Study "Israel / Palestine / Arab World" Essays 606-618

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Withdraw of Soldiers From Iraq Thesis

… ¶ … Soldiers from Iraq

Our soldiers shouldn't be in Iraq in the first place.

Though the atrocities of the Hussein regime were well-known, this was never our fight.

After the invasion, many other military units were sent to Iraq -- at least twenty-one non-U.S. units existed in the country in 2007 (Global Security.org, 2009).

presence is no longer necessary.

Many attempts have been made to hand the security issue over to the Iraqis; they can either step up to the plate or not (Shadid, 2009).

Some argue that because we started the invasion, it is our responsibility to see it through.

This argument holds merit, but it has its limits.

After so many years, the Iraqis should be able to handle their own security.

The majority of the population is quite glad to have Saddam's regime gone; our job has to end sometime.

Our effectiveness has diminished greatly, if it ever existed with any strength.

A. This is according to policy makers and soldiers on the ground alike

(Khanna, 2009).

3.…… [read more]


Khaled Hosseini's 2003 Novel the Kite Runner Research Paper

… Khaled Hosseini's 2003 novel The Kite Runner should be considered an
important work of its time and place. The 324 page book, published by
Riverhead Books, tells the narrative of two families of intertwined
misfortunes across the borders of Afghanistan and America. I initially had
read this text on the advice of a friend. An extremely popular and
critically acclaimed work of its year, I read it with great interest and
found that a number of its themes are extremely compelling and worthy of
critical evaluation. In particular, I selected the work for its themes of
friendship and betrayal, which emerge the relationship between Amir and
Hassan. That this personal story is delivered before the inhospitable
backdrop of Afghanistan would make it a particularly suitable choice for
its relevance to current events. The fact that Hosseini's work was a
bestseller is indicative of the interest of mainstream audiences in such a
subject matter. There is a clear cultural undercurrent disposing people to
interest and education about Afghanistan and its people.
The main characters of the story are initially Amir and Hassan, whose
class distinctions in a caste-driven Afghanistan cause them to run afoul of
an aggressive and psychologically sick boy names Assef. When Amir
witnesses his best friend raped by Assef, he hides in a bush out of fear.
The guilt of this cowardice causes him to frame his friend of theft and
have him ejected from his father's house. The story revolves on the guilt
suffered by Amir upon escaping Afghanistan to California and his efforts at
achieving reconciliation through Hassan's son Sohrab.
Sohrab is another important character in the narrative. As Hassan's
son, he remains the only link to a man who had been killed for standing up…… [read more]


Not Without My Daughter 1991 Movie Term Paper

… ¶ … movie, "Not without my daughter," the character Betty adapted to Muslim culture in order to escape her abusive husband in a non-American country. "Betty Mahmoody (Field) is an American married to Moody (Alfred Molina), an Iranian immigrant who works, somewhat unhappily, in the U.S. As a doctor. They have a young daughter, the unfortunately named Mahtob (Sheila Rosenthal). The moody, who feels he's suffering discrimination at work, needs a break and decides to take the family for a visit back to his homeland. Betty's goal, of course, is to get the hell out of Iran, but not without her daughter, but to do so she's going to have to find a sort of Iranian underground railroad, a chain of sympathetic taxi drivers, document forgers, and smugglers, to help her out. The off-putting thing about Not Without My Daughter is its relentlessly ugly depiction of Islam and the Muslims who practice it. By all reports, the book on which the movie was based was more subtle and educational about Islamic practices" (Not without my daughter). Therefore, in order leave the country, Betty had to adapt to the culture to get her daughter and herself out safely.

ANALYSIS

Along with that, Betty began to wear the proper clothes for a woman in Iran in order to appear she was accepting of this culture. By appearing as though she respected the culture, she was able to find individuals that were willing to help her to leave the hostile environment, which seemed anti-American.

Betty did manage clandestinely to make contacts with people in the underground, who also wanted out of Iran. She snuck such meetings into her shopping schedule when she was able to move about. The Swiss Embassy and a few other people, both Iranian and…… [read more]


Europe From 1948 to 2004 From Cooperation to Integration Term Paper

… Europe From 1948 to 2004

The ascension of Turkey into the European Union has been one of the most historically difficult of all expansion moves. Several member states with limited or strained relations with Turkey, (mainly France and Greece) opposed… [read more]


Accidental Threats to Security in Turkey Term Paper

… Accidental Threats Turkey

Accidental threats such as car accident, plane crashes and industrial accidents are significant social threats to any nation. In Turkey, as in other nations occupational hazards are likely the most foundational of accidental threats to attempt to prevent. These accidental threats can be regulated through safety legislation and enforcement of such regulation upon industry.

