"Israel / Palestine / Arab World" Essays

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Effects of Zionism on the Peace Process Between Israel and the Palestinians Term Paper

Term Paper  |  9 pages (3,968 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … Zionism on the peace process between Israel and Palestinians brief history and forms of Zionism

Brief history of Jewish way to the own state

Creating an own state - Israel

The history of Israeli territory

Arab anti-Semitism and conflicts

When talking about such complicated and very uneasy question as Zionism is, we have to research the process during… [read more]

Trade Between UAE and the Rest of the World Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (670 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


The balance of trade is the most important part of the current account. The UAE reported a current account surplus of 244,416 million SYP in 2012. This means that the current account surplus is associated with the country's trade surplus.

The efforts made by the UAE in order to intensify its trade relationship with world countries can be observed in its bilateral relationship with Australia. UAE is Australia's largest Middle East trading partner (Malek, 2014). The success of this bilateral trade relationship relies on the common interest that these countries have in a stable Middle East and Gulf region. The strong trade relationship between UAE and Australia has determined them to work together also on defense and law enforcement, extradition agreements, and counter terrorism cooperation. Based on these issues, the UAE is an important partner that Western countries can rely on in addition to trade activities.

Another successful trade relationship is between the UAE and the U.S. However, the robust trade and investment relationship between these countries does relies less on oil trade in comparison with other commodities (UAE Embassy, 2009). The open economy of the UAE has determined many U.S. companies like Bechtel and Starbucks to consider the UAE an important business market were they could open subsidiaries.

Most countries consider the UAE to be an important trade partner, but also an important investment partner. The significant investments the UAE has made in order to improve its economic situation have determined world companies to invest in the UAE market. It is important that world countries identify the benefits they can obtain from these partnerships.

Reference list:

1. United Arab Emirates (2014). Central Intelligence agency, The World Factbook. Retrieved March 27, 2014 from https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ae.html.

2. UAE -- U.S. Economic Relationship (2009). Embassy of the United Arab Emirates. Retrieved March 28, 2014 from http://www.uae-embassy.org/uae-us-relations/economic-diversification.

3. UAE Balance of Trade (2013). Trading Economics. Retrieved March 28, 2014 from http://www.tradingeconomics.com/united-arab-emirates/balance-of-trade.

4. Malek, C. (2014). UAE and Australia will…… [read more]

Zionism "Diaspora" Is a Greek Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,600 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


Instead of associating Zionism with the establishment of Israel, Zionism now includes the principles of protecting the homeland, bringing all the Jews back to Israel, instilling the importance if the state of Israel into the hearts of all Jews, and maintaining Jewish life and culture. 1968 marked a change in the intention and principles of Zionism, with Jerusalem in the possession of the Israelis, Zionists refocused their attention toward the preservation and flourishing of Jewish culture and religion. It marked the end of the childhood of Zionism and the beginning of its adulthood.

Zionism originally formed in the 19th century as a movement intent on the creation of a place where Jews from all over the world could live and cultivate their culture and religion. However, due to both World Wars, the situation arose that led to the actual creation of a Jewish nation, the state of Israel. But once the state of Israel was established, Zionism had to adapt itself and instead of focusing on the creation of a Jewish nation, had to focus on the continued existence of that nation, its people, religion, and culture. In short, Zionism evolved from the desire for a homeland to the protection and continued existence of that homeland.

Works Cited

"Balfour Declaration." Avalon Project. Web. 8 Dec. 2012.


"Diaspora." Jewish Encyclopedia. Web. 8 Dec. 2012.


Maor, Moshe, "The History of Zionism." Jewish Virtual Library. Web. 7 Dec. 2012.


Woodward, David. "The Middle East During World War One." BBC History.

Web. 8 Dec. 2012.


"Zionism Definition." Zionism on the Web. Web. 8 Dec. 2012.

http://www.zionismontheweb.org/zionism_definitions.htm… [read more]

Israel's Military Culture Research Paper

Research Paper  |  12 pages (3,492 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6



Operation Focus took place in 1967, when the Israeli Air Force bombed the Egyptian airfields that later on expanded to Syria as well as Jordanian and Iraqi airfields.

From 1967-70 another operation took place that is referred to as the War of Attrition. In this war, many operations were involved. These operations include operation Inferno (1968), operation Bulmus 6… [read more]

Arab-Israeli Conflict the Genesis Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  4 pages (1,192 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


Arab-Israeli Conflict

The genesis of the Arab-Israeli conflict predated the 1948 creation of the modern state of Israel. Ottoman colonialism had scarred the Middle East for centuries. During World War One, French and especially British intervention in the region exacerbated an already heated conflict between Arabs and Jews in Palestinian region. The political trend toward nationalism also encouraged the Zionist ideology.

Zionism began as a loosely organized grassroots movement in Europe during the late nineteenth century that encouraged Jews in Diaspora to claim a homeland territory in Palestine. Zionism was not a universal theme among Jews, and in fact many Jews living in Palestine and abroad opposed the creation of a modern Israeli nation-state (Beinin & Hajjar). The primary impetus of Zionism was to create a political nation-state with distinct geographic boundaries in Palestine. The new nation would encompass ancient Jewish territories including those regions and cities held sacred by both Muslims and Jews.

As early as 1882, Jews in Europe began to migrate en masse to Palestine (Beinin & Hajjar). During the First World War Zionism became embedded in British foreign policy, arguably as a means to assert European political hegemony. The Allied victory completed the fall of the Ottoman Empire, and the entire Middle East fell under the control of France and Great Britain.

The 1917 Balfour Declaration issued by Great Britain became the first official Zionist policy initiative. The Balfour Declaration represented part of the way Great Britain would carve up its Middle Eastern territories: with little regard for the will of the Arab people. Great Britain and France essentially took advantage of a fragmented Arab population, which had been living under Turkish Ottoman rule and which had yet to establish any clear nationalist policies. The dismantling of the Ottoman Empire enabled European political intervention in the Middle East and the creation of what can easily be called artificial political boundaries throughout the region. Moreover, a growing market for fossil fuels created an important financial and political impetus for European interventionism in the Middle East.

Jews and Arabs had been coexisting in the Palestinian region throughout the Diaspora but Arabs far outnumbered both Jews and Turks in the region. Zionism threatened Arab sovereignty, limiting the amount of self-determination Arabs had in the wake of World War One. The influx of Jews into the region, which was officially supported and sponsored by Great Britain, led to civic unrest in the region. By the late 1920s violence erupted. The Hebron Massacre marked the first real warlike conflict between Arabs and Jews in Palestine. Between 1936 and 1939 Arabs led a revolt against both the British and the Jewish immigrants. Great Britain agreed to restrict the number of Jewish immigrants to Palestine.

However, burgeoning anti-Semitism in Europe fostered Zionism and Jews continued to immigrate to Palestine in spite of the restrictions. The atrocities of World War Two offered the ultimate impetus for Jewish migration and for the creation of a Jewish nation-state. Violence continued to plague Palestine and by the… [read more]

Political Boundaries and Conflicts Research Paper

Research Paper  |  6 pages (1,908 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


Political Boundaries and Conflicts

Boundaries refer to physical or psychologically established separations, which mark the ends of agreeable operations and internalities within two or more nations. Every country in the world has its own boundary in the partition, which marks the geological exemplification from one country to another. For instance, the United States of America has boundaries, which separate it… [read more]

British Mandate of Palestine Thesis

Thesis  |  4 pages (1,428 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 4


¶ … British Mandate of Palestine. Specifically it will compare and contrast the conflicts of that time with the conflicts of today, and any similarities and laws that apply. The British Mandate of Palestine occurred after the fall of the Ottoman Empire after the First World War. Under the Mandate, Britain ruled Palestine until 1948, and it was during this… [read more]

Similarities Between the State-Led Economic Policies of South Korea and Israel Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (870 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 0


State-led Economic Policies in South Korea and Israel

Without doubt, the 1960s represent the main time frame in which South
Korea and Israel laid the framework for future economic prosperity. Not
only that, the most torrid economic development occurred at this time. The
most critical propellant of this prosperity, of which will be the primary
topic of this paper, was the state-led policy linkages shared between South
Korea and Israel. Discussion will be limited to the 1960s because this
decade predated nearly twenty years of economic decline for both nations,
and also because of the above-mentioned reasons. Further exploration of
this intervention will focus on government financing, investment, and the
use of economic nationalism.
In light of the economic development that both nations experienced in
the 1960s, the hardships that both South Korea and Israel endured during
this time must be mentioned if only to highlight the true wonder of their
expansion. The 1960s saw Israel affected by the most constrictive period of
the Arab Boycott, which prevented Arab states from importing goods and
services originating from Israel. This had deprived Israel of many possible
local trading partners. During the 1960s, Israel spent 9% of its GDP on
defense initiatives aimed at keeping its regional enemies at bay, far more
military spending than most other developing nations. Finally, Israel had
to cope with the massive influx of immigrants who doubled Israel's
population within the decade. Considering the greater emphasis Israel
placed on welfare when compared to South Korea, expenditures on housing,
food, and education for these immigrants placed a huge strain on the
Israeli economy. As for South Korea, its people lived under the repressive
military dictatorship of General Park Chung-hee while also reeling from the
destruction of the Korean War. In addition, a scarcity of natural resources
contributed to a national per capita income in 1960 of $80 (CIA, 2008). To
counter these deficiencies, both nations exploited a reality that was
unique to themselves among other developing nations, in that each state was
able to form a cohesive national identity. Each population has a
longstanding history with their own singular historical narrative. With
this unity at their disposal, each respective government was capable of
pursuing a nationalist economic agenda.
Burdened with the responsibility of sustaining Israel's newly acquired
existence, the government sought to oversee the fruition of industrializing
their economy away from the stagnant and once dominant dependency upon
agriculture. Even though they were put in power through democratic
elections, Israeli officials consolidated their power away from non-
government actors, such as interest groups and business firms. This gave
them the ability to control…… [read more]

Israeli Politics and Society Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (624 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


Israeli Politics

Separating Religion from National Identity: Interview with Avraham B. Yehoshua."

Palestine - Israel Journal of Politics, Economics, and Culture

When researching the Middle East, one of the most important concepts to question is the idea of 'identity.' The state of Israel is based upon the commonly shared Jewish identity, religion, and history of all of its citizens. However, its notions of citizenship and identity extend far beyond its physical borders. Everyone who is Jewish is potentially a citizen of Israel. This sense of citizenship encompasses many different individuals within its definition, including people of different races, ethnic groups, and levels of religiosity. The state of Israel illustrates one of the paradoxes of the region. Every Middle Eastern person has intense tribal loyalties, not all of which are harmonious with his or her national identity. To better understand the state of Israel, and notions of Israel self-definition the Palestine - Israel Journal of Politics, Economics, and Culture interviewed Avraham B. Yehoshua, one of Israel's most notable authors.

Judaism is a religion, Israel is a nation, yet one can be Jewish and primarily associated with the secular and gentile world. Furthermore, notes Yehoshua, even during Israel's earliest days of existence, pagan worshippers who were members of the nation yet who did not observe the laws of Moses, lived within its borders. After centuries of persecution in the gentile world, when the Jewish people founded Israel once again, the ideal of the melting pot emerged, where all Jews, Chinese, African, and American-Jews alike would become one, once they accepted their affiliation with the new state. Ironically, notes Yehoshua, this melting pot ideal is not inherently Jewish at all, in the historical sense, but has its roots in the ideals of America, which was profoundly influential upon the culture of Israel during this time period. But America is a different type of nation than…… [read more]

Current Affairs in Palestine Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,544 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 4


¶ … Palestine

Politically, the Middle East region is a volatile area, as the Israeli-Palestinian conflict is a continuously unfolding story. Efforts are constantly being made to improve the security environment for the two actors involved. Due to the complexity of the issue that has marked the political discussions for more than 50 years now, the conflict between the two… [read more]

Novel Palestine Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (679 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Palestine BY SACCO

Palestine by Joe Sacco is a unique narrative because it is based on author's first hand knowledge of the conflict and comes in the form of comic strip. Sacco makes a strong case against Israel. It must be made clear from the onset that this book favor Palestine and Arabs and not the Jews.

