and assistance); f) give the member cogent materials on your position; and g) follow up with a thank you letter (APHA, p. 13).

On page 19, the campaign strategy document offers what to "DO" and "DON'T" do. On page 22 tips for using social media are offered and on 23 they offer "sample tweets"; on page 24 "Tips for getting a letter to the editor published" is presented.

In conclusion, the APHA 2013 PHACT Campaign toolkit is thorough and easy to follow, and this campaign has a lot of potential clout because it includes confronting political representative through media but also in face-to-face meetings. No one knows for sure what will come of a meeting with a politician, but the idea of buttonholing a Senator or Representative has potential power for citizens and for advocacy organizations. Voices need to be unchained, for sure, and this is one good way to do that.

Works Cited

American Public Health Association. (2013). APHA 2013 PHACT Campaign Toolkit.

Retrieved June 27, 2014, from http://www.apha.org.…… [read more]

Community / Organization Healthcare Services Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (1,172 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


Organizational structure

GPHA makes use of a 'case management' approach which treats the 'whole person.' "GPHA is committed to helping patients break down any healthcare barriers they may face by offering medical case management services. Provided for patients with debilitating problems, which may range from a lack of resources and housing to drug and/or mental problems, all of which can negatively affect a patient's health, our medical case managers serve as a lifeline" (Medical case management, 2014, GPHA).

Ways in which your community/organization works with immigrants and refugees

Culturally-based attitudes can often determine willingness to access healthcare services, regardless of income level (Hochhausen & Perry 2011). Bella Vista continues to attract a high percentage of recent Italian immigrants to the area: "of the top twenty tracts for Italians, three are in the Marconi Plaza/Packer Park neighborhood, including tract 47, where those born in Italy made up over 9% of the population, the city's highest. The Wharton/Hawthorne/Bella Vista area contained three tracts with large proportions of Italians, Girard Estates had three tracts, and South Philadelphia had two tracts" (Patusky & Ceffalio 2004: 34). However, given that this immigrant pattern is somewhat different from that of the larger Philadelphia region, language-sensitive assistance (including healthcare services) has not been as proactive as it has been with other communities: "the Philadelphia metropolitan region attracts a larger share of immigration from India, Southeast Asia, China, and parts of Eastern Europe than the national average" overall (Patusky & Cephalic 2004: 5). This highlights the need for local organizations to fill in the gaps: "local organizations may be mainstream, those serving much broader populations than refugees and immigrants. Examples include county departments of social services, hospitals, schools, and counseling agencies. They may also be ethnic, those private agencies targeting the needs of refugees, immigrants, or other designated ethnic populations" (Kirst-Ashman & Hull 2011: 125).


Breen, T. (2013). Overview of the 2013-2014 Medicaid payment increase for primary care services. The Advisory Board Company. Retrieved:


Brown, E.R. (et al2004). Effects of community factors on access to ambulatory care for lower-

income adults in large urban communities. Inquiry - Excellus Health Plan, 41(1), 39-56.

Chang, M., Nitzke, S., Brown, R., & Resnicow, K. (2014). A community-based prevention of weight gain intervention (Mothers in Motion) among young low-income overweight and obese mothers: Design and rationale. BMC Public Health, 14 doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2458-14-280

Greater Philadelphia Heath Action. (2014). Retrieved from:


Green, A.R., (et al. 2008). Barriers to screening colonoscopy for low-income Latino and white patients in an urban community health center. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 23(6), 834-40. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11606-008-0572-6

Hill, J.L., Chau, C., Luebbering, C.R., Kolivras, K.K., & Zoellner, J. (2012). Does availability of physical activity and food outlets differ by race and income? findings from an enumeration study in a health disparate region. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 9, 105. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1479-5868-9-105

Hochhausen, L., Le, H., & Perry, D.F. (2011). Community-based mental health service utilization among low-income Latina immigrants. Community Mental Health Journal, 47(1), 14-23. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10597-009-9253-0

Kirst-Ashman, K.… [read more]

"Iron Triangle" of Care, Cost, and Quality Journal

Journal  |  4 pages (1,383 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


Te key component to ameliorating these facets of the iron triangle is to incorporate certain aspects of a single-payer health care model. It is critical to realize that there are many countries within the developed, Westernized world that have been utilizing such a model for a substantial length of time and successfully procuring the wellness of their populations. Moreover, there are numerous characteristics of a single-payer model which account for the issues denoted by the iron triangle, such as that:

Under a properly designed single payer model, access is improved by removing financial barriers to care for absolutely everyone. The comprehensive design features of single payer improve quality, simply stated, by ensuring that patients receive the care that they need while reducing or eliminating care that is detrimental. And costs are the forte of the single payer system (McCanne, 2012).

A single payer system is one in which there is one payer for the health care in a country (typically the government), yet there is still private delivery of care. Typically, everyone in the country is granted health care at virtually no cost, which addresses the crucial facets of access and cost in the iron triangle.

