"Israel / Palestine / Arab World" Essays 1-69

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Human Rights in the Arab Term Paper

… There was even a statement that said that nearly 1000's of people were in prison due to political detainment and hundreds of others were missing. The fact that Syrian law does not allow the condemned to stand for oneself in… [read more]


Arab Transnationalism in History Term Paper

… Arab Transnationalism

The Arab World has extended its sphere of influence over other territories from around the world throughout history and there are a series of examples demonstrating this. Many countries today contain evidence concerning Arab influences and much of… [read more]


Geert Hofstede: Cultural Dimensions Chapter Writing

… In terms of business this short-term orientation focuses on quick results i.e. companies are driven by quarterly results. Consumption is driven by immediate gratification, sensitivity to social trends and rituals. There's not much focus on saving. Management is based on self-reliance, personal achievement, hard work and managers are judged on short-term results.

No scores available for Indonesia and the Arab World on this dimension.

In summary, France and Italy have the most in common, both being Western, democratic societies, although France is both more authoritarian and less masculine than Italy. Both are highly individualistic and short-term in temporal orientation, though. Indonesia and the Arab World all score high on the Power Distance scale compared to Italy, which makes them more authoritarian societies. France and Italy are both highly individualistic Western societies, while Indonesia and the Arab World are collectivist cultures. Italy is by far the most masculine culture of the four, followed by the Arab world, with France and Indonesia more on the feminine side. France, Italy and the Arab World all have a high desire for avoidance of uncertainty while Indonesia scores only medium low on this index. Both France and Italy are short-term…… [read more]


Israel Explanation Term Paper

… With both sides of the equation being labeled as both victim and perpetrator, it becomes difficult to propose sensible national security policies.

The securitization process of Israel has been recently built on the labeling mechanism. Labeling Palestinians with the blanket… [read more]


Muslims and Arabs Essay

… ¶ … Muslims and Arabs has remained a source of confusion as well as discrimination. In this paper we explore the difference between Muslim and Arabs with a special focus on Pan-Arabism. Saddam Hussein and Nasser's roles in Pan-Arabism are… [read more]


Arab-Israeli Conflict Research Proposal

… ¶ … establishment of the Israeli State and the long subsequent series Arab-Israeli wars over it has been at the heart of Middle Eastern conflict over six decades. The fundamental conflict between Israel and the Palestines displaced by the first… [read more]


Water Shortage in the Middle East Term Paper

… Water Shortage in the Middle East

Water Shortage and Consequent Conflicts in the Middle East

Even before food, two elements are vital for the survival of an individual, and for life on a planet to exist: air and water. The… [read more]


Israeli Occupation of the Gaza Term Paper

… It is therefore evident that U.S. financial aid actually becomes a source for other countries to commit violence, injustice, and atrocities against other countries or societies.

It is also worth noting that Petter's article was a personal narration of her condition and the political debacle she had to go through in order to justify the protest she had joined at Israel. Speaking for other people's protests against Israel's commitment of injustice against Palestine, she asserted, "[f]or daring to witness and report the brutal effects the wall is taking on the Palestinian population, I have been deemed a "security threat" by the State of Israel ... " Her narrative remained an open-ended report on the continuing conflict between Israel and Palestine supporters.

The personal tone that Petter maintained in her article worked in making her article an effective and persuasive piece. Her first-hand account of violence about the controversy at the Gaza strip, and her outright condemnation of the U.S. government's support of the Israel government's policies and actions on its conflict with Palestine had been clear enough for the readers to know the author's position about the issue. Based on these characteristics of the author and the editorial she wrote, it is not surprising then that she would entice readers to support her advocacy on the injustices committed against Palestine.

Though Petter's personal tone may work against her as a journalist, the circumstances under which she wrote her narrative becomes admissible enough for the readers to empathize and agree with her thoughts and opinions about the issue being discussed. Overall, the author provided persuasive and more informative news about the Israel-Palestine conflict more than Buchanan did in his editorial.… [read more]


Egypt's Foreign Relations With the United States and the Arab Term Paper

… ¶ … Egypt/U.S. Relationship in a new Arab World

The world has historically had many hotspots. One, for instance, was the area surrounding Austria Hungary, which later morphed into the area surrounding Germany. Countless wars were fought in those regions,… [read more]


Great War for Civilization the Conquest of the Middle East Book Report

… Great War for Civilisation: The Conquest of the Middle East

Nicole Gomez

International Relations of the Middle East

The Great War for Civilisation

Robert Fisk's book, the Great War for Civilisation: The Conquest of the Middle East is a comprehensive… [read more]


History of the Modern Middle East Term Paper

… History Of the Modern Middle East

As a result of the Industrial Revolution, during the 19th and the 20th centuries, the Western world as grew more dependent upon the advancement of technology, in every facet of daily existence. As an… [read more]


Conflict Resolution Theories Term Paper

… If we consider the view point of Israelis, they claim to have ownership of Jerusalem which is their prime religious hub and was acquired from them forcefully in 15th century. Now Israelis have believed Jerusalem to be rightfully theirs because… [read more]


Arabs Certain Words Essay

… Arabs

Certain words must be understood not only for maximum clarity, but because misunderstanding those words can actually be a matter of life and death, especially when the meaning of those words are taken for granted. Thus, while defining the… [read more]


Contemporary Issues in International Relations Term Paper

… ¶ … Israel

Unlike the historical state of Israel, the modern state of Israel owes credit for its creation to a series of secular actions, despite the religious nature of the country. In order to understand its creation, it is important to look at historic events immediately preceding the creation of Israel, the wars that followed the creation of Israel, and current Israeli occupation of lands that were initially outside of Israeli control. Many people attribute the creation of Israel to Hitler's actions during World War II, and assume that the League of Nations created Israel as a way of making amends to the victims of the Holocaust. However, that explanation, while partially accurate, is overly simplistic, and ignores the larger political influences that led to the creation and enduring existence of the modern state of Israel.

