"Israel / Palestine / Arab World" Essays

X Filters 

Government Economic and Business in the Middle East Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (2,319 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


¶ … government, economics, and business in the Middle East. Specifically it will discuss the economic interaction between Iran and Israel from 1975 until 1985 and how the Islamic Revolution in 1979 has influenced the economy during this time until today. With the formation of Israel in 1948, tensions in the Middle East increased, and battle lines were drawn. However,… [read more]

Geography in the Middle East Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,736 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … geography in the Middle East. Specifically it will discuss the road toward Middle East peace and the Annapolis Conference, and how they relate to peace in the area. The Road Map for Peace in the Middle East formulates a complex process for recognition of Israel and the formation of another Palestine for displaced Palestinians. This is a long-term… [read more]

Attack on U.S. Marine Compound in Beirut Airport in 1983 Internationalism Term Paper

Term Paper  |  13 pages (3,658 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 12


American Middle East Unilateralism

Attack on U.S. Marine Compound in Beirut Airport in 1983

In 1983, 241 United States Marines were killed in Beirut, Lebanon (CBS News, 2003). On the world stage, the United States, under the Reagan administration, stood accused of attempting to stand alone against the world, unilateralism, and had lost many of its supporters in the United… [read more]

International Conflict Resolution Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (2,740 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+


International Conflict Resolution

For policymakers who wish to resolve conflicts - through political, economic, and military tools - there are several proven ways and means of arriving at closure. This paper will review some of those strategies and point to reasons why these approaches have become more difficult since the onset of the Cold War. John J. Hamre and Gordon… [read more]

USA Arms Exports Term Paper

Term Paper  |  11 pages (3,541 words)
Bibliography Sources: 8


U.S. Arms Exports

The impact of United States arms exports on human rights around the world

In 1948, just shortly after the end of WWII, the UN adopted the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. The purpose of this document was to make certain that every human being had certain rights that could not be violated. It was to make certain… [read more]

Iranian Revolution of 1979 Gave Rise Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (477 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+


Iranian revolution of 1979 gave rise to a wave of radical acts such as kidnappings, taking of American hostages, offering support in the Hezbollah operations in Lebanon, as well as several bombing of U.S. installations; these acts can be considered terrorism (Sick: 84). As far as the Hezbollah, it is important to note that Iran has supported their cause ever since their beginning in 1982, as a response to U.S. And Israeli foreign policy efforts. Their affiliation with the Islamic Revolution of Iran has resulted in numerous terrorist attacks during the 1980s and 1990s (Katzman: 28). These two decades saw Iran involved in supporting and sponsoring Shiite Muslim extremist groups that generated crises in the member states of the Gulf Cooperation Council - Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Bahrain, Qatar, Oman, and the United Arab Emirates. Their effort of destabilizing local peace and security were futile because the states in question became close allies of the United States.

Today, Iran's policy regarding terrorist acts is considerably different than after the revolution that took place more than 25 years ago. Despite this apparent decrease in the number of terrorist acts, U.S. State Department still considers Iran "the most active sponsor of terrorism" (Byman: 2). Iran has abandoned the policies of hostage-taking among its neighboring countries, as well as the targeted assassinations of enemies. Its current policy consists mainly of support for radical anti-Israeli groups in Palestine (Sick: 85). On several occasions,…… [read more]

Educational Background of 2 Or More Cleft Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (718 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


¶ … educational background of 2 or more Cleft National Cultures. The Cleft Cultures consist of the following: Malaysian, Nigeria, Israel, Italy, & Belgium

One of the most unique facets of the modern Israeli state it is simultaneously homogeneous and heterogeneous character. On one hand, Israel has an official religion, because it is the self-designated homeland of all of the Jewish population of the world. On the other hand, because it embraces Jews from all over the world, Israel's population may compose that of a highly educated doctor or a recent immigrant from a developing nation with little access to education. Within Israel as well: "Education in Israel has been characterized historically by the same social and cultural cleavages separating the Orthodox from the secular and Arabs from Jews. In addition, because of residential patterns and concentrations -- of Orientals in development towns, for example -- or because of 'tracking' of one sort or another, critics have charged that education has been functionally divided by an Ashkenazi-Oriental distinction, as well" (Israel: Education, 2007, U.S. Library of Congress). However, despite these divides, Israel also has notable universities for professional education, as well as fine primary and secondary institutions of schooling within its borders, and thus resembles the modern United States.