One of the most important components of the previous quotation from McCanne is the fact that in order for the access and cost elements of health care to improve, such a single-payer model must be "properly designed." One of the key characteristics of such a single payer system that could also help to improve the third part of the iron curtain (quality) is a focus on preventative care. Such a system with a focus on prevention could not only render more expensive disease management procedures no longer necessary, but also increase the wellness of the general population by emphasizing staying healthy instead of curing itself once it is no longer healthy. Furthermore, the distinct aspects of the single-payer system can be significantly enhanced by implementing it so that budgets for particular areas of the system -- perhaps by state, municipality, or even county -- are administered based on the population. Donald Light (2012) references the transition of the Veterans Health Administration (VHA) to just such a system in the following quote, in which he notes that

The transformation of the VHA from a single-payer, fee-based, poor-quality set of hospital-centered services, to a single-payer system based on area population budgets centered on primary care, with coordinated, community-based specialty back-up hospitals as a last resort offers inspiring lessons.

Although this quotation applies to a single organization within the country and not a nationwide health care system, there are numerous points of correlation between it and the system proposed in the U.S. In this document. The single-payer funding in both systems would be allocated according to population, so that there is equity in the funding for diverse parts of the country. Such measures would ensure quality of care. Improved access would be granted due to the universal nature of such a system, and the cost would be… [read more]

Promoting the Chronic Care Model: Expected Health Disparity Benefits Research Paper

Research Paper  |  7 pages (1,880 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


Health Disparities: End-Stage Dementia Patients

Health Disparities

Reducing Health Disparities among End-Stage Dementia Patients

Reducing Health Disparities among End-Stage Dementia Patients

According to the U.S. federal government the health of the nation depends on the health of the communities and the health of communities depends on individual health (U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2011). The natural extension of… [read more]

Improving Community Palliative Care Research Paper

Research Paper  |  6 pages (1,740 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


This evaluation will be performed following the death of the patient or the end of the study period, whichever comes first. The validity and reliability of the questionnaires developed by Morita et al. (2013) have not been evaluated, but should prove informative and provide context for the other findings.


A review of interventions designed to improve the quality of community palliative care has revealed mixed findings, but the trend is in the desired direction of reducing the number of patients dying in hospital wards, ICUs, and hospice facilities. CCM has garnered the interest of researchers interested in improving palliative care outcomes for patients, family caregivers, and providers alike, and have begun to study the efficacy and quality of interventions, including CCM. This proposal provides justification for implementing CCM for end-stage dementia patients residing at home and details an evaluation strategy that can be implemented to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, and quality of the care provided. In contrast to many other studies, however, this proposal places equal value on the experiences of patients, family caregivers, and providers alike, in addition to the more common outcome measures of BPSDs and institutional admissions. The methods of data gathering will involve the review of patient records and several instruments designed… [read more]

Ambulatory Care Journal

Journal  |  2 pages (722 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Additionally, it is worth noting that several insurance companies offer plans in which customers have to pay a significantly larger co-payment to see a specialist. There are also plans in which specialists are simply not included in the provider network, and patients are left having to pay for the entire cost of the visit to a specialist -- when these patients have already gone through the arduous process of establishing health insurance. Essentially, having to go to specialists merely exacerbates the bureaucracy that typifies the health care system in the U.S. I have a nephew who simply needs prescription hydrocortisone to reduce razor bumps when he shaves. In order to do so, he has to first go to his primary care physicians and pay an additional co-pay along with the fee for the medicine -- when all he needs is the medicine. These practices are too common and not fair.

One can argue that there are too many ambulatory centers providing specialty care than those providing general care. There are certainly more now that there once were. What matches this fact is that there are more specialists now than there once were as well. It certainly seems that some of the areas of specialization and certain procedures that practitioners perform in these areas could be performed by general practitioners and save patients the hassle of going to another practitioner and paying more money to do so. If there were less ambulatory centers providing specialty care, there would likely be less specialists.

Health care is simply more expensive in the country due to the reliance on specialists. However, it is less so for the insurance companies, because they generally do not extend as much coverage to patients who require specialists. The reliance on specialists is one way in which insurance companies are able to mitigate rising costs.


Hawkins, D. Groves, D. (2014). The future role of community health centers in a changing health care landscape. The Journal of Ambulatory Care Management. 37(2), 90-99.

Lee, C.T., Fitzgerald, B. (2013). Model of care and pattern of nursing practice in ambulatory oncology. Canadian…… [read more]

Healthcare Patient Centered Medical Home Article Critique

Article Critique  |  2 pages (598 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


From the report, the report has been a complete success in that it has resulted in significant reductions in the cost of care, reduction in the use of avoidable and unnecessary medical services, the enhancement in population health indicators and preventive services and improved access to care.

