Study "Israel / Palestine / Arab World" Essays 111-165

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Politics of Monarchical Survival in Jordan and Morocco Term Paper

… ¶ … politics of Monarchical Survival in Jordan and Morocco

Introduction broader perspective view into the forms of monarchy prevalent in the present day world in general defines the common peculiarities of the modern monarchies. Some of the monarchies are… [read more]


United States' Task of Setting Term Paper

… S.S.R. broke up, and now is strategically important because we can use those bases as we did during our war on the Al-Queda in Afghanistan, and as we may if we go to war with Iraq over weapons of mass… [read more]


Politics Term Paper

… This was planned to be achieved by preventing the export of all products that originated in Iraq or Kuwait and the shipment to the same.

The U.S. response to Iraq's invasion on Kuwait was, however an exception. Israel, so far has violated many more UN Security Council resolutions than any other nation but United States has never responded to those violations in the same manner. In fact the U.S. government has always supported Israel even in defiance of UN resolutions. Not only is Israel the "most extensive violator" but also the "largest recipient of U.S. military and economic aid" (Zunes, 2002) and "even before Iraq's invasion of Kuwait, Americans favored Israel over Arab nations by a wide margin -- 40 per cent to 19 per cent" (Eizenstat, 1990). For instance recently, Israel refused to accept the suggestions regarding peace out forward by the Arab League, literally in violation of UN Security Council resolutions 242 and 338 which are the basis for Middle East peace. Violation of other UN Security Council resolutions consist of resolutions 262 and 267 that ordered Israel to withdraw its forces from East Jerusalem, as well as those of the Fourth Geneva Convention. These violations came in the form of deportations, destruction of civilian homes, collective punishment, and capture of private property. In addition to the above, UN Security Council resolutions 446 and 465 require that Israel withdraw all of its forces from the illegal occupied Arab lands. In face of such violations, the United States continues to be mute or actively support if circumstances permit. For instance, the U.S. government argues that the outcome of the illegal Israeli settlements is a function of Israeli-Palestinian negotiations. Furthermore, "the Clinton Peace Plan of December 2000 would have allowed Israel to illegally annex most of these settlements and surrounding areas into Israel" (Zunes, 2002). Not only has the U.S. government been aiding the economy and military budgets of Israel generally, it has also funded Israel's construction of Jewish-only "bypass roads" in the occupied West Bank. By doing this, the U.S. has provided Israel with a way to connect the illegal settlements with itself. Not only has Israel violated UN resolutions but also the United States by breaching Article 7 of resolution 465, which disallows member states from helping Israel in its colonization drive.

US RESPONSE TO THE 1948 WAR OF INDEPENDENCE

Apart from the recent examples of U.S. policy towards Israel, there have been historical instances as well. As early as the 1948 War of Independence, when Jews engaged in large-scale offensives against Arabs following the UN announcement of partition of Palestine, America has been its ally. After the battle at Deir Yassin, the partition of Palestine was confirmed and Israel the Jewish State, was born on May 14, 1948 (Bard, 1998). However the Arab countries of Egypt, Syria, Transjordan, Lebanon, and Iraq wanted to save the Holy Land and hence a war began between these Arab armies and the Jews of Palestine. Though the combined forces of Arab… [read more]


Israeli-Palestinian Situation Term Paper

… However, the Unites States has started to interfere more actively in the conflict in order to protect its other interests that are in the region, although the frustration at the lack of progress in persuading calm has led the United States government to give increasing support to Israel's position.

Analysis and role of surrounding countries

Israel's relations with each one of its Arab neighbors are nearly always part of a multi-lateral equation. Thus, one can observe relations with Egypt that are linked to Israel's views and concerns about other Arab states. On the other hand, Palestine is closely connected to relations with Jordan, and relation with Jordan are linked to Iraq. Furthermore, Syria and Lebanon are clearly inter-related issues.

All these surrounding countries have given its immense support in solving this issue. However, Israel's relations with its neighbors are barely ever strictly two-sided. Consequently, in the Israeli frame of mind it is never simply an Israeli-Palestinian equation, but one in which it is incumbent upon Israel to relate to Palestine within a context that includes other regional players, above and beyond the Palestinians.

Therefore, the peace process between the two countries, which has both domestic politics and varied views, and support of governments is not the product of an ideological change in the way that the Arab world particular Palestine and its surrounding countries had changed its attitudes towards Israel nor have most Israelis have changed their ideological perceptions.

Conclusion

Despite the irregular attempts made by the United States and other countries, which also include the surrounding states to arbitrate in the conflict, with Israelis and Palestinians so disillusioned. However, the progress in peace efforts have still being tried by al the nations collectively that also include the Arab States

Israel, which is geo-politically, situated at the core of two concentric circles with its inner one surrounding hold those countries that are engaged in the peace process. Whereas the outer circle contains countries like Iran and Iraq are not involved in these negotiations but still maintaining its positions of extreme antagonism towards Israel. Thus, the only solution for both countries is to seek and create zone of peace within the two states. Israel may be the most powerful state in the region, but simultaneously, the Israelis cannot change the fact that in the Middle East; they are only minority, and a…… [read more]


Why Saladin and Al-Kamil Made Gestures of Peace to the Christian West Reaction Paper

… ¶ … Crusades Through Arab Eyes, Part Five, and Six

Recurring themes in this section are the struggle among the Arabs between fighting and not fighting the Western world. Some withdrawals from battles, for instance, were seen by third parties as weaknesses. This is true in the case of Mosul historian who is somewhat critical of Saladin's response at Tyre. The historian accuses Saladin of allowing the Franks to turn Tyre into a fortress where armies could regroup and refresh themselves. Why, the historian wonders, does not Saladin attack Tyre and raze it to the ground?

However, Saladin is a warrior who would just as soon pursue peace if at all possible. For instance, generations have judged sultan Saladin graciously, stating that "his repugnance for needless bloodshed, his strict respect for his commitments, and the touching nobility of his acts of compassion are as valuable as his conquests" (Maalouf 204). This then is a ruler who is not out to eliminate his enemies and wipe them from the earth but rather to protect nobly his kingdom and to use force when necessary, peace when possible. However, historians also agree that when Saladin took Jerusalem, he was essentially igniting a fire under the Western Christians, and that he should have been aware of this and the possibility of Tyre serving as a stronghold for the same Christian forces. Thus, Saladin's subsequent siege of Tyre, which was not whole-hearted, serves to support the Mosul historian's criticism. But why did Saladin withdraw from Tyre? This is an important question for discussion. The fact is that Saladin was "weary" (Maalouf 204) of battle and historians may judge and criticize but until they are actually on the front and dealing with battle directly and personally it is easy to say that one should have done this or should have done that. The reality is much less clear and battle fatigue is a serious problem that must be considered.