Italy is a similarly diverse and highly regionalized nation, as the quality of education may vary from North to South, much like the cultures of these different regions within the nation. However, much like school system of Belgium, Italy and Belgium, like most European nations have a certain element of cohesiveness because of a state-set curriculum and because higher education is based upon an examination system, a system also paralleled in Malaysia. State examinations and national curriculums may help create greater unity in Cleft national cultures (Gannon, 2006). Finally, Nigerian education is even more diverse: "There were three fundamentally distinct education systems in Nigeria in 1990: the indigenous system, Quranic schools, and formal European-style education institutions. In the rural areas where the majority lived, children learned the skills of farming and other work, as well as the duties of adulthood, from participation in the community" (Nigeria: Education, 2007, U.S. Library…… [read more]

International Competition Middle East Term Paper

Term Paper  |  16 pages (4,978 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 15


Middle East Region

There is no hard and fast rule that defines what constitutes Middle East. It traditionally includes countries or regions in Southwest Asia and parts of North Africa. Persian Gulf is considered as the main centre the area around which is generally referred as Middle East. Bahrain, Egypt, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia,… [read more]

Middle East -- a Region of Ancient Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,125 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Middle East -- a region of ancient conflicts and changing American policies

The Middle East has always been an important region in the modern diplomatic history of the United States. But "if the chief natural resource of the Middle East were bananas, the region would not have attracted the attention of U.S. policymakers as it has for decades." (Richman, 1991) Economically, the Middle East is a critical source of oil, the fuel that propels the productivity of America and the entire industrialized world. But the availability of oil is not merely a matter of dollars and cents for the U.S. The nations that control the sources of these vital fossil fuels have additional political power, in comparison to their neighbors, as well as economic capital. This fact has made the Middle East a source of anxiety politically as well as economically for the United States, and the economic outlook for America's future cannot be severed from the geopolitical balance of the region.

Until the 1990s, virtually every policy of the United States was overshadowed by the specter of communism. In 1957, President Eisenhower said: "Russia's rulers have long sought to dominate the Middle East...International Communism...seeks to mask its purposes of domination by expressions of good will and by superficially attractive offers of political, economic and military aid. But any free nation, which is the subject of Soviet enticement, ought, in elementary wisdom, to look behind the mask." (Eisenhower, 1957) "The idea of a strategic relationship between the United States and Israel emerged after the Suez crisis, when the Eisenhower administration realized that both countries had an interest in containing Nasser's influence...He was the first to provide Israel with sophisticated weapons and to commit the United States to a policy of maintaining Israel's regional military superiority." (Richman, 1991) Israel was America's one, secure friend in the Middle East. Although it was a small nation, it must become militarily strong to act as a counterweight to Soviet influence. In contrast, the leaders of Egypt, and later Libya, Syria, and Iraq, formed alliances with the Soviet Union. However, "neither Syria nor Egypt was controlled by the Soviet Union; they were not even independent communist regimes." (Richman, 1991) Still, even when Israel's policies, such as the invasion of Lebanon, were questionable morally, the United States did not condemn such actions, in light of the its long-standing strategic policy to support Israel, and that any action of an enemy of the Soviet Union should be endorsed or at least not formally censored by the United States. (Richman, 1991)

The Soviet Union's dissolution caused a seismic change in the world geopolitical scene, as it spelled the decline of the bipolar balance of power in the world. However, although it called into question a number of the polices of the United States, it could be argued that the collapse of the Soviet Union, ideologically, had less of an impact upon the Middle East than the rise of Islamic fundamentalism. Communism had never been a formidable force in… [read more]

World Problem Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (3,486 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … Darfur Refugees