It is important to understand that, despite Israel being under non-Jewish rule from the Middle Ages until the creation of the modern state of Israel, many Jews still lived in Israel. In fact, Jews have been moving from Europe to Israel since the Middle Ages. However, the movement of European Jews to Europe dramatically increased in pace in the late 1800s, when many European countries began to increase their persecution of Jews. In response, Theodor Herzl promoted the return of Jews to Israel and the establishment of a Jewish state in Israel; this movement was known as Zionism. Prior to World War I, approximately 40,000 Jews settled in Palestine as part of the Zionist movement. During World War I, the British Foreign Secretary Arthur Balfour made the Balfour Declaration, which favored establishing a Jewish state in Palestine. In response, the Jewish Legion assisted the British in conquering Israel. However, Israel was not designated as a separate state. There was tremendous Arab opposition to the creation of an independent Jewish state, largely driven by the fact that an Arab state, Palestine, already existed in the proposed space. Despite the opposition, the League of Nations gave Great Britain control over Palestine, with the purpose of establishing an independent Jewish state. Arab opposition to an increasing influx of Jews resulted in Great Britain restricting the number of Jews who could immigrate to Palestine, but the rise of Nazism caused an increase in both legal and illegal Jewish immigrants. By the end of World War II, about one-third of Palestinians were Jewish.

Great Britain announced plans to withdraw from Palestine in 1947. In response, the United Nations approved Resolution 181, which allowed for the partition of Palestine into two different lands: Arab Palestine and Jewish Israel. The Arab world, including the Arab League and the Arab Higher Committee, rejected the plan. Despite their objections, Israel was declared an independent state on May 14, 1948. Egypt, Syria, Jordan, Lebanon, and Iraq declared war on Israel; this conflict became known as the 1948 Arab-Israeli War. The war lasted…… [read more]


Jordan Political Structure Term Paper

… Jordan Political Structure

The democratization process in the Arab world

Democracy is a form of government in which citizens are part of the decision making process.

For the past sixteen years and especially since September 11, 2001, authoritarian government in… [read more]


Media in Other Places Essay

… Media in Other Countries

Many countries around the world have become more and more generally permissive as to what is allowed to be aired and broadcast in the media sphere. Notable example areas of this in motion are the United States, Canada and much or Europe. However, one area of the world that has fought against this increased openness and permissiveness tooth and nail is the Middle East, and Saudi Arabia is certainly no exception. There have been glimmers of said permissiveness and expansion in what is acceptable, but in a society (like Saudi Arabia's) that notoriously anti-open in terms of media and what can be said, there has been a large amount of blowback. The Kraidy article covered in this report has many corollaries to the very similar Tomlinson treatise. Kraidy, like Tomlinson, posited that public space is the public arena of ideas, media and brand preferences that are allowed to permeate (or that permeate anyway even with the resistance) the public sphere of influence. This perspective and world is kept very closed in Saudi Arabia and countries like it. Not all countries that do this are Muslim, so it would be specious (and perhaps even bigoted) to suggest that. Some corners of the United States, as an extreme example, are very intolerant of outside influences and media.

Kraidy View of Public Space

The Kraidy article takes a very similar tangent but its focus is clearly on Saudi Arabia and the supposed/alleged infringement and violation of the local cultures by Western influence. This invasion of culture and permissiveness is view by a Moroccan noted on page 345 of the Kraidy article as a pollution of the local authentic culture and the integration of non-local capitalist and other cultural influence muddies the waters and leads to an elimination of the local culture.

Interestingly, the Moroccan who made the statement did not focus on Morocco itself, but rather the wider Arab world. Also, the person who made the statement was a woman. Such a statement from a woman (either for or against Western influence) would likely not be paid a second thought if it came from a European or American source, but for a woman to be that vocal about anything Arab is a bit eyebrow-raising. This is not because she's a woman but because women are rarely so outspoken in the Arab world. it's not a bad thing that she has a vocal opinion, just not that common in her sector of the world.

Second, her rather broad statement seems to have two major flaws. First, she seems to think she speaks for the cultural preferences and predilections of the entire Arab world. Even if some (or many to most) given people agree with her, she clearly does not speak for everyone as there is clearly an appetite for Western culture all over the Arab world, even if it's suppressed wherever possible (especially in countries like Syria and Iran) and it is perhaps oppressive (or a voice of support for… [read more]


Israel 1948 A2 Coursework

… ¶ … Israel 1948 was one of the key turning points in the political development of the contemporary Middle East. From 1948 on, Israel was an independent state ruled by their own government which brought Israeli organizations together under one… [read more]


Arab-Israeli Conflict Tensions Between Israel and Palestinians Term Paper

… Arab-Israeli Conflict

Tensions between Israel and Palestinians have been of great concern to the rest of the world ever since they began, in 1947. In that year, Great Britain, who governed the area as a protectorate and with the approval of the United Nations (Bennis, 1997), partitioned the land so that both Palestinians and Israelis could live in what was then called Palestine. This action was taken as a response to the Holocaust of World War II. World powers felt that Jewish people needed a homeland, and some Jews had been quietly moving to Palestine for some years. These "Zionists" believed they had an historical claim to the land, but the Palestinians currently living there viewed it as theirs, and they had been there for quite some time as well.