The author is speaking for a people who cannot speak for himself as he jokingly tells us that, "These guys could use the services of a good public relations officer!" It is obvious from the book that the author feels for the Palestinians who became victims of Israeli aggression simply because they refused to share their land with them. It was Palestine's land to begin with. Sacco spent two months in Palestine at the end of first uprising. The nine issues of his comics were published in a book form and according to Edward Said, this accessible form matches the "political and aesthetic work of extraordinary originality." Said maintains that apart from one or two other writes, "no one has ever rendered this terrible state of affairs better than Joe Sacco." Terrible is not the right word, however, for the state of affairs discussed by Sacco in the book. There is some gruesome about the images and they contrast sharply with the other jovial mood of the 'normal' world outside.

This is a conflict you can never truly understand as an outsider. It is grounded in years of severe hatred that almost seems irrational. But it is not- not at least to the people involved. The western media doesn't tell us the truth and while we see Palestinian youth throwing stones and hurling things at Israeli tankers but you may fail to understand why this is happening. It appears almost bizarre to a western eye but it makes absolute sense to the people living in these conflict-ridden region. Sacco has talked to people to find out how they feel about the conflict and is shocked at their naked hatred for the Israeli.…… [read more]

What Are the Problems Facing Palestine Afghanistan and Iraq? Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (690 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


¶ … Palestine, Afghanistan and Iraq? What would be one way that peace can be achieved?

The problems currently facing Palestine, Afghanistan and Iraq are the most difficult and explosive global issues facing the international community. Their satisfactory resolution is imperative if we are to live in a peaceful world in the 21st century. This essay briefly describes the problems facing these three countries and outlines a possible solution for achieving peace in the troubled regions.

The Palestine Problem:

The conflict between the Israelis and Palestinians is rooted in the circumstances surrounding the establishment of the Jewish state of Israel on Palestinian territory in 1948. The UN Partition Plan, announced in November 1947, proposed the partition of Palestine into Jewish and Arab states with 55% of the land to be given to the Jews and the rest to Arabs. At that time, the Jewish population was just one-third of the total in Palestine, and Jews owned about 6% of the total land.

The Palestinians perceived the plan as grossly unfair and the declaration of the state of Israel resulted in the Arab-Israeli war of 1948 and the expulsion of two-thirds of the Palestinian population from Israel who became refugees. In subsequent conflicts, the Israelis occupied more Arab territory, and its occupation of the Golan Heights and the Gaza Strip captured during the 1967 Arab-Israeli war still continues. The Palestinian people are a people without a country and their struggle against Israel, often through terrorist tactics, is the crux of the Palestinian problem.

2. Afghanistan:

The present crisis in Afghanistan also has its roots in its recent history. The poor country West Asian country was invaded by the former Soviet Union in 1978. Its deeply conservative Muslim population started a guerilla war against the Soviet forces, and were supported by United States and neighboring Pakistan for their own strategic reasons. Islamic radicals from Arab countries, including Osama bin Laden, joined the Afghan's fight against the Soviets. When the Soviets withdrew ten years later in the face of mounting losses, the U.S. turned its back on the…… [read more]

Feud Between Israel's Ariel Sharon Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (687 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Palestine considers Sharon a war criminal because of this. However, their history really goes back to 1948, and the creation of Israel, when both men were quite young. Sharon was a military leader in charge of seeking out Arab terrorists, and Arafat was creating his first terrorist group while fighting Israel during the Suez War in 1956. It seems the two men have always been at odds. Therefore, the history between the two men is long and volatile, and it shows no signs of abating as tensions continue to flare in the Middle East.

The peace process in the Middle East has stalled so many times; it is difficult to see how the two sides can ever come together. Israel refuses to allow Palestinian settlements in the West Bank and Gaza Strip, lands traditionally belonging to Palestine. First, of all, Arafat has made deals with other Israeli leaders, so it is clear the feud between Sharon and Arafat goes far deeper than religious and moral beliefs. The two men dislike each other intensely, and Arafat simply refuses to negotiate with Sharon. Perhaps the ultimate solution to peace in the area is to remove one or the other from power, so the negotiations can begin again with men who do not carry so much animosity toward each other. Another suggestion for peace is for Israel to remove their settlers from areas that are under contention. Let Palestine have what they want, and try to begin the process of healing in the Middle East. Both sides have their own difficulties, and both have committed atrocities against the other. They should just attempt to bring their differences in line, compensate those on both sides who will be affected, and move along. Others around the world look to the U.S. As a mediator in the peace process, but ultimately, the process lies with Israel and Palestine. One of these men should illustrate just how great a leader he really is by…… [read more]

United Arab Emirates (UAE) Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,934 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


In the same way, by adopting a more modern approach to the status of women, UAE aims to provide a more Westernized, progressive society to the large number of foreigners working within its borders. Both Arab nationalism and UAE try to separate themselves from the world's negative view of Islam, which is often labeled as imperialist and reactionary. In the eyes of the world, Islamic states oppress ethnic and religious minorities and treat women as second-class citizens.

To combat these stereotypes, Arab nationalism and UAE try to promote the image of a new Arab state with a secular higher authority that is moving towards a more modern and progressive culture and society. However, in the end, Islam is a fundamental part of Arab identity. It is important to remember that Islam has never embraced or even tolerated secularism. In fact, it requires strict adherence to its laws in all aspects of life. It is a total religion that shapes all aspects of the societies that adopt it and links them together under one overarching force. To adopt Islam as a people, but to deny it as part of, as the national identity is a contradiction. Consequently, bending the rules in areas such as the socialization and status of women are unacceptable concessions for Muslims and again, since Islam is the basis of Arab identity, these types of changes threatens the very national identity of UAE and the potential single Arab nation as well. The discovery of oil and the resulting booming economy started UAE on the path toward modernization and industrialization. However, it also introduced an overwhelming number of foreign migrant workers and the need to appear less reactionary and fundamentalist to both its foreign population and the world. These changes may make UAE more culturally and socially modern and progressive, but it also threatens, slowly chips away at the nation's cultural identity, one that is deeply roots in the traditions and principles of Islam.


Arab-Israeli Wars." Britannica Student Encyclopedia 2003 Encyclopedia Britannica Online. 23 Mar, 2003 http://search.eb.com/ebi/article?eu=297050.

United Arab Emirates." Encyclopedia Britannica 2003 Encyclopedia Britannica Online. 23 Mar, 2003 http://search.eb.com/eb/article?eu=119538.

United Arab Emirates - A Country Study." Library of Congress/Federal Research Division / Country Studies/Area Handbook Series. 23 Mar, 2003. http://lcweb2.loc.gov/frd/cs/aetoc.html.

Women in Islam." Islamic Center of Southern California, University of Southern California. 23 Mar, 2003. http://www.usc.edu/dept/MSA/humanrelations/womeninislam/.

Yahya, Dr. Muhammad. "A Criticism of the Idea of Arab Nationalism." 23 Mar, 2003. http://www.al-islam.org/al-tawhid/arabnationalism.htm.… [read more]

Terrorism and the Arab Spring Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (960 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3


The difference is in degree, and in the overall likelihood of terrorist organizations taking root. Yemen is a prime example of opportunism from the perspective of Al-Qa'ida. The Arab Spring weakened the already limp central government there, and ironically, that government had been trying to "confront al Qaeda's growing presence in the tribal areas of the country," (Cruickshank, 2011, p. 1). Weakened government means weakened security forces, which allows for the proliferation of terrorist training camps in Yemen. Moreover, a lack of central government and identity has precluded Yemeni people from forging a vision for the future that does not include terrorism as a political option.

Yemen is one of several countries impacted by the Arab Spring. Terrorism may have increased in Yemen as a direct result of the Arab Spring, because the movement destabilized the government. Furthermore, Yemen has vulnerable and permeable borders that lack protection and security. There are vast regions of Yemen that counterterrorism forces do not understand, and for which they lack intelligence for to combat the proliferation of terrorist organizations. These complications make it highly likely that terrorism groups are acting as de facto local governments in weakened regions, which had previously been beholden to the central regime. Arab Spring protests in Yemen seemed to be as promising as they were in Tunisia, but even in Libya, terrorism has been taking root to fill power vacuums.

The Arab Spring is characterized by populism, though, and not extremism. In each country impacted by the Arab Spring, terrorist groups like Al Qa'ida and extremist political organizations like the Muslim Brotherhood and Islamists have been able to take some root. However, because the Arab Spring is essentially a movement centered on anti-corruption democratic ideals, there remains hope that the people will opt against terrorism and instead for more viable forms of self-governance. Even if those forms of self-governance are not attractive to the United States and other Western powers, they might not necessarily be terrorist in nature.


Angel, D. (n.d.). The Arab Spring and terrorism. Retrieved online: http://aladinrc.wrlc.org/bitstream/handle/1961/10403/Angel,%20Danielle-%20Fall%2011.pdf?sequence=1

Boghardt, L.P. (2013). Saudi Arabia: Outlawing terrorism and the Arab Spring. The Washington Institute. Dec 27, 2013. Retrieved online: https://www.washingtoninstitute.org/policy-analysis/view/saudi-arabia-outlawing-terrorism-and-the-arab-spring

Cruickshank, P. (2011). Analysis: Why Arab Spring could be Al Qa'ida's fall. CNN. 21 Feb, 2011. Retrieved online: http://www.cnn.com/2011/WORLD/meast/02/21/arab.unrest.alqaeda.analysis/

Gardner, F. (2011). Is the Arab Spring good or bad for terrorism? BBC. 22 June, 2011. Retrieved online: http://www.bbc.com/news/world-middle-east-13878774

Goodenough, P. (2013). Intelligence director: Arab Spring has benefitted Islamists. CNS News.com Retrieved online: http://cnsnews.com/news/article/intelligence-director-arab-spring-has-benefited-islamists

Hoffman, B. (2012). The Arab Spring and its influence on Al-Qa'ida. Combatting Terrorism Center at West Point. Retrieved online: http://www.ctc.usma.edu/posts/the-arab-spring-and-its-influence-on-al-qaida… [read more]

Relationship of Internship to Course Term Paper

Term Paper  |  22 pages (6,066 words)
Bibliography Sources: 20


Relationship of Internship to Course Material

As discussed above, the Chamber of Commerce Franco-Arab acts a meeting platform for the French and Arab traders. The main aim of this organization is to promote trade association and relationship between French and Arab traders in a number of business sectors including service industries, manufacturing industries and agriculture.

This chamber holds business conferences,… [read more]

Political and Economic Prospects for the Third World Research Paper

Research Paper  |  8 pages (2,558 words)
Bibliography Sources: 8


Political and Economic Prospects for Pakistan and Syria

Main Elements of political prospects of Pakistan and Syria

General comparison: Syria and Pakistan

Level of political stability

Level of economic prosperity

Role played by history

Other intervening factors

Commonalities and differences between Syria and Pakistan

Political and Economic Prospects for Pakistan and Syria

The political and economic prospects for third world… [read more]

Palestine and United Nations Position and Justification Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,484 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Palestine and United Nations

Position and justification -- on November 29, 2012, the United Nations General Assembly correctly voted to accord Palestine the status of a Non-Member State observer. In the United Nations, the issues of statehood and membership remain quite distinct, and an observer status means that Palestine now has a standing invitation to participate as observers in the… [read more]

Arab Spring in Syria Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,726 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


The governmental perspective of the country largely influences which side they will support in the civil war.

The Arab Spring has led to the overthrow of many oppressive regimes throughout the Middle East. People, tired of being oppressed and marginalized by unfair governments took it upon themselves to take control and instate the governments that they need. All of these revolutions had a degree of violence, but few were as violent and deadly as the civil war in Syria. Whereas the other revolutions had an eventual end and a new government as a result, so far there has been no end to the war in Syria.

