Study "Israel / Palestine / Arab World" Essays 56-110

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1973 Yom Kippur War Thesis

… Yom Kippur war can be said to have rooted in the death of Nasser in September 1970 which had taken the Middle East by surprise. Equally surprising was the war itself which had come as a complete shock to Israelic… [read more]


International Relations of Middle East Term Paper

… Political Science

Iraqi President Saddam Hussein waged war against his neighbors twice. First, against the Islamic Republic of Iran in 1980; second, against Kuwait in 1990.

Both the Iran-Iraq War of 1980 and the Iraq-Kuwait Conflict of 1990 are examples… [read more]


Contemporary Middle East History Term Paper

… ¶ … international political economy of the Middle East is complex and derives both from historical factors and economic and political actions of more recent origin. The tensions in the Middle East date back centuries, but they have been made… [read more]


Hamas and Fatah: Palestinian Territories Term Paper

… ¶ … Politics [Foreign Policy Questions and Answers

Both Hamas and Fatah continue in their struggle for political control of the Palestinian Territories and economic control of the support that comes from outside. This has led to open fighting along factional lines. What impact do you think this will have on the region and on the efforts to find peace with Israel?

The present Hamas vs. Fatah political and other factionalism in Palestine clearly will not and cannot help the peace process. Palestinians must be united and sincere in a desire for peace; and (at least in my own opinion) this has not ever happened and is clearly not happening now. There has been much more (albeit always-evaporated, at least so far) hope for peace in the area in the past. During the Oslo peace process of about 1993 through 2000, it seemed that peace among Israel and the Palestinian factions, with whom Israel has been at war six decades and counting, might actually finally occur. It did not.

After that in 2006, before Israel's then-Prime Minister Ariel Sharon had a massive stroke leaving him comatose and his political heir Ehud Olmert succeeded him, it seemed Sharon's peace plan might work. Recently due to horrendous military decisions of Olmert's government during the 2006 Israel-Lebanon conflict that again infuriated the Arab world and much of the rest of the world, the peace process is stalled again (and this is very, very far from being the first time). With Hamas and Fatah literally at each other's own throats and both hating Israel equally; and with so much international attention, especially but not exclusively among Arab states again focused on Israeli military ruthlessness; and with Hamas having won the 2006 Palestinian election but Mahoud Abbas of Fatah remaining President, it is difficult to portend future progress toward peace in the region. Moreover, for peace to ever truly happen, the Palestinian leadership must truly want peace. Before his death in 2004, then-PLO leader Yasser Arafat had written a groundbreaking letter stating the PLO's recognition of Israel's right to exist. This was an enormously encouraging sign; since 1948, when the then-new state of Israel declared its independence, Palestinian Arabs have felt their territory to have been encroached upon by Israel, and have therefore vowed since then to destroy Israel. But Arafat did not ever truly want peace; and it seems even more unlikely that either Fatah or Hamas, or most unfathomably, both together, would work earnestly for peace in the future.

2)This week's topic requires you to examine the origins of conflict between Israel and Palestine. Who and what is the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO), and what is its primary role today compared to its early years of operation?

The Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) was founded in Egypt (originally it was controlled by Egypt's government) in 1964 with the goal of destroying Israel with arms. The PLO's first Charter included the goals of destroying Israel and returning original Palestinian territories (before Israeli statehood), e.g., West… [read more]


Palestine and the Gaza Strip Term Paper

… ¶ … ownership of a property in this modern day and age. That is the reason for title searches. When obtaining a mortgage, a homebuyer pays to ensure that there is a title for the land. This process becomes very… [read more]


Invasion and Occupation of Iraq Term Paper

… "

However, it is important to note that ever since the 2000 elections in America that ultimately led to the election of George Bush, the American administration had been showing a great inclination to get rid of Saddam Hussein. George… [read more]


Arab Culture Understanding Term Paper

… (Qureshi, E. 2004)

This critique also refers to one of the essential problems in his works -- the assumption that Arab culture is homogenous.

In Patai's case, his methodology was itself based on a fatally flawed set of assumptions --… [read more]


Conflict Resolution in the Middle Term Paper

… The pro-Israel camp has its own lobbies, organizations, think tanks, magazines, support groups, Internet user groups, etc. that strives hard to establish that the Arabs are wrong and they are right. The Israelis pose to be more outstanding in morality… [read more]


Free Trade Agreement- Jordan-u.S. Middle Term Paper

… " But globalization is still a highly controversial and volatile issue which might give rise to numerous problems once Jordan begins Free Trade with United States. The only way to avoid these possible conflicts in the long run is to become aware of them beforehand and develop certain rules regarding issues likes political intervention and globalization.

Bibliography

1. Daniel Pipes, The real 'new Middle East, Commentary: Volume: 106. Issue: 5. Publication Date: November 1998.

2. King Abdullah Ii - Heir Jordan: one state's story of economic transformation. Journal Title: Harvard International Review. Volume: 24. Issue: 4. Publication Year: 2003.

3. Ahmed Galal and Robert Z. Lawrence: Building Bridges: An Egypt-U.S. Free Trade Agreement. Publisher: Brookings Institution. Place of Publication: Washington, DC. Publication Year: 1998.