HISTORY

What looked to the United Nations and Great Britain as helping to right what had been a great wrong to the Jews looked like a colonial land grab to the Palestinians (Friedman, 2002). Arab countries recall the founding of the Islamic religion the way Americans might talk about the Civil War, as fairly recent history. The Arabs of the region knew that their influence had dominated most of Asia, large parts of Africa, and even into parts of Spain. In the process they had developed a system of government the blended religion and law together and that grew into a sophisticated form of government, one that tried to be tolerant of the religion as well as the cultures they had conquered (Ismael, 1999).

European powers, however, had been alarmed by the spread of Islam, especially Spain. Arab rule peaked in the 10th century, and Europe responded with two crusades into Arab lands in the 11th and 125th centuries, with both religious and economic goals. The Crusaders wanted what they called "The Holy Land" under Christian rule and Western domination, and believed this to be God's will. Having a mandate from God justified extreme actions, and the battles were bloody and horrific. Europe also wanted an economic and secure route to the Far East to obtain such things as silk and spices. Unfortunately for the Arabs, while Europe attacked them from the East, Mongols from Asia attacked them from the West. Only Egypt was spared from repeated warfare (Ismael, 1999). While the Crusades are often treated in Western history as a curiosity, in Arab memory the Crusades brought down one of the greatest civilizations the world has ever known. Followed as it was by the Inquisition and the occupation of their lands by Western powers starting with World War I (Friedman, 2002),

Arabs had good reason to be suspicious of Western interests in this area, and those suspicions were confirmed in their view by the 1947 Partition of Palestine. They saw it as an extension of intrusions from the West that had troubled them for 1,000 years. The presence of Jerusalem in this area was an added complication because it was a holy city to three different religious groups in… [read more]


Israeli Palestinian Conflict and the Middle East Term Paper

… International Politics

The Threat of Terrorism the Context of International Relations between the U.S. And the Middle East

The threat of terrorism in the U.S. is inextricably linked to the events in the Middle East and the perceived role of the U.S. many of those events; especially in the Israeli/Palestinian disputes. The U.S. is a major power and the country has not been afraid to use that power in international relations. It is the way that the power has been used, often for the support of Israel, to the detriment of Arabic nations.

To appreciate this one can look at the way in which the U.S. has supported Israel, this was seen with the 'friendship' formed between Kennedy and David Ben-Gurion (Bass 2). Building ion the foundation laid by Kennedy, other presidents extended the relationship (Bass 5). It was rumored that during the Six Day War in 1967 Lyndon B. Johnson supplied the Israelis with arms, although this has been denied. More conclusive evidence of support for Israelis seen when, during the Yom Kippur War in 1973, the U.S. did supply arms to the Israelis following the early successes of the Syrian and Egyptian forces who were seeking to regain land they had previously lost to Israel. When this support of Israel is placed into the context of the founding of the country; an artificially created state which saw the United Nations portioning land from the area known as Palestine for the homing of Jewish immigrants, the interference can be seen as an extension of the west support for the Jewish state against the Arab States. For those who had been in the region for many generations, and saw land take, first by their UN and then by the fighting of the Israelis, to gain more land, the support from the U.S. was an unwelcome interference, hindering their own interests.

The U.S. was not only active in supporting Israel, power has been used to support its own interests, such as the aid given to Iraq in the Iran/Iraq war; a war that resulted in the loss of approximately 1 million lives, one may ask why the U.S. choose to interfere and if that interference helped to prolong the a war and increase loss of life. The first and second Gulf Wars were also examples of the power of the U.S., at the time it was argued that the invasions were to protect the Kuwait's and then the Iraqi people from aggressors, and preventing the use of weapons of mass destruction, but subsequent analysts have argued the real motivation of the U.S. was to ensure access…… [read more]


Palestine How Would You Feel Term Paper

… However, when they felt that Palestine was not taking this seriously, they reversed their steps which paved way for yet another failed effort (Erin, 143)

The Road Map for Peace was an agreement designed by America, EU, UN and Russia.… [read more]


Israel and Palestine Term Paper

… Israel and Palestine

In order or answer the central question of this paper and to understand the present situation of a two - state solution to the Israeli - Palestinian conflict, it is firstly necessary to understand the origins and… [read more]


Post WWII Term Paper

… ¶ … conflicts between Arabs and the Israelis in the Middle East. Specifically, it will discuss the conflicts in the Middle East, and answer some questions about my vision of forging a lasting peace in the area. The Arab-Israeli conflicts… [read more]


Arab-Israeli Conflict the Year 1973 Term Paper

… Arab-Israeli Conflict

The year 1973 marked the first time Arab nations publicly acknowledged the existence of the state of Israel and ended a period of conflict that had begun with the establishment of the Jewish state in 1948. The years between 1948 and 1973 were marked with an almost constant struggle between Israel and its Arab neighbors in which Israel consolidated, and even expanded its territory. However, this expansion was challenged in 1973 in a surprise attack by Egypt, Syria, and Jordan. Although caught off guard and almost overwhelmed, Israel tenaciously fought on and eventually defeated its Arab enemies. This conflict precipitated a number of changes on both sides which allowed for peace negotiations to begin. The 1973 Yom Kippur War ultimately cemented Israel's existence in the mind of the Arabs and completed the establishment of the Jewish nation that had begun in 1948.

"Consolidation" is the best term to describe the Israeli view toward warfare and combat. Israel began in 1948 as a patchwork of isolated and vulnerable outposts surrounded by enemies and, for the sake of its own existence, needed to consolidate its territory and construct a nation with stable, defensible borders. On the other hand Israel's Arab neighbors, which surrounded and outnumbered the small Jewish enclave, "sought to drive the Jews from Palestine" and annihilate the state of Israel from existence. (Black 2005, p.125) From 1948 to 1973 a series of conflicts erupted between the Arabs and Israelis in which Israel managed to survive overwhelming odds, expand its territory, and establish itself as a viable nation.