Furthermore, the patient-centered medical home has been effective in enhancing and strengthening other healthcare systems. This is evident in the cases of Accountable Care Organizations. A significant percentage of the highest performing ACO's has effectively incorporated the model into their systems and already realizing its benefits. From the report, on its complete implementation, the model will transform the United States healthcare system from the traditional fee-for-service toward alternative payment methods.

The report also fails to provide some important features in research reports, which are recommendations and fields that future research on the subject should be of great interest. The researchers should give insight on some of the approaches and methods they believe could help the model achieve more than its present achievements. Additional recommendation could also include ways of dealing with some of the challenges facing the model. Since the patient-centered medical home is a relatively large field, and the scope of the current research could not have covered every area of research, the researchers could provide future trends in research in this field. The researchers could possibly recommend some further research to be done whilst considering the implications of the ACA rollout and its essential adaptive accommodations required. In overall, despite its flaws the report can be considered valid and reliable for…… [read more]

Health Policy Discussion Responses Post Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (935 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


E.) programs, and other targeted initiatives -- while providing a well-substantiated, objective analysis of childhood obesity and its various causes and symptoms. This segment of the discussion post was especially interesting from a reader's perspective, because the school cafeteria is a nearly universal signifier of American youth, as is P.E. class, so these references compel the reader to engage more deeply with the facts being presented. One such fact that was especially interesting to consider was the stunning revelation that only 3% of American high schools currently offer a traditionally developed P.E. program, a radical change motivated largely by public policy agendas (Seo & Lee, 2012). When the implications of this societal transition away from P.E. As a core component of education are pondered, it becomes quite clear why the link between health policy and legislative leadership has taken on a higher degree of importance in today's increasingly polarized political landscape.


Health Care Provider Changes and Service Delivery

The discussion post authored by T.H., which is meant to investigate the ways in which changes to the health care delivery model have impacted the quality of care and the success rate of patient outcomes, provided an extremely intriguing analysis of the structural components of health care delivery as we know it today -- and how alterations to those components can adversely affect actual patients. Beginning with the transition period that occurred during the 1990's, which is defined by the advent of non-physician health care providers as a primary facilitator of basic health care services, T.H. leads the reader through an extensive analysis of the industry's rapid evolution during the last two decades. The post makes several references to the rising use of legislation to address the shift from physician-based health care to non-physician providers, including the wave of state legislature enacted restructuring of health care delivery models to provide non-physician health care providers with an expanded level of responsibilities and scope of practice (Druss et al., 2003). By also providing an explanation of why this transition has occurred -- which is premised on the fact that patients have found the use of non-physician providers to be more cost effective -- the discussion manages to expand its focus without diluting the overall impact of the message.


Druss, B.G., Marcus, S.C., Olfson, M., Tanielian, T., & Pincus, H.A. (2003). Trends in care by nonphysician clinicians in the United States. New England Journal of Medicine, 348(2),


Seo, D.C., & Lee, C.G. (2012). Association of School Nutrition Policy and Parental Control

With Childhood Overweight. Journal of School Health, 82(6), 285-293.

Williams, S.J., & Torrens, P.R. (Eds.). (2007). Introduction to health services. Cengage Learning.… [read more]

International Health Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (672 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


¶ … national election looming in which the stakes will likely be decided by the perceived merits of health care reform, the rancor and futility of the political contest is being offset by highly productive and thoughtful research within the medical field. A close reading and thorough review of two articles published by the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation (RWJH), in response to concerns over the Obama Administration's controversial Affordable Care Act (ACA), demonstrates the benefits to be afforded by conscientious debate. Published in the RWJH's Health Policy Connection in December of 2011, the Issue Brief entitled How Will the Affordable Care Act Help Diversify the Health Care Workforce? examines the positive impacts which can be fostered "when a health care workforce reflects the racial, ethnic, economic and cultural diversity of the patients it serves" (Workforce, 2011). This contribution to the national discussion over health care reform offers a bold proposition, positing that government programs designed to increase the number of ethnic minorities working in the health care workforce will serve to vastly improve the delivery of health care services to ethnically diverse communities. A supplementary article entitled How Does the Affordable Care Act Address Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Health Care? was published within the same venue and addresses the relative worth of ACA mandates requiring health care providers to gather data regarding a patient's race, ethnicity and language. In penning this piece, the RWJH asserts that several provisions of the ACA are designed specifically to reduce widespread disparities in the health of minorities and to improve the quality of health care they receive.