In Turkey there was a significant drop in the rates of occupational injuries that resulted in lost work days, and/or ended in fatalities between the years 1997 and 2005 only for the rate of incident to rise again in 2006, to greater than previous levels.

1997 1474, 1998-1252, 1999-1333,2000-1291, 2001-1008, 2002 878, 2003 811, 2005-1096, 2006-1601

Occupational injuries which resulted in temporary or permanent incapacitation showed a more fragmented pattern but were still significant in number with a demonstrative spike in 2006.

1997 ND, 1998-3850, 1999-3407, 2000-1848, 2001-2183, 2002-2087, 2003-1596, 2004-1693, 2005-1639, 2006-2267.

The statistic for all non-fatal occupational injuries, reported by insured workers demonstrate a marked decline as the number of (insured) workers out of 100, 000 who reported injuries was 69 in 1998, 68 in 1999, 35 in 2000, 45 in 2001, 40 in 2002, 28 in 2003, 27 in 2004, 24 in 2005 and 29 in 2006, which shows a marked decline in the number per 100, 000 which coincides with a marked decrease in the incidence, in relation to the total number of insured workers over the years. By far the most dangerous job category is mining and quarrying which in 1998 claimed 1840 non-fatal injuries (of insured persons out of 100,000) Fatal injury statistics in the same parameters (number out of 100,000 insured workers reporting) 1997 29.0, 1998 22.5, 1999 22.9, 2000 24.6, 2001 20.6, 2002 16.8, 2003 14.4, 2004 13.6, 2005 15.8 and 2006 20.5. * Clearly this category has a shining star of danger in that a much higher number of workers were killed in mining and quarrying operations than in any other occupational category. The limitations of this data, though it is valuable is that there are likely many individuals who do not report injuries, as well as many unnumbered individuals who work in occupations but are not insured.

Collectively when data is compared it can also be said that most if not all industries have shown a marked decline in accidental death and injuries, as compared to the numbers of people employed. There is a clear sense that Turkey has progressed significantly in injury prevention. This work will then attempt to analyze how Turkey has made such strides. Many would say that external pressures from organizations such as international labor organization, the first specialized agency of the United Nations, established in 1919 and partnered with the UN as its first specialized agency in 1946. The mission of the organization is not only to collect labor data, but also to work in all nations to develop fair labor conditions for all employees, as a way of helping reach the UN goal of lasting peace ("About… [read more]


Criminal Threats in Turkey Term Paper

… Criminal Threats in Turkey

Turkey has been an interesting case study for international relations for decades now. It is neither a Muslim, nor a European country, yet its foreign policy prospects include the affirmation of an increasingly important role in both regions. However, such an ambitious plan requires the resolution of internal crises that press on the society. It can be said that the Turkish state faces serious challenges in insuring a proper human security environment and up to this point there is little improvement in this sense, rather an escalation of the threats facing the society.

By far the most important criminal threat which the Turkish society and government must face is the PKK or the Kurdistan Workers Party. The state has taken serious action in response to their terrorist acts and fueled the conflicting situation. Currently, it can be said that the society is threatened by the possibility of more attacks, while the government has deployed troops in Northern Iraq to hunt down Kurdish terrorists.

The threat the Kurds represent for the Turkish society is not of recent date; however, the political aspect of the constant Kurdish insurrections dates back to 1978 when the PKK was formed. The party promoted a nationalistic view directed towards the eventual establishment of a Kurdish state that would have included the entire Kurdish population. (Cerrah, 2006) the group is labeled by all parties involved and by the international community as a terrorist group because their actions have "caused the deaths of over 30,000 people, including Kurdish civilians, members of the security forces, and terrorists." (Cerrah, 2006) Therefore, the reactions of the authorities have been somewhat motivated by the need and international demand to maintain the civil peace inside the Turkish society.

The importance of the Kurdish issue has been acknowledged especially in the light of the latest developments at the Iraqi border where Turkish troops have been deployed. (Torchia, 2007). The Kurdish issue is essential for both the equilibrium in the area, and for the national and ethnic framework of the Turkish state. For the neighboring countries, the claims of the PKK for a national Kurdish state would imply the reorganization of their own national territory, taking into account the fact that the Kurds are also spread in Iran, Iraq, and Syria. In Turkey, they represent almost 20% of the population. (Federation of American Scientists, 2007) Despite this overwhelming presence, there is no recognition of the Kurdish nationality, the population being subjected to increased censorship and control.