In the years following the end of the Second World War the world was…… [read more]


Arab Spring: The Political Movement Term Paper

… Hosni Mubarak was also tried in court in August, the same year, for the responsibility of the dead protestors in the revolution. The following month, the military announced that parliament's election will be help in November which will be followed by elections for the new president. The military would still be in charge after the elections to ensure that the right democracy sets in and the parliament would thus be answerable to the military till the time that the new constitution and government was in place and functioning well. This transition of governance was anticipated to continue till 2013. Yet, even nearing the end of 2013, Egypt's future and governance still seems to be unclear (Aa, 2011).

Arab Spring and terrorism activity in Egypt

The overall impact and conclusions from the first election since the revolution in Egypt are clear indications of what is in store. The Islamic communities in the country have increased their popularity and thus are experiencing more power in the region. This is primarily so because most Muslim communities like the 'Muslim Brotherhood' are strong advocates of democracy and the ending of the tyrannous rule of the Egyptian military. On the other hand, creating havoc seems to be part of the agenda for groups like 'Muslim Brotherhood' so as to serve their hidden or ulterior interests. The Muslim Brotherhood has also been accused of bribing the locals in the election to attain votes from the locals which does not encourage a very democratic stance. It was February 11 when Mubarak resigned and the West-supported Egyptian military took over, however the purpose with which the revolution began seems to be lost again as the hunger for power overcomes the demand for democracy. This could lead to increased tensions and breeding grounds for terrorism (Lutterbeck, 2013).

Impact of the Arab Spring on the state and non-state sponsored terrorism in Egypt

It is no secret that the U.S. has double standards when it comes to democracy i.e. defending democratic structure for their own people and denying it to nations around the world like Israel and Palestine. It is the Arab Spring and the string of revolutions in it that is challenging this approach to democracy and the double standards of the West. The Arab world has lost faith in the ways and policies of the West due to recent failed implementations and thus the Arab world seems to be promoting a very modern, practical and innovative Islamic approach for governance. Islam is recognized as a solution and the future. Replacing local dictators with foreign puppet dictators is no longer good enough and it is this realization in the masses that makes the penetration of an Islamic approach not only possible, but also probable (Lutterbeck, 2013).

References

Aa. V. (2011), The New Arab Revolt: What Happened, What It Means, and What Comes Next, Council on Foreign Relations, Foreign Affairs, Maggio-Giugno.

Brownlee, J.,Masoud, T. And Reynolds, A. (2013). The Arab Spring: the politics of transformation in North Africa and the Middle… [read more]


UAE the Global Village Term Paper

… To achieve a higher SOL in the near future, the global village will have to currently save more (Mankiw, 2004). Abu Dhabi plans on investing a total of Dh555 billion in the upcoming 5 years, of which, Dh320 billion will… [read more]


Foreign Policy Regarding Israel Term Paper

… Israel has only one-tenth of a percent of the population of the world and still receives nearly 40% of U.S. aid, and that is generally more than $3.5 billion a year now. There are other funds also transferred and that is more than $1 billion a year also. The closeness to Israel of United States has compelled U.S. To use its veto in its support in United Nations to protect it from censure many times. (10 Things to Know about U.S. Policy in the Middle East)

The problems caused through American foreign policy and the actions of Israel are in two ways. The first is that it seems clear all the time that America is supporting the actions of Israel though the actions are against basic values of America -- life, liberty, rule of law, and the principle that a person is innocent till proven guilty. An individual may be acting in a way that he feels fit, but a national government cannot operate in that manner. The support of America for Israel is clear to not only Palestinians, but to the rest of the Arab world, as the support is seen both in military form as also political forms. (Israel's Policy of Targeting Terrorists: Implications for the U.S.) Yet it does not seem that there will be any changes in this policy in America. One of the Democratic contenders against President Bush had clearly stated that he did not have any fundamental objection to the policies followed by Bush. There were calls from him for an end to violence by Palestinians, but no call for an end to violence by Israel. There were also no calls for end of Israeli occupation, Israel's compliance with resolutions of United Nations Security council, or even a call for withdrawal from the occupied territories, etc. (Howard Dean: Hawk in Dove's Clothing?) In short, there is going to be no change in America's policy even if the opposition came to power.

Conclusion:

Making recommendations to the U.S. government regarding its policies on Israel and Palestine would just be a waste of breath.

References

Zaharna, R.S. Israel's Policy of Targeting Terrorists: Implications for the U.S. Volume 6,

Number 32. September 2001. Retrieved from http://www.fpif.org/briefs/vol6/v6n32exjud_body.html Accessed 4 September, 2005

Zunes, Stephen. Howard Dean: Hawk in Dove's Clothing? February 26, 2003. Retrieved from http://www.commondreams.org/views03/0226-04.htm Accessed 4 September, 2005

Zunes, Stephen. 10 Things to Know about U.S. Policy in the Middle East. 26 September, 2001.