The spiritual side of Saladin is also evident in this section of the reading. When Saladin dies, his face lights up at the thought of seeing God "when the shaykh read the verse that says, There is no God but God, on him alone do I rely" (Maalouf 217). This shows that Saladin had a deep reliance and faith in God and this should also be considered deeply when we think of the Arab world and its leaders, who are portrayed today in Western media as unthinking brutes. This is not the case. Saladin's death serves as a good example of how this is not the case. Another good discussion question is this: How did Saladin embody the nobility of the Arab world and what does it say for that same world when after his death it is "dismembered" and given out to internal struggles and conflicts? Does it not suggest that…… [read more]


Cross-Cultural Counseling: South Asian Americans, Native Americans and Middle Eastern Term Paper

… There have been three major explanations advanced for these conditions:

1. Many South Asian-Americans have achieved significant financial success and community members are focused on maintaining cultural integrity and cohesion, as well as a positive image to the outside world… [read more]


Protests Against Government Research Paper

… Saudi Arabian Street Art

Saudi Arabian Art

The people of countries and civilizations use a variety of forms and functions to express themselves and to make light of or bring concern to their daily lives and/or how they view the… [read more]


And Hospitality Industry Research Paper

… The elements that were regarded as most important in this revolution were: justice, which is referred to as adalah, freedom, which is referred to as hurriyah, dignity, which is referred to as karamah, and respect, which is referred to as… [read more]


Christian Missionary Work in Iraq Today Research Paper

… Family. Pursuant to mixture of shari'a law and civil law, men are the heads of the household and of Iraqi society.

Some indication of the composition of contemporary Iraqi families can be discerned from the breakdown of the current Iraqi… [read more]


Intervention and the Civil War Essay

… Intervention and the Civil War:

The end of the Western military intervention in Arab and Islamic countries appeared to have come to an end by early 2010 following the embarrassment of the United States and its Western allies in Iraq… [read more]


Individuals Are Unable to Comprehend the Importance Essay

… ¶ … individuals are unable to comprehend the importance of truly appreciating life and they end up realizing that they spent most of their life struggling to build a reputation and a fortune that they never get to enjoy. This… [read more]


Saudi Consultant Council vs. National Assembly of Kuwait Research Paper

… ¶ … Consultative Assembly of Saudi Arabia

3A brief History of the Saudi Arabia's consultative assembly

National Assembly of Kuwait

Majlis al-Ummah (Council of the Ummah)

Similarities between Majlis al-Ummah and Majlis al-Ummah

Differences

Good leadership is required for democracy… [read more]


Camp David Accords Camp Davids Case Study

… Prime Minister Begin achieved both of his main goals; he wanted to secure a peace treaty and demilitarize Sinai Peninsula without compromising on the Palestinian issue.

On the other side, President Sadat was successful in getting Israeli withdrawal from Sinai… [read more]


Epic Encounters Images Reaction Paper

… They were also motivated by the Supreme Court decision allowing abortion in 1973, the ban on prayer in public schools, and hostility to feminism and gay rights, but in foreign affairs they always favored a strong military, nationalistic suspicion of the United Nations and other global organizations, anti-Communism and total support for Israel against Arabs and Muslims.

Among the most powerful images that had a major impact on American culture and politics were those associated with the 444-day Hostage Crisis in Iran from 1979-81. A failed rescue mission in 1980 and the oil shock that led to another doubling of oil prices and a spike in inflation and unemployment all damaged Jimmy Carter's presidency irreparably. It also led to a patriotic revival in the U.S. with the first Yellow Ribbon campaigns, and along with Vietnam and Watergate was one of the "most widely covered stories in television history" (McAlister 198). All television newscasts began with a count of how many days the hostages had been held, and frequently showed frenzied mobs burning American flags in Tehran for the benefit of the cameras. All this led to the election of Ronald Reagan in 1980, with his "determined reassertion of U.S. political and military hegemony in the Middle East" (McAlister 199). From this point onward, Islam merged in the public mind with terrorism, which was reinforced by September 11, 2001 and many other terrorist attacks. Reagan and later George H.W. Bush intervened regularly in the Middle East, by supporting Iraq in the war of 1980-88, sending Marines to Lebanon, bombing Libya in 1986, and then defeating Saddam Hussein in 1990-91 after he invaded Kuwait. Few Americans knew the real history of Iran of the Middle East, of course, such as the 1953 CIA coup or American support for his SAVAK secret police. He had been a major Cold War ally and supporter of Israel who and purchased $9 billion in U.S. weaponry in 1972-76, but few Americans realized he was also a highly ruthless and corrupt autocrat (McAlister 204).

Even today, with democratic revolutions sweeping the Middle East, many Americans are preoccupied with these same issues, especially the fear that toppling secular dictators will open the door to increased Islamic radicalism and terrorism, and will also be a threat to the security of Israel. This is still particularly true on the conservative side of the political spectrum and among evangelical Protestants, who routinely criticize Obama for not having a more aggressive foreign policy, failing to support Israel sufficiently or back pro-U.S. dictators and monarchs -- no matter that Obama has effectively accepted almost all of the conservative-Republican foreign policy. In American culture and politics, these images and attitudes about Islam, Israel, the Middle East and Arabs seem to have been locked in place for decades, and the dominant narrative is generally as McAlister has outlined in her book. Much is this has very little relationship with what is actually happening on the ground in the Middle East, but a great deal more… [read more]


Ethical Consequences of Libya Article

… In the past it is evident that the U.S. had used its position as a super power to pressure other countries in the supreme council to support its personal agenda. Protection of civilian and innocent lives is important. The right way would be to support the U.S., France and the United Kingdome in there pursuit against stopping any more massacre. But we should also keep in mind that history might be repeating itself here, it might be possible that the U.S. might be using its influence in the Supreme Council to pursue other nations to support its own personal agenda. We have to keep in mind that Libya may suffer the same consequence as Afghanistan and Iraq.

Relationships. People see ethics getting done only when we treat others like we would ourselves to be treated. This golden rule is preached with equal passion by Muslims, Jewish and Christian's theologies. But the two questions asked everywhere are: Does the Arab world support the Libyan invasion? If they do then why? Also what is the role of the rebels in this scenario, what will they do once peace is restored?

Why do they want Qaddafi to step down? The answers to these questions are simple and known to everyone. The Arab world wants protection; hence they are supporting the intervention by other countries to stop Qaddafi. The rebels want Qaddafi to step down, and possibly kill him too. So everything needs to be considered, what a future Arab world or Libyan world, or coalition world wishes to be done.

Hence the Golden Rule, in other words encourages us to consider a lot of "others." Whatever the action the global community takes for or against Libya, the consequences one will see in the coming future. Whatever the people of Libya decide for themselves amidst the protests by the rebels, the consequences of that too shall be revealed soon. The point of the argument here is, that whatever action internally or externally is taken, the foundations of communication and relationship between Libya and the world will be laid. Given Qaddafi's disgrace, few would ask, "If I were Qaddafi, what would I want to do"? A more daring question would be "if I were a citizen in a coalition country, hammered by economic hardships, would I want my government to shift its focus away from my plight and invest in a military campaign? Finally the question of relationships can be asked in reverse: "If I stood by and did nothing, would I risk creating long-term negative relationships?"

In Libya, a lot of approaches may be tested. But our responsibility, as citizen of Global community is to calculate the highest possibility of saving lives, determining what is right and then speak for it.

References

May, Larry. "Crimes against Humanity." Ethics & International Affairs 20, no. 3 (2006): 349+.

Altman, Andrew. "The Persistent Fiction of Harm to Humanity." Ethics & International Affairs 20, no. 3 (2006): 367+.

Flynn, Jeffrey. "Habermas on Human Rights: Law, Morality, and Intercultural… [read more]


Global Water Crisis Book Report

… Bibliography

Al-Bab.com 2009, Water in the Middle East, viewed 2011, http://www.ab-bab.com.

Allan, JA 2003, 'Virtual Water - The Water, Food and Trade Nexus', Water International, vol 28, no. 1, pp. 4-11.