4. Moin A Siddiqi ECONOMIC REPORT: JORDAN. Magazine Title: The Middle East. Publication Date: September 2000.

5. Josh Martin, WTO challenges Arab world: all Arab countries except Saudi Arabia have now signed an agreement with the World Trade Organization, in the hope that membership will offer economic rewards. But many are facing difficult adjustments. Contributors: - author. Magazine Title: The Middle East. Publication Date: November 2001.

6. THOMAS L. FRIEDMAN, "The Lexus and the olive tree," Farrar, Straus & Giroux, 1999

7. U.S. -- JORDAN TRADE AGREEMENT:JOHN J. SWEENEY FEDERAL DOCUMENT CLEARING HOUSE, INC.., Congressional Testimony, 03-20-2001.

8. U.S. -- JORDAN TRADE AGREEMENT:CHARLENE BARSHEFSKY FEDERAL DOCUMENT CLEARING HOUSE, INC.., Congressional Testimony, 03-20-2001.

9. U.S. -- JORDAN TRADE AGREEMENT:RODGER SCHLICKEISEN FEDERAL DOCUMENT CLEARING HOUSE, INC.., Congressional Testimony, 03-20-2001.

10. The…… [read more]


World War II Term Paper

… While Israel had shown a willingness and desire, even, to negotiate for peace and normalized relations in the region, its neighboring aggressors were focused simply on the annihilation of the Jewish state. American sympathy to the Zionist cause, then, was… [read more]


Political Chiefs (Zucama) Research Paper

… Iran achieved its greatest success against Israel through Hezbollah in Lebanon. For years, Iran cultivated its organization as its religious, political, and military representative in that country. It transferred hundreds of millions of dollars directly to Hezbollah, and channeled, through… [read more]


Egypt Is Going Dissertation

… ¶ … Egypt is going to take in order to secure its interest in the Nile waters and in the Nile Basin countries, especially after the change of regime and the uprising of the Arab nations. Following the January 2011… [read more]


2010 National Security Strategy Assessment

… National Security Strategy

Over the last ten years, the U.S. has been actively involved in a war against Islamic terrorism. In many cases, this has led to military conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan. To deal with these challenges, the White House has introduced a comprehensive national security strategy. To fully understand what is taking place requires looking at the strategy for advancing peace, security and opportunity in the Middle East. Together, these elements will highlight how the federal government is addressing these challenges and what issues they need to consider in the future. ("National Security Strategy," 2010)

What is the key to advancing peace, security, and opportunity in the Middle East?

The biggest keys to advancing peace, security and opportunity are to use an approach that will address the political issues (i.e. The Arab -- Israeli conflict). In the past, the nation's support for Israel has been seen as a blank check of encouraging Israeli activities. This has created tension in the Arab world, who views the U.S. As bully and hypocrite. To deal with these challenges, the U.S. should tell Israel to stop with certain activities (i.e. settlement building). If there was a serious commitment on this and issues, it would lead to better relations with various groups inside the Arab world.

At the same time, there must be an emphasis on having the U.S. understand the issues that are most important to Israelis most notably: security guarantees and the right to exist. This requires that U.S. works actively with its partners to create a workable solution that will address the needs of both sides. This is how the U.S. can be able to deal with the root causes of the problem that are helping to promote Islamic extremism. ("National Security Strategy," 2010)

Evidence of this can be seen by looking no further than the U.S. National Security Strategy which says, "The United States seeks…… [read more]


Syria the Arab Spring Term Paper

… Syria

The "Arab spring" has become one of the most important movements in the Arab world of the last decades. It has resulted in the regime change in countries such as Egypt and Tunisia, with wide reverberations in Libya, Syria,… [read more]


Forgotten Refuges the Conflict Between Arabs Term Paper

… Forgotten Refuges

The conflict between Arabs and Jews is a long and intractable issue. The central features of the conflict have revolved around the rights of Arabs in Palestine to a homeland. There is however another face of the issue that has received very little attention from the media and is not factored into the assessment of the problem. That factor is the refugee status of hundreds of thousands of Jews who were dispossessed by Arabs. The forgotten refuges throw light on a missing conversation in the dialogue between Jews and the international community. The Jews who lived in North Africa and in other Middle Eastern countries were unfairly expelled during the 1940s.

The Jewish history in North Africa and the Middle East begins with the action of the Nebuchadnezzar the king of ancient Babylon (Iraq). Nebuchadnezzar captured thousands of Jews from Israel and carried them to Babylon in chains. In Babylon the Jews maintained their cultural forms and resisted much of the attempts by the Babylonians to integrate them into the culture. This captivity predates the action of Islamic peoples in North Africa and the Middle East. Consequently, the Jewish people were in these countries well before the Muslim conquerors came.

The major Jewish challenges began with the conquest of the Middle East and North Africa by the Muslims. The Muslim conquerors were an overwhelming force across the Middle East and North Africa; they took control of all the major cities. They were merciless as they sought to eradicate all forms of opposition. The Jews and Christian who were in those countries at the time were considered as "Dhimmi" or minority peoples. They were thought of a people of the book and should not be killed. This position was an inferior position compared to the Muslims.