Retrieved from http://www.alternet.org/story/11592 / Accessed 4 September, 2005… [read more]


Israel International Politics Terrorism Case Study

… ISRAEL

Locked in a history of persecution, religious discrimination, and national consciousness, the Jewish people were granted their own land when, following World War II, the British withdrew from Palestine and the United Nations divided the war-torn land into two… [read more]


American Foreign Policy Analysis of the Middle East From the President's Perspective Essay

… American foreign policy as it manifests itself in the Middle East has long been a struggle. The last few decades have demonstrated America's attempts at finding allies and the challenges of controlling the area. After a tremendous amount of analysis… [read more]


Israel Country Study Research Paper

… Political/Government Assessment

There is no constitution that is followed in Israel. Instead, the affairs of the country are regulated and administered under the Declaration of Establishment (1948) in addition to the laws made by the parliament and citizens. The Head… [read more]


Israel and Iran Thesis

… Israeli citizens support the striking of Iran especially if the war is carried out with the help of the United States (Clifton). Though the majority supports the attack, a small percentage of the public are wary of the war. A… [read more]


Decision Making Strategies Research Paper

… Terrorism is a way of life; watching for bombs and activities "normal," just as serving in the military and knowing your State is surrounded by enemies becomes so intrusive it is like being blinded by a horrible odor; other people… [read more]


Arab-Israeli Wars Essay

… Arab-Israeli Wars

Palestinian and Arab views on the Middle East conflicts and the Israeli views could not have been more in conflict over the last several decades. As many of the post second world war conflicts have had as cause,… [read more]


Arab-Americans Term Paper

… This affiliation spawned a new wave of Arab-American identity through rap music, urban dialectical discourses, as well as poetry and writing (Salaita, 2005).

Arab-American identity, like those of other immigrant groups that have migrated to the U.S., was acculturated (Salaita, 2005). Perhaps one difference in identity building was the stage of politics and war being played out in the Arab Old World. Arab-American communities were affected by the socio-political changes involving first the Israel/Palestine conflicts, but then later on the situations in Iraq helped to shape Arab-American world views. What is unique for them is that mainstream American society favored Israel over Palestine, and then of course invaded Iraq once in the early 1990s, but then again post-9/11 (Salaita, 2005).

The Palestinian/Israeli conflict greatly influenced Arab-American culture by positioning them more on the side of the Middle East than with Zionism (Salaita, 2005). What once was an assimilated Christian minority that was identified as white is now an Arab-American identity sympathetic to Middle Eastern plights. It is not difficult to see that mainstream American support for Israel certainly had something to do with this movement. Salaita (2005) wrote that this Arab-American identity is beyond the post-9/11 stigmas. It is an identity that sides with bringing an end to the devastation western allies have brought to the Middle East. Just because they sympathize with a homeland that consists of friends and family, does not make them terrorists or supporters of terrorism. Even today, despite the stigmas given by mainstream American media, Arab-Americans are not only predominantly Christian, but well integrated and intermarried into U.S. society (Samhan, 2006). In fact, most of them are descendants from Christian immigrants that came to the U.S. In the early 20th century. Therefore, despite recent movements facilitating an empathy with the Old World, they are very much acculturated into Americanism. Arab-American Muslims, on the other hand, tend to have more value for their cultures of origin, particularly their language, and wish to maintain them within a country that is supposed to represent the 'land of the free' (Samhan, 2006).

Works Cited:

Mamdani, Mahmood. Good Muslim, Bad Muslim: A Political Perspective on Culture and Terrorism. American Anthropologist, Vol. 104, No. 3 (Sept. 2002), pp. 766-775.

Leonard, Karen. American Muslims and Authority: Competing Discourses in a Non-Muslim State. Journal of American Ethnic History, Vol. 25, No. 1 (Fall 2005), pp. 5-30.

Salaita, Steven. Ethnic Identity and Imperative Patriotism: Arab-Americans before and after 9/11. College Literature, Vol. 32, No. 2 (Spring 2005), pp. 146-168.

Hajar, Paula, Jones, Sydney J. Lebanese Americans. http://www.everyculture.com/multi/Le-Pa/Lebanese-Americans.html Advameg Inc. 2011.

Samhan, Helen. Arab-Americans. http://www.arabwashingtonian.org/english/article.php?issue=13&articleID=318 The Arab Washingtonian, 2006.

Not Quite White: Race Classification and the Arab-American Experience; Demographics. http://www.aaiusa.org/pages/not-quite-white-race-classification-and-the-arab-american-experience…… [read more]


US Israel Relations Specifically Oslo Accords Term Paper

… U.S. / Israel Relations

Israel Relations the Oslo Accords

Since the end of World War II, the Arab Israeli conflict has been increasingly brought to the forefront. As U.S. foreign policy has continued to focus on addressing this underlying conflict… [read more]


Game Theory of the Israel Palestine War Essay

… Game theory: How the irrational behavior in the Israeli-Palestinian conflict might be explained by the 'rational' analysis of game theory

Game theory is based upon the presumption that international actors are rational 'black boxes' that carefully calculate their options and… [read more]


David Ben-Gurion's Changing Views Towards Arab Nationalism Between 1918 and 1948 Essay

… ¶ … Nuanced Face of Zionism

It is hard to think of the words "Middle East" and "nuance" as having anything to do with each other -- much less to conceive of a nuanced position between Zionism and Arab nationalism.… [read more]


American Foreign Policy Towards the Middle East Under Obama Research Proposal

… Israelis and Palestinians do not have to keep fighting and killing each other forever. But it sometimes seems that they do. While there are places in the world in which the possible of a functional polity are far more distant… [read more]


Israel Defense Tech Israeli Defense Technology: Success Thesis

… Israel Defense Tech

Israeli Defense Technology: Success Against All Odds

When the full extent of the horrors of the Holocaust had become apparent to the global public, the movement for Israeli independence took center-stage. Upon the world's revelation that more… [read more]