Al-Tamimi, J 2003, Many Arab Countries Face Serious Water Shortages, viewed March 2011, http://www.globalpolicy.org/securituy/natres/water/2003/0219life.htm.

Atlas of a Thirsty Planet 2002, viewed October 2010, http://www.nature.com/nature/focus/water/renewable_map.html.

Barlow, M 2008, Blue Covenant: The Global Water Crisis and the Coming Battle for the Right to Water, New Press, New York.

Briscoe, Postel and de Villiers 2001, Water Woes, viewed October 2010, http://whyfiles.org/131fresh_water/credits.html.

DeVillers, M 2001, Water: The Fate of Our Most Precious Resource, Mariner Books, Baltimore.

ENCOP 1995, 2005, Environmental and Conflicts Project, viewed March 2011, http://www.mideastweb.org/Mew_water95.pdf.

Lovelock, J 2000, Gaia: A New Look at Life on Earth, Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Mideast Web.org 2002, Water in the Middle East Conflict, viewed March 2011, http://www.mideastweb.org/water.htm.

Picow, M 2009, Analyzing the Middle East Water Crisis, viewed March 2011, http://www.greenprophet.com/2009/02/water-israel-jordan/.

Shiva, V 2002, Water Wars: Privitization, Pollution, and Profit, South End Press, Brooklyn, NY.

U.S. State Department 2009, Middle East Overview, viewed March 2011, http://www.state./gov/documents/organization.31942.pdf.

Works Cited

"Atlas of a Thirsty Planet." July 2002. Nature.com. October 2010 .

Barlow, M. Blue Covenant: The Global Water Crisis and the Coming Battle for the Right to Water. New York: New Press, 2008.

Briscoe, Postel and de Villiers. "Water Woes." May 2001. The University of Wisconsin. October 2010 .

DeVillers, M. Water: The Fate of Our Most Precious Resource. Baltimore: Mariner Books, 2001.

Lovelock, J. Gaia: A New Look at Life on Earth. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000.

Shiva, V. Water Wars: Privitization, Pollution, and Profit. Brooklyn, NY: South End Press, 2002.… [read more]


Socialist Zionist Beliefs Colin Shindler Observed Essay

… Socialist Zionist Beliefs

Colin Shindler observed in What do Zionists Believe? that "Zionism is seen in pejorative terms today…At worst, 'Zionist' is used as a term of abuse, an epithet to be hurled at anyone who does not see the… [read more]


Impact of Imperialism on the Middle East Term Paper

… Imperialism in the Middle East

The Impact of Imperialism in the Middle East

Imperialism and Decolonization:

A Case Study of Egypt and Iraq

In this paper, a discussion will be offered on the consequences of Western imperialism, notably British, that… [read more]


Rise and Decline of Nationalism Research Paper

… Rise and Decline of Nationalism in the West and East

The use of nationalism as a source of political, economic, and societal engagement has had and maintains a prevalent role in recent and past history. The origins of World War… [read more]


Oil Embargo in 1973 by OAPEC Thesis

… 1973 Oil Embargo and International Trade Issues

What happened in 1973 to cause OPEC (Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries) to cut off the flow of oil to the U.S. And other Western nations? And what was the impact of that… [read more]


Causes of the Persian Gulf War Term Paper

… Persian Gulf War

Causes of the Persian Gulf War

International Level

There are three basic things that can be attributed to the cause of the Iraqi invasion of Kuwait in 1990. The first of these things is that Iraq had… [read more]


Prince Alwaleed Bin Talal Research Proposal

… Prince Alwaleed Bin Talal

He was born in Saudi Arabia in 1957. His paternal grandfather, Abdul-Aziz bin Saud, united the Arabian peninsula and formed the kingdom of Saudi Arabia, while his maternal grandfather, Riad al-Solh, was the first prime minister of the Republic of Lebanon. His father, Prince Talal, was the brother of the king of Saudi Arabia. Despite his influential and wealthy family tree, Bin Talal is proud of the fact that he earned his fortune through his own hard work. He became a "self-made" billionaire at the age of 31, and is listed annually as one of the richest men in the world. (Answers.com 2008)

Global Business Leader

Alwaleed got his start in Saudi real estate and earning commissions from foreign contractors during Saudi Arabia's building boom in the 1980s. He then got into the banking business by buying and merging together Saudi banks.

Though Prince Alwaleed bin Talal came to public attention in the U.S. when Rudy Giuliani rejected his $10 million donation to the Twin Towers fund, Alwaleed's real significance is as a global financial powerbroker. Alwaleed, as he's known to most in the Middle East, is the largest single foreign investor in the U.S. economy, with interests in almost everything that touches the American lifestyle. (Khan, Alwaleed: Businessman Billionaire Prince 2005)

Like investment guru Warren Buffett, Alwaleed became hugely successful through consecutive strategic high-profile investments, earning him the respect of Wall Street. His significant holdings in U.S. companies include Citigroup (which he bailed out with $590 million in the early '90s), Apple and News Corp., the corporate entity responsible for this "authorized biography." (Khan, Alwaleed: Businessman Billionaire Prince 2005)

His prominent family ties in Saudi Arabia as well as in Lebanon lead him, a Muslim who identifies with Western ways and champions reform, to serve as a bridge between the Middle East and the West.

Alwaleed is not part of the ruling executive within the House of Saud and has generally kept out of politics. However, he has recently started to make overt political statements in his press releases and interviews. His views can be seen as critical of Saudi traditionalism, proposing reforms to elections, women's rights and the economy. He has also openly criticized operation of the state-owned oil company, Saudi Armco. Hanadi Hindi. (Khan, Alwaleed: Businessman Billionaire Prince 2005)

Princely Personality?

He is driven, precise, highly ambitious, demanding, fast-paced and extremely detailed-oriented man with a photographic memory. He will stop at nothing to reach his goals, yet he fights for women's rights. He rose from royal Prince starting with $30,000 to a net worth of over $24 billion dollars in less than 25 years. He is respected by CEOs and heads of state from around the globe.

He is extremely punctual and has such a demanding travel schedule that his entourage can't keep up. He gets by with very little sleep (4 to 6 hours). Where ever he goes, he must have access to a telephone and a television. His phone bill is… [read more]


Mcdonald's in Saudi Thesis

… ¶ … qustions to answer on Human rights, order and Justice

McDonald's in Saudi Arabia

History of McDonald's in Saudi Arabia

The American fast food giant and ultimately, the cultural symbol which is McDonald's, entered the Saudi Arabian market in… [read more]


Iraq the Deep Prints That the Middle Term Paper

… Iraq

The deep prints that the Middle East civilization has put upon Iraq are still obvious, regardless the late tragic history of this controversial country. The etymology itself of the name of this country was inspired by the Middle East, and it expresses the name of a plant that is very popular in those places. The difficulties and hardships that Iraq was put in the situation to cope with are elements that have greatly affected the traditions and customs brought here by the Middle East. (Hourani: 1997).

Iraq, in its complexity of culture, has been affected by the American and British occupation and hence, the Iraqi customs and traditions taken from the Middle East have suffered important changes. The changes which have occurred are reflected in the domains of language, culture, civilization and traditions. The life of the Iraq population has been greatly changed and the tragic incidents that had place inside this area have greatly changed the lives of the people in this country. (Hourani, 1997).

The Middle East influences upon Iraq have been notable ones throughout history and they have left behind very important features in all the domains regardless of the importance. Iraq was even lead by Middle East guidelines, before the tragic war occurred.