The inferiority of the…… [read more]


Conflict Prevention Theory Essay

… Foreign Policy

United States Foreign Policy:

The Situation in the Middle East

The United States has been deeply entrenched politically in the Middle East since the discovery of oil in the 1930s. Before this time, France and Britain held loosely… [read more]


Greater Middle East Gulf Region Essay

… ¶ … Middle East/Gulf region

The Middle East region and in a large view the Greater Middle East is one of the most significant geographical, strategic, spiritual and historical areas of the world. It is found between two other great civilizations, the European and the Asian one and it is the origin of the most important religions besides the Asian ones like Christianity, Islam or Judaism. The Greater Middle East is also the birthplace of some of the most meaningful civilizations of mankind like the Sumerian, Assyrian, Babylonian, Egyptian, Persian or Median ones.

One of the most important socio-political events that took place in this tumultuous region was the seventh century Arabic conquest of the most part of the region, removing the Byzantine and Sassanid Persians from the area. The newly formed Muslim Empire, run by the Caliphs, was to dominate the Greater Middle Eastern region, and parts of Southern Europe until the middle of the eleventh century, creating an amazing civilization and culture, but most of all a religious identity that would be to remain almost intact in face of various other passing empires. The beginning of the end of the Arab Empire came with the Seljuq Turks who had a profound effect on the entire region, weakening and eliminating not only the Arabs but also the Christian Byzantine Empire. For the next two hundred years, the major force in the region became the Turks yet their lack of unity against the common enemies from the West and East did not allow them to continue their rule. The weakening of the fractured sultanates became obvious during the Western crusades started in 1099 and 1291 that cracked the force of the already fragile unity of sultanates.

The next large scale Empire that would have an influence in the Greater Middle East was the Ottoman Empire who came just after the Mongol hoards that advanced all the way to the borders of Egypt at the beginning of the thirteen-century. These were pushed back by predecessors of the ottomans, the Mamluk Turks that were able to keep the Ottoman influence lower in the Middle East until 1514. Before that, with the conquering in 1453 of Constantinople, and the following 1516 Syrian and 1517 Egyptian conquering,…… [read more]


Muhammad Ali in Egypt Thesis

… But they took away, for five centuries, the possibility of an independent Arab-dom, and Arab nationalists bore them considerable ill-will for it[footnoteRef:13]. The only 'Arab' state conquered by the Turks which was not in irremediable decay, was the Mamluk state… [read more]


Oslo Accords Jonathan Zaun Political A2 Coursework

… Extremists and radicals rallied their supporters to arms and the Second Intifada, otherwise known as the Al-Aqsa Intifada, was launched in earnest. This uprising of Palestinian youth and radical Islamists was fueled by a growing distrust of the Israeli government, a distrust which crystallized into violent rebellion following Sharon's controversial pilgrimage. Sharon is widely considered to be "the most reviled man in the Arab world," mainly because "his name is indelibly linked to the massacre of the Palestinian refugees in the camps of Sabra and Shatila following the Israeli invasion of Lebanon in 1982" (Shlaim 29), and his dubious decision to visit a Muslim holy shrine incited a wave of violence which continues to this day. To date, an estimated 6,500 Palestinians and 1,100 Israelis have lost their lives due to the suicide bombing campaigns and military incursions unleashed throughout the region during the Second Intifada, and negotiations for the pursuit of peace have been largely abandoned.

As the world enters yet another decade without a resolution to the conflict between Israel and Palestine, many commentators on both sides cite the Oslo Accords as perhaps the most promising, yet fleeting, chance to forge a lasting peace. The spirit of the framework enacted at Oslo was one of compromise and mutual recognition of the opponent's basic rights, and unfortunately, that spirit has been crushed by the will of current authorities who have forgone their duties to lead in lieu of their personal prejudices and stubborn displays of false strength. The current situation between Israel and Palestine, although improved since the pre-Oslo period, is still defined by distrust and destruction, and the ordinary citizens on both sides continue to pay the price for their leader's inaction. If a truly equitable solution is to ever be found, it is imperative that both Israel and Palestine revisit the terms of the Oslo Accords, reestablishing an environment in which compromise is permissible and the mutual acceptance of one another's place on the map is encouraged.

References

Arafat, Yasser. The Palestine Liberation Organization. Israel-PLO Letters of Mutual Recognition. Oslo: 1993. Print.

Frontline. "Shattered Dreams of Peace: The Road from Oslo." Frontline 02 Oct 2010: n. pag. Web. 25 Apr 2011. .

Hockstader, Lee. "Extreme Emotions Unleashed by Pact; Israeli, Arab Opponents Make Threats." Washington Post 24 Oct 1998: A16. Print.

Israeli Government Press Office (GPO). In 5 Years Since Oslo, More Israelis Have Been Killed by Palestinian Terrorists than in the 15 Years Prior to the Accord . Jerusalem: Government Press Office, 1998. Print.

Kessler, Glenn. "Netanyahu: 'America is a thing you can move very easily'." Washington Post 16 Jul 2010, Checkpoint Washington. Print Latuff, Carlos. "Right to Exist." Silver Lining. Web. 25 Apr 2011. .