The conflict in Darfur has been ongoing for some time. It is located in the Darfur region, which is in the western Sudan, and the problems have been mainly between those that are non-Arab and the Janjaweed, which are a militia group that come from the tribes of local Arabs (Morrison, 2006). Because of this, many… [read more]

History of the Modern Middle East Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,161 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … Middle East

My Enemy's Enemy is My Friend -- Even if that Enemy is Democracy and Economic Progress in the Middle East

According to James L. Gelvin's book The Modern Middle East: A History, the central irony of the post-Cold War "Age of Democratization" and "Age of Globalization," is that while much of the rest of the formerly colonized world has been freeing itself from tyranny and outmoded economic ideas, the Middle Eastern nations of the Islamic world are becoming increasingly tyrannical and economically stagnant. Even nations that were oil-rich, such as Saudi Arabia and Kuwait have yet to build extensive economic infrastructures that rely on commodities other than the non-renewable economic resources of oil. Democracy and capitalism have yet to take root even in nations with extensive exposure to Western ideals. However, Gelvin's so-called irony is less surprising when viewed in conjunction with the fact that resistance to European colonial domination since the end of World War I in the Middle East has always been framed in terms of a resistance to all European cultural and religious ideologies -- including democracy and capitalism, as well as Christianity.

While Gelvin points out that so-called "traditional" fundamentalist and pro-nationalist Islamic revolutions, such as occurred in Iran are actually contemporary in their worldview, in the sense that they look back to a mythical and fictional pure Islamic past, the ideological nature of these revolutions also demonstrate how such apparently progressive ideas like women's rights have become associated with Western-controlled leaders like the Shah of Iran. The Shah himself was also a dictator, tainting the ideal of democracy for many Iranians, who thus turned to anti-democratic fundamentalism as a solution. (Gelvin 191) Even in Egypt, which secular leaders such as Nasser and Sadat have dominated in the post-colonial era, totalitarian rulers defined the debate of national independence. Resistance meant following cults of personality enforced by charismatic rulers like Nasser. Nationalized economic strategies (like the pan-Arab nationalization of the Suez that wrested control from the British) were popularized over attempts at capitalist reform. (Gelvin 215) Sadat, who eventually signed the Camp David Peace Accords with Israel and sought to broaden Egypt's economic perspective, became the victim of a successful assassination attempt.

Thus, in the paradoxical logic (to Western eyes) of the Middle East, democracy and a free market are conjoined with colonialism and European dominion. Sun Allah Ibrahim's book The Committee is an unsparing depiction of how Western ideologies, such as global capitalism and democracy, are fused with totalitarianism in the Middle Eastern mind. The West may see Islamic militarism as totalitarian. The oppressive nature ruling Committee of Ibrahim's book, in its militarism, might seem to be a stand-in for the totalitarian state regimes described by Gelvin, as have exist or have existed in Syria, Iraq, and other modern Middle Eastern nations. But the members of Ibrahim's Committee are blond, European, and do not speak Arabic.

This suggests that Ibrahim is not so much concerned about oppressive rule of Islamic fundamentalists, but… [read more]

Iran and the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (3,231 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


" (Ibid)

Punishing Iran for its noncompliance with U.S. ideals, however, accomplishes nothing other than further eroding relations between the two countries and worsening the economic situation in Iran. By "inflicting harm on Tehran," the United States has achieved its domestic goal of appearing tough on weapons regulation, but accomplished nothing toward achieving a compromise or understanding with Iran as… [read more]

Middle Least Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (707 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


¶ … Middle East [...] given a position of power as a strong international leader, what I would want the Arabs and Israelis to do to find a lasting peace, and what I would expect to happen. Historically, the Middle East has been at odds for centuries, and it does not seem any closer now to a lasting and viable peace any more than it has in decades. Personally, I do want the Israelis and Arabs to reach a lasting peace, but it seems there are so many differences between them that a lasting peace just may be a pipe dream - always hoped for but never quite attained.