As a conclusion, we may regard this previously rich state in culture and traditions as a completely different one from the time the civil war was started and lead inside this region. Iraq will never lose its basic customs and structures borrowed from the Middle East. It will only need a complete reconstruction regarding its destroyed domains and fields of politics. (Tripp, 2002).

The Middle East became Arab for about a millennium now, as the historical researches have shown us so far. Almost all the particularities, traditions, customs and even politics of government have slowly but surely became Arab during the Arabian occupation and influence. (Hourani, 1997).

Even if Iraq has been put through a tragic war and through numerous popular civilian revolts and fights, the basic features borrowed from the Arabic world have not been completely destroyed.

Nowadays, Iraq is a country that needs an urgent reconstruction. This reconstruction, however, regards the superior, high-leveled domains, such as the political, governmental or economical domain. But in the domain of culture and civilization the prints of the Arab world have remained almost the same. It is very difficult to erase the traditions of a country's population from those people's consciences. Hence, we may consider that even if during the past millennia there have been numerous changes brought by the populations that have occupied and lost the Iraq territory, the Arabic features still continue to last. (Roux, 1993).

A logical explanation for this is also the geographical situation of Iraq near the Arabic world. So, there is still a great resemblance between the Iraq customs and traditions and the Arabic ones.

As a conclusion, we may say that even if Iraq the emergency situation has been declared for a long time now, the hope… [read more]


Tariq Ali Term Paper

… Tariq Ali

History can be changed in a matter of seconds by unpredicted events which shatter the realities known to human kind up to that point. The 9/11 events represents one such event that shocked the world and gave new dimensions to what was up to then considered to be a comprehensive approach to international security threats. The impact and the atrocious aftermath of the terrorist attacks gave it a completely new dimension and a totally different importance and role in the framing of national security strategies.

The analysis that followed 9/11 tried to discover and reinterpret the possible roots of the murderous attacks and appealed to previous research done concerning the relations between cultures, civilizations, ways of life and existing tensions. In this sense, the theories of scholars such as Samuel Huntington, Telhami, Tarik Ali and Dr. Mathieu Guidere and Dr. Newton Howard all represent interesting points-of-view concerning the relations created between civilizations, peoples, and cultures. Each theory in its turn exploits a precise point-of-view; thus, the diversity of the perspectives presented offer at the same time an important contribution to the studies in the area.

Samuel Huntington first expressed his theory of the clash of civilizations through a question rather than an actual statement. In his 1993 Foreign Affairs article and later on in the 1996 "Clash of civilizations" he points out the importance of cultural heritage in shaping the attitudes of peoples in terms of their conflicting nature. Huntington predicts that the post Cold War era would be marked by conflicts arising from these entities' attempts to find a higher item to offer them the sense of cultural and civilization identity. (1996) the experience of the bipolar world in which decisions and courses of action were most of the times imposed by ideological adherence to one or the other blocks had transformed the cultural identity of the peoples into a secondary value; yet it remained entrenched in the collective mentality which held those peoples together. The fall of the ideological barrier in the early 90s represented a signal for the reemergence of the desire to reinvent the national and cultural identity hence the clash of civilizations Huntington underlines. In his view, the Arab world would eventually come to reject Western supremacy; the Chinese would unite under their economic and historical heritage, while the South Eastern part of Asia would engage in an astute competition with the rest of the world, in their attempt to emerge as a new pole of power.

Shibley Telhami offers a different approach on the way in which cultures actually interact. In this sense, as an important figure in the Middle East Peace process, he considers that political violence can somewhat be curved by different incentives of political and economic nature. Throughout his numerous articles, he advocates the idea that politics done through an economic perspective can be rewarding in the sense that it can offer stability that fosters peaceful relations (Telhami and Hill, 2002). As an expert in the Middle East peace… [read more]


Egypt in Terms of Both Population Term Paper

… Egypt

In terms of both population and geography, Egypt is one of the largest Middle Eastern countries. It has long been characterized as the "gift of the Nile." Egypt can be viewed as having three main geographical divisions: the Nile Valley, the Delta Areas and the Desert. The Delta is a triangular area, some 158 miles East-West and 124 miles North-South. The Nile Valley enters Egypt at Wadi Halfa in the "Cataract" region. The river is the longest in the world; it flows through 9 countries and is some 4160 miles in length. Unlike rivers in Europe and the United States, the Nile does not benefit from any tributaries flowing into it. Once the Nile leaves Khartoum, no new water is added. Water resources in Egypt are becoming scarce. The Nile water has faced insatiable demands. First of all the population in Egypt has grown steadily (with a 2% annual growth rate today). Secondly, there has been strong pressure to increase the amount of arable land. The concentration of population in Cairo and, to a lesser degree, in Alexandria have also brought acute problems in delivering clean water to this burgeoning populace while handling the sewage that results from that usage. The Nile provides 85% of the water used in the country. Most agriculture is done along the Nile. Without the Nile, it is safe to assume that Egypt would be unable to support its population. (Mekhail). Egypt is located in northeastern Africa and covers 386559 square miles of land representing about the same size as Texas and New Mexico combined. The country's greatest distance from north to south is 635 miles, and from east to west, 770 miles. Egypt includes the Sinai Peninsula, which is often considered part of Asia. Egypt's natural boundaries consist of more than 1800 miles of coastline along the Mediterranean Sea, the Gulf of Suez, the Gulf of Aqaba, and the Red Sea. Egypt has land boundaries with Israel, Libya, Sudan, and the Gaza Strip, a Palestinian area formerly administered by Egypt and occupied by Israel since 1967. The land boundaries are generally straight lines that do not conform to geographic features such as rivers. Egypt shares its longest boundary, which extends 1070 kilometers, with Sudan. The country is divided into twenty-six governorates (sometimes called provinces), which include four city governorates: Alexandria (Al Iskandariyah),

Cairo (Al Qahirah), Port Said (Bur Said) and Suez. All governorates, except the…… [read more]


Attack in 2001 Term Paper

… ¶ … attack in 2001 was in some ways a complete surprise to most Americans, though the country really should have expected that something like this would happen in time. The World Trade Center had been attacked before in 1992,… [read more]


Role of UN in Global Business Term Paper

… Role of UN in Global Business

The eight "Millennium Development Goals" of the UN are: (Summarized from "Millennium Development Goals Report," 2006)

Eradicate poverty and hunger. The target, between 1990 and 2015, is to halve, the number of people living… [read more]


Islam Muslims Term Paper

… ¶ … Baghdad Without a Map and Other Misadventures in Arabia" by Tony Horwitz, and "Nine Parts of Desire: The Hidden World of Islamic Women" by Geraldine Brooks. Specifically, it will critically review the books and tie them into the… [read more]


Progressive Iranian Youth Term Paper

… ¶ … Iranian Youth

The emergence of progressive Iranian youth

Approximately sixty percent of the Iranian population is under 30 years of age. The simple demographic has enormous implications for the theocratic and orthodox leadership in that country. According to… [read more]


International Marketing: Qatar Country Term Paper

… International Marketing: Qatar

Country Study of Qatar Today

Qatar has been ruled by the Al Thani family since the mid-1800s, but there have been some dramatic changes in the country's actual leadership in recent years. Today, Qatar has transformed itself… [read more]


Curriculum History Term Paper

… Curriculum History

Importance of curriculum history:

The methods of teaching change with time. To understand how the system works let us take the example of a school. The area had a lot of museums, theatres, arts centers, food centers, historical… [read more]


Negotiations Strategies and Outcomes: Camp Term Paper

… Even assuming a fixed pie perspective, that neither party could keep as much territory in the disputed Sinai as he wished for his nation both individuals could have been said to have been tactically sucessful in achieving their objectives. Sadat, in November 1977 became the first Arab leader to visit Israel, thereby implicitly recognizing the land and thus encouraged the United States to help improve the troubled Egyptian economy. Sadat's visit strove to make Egypt seem like a more moderate nation than it had been during the Six-Day War that had resulted in the acquisition of the contested terriotires. (Hammel, 2002) Prime Minister Begin, by refusing to squander goodwill, thus showed a willingness to engage with Sadat, as Begin did not wish to seem intransient in comparision to the Arab leader.