Rabin, Yitzhak. Israel.…… [read more]


Constructivist Perspective: Barnett's Analysis of the Arab Essay

… ¶ … constructivist perspective: Barnett's analysis of the Arab state system

For many years, neorealism, or the 'black box' theory of nation-state behavior, dominated international political theory. Neorealism views state actors as pursuing national interests in a unified and direct fashion and stresses the importance of military and economic power in determining state behavior. "An international system is stable (i.e., in a stable equilibrium) if no state believes it profitable to change the system," according to neorealists (Barnett 1995: 487). However, according to constructivist theories of international development, the identity of state actors is an eternally changing cultural, political, and social problem (Hopf 1998: 176). According to constructivists, there are no a priori state interests, and power is not simply defined in economic and military terms (although these are understood to have an impact on geopolitics (Hopf 1998: 177). State identity must be situated and contextualized, and thus constructivists often conceive of the international political order as far more volatile than neorealists.

This idea of that the international political order is the product of a negotiation of social meanings seems particularly relevant to the Middle East, where apparently illogical actions by some state actors can be understood as a cultural product, rather than a purely tactical negotiation of power. Additionally, many non-state actors and forces (such as clans, terrorist organizations, and the influence of Islamic sects) can impact the evolution of policy. According to Michael Barnett's 1995 article, "Sovereignty, nationalism, and regional order in the Arab states system," "if Arab leaders were reluctant to treat each other as sovereign entities, frequently challenging one another's authority and territorial basis of existence, it was because of the presence of a rival institution of pan-Arabism that allocated potentially contradictory roles and behavioral expectations" (Barnett 1995: 484). The 'elastic' concept of Arab nationalism has battled, ideologically, with the idea of national sovereignty. According to constructivism, the fact that "nations are understood as having a shared identity, past, and future, and nationalism is a political movement that demands a correspondence between the nation and political author" makes it a thorny issue for the Middle East, as national unity and coherence seldom exists within current state borders, much less between all Arab nations (Barnett 1995:484).

Barnett notes that even neorealist analysts in the region admit that ideological concepts have an impact upon the politics of the Middle East. "the ability to manipulate one's own image and the image of one's rivals in the minds of other Arab elites," and the breakdown of Pan-Arabism after the Arab defeat during the 1967 war suggests that a narrow neoliberal understanding of Arab state actions cannot be supported with existing historical evidence (Barnett 1995:489). The great value, Barnett says, in using a constructivist approach is its emphasis on relationality, versus a 'black box' concept. 'Pan-Arab' institutions that facilitate cooperation arise not out of a perfectly rational calculation of mutual state interests,…… [read more]


Arafat's Images Examined Arafat's Origins and Early Essay

… Arafat's Images Examined

Arafat's Origins and Early Life

Oslo

Clinton Camp David Summit and the "Clinton Parameters"

Arafat's Death and Legacy

Yasser Arafat has been described throughout his career, both by many detractors and supporters, as the "father of the… [read more]


Future of a Place Strangling Term Paper

… ¶ … Future of a Place Strangling in Its Past

When one reads or watches news coverage of the Middle East, one can all to easily come away with the sense that there is nothing that can be done to… [read more]


Ancient History of Yemen Research Paper

… In the south it is important to remember that the League did not always have influence but it tried to do so without ceasing, frequently depending upon its own internal evolutionary strife and who its power brokers were at any… [read more]


Israel Palestinian Conflict Term Paper

… Middle East Simulations

From the beginning, the situation in the Middle East was contentious, with historic actions creating divisive issues between Palestinians and Israelis. In 63 B.C., Rome conquered Judea, the ancient Jewish homeland, and renamed it Palestine. Palestine was… [read more]


Lebanon How it Originated Conflicts Civil War Term Paper

… Lebanon, How it Originated, Conflicts, Civil War

The conflict between the Arabian world and Israel began after World War II.

Grand Britain had domination over the Middle East zone. Together with the Jews the British government conceived, under economical and… [read more]


Multinational Force and Its Mandate for Peacekeeping Term Paper

… Multinational Force and Its Mandate for Peacekeeping

Reasons for creation of MFO

The origin of Multinational Force and Observers -- MFO is traced back to the Annex I to the Treaty of Peace captioned 'Protocol Concerning Israeli Withdrawal and Security… [read more]


Future Wars of the Middle East Will Result Over Water Shortages Term Paper

… Water in the Middle East

Governments around the world have a primary concern over water availability and the Middle East and North Africa are no exception. The thesis evaluates the possibility of future wars throughout the Middle East and North… [read more]


Water Crisis in the Middle Term Paper

… As a part of the false campaign, the leaders of the Soviet Union visited Cairo, and stated that Israel had established about 12 to 13 brigades along the Syrian borders as a preparatory measure to launch attacks within a few… [read more]


Palestinian and Israeli Conflict in International Law Term Paper

… Palestinian and Israeli Conflict in International Law

History by itself and the differing views of history possibly play a very significant role in the conflict between the people of Palestine and Israel. Thus historical accounts and the interpretation of these… [read more]