The Arabs and Israelis must look beyond their obvious differences to find their obvious commonalities, and there are many. I would want them to explore these commonalities and expand on them, finding ways to creatively solve their differences rather than solving them with violence, hatred, and misunderstanding. As one author notes, "Neither side appreciates the depth of the other's perception of great asymmetry of power. Both sides must get close enough to feel each other's losses and to find means of transforming relationships" (Duffey). I would want small groups of people throughout the area to work together to solve their differences and to learn about each other. One-on-one relationships often show that we are much more alike than we are willing to admit, and it seems that these kinds of relationships could foster more understanding between Arabs and Israelis that could least to more peaceful and amicable relationships throughout the region.

I would also expect them to want peace. In a region that has been torn by violence and hatred for so long, it would seem that many residents must be tired of the process, and must wish for a better relationship and a better way of life. With Israel's commitment to eventual withdrawal from the Gaza Strip, it seems the first real extension of understanding has been created in a while, and that the two sides should expand on this showing of mutual respect, rather than allowing it to stand on its own.…… [read more]

US Role in Present Lebanese Civil War Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (2,152 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


U.S. Role in the Present Lebanese Political Crisis

When Lebanon's former Prime Minister Rafik al-Hariri was assassinated on February 14, 2005, the Middle Eastern country was plunged into a serious crisis that threatens to escalate into a civil war.

The United States was quick to hold Syria responsible for the killing and has put considerable pressure on the Syrian government… [read more]

U.S. Policies in the Middle Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,328 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


One example is that of Jordan, which received aid from the U.S.A. despite the widespread repression at the time and also its autocratic rule. It is sometimes stated that the U.S. policies have given rise to the upsurge and rising of Islamic governments as well as Islamic movements. The U.S.A. has been showing great concern about the rising of the Islamic movement in the Middle East, and what must be understood is the fact that Islam is a religion that is very much diverse in its interpretations of the teachings of Islam and these teachings can also be applicable to contemporary political issues. Not all of the religion is intolerant of the West; in fact there are some people who believe that believe in an innate cooperation and moderation in their dealings with the West. At the same time, there are Islamic individuals who are vociferous in their opposition to the West and also to other religions, and ironically, the U.S.A. has in fact been lending its support to these movements. (10 things to Know about the U.S. Policy in the Middle East)

These are certain specific incidents of the U.S. policies in the Middle East: in 1948, the U.S.A. supported the Palestinian plan of returning to Israel form where they had been expelled, in 1956, when Israel, Britain and France raided Egypt, the U.S. did not lend its support, but the intervention of its NATO allies damaged its reputation, in 1970, during the Civil War between Jordan and PLO, U.S. joins hands with Israel in its plans to back Jordan if Syria were to support the PLO. The years 1980 to 1988 saw the War between Iran and Iraq, and U.S. offered support to Iraq, and secretly provided arms to Iran. In 1993, U.S. launched a missile attack on Iraq, and in 1998, both UK and U.S. bombed Iraq. In 2000, the U.S. offered arms to Israel so that a Palestinian uprising could be quelled. (Middle East Time Line) In a study conducted on the U.S. policies today in the Middle East, it was obvious that there was in fact, a disparity in the effort and in the interest that was being out in, and this was affecting the desired outcome. In addition, it was also clear that there was no obvious clear and coherent theme to link all the elements of the policies together, and this was reducing the efficiency of the policies. If they were linked in a perfect symmetry, then they would definitely do better. (An Option of Difficulties, Countering Asymmetric Threats)

Everyone knows that 'surprise' in a government is not something that is pleasant or attractive; it is more likely a complicated bureaucratic procedure that would be better avoided. U.S. policies must therefore most firmly and strongly target all those states that support terrorism and surprise attacks, and when this is carried out, the policies would in fact become more efficient in achieving their innate purpose, which is that of providing safety and security to… [read more]

Colonialism in the Middle East Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (673 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


In the post World War II period, the Western colonial powers blatantly supported dictatorial regimes in the Middle East in order to retain their control of the region's vast oil resources. The role of the imperialist power has been taken over by the United States from Britain. The U.S. government's lop-sided support of Israel has prevented it from playing the role of an honest broker, besides encouraging Israel into taking increasingly extreme position on issues such as withdrawal from the occupied territories and Jewish settlements. The role of the Western powers has not been exemplary on other fronts in the Middle East either. For example, the U.S. cynically supported Saddam Hussain in his war against Iran during the 1980s. When he was emboldened into occupying Kuwait, the U.S. realized blatantly that he had to be stopped leading to the first Gulf War.