Also, less obvious to either Sadat or Carter at the time, Israel was really more comfortable dealing with a purely Eguptian delegation than an Arab faction interested in advancing both Palestinian as well as Egyptian intersts. Thus Begin had an interest in a so-called summit diplomacy strategy of isolating Egypt from other Arab lands and weakening the Arab position, a framing strategy Sadat may have been unaware of at the time to the degree that Begin practiced it. Still, particularly difficult situation arose on day ten of the talks. The issues of Israeli settlement withdrawal from the Sinai and the status of the West Bank seemed to create an impasse, and the mediating Carter had to concede the issue of the West Bank to Begin, while contiuinging to advocate Sadat's less controversial position on the removal of all settlements from the Sinai Peninsula.

Because of Carter's willingness to broach differences, rather than to encourage negotiator overconfidence and intransience on either side, the compromised result was the Camp David Accords. Initially, Egypt was ostracized by other Arab states following the accords, although all have since reestablished relations with Egypt and reopened their embassies in Cairo. The framework agreement regarding the future of Judea, Samaria and Gaza was less clear and was later interpreted differently by Israel, Egypt, and the United States, so the final stipulations of the agreement were not wholly successful. Still, the rest of the Arab world regained its peaceful relations with Egypt, eventually, and the Middle East was made a relatively safer place because of the accords. It is difficult to see cognitive mistakes as affecting the negotiations at any juncture, given the overall success and the relatively balanced outcome for both national interests.

Works Cited

Jewish Virtual Library (JVL) (17 Sept 1978) "Framework for Peace in the Middle East, Agreed at Camp David." Retrieved on 7 Jul 2005 at Jewish Virtual Library http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/Peace/camp_david_accords.html

Hammel, Eric (October 2002). "Sinai air strike:June 5, 1967." Military Heritage 4 (2): 68 -- 73.

Isaacson, Walter. (1992) Kissinger. A Biography. London: Faber and Faber.

Israeli Defense Forces. (2005) "History." Retrieved on 7 Jul 2005 at http://www1.idf.il/DOVER/site/mainpage.asp?sl=EN& id=5& from=history& docid=18924& Pos=18& bScope=false

Israeli Ministry of Foreign Affairs. (2005) "Other Nations: North Africa."… [read more]


Iraq Reconstruction of Iraq: UN Term Paper

… S. foreign policy, especially when dealing with prisoners-of-war (POWs). Recent reports of Iraqi prisoners abuse by the military created outrage among Iraqis, which further worsened the already poor efforts of the U.S. government's reconstruction program in the country (Ensor & Mount, 2004). The UN can remedy this problem of weak foreign policy by taking over the U.S. government's job, replacing it with a 'neutral' institution that will serve as intermediary not only between Iraq and U.S., but among other nations as well. U.S.'s weak international relations will also be remedied with UN's international network with other countries, drawing support for the Iraq reconstruction program not only with U.S.'s ally counties, but also countries sympathetic to the plight of the country (Iraq) and its people.

It may look like the UN should have the primary role in reconstructing Iraq because of the U.S. government's weaknesses. However, it is still vital that U.S. be instrumental in making the reconstruction efforts possible, since it has the financial and military resources to support the program. Furthermore, as a democratic nation, U.S. has the experience to oversee the eventual transfer of power from the Coalition Provisional Authority to the interim Iraqi government in June 30, as well as the formulation of a constitution in 2005, and eventual take-over of the new, democratic Iraqi government in 2006 (BBC News, 2004). Apart from support for the new Iraqi government, U.S. has a major role in solving insurgency problems in Iraq with its military forces, especially now that Iraqi is plagued with political rebels in the form of the Baathists, terrorists, Islamists, and "disaffected Iraqis" who either have hostilities against the U.S. occupation or want to take over the country, or both (Bennett & Ware, 2003:20-8).

Thus, because the U.S. is currently the most powerful and effective institution that will make the Iraq reconstruction program possible, it is vital that the UN affiliate itself with the U.S. government. While UN works with the reconciliation process between conflicting groups in Iraq, U.S. shall provide the financial and military backing needed to enforce a more peaceful and effective Iraqi nation.

Bibliography

Bennett, B. & M. Ware. (December 2003). "Life behind enemy lines." TIME Magazine, Vol. 162, No. 23. pp. 20-8.

Brown, M.M. (November 2003). "After Iraq: Why the UN matters." United Nations Development Programme Web site. Accessed: 23 May 2004. Available at http://www.undp.org/dpa/statements/administ/2003/november/12nov03.html.

Ensor, D. & M. Mount. (May 4, 2004). "Row rages on over 'abuse' in Iraq. Cable News Network (CNN) Web site. Accessed: 23 May 2004. Available at http://www.cnn.com/2004/WORLD/meast/05/04/iraq.international.main/index.html.

A: The handover in Iraq." (May 24, 2004). British Broadcasting Company (BBC) Web site. Accessed: 24 May 2004. Available at http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/americas/3742383.stm.… [read more]


Invade Iraq? Term Paper

… In the changed scenario, unless pre-emptive action is not taken to deal with people who themselves do not adhere to any ethical considerations or international law, you are inviting trouble. So, although this argument about preemption being violation of international… [read more]


Egypt Demographic Characteristics Term Paper

… Herders raise sheep, goats, cattle and some other animals (Columbia, 2002).

Farms tend to be small with much work done by humans and animals rather than machinery.

The country exports crude oil and petroleum products, cotton, textiles, metal products, and… [read more]


Saudi Arabia Is a Large, Mostly Desert Research Paper

… Saudi Arabia is a large, mostly desert country in the Middle East, occupying much of the Arabian Peninsula. Saudi Arabia is a middle income country if measured by per capita GDP, which is 55th in the world, just behind the Czech Republic. However, wealth distribution is a significant issue in Saudi Arabia, as most of the country's wealth derives from its oil reserves, and these are controlled by a small number of ruling elites. The country suffers from a high unemployment rate, especially among its youth (Morgan, 2011).

Geographically, Saudi Arabia is a vast country that is almost entirely desert, with very high temperatures most of the year, negligible surface water and vegetation (CIA World Factbook, 2011). The country relies on underground water sources, and these are being depleted, which is a major environmental concern and has prompted reliance on desalination plants (Ibid).

IPCC Climate Change Scenario

Many aspects of climate change will not have an impact on Saudi Arabia. The country is already devoid of vegetation, so growing conditions will not be affected, nor will water supplies, which are underground. While temperatures are predicted to rise 5-6 degrees in most of the country in the IPCC scenario, Saudis are already reliant on air conditioning and nighttime activity as a result of their harsh climate. These factors will not change with higher temperatures, although there will be more heat-related deaths, especially in the summer. There is some risk to Jeddah, the second-largest city and the country's major port, stemming from rising sea levels but most Saudis live in elevated areas. There may also be increased intensity of winter thunderstorms in Jeddah and autumn storms in the Asir region, which experiences Indian Ocean monsoons and is perhaps the only real fertile area of the country.