Arab-Israeli Conflict and the Peace Process Term Paper

… ¶ … Arab-Israeli Conflict. Specifically it will discuss diplomacy regarding the Arab-Israeli conflict during the period December 1968 - September 1973. The Arab-Israeli Conflict has been an ongoing dispute regarding the creation of the Israeli state after World War II… [read more]


1967 Arab-Israeli War Term Paper

… ¶ … mistreated for their beliefs. This has been apparent within the last century due to the fact that many as six million Jews were murdered in the Holocaust. From there, religious conflicts have continued in Israel and the Middle… [read more]


Israel Internal Security Case Study

… Israel Internal Security Case Study

Nature of the state

Israel is a young nation, developed following WWII, when Britain withdrew from Palestine and the United Nations partitioned a portion of it for the resettlement of displaced Jews following the war.… [read more]


Arab League and the War Research Paper

… The United States' promotion of democracy in the Arab region did not have much credibility with these governments. They were aware of American support of Arab autocrats, like Saddam Hussein up to 1991, Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak and the royal… [read more]


2006 War Between Israel and Lebanon Term Paper

… Israel & Hezbollah (in Lebanon)

The Conflict Between Israel and Hezbollah - 2006

Key historical issues between Israel and their Arab neighbors living in Palestine and Lebanon: There is a bloody history between Israel and Arabs and hence it is… [read more]


Palestine Conflict Term Paper

… They developed a governmental form that worked to accommodate at least to some extent the cultures the conquered.

However, by the time Islam had reached present-day Spain, a highly Christian and Catholic area, Europeans were alarmed by the spread of this culture and religion. Arab power had reached its peak by the 10th century. Westerners responded with the Crusades, which took place in the 11th and 12th centuries. The Crusades had both religious and economic goals. The Crusaders wanted to see the Holy Land under the control of Christians. At the same time, they were looking for a safer and more economical route to Asia, so they could trade for such things as spices and silk. During this time, while Europe was challenging Arab power from the West, Mongols were attacking from the East (Ismael, 1999). Except for Egypt, the area was racked by wave after wave of warfare (Ismael, 1999). Many Arabs see this sort of grabbing for their resources going on today over oil, and when Westerners attempt to broker peace, suspect that they want peace in the region only to assure the free flow of crude oil from the MIddle East (Ismael, 1999).

Because these events brought down a great civilization, the Crusades, little more than an intriguing chapter in Western history, was part of a cataclysmic series of events in Arab history that changed their course forever, events brought because outsiders wanted rights to their lands. So while Westerners interested in the Arab-Israeli conflict may look at issues starting in 1947, or perhaps when European Jews first started migrating to Palestine… [read more]


Israel Is a Country Caught Term Paper

… Israel is a country caught in multiple kinds of crossroads. The country is in the middle of the Middle East, an area fraught with tensions literally for millennia. The land currently called Israel has been fought over from Biblical times,… [read more]


Social Effects Did the Early Arab Conquests Essay

… ¶ … social effects did the Early Arab Conquests towards Byzantine (632-750) has on Byzantine and Arab society?

Civilization is a process that takes time to reach the point of becoming a norm in the recipient society. From the inception… [read more]


Arab Spring: Jordan the Middle Research Paper

… S. And other Western nations have reaped from their relationship with certain MENA nations is the fact that they have been able to attain a small amount of supposed safety from relationships that they have fostered and from intelligence sources.… [read more]


Middle East Comprises a Diverse Research Paper

… 1999. "The Frame Drum in the Middle East: Women, Musical Instruments and Power." Ethnomusicology 43(1). (PDF)

Dunne, Bruce. "Power and Sexuality in the Middle East." Middle East Report. No. 206.

Massad, Joseph, "Re-Orienting Desire: The Gay International and the Arab World" in Public Culture, 14(2), 2002, pp 361-385 (PDF)

Moghadam, Valentine, "Islamic Feminism and Its Discontent: Toward a Resolution of the Debate," Signs, 27(4), 2002, pp 1135-1171. (PDF)

Film "Dishing Democracy- Kalam Nawaeem"

IX. Economic Issues

The economy of the region has a huge influence on its domestic and foreign policies. This section will address the economies of key countries; discuss the role of oil in Middle Eastern economics and policy; and provide an overview of what economists feel the future of the Middle East has to offer. Will their economies diversify? Also, this unit will draw a bridge between economic issues and the political issues of the Arab Spring.

Lecture: Modern and current economic issues in the Middle East, post-oil. Diversification. Regionalism. The role of Israel.

Anderson, Lisa. "Demystifying the Arab Spring." PDF Available: http://www.ssrresourcecentre.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/06/Anderson-Demystifying-the-Arab-Spring.pdf

Henry, Clement Moore and Springborg, Robert. Globalization and the Politics of Development in the Middle East. Cambridge University Press, 2010.

Kuran, Timur. "The Islamic Commercial Crisis: Institutional Roots of Economic Underdevelopment in the Middle East." The Journal of Economic History (2003), 63(2).… [read more]


Media Representations of the Israeli Palestinian Conflict Munich Olympics 1972 Term Paper

… Media Representations of the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict: Munich Olympics 1972

The history of Palestinian-Israel conflict dates back to the end of Nineteenth century though fight for this holy land can be traced back to ancient times. In particular to Palestinian-Israel conflict;… [read more]


Arab Spring the Revolutions Research Paper

… Arab Spring

The revolutions that took place in Arab countries in the spring of 2011 have shaken the leadership, the laws, and the politics of several states, including Tunisia, Egypt and Libya. This paper addresses issues about those uprisings --… [read more]