Works Cited

Barnard, A. & Myers, S. (2012). Battle for Aleppo intensifies, as world leaders pledge new support for rebels. The New York Times.

Daftari, L. (2012). Iranian general admits 'fighting every aspect of a war' in defending Syria's

Assad. Fox News.

Edwell, P. (2012). The perils of history and antiquity in Syria. The Conversation. The Conversation Media Group. Retrieved from http://theconversation.com/the-perils-of-history-and-antiquity-in-syria-9003

Hallun, M. (2013). Arab league moves toward full-scale war in Syria. Russia Beyond the Headlines. Rossiyskayaya Gazeta: Russa.

Phillips, C. Syria's bloody Arab spring. 37-42.

Reedy, K. (2013). Why Syria is different from all of the other Arab spring uprisings. Business Insider. New York City, NY.

Shinkman, P. (2012). Time could…… [read more]

Iran's Nuclear Threat Essay

Essay  |  6 pages (1,996 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Preventive war is one of the probable consequences in attempts to stop Iran from continuing with its nuclear program and building an atomic bomb. As evident from Iraq's case, preventive war does not have a good history of being effectively executed in light of its outcomes, benefits, and costs. The second probable cause is deterrence threats since the Iran's nuclear program can not only be contained but it can also be deterred. In addition, there is a possibility of invasion and occupation because of the seeming ineffectiveness of deterrence threats. Each of these consequences of Israel's demand could make the issue worse through delaying the nuclear weapons program, moving it into less vulnerable places, and provide inflaming rewards to use such weapons when available.


For several recent U.S. administrations, preventing Iran's nuclear ambitions has been a major priority. In the last stretch of the 2012 U.S. presidential campaigns, the issue took a special urgency as calls of war against Iran continued to grow. Notably, the international community's reactions to Iran's nuclear program have mainly taken the form of economic sanctions. As concerns over Iran's nuclear ambitions were heightened, serious concerns about probable military dimensions dominated discussions in the presidential race.

However, the U.S. presidential candidates have been cautious about deliberating on probable compromises on Iran's nuclear program because of the importance to exhaust the diplomatic and economic sanctions before considering an alternative like military strike (Tracker, 2012). These presidential candidates have also been cautious about possible compromises on Iran's nuclear program because of the potential security threat of the program and the need for an effective foreign policy. The other reason for the caution is the fact that Iran's nuclear-weapons capability contributes to significant instability in the Middle East region.


Iran's nuclear program continues to be a major threat to regional and global security as it raises huge concerns, suspicion, mistrust, and regional instability. While the country considers the nuclear program as a symbol of national pride, it continues to affect its foreign policy and international relations that necessitate the need for urgent actions against the program.


"Can a Nuclear Armed Iran Be Contained?" (2012, October 9). International Policy Digest.

Retrieved November 9, 2012, from http://www.internationalpolicydigest.org/2012/10/09/can-a-nuclear-armed-iran-be-contained/

Ellner, A. (2012). Iran -- Challenge or Opportunity for Regional Security? Retrieved November

9, 2012, from http://sam.gov.tr/iran-challenge-or-opportunity-for-regional-security/

"Iran's Nuclear Program (Nuclear Talks, 2012)." (n.d.). The New York Times. Retrieved November 9, 2012, from http://topics.nytimes.com/top/news/international/countriesandterritories/iran/nuclear_program/index.html

"The Threat from Iran." (2012, October). Jewish Virtual Library. Retrieved November 9, 2012,

from http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/talking/23_Iran.html

"The Impact and Repercussions of Western Economic Sanctions Against Iran." (2012,

November 4). Arab Center for Research & Policy Status. Retrieved November 9, 2012, from http://english.dohainstitute.org/release/0ad867d7-4720-4051-8398-50c024b61ba1

Tracker, I. (2012, October 31). The Candidates on U.S. -- Iran Policy. Retrieved November 9,

2012, from http://www.cfr.org/iran/candidates-us-iran-policy/p26798

/s7/index.html… [read more]

Verdery's Central Observations About Nationalism as a Historical and Cultural Phenomenon Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,185 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


Verdery's Central Observations About Nationalism as a Historical and Cultural Phenomenon

There is much controversy regarding the concept of nationalism, as it is responsible for uniting and dividing communities on account of their members' personal convictions. It is very difficult for some people to find their cultural identity and to accept their position in society without being influenced by individuals in their group. Individuals in the contemporary society have come to consider nationalism as one of the most important elements in their community, as it makes it possible for them to consider that they are strongly connected with their states. Katherine Verdery emphasizes the fact that people have diverse understandings of the concept of nationalism and the boundary between aggressive nationalism and peaceful nationalism can be very thin. Michelle U. Campos relates to the case of Palestinian Sephardi Jews at the beginning of the twentieth century and the troubles that they came across as they were trying to find their cultural identity without being negatively affected in the process.

The fact that many Palestinian Sephardi Jews identified with Palestinian territory and believed that it was essential for them to live in Israel damaged their position in the area and influenced other communities in wanting to persecute them. These Jewish people saw reform as an opportunity to strengthen their group and were determined to do everything in their power in order to emerge as Jews instead of being categorized as Ottoman citizens (Campos, 461).

Similar to many communities that experienced progress during the early twentieth century, Jewish individuals in the Middle East felt that it was essential for them to develop a sense of identity. These people virtually believed that nations are not very different from individuals and that they are created "as historical actors, having spirits or souls, missions, wills, geniuses; they have places of origin / birth (cradles, often, in the national myth) and lineages (usually patrilineages), as well as life cycles that include birth, periods of blossoming and decay, and fears of death; they have as their physical referent territories that are bounded like human bodies" (Verdery, 229). Jewish people in the Ottoman Empire thus came to differentiate themselves from other individuals on account of their background and started to feel that it was very important for them to create a community that would have all the characteristics that they considered to be distinguishing for them. They no longer wanted to be an insignificant part of a greater body and they wanted to put across their passion even with the fact that such an attitude was likely to damage their image as a whole. Jews in the Ottoman Empire were significantly influenced by their counterparts in Europe as Zionist movements experienced significant progress and as Jewish groups in European countries started to shape their individuality in accordance with their traditional beliefs. However, while Sephardim communities throughout the Ottoman Empire expressed interest in nationalist concepts, the Palestinian group was particularly concerned about developing a sense of cultural identity and… [read more]

Israeli Palestinian Conflict Research Paper

Research Paper  |  5 pages (1,415 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Israeli & Palestinian

The Perpetual Battle between the Israeli's & Palestinians

The Israeli-Palestinian Conflict has been ongoing for half a century. More recently in the news, the Palestinians are proposing that the United Nations recognize them as a state. Israeli's Prime Minister, Benjamin Netanyahu mentioned that if their request passed, it would not affect anything on the ground as far… [read more]

Islam/Arabs Muhammad Appointed No Successors Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (660 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


In general, the Umayyid caliphate was never "well regarded by traditional Islamic historians," although under these rulers the Arab Empire expanded to North Africa and Spain, and come close to conquering all of Europe (Catherwood, 2011, p. 87). Under the leadership of Tariq, the Arab-Berber armies crossed into Spain in 711 and had completed the conquest of the Vandal kingdom by 730. For a brief time, the Muslims occupied southern France until Charles Martel defeated them at the battle of Tours in 732, which turned out to be "one of the most important battles in history" (Catherwood, p. 94). Had the outcome been different, Europe might well have turned out to be just an extension of an Arabic-speaking Muslim empire, with consequences for history which are impossible to calculate. In Spain, the caliphate of the Umayyid dynasty founded by Adb'al Rahman was one of the jewels of the Islamic world.

Under the Umayyads, the caliphate became hereditary and continued to exist until Ataturk finally abolished it in 1924. To be sure, Osama bin Laden and his supporters have often called for its restoration, since it represented the Golden Age of the Islamic Empire, that once stretched from Spain to Central Asia (Catherwood, p. 92). The Abbasids seized power in Damascus in 750 then moved the capital to the new city of Baghdad, where they remained in power at least nominally until 1258. Under their rule, however, the Arab Empire began to fragment, with Egypt falling under the control of the Mamluks ("owned people") and then the Fatimid rulers, who moved the capital to Cairo. Meanwhile, the Seljuk Turks captured Syria and Mesopotamia in 956 and Baghdad in 1045, and the wars between the Fatimids and Turks opened the door to the Christian Crusaders from Europe to occupy Palestine (Catherwood, p. 99).


Catherwood, C. (2011). A Brief History of the Middle East. Constable and…… [read more]

Iran Hostage Discussion Questions: Middle East History Research Paper

Research Paper  |  18 pages (5,436 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Iran Hostage

Discussion Questions: Middle East History

Compare and Contrast the reform policies of Mustafa Kemal and Reza Khan.

In the aftermath of World War I, the world had begun to experience massive structural change, with a wave of imperial collapses producing a groundswell of nationalism and independence movements. The once mighty and respected Ottoman Empire was among these, with… [read more]

UAE 3 Occupied Islands Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (2,604 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


UAE Islands

Throughout the world there are many different disputes related to state sovereignty. At the current time such a dispute exist between the United Arab Emirates and Iran as it pertains to the UAE islands of 'Tumb Al Kubra, Tumb Al Soghra and Abu Musa'. The purpose of this discussion is to explain the issue of Iran's occupation of… [read more]

Arab-Israeli Conflict Has Been Going Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (941 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1


¶ … Arab-Israeli conflict has been going on for decades, ever since the state of Israel has been born, with religion differences as a main motive. Allegedly, religion is only one of the latest reasons, as the war had been lasting for centuries, with several other reasons for the divergences between Israeli and several Arab states.

Israelis have considered themselves imperiled by their neighbors, regarding them as enemies, superior in both size and numbers. The state has leaded numerous wars against its supposed aggressors, in a safe approach, attempting to move the battle front to enemy territory. The state of Israel has also been notorious for running nuclear programs to facilitate help in overcoming their military forces deficiency and also holding an advantage over traditional military power.

In spite of the fact that Israel has made peace with several Arabian countries, its major enemy remained Palestine, a state that represents a symbol for the Arabs fighting against Israelis everywhere. It appears that the Palestinians and the Israelis are unable to coexist as both the nations rely on the same territory as belonging to their people and the Jewish political nature of the Israelis is contributing to their nationalist idea and vice-versa with the Muslim political nature of the Palestinians.

Presently, there is a crisis situation between Israel and the Arabs, even with a number of peace treaties signed involving the two. Several outlines of the story can be anticipated, with both good and bad endings. A final truce would be everyone's hope, but that would involve great sacrifices from both parties, sacrifices that neither are willing to take at the moment from an analysis of the general situation. A feasible reason for the truce will be the recognition of the fact that the war might never end, neither of the parts being disposed to accept defeat.

An armistice between the two and the acceptance of peacefully living together would be benefic for both nations, although it wouldn't be among the safest solution to the problem and almost impossible, considering the fact that both nations hold extremist camps that are ready to resort to terrorism and mostly any mean and method to reach their fanatical goals. A state of security would need to be put in practice for peace to last. This would involve great political intervention and disagreements between politicians and political parties.

Severe measures would be necessary for the Arabs and the Israelis to co-exist in peace. The Israelis are rather experienced in living in peace with former aggressors, having gone trough the Holocaust. Currently the state of Israel would be short of significant threats to its existence in case of a peace agreement, mostly due to the fact that in the last two decades most Arab states have either lost their power or reached peace resolutions with the…… [read more]

Role of Women in Israel Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,208 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


" Women have many important jobs in the Israeli army, but combat and close combat support are not among them."

Even though the role of women in combat is still limited, the 1995 Israeli Supreme Court ruling has had many positive impacts on the role of Israeli women in the military. For example, the Supreme Court upheld the petition of a servicewoman to be allowed to apply for Flight School and Israeli women have greater access to military jobs previously excluded to them. They can now serve in border police units; on Navy ships and as fighter pilots; in various combat support functions, including technical and logistic functions; and in combat fronts such as the West Bank and the Gaza strip. In 2002, sixty percent of all female recruits would begin serving in military positions that had been previously excluded to them.