1948?" it Will Inform Term Paper

… Some of the most popular films were "Hamlet," "Macbeth," with Orson Welles, "The Naked City," "Oliver Twist," and "The Fallen Idol." Popular songs included "Nature Boy," "Buttons and Bows," and "All I Want for Christmas is my Two Front Teeth."… [read more]


Resolution of the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict Term Paper

… But they simply cannot walk away from the territories, not in their aroused state, without guarantees they will be safe within their own borders." (The Washington Post, 2002)

Recent UN Resolution

The resolution that was put up recently in the UN Security Council was also welcomed by both Israel and Arafat, the former calling it 'balanced' and the latter 'a step forward.' But the problems to be tackled in this are:

What will be the borders between Israel and the proposed Palestine state,

What will be the fate of the Palestinian refugees who have been sanctioned the right to return to their homes which are now in Israel proper,

What will be the future of the Jewish settlements Israel has been building in the West Bank and Gaza etc.,

What will be the status of East Jerusalem.

The United States has to play a leading part in resolving the above issues. Only then will it be able to avoid a war in the Middle East in which it may find itself sucked in.

Summary and Conclusion

The only way to make peace proposals work is for the United States to make Israel withdraw to pre-1967 borders, but guarantee or help guarantee Israel's security, with or without UN involvement. Security guarantees from Arab nations or even the UN are not credible enough, given the situation on the ground. The United Nations is already there in a low-profile role. Only the United States can deliver a guarantee with credibility, but the problem is that the United States is strongly supporting one of the parties, viz., Israel, and providing the Israeli army with the military wherewithal which is only strengthening Sharon's stubbornness. As time passes, and the U.S. keeps itself preoccupied with the "axis of evil" ideas, it will go to reap more hostility of the Arab nations in the region. No let up in Arab suicide attacks is likely under these circumstacnes, which is also necessary for ending the stalemate. At present Israeli intransigence and Arab organizations' suicide attacks reinforce each other.

It is not possible for Yasser Arafat to restrain them without some gain to show for their legitimate rights. Perhaps some joint international peacekeeping team could persuade the parties to end the fighting and the resulting bloodshed for the time being as talks proceed. The problem of Israel is that if it gets rid of Arafat, the successors would be more extreme with regard to policies towards Israel.

Israeli retaliations on PLO installations and "claims to have ended bomb factories and terrorist dens "in the Palestinian areas are fruitless. They will not be able to buy security; they will only prolong the fighting and harden the intifada.

The attitude of the hawks in Israel is summed up in the following remark in the Christian Science Monitor in early March, 2002. "In word and deed, Israeli Prime Minister Ariel Sharon is fighting harder against the Palestinians, but without adopting the strategy of all-out war that some of his supporters advocate.... It… [read more]


Diversity in the UAE Today Research Proposal

… Methodology

The proposed study will use a qualitative research philosophy and methodology to develop informed answers to the above-stated research questions. Qualitative researchers have a number of different methodologies available, including case studies, ethnographies, phenomenological studies, grounded theory studies, as… [read more]


Geopolitical Analysis of China From the President's Perspective Essay

… Geopolitical Analysis of China From the President's Perspective

Agreement/Disagreement with author's opinion

Instruments of National Power

Analysis of entire region

Iran

Russia

Israel-Palestine Conflict and the role of U.S.

China

India

Africa

A Geopolitical Analysis of China from the President's… [read more]


Religion / Theology Reaching Out Thesis

… Tunisia is today a country that appears to be open for a spiritual as well as political transition. Tunisia received its independence from France in 1956, but future rulers were authoritarian and corrupt, hence there has been instability in this country of 10.7 million, 98% of whom are Arab and Sunni Muslim (Bishku, 2013, 57). There are four "distinct ethnic groups" in Tunisia: Arabs, Berbers, "dark-skinned people of sub-Saharan origin, and Jews" (Ennafaa, et. Al, 2006). The economy in Tunisia had been forecast to experience 5.4% growth; however the finance minister (Jalloul Ayed) announced a new forecast of just 1% growth, hence the need for a revitalized government approach to the economy (Maddy-Weitzman).

Women's rights have been part of the basis for the Arab uprisings against authority, and although the Holy Bible (in particular the Old Testament) makes women second-class citizens, and issues decrees against women teaching or speaking in church, in Tunisia (Megahed, et al., 2011) an upgrading of the status of women is part of the agenda for change, and modern Christians fully accept and promote the concept of gender-educational equality (Megahed, 57). To wit, women in Tunisia reportedly have "the highest rate of female literary… in the Arab world" (Maddy-Weitzman, 2011).

Maddy-Weitzman also points out that the multitude of demonstrators in Tunisia in 2011 demanded the separation of "mosque and state"; in other words, the government should not be imposing religious laws on people.

To date there are approximately 1,500 Christians in Tunisia and according to a post on Faithlafayette.org, Christians will appear on Tunisian television; we pray there will not be any persecution of those bringing missionary messages to Tunisians. There is historical evidence of…… [read more]


Middle East/Gulf Region Essay

… This proved to be essential in assisting them gain appreciation among Arabs, as change was practically difficult to observe and as conditions were largely similar to how they were before the rise of the Mamluk generals.