While one may be reticent regarding the explicit infusion of race and ethnicity in federal health care reform legislation, the sheer enormity of scientific data indicating a definitive link between race and health suggests that the ACA is justified in mandating oversight. As the author of the article on diversifying the health care workforce astutely observes, "relative to the U.S. population, African-Americans and Latinos are still significantly underrepresented within the ranks of…… [read more]

Health Ims Health Information Management Article Review

Article Review  |  2 pages (527 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


466). However, while the results are predominantly positive, there were also identified negative effects of health IMS in the provision of care and operations of medical/health organizations. Among the identified benefits of health IMS include: decreased patient mortality, decreased nurse staffing levels, decreased amount of time for staff to care for patient while maintaining clinical outcomes, and decreased medical cost without increasing length of stay or mortality. Negative effects, however, were also determined, mainly on an overall healthcare provision level: unsatisfactory technology, ineffective provider-patient communication, lesser staff interaction, longer time for e-prescribing, lack of clinical leadership, staff skepticism, unrealistic schedules, and errors in terms of patient care, medication, procedure, and patient fallout (pp. 467-8).

Given these benefits and negative effects of health IMS to healthcare organizations in general, it is without doubt that this new technology has a significant impact to the provision of efficient and quality healthcare. However, the negative effects of health IMS ultimately point to a critical task that must be developed first within healthcare organizations implementing or planning to integrate health IMS in their operations and systems: detailed integration planning of health IMS to the healthcare organizations' systems and operations and effective implementation through proper induction, training, and on-the-ground technical support to staff and management. If these concerns will be addressed, then indeed, healthcare organizations would be able to achieve the envisioned goal of HITECH.


Buntin, M., M. Burke, M. Hoaglin, and D. Blumenthal. (2011). "The Benefits of Health Information Technology: A Review…… [read more]

Integrate Services for People Needing Long-Term Care Research Paper

Research Paper  |  12 pages (3,709 words)
Bibliography Sources: 20


Integrate Services for People Needing Long-Term Care

Over the last several years, health care costs have been rising dramatically. Part of the reason why this is occurring, is due to the fact demand has increased. This has caused the underlying costs for different services to rise. Over the course of time, this is having a ripple effect on the industry… [read more]

Politics of Health Care in Canada Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (2,605 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Political Aspects

Politics of Health Care in Canada

Health care is one of the most important things that people worry about in their lives. There is always a need for there to be reliable and affordable healthcare to which everyone has access. Canada has always had some form of socialized medicine throughout history. The role that the government has played… [read more]

Current and Future Legislation How Will This Effect the Future of Managed Care Thesis

Thesis  |  14 pages (3,829 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 10


¶ … Future Legislation: The Impact on the Future of Managed Care

The focus of the research proposed in this study is to ascertain what the advantages and disadvantages exist relating to managed care and to attempt to understand the impact that the current trends and future legislation in health care will have on the future of managed care in… [read more]

Virginia Department of Health Sexually Transmitted Diseases Thesis

Thesis  |  3 pages (908 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+


Virginia Department of Health

Sexually transmitted diseases please see all instructions below

Agency, role and structure

According to its website, the Virginia State Board of Health and the Virginia Department of Health exist "to implement a coordinated, prevention-oriented program that promotes and protects the health of all Virginians. In addition, the Board serves as the primary advocate and representative of the citizens of the Commonwealth in achieving optimal health" (Mission, 2008, VDH).

Include the population served, preventive services, organizational structure.

The central functions of the VDH are the prevention and control of chronic disease; reduction of disparities in health care and health status; to improve the state's public health infrastructure; and "to improve the health and well-being of all Virginians overall" (Mission, 2008, VDH). The Department is funded with state and federal funds. Its outreach is extremely wide, and spans containment of smoking and STDs; health education; epidemiology; vaccinations; birth and death certificates; health promotion of exercise and a healthy diet; anti-smoking campaigns; measures to contain the spread of preventable chronic aliments like type 2 diabetes, and also epidemics such as salmonella and the flu.

Discuss overall community efforts to resolve this problem (STD)

The Virginia Department of Health STD Prevention Program is funded with state funds and through a cooperative agreement with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). It has as its primary goal the reduction and prevention of the incidence of sexually transmitted diseases including HIV infection. There are specific community screening programs in areas that have historically high rates for syphilis, gonorrhea, and Chlamydia and "diagnostic and therapeutic services are supported through a contract with the Division of Consolidated Laboratory Services and the provision of laboratory testing supplies to local health departments. Gonorrhea screening services are conducted in all public health clinics and selective private health care settings," and Chlamydia prevention efforts screen for the disease in "all public health STD, family planning and prenatal clinics (STD, 2005, VDH). Patients are also offered HIV screening. However, there seems to be a self-perpetuating aspect in these statistics: health and family planning clinics report the bulk of the cases of STDs, so naturally it appears that the populations that predominantly use such clinics will have higher rates of these conditions.