Integration into ground combat units is not as optimistic, but there are signs that it is slowly materializing. Though characterized as a "test," women in the IDF have begun to be incorporated in small numbers into field artillery batteries and antiaircraft units. The greatest inclusion of women in ground combat units has occurred in an experimental mixed-gender combat unit pulling guard and surveillance duties on the country's southern and eastern borders. The increased integration of women into the IDF has produced problems and challenges such as a greater number of reports of sexual harassment; injuries caused by a lack of adequate physical fitness; a drop in motivation by women to sign on after their mandatory service; and a lack of interest in volunteering for combat units.

Today, women fill many important positions in the IDF such as technological, intelligence, operations and training positions. They can also be found servicing IDF computerized systems, working as computer programmers, smart weapons systems operators and electronics technicians.

However, the right to fill combat positions still eludes the majority of women and they can not truly be considered equal in the military until these barriers are removed. Legally, Israel has moved in the right direction, but now it needs to make cultural and gender perception advancements to eliminate discrimination.


Adler, Hillel. "Integrating Women into the Combat Force." Military Review. March-April, 2003. findarticles. 24 Nov. 2004.

"Israeli Women Won't See Combat." WorldNetDaily 20 Oct. 2003. WorldNetDaily. 24 Nov. 2004. .

'Issues Tearing Our Nation's Fabric." The Center for Reclaiming America. 1997. Leadership U. 24 Nov. 2004. .

Knight, Robert H., "Women in Combat: Why Rush to Judgment?." Heritage Foundation Backgrounder #836 14 Jun 1991. Heritage Foundation. 24 Nov. 2004. .

"More on Women in the Israeli Defense Force." Auglink. 24 Nov. 2004. .

"More on Women in the Israeli Defense Force." Auglink. 24 Nov. 2004. .

Knight, Robert H., "Women in Combat: Why Rush to Judgment?." Heritage Foundation Backgrounder #836 14 Jun 1991. Heritage Foundation. 24 Nov. 2004. .

"Israeli Women Won't See Combat." WorldNetDaily 20 Oct. 2003. WorldNetDaily. 24 Nov. 2004. .

Kinght, Robert H., "Women in Combat: Why Rush to Judgment?."… [read more]

Syria I Am Osmane Arslanian Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (4,000 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Consequently in May 2004, President Bush decided that Syria failed to meet these conditions and, as sanctions, prohibited exports to Syria of items in the U.S. Munitions list and Commerce Control list, of U.S. products except food and medicines and the landing or take-off of Syrian government-owned aircraft in the U.S. The U.S. Department of Treasury also intended to order… [read more]

Wall on Palestinian Economy Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (2,677 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


An Iraqi Perspective

The Israeli authorities say that the Wall is being constructed to protect vulnerable Israeli settlements (Gordon, 2003). They argue that problems with access to water, schools, farms and hospitals will be resolved by putting gates in the wall, and by issuing permits to cross it.

According to Linda Chavez (2003), "Israel should not give up its plans… [read more]

Achieving Peace in the Middle Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,305 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


But the majority of Israelis and Palestinians, who want to live their lives without fear or fighting, know that their only lasting escape is through an agreement acceptable to both sides (After, 2002)

Led by Saudi Arabia, all the Arab countries have now said that they will accept Israel once it has withdrawn from its conquests in the 1967 war, a withdrawal first demanded by the UN Security Council 35 years ago. The two-state solution is now even agreed to by Mr. Sharon, though his concept of a Palestinian state on less than half the West Bank would be, in Palestinian words, no more than a collection of "statelets in Israel's belly (After, 2002)."

Each time there is a war the hatred grows deeper and stronger on both sides. In addition the current and ever growing technology has begun to preset itself as clear and present danger should either side determine it will use it against the other. These facts bring to light the urgency of resolving this century old conflict in the near future.

The easy solution is to have the Palestinians give up the land. However they object to such a solution based on the fact that they have already given up 78% of it in various deals to try and achieve peace.

"Of the 3.5m Palestinians in the occupied territories, 2.5m live in the West Bank or East Jerusalem and 1m in Gaza. In the West Bank, under the Oslo process, they have full control only over the cities, or 18% of the territory- -and since the latest Israeli incursions, this has been lost. In Gaza, they controlled about 75% of the land before the intifada, but buffer zones and new roads have now reduced this to nearer 60%(After, 2002). The Israelis have about 200,000 settlers in the West Bank, and roughly the same number (though they do not call them settlers) in East Jerusalem. They also have some 7,000 zealously guarded settlers in Gaza."

Looking at a solution involves checking the law. The Palestine's have international law on their side of the argument (After, 2002). It was begun and passed in 1948 and has often been called upon to remind the world of its righteous (After, 2002).

The best solution at this point is to have both sides agree on a third party that they trust and will abide by the decision the third party makes. They will all spend the next year presenting their side to the third party and be allowed to rebut each other's claims. Using it as a sort of court of law instead of a battle field is the solution that will bring peace. Each side can have one witness nation to speak on their behalf and bring up to ten different points to illustrate why they should prevail. After this happens the third party will take the arguments of both sides into advisement and rule on the matter once and for all. If both sides agree to the third party… [read more]

European Union's Policy Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,425 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Any attempt by the EU to keep its policy independent from the one adopted by the U.S. As seen as a sign of Gaullist intransigence by an increasingly assertive U.S..

Current Status of the Policy

The underlying theme of the European Union's Middle East policy is an evenhanded approach towards Israel and the Palestinians. While it recognizes Israel's "irrevocable right… [read more]

Balfour Declaration of 1917 Impacts Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (615 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Each side of the conflict believes the document gives them rights to certain lands. The document's language has led to an embittered conflict between the sides that have no end in sight.

The heart of the problem is in the interpretation. The Jews believe the declaration gave them a national homeland alliance in Palestine. The Arabs argue that the declaration does so only if the Arabs agree to allow it, and they don't. This causes a central and very violent conflict between the Jews and the Arabs in Palestine.

The document has divided the camps in a way that does not seem to have solutions. Each side believes that the declaration gives Jews a permanent homeland in Palestine however they disagree on whether that right is automatic or a right that is to be held and bestowed upon the Jews by the Arabs. The conflict runs even deeper than the basic meaning behind the declaration. The belief of the Arabs that the declaration gives them permission to allow or not allow the Jews their homeland, sets the stage for a feeling of superiority and prejudice. The Arabs believe the declaration was written in language that encourages and allows such superiority. The Jews insist the declaration was to protect them for the future and allow them their Homeland without conflict of the threat of its dismantling. British officials could interpret the declaration today but even then each side can claim that the interpretation was misguided and the true intent of the authors was missed. While there does not seem to be any short-term solution to this conflict the world has learned a valuable lesson about writing its wishes in clear and undeniable language in the future.


Brower, Daniel. The World in the Twentieth Century: From Empires to…… [read more]

Terrorism Chapter 10 of Jonathan Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (928 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


This is true as well for the formation of Hezbollah, an even more radical group than the PLO. Hezbollah is a self-conscious and self-affirming anti-Israeli organization that foments tension in the region and embraces terrorist activity as part of its core agenda. The organization is primarily based in southern Lebanon and was a response to the Israeli invasion of Lebanon and the post-colonial activities of Europeans and Americans. Iran supported Hezbollah initially as part of an overall scheme to divest Israel of its political legitimacy ("Hezbollah" History and Overview"). White offers both a sympathetic and a critical view of Hezbollah, which provides a responsible and balanced approach to the study of terrorism in the region.

White shows that terrorism is viewed as a legitimate response to perceived (and actual) oppression. In the case of Palestine, terrorist groups most certainly do serve as proxy governments for people who are politically disenfranchised and technically stateless. Without representation in Israeli politics, the Palestinians in conflict zones like the West Bank can easily come to support terrorist organizations as their only hope for economic and political liberation.

Hamas is another controversial political organization with a primary agenda of Palestinian nationalism. The relationship between Hamas and Fatah has been variable over the years, but is ongoing, as White points out. Unlike Hezbollah, Hamas is Sunni. Their primary locus of control is the Gaza Strip. Whereas Fatah has largely derived its support from the West Bank and has had a divergent agenda in the past, the two groups recently attempted to ally themselves in a common anti-Israeli goal. The United States has traditionally been on friendlier terms with Fatah, but White shows that both Fatah and Hamas are radicalized.


Terrorism remains an unfortunate tactic in the ongoing struggle for Palestinian recognition and liberation. Because of the use of terrorism as a core tactic, groups like Hamas, Fatah, and Hezbollah have largely lost credibility in the international community. There are no legitimate political organizations to take their place, rendering the peace process in the Middle East moot. Also unfortunate has been the formal Israeli response to terrorism. Israeli counterterrorist policies have been interpreted as state-sponsored terrorism. To better understand the conflict, it is helpful to understand the origins and background of terrorism and how it is used as a political tactic. Therefore, this chapter in White's Terrorism and Homeland Security adds context, depth, and breath to the student's understanding of the crisis.


Barhoum, K. (n.d.). The origin and history of the PLO. Trans-Arab Research Institute. 17 May, 2014. Retrieved online: http://tari.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=10:the-origin-and-history-of-the-plo&catid=1:fact-sheets&Itemid=10

"Hezbollah: History and Overview." Retrieved online: http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/Terrorism/hizbollah.html

White, J.R. (2012). Terrorism and Homeland Security. Wadsworth Cengage.… [read more]

Extraordinary Measures the Differences Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,621 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Extraordinary Measures

The differences between the military forces of this country and the law enforcement forces of this country are significant, despite the growing trend to synthesize and merge the operational potential of each agency. The military is an international force that has the capability to deploy anywhere on the planet to implement and enforce their will, while the police… [read more]

Expatriates and Their Impact Research Paper

Research Paper  |  5 pages (1,349 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


However, many of the banks differ on the various indicators of diversity. Some banks were more religiously diverse while others more diverse in terms of nationalities or languages. Furthermore, the Islamic banks are the least diverse on all dimensions of diversity.

National Perceptions on Expatriates

The perception of the large and growing expatriate community differs by different segments of the overall population. One student research project considered the youth perspective from a student research team at Zayed University. This group presented its findings at the Third Annual Conference of Dubai's Scientific and Cultural Society on this subject (Mattew, 2013). The main concerns of the Emirati students polled were maintaining their national identity, making sure that they had access to jobs when they needed them. They also felt that while expatriates had every right to work and live in the UAE, they should not have political rights in the country to vote for various policies. Given the youth's specific concerns is understandable considering that sixty per cent of young Emiratis are apprehensive about what the resident expatriates may contribute to the society as well as the culture. Expatriates make up 85 per cent of the UAE's population and would have an incredible impact on the political system should they be granted political freedoms. However, it is important that this 60 per cent was only "worried" and not "frightened" or "angry" about the situation (Mattew, 2013).

Other studies that considered the entire population found that here appear to be three broad views of the UAE lifestyle among Arab residents. There are conservative or extremist views that are deeply concerned with the current UAE model for growth as well as what the future might hold. However, this represents a small fraction of the population. This group wishes to 'protect' themselves from losing their Arab-Muslim identity and what it means to be of a national heritage (Masudi, 2013). The second category is described as one that is open to other cultures and modernity. The third and final segments is fully "Westernized" and seek to further accepting a global culture and business environment. While these groups cover pretty much the entire population, most of the national residences are completely tolerant of the trend and enjoy the economic and quality of life benefits that the developed economy has offered.


This analysis looked at the opinions of emirates and residents of the UAE and their opinions of the large and growing number of expatriates living in the country. Although there is a fringe element of the culture that is deeply afraid of losing their national identity, these citizens constitute a small fraction of the population. The next most concerned group seemed to be students who were somewhat worried about their political opportunities as well as their opportunities for employment, yet they were completely tolerant of the trend at the same time. A significant majority of the population is completely accepting of the expatriates who are living in the country and enjoy the economic benefits that the… [read more]

UAE Nuclear Energy Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (813 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 6


The production of nuclear energy can prompt people to launch terrorist attacks hence it can be a safety risk.