There are certain measures the authorities use to protect the Turkish population from the violent manifestations of the rebels against the local population. In this sense, the most radical step taken by President Abdullah Gul is the use of troops against the Kurdish rebels in Northern Iraq. This measure was taken in order to prevent the killing of more Turkish soldiers by the PKK.

Aside from the military measures taken against the terrorist group, the Turkish authorities have also been active in trying to limit… [read more]


Empire Reflection on Rashid Khalidi's Resurrecting Term Paper

… Empire

Reflection on Rashid Khalidi's Resurrecting Empire: Western Footprints, and America's Path in the Middle East

How does Khalidi frame his analysis of the current war/conflict in Iraq?

According to Rashid Khalidi, quite often the current crisis in Iraq, like so many Middle Eastern conflicts previously, is framed in terms comprehensible to the Western powers -- that of progress vs. fanaticism. In other words, representatives of the West and proponents of Western institutions and culture are depicted as advocates of freedom and democracy, contrary to the forces of oppression. Viewed as such, the West is seen as a liberating and progressive force contrary to religious and nationalist movements that would presumably pull the Middle East back into tyranny and theocracy. The West is rendered neutral, while representatives of native movements become non-neutral 'evils' and backward elements that are roadblocks in the way of a morally neutral good known as democracy.

This is a cogent analysis of how the United States became involved in the current quagmire in Iraq. The U.S., in its own self-image, but not in the cultural understanding of the Middle East itself, becomes a neutral force of democracy, while representatives of the Iraqi religious communities are portrayed as fundamentalist in the Western media and therefore evil, just as Saddam Hussein can have no support from 'good' progressive Iraqis. Little historical context is given to the region, either in the understanding of policymakers or in the terms the issue is framed to the general population.

How is the current crisis in Iraq and Afghanistan related to other problems in the Middle East and Central Asia?

However, in Iraqi and Afghanistan terms, quite often what the West sees as fundamentalist, these nations see as nationalistic and anti-colonial in nature, even by persons who have received secular educations and who are highly literate. The United States condemned and mocked the Soviet tanks that came into Afghanistan and called Russia a force of national liberation. The secular Soviets were then replaced by a fundamentalist regime in the form of the Taliban. But the United States made the same mistake in Iraq and used a similar universalizing ideology, albeit one of democracy and not of communism on par with the Soviets.

Regardless, the legacy of colonialism is more recent in the Middle East than the United States, which did not have major colonial holdings within the region, might realize. Khalidi points out that almost any citizen over the age of fifty in any Middle Eastern nation has some memory of the colonial past, in other words, most young persons' grandparents. This age group includes most of the ruling and powerful patriarchs of the Middle East, fostering a distrust of the West, Western institutions, and Western ideology, of which democracy is seen as one -- amongst every nation's cultural leaders and shapers.

Amongst young people, this memory of colonialism is kept alive within their own civic institutions such as the national school system, holidays, monuments, and all of the other types of cultural… [read more]


Battle of Khafji Desert Storm Term Paper

… Military

The first "major ground action" of the Persian Gulf War occurred in January of 1991 in the coastal town of Khafji, Saudi Arabia. A surprise attack of around 500 Iraqi soldiers left two Marine reconnaissance teams trapped in a building. They were later rescued by allied forces, who provided almost all of the counterattack force in Khafji. The death toll of the "hit and run" attack varied between different sources. While Washington claimed that 12 Saudis and 28 Iraqis had died in the incursion, the Saudi commander, General Khalid Bin Sultan claimed 200 Iraqi deaths. Later Marine reports noted that 17 Iraqi tanks had been destroyed in Khafji, and Marine aviators had destroyed 15 more Iraqi military vehicles during their retreat from Khafji. Near the Kuwaiti border, Marines held back another ground offensive which resulted in the destruction of 22 tanks. No American casualties were incurred at Khafji but 11 Marine deaths were reported in the skirmishes along the…… [read more]


Beethoven Iraq During a Brief Respite Term Paper

… Beethoven

Iraq

During a brief respite from the attacks that have paralyzed his city, an Iraqi man takes his children out for ice cream. For one moment on the news, America sees an Iraqi father watch his children lap up soft serve during an ordinary moment of family togetherness. The man shrugs when asked if he believes that peace is near. He is philosophical, not hating (or loving) America or the Iraqi fundamentalist insurgents. He merely regrets the circumstances that have inhibited the course of his ordinary life. Other images, like soldiers 'rapping' with Iraqi children might seem like more radical cultural mergers of American and Iraqi society are really just status quo images of wartime and have parallels with other typical dramatic media images of war, like the tearing down of the statue of Lenin. But this image of an apparently ordinary day is really the most avante guard image -- it shows that Iraqis just want to get on with their lives. Their culture is not exotic and most Iraqis are obsessed with religion or politics. Most people remember personal aspects of their lives as fond memories, not the toppling of Saddam Hussein, and they are not…… [read more]