Climate Change Policy

Saudi Arabia is a signatory to the Kyoto Protocol. The nation is wary, however, of certain aspects of climate change that would reduce oil consumption. OPEC nations are "opposed to emissions reductions targets imposed by industrialized nations that threaten global oil demand growth" (Daya, 2011). This indicates that while Saudi Arabia is in principle concerned about climate change, there are significant differences of opinion within the country's political leadership about the issue. The concerns are mainly economic in nature -- the country may face higher costs as a result of climate change but it needs oil money to pay those costs.

There should be some flexibility in Saudi Arabia's position on the matter. There are several considerations at work. The first is that while the country needs to earn revenue from oil, Saudi Arabia also needs to diversify its economy. Despite having the world's largest proven oil reserves, Saudi Arabia will eventually run out of oil, and must be able to survive in a post-oil world. With reserves expected to last over 100 years, however, the current leadership is not oriented to looking towards the future to the same degree that some of its neighbours are.

Saudi Arabia's unemployment problem is also a… [read more]


Media Coverage of Israeli-Palestinian Conflict Term Paper

… S.)

a. Can any of the biases mentioned above be found in Palestinian coverage? (Yes, obviously both sides are biased, but the U.S., again is biased towards Israel)

IV. Why There is Bias in the Media

i. Journalists do not follow principles (situations on the ground may lead some to compromise their integrity)

a. Journalists can be bribed (against principles)

ii. Journalists can select which stories to publish and the publications for which they work (who may be biased)

iii. Example of NY Times selective coverage [1: Anonymous. "Analysis of Coverage of Israel/Palestine in Media." If Americans Knew. 2011. . ]

V. Cinematic Representations of the Conflict (this may be extra, so you may just want to take it out, but I think it is important because there are so many films made about this issue; it is also important that we do not see many of these films here in the U.S. (for example, the documentary To Die In Jerusalem))

i. How the Conflict has been Represented in Film, one of the most powerful modes of communication, and more importantly, how has it been represented in documentaries?

iii. Numbers of Films made on the conflict [2: Raskin, Richard. "Cinematic Representations of the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict: A Statement of Intentions." Department of Information and Media Studies, Aarhus University. Retrieved April 30, 2011. .]

a. Any identifiable biases?

b. What kinds of films?

VI. Conclusions

i. Has this paper proven that there is bias in the media? (Restatement of Thesis)

ii. Important conclusion as to how Media Coverage of the conflict affects the lives of those who live through it… [read more]


Medieval Islamic Art and Architecture Essay

… Medieval Islamic Art

The Transition Between the Byzantine and Islamic Empires

The Islamic conquest that spread with unprecedented quickness through the Middle and Near East regions, and through Iberia and as a major cultural influence in Western Europe thereafter, is… [read more]


Sexuality and Orientalism Essay

… Sexuality and Orientalism

The purpose of the present paper is to discuss the theme of sexuality ad Orientalism. The main issue that will be put under analysis are represented by the obligation to wear the veil and bell dancing. While… [read more]


Price-Reduction of Long Haul Fixed-Line Telecommunication Service Research Proposal

… Price-Reduction of Long Haul Fixed-Line Telecommunication Service and Infrastructure in the Middle East

The expansion of telecommunications via fixed-line networks depicts a significant contemporary, credible concern, not only in the Middle East, but also in other parts of the world… [read more]


Development of Health Management System in Saudi Arabia Research Proposal

… Healthcare in Saudi Arabia

Project Title: Development of Health Management Systems in Saudi Arabia

Geopolitical Overview

Within the global healthcare model there are various expressions of appropriateness of care. In the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, for instance, healthcare has always… [read more]


Qatar Forward Thinking Term Paper

… It should thus be noted that the change that the Emir is bringing forth in a country which is being referred by the Qataris as a 'little speck' in this world is really commendable. No other country in the Arab world has ever made a successful attempt in the field of education so far and such an attempt in this part of the Arab world is to be congratulated. It is to be agreed with the Emir that people are an important asset of a country and a very low GDP for educational activities in the Arab world have led it to lag behind the West. By enhancing a considerable amount for educational measures, the Emir is thought to be on the right direction. It is clear that for sustenance of the economic progress and if the Arab world and particularly Qatar is to be revitalized then a long-term investment in the local population must the beginning point. Qatar has presently, started this effort. It is also the initiation of a revolution in the Arab world that renovates this effort. It is also the initiation of a renaissance in the Arab world that radically changes the region from extremism to moderation. Such conversion of the Middle East from the politics of extremism to moderation is regarded as the coveted attitude of America for the victory in the struggle against terrorism. The revolutionary efforts of Qatar in enhancing its investment in education may be the enduring offerings of this small but growingly significant nation in global affairs. (Qatar's Forward-Thinking: Welcome to 'Education City')

Since educational developments have now been initiated, it is to be believed that in terms of political changes, Qatar would slowly move on to the path of Democracy. By being an ally of the U.S., the Emir is able to bring educational changes in the country. However, the Emir has released the territory of Qatar to U.S. Central Command as a base from which to impede the treats of the 21st century in the energy-rich Persian Gulf. Being the second largest reservoir of the clean burning natural gas in the world, Qatar is also providing the American consumers with the fuel to heat their homes and also practicably fuel their cars. But the political moves in terms of becoming an ally of America in the war against terrorism by opening a base to U.S. Central Command would not be welcomed in an Arab world.

References

Sobhani, Rob. Qatar's Forward-Thinking: Welcome to 'Education City'. National review. December 17, 2003. http://www.nationalreview.com/comment/sobhani200312170844.asp… [read more]


Bush Justified to Invade Iraq Term Paper

… All such agents would have deteriorated to the point of uselessness years ago (Glen and Raymond, 2004)."

As mentioned above, the Bush Administration had emphasized that Saddam had launch capabilities and that he also possessed approximately 20 missiles which may… [read more]


Al Thani Family Ruled Qatar Term Paper

… H.H. Sheikha Mouza approves women's meeting, which talk about women's problems and suggest answers for the problems and competition that women face, when they work outside the home. Qatari women take part in many fields like education, health, legal, fine arts, literature, aviation, banking, politics and tourism. (Qatari women)

Future of Qatar:

Qatar can face future with self-assurance. On the prospect are the Asian Games; a sporting occasion second in size to the Olympics, and the approaching prospect is the Qatar-Bahrain Causeway. This is a scheme, which unites creative and striking engineering and plan with very optimistic representation. It will be an everlasting testimonial to His Highness's statesmanship. Qatar is sanctified with considerable oil reserves and huge natural gas deposits; a fact of concern is that it will become a net gas importer after 2005. And it is accurate. But having resources is different from productively utilizing it. There are many examples of nations sanctified with natural resources, but where incompetence, ineffectiveness, dishonesty and lack of skill have combined to devastate their people's likelihood of gaining from such God-given riches and humanizing their standard of life. Contrastingly, the way by which Qatar has handled its resources as well as organizing the hope arising from them has been another example for others. The companies in Qatar, which are accountable for these assets, are famous and esteemed all through the world. (Investing in Qatar)