Advantages and disadvantages of the sector

The production of nuclear energy is economic since only a small amount of fuel is needed to produce a lot of energy. Secondly nuclear energy provides an alternative energy source that can support the growing energy demands in UAE.

Nuclear energy is disadvantageous as the environmental and economic costs of accidents from nuclear power plants are overwhelming. Secondly the nuclear power plants can not just be located anywhere they have to be placed in areas where heat sinks (World Nuclear Association, 2013).

Contribution of the sector to the economy

The nuclear energy sector is a great contributor to the economy of UAE. This is because the energy requirements in the global market are increasing and UAE exports some of its nuclear energy. This brings a lot of returns to UAE and hence brings about economic development. The economic development in UAE can only be maintained if nuclear energy programs are followed as well as the maintenance of high security and safety standards.

Trends in the sector

UAE nuclear energy sector is set to expand in the future. There was deal that was signed worth $20 billion with some South Korean firm for building more nuclear power plants by 2010.this shows that UAE is set to expand its nuclear energy production. There is also an increase in the urge of securing nuclear technology. The nuclear energy sector has become very important in UAE and recently there are introductions of disciplines related to the production of energy in academic institutions. Nuclear energy is expected to account for 23-25% of electricity in UAE by 2020 this trend shows that nuclear energy is gaining popularity in UAE (Kazim, 2012).


UAE is among the emerging countries in nuclear energy sector .if the trend of expanding the nuclear energy sector continues then UAE will be ranked among the top producers of nuclear energy in the world in the near future.


Kazim, A. (2012).UAE's future energy plans. Retrieved April 29, 2013 from http://www.pacificcontrols.net/news-media/uae-future-energy-plans.html

World Nuclear Association. (2013). Nuclear Power in the United Arab Emirates. Retrieved April 29, 2013 from http://www.world-nuclear.org/info/Country-Profiles/Countries-T-Z/United-Arab-Emirates/

UAE interact. (2013).Infrastructural development - nuclear energy. Retrieved April 29, 2013 from http://www.uaeinteract.com/spanish/news/default.asp?ID=380… [read more]

History of the Brotherhood Group Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (2,106 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 7


Unfortunately, the nonviolent methods of the Muslim Brotherhood do not work against the armed forces of the Syrian government.

Western Concerns

The country that watches the events happening in Egypt and other Middle Eastern countries is Israel. The government in Israel is worried that the Brotherhood is not as peaceful as they have made it seem, and that they are waiting to obtain power and start another war with Israel. The government in Israel remembers that "Muslim Brotherhood founder Hassan al Banna (1906-49) said he learned a great deal from the Nazis about the effectiveness of propaganda in spreading hatred of Jews" (Patterson, 2011). This type of vitriol is common to Israel, but they can see a time when the Muslim Brotherhood achieves their goals (a combined Arab nation) and becomes too strong for Israel to combat. The Brotherhood has never made its animosity toward Israel a secret. "In 1979, the Brotherhood took an openly hostile stance toward Sadat's agreement with Israel at the Camp David Accords" (Stilt, 2010). This continues to be a problem for the nation of Israel as the nations which have realized regime change reform.

The United States, as well as other Western nations, ha the same concerns. The possible threat of a strong, unified, fundamentally driven Arab nation is that there would continue to be terrorism against the West. The goal of the Western nations is to continue the good relations that they preciously enjoyed with Mubarak and some of the other leaders in the region. However, if the Muslim Brotherhood gains political control of these nations that might prove difficult. The Muslim Brotherhood wants to return rule of Arab countries to fundamental Islam and that could set those countries at odds with Western countries that were once global partners. The largest concerns are the security threat that this could pose and the loss of oil from the region that the Western countries desperately need. This loss of Middle Eastern goods could prove to be a devastating blow to Western economies.


The Muslim Brotherhood is an Arab organization unlike many that have arisen from the region. The leaders preach nonviolence and governmental intervention. However, their history shows a group that seeks the strict reading of Sharia law which can sometimes run counter to the freedom of certain groups (such as women). Thus, although the goals of the group seem sound, there are still danger signals which people within the Middle East and Western democracies are feeling. The Muslim Brotherhood does not seem to have been an initiator of the unrest in Egypt and other Middle Eastern countries in 2011, but they have taken advantage of the upheaval. The Brotherhood seeks to fill the void left by the deposing of former leaders.

This could be a problem in the future, but it is difficult to evaluate what level of concern Western nations and Israel should have. The Brotherhood has a history of animosity toward Israel, but they have not actively pursued actions against that country.… [read more]

Foreign Policy With Regards to the Middle East Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (1,158 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


U.S. Foreign Policy -- Middle East

What is the U.S. foreign policy with reference to the Middle East following the uprisings in that region of the world commonly known as "Arab Spring"? This paper delves into issues surrounding the position of the United States now that leadership dynamics have changed in the Middle East, and new realities are being presented. The biggest threat for the U.S. vis-a-vis the Middle East has not resulted from the Arab Spring however; it is the ongoing menace, Iran, and the possibility that Iran will successfully develop nuclear weapons.

In the December 10, 2011 edition of the respected publication, the Economist, the author refers to the 4,500 Americans that were killed in the "eight-year misadventure" in Iraq and posits that the next phase of U.S. foreign policy might better be played out in Asia. While the U.S. has already indicated it will in fact make its presence more visible in Asia, no one in Washington, or in the Obama Administration, really believes that the U.S. can or will "…turn away from the wretched Middle East immediately," the Economist asserts.

The present thinking among those in the administration (whose names are not published) is that because of the "Arab awakening" in the Middle East, America now has a chance to make new alliances. Instead of backing brutally corrupt rulers like former Egyptian president Mubarak -- which the U.S. had done for years principally because he helped broker a peace arrangement with Israel -- the U.S. now will entertain diplomatic relations with the new Egyptian government. This may be tricky though because signs are pointing to the radical hard-line "Muslim Brotherhood" movement making strong gains in early electoral returns in Egypt.

And notwithstanding the rallying cry for democracy and freedom in Egypt, Libya, and elsewhere in the Middle East, the politics that will be reflected by the new leadership in key countries is up for grabs, and there no doubt will be serious challenges for the U.S. In terms of whom to trust and what manner of diplomacy to embrace. In the Economist piece the author asserts that "…the dictatorship of Bashar Assad is about to collapse, and that will pull down the evil axis of Iran, Syria and Hezbollah." However, even the Arab League's attempted intervention into Assad's campaign to kill his own citizens failed, so that situation is in flux.

The most "wretched" of all the controversial states in the Middle East is Iran, which Western leaders believe is working toward the development of nuclear technology. President Obama has worked harder on the Iran situation that "…he gets credit for," including his coaxing of allies to impose "unprecedented" sanctions against Iran, the Economist article continues.

On the subject of Iran and its nuclear program, Nikolay Kozhanov, former attache in the Russian embassy in Tehran, has written a scholarly article in the journal, Middle East Policy. He makes some interesting points about the sanctions that the U.S. has put in place -- supported by the UK… [read more]

Arab Spring Since January 2011 Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (999 words)
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Arab Spring

Since January 2011, there have been a number of uprisings in the Middle East. This is because many of these governments were repressive and unresponsive to the needs of the people. At the same time, they were known for being corrupt and benefiting a select amount of individuals who were closely associated with these regimes. These factors are important, because they are illustrating the total amounts of frustrations that most people have with these governments. As a result, there has been popular support for a number of uprisings throughout the region to include countries such as: Morocco, Tunisia, Egypt, Libya, Yemen and Syria. This has caused many to wonder if these events are the beginning of larger social revolutions or if they might fall under a definition that falls short of these standards. To determine this, we will examine if the Arab Spring is considered to be a series of proper social revolutions and the factors that could affect this definition in each of these nations. Once this occurs, is when we can be able to decide if these events are a part of a larger transformation that is occurring throughout the region. (Anderson, 2011) (Goldstone, 2011)

In order for any kind of social revolution to exist there are a number of different variables that must be taking place in conjunction with one another. These include: the regimes are using brutality to control the population, there is tremendous amounts of corruption inside these governments, the political leadership is unable to address the needs of population and there is sense of disconnect about the ability of these government to deal with the most pressing issues. Once this occurs, is when there will be a sense of anger that is directed at these regimes and the institutions they are using to support these objectives. This is the point that people from different ethnic groups and all walks of life will become united in a common cause. That is directed at: overthrowing these governments and installing ones that are more responsive to the needs of the general public. These elements are important, because in all of these different countries they are considered to fall under the classic definition of social revolutions. As the people are no longer willing to tolerate the actions of government officials and they are speaking out against them through: violence along with civil disobedience. (Anderson, 2011) (Goldstone, 2011)

When you apply this to the various countries that were experiencing these revolutions, it is clear that each one of them fits the basic definition for a social revolution. This is because they all were experiencing similar challenges in dealing with these issues. The difference is the outcome from these events and the effects that they will have on these nations. As some of the outcomes are similar (i.e. Egypt / Tunisia) while others are more protracted and drawn out (i.e. Libya / Syria / Yemen). This is important, because it is showing how in every single one…… [read more]

Middle East Has the Presence Essay

Essay  |  9 pages (3,137 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


If the Assad regime falls, however, civil war could well begin again, leading to a partition of the country. For the time being, Saudi Arabia and the Gulf monarchies have been least affected by the revolutions, and it is by no means certain that regime change there would result in governments any more tolerant of minority groups.

Contrary to its… [read more]

Islam / Arab Success Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (645 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


2. What were the military successes of the Umayyad and Abbasids Arab Empires?

The Arab Empire was not a singular group of people, as some individuals erroneously believe. Rather, Arabs were comprised of a large and varying group of factions who were jointly responsible for taking over the location of the Middle East and Gulf areas from the original Byzantine government. Two specific groups, the Umayyad and the Abbasids, were particularly integral in the eventual control of the Middle East by the various Arab Empires. These groups were able to be successful partly because of political and social exercises, but also because of strong military strategizing. Although frequently outnumbered, the Arab groups would choose their battles strategically in order to achieve military success (Goldschmidt 2006).

The Umayyads were able to achieve success through familial ties. It was said that the Umayyad family and the prophet Muhammad were related because the two had a common ancestor (Carson 2003). This claim allowed the Umayyad's to gain the support of many of the Islamic followers of Muhammad, which represented a large percentage of the population of the area. The Abbasids were in a similar place, a small tribe who were interested in many of the same political changes but were impeded by a lack of numbers or technology. The tribes realized that in order to have a chance against the stronger opponents, it would be in their best interests to unify. This led to the confederation of the Arab Empires, which was a loose agreement to support one another against the enemy (Marin-Guzman 2010).

Works Cited:

Carson, Keith (2003). "Islamic History and Literature." Heritage of the Western World. Atlantic Goldschmidt, Arthur and Lawrence Davidson (2006). A Concise History of the Middle East.

Cambridge, MA: Westview Press.

Marin-Guzman, Roberto (2010). "Arab Tribes, the Umayyad Dynasty, and…… [read more]

Israel Is One of the Most Interesting Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,595 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 4


Israel is one of the most interesting nations on the earth. The interest in Israel is not only due to the past and present conditions of Israel, but also the future of the nation. The place of Israel in prophecy has been closely examined for centuries. The purpose of this discussion is to examine the final stages of prophecy in… [read more]

Middle East the Crisis Essay

Essay  |  1 pages (312 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Middle East

The crisis in the Middle East seems to have no end. Even within Israel and Palestine, citizens disagree over what policies can and should resolve the conflict and eliminate violence. Intervention from the international community is only likely to cause further resentment, especially on the part of the Palestinians who believe that their predicament was caused by Western imperialism. Indeed, colonialism and imperialism are at the root of the problems facing Israel and Palestine. The only viable solution to the crisis is the swift creation of a Palestinian state, coupled with the removal of the settlements on the West Bank.