Decades later, the legacy of colonialism continues to haunt the region. The neo-conservatives in the United States are expounding the same centuries' old colonialist theory of the "white man's burden" of guiding the 'lesser' nations towards the 'right path.' Forgetting the advice of Thomas Jefferson that, "The laws which must effect [a people's happiness] must flow from their own habits, their own feelings, and the resources of their own minds. No stranger to these could possibly propose regulations adapted to them," the U.S. has embarked on a crusade to create a "model" of democracy in the Middle East for the Arabs and the Muslim countries to follow. The British attempted a similar exercise unsuccessfully in the early part of the 20th century. Not having learnt the lessons of history, the U.S. is repeating the same mistake.

Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Bulgaria

Letter to W. Lee, 1819… [read more]

Urban and Redevelopment Planning a Comparative Study of the Emirates of Abu Dhabi and Dubai Term Paper

Term Paper  |  16 pages (4,983 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … United Arab Emirates Abu Dhabi and Dubai

A Comparative Study: Emirates of Abu Dhabi

It has often been recalled throughout history that it is said that the Phoenix will rise from the ashes if the saying has only predicted the Phoenix rising from the sands of the Desert then surely it would be proclaimed that the Phoenix was… [read more]

History of Zionism Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,662 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Zionism did come into conflict with the Israeli administration when Israel's first Prime Minister, Ben-Gurion, insisted to keep Zionist leaders from influencing Israel's policy decisions.

Zionism has of course been vehemently denounced by the Arab nations and the UN even adopted a resolution in 1975, equating Zionism with racism. Zionists have, however, continued to work towards their objectives relentlessly -- the safety of the state of Israel and the right of any Jew to settle there

-- they have been successful on both counts to date.


Cohen, Michael Joseph. "Zionism." Article in Encyclopedia Encarta, CD-ROM Version, 2002

Edelheit, Abfaham J. And H. Edelheit. "History of Zionism: A Handbook and Dictionary."

Westview Press, 2000

Spiro, Rabbi Ken. "Crash Course in Jewish History Part 62 - Return to the Land of Israel." Aish.com. Jan 27, 2002

http://www.aish.com/literacy/jewishhistory/Crash_Course_in_Jewish_History_Part_62_-_Return_to_the_Land_of_Israel.asp (accessed December 7, 2004)

---------------- -- . "Crash Course in Jewish History Part 64 - The British Mandate." Aish.com. http://www.aish.com/literacy/jewishhistory/Crash_Course_in_Jewish_History_Part_64_-_The_British_Mandate.asp (accessed December 7, 2004)

'Zionism - The Beginnings." World Union of Jewish Students. http://www.wujs.org.il/activist/learning/judaism/zionism.shtml (accessed December 7, 2004)

'Zionism." Article in Encyclopedia Britannica, CD-ROM Version, 2003

The word 'Zionism' is derived from Zion, the hill on which the Temple of Jerusalem was located

"Zionism: The Beginnings"

The Jews have been maligned as Christ killers and the people who rejected his teachings.

"Zionism" Britannica Article

Alfred Dreyfus, a Jewish artillery officer in the French Army, was falsely accused and convicted of treason.