The Ottoman Empire eventually came to be defeated by a combined army of European forces with the British Empire leading them. The empire was dissolved during a decade, from 1908 and until 1918, with Arabs entering the modern era as members of a series of states expanding across the Greater Middle East / Gulf region. "Instead of permitting Arab unity, Britain issued the Balfour Declaration, which promised a homeland for the Jews in Palestine, and the Sykes-Picot Agreement, which led to the partitioning of geographical Syria into British and French spheres of control" (Barakat 6). While the British created a home for the Jewish population, they failed to acknowledge the unrest this would trigger in the Arab world and generally focused on reducing the threat of a united Arab peoples being able to regain their power.

The Cold War was an essential event that shaped the Arab World, as while British influence was no longer felt in the territory, Americans started to get actively involved in protecting countries like Greece and Turkey. This also meant that they were interested in nations further south and that, alongside of Britain, it would provide particular Arab countries with instructions, weapons, and support in fights against other Arab powers fueled by the Soviet Union.

Works cited:

Barakat, Halim, "The Arab World," (UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA PRESS, 1993).

Hourani, Albert Habib,…… [read more]


George W. Bush Administration Policy on Syria Essay

… Syria

An Analysis of the U.S.-Syrian Conflict

This paper will analyze the G.W. Bush Administration's justification for conflict with Syria and show how the disparate reasons of internal organs within the White House and those offered to the public by… [read more]


North Africa Research Paper

… North Africa

There is no set definition of North Africa (No author, 2012). It always includes the Maghreb countries that line the Mediterranean -- Libya, Tunisia, Algeria, Morocco, Mauritania -- as well Egypt, the Western Sahara and sometimes the Saharan nations of Niger, Chad and Mali. The predominant languages of the region are Arabic and Berber. All North African countries are majority Muslim countries, with only small Christian and Jewish minorities that date from antiquity. The region's history is ancient, and for centuries before and after the Roman Empire the region was politically fragmented. Arabs brought Islam and the Arabic language to the region centuries ago. More recently, Ottoman and French presence in the region contributed some cultural influences.

The NASP (2012) defines culture as "an integrated pattern of human behavior." Cultural artifacts include thoughts, communications, languages, practices, beliefs, values, customs, manners of interacting and roles, and relationship beliefs (Ibid). These arise from the history of influences of the region. As noted, the Muslim religion, Arabic and Berber languages are two important aspects of North African culture. The region's multiple influences (French, Arab, Ottoman, Berber) contribute to the rich culture. Of specific importance in leadership studies, elements like power distance and individualism are also important aspects of the culture. Geert Hofstede's work (2012) on Morocco can be used to highlight these latter two points, if extrapolated to the region at large.

Prior to Islam, North Africa was more seamlessly integrated into the same Mediterranean culture that Europe had. North Africa was part of the Roman Empire and had influences of cultures ranging from Greek to Egyptian to Phoenician, that latter having contributed Carthage, which today lies just outside Tunis. When Islam arrived, it quickly became the dominant religion of the region, relegating Christianity and Judaism to the status of distant minority religions in North Africa. Islam came to North Africa in the decades following the death of Mohammed. Islam cut off North Africa culturally from Mediterranean Europe and this has shaped the prominent role of Islam in North African culture today. Yet, the Islam practiced in North Africa is more moderate than that practiced in the Arab world, though both derive from the Sunni school (Jenkins, 2004). This reflects the influence of Mediterranean culture and Berber beliefs, which temper the hardline Islam of many Arab states.

The Arabic language is another critical element of North African culture. It was brought to the region during the spread of Islam, and gained its prominence as a liturgical language. It serves the function today as a lingua franca, having proven more viable in that role that languages that were introduced to the region later, such as Turkish or French. The Berber language is still spoken, providing a sense of differentiation from…… [read more]


Secret Life of Saeed: The Pessoptimist Essay

… ¶ … Secret Life of Saeed: The Pessoptimist" as a work of Palestinian Fiction

Emile Habiby's 1974 book "The Secret Life of Saeed: The Pessoptimist" puts across an account involving both tragic and comic elements, making it possible for readers… [read more]


Foreign Investment in Saudi Arabia Term Paper

… ¶ … percent of the world's proven oil and gas reserves, the Saudi Arabian government has embarked on an aggressive initiative to diversify the country's economy and provide new employment opportunities for young Saudi nationals entering the job market. As… [read more]


Applying Negotiation Skills to Bill Thesis

… Conclusions

Both the parties got the best result as far as getting national interest related conditions were concerned. While Egypt got the Sinai Desert back, it didn't make any progress on the Palestinian Issue, while the Israeli were able to… [read more]


Iran Instability Thesis

… ]

Rise in occurrences of terrorism

It was back in 1979 when Islamic Revolution was complete and since then Iran has grown consistently to be among those countries that actively support terrorism and terrorist cells across the world. Tehran is… [read more]


U.S. Invasion of Iraq- Reasons Essay

… 1. Economic Reason

The economic factors played a pivotal role in compelling United States to invade Iraq. It is believed by many intellectuals that the motives of war announced by the U.S. government had nothing to do with the invasion… [read more]


Golda Meir's Multinational Upbringing Essay

… Golda Meir's multinational upbringing, along with her visionary spirit, made her one of the most influential leaders in the twentieth century.