However, the problem will not vanish if a Palestinian state exists or if the occupied territories are returned to the Palestinians. Terrorism has become an unfortunate part of the political and social fabric of the Middle East. Extricating terrorism depends on a systematic change in education and other social institutions. Moreover, a great deal…… [read more]

Oslo Peace Accords Thesis

Thesis  |  12 pages (3,734 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 9


Oslo Peace Accords Impact on Middle East Negotiations

Today, the State of Israel continues to be faced with some fundamental challenges and obstacles to its goals of resolving the longstanding conflict between the Palestinian Liberation Organization and neighboring Middle Eastern countries in the region. In spite of the Oslo Peace Accords of 1993, these constraints to progress continue to characterize… [read more]

Serving Foreign Markets in United Arab Emirates Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  2 pages (598 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 2



Pursuant to the purchase of an existing enterprise in the United Arab Emirates, it is important to understand the social and business infrastructures of the UAE. It is also imperative that we understand the relevance of that market to the world economy, so that we ensure our decision is aligned with our strategy.

The United Arab Emirates is one of the most important nations in the Middle East. The company has taken great strides in the past couple of decades to diversify its economy, such that the country is now less dependent on oil than any Arab states besides Egypt and Morocco. The UAE now has one of the highest per capita GDPs of any nation on earth, and a standard of living comparable with nations in the west. The UAE is relatively liberal, which has allowed it to be politically active within the region. The country, Dubai in particular, is rising rapidly onto the world stage.

In part, this has been achieved by opening up the economy to foreign investment. The economy is the UAE is, for the most part, open. Only certain sectors, such as utilities, remain protected. That said, the country is making strides to open up to foreign investment even more. For example, the country has agreed to enter into negotiations to set up a free trade agreement with the U.S.

To spur investment, the UAE set up Free Trade Zones (FTZs) that offered foreign firms the capacity to take 100% ownership and pay no taxes. These zones are scattered throughout the country, although the most significant business infrastructure exists in Dubai, Sharjah and Abu Dhabi. It should be noted that each zone is governed by an independent entity known as the Free Zone Authority (FZA), so will be subject to different requirements and…… [read more]

Day War and Its Influence Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (2,215 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Day War and Its Influence on the Political an Social Culture in Israel

The 6-day war has had a significant impact on the lives Israelis. Israelis by and large have shown significant progress to modernize their political, economic and social fabric. Their efforts are second to none, particularly, in the education and technological sector. However, the war-mentality amongst its political… [read more]

Long-Term, of the Six Day War Essay

Essay  |  6 pages (1,818 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 4


¶ … long-term, of the six day war on Israeli politics. At the out set, it is important to note that the war strengthened the misconception of reality, both in the Israeli society and the political institutions. Gazit Shlomo (1985) wrote that certain misconceptions, both about the world at large and the Arabs in particular, previously existed in the social… [read more]

Israel Losing Its War Against the Palestinians? Article Review

Article Review  |  2 pages (712 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 0


¶ … Israel Losing Its War Against the Palestinians?

In this article, the author addresses the fact that the spirit of the Palestinian people seems unable to be crushed, no matter what the Israelis choose to do to them. Israel has been trying for many years to make Palestine submissive, but it has not worked, and it is still not working today. There have been bombing and other problems, and none of those issues are actually being resolved. The conflict goes on. Even though it is termed a conflict, it is described in the article as a 'one-sided war' where a strong and powerful government is trying to oppress a generally unarmed population. There have been thefts of land and water, killings, the destruction of homes and crops, and mass arrests, all in an effort to exert control over a people who do not want to be controlled by a government that they are not loyal to.

In January of 2006, when the elections in Palestine were over, Hamas was declared victorious. Both Israel and the United States rejected that. In response, Israel cut off supplies of anything but the most basic of medicines and food, and they started bombing Gaza to try to get the Palestinians to submit. As a result of the bombing, Gaza lost the only power plant that it had and all they had to rely on was generators. Most of these run on diesel fuel, and the rising cost of that as well as a shortage has forced changes. It has also caused problems, because it has affected medical care, harming everything from newborn babies to people who need surgery and now cannot get it because there is no power to the operating rooms. People are suffering and dying there as both a direct and an indirect result of the bombings. Until the Palestinians reject Hamas, Israel has said that the bombings and lack of supplies will continue.

Whether Israel has the 'right' to do this has been called into question before, and the author here calls it into question again. According to the article, there is a concern that Israel…… [read more]

Israeli Business Communication Although Geographically Tiny Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,494 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 2


Israeli Business Communication

Although geographically "tiny," Israel purports clout in historical and contemporary business arenas. Economically and geographically, this nation presents unique contrasts in the world's nations and cultures. Israel consists of more than half desert land, yet by irrigating with water pumped from the Sea of Galilee and released over plans in small amounts, crops such as is flowers… [read more]

Midaq Alley the Central Character Book Review

Book Review  |  6 pages (2,005 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1


Midaq Alley

The central character in the novel Midaq Alley by Naguib Mahfouz is not a person but the alley of the title, a section in Cairo that features a number of small businesses and an array of interesting characters peopling the stories told by the author. The book is a great deal like a number of short stories melded… [read more]

1990 Gulf War Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (617 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


The huge backup from most of the countries in the world, from the United Nations especially (and notice that this is an argument that George Bush often uses in his speech: Kuwait is a member of the UN and the UN Secretary General has already tried to mediate a conflicting situation), transforms the U.S. situation in 1990 in a perfectly legitimate situation.

In this sense, I tend to affirm and argue that the Gulf War was the first sign of a New World Order, something the Washington Administration can barely hide nowadays. The New World Order is equivalent to the extension of the American influence in the post-Cold War period to most strategic regions of the world and the Persian Gulf region is certainly one of them.

The void that was left with the disappearance of the Soviet Union needed to be filled by the only superpower left in the world and the Persian Gulf was the first sign that this was the new policy that the United States would follow upon. One only has to resume to describing some of the recent U.S. action in the area to understand that the American influence in terms of regional policy is being more and more felt.

The U.S. have already been able to influence a change in attitude of the Jordanian leadership, as well as a similar action on behalf of the Egyptian President. Saudi Arabia is already one of the closest U.S. allies in the area, so some of the few opponents were Iraq, Syria and Iran. Iraq is already under U.S. influence, while Syria has seen it greatly diminished.

So, as we can see from George Bush's speech, while everything is displayed as having the moral authority of the United Nations and the global community, the bricks are already being laid for the New World Order.… [read more]

Causes of the First Intifada Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,734 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


¶ … Intifada


Arab-Israel conflict is almost 90 years old and roots of it can be traced back to the nineteenth century with the rise of Arab nationalism and Zionism. With the establishment of state of Israel in 1948, this conflict rose to new heights when during the process of its creation over 770,000 Palestinians… [read more]

Course Is Comparative Politics Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (4,812 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … Israel's Security Policies Relating to the Building of the Wall

The problem is terrorism or rather in general terms, the lack of security for the state of Israel. Since its inception in 1948, the Jewish state has been subjected to numerous attacks from its Arab neighbors, each of which has, as its stated aim, the destruction of the… [read more]

Iran: A Path Towards Rapprochement Term Paper

Term Paper  |  19 pages (8,003 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


By shifting the Jews out of Europe, a certain amount of religious conflict was avoided in Europe, and the Jews felt happy that they had got their own land for the first time after the great Exodus, yet the people disposed of their land was the Arabs. This is the fundamental reason for the conflict which does not seem to… [read more]

Thick and Thin Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,406 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


The second type of moral reasoning, according to Walzer, is type, or abstract. Disconnected from the sense of absolutism which describes thick reasoning, thin reasoning is ad hoc, detached, and general. Thin reasoning enables peoples to minimalize others thick reasoning. Thin reasoning enables men to disconnect from the contradictions which their own thick reasoning creates, and be selective about that… [read more]

Tourism in the United Arab Emirates and Free Trade Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (751 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 4


Thanks to its expansion of attractive facilities and catering to luxury travelers in particular, "the UAE's tourism sector is expected to grow by 6.5 per cent annually between 2011 and 2021" (Algethami 2013). The UAE has attracted revenue internationally due to its support of consumer-related businesses and the government's catering to the needs of Western business. "Once a small trading hub, Dubai has risen to become an international tourism destination for leisure and business travellers through the infrastructure developed to cater to these marketsDubai is recognised as an entertainment hub, known for its shopping malls and attractions" (Algethami 2013). It has become a regional hub for conventions and other venues and the government has set a goal of tripling the revenue the UAE accrues from tourism. Additionally, "sporting events contribute greatly to strengthening the UAE status on the world circuits as a leading international sport tourism destination: Tennis, Golf, Formula 1, as well as Marathon, Cricket, Rugby, Sailing, and more recently Sky Diving" (Algethami 2013).

The UAE's commitment to expanding its hotel sectors, opening up new mall and shopping venues, and making tourism and trade liberalism a priority demonstrates how changes in government policy can have a swift, seismic effect upon a local economy and also the perception of a nation on the world stage. As well as improving its own economic outlook and reputation, the UAE has also significantly enriched international business through its investments and provided an important entertainment and commerce hub within its region where individuals from many cultures are comfortable doing business. In the future, the UAE's policies will likely prove to be a model for other petroleum-dependent states: the UAE demonstrates the need for diversification in one's economy and acts as a more general recommendation to pursue such a broad-minded long-term approach, even when an economy is relatively strong in the short-term.


Algethami, S. (2013.).Why the UAE is a leading tourism destination in the region

Gulf News. Retrieved from: http://gulfnews.com/business/tourism/why-the-uae-is-a-leading-tourism-destination-in-the-region-1.1261536

UAE. (2013). Office of U.S. Trade Representative. Retrieved from:


UAE trade policy (2014). UAW Embassy. Retrieved from:

http://www.uaetrade-usa.org/index.php?page=uae-us-relations&cmsid=64… [read more]

Abraham Path Initiative Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (2,309 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Furthermore, if it does partner with outside entities it should do so in a manner that is holistic: it should seek out local groups to generate buy-in and support but should do so in all of the nations in which it has a presence, in a broad and inclusive fashion. Within the nations when it partners with local entities, it… [read more]

Israeli Expansion 1948-1973 Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (690 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Israeli Expansion 1948-1973

In the period beginning with the creation of the state of Israel in 1948 until 1973 a series of conflicts erupted between the Jewish nation and its Arab neighbors. In their attempt to destroy the Jewish state the Arabs continually lost territory to Israel; which expanded and consolidated its borders. As the situation Israel faced transformed over time, its military policy changed in response to the circumstances the nation faced; forcing it to impose compulsory military duty, a doctrine of retaliation against attacks, and an alliance with the United States. Israel's expansion into formerly Arab territories also brought about a response from the international community; mainly calls for Israel to withdraw. In response to international pressure, Israel used the occupied territories as bargaining chips and absolutely refused to withdraw from any territories without first engaging in peace discussions.