Hezl observed later that the Dreyfus affair turned him into a Zionist

Edelheit (2000). "The History of Zionism" pp. 89-90

Ibid. p. 101

The Congress was so successful that Hezl noted in his diary, "At Basel I founded the Jewish State. Perhaps in five years but certainly in 50 everyone will know it." Exactly 50 years and some months later, the state of Israel was born. (Quoted by Spiro, Part 62)

"Zionism." Britannica Article

Spiro, "Crash Course in ... " Part 64


Cohen, "Zionism" Encarta

The Zionists have been particularly active in arranging immigration of Jews from Russia… [read more]

Middle East Peace Talks Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (579 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


That means that during this exploratory period, it would be up to all participants to put all issues, grievances and beliefs about historical wrongs on the table where they can be understood by all. I would choose this course of action because otherwise, undisclosed issues will come up, sometimes unstated or disguised as other issues. This exploratory phase should persist until all parties can explain what opponents believe dispassionately, without exaggeration, without adding comments about their own perspective, without assigning blame, and without any other non-neutral overlays. Only if each side understands the others' frames of references can they talk with each other about these issues.

Then the separate groups should make lists of what they want in order to bring peace. Only if every faction participates in these negotiations with true intent to find solutions will it work. Next, the group of leaders will have to do the hard work of finding solutions compromising, and staying focused on the future instead of nursing old hurts. Once they have all identified the history, they must be willing to treat it as history and be ready to move forward, not look backwards at past grievances.

If some factions are barred because they are terrorists or for some other reason, the process will not work. This group of individuals will not be able to force peace on others any more than European powers were able to do it earlier in the 20th century. This may be more than the groups involved can do. They may not be willing to forget old grievances, including some that are quite old. But without truly understanding each others' views and a group will to look forward, real, lasting peace is unlikely.… [read more]

Pursuit of Justice Paine's Ideas Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (630 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


From international law, a state is defined as having three main elements that can prove its existence: territory, population and a government. In Paine's times, a population that gained a territory (thus, independence in that respective territory) could then elect a government and be a state with all rights and obligations deriving form this.

Notice that the government, in Paine's text, is someone who represents the people, the people choosing to delegate some of is natural rights to the government, who can best achieve and enforce these rights.

Starting from this, we can discuss Golda Meir's memoir and his famous statement according to which "there are no Palestinians (...) only Arabs." If we consider the state of affairs in the Middle East at the time (and it is also applicable to the present), the Palestinians have constantly asked, ever since the proclamation of the state of Israel in 1948, for a territory. Having talked about the main elements of a state (territory, population, government), the Palestinians needed a territory to form a state, because they already had an established Palestinian population. The question that needs to be asked here is whether this demand for a territory is just. Thus, the answer to such a question is directly related to whether the Palestinians do form a nation. If one denies their existence as a nation, the question of territory needn't even be asked, because they have not fulfilled the first condition.

Thus, Golda Meir finds and applies the easiest mean to deny the right for a free Palestine by denying the existence of the Palestinian nation. In this sense, the underlying principles on which the new states are founded and indeed, the principles which will subsequently lead to the foundation of a new state, do not exist if the existence of the…… [read more]

Arab-American in Detroit Started Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (577 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Detroit's Arab-Americans have their own share of success in politics. An example of which is Spencer Abraham. Abraham is one Michigan's senator and served as an advisor of Vice President Dan Quayle (Gold, 2001). Another is Ishmael Ahmed, a leader of an Arab-American service agency known as ACCESS (Arab Community Center for Economic and Social Services) (Gold, 2001).

As with other ethnic minorities, the Arab-Americans share an experience of racial discrimination and prejudices as well. Brought by ignorance, they are oftentimes stereotyped in a negative manner (PBS). In movies, for instance, the Arab-Americans are usually regarded as among the enemies. This perception about them was worsened by the crises caused by the Gulf War, the 9-11 attack to U.S. In 2001, and the terrorist activities in the Middle East that still exist today.

The Arab-American community preserves a wide array of tradition and culture, mixed with Western traditions. This is evident in their different activities in education, politics, social life, and others. According to the Provider's Guide to Quality and Culture online, the Arab-Americans have three common factors that protect and bind them. These are community, family, and respect for Western medicine. The Arab-Americans preserve a strong bond within their community. Similarly, they also hold on strong family ties giving honor and respect for each family member. Lastly, the Arab-Americans have strong belief for Western medicine, much of which, in fact, originated from the Arabics.