References

Makar, Ragai N. New Voices for Women in the Middle East. Retrieved at http://www.lib.umich.edu/area/Near.East/makar65.html. Accessed on 4 March 2005

Qatar. 10 February, 2005 Retrieved at http://www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/geos/qa.html. Accessed on 3 March 2005

Qatari women Embassy of State of Qatar in Washington dc. 2004. Retrieved at http://www.qatarembassy.net/women.asp. Accessed on 4 March 2005

Qatar Past and Present. Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Retrieved at http://english.mofa.gov.qa/details.cfm?id=8Accessed on 3 March 2005

Salman, Magida; et. al. Women in the Middle East. Retrieved from (www.dhushara.com/book/zulu/islamp/wmi.htm+(sexually+speaking):+dhushara.com/book/zulu/&hl=hi&ie=UTF-8Accessed on 4 March 2005

Symons, Baroness. Investing in Qatar. 19 September 2002. Retrieved at http://www.caabu.org/press/articles/investing-in-qatar.html. Accessed on 4 March 2005

The country of Qatar. Columbia University Press. 2003. Retrieved at http://www.hejleh.com/countries/qatar.html. Accessed on 3 March 2005… [read more]


New York Times Term Paper

… This is because the Israeli Prime Minister has consistently shown that the Gaza plan negates or contradicts Sharon's actions and policies in the past. Thus, the author concludes that perhaps the only inspiration for the plan is to decrease, as much as possible, U.S. intervention on the said issue, a strategy crucial if Israel wants to preserve peace and security in a period where national security of all states are constantly threatened, especially those nations allied to the United States. Thus, the Gaza plan illustrates that Israel is capable of handling its own problems and conflicts with other nations, and that U.S. intervention is not a necessary solution to solving these problems.

The editorial of the Dallas Morning News, meanwhile, expresses the same "mixed emotions" that the NY Times editorial had expressed. However, the editorial primarily expressed a positive attitude, in fact, an approval, of Sharon's Gaza plan as the first step towards brokering peace in a "peaceful manner" between Israel and Palestine. While the NY Times editorial has applied the issue in the context of the current state of terrorism and U.S. intervention to foreign policy-making, the author of Dallas Morning News' editorial focused on Sharon's "realistic" resolve to end the conflict between the two nation-states. The author argues that the Gaza plan is a realistic step towards achieving what Israel wants -- lower levels of political conflict against Palestine and the stability of Israel as a nation. Unlike the author of NY Times editorial, Dallas' author does not express skepticism about Sharon's Gaza plan: the author sees that the plan is a sincere intention to broker peace in exchange for a more secure and stable Israel rather than conquering the West Bank at the expense of Israel's stability as a nation, both politically and economically.

The author concludes by suggesting that Palestine should follow Israel's example -- that is, it must subsist to realistic means in order to achieve its goal. Thus, it is vital that Palestine and its insurgents do not subsist to the methods of terrorism and of violence, in order to achieve peace and security in their own nation. In effect, Sharon's Gaza plan serves as the model for brokering peace between the conflicting nations, Israel and Palestine.

Works Cited

Pulling out of Gaza." October 28, 2004. New York Times Web site. Available at http://www.nytimes.com/2004/10/28/opinion/28thu2.html.

Withdrawal a Forward Step: Sharon displays necessary realism in Gaza." October 28, 2004. The Dallas Morning News Web site. Available at http://www.dallasnews.com/sharedcontent/dws/dn/opinion/editorials/stories/102804dnedisharon.a98a6.html.… [read more]


Islamic Movements Come to Dominate Term Paper

… After the Islamic revolution in Iran the new political structures that were instated ensured that fundamentalist Islamic point-of-view became synonymous with the new Iran. For instance, in 1982 Khomeini insisted that Iran's courts discard all secular legal codes and base their decisions solely on Islamic regulations. (Cleveland 423) To oppose Islamic fundamentalism in Iran was not only to stand against the new regime, it was to engage in an act of heresy. Democracy was decadent, and Western, and to adopt the Western political mindset was to disastrously weaken the nation.

In this text, Jihad: The Trail of Political Islam Gilles Kepel in Chapter 5 states that Iran, in the wake of the death of Khomeni, has since attempted to reform some of its strictures, instating democratic but still Islamic elections, for instance, that has created some semblance of what one might call 'democracy' in the nation. Even more recently, the arts have begun to be resurrected in Iran. There has even been a return to pre-Iranian cultural institutions, such as the presence of Western music and movies within the republic.

Likewise, nascent Saudi Arabian feminism has manifested itself as women have protested their inability to drive, or made use of mandatory 'all female' enclaves such as banks, to discuss and create sites of discussion and debate. The private/public dichotomy of female dress and both male and female behavior in both countries may hold the seeds of a kind of revolution or renegotiation of Islamic identity. But it will be a revolution on Islamic and Middle Eastern cultural terms, a negotiation rather than a revolution in the Western sense of uprooting the old entirely -- for what is Islamic in these nations is not really 'old' at all, as William Cleveland suggests. Rather, Islamic fundamentalism is more of a delicate negotiation, socially, politically, and economically, in both Saudi Arabia and Iran, in an effort for these nations to remain distinct in a world…… [read more]


Nationalism and Ethnic Conflict Term Paper

… ' Both are stateless, yet a commonality of culture and religion is not evident -- nor more, though, than two potential United States citizens, born in that nation, one might argue.

The overview present in Umut Ozkirimli's analysis is a warning not to dismiss the importance of nationalism, and also a caution not to accept certain groups' claims to nationhood wholesale and at their face value, as the concept of what constitutes ethnicity shifts and changes, depending on individual's particular political alliances in a particular historical context. Ozkirimili's work has a far more dispassionate tone, in contrast, to Stuart J. Kaufman's Modern Hatreds: The Symbolic Politics of Ethnic War.

Kaufman's work, in contrast to Ozkirimli, is more stridently prescriptive in nature. However, Kaufman is also more rigorous in his use of international political theoretical frameworks to justify his suggestions to policymakers

But, although Kaufman is more inclined to speak of 'hatreds' rather than ethnic identities, Kaufman also, like Ozkirimli, stresses the importance of understanding the emotional significance of ethnic and national identity when constructing a nation state, rather than the idea that ethnicity exists as a linear, enclosed historical trope, within definable and easily recognizable boundaries -- ethnicity is 'felt,' rather than historically in evidence, for both authors. Kaufman goes on to suggest that ethnic wars can even be predicted by existence of myths of justifying ethnic hostility as well as the presence of ethnic fears about survival of a currently defined 'group', as well as the practical availability of an opportunity for the ethnic groups to mobilize. (29-32) For Kaufman and Ozkirimli both, ethnicity is a myth to varying degrees, but the ability to construct such a myth, however tenuously, can become the foundation of a national struggle, and even an entire nation. For instance, in the former Yugoslavia, the 'myth' of the wronged Serb was fueled by the allegiance of some Croatians during World War II to the invading Nazi powers (another myth of national allegiance) and was used to justify the subsequent brutality that the Serbian leader Milosovic inflicted upon that region. Symbols thus are fueled by history, and create history, even when these historical and symbolic readings of the present are imperfect or false.