Israel began its existence in a state of vulnerability with its Arab neighbors immediately declaring war and attacking the infant nation upon its declaration of statehood. Through a series of wars taking place over the next twenty-five years, the nation of Israel consolidated territory and formed borders that were defensible. In the period from 1948 to 1973 Israel was a nation under arms with each citizen required to perform military duty. This state of militancy was accepted by the citizenry due to constant feeling of insecurity that permeated the entire nation. As a result the citizens of Israel fully backed the government's imposition of relatively high taxes and compulsory military service. "What insured the public's full cooperation was its strong sense of insecurity, caused partly by Arab actions, which seemed to be aimed at harming Israel…." (Bregman 2000, p.31)

In addition to the series of full-scale wars that Israel was forced to defend against, the Jewish state also had to face a situation in which terrorists acting from Arab nations infiltrated and perpetrated violence against Israelis. To counter this threat "the Israelis devised a policy which became known as the 'doctrine of retaliatory action'," and demanded a military response to any provocation. (Bregman 2000,…… [read more]

Research Paper

Research Paper  |  20 pages (6,564 words)
Bibliography Sources: 20


¶ … al-Assad family has ruled Syria with an iron fist for the past 40 years, and the fallout from the recent uprisings in the Middle East and North Africa have also affected the Syrian people. The purpose of this research is to explore how the al-Assad family, members of a religious minority, came to power in Syria, and what… [read more]

Currently in the News A2 Coursework

A2 Coursework  |  2 pages (604 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2




In Egypt, long-time President Hosni Mubarak was convicted for failing to stop the killing of protestors fifteen months ago in connection with the popular uprising in Egypt that put an end to the Mubarak regime. Despite his life sentence, the outcome of the trial resulted in widespread demonstrations because Mubarak and his sons were acquitted of corruption charges and Mubarak received a life sentence instead of a death sentence. Many Egyptians believe that Mubarak should have been executed for his role in allowing so many Egyptian citizens to be killed by his security forces. In general, critics of the generals who took control of the government after Mubarak's overthrow are concerned that they have not been thorough or aggressive enough about bringing members of the former Mubarak regime to justice. In some respects, it is encouraging that the interim Egyptian authorities produced a criminal conviction against Mubarak, and a harsh sentence. While the fact that Mubarak will not be executed is disappointing to some Egyptian citizens who lived and suffered under his rule, a life sentence imposed on a former head of state is an important achievement because it puts other national leaders in the region on notice that they are likely to be held accountable for their actions while in office.

Article # 2 Summary and Comment - Russia


The Asia-Pacific region is emerging as an area of increasing international tension between East and West even two decades after the official end of the Cold War. Specifically, a recent announcement by the U.S. To increase its naval presence in Asia was met by increased military collaboration between China and Russia in the same region. Russian President Vladimir Putin and Chairman Hu of China have coordinated joint military exercises in the Yellow Sea and have indicated an intention to…… [read more]

Interview With an Immigrant Profile Research Paper

Research Paper  |  8 pages (2,566 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


He says that a lot of the information was available online and he could make plans for settling into his life in the new country. Around seven months after giving his final examinations at school, Smith bid farewell to his parents as he boarded a flight from Abu Dhabi to New York via a stopover at London. He arrived in… [read more]

5th Fleet in Bahrain Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (3,567 words)
Bibliography Sources: 15


Ultimately, Tehran's only credible choice is to disrupt activity in this major Gulf trade route. Is the Strait of Hormuz really vital to the world's oil market? The answer is: Much less than it used to be.

US and EU Oil Embargo & Iranian Nuclear Program

The decision on an EU embargo on oil exports from Iran was expected on… [read more]

Israeli-Egypt Conflict and Iraq War Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (580 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Israel could contain any attacks by Syria or Jordan during this period" (Hammond, 2010).

Given the criteria presented in the spectrum of justification for war this conflict may be classified as an easier-to-justify preventative war. The Arab states had indeed demonstrated acts of hostile intent, preparatory steps toward hostile action, and made inflammatory rhetoric in the face of reasonable offers of negotiation. Since there is some room for doubt that an attack was pending this war cannot be classified as justified. Whether or not Israel was morally justified in taking this action is debatable, however when placed in the context of the time a strong argument may be made that it was.

Iraq War

On March 19, 2003, American and British forces began "Operation Iraqi Freedom" otherwise known as the Iraq War. There are several issues that may be pointed to as the basic reasons for the second major war between a United States led coalition and Iraq. First, there were lingering tensions and hostilities, remnants left over from the first Gulf war of 1991. At the close of that war the Iraqi government agreed to surrender and/or destroy several types of weapons including SCUD missiles and various Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMDs). The United Nations was tasked with sending weapons inspectors to confirm the destruction of Iraqi weapons and to search for any prohibited weapons the believed to be in hidden by the Iraqi government. Additionally, two "No Fly Zones" were established over northern and southern Iraq for the protection of Iraqi minority groups in opposition to the Saddam Hussein government. Allied aircraft patrolled the air over these zones in order to prevent Iraqi aircraft… [read more]

Welcome Israel Case Study

Case Study  |  2 pages (564 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


¶ … Israel

Case Analysis: Wellcome Israel

Situation Analysis:

The process of corporate acquisition and merger is typically extremely complex. It is exponentially more so in the case of Wellcome Israel, a pharmaceutical division of Promedico, a payee of Wellcome Hellas and a prospective addition to Glaxo. These overlapping forces have created a particularly challenging scenario for CEO Ozra Sherman, who must navigate Wellcome Israel through a decidedly uncertain period. This is true in spite of the company's excellent performance, or perhaps one might argue, even in light of it. The profitability of Wellcome Israel has been ironic for a number of reasons, not the least of which is the relative struggles of its parent company in Promedico. This was true to the extent that Wellcome Israel accounted for no less than 50% of all sales from the company's pharmaceutical and diagnostics division.

An additional irony is Wellcome's success in a country which has largely remained incognito within the context of the company's literature. Because of Wellcome's emphasis on sales within particular Arab country markets, the nature of its operations in Israel are subject to a great deal of political pressure. The result is an operation that has been shrouded by the presence of the parent company Promedico. It was becoming clear beyond a reasonable doubt though, even before the imminent approach of Glaxo's buyout, that this was a scenario which simply could not be sustained. As Wellcome Israel continued to enjoy not just a high degree of success but a significant amount of internal harmony, operational functionality and high morale, its presence within Promedico remained uneasy and best and poorly matched to the parent company's limited capabilities at worst.


This…… [read more]

Iran Intelligence Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,599 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


There are Directorates for Iraq; Lebanon, Palestine, and Jordan; Afghanistan, Pakistan, and India; Turkey and the Arabian Peninsula; Asian countries of the former Soviet Union, Western nations (Europe and North America), and North Africa."[footnoteRef:9] This depth of influence should not be easily discounted. Many of those in these areas have problems with Israeli-American propaganda. There is a growing body of evidence shows Iran's ties to weapons transportation and distribution.[footnoteRef:10] And it is this capacity that reinforces how well a nation like Iran can still present itself as being bigger in reality than it may be in truth as a war power. [8: Global Security. Qods (Jerusalem) Force, Iranian Revolutionary Guard Corps (IRGC - Pasdaran-e Inqilab) GlobalSecurity.org. http://www.globalsecurity.org/intell/world/iran/qods.htm. (Accessed December 14, 2011).] [9: A. Cordesman, Iran's Revolutionary Guards. 2006, 9.] [10: A. Samii, Factionalism, 2002. ]


Blanche, E. Iran's Golden Arms Network. Current Affairs. The Middle East. March 2010. 27-29.

Bruno, G. Iran's Revolutionary Guards. Council on Foreign Relations. Backgrounder. Oct. 25, 2011. http://www.cfr.org/iran/irans-revolutionary-guards/p14324. (Accessed December 14, 2011).

Cordesman, A.H. Iran's Revolutionary Guards, the Al Quds Force and Other Intelligence and Paramilitary Forces. Working Draft. Center for Strategic and International Studies: Washington, D.C., 2006. 1-17.

Cordesman, A.H. And Kleiber, M. Iran's Military Forces and Warfighting Capabilities: The threat in the Northern Gulf. Center for Strategic and International Studies: Washington, D.C. 2007.

Erdbrink, T. Iranian Official Warns U.S. Not to Spy on His Country: Comments Describe a 'Full Fledged Intelligence War'Between U.S., Iran. Washington Post Foreign Services. January 19, 2009.

Global Security. Qods (Jerusalem) Force, Iranian Revolutionary Guard Corps (IRGC - Pasdaran-e Inqilab) GlobalSecurity.org. http://www.globalsecurity.org/intell/world/iran/qods.htm. (Accessed December 14, 2011).

Samii, A.W. Factionalism in Iran's Domestic Security Forces. Middle East Intelligence Bureau. February 2002. Vol. 4. No. 2.… [read more]

Global Wealth and Poverty Research Paper

Research Paper  |  4 pages (1,233 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


Global Wealth and Poverty: Zimbabwe and the United Arab Emirates

Recent innovations in telecommunications and transportation have created new opportunities for many of the seven billion people in the world today, but in some cases, the stark differences in wealth between the affluent nations of the world and their impoverished counterparts in developing nations has never been greater. This is certainly the case with the United Arab Emirates, one of the richest nations in the world, and Zimbabwe, which is currently among the poorest. To gain some fresh insights into why such drastic economic disparities exist between these two countries, this paper provides a review of the relevant peer-reviewed and scholarly literature, followed by a summary of the research and important findings in the conclusion.

Review and Analysis


Like many African nations, Zimbabwe experienced a rocky transition during its transition to African majority rule following its independence in 1980. The newly installed black majority government sought to continue many of the macroeconomic policies of the past, with some mixed results (Mumbengegwi, 2002). Like many other African countries as well, Zimbabwe has significant deposits of natural resources, including diamonds and other minerals (Zimbabwe, 2011). Despite some encouraging signs of economic growth during the transition period following independence, an increasingly massive public sector and large government investments in education and infrastructure resulted in unsustainably large deficits that adversely affected further development during the 1980s and 1990s (Mumbengegwi, 2002). According to Mumbengegwi (2002), the economic growth that immediately followed independence was short-lived, due to a combination of two consecutive droughts and diminished global demand for Zimbabwe products. As a result, "Agricultural output declined by almost 20 per cent, reducing incomes and effective demand for manufacturing sector output. Gross fixed capital formation (GFCF) as a percentage of GDP declined after 1982 and stabilized at around 12 -- 13 per cent throughout the decade, which was hardly adequate to cover replacement capital" (Mumbengegwi, 2002).

More recently, and despite the lingering effects of the global economic downturn, Zimbabwe's economy has experienced rapid growth notwithstanding ongoing political instability (Zimbabwe, 2011). In this regard, U.S. government analysts report that, "Following a decade of contraction, Zimbabwe's economy recorded real growth of 5.9% in 2010" (Zimbabwe, 2011, para. 2). Nevertheless, a number of significant challenges confront continued economic development in the country, including widespread corruption, uncontrolled inflation, a staggering 95% unemployment rate and a population that is forced to subsist on less than $2 a day (Zimbabwe, 2011). While Zimbabwe experiences its first solid economic growth in more than 10 years, U.S. analysts caution that future success will depend on a resolution of the country's political problems (Zimbabwe, 2011).

United Arab Emirates

With a population roughly half the size of Zimbabwe's (see Table 1 below), the United Arab Emirates' (UAE) gross domestic product per capita is almost one-thousand times as high ($49,600 versus $500). Moreover, the UAE is just a fifth of the size of Zimbabwe, but it does have something that Zimbabwe does not have: proven reserves of… [read more]

Hamas Often When People Think Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (3,845 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10


The International Court did rule that some of Israel's purposed wall location were beyond jurisdiction and that those areas would have to be rerouted (Jones 2009).

The Israeli courts have done everything to ensure that their government is not doing anything illegal. In fact, in the case of Mara'abe v. The Prime Minister of Israel, the Israeli Supreme Court ruled… [read more]

Oslo Accords Essay

Essay  |  6 pages (2,021 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


At which point, they began to look for some kind of solution to address these challenges. In this aspect, the Oslo Accords did not look like anything surrounding the common dilemmas the two sides were facing. Yet, it also was a combination of these different external pressures to work out some kind of a deal that would help to sort out these issues. So that there could be; a long-term solution that will establish a lasting peace. Therefore, the Oslo Accords did not look like anything that came out of the negotiations, in that it failed to understand the severity of the issues itself. While at the same time, the external pressures meant that both sides had to take a new approach in addressing these issues. In this aspect, these events were illustrating how the common dilemma would push both sides to seek out some kind of agreeable solution in dealing with these problems over the long-term. (Brown, 2003, pp. 244 -- 254)


Clearly, the Oslo Accords were a major breakthrough in that they provided a basic foundation for establishing a lasting peace between the Israelis and the Palestinians. As, they addressed a number of different issues including: Israelis right to exist, the beginnings of a new Palestinian state and they allowed for the withdrawal of the IDF from various areas of the West Bank along with the Gaza Strip. Yet, they failed to address the most pressing issues facing the two sides most notably: the control of the City of Jerusalem, Palestinian refugees, security, borders and settlements. These different elements are important, because they are illustrating how the agreement was a basis for future negotiations. Where, they failed in that none of these problems were addressed in future negotiations and continued to remain an issue of contention.