Nuclear Crisis in Iran at Present Term Paper

… ¶ … Nuclear Crisis in Iran

At present there seems to be a failure in the efforts of international diplomacy to turn Iran away from pursuing a path of nuclear proliferation. The European Union, as in keeping with idealistic solutions of conciliation, offered a non-proliferation incentive package to Tehran in the beginning of summer 2005 which was "comprised of nuclear technology, trade advantages, and a security dialogue," and was "far from empty" in terms of the bonuses it offered (Dupre, 2007).

But Tehran rejected this package, and although an idealist might suggest another, more attractive offer, a realist solution seems more feasible. Furthermore, independent analysis suggests that there is no way that Iran's nuclear technology is designed for energy purposes alone, as Iran alleges. Furthermore, there is no right to enrich uranium under the Nuclear Proliferation Treaty, and Iran stands in flagrant violation of this stipulation. Also, "Tehran breached the Paris Agreement, resumed conversion, and undertook R&D enrichment and production of enriched uranium up to 3.5% with 164 centrifuges (April 2006) while testing a second cascade with the intention to install 3000 centrifuges by…… [read more]


Baray's Analysis of Cultural Miscommunication Term Paper

… Baray's Analysis of Cultural Miscommunication -- Between German and American Jews, between Native and White Americans

The sociologist Laray M. Barna (1997) suggests in her essay "Intercultural Communication Stumbling Blocks" that, ironically, one of the first cultural stumbling blocks someone in a new cultural environment may encounter, a barrier that impedes full, true understanding of 'the other' is the naive assumption that people are all alike, because they are human. Although this may sound like a good thing at first, this assumption can often lead to a failure to recognize the foreign person's needs and desires. This is seen poignantly in the fate of the German refugee Oscar Gassner. Oscar is conflicted between his sense of German nationalism, which he still retains within his soul, and the impersonal New York environment, which assumes that everyone who comes to the city, loves the city, and is willing to embrace a new identity, that of an American. Oscar still remembers his wife, a non-Jew, back in Germany, and wonders if "in her heart," she was "a Jew hater," and that all non-Jews are Jew haters (Malmud, p.25) Also, Oscar's fellow Jews assume that he is happy to be in America, and that America is good place for Jews to live. Oscar is assumed to be the same as Americanized Jews, because he is of the same persecuted religion.

The second barrier to cultural understanding between two people from different cultural contexts is that of language, on the obvious level of linguistic mistranslation but also an a third level of nonverbal communication. Although Oscar Gassner speaks English, this sense of a barrier is also frequently expressed in the pain of Bernard Malmud's "The German Refugee." This German survivor of the initial Nazi persecution still feels as if he expresses himself best in his German language, even though he hates what Germany has done to Jews like himself in the name of German nationalism. Oscar may speak English, but German is the language that he feels most comfortable speaking in, in terms of his emotions -- and no Americans seem to understand this.

The story suggests although German Jews like Oscar have found a physical place of sanctuary in America but that they are aching within, because their uncertain relationship with the new English language is not understood by American Jews, and because these refugees can only imperfectly express themselves in English. They cannot "say what was in them to say," even when asked to talk about subjects specific to the German-Jewish experience like "The Literature of the Weimar Republic," a lecture that Oscar is asked to give to an assembled crowd of persons from his new nation, a lecture Oscar can never bring himself to give. (Malmud p.20)

Malmud's story is set in 1939, and the protagonist knows that most New Yorkers think he should be happy, to some extent, to have escaped the suffering that lay behind him in Germany but because Oscar feels that his suffering is impenetrable, inexpressible, and unheard… [read more]


Regime Change and Democratization of Iraq Term Paper

… ¶ … regime change and democratization of Iraq has led to an emerging market that can become extremely susceptible to new market products. In the six months after liberation in Iraq, 20 million cell phones were distributed among the population.… [read more]


Oil for What? Illicit Iraqi Oil Contracts Term Paper

… Oil for What? Illicit Iraqi Oil Contracts and the UN Security Council

In Heaton's (n.d.) work, the United Nation's Iraqi Oil-For-Food program, and its suspected illicit dealings, are investigated.

Over a 6 1/2-year period, beginning in 1996, more than 1,300… [read more]

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