Most of the links on the website are not Virginia-specific, and are connected to the Center for Disease Control (CDC). There is little discussion of Virginia-specific needs regarding this particular crisis, other than the fact the Department engages in locally-coordinated efforts. Because education about STDs is an essential component of prevention, given that so many people (adults and adolescents alike) do not understand that STDs dare asymptomatic, even after the individuals is infected, adolescent awareness programs are an important aspect of…… [read more]

Long-Term Care on the Family Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (3,689 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Persons who must work fewer hours in order to care for a loved one lose more than the reduced income. They lose in terms of lost retirement savings, benefits and can lose healthcare benefits for themselves. This can place strain on the person giving the care in many ways.

Few public assistance programs exist to aid those who care for… [read more]

Advanced Nursing Practice and Its Role in Nursing Profession Research Paper

Research Paper  |  8 pages (2,439 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


¶ … dynamic vocation, nursing brings several rewards and opportunities for career advancement to individuals dedicated to continuous learning. Nurses today are required to master a progressively complex knowledge reservoir and accomplish clinical skills for efficiently providing life-sustaining and lifesaving services. I will persist, all through my career, to enhance my knowledge as a result of technology advances and ground-… [read more]

Medicare: The Successful Backstory Case Study

Case Study  |  10 pages (2,651 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10


Evidence-Based Research of How Medicare Is Working for Patients and Physicians.

Access to good physicians and timely scheduled care appointments are particularly important to people who are enrolled in Medicare as this population consists of seniors and adults who have permanent disabilities, both of which are likely to need regular and advanced care. Moreover, when people enrolled in Medicare need… [read more]

HCA and the Changes in Healthcare Chapter Writing

Chapter Writing  |  2 pages (658 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


HCA Holdings

HCA is a healthcare provider that was established in 1968. Their main focus is on offering cliental with a number of different services to include: inpatient, intensive care, outpatient, diagnostic and emergency services. To achieve these objective they operate a variety of facilities such as: outpatient, psychiatric, surgery centers, freestanding emergency care facilities, diagnostic / imaging centers and comprehensive rehabilitation / physical therapy centers. They are structured to create increasing earnings for its policy and shareholders. This is achieved by contracting with private doctors to deliver services to its preferred providers members. At the same time, they receive fees from these entities and they negotiate lower group rates. This enables them to increase their profits utilizing these strategies. They are governed by the shareholders who will appoint the board of directors. The board hires officers and sets the policies for the firm. These entities pay taxes on the profits they make. Recently, changes in the law (i.e. The Affordable Care Act) and rising costs are impacting the company's earnings. To fully understand that long-term effects requires focusing on the challenges / risks / threats / opportunities and the best approach for dealing with these challenges. Together, these elements will illustrate the most effective avenues for increasing HCA profitability over the longer term. ("HCA Holdings," 2014) (Standard and Poor's, 2015)

What are the challenges, risks, threats and opportunities in health care finance that HCA must face?

The biggest challenges are mainly regulatory. This is because the Affordable Care Act is transforming how firms operate. This has resulted in the system facing unprecedented challenges. Many of these issues are based upon how to implement them in compliance with existing regulations (i.e. shared responsibility). Under these guidelines, the federal government will provide assistance to the states through Medicare to help extend coverage to the poor and middle class. These individuals will qualify for lower insurance premiums and greater choices in plans / providers. This is challenging, as HCA must be…… [read more]

Role of the Federal Government in Addressing Key Healthcare Issues Essay

Essay  |  6 pages (1,713 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


¶ … Federal Government in Addressing Issues of Access, Quality and Affordability (in Healthcare)


ACA (Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act) was signed in 2010 and is the most detailed healthcare reform legislation in United States history after the Medicare and Medicaid of 1965. ACA has taken American healthcare in a new direction which stresses on primary care and… [read more]

Hepatitis Background of Health Issue Hepatitis Facts Research Paper

Research Paper  |  5 pages (1,485 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4



Background of Health Issue

Hepatitis Facts (Magill's Medical Guide, 2014)

Anatomy or system affected: Liver

An inflammatory condition of the liver, characterized by discomfort, jaundice, and enlargement of the organ; bacterial, viral, or immunological in origin; may also result from use of alcohol and other drugs

Causes: Bacterial or viral infection; immunological disorder; liver damage from alcohol, drug overdose,… [read more]

Health Care Rationing Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (700 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


¶ … Ode to the West Wind" Analysis

There has always been health care rationing in the United States, in much the same way that there is a rationing of just about everything other than oxygen in a society that is based on capitalism. Traditionally, however, health care rationing in the U.S. has taken the form of being based on price. Those who can afford health insurance and can pay for services get them, whereas those who cannot merely see their latent services utilized by the rich. Still, having health care rationing implemented as a formal policy in the U.S. (and not merely as a consequence of its economic system) was a serious issue in the previous presidential election (Porter, 2012), and would require a process that is just as formal as that required for the adoption of other policies such as polices proposed to limit the access and usage of hand guns and bullets.