As far as the negotiations are concerned, the Oslo Accords were considered to be breakthrough. This is because they embraced a number of different concepts to bring the two parties together including: introducing alternatives, understanding the other sides reserve position and finding areas for potential agreement. These elements are important, because they are illustrating, a few of the tactics that were used to create an agreement that was favorable to both sides. In this aspect, the Oslo Accords were considered to be a success because they provided a basic foundation for future negotiations and it created a framework for implementing a lasting peace. As a result, the agreement was considered to be a success based upon the breakthroughs that were established. While at the same time, it was a failure because it did not address the most pressing issues. Instead, it moved them down the road for someone else to work out these problems. Over the course of time, this would lead to increased amounts of tension between the two sides based upon these issues.


Brown, N. (2003). Palestinian Politics after the Oslo Accords. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.

Isseroff, A. (2003). The Peace Process is Dead. Mew Views.… [read more]

Corruption, Political Stability and Development Research Paper

Research Paper  |  13 pages (3,960 words)
Bibliography Sources: 11


Egypt holds a vast range of natural resources like petroleum, manganese, talc, natural gas, iron ore, zinc, phosphate, limestone, gypsum, lead and asbestos. They also pride themselves of vast agricultural land and weather that enables them to engage in cotton, wheat, rice, corn, fruits, beans, vegetables, cattle, water sheep, buffalo, fish and goats farming. Egypt therefore has a potential export… [read more]

Influence of Antisemitism on Palestinian Terrorism Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  5 pages (1,877 words)
Bibliography Sources: 15


Anti-Semitism and Palestinian Terrorism

Global anti-Semitism is escalating at an alarming rate (Spencer 2010). While there are many deep-rooted, impassioned conflicts between Arab Palestinians and Israeli Jews, the question remains: to what degree can today's continued unrest being attributed to rampant anti-Semitism, both in Palestine and abroad? In addition, to what extent does anti-Semitism fuel Palestinian terrorism? More importantly, since… [read more]

Israeli Settlement Policies Research Paper

Research Paper  |  12 pages (3,653 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10


Israeli Settlement Policies

There are Israeli settlements in the West Bank, Golan Heights and East Jerusalem. These highly contested Jewish communities range in size from small villages to now recognized cities. To better understand this situation, this paper will overview the background on Israelis settlements. The legality of settlements, in regards to International Law, will also be discussed. UN resolutions… [read more]

Conflict There Is a Difference Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (1,088 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+



There is a difference between the individual action and corporate action. The difference arises from the inherent nature of the actor as an individual and the corporation as an actor. The relationship of the actor and corporation to sin is also different, thus conversion is articulated differently for both entities. Entrenched structural and practical considerations limit the scope of corporate conversion. For the individual personal and familiar challenges, become an impediment. The path to conversion is therefore different for the individual and the corporation. The corporation has a greater challenge demonstrating and creating conversion than the individual.

The conversion of the individual requires that the person accept the existence of sin as a motivating force in their life. This sin may be considered "original sin" that has passed from the action of Adam and Eve unto the human family. There is no escape from the effect of original sin on the lives of humans. Original sin is pervasive. It intrudes into all the crevices of human endeavor and pollutes everything that it meets. Consequently, it is possible for actions to appear good and noble but be vile and corrupt because of the influence of sin on the motives of the actor. The nature of original sin makes conversion difficult for the individual but not impossible.

The corporation is beset by the problem of creating collective action. The creation of collective action is hampered by structural and systemic considerations within the corporation. If the corporation is to change or be converted, it has to overcome entrenched structures that form the basis of the division of power, and privilege within the corporation. The powerful within the corporation are often opposed to the creation of change since change will affect their fortunes and positions (Hodges). The change must be generated from the ranks of the very persons least likely to have the capacity to create the necessary change.

Sin manifests itself as injustice and unfairness within the corporation. Over time, unjust and unfair practices become calcified as part of the structure and are considered as normal. When these practices are resisted, the corporation responds in a myriad of ways but most often, the change is resisted. The path of conversion for the corporation passes through conflict and struggle (King Jr.). This requires many years to become fruitful.

Individuals can change easier than corporations can. Individual conversion does not require that they go against the established structures. It may at times create hostility within the family and self, but the impact of the decision is usually personalized. The decision, and hence conversion, will not generally influence the structures. Immoral persons may decide to become moral or act in moral ways. The social structure is not affected by this personal decision. The potential for greater impact only occurs when the numbers of persons changing is significant to threaten the structure.

The conflict between Israel and Palestine is an enduring and complicated conflict. The Jewish people, trace their right to the land back to biblical… [read more]

Middle East Essay

Essay  |  9 pages (2,954 words)
Bibliography Sources: 7


Middle East

Because of a number of elements, the Middle East found itself profoundly changed after World War I. Although this was the case for many countries, the region experienced it most keenly as a result of not only its own internal conflicts, but also because of the conflicting drives of the countries that won the war. Many of the… [read more]

Israeli Palestinian Conflict Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (653 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Israeli-Palestinian Conflict

Based on the new information learned from studying the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict, my advice to President Obama is to seek peace but maintain a level of impartiality to the entire conflict.

Numerous governments, including the United States of American, England, and France, have tried to enact peace treaties, perfect boundaries, and other forms of solutions to promote peace and end to the conflicts. The one problem is the geographics of the region. Even if you end the conflict between Israel and Palestine, the majority of the Arab countries in the Middle East still resent or wishes to destroy the nation of Israel. They will not even recognize the existence of Israel as a nation. I think President Obama should remain diplomatic but be careful of taking sides. The following paper tries to summarize the basis behind the problems and why a solution will not be an easy one and may lead to another world war.

The Israeli-Palestinian Conflict is a very complex situation that has been raging for centuries. The land has changed hands so often it is hard to determine the nationality of the inhabitants in the small country. Though the topic deals with Israel and Palestine, the overall picture and the reasons go back to early Biblical times. It is a clash between religions, the Jewish and Christians (Israel) versus the Islamic and Muslims (Arabs). For this paper we will concentrate on the situation of the land dispute but acknowledgement needed to be made to the root cause.

The land in question was inhabited through the years by many different nationalities and each was conquered by another country. Evidence from fossil bones found in the region show that the area has been inhabited for tens of thousands of years. Around 2000 BC they land was occupied by the Canaanite, Amorites, and other Semitic people. Israelites are thought to be a combination of the people of the region and especially the Canaanites and a…… [read more]

Developing Nations Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (837 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Oil and Religion: Europe in the Middle East.

Following the end of the First World War, the European powers, and later the U.S. And the Soviet Union, dominated the Middle East in terms of political, social, and economic structures, and set in motion a series of events which have impacted world events and global peace to the present day. This brief paper will outline the impact of Europe on this critical world region as it played out during the 20th Century.

Any discussion of the Middle East must begin with perhaps the two most important factors which have determined the course of events in the region for the last century: oil and religion. Oil has served as the economic motivation for Europe and other powers which have mingled in the region's affairs. Religion has served as the complicating force which has made social and political stabilization under a Western model difficult to achieve. The geography of the region and its oil reserves have made it strategically important throughout the period of empire building and the Cold War, but the fierce independence and religious heterogeneity of the Arab people have made the populations notoriously difficult organize for both Western and Arab leaders (Grenville, 421). At least part of this difficulty has been the result of the interference of the British and, to a lesser extent, the French in political affairs across the Middle East as Europe attempted to colonize the region politically in order to afford the kind of system they thought necessary to allow the exploitation of oil reserves to proceed peacefully.

Grenville writes that the British attempted to "secure the benefits of empire in the Middle East while minimizing the costs of control" (422). In order to do this, they engaged immediately after WWI in a pattern of establishing British-style constitutions in Egypt, Iraq, and areas of the now dissolute Ottoman Empire. Later, they developed treaties with Transjordan, Iran, and Saudi Arabia which essentially made those areas British protectorates. Both sets of arrangements allowed the British to have advisory impact on the areas without having to incur the costs of rule. Their intent was to set up a peaceful set of governments that would allow them to go in a get the oil. However, this system caused several problems. The Arab monarchies proved to be neglectful and oppressive of their people, and the British stood aside, leading to the development of distrust among the populace of Western influence, a distrust that was exploited by Arab religious leaders…… [read more]

Nations and Nationalism Since 1780? For E.J Essay

Essay  |  7 pages (1,878 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 4


Nations and Nationalism since 1780? For E.J. Hobsbawm

Analysis of Israel as Potential Destination for Conducting Business

Based on the opportunities created by globalization and market liberalization, more and more economic agents cross boundaries to geographically expand their businesses. The Middle East is generally a controversial territory, one in which contrasts are obvious between the few rich ones directly involved… [read more]

Psychological Aspects of Conflict and Resolutions Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,455 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Questions Concerning the Psychology of Conflict and Conflict

The conflict between Israel and the surrounding Arab neighbors with
which it has frequently come to blows is precipitated on a host of
territorial, historical, ethnic and political terms. However, with the
significant gains made to the peace process in Israel's first regional
accord, signed with Egypt in 1979, it gained… [read more]

Culture Constraining a Culture: The Restrictions Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (848 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0



Constraining a Culture: The Restrictions of Borders

Culture helps keep life interesting and helps make who we are. It is a basic foundation of our personalities and social behaviors. What would happen if the constraints caused by border conflicts actually helped stifle the development of various cultures within those conflicts. As seen in the Israeli-Palestinian conflict, there are some border conflicts which can get way out of hand causing the socio-economic disenfranchising of an entire culture along with placing citizens of both nations in physical danger. This constraining qualities of heightened border tension and policies is also similarly seen in the United States with its border facing Mexico. In this conflict, although much less extreme, presents elements very similar to the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. However, it is a third hybrid culture sprung out of the combination of the two which suffers most from trying to juggle identities revolving around two hostile cultures. Both cases have seen continuous failure of resolution, leaving little room for hope.

There are very similar shifts in culture emanating from the West Bank in the Middle East. This area of the world has been under constant turmoil since the end of World War II and the creation of the Israeli nation-state in controversial area once believed to be Palestine. Initially a Palestinian territory, the West Bank consists of the western portion of the River Jordan. Yet, the religious significance for the Jewish Israeli people proved to great of a lure, and Israel has occupied the area for generations. This move has caused great strife within the area with Palestine's refusal to simply give up their territory. In recent years, tensions have continued to rise, leading to failure of negotiations and all out physical hostility towards one another. In the midst of such looming conflict, the boundaries of the province have been renewed with new rigorous checkpoints which further isolate the two cultures and create a center tension point between the two nations. This tension then turns into resentment and xenophobia between two very similar, yet eternally different cultures. It creates two very different worlds within the same space.

The difficulties caused by the extreme separation and the rigor of getting through various checkpoints between the two nations have serious consequences on the two nations involved. Although Israel has strong Western allies which it can rely on for international trade and tourist income, Palestine finds little Western affiliated luxuries. In fact, the occupation of the West Bank and the tension within the given area has severely limited Palestine's potential to trade…… [read more]

Yom Kippur War Thesis

Thesis  |  12 pages (3,961 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 6


Yom Kippur War

The Long-Term Implications of the Yom Kippur War

As forces from Egypt, Syria, Jordan and Iraq massed around Israel's borders in 1967, Israel launched a six-day air campaign which crippled the capacity of its opponents to wage war and which expanded its borders to well beyond the tract originally awarded to Zionists with the independence of 1948.… [read more]

Education Development in Syria Thesis

Thesis  |  5 pages (1,485 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5




According to many prominent Middle Eastern historians and scholars, the nation of Syria, located at the eastern end of the Mediterranean Sea and sharing borders with Turkey, Iraq, Jordan, Israel and Lebanon, faces many difficult challenges in the coming decades. Its young president, Bashar al-Asad, inherited from his late father Hafiz al-Asad a rather… [read more]

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