Works Cited

Ozkirimili, Umut. Theories of Nationalism: A Critical Introduction. Foreword by Fred Halliday. New York: St. Martin's Press, 2000. pg. 167-233

Kaufman, Stuart J. Modern Hatreds: The Symbolic Politics of Ethnic War. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press 2001,…… [read more]


International Trade Between Bahrain Term Paper

… As a result, Saudi should attempt to mediate the dispute. Bahrain, with its track record of good relations with Saudi Arabia perhaps expected it to decide in favor of Bahrain. Bahrain's decision to boycott the summit is also the result… [read more]


Source and Future of National Identity in Israel Term Paper

… Israel and Palestine

Zionist Movement

The Zionist movement began in the late 19th century. It reflected the idea that, after centuries of persecution and Diaspora, which began in the 6th century B.C., when the Jews were forced out of Israel… [read more]


Effects of Zionism on the Peace Process Between Israel and the Palestinians Term Paper

… ¶ … Zionism on the peace process between Israel and Palestinians brief history and forms of Zionism

Brief history of Jewish way to the own state

Creating an own state - Israel

The history of Israeli territory

Arab anti-Semitism and… [read more]


Trade Between UAE and the Rest of the World Research Paper

… The balance of trade is the most important part of the current account. The UAE reported a current account surplus of 244,416 million SYP in 2012. This means that the current account surplus is associated with the country's trade surplus.

The efforts made by the UAE in order to intensify its trade relationship with world countries can be observed in its bilateral relationship with Australia. UAE is Australia's largest Middle East trading partner (Malek, 2014). The success of this bilateral trade relationship relies on the common interest that these countries have in a stable Middle East and Gulf region. The strong trade relationship between UAE and Australia has determined them to work together also on defense and law enforcement, extradition agreements, and counter terrorism cooperation. Based on these issues, the UAE is an important partner that Western countries can rely on in addition to trade activities.

Another successful trade relationship is between the UAE and the U.S. However, the robust trade and investment relationship between these countries does relies less on oil trade in comparison with other commodities (UAE Embassy, 2009). The open economy of the UAE has determined many U.S. companies like Bechtel and Starbucks to consider the UAE an important business market were they could open subsidiaries.

Most countries consider the UAE to be an important trade partner, but also an important investment partner. The significant investments the UAE has made in order to improve its economic situation have determined world companies to invest in the UAE market. It is important that world countries identify the benefits they can obtain from these partnerships.

Reference list:

1. United Arab Emirates (2014). Central Intelligence agency, The World Factbook. Retrieved March 27, 2014 from https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ae.html.

2. UAE -- U.S. Economic Relationship (2009). Embassy of the United Arab Emirates. Retrieved March 28, 2014 from http://www.uae-embassy.org/uae-us-relations/economic-diversification.

3. UAE Balance of Trade (2013). Trading Economics. Retrieved March 28, 2014 from http://www.tradingeconomics.com/united-arab-emirates/balance-of-trade.

4. Malek, C. (2014). UAE and Australia will…… [read more]


Zionism "Diaspora" Is a Greek Term Paper

… Instead of associating Zionism with the establishment of Israel, Zionism now includes the principles of protecting the homeland, bringing all the Jews back to Israel, instilling the importance if the state of Israel into the hearts of all Jews, and maintaining Jewish life and culture. 1968 marked a change in the intention and principles of Zionism, with Jerusalem in the possession of the Israelis, Zionists refocused their attention toward the preservation and flourishing of Jewish culture and religion. It marked the end of the childhood of Zionism and the beginning of its adulthood.

Zionism originally formed in the 19th century as a movement intent on the creation of a place where Jews from all over the world could live and cultivate their culture and religion. However, due to both World Wars, the situation arose that led to the actual creation of a Jewish nation, the state of Israel. But once the state of Israel was established, Zionism had to adapt itself and instead of focusing on the creation of a Jewish nation, had to focus on the continued existence of that nation, its people, religion, and culture. In short, Zionism evolved from the desire for a homeland to the protection and continued existence of that homeland.

Works Cited

"Balfour Declaration." Avalon Project. Web. 8 Dec. 2012.

http://avalon.law.yale.edu/20th_century/balfour.asp

"Diaspora." Jewish Encyclopedia. Web. 8 Dec. 2012.

http://www.jewishencyclopedia.com/articles/5169-diaspora

Maor, Moshe, "The History of Zionism." Jewish Virtual Library. Web. 7 Dec. 2012.

http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/isdf/text/maor.html

Woodward, David. "The Middle East During World War One." BBC History.

Web. 8 Dec. 2012.

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/worldwars/wwone/middle_east_01.shtml

"Zionism Definition." Zionism on the Web. Web. 8 Dec. 2012.

http://www.zionismontheweb.org/zionism_definitions.htm… [read more]


Israel's Military Culture Research Paper

… 1967-1993:

Operation Focus took place in 1967, when the Israeli Air Force bombed the Egyptian airfields that later on expanded to Syria as well as Jordanian and Iraqi airfields.

From 1967-70 another operation took place that is referred to as… [read more]


Arab-Israeli Conflict the Genesis Research Proposal

… Arab-Israeli Conflict

The genesis of the Arab-Israeli conflict predated the 1948 creation of the modern state of Israel. Ottoman colonialism had scarred the Middle East for centuries. During World War One, French and especially British intervention in the region exacerbated an already heated conflict between Arabs and Jews in Palestinian region. The political trend toward nationalism also encouraged the Zionist ideology.

Zionism began as a loosely organized grassroots movement in Europe during the late nineteenth century that encouraged Jews in Diaspora to claim a homeland territory in Palestine. Zionism was not a universal theme among Jews, and in fact many Jews living in Palestine and abroad opposed the creation of a modern Israeli nation-state (Beinin & Hajjar). The primary impetus of Zionism was to create a political nation-state with distinct geographic boundaries in Palestine. The new nation would encompass ancient Jewish territories including those regions and cities held sacred by both Muslims and Jews.

As early as 1882, Jews in Europe began to migrate en masse to Palestine (Beinin & Hajjar). During the First World War Zionism became embedded in British foreign policy, arguably as a means to assert European political hegemony. The Allied victory completed the fall of the Ottoman Empire, and the entire Middle East fell under the control of France and Great Britain.

The 1917 Balfour Declaration issued by Great Britain became the first official Zionist policy initiative. The Balfour Declaration represented part of the way Great Britain would carve up its Middle Eastern territories: with little regard for the will of the Arab people. Great Britain and France essentially took advantage of a fragmented Arab population, which had been living under Turkish Ottoman rule and which had yet to establish any clear nationalist policies. The dismantling of the Ottoman Empire enabled European political intervention in the Middle East and the creation of what can easily be called artificial political boundaries throughout the region. Moreover, a growing market for fossil fuels created an important financial and political impetus for European interventionism in the Middle East.

Jews and Arabs had been coexisting in the Palestinian region throughout the Diaspora but Arabs far outnumbered both Jews and Turks in the region. Zionism threatened Arab sovereignty, limiting the amount of self-determination Arabs had in the wake of World War One. The influx of Jews into the region, which was officially supported and sponsored by Great Britain, led to civic unrest in the region. By the late 1920s violence erupted. The Hebron Massacre marked the first real warlike conflict between Arabs and Jews in Palestine. Between 1936 and 1939 Arabs led a revolt against both the British and the Jewish immigrants. Great Britain agreed to restrict the number of Jewish immigrants to Palestine.

However, burgeoning anti-Semitism in Europe fostered Zionism and Jews continued to immigrate to Palestine in spite of the restrictions. The atrocities of World War Two offered the ultimate impetus for Jewish migration and for the creation of a Jewish nation-state. Violence continued to plague Palestine and by the… [read more]

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