1978 Camp David Negotiations Between Israel and Egypt Term Paper

… Camp David Negotiations Between Israel and Egypt

"After four wars during 30 years, despite intensive human efforts, the Middle East, which is the cradle of civilization and the birthplace of three great religions, does not enjoy the blessings of peace.… [read more]


Arab-Israeli War 1948 Thesis

… ¶ … Arab-Israeli War 1948

The war of 1948 is also called The War of Independence Arabs. The war began about December 1, 1947. This war is divided into the pre-independence period and the post-independence period. The pre-Independence period began… [read more]


Arab-Israeli Conflict 1949-1982 Thesis

… Arab Israeli

THE ARAB -- ISRAELI CONFLICT:

As James L. Gelvin points out, for half a century following the end of World War II in 1945, the Western world "viewed the Middle East as a geographical area steeped in conflict… [read more]


Establishment of the State of Israel Thesis

… Establishment of the State of Israel

One of the driving forces in the global political climate was the creation of the State of Israel in 1948. The creation of Israel has resulted in a series of wars between the Jewish… [read more]


1973 Yom Kippur War Thesis

… Yom Kippur war can be said to have rooted in the death of Nasser in September 1970 which had taken the Middle East by surprise. Equally surprising was the war itself which had come as a complete shock to Israelic… [read more]


International Relations of Middle East Term Paper

… Political Science

Iraqi President Saddam Hussein waged war against his neighbors twice. First, against the Islamic Republic of Iran in 1980; second, against Kuwait in 1990.

Both the Iran-Iraq War of 1980 and the Iraq-Kuwait Conflict of 1990 are examples… [read more]


Contemporary Middle East History Term Paper

… ¶ … international political economy of the Middle East is complex and derives both from historical factors and economic and political actions of more recent origin. The tensions in the Middle East date back centuries, but they have been made… [read more]


Hamas and Fatah: Palestinian Territories Term Paper

… ¶ … Politics [Foreign Policy Questions and Answers

Both Hamas and Fatah continue in their struggle for political control of the Palestinian Territories and economic control of the support that comes from outside. This has led to open fighting along factional lines. What impact do you think this will have on the region and on the efforts to find peace with Israel?

The present Hamas vs. Fatah political and other factionalism in Palestine clearly will not and cannot help the peace process. Palestinians must be united and sincere in a desire for peace; and (at least in my own opinion) this has not ever happened and is clearly not happening now. There has been much more (albeit always-evaporated, at least so far) hope for peace in the area in the past. During the Oslo peace process of about 1993 through 2000, it seemed that peace among Israel and the Palestinian factions, with whom Israel has been at war six decades and counting, might actually finally occur. It did not.

After that in 2006, before Israel's then-Prime Minister Ariel Sharon had a massive stroke leaving him comatose and his political heir Ehud Olmert succeeded him, it seemed Sharon's peace plan might work. Recently due to horrendous military decisions of Olmert's government during the 2006 Israel-Lebanon conflict that again infuriated the Arab world and much of the rest of the world, the peace process is stalled again (and this is very, very far from being the first time). With Hamas and Fatah literally at each other's own throats and both hating Israel equally; and with so much international attention, especially but not exclusively among Arab states again focused on Israeli military ruthlessness; and with Hamas having won the 2006 Palestinian election but Mahoud Abbas of Fatah remaining President, it is difficult to portend future progress toward peace in the region. Moreover, for peace to ever truly happen, the Palestinian leadership must truly want peace. Before his death in 2004, then-PLO leader Yasser Arafat had written a groundbreaking letter stating the PLO's recognition of Israel's right to exist. This was an enormously encouraging sign; since 1948, when the then-new state of Israel declared its independence, Palestinian Arabs have felt their territory to have been encroached upon by Israel, and have therefore vowed since then to destroy Israel. But Arafat did not ever truly want peace; and it seems even more unlikely that either Fatah or Hamas, or most unfathomably, both together, would work earnestly for peace in the future.

2)This week's topic requires you to examine the origins of conflict between Israel and Palestine. Who and what is the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO), and what is its primary role today compared to its early years of operation?

The Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) was founded in Egypt (originally it was controlled by Egypt's government) in 1964 with the goal of destroying Israel with arms. The PLO's first Charter included the goals of destroying Israel and returning original Palestinian territories (before Israeli statehood), e.g., West… [read more]


Palestine and the Gaza Strip Term Paper

… ¶ … ownership of a property in this modern day and age. That is the reason for title searches. When obtaining a mortgage, a homebuyer pays to ensure that there is a title for the land. This process becomes very… [read more]


Invasion and Occupation of Iraq Term Paper

… "

However, it is important to note that ever since the 2000 elections in America that ultimately led to the election of George Bush, the American administration had been showing a great inclination to get rid of Saddam Hussein. George… [read more]


Arab Culture Understanding Term Paper

… (Qureshi, E. 2004)

This critique also refers to one of the essential problems in his works -- the assumption that Arab culture is homogenous.

In Patai's case, his methodology was itself based on a fatally flawed set of assumptions --… [read more]


Conflict Resolution in the Middle Term Paper

… The pro-Israel camp has its own lobbies, organizations, think tanks, magazines, support groups, Internet user groups, etc. that strives hard to establish that the Arabs are wrong and they are right. The Israelis pose to be more outstanding in morality… [read more]


Free Trade Agreement- Jordan-u.S. Middle Term Paper

… " But globalization is still a highly controversial and volatile issue which might give rise to numerous problems once Jordan begins Free Trade with United States. The only way to avoid these possible conflicts in the long run is to become aware of them beforehand and develop certain rules regarding issues likes political intervention and globalization.