To explore this amazing woman's life, this paper will look at:

Biographical overview of Meir's early life

Meir's political… [read more]


Pij International Terrorism Pij (Palestinian Islamic Jihad) Thesis

… PIJ

international Terrorism

PIJ (Palestinian Islamic Jihad): History, motivations, tactics, political goals, ideology, and violent actions

The Palestinian Islamic Jihad (PIJ) was created in 1979 as an alternative to the Egyptian Palestinian Muslim Brotherhood. Its founders were the Egyptian students… [read more]


Criminal Justice and Terrorism Term Paper

… Hostilities end for a while, but they always flare up again, due to hostilities or actions of one side or the other. Israel has inflamed the process by taking additional lands during wars, and the Arab world has inflamed the process by attacking Israel and her allies in suicide bombings and other violent incidents. There is so much hatred between the Arabs and the Jews that it is difficult to see them ever coming to some kind of agreement, and other countries sometime only inflame the process by getting involved. The United States should not give up on the peace process in the Middle East. They should continue to try to get the two sided to agree on peace, but it does not seem that anyone can really get the two parties to agree on anything, and so, even with U.S. involvement, peace seems to be a long time away from ever reaching…… [read more]


Psychology - Perspectives the Influence of Psychological Essay

… Psychology - Perspectives

THE INFLUENCE of PSYCHOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVE

Two subjects were asked to watch the same news report and then to characterize and explain the current conflict between the Israeli Defense Force (IDF) and the members of Hamas in the Gaza Strip in the Middle East.

"Israel has no choice but to defend her homeland and her citizens. Israel returned the Gaza Strip to the Palestinian Authority in 2005 hoping to facilitate a lasting peace. Israel first captured the territory in a purely defensive war in 1967 after first being attacked by five Arab countries simultaneously. In modern times, territory captured in wartime (especially in defensive wars not initiated by the victors) is not ordinarily ever returned to the instigators of war. Nevertheless, Israel vacated the Gaza

Strip specifically to reduce tension and violence against Israel perpetrated by Palestinians and their sympathizers.

Instead of seeking peace, Hamas has been using the Gaza Strip to launch thousands of missiles at Israeli population centers. Israel has exercised tremendous restraint for years, but eventually had no choice but to take the necessary steps to protect her citizens from these unprovoked attacks. Because Hamas refuses to stop launching missiles and because Hamas purposely does so from civilian facilities (in addition to hiding weapons caches in schools and mosques), Israel has no choice but to destroy these facilities. As a civilized nation, Israel makes every possible effort to avoid civilian casualties, even going so far as to make phone calls to civilians in targeted areas notifying them to evacuate before launching retaliatory attacks on facilities and buildings from which Hamas rockets have been launched. Unfortunately, civilian casualties still occur, but the fault lies with Hamas for purposely using civilians as human shields for their offensive attacks on a peaceful nation.

In general, the same Arab countries who have continually attacked the peaceful nation of Israel since 1948 are responsible for the plight of the so-called Palestinian refugees.' Those refugees are descendants of the Arabs who were living peacefully in Israel until Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Lebanon, and Syria implored them to leave Israel to avoid becoming casualties of their aggressive wars intended to capture the entire country of Israel. Instead of welcoming those Arab 'refugees' into their countries, after losing their unprovoked wars against Israel, those Arab countries have purposely refused to do so for more than 40 years because of the political value of leaving their own people in refugee camps to inspire hatred of Israel wherever possible.

The United Nations 1948 resolution to establish the Jewish homeland in Israel after World War II was necessitated by the fact that the European Jews who survived the Nazi Holocaust were not welcome anywhere else. The ridiculous Palestinian demand for a right of return for all the descendants of those Arabs who voluntarily left Israel before 1967 would effectively eliminate the Jewish homeland by virtue of their sheer numbers" (Evans, 2008).

Subject #2 - "Israel is committing war crimes against innocent civilians in Gaza, as well as… [read more]


Anwar Sadat's Address to the Knesset 1977 and Begin's Reply Thesis

… ¶ … Anwar Sadat's address to the Israeli Knesset on November 20, 1977 and Menachem Begin's reply. This historic occasion marked a decided attempt for the Egyptian Arabs and Israeli Jews to bury their differences and bring peace to the… [read more]


Geography Israel: Resource Limitations Requiring Specialization Term Paper

… Geography

Israel: Resource Limitations Requiring Specialization

The geography and resource distribution of Israel has a significant impact on the economic and political success of the nation, perhaps as much as its embattled relationship with its neighbors and the Palestinians. Because of Israel's relatively small size -- 8,019 square miles or roughly the size of the state of New Jersey -- the nation has significant limitations placed on its available natural resources (Linge 79). Combined with this resource reality is a compromised geographical position that surrounds the nation with political enemies, a modified Mediterranean climate, and a wide variety of terrains and microclimates. In whole, the economic and political success of Israel is very much dependent on these factors as will be evident from a discussion of the nation's geographic position and features as well as its resulting economic vitality.