The first step in such a policy would be the creation of a need for it. The media is typically fairly effective in helping to create or support a need for political policies -- the immense media coverage regarding school shootings in the past couple of years, for example, were influential in helping to stir debate limiting access to guns and circumscribing the Second Amendment. Perhaps such a need for a formal rationalizing of health care services could involve media stories about people who languished because they could not get sufficient access to health care in a timely manner. At some point, it would become necessary for those involved in the legislative process to adopt this cause and to champion it as their own. Typically such legislators include those at the federal level in the form of a either a senator or a member of the House of Representatives.

Furthermore, once at least one such Congressman has adopted the cause of formally rationing health care in the United States, he or she will form some sort of a political committee to help further this cause. The Congressmen then effectively become the spokespeople for that group…… [read more]

Healthcare Finance Article Review

Article Review  |  4 pages (1,239 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Standard and Poor's Rating Services: The Credit Outlook For Nonprofit Hospitals

In America, there are numerous non-for-profit healthcare facilities, public health programs and hospitals that take it upon themselves to provide health care services to a variety of people who cannot afford it on their own. Although these hospitals receive a great share of incentives, such as fund donations and tax deductions currently, credit rating agencies are not optimistic about this sector. This largely stems from the mystery surrounding the Affordable Care Act implementation that will deal with health insurance and group health plans, and also promises a variety of protection and benefits to the consumers. Already, the sector has secured reductions to the tune of $300 billion to Medicare payment. However, the non-for-profit healthcare sector continues to be plagued by alternating periods of financial uncertainties and revenue growth, which are largely interfering with their growth. Standard and Poor's Rating Services (S&P) is known to be one of the best index providers globally, due to their independent credit ratings that provide investors and other interested parties with insight on the credit worthiness of various companies and sectors. This text looks at S&P's credit rating for the U.S. not-for-profit healthcare sector and explains why, like many other credit rating agencies, it is pessimistic about it.

A negative outlook for 2015

According to S&P (2015), the outlook for the non-for-profit healthcare for 2015 is negative, as they estimate the downgrades will exceed upgrades due to delayed repayments and increasing costs, which are significantly affecting non-for-profit healthcare operating margins. This declaration was made after a thorough analysis of non-for-profit healthcare done at the end of 2014. Although there had been considerable positive outlook in 2013, most stable outlooks turned towards the negative side, which signified the onset on the downgrades anticipated this year. As compared to 2014 where negative outlook stood at 14% of the total outlook, in 2015, S&P claims the outlook will be at 15%. In 2014, 41 healthcare providers were upgraded but a total of 46 providers received a downgrade. S&P (2015) attributes last year's downgrade to the numerous operating losses incurred by health facilities and high expenses incurred in installing technology. The upgrades were mostly due to better investment choices and acquisitions and mergers that reflected in their statements of financial position. In fact, only 60% were as a result of creditworthiness. However, since negative outlooks are associated with almost one third of all downgraded credits, S&P is positive that the ratings will continue to deteriorate come 2015. Non-for-profit hospitals have enjoyed good reserves sourced from government funding and incentives. S&P warns that hospitals may have already used up the best of these payments and they cannot continue to be relied upon as future sources of cash. Tax programs are also not reliable in credit rating as the longevity of their delivery is not guaranteed. Hospitals cannot continue to expect more revenues as a result of more patients, and they are encouraged to abandon the fee-for-service models that were… [read more]

Professional Organizations the American Public Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (683 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


I have watched with interest laws passed in places like New York banning giant-sized portions, and seen that laws are either in place or being proposed with respect to things like trans-fats, salt and genetically-modified foods. There were four speakers at this event, and none were really delving into this topic, but they did cover opioid abuse, and prescription drug abuse is an interesting legal area because employers are severely limited in their ability to deal with this, in stark contrast to the rights they have to deal with illegal drug abuse. It's an interesting issue with a lot of legal and social ramifications, highlighting where business interests, the law and public health intersect. I enjoy learning about complex concepts like this.

These different meetings in the APHA Annual Meeting illustrate the value that professional organizations have in advancing dialogue and medical practice. There are hundreds of important emerging issues in health care, and the people in the industry need to have an opportunity to learn more about such issues. The APHA through these meetings and through the papers that are published, provides a valuable service in gathering and sponsoring the research that makes the health care business better. To me, this is a high-value service not just for the industry but for the American public as well. I expect to learn a lot from such organizations over the course of my career.

Another organization that has a lot of value is the American Medical Association (AMA). The AMA is an association of physicians, so advocates on a number of issues, some directly related to physicians, but others related to health care in general. Anyone working in the industry deals with physicians daily, and they are key drivers of change in the industry. Like the APHA, the AMA is committed to public health so there are going to be a lot of similarities in the value these organizations bring to people who work in the health care industry.