Bibliography

1. Daniel Pipes, The real 'new Middle East, Commentary: Volume: 106. Issue: 5. Publication Date: November 1998.

2. King Abdullah Ii - Heir Jordan: one state's story of economic transformation. Journal Title: Harvard International Review. Volume: 24. Issue: 4. Publication Year: 2003.

3. Ahmed Galal and Robert Z. Lawrence: Building Bridges: An Egypt-U.S. Free Trade Agreement. Publisher: Brookings Institution. Place of Publication: Washington, DC. Publication Year: 1998.

4. Moin A Siddiqi ECONOMIC REPORT: JORDAN. Magazine Title: The Middle East. Publication Date: September 2000.

5. Josh Martin, WTO challenges Arab world: all Arab countries except Saudi Arabia have now signed an agreement with the World Trade Organization, in the hope that membership will offer economic rewards. But many are facing difficult adjustments. Contributors: - author. Magazine Title: The Middle East. Publication Date: November 2001.

6. THOMAS L. FRIEDMAN, "The Lexus and the olive tree," Farrar, Straus & Giroux, 1999

7. U.S. -- JORDAN TRADE AGREEMENT:JOHN J. SWEENEY FEDERAL DOCUMENT CLEARING HOUSE, INC.., Congressional Testimony, 03-20-2001.

8. U.S. -- JORDAN TRADE AGREEMENT:CHARLENE BARSHEFSKY FEDERAL DOCUMENT CLEARING HOUSE, INC.., Congressional Testimony, 03-20-2001.

9. U.S. -- JORDAN TRADE AGREEMENT:RODGER SCHLICKEISEN FEDERAL DOCUMENT CLEARING HOUSE, INC.., Congressional Testimony, 03-20-2001.

10. The…… [read more]


World War II Term Paper

… While Israel had shown a willingness and desire, even, to negotiate for peace and normalized relations in the region, its neighboring aggressors were focused simply on the annihilation of the Jewish state. American sympathy to the Zionist cause, then, was… [read more]


Political Chiefs (Zucama) Research Paper

… Iran achieved its greatest success against Israel through Hezbollah in Lebanon. For years, Iran cultivated its organization as its religious, political, and military representative in that country. It transferred hundreds of millions of dollars directly to Hezbollah, and channeled, through… [read more]


Egypt Is Going Dissertation

… ¶ … Egypt is going to take in order to secure its interest in the Nile waters and in the Nile Basin countries, especially after the change of regime and the uprising of the Arab nations. Following the January 2011… [read more]


2010 National Security Strategy Assessment

… National Security Strategy

Over the last ten years, the U.S. has been actively involved in a war against Islamic terrorism. In many cases, this has led to military conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan. To deal with these challenges, the White House has introduced a comprehensive national security strategy. To fully understand what is taking place requires looking at the strategy for advancing peace, security and opportunity in the Middle East. Together, these elements will highlight how the federal government is addressing these challenges and what issues they need to consider in the future. ("National Security Strategy," 2010)

What is the key to advancing peace, security, and opportunity in the Middle East?

The biggest keys to advancing peace, security and opportunity are to use an approach that will address the political issues (i.e. The Arab -- Israeli conflict). In the past, the nation's support for Israel has been seen as a blank check of encouraging Israeli activities. This has created tension in the Arab world, who views the U.S. As bully and hypocrite. To deal with these challenges, the U.S. should tell Israel to stop with certain activities (i.e. settlement building). If there was a serious commitment on this and issues, it would lead to better relations with various groups inside the Arab world.

At the same time, there must be an emphasis on having the U.S. understand the issues that are most important to Israelis most notably: security guarantees and the right to exist. This requires that U.S. works actively with its partners to create a workable solution that will address the needs of both sides. This is how the U.S. can be able to deal with the root causes of the problem that are helping to promote Islamic extremism. ("National Security Strategy," 2010)

Evidence of this can be seen by looking no further than the U.S. National Security Strategy which says, "The United States seeks…… [read more]


Syria the Arab Spring Term Paper

… Syria

The "Arab spring" has become one of the most important movements in the Arab world of the last decades. It has resulted in the regime change in countries such as Egypt and Tunisia, with wide reverberations in Libya, Syria,… [read more]


Forgotten Refuges the Conflict Between Arabs Term Paper

… Forgotten Refuges

The conflict between Arabs and Jews is a long and intractable issue. The central features of the conflict have revolved around the rights of Arabs in Palestine to a homeland. There is however another face of the issue that has received very little attention from the media and is not factored into the assessment of the problem. That factor is the refugee status of hundreds of thousands of Jews who were dispossessed by Arabs. The forgotten refuges throw light on a missing conversation in the dialogue between Jews and the international community. The Jews who lived in North Africa and in other Middle Eastern countries were unfairly expelled during the 1940s.

The Jewish history in North Africa and the Middle East begins with the action of the Nebuchadnezzar the king of ancient Babylon (Iraq). Nebuchadnezzar captured thousands of Jews from Israel and carried them to Babylon in chains. In Babylon the Jews maintained their cultural forms and resisted much of the attempts by the Babylonians to integrate them into the culture. This captivity predates the action of Islamic peoples in North Africa and the Middle East. Consequently, the Jewish people were in these countries well before the Muslim conquerors came.

The major Jewish challenges began with the conquest of the Middle East and North Africa by the Muslims. The Muslim conquerors were an overwhelming force across the Middle East and North Africa; they took control of all the major cities. They were merciless as they sought to eradicate all forms of opposition. The Jews and Christian who were in those countries at the time were considered as "Dhimmi" or minority peoples. They were thought of a people of the book and should not be killed. This position was an inferior position compared to the Muslims.

The inferiority of the…… [read more]

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