Israel is located in the Middle East along the southeastern edge of the Mediterranean Sea between Egypt and Lebanon. The climate is a temperate modification of the classical Mediterranean climate with hot and dry summers and short, rainy winters. The terrain is quite varied for a nation of its diminutive size with the large Negev Desert to the south, low coastal regions to the west, and central mountainous regions (Linge 79). Rainfall varies significantly throughout the region, with the lowest amounts obviously recorded in the southern Negev Desert. Overall, though, Israel is a dry country, a fact that limits major agricultural production to fertile river valleys and areas in the nation. In particular, the Qishan River and the Jordan River provide much of the arable land in the nation (Safran and Pollock 520-521).

Limited freshwater supplies compound the problems associated with the limited amount of arable land in the nation. Along with desertification and pollution concerns, agricultural production is severely limited in Israel ("Israel"). As of 2007, agricultural production only constituted 2.6% of the country's GDP and only employed about 6% of the nation's population (Safran and Pollock 531). As a result, Israel is a heavy importer of staple crops such as grains and has generally specialized the agricultural economy to export luxury crops such as fruits and vegetables. Citrus fruits, in particular, are successfully grown along the western coastal region and are one of Israel's most profitable agricultural exports ("Israel"; Linge 80).

An examination of Israel's other leading exports highlights specific natural and geographic limitations that the nation faces. Other major exports include cut diamonds, high-tech equipment, computer software, chemicals, and military equipment ("Israel"; "Country Profile"; Linge 79). In total, these are industries which…… [read more]


Economic Strategies in the Middle East What Emerging Strategy Is Winning Term Paper

… Economic Strategies in the Middle East: What Emerging Strategy Is Winning?

This paper analyzes the drivers of economic growth in five Middle Eastern countries: Israel, Qatar, Dubai, Saudi Arabia and Kuwait. Despite the disparate nature of their economic and political… [read more]


Democracy Survive in a Patrimonial State? Term Paper

… ¶ … Democracy Survive in a Patrimonial State?

Like other areas of the world, the Middle East is today very much a product of colonialism. Even though the Middle Eastern nations of Palestine, Egypt, Jordan, and Iran have long been… [read more]


Foreign Policy Towards the Middle East Term Paper

… Foreign Policy Towards the Middle East

The Administration's New Middle Eastern Policy

Peace, the promise of a new United States image in the region, and greater independence from the nations that would harm us. These must be the goals of… [read more]


U.S. Foreign Policy and the Middle East Term Paper

… U.S. Foreign Policy and the Middle East

At the time of writing this report, U.S. foreign policy in the Middle East has taken a new twist. Israel has chosen to demolish all norms of the international laws in bombing civilian… [read more]


Discrimination There Are Many Different Term Paper

… The discriminated group would receive lesser wages as compared to the non-discriminated group or the discriminating group. These discriminations are as such based on the difference in personal characteristics like the age, sex, religion, race, nationality or education of the individual. In the case above the discrimination is mostly due to the race than any other factor. Both the Israeli and Palestinian need to accept each other and look past differences. Although the fault is not solely of the Jewish side, the Jewish side should train their people and notify industrialists and policy makers that the Arab population should be given an equal opportunity. Further they should also be allowed to put industries and bring themselves out of the poverty that they are in now. There are many examples all over the globe where people are discriminated on the basis of gender. A woman is paid less than a man. This is highly unfair and should be avoided under all circumstances. All forms of discrimination should be avoided by the people and everyone should be paid fairly and dealt with justly. Human resource managers face and deal with a large diversity of people and they play an important part in eliminating the discrimination that is found to exist in society today. After the September 11 attacks on the world trade center the Muslims had become the target to this discrimination in the United States. Muslims were being looked at as if every one of them is a terrorist. Not only was this true for the general public but for large firms and organizations. Many of them lost their jobs because of this discrimination.

As a resource manager it would be important for me to be impartial to the race, gender, age or any other factors that are normally the cause of discrimination. To solve the case described above, the resource manager needs to be strict in his evaluation and be unbiased. Awareness should be brought about in a person that being an Arab does not mean that he or she is a terrorist or they hate you. As a human resource I would be unbiased and assess the candidate based on his qualification regardless of whether he is an Arab or a Jew. If he deserves the job that he is applying for then he should be hired. The above case shows that Arabs are given all the lower positions and as a human resource manager it would be important for me to deal with this situation. Regardless of race the person will be given the position that he is qualified for. Any employee that is discriminated against should also be compensated for. He should not feel that he is being discriminated against. If a person deserves a top job with a high pay then there is no reason why he should not get that job. He should be adequately paid for what he is doing. The wages should be the same whether he is of one race or the… [read more]


Intifada 1987-1993 Term Paper

… ¶ … Intifada

On December 9, 1987, 1.5 million Palestinian Arabs living in areas conquered and occupied by Israel after the Six-Day war in 1967 began an uprising (Goell, 1989). Called the "intifada," and later the "first intifada," the unrest… [read more]


Intended to Give an Insight Term Paper

… ¶ … intended to give an insight into the Middle East with emphasis on the areas of concern namely Israel and Palestine, and Iraq. The viewing of the situation is from the Conservative point-of-view and taking into consideration the growing… [read more]

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