APHA.org (2014). Member groups and affiliates. American Public Health Association. Retrieved…… [read more]

Things People Should Know Case Study

Case Study  |  2 pages (606 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Payers for medical care are using their bargaining power -- especially Medicare and Medicaid -- to prove affordable care for Americans, which cuts into the profits we aren't earning as a not-for-profit health care provider. There are other complications to our business, like non-cancelable leases and pension obligations and capital spending from cash reserves -- decisions that have nothing whatsoever to do with management.

In 2014, there is nothing more important than dealing with the challenges of 2012. Especially now that the Affordable Care Act has come into effect, completely changing the economics of the health care landscape. Our operating environment was and is challenging in that as CFO and CEO we have to make hard decisions about operations in the face of changing environments. This is by no means easy -- making tough decisions and having vision is not really what we had in mind when we took the job -- and therefore we call upon the community to understand that it is difficult for a not-for-profit health care institution to earn profits for its shareholders.

We need support for our hospitals, stat. We are in a vulnerable position, and this is something that is putting your children at risk, because if we are forced to close our doors the community will be left without the care that it needs in order to be a kind, compassionate society where neighbors help neighbors. That is not the kind of community either you nor I want to live in, so please consider donating some of your money to the hospital in order to help us balance our budgets and offset the negative risks that come with the changing regulatory environment.


Moody's. (2012). Moody's U.S. not-for-profit healthcare outlook remains negative for 2012. Moody's. Retrieved March 28, 2014 from https://www.moodys.com/research/Moodys-U.S.-not-for-profit-healthcare-outlook-remains-negative-for --…… [read more]

Union Address Is Explicitly Mandated Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,450 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


In the reality of 2014, it felt instead like a rhetorically constructed moment that the Congressional audience would not permit Obama to turn into a meme or hashtag. Since the discussion was framed by Obama in terms of overall congressional inaction, however, he was hardly playing to the audience in the room.

Health care, however, provided Obama with the most… [read more]

Safe Staffing Many People Lament Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (778 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Obviously, any of that would drive up payroll costs and lower profits (or increase losses). Turnover is another concern, with the overall level of turnover for nurses is currently about 14% per a KPMG survey (AACN, 2014).

One way that nursing leaders can stave off controversy and criticism of their staffing management is to become involved with politically- and industry-oriented organizations. These organizations are often teeming with current and prior industry professionals that study the nuts and bolts of staffing practices and results on a continuous basis. While such organizations can be ran and influence by ideologues that do not know what the realities are in an actual hospital and/or some advocates are unaware or ambivalent about the different circumstances that can exist based on cost of living levels, wage levels, workforce composition and educational options, it is very telling and helpful for hospitals and other organizations with nurses to be involved in the process (Aetna, 2014).


In the end, it is important that dealing with the political dimension of medical care is a necessary part of keeping with the trends and perspectives that are present in health care, even if the word "necessary" is often followed by the word "evil." Even with that being the case, the decisions and legislation at the federal and state levels have a huge bearing on the outcomes and requirements necessary in hospitals and doctor's offices around the nation and there can/will be situations where the perceived necessary actions of a hospital or doctor's office are mutually exclusive from the legal requirements that must be complied with. Regardless, nurses are wise to be part of the debate and shape the opinions of those that are incomplete or willfully ignorant.


AACN. (2014, January 30). Nursing Shortage. American Association of Colleges of Nursing. Retrieved January 30, 2014, from http://www.aacn.nche.edu/media-relations/fact-sheets/nursing-shortage

Aetna. (2014, February 1). The Facts About RisingHealth Care Costs. The Facts About Rising Health Care Costs. Retrieved February 1, 2014, from http://www.aetna.com/health-reform-connection/aetnas-vision/facts-about-costs.html

Belvedere, M. (2014, January 22). Aetna could be forced out of Obamacare: CEO. CNBC.com. Retrieved February 2, 2014, from http://www.cnbc.com/id/101354183… [read more]

Nursing Philosophy Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,948 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


Fourth, the author would state that being burned out and frazzled does not permit or allow for nurses to be trite, rude or non-empathetic when it comes to caring for patients. Patients that are near death or severely injured, as well as their family members, should not be treated brusquely and rudely in their time of need (Simba, 2013). As noted in the meta-paradigms mentioned earlier, the ability to recover is influenced greatly by the sounds, events and interactions that a patient undergoes. IF they feel like a burden to the medical staff or the family, that will spell very bad times for the patient. Finally, the author of this report would state that being professional at all times, both in dress and action, should be a requirement of any doctor's office or hospital. Anyone not conforming to the required code of conduct over a long period of time should be shown the door. Being sloppy or careless or giving the appearance thereof should be something that is never seen by a subject.


In conclusion, the four meta-paradigms and the other subjects mentioned in this report are all worth of vigorous review and analysis. As the years and decades change, the medications and practices used to treat disease may very well change but the underlying ethics and standards that nurses and doctors are held to should change very little unless there is an overarching reason for it. Religion and politics are both noble pursuits and subjects in their own right, but the influence they bear on medical and nursing ethics should be scant to none in most cases (Stone, 2012).


Basford, Lynn. Theory and practice of nursing: an integrated approach to caring practice. 2nd ed. Cheltenham: Nelson Thornes, 2003. Print.

Butts, J.B. & Rich, K.L. (2010). Philosophies and Theories for Advanced Nursing

Practice. South University. Web. 16 October 2013

Lovett, K. (2013, October 22). Obama acknowledges problems with Obamacare website

- promises solution incoming. NY Daily News. Retrieved October 22, 2013, from http://www.nydailynews.com/news/politics/obama-promises-fix-glitchy-healthcare-website-article-1.1492355

Simbra, M. (2013, August 12). Latest News. CBS Pittsburgh. Retrieved October 22,

2013, from http://pittsburgh.cbslocal.com/2013/08/12/outpatient-hip-surgery-giving-patients-option-to-recover-in-home-environment/

Stone, J. (2012, April 2). Molecules to Medicine: When Religion Collides with Medical

Care: Who Decides What Is Right for You? | Guest Blog, Scientific American

Blog Network. Molecules to Medicine: When Religion Collides with Medical Care:

Who Decides What Is Right for You? | Guest Blog, Scientific American Blog

Network. Retrieved October 22, 2013, from http://blogs.scientificamerican.com


Whitlock, E.P., Orleans, C.T., Pender, N., & Allan, J. (2002). Evaluating primary care behavioral counseling interventions: an evidence-based approach. Retrieved from http://www.uspreventiveservicestaskforce.org/3rduspstf/behavior/

behavintr.pdf… [read more]

Transitioning From Closed to Open Systems Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (690 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Problem Solving and Decision Making

Systems theory is useful when approaching complex problems. Most of us use a systems approach for problem solving, although it is rarely labeled as such. Systems theory is quite logical and is compatible with our experience; however, it can be neither proven nor disproved by the traditional scientific method. A system contains a structure of organized components of similar or different types. In regards to nurse leader's problem solving skills, these components must be considered. In many instances, the leaders must consider differing facets of a particular problem. This will undoubtedly include information that may out of their direct circle of competence. As such, the nurse must use systems theory to acquire the needed information and skills and draw correct conclusions regarding the problem. No system exists in isolation. As such many components will interact when the nurse is using systems theory to solve problems.

Process That Can be Approved

Legislation in particular has had a profound impact on the health care industry. First, due to the Affordable Care Act of 2010, the nursing profession is undergoing a fundamental shift in regards to the patient experience. The U.S. health care system is now shifting the focus from acute and specialty care to that of primary care which requires a shift in business operations. Also, due primarily to that aging of the baby boomer generation, the need for primary car overall is shifting and will be needed heavily in the future. One problem that often occurs in a closed system is that of the overall customer experience. Through the use of an open system, the customer experience is greatly enhanced. Open systems are characterized by their ability to continues interact with the environment and surroundings. This is of particular importance in the context of nursing as the environment can be altered dramatically (Lucia, 2009). As such, leaders must be able to adjust and reestablish themselves in the changing environment. Issues such as timely service, emergency operations, theft, terrorist threats and vandalism all occur within a hospital. Through the use of open…… [read more]

Benefit Packages Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (611 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Employers can provide incentives to encourage responsible health-related choices by employees and they can help employees by subsidizing health choices such as joining health clubs (Miller, 2010). When it comes to workplace safety, the employer's responsibilities include complying in good faith with applicable industry standards and government regulation (Halbert & Ingulli, 2009). From an employee-relations perspective, that also means cultivating an organizational culture that encourages good-faith reporting instead of covering up problems (Halbert & Ingulli, 2009).

2. Discuss the key responsibilities of the employee for making the workplace healthier and safer.

Naturally, none of these efforts by employers are helpful unless employees also do their part to take advantage of those types of opportunities made available by their employers (Miller, 2010). With respect to making the workplace healthier, employees have the obligation to take full advantage of any opportunities made available to them by their employers. With respect to workplace safety, employers have an obligation to comply in good faith with all of the policies, practices, and procedures set in place by employers and not to circumvent them or take shortcuts designed to improve their convenience at the expense of workplace safety (Halbert & Ingulli, 2009). Ultimately, maintaining a healthier and safer workplace is a joint responsibility of employers and their employees.


Halbert, T. And Ingulli, E. (2009). Law & Ethics in the Business Environment.

Cincinnati: West Legal Studies.

Miller, S. "Employers Weigh Health Care Strategies: A growing number do more to mitigate costs and improve employee health." Society for Human Resource

Management (March 18, 2010).


Pickert, K. (2012) "What the Affordable care Act Means if You Are…" Time, 180(3): 38

- 39.

Reid, T. (2009). The Healing of America: A Global…… [read more]

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