Caught in the Crossfire.

PBS. Feb 09, 2004.


Gold, Steven. Arab-Americans in Detroit.

2001. Michigan State University. Feb 09, 2004.



The Provider's Guide to Quality and Culture. Feb 09, 2004.

http://erc.msh.org/mainpage.cfm?file=5.4.2j.htm& module=provider& language=English… [read more]

Iraq War Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (3,180 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


C., that every major move Bush makes in terms of publicity or PR or policy, is orchestrated or at least partially tweaked by Rove.

According to Time Magazine (Elliott, 2003), on May 1, 2003, Bush landed "in flying gear on the deck of the aircraft carrier the U.S.S. Abraham Lincoln" - which had a huge banner reading "MISSION ACCOMPLISHED." Bush… [read more]

Iran's Nuclear Program Began Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,115 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


History has shown us that the Allatollah regime in Iran is not only a dictatorship but is fundamentalist, and thus instigating towards fundamentalist groups that use terrorism and suicide bombings as a means to get their message across.

Israel has shown their disapproval of Iran's nuclear program on many occasions and while Iraq was deemed more of a regional threat than Iran, now that preemptive force has been labeled as 'successful' in the area, it leaves many to consider that Iran could be next on the list.

While history doesn't show Iran as receiving as much foreign support as Iraq, it is namely on a political agenda fuelled by fear that would have the U.S. using preemptive force in Iran to squash their nuclear program. No doubt, Israel would offer assistance, but the rest of the world would not be as quick to agree that the use of force in Iran is justified.

For arguments sake, if the U.S. were to use force in Iran, the repercussions of such an attack would be detrimental. U.S. Policies would take an even further turn down their ongoing downward spiral as allies in the region would become very suspicious of any political dealing with the U.S. And its allies from the Iran Strike.

Furthermore, countries that otherwise would ally with the U.S. - namely Australia and UK - would have taken a backseat in this event, only offering to provide (if anything) medical assistance and troops for the 'clean-up'. Such use of force would open an extremely large can of worms that U.S. Policy and government could otherwise not afford.

Unlike opinions on Iraq, it would stand to reason that vigilant containment of Iran's nuclear program would work far better than any use of force. Walt believed this would have worked with Iraq, but in the case of Iran, and currently political policies and relations with neighboring countries, it would be better to use this option in a region that is recovering from a foreign led war and needs physical proof that U.S. policy in the region is not based on force.

As far as using preemptive force in Iran to quell its nuclear proliferation, I feel it would not be in the best interest of the U.S. To do so. Despite efforts from it's strongest ally in the region, Israel, to put an end to 'the nuclear threat of Iran', there is not enough historical and physical evidence to suggest that a U.S. led strike would be justified, let alone well received in the region.

The Bush Administration should take the upper-hand by using vigilant containment plans to control the progress of Iran's nuclear program, without insulting their other allies in the region and ensure to the American people that they do not have to prepare for another war and therefore live through another struggling economy.


Implementation of the NPT safeguards agreement in the Islamic Republic of Iran.

Report of the International Atomic Energy Agency, June 2003.

Online version, http://fas.org/nuke/guide/iran/iaea0603.html

Walt,… [read more]

U.S. War on Iraq Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (379 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


S. plans to further expand on its program for the Middle Eastern region, particularly in dealing with social, political, and economic problems in Iraq, as well as dealing with the continuing conflict of Palestine and Israel over land territories. However, another important topic discussed in this article is how Iran looms as a possible threat to U.S. security (as well as international security) because of its possible production of nuclear weapons, which the Iran government has been vehemently denying of having ("International Atomic Energy Agency has given Iran a deadline of Oct. 31 to prove it is not using a nuclear power plant to enrich uranium for weapons"). Thus, what resulted after the U.S.-Iraq war are the deteriorating relations U.S. have among Middle Eastern countries, particularly countries hostile to democracy and the U.S., not to mention the poor living conditions Iraqis are in right after the war.


Treaster, J. "Powell tells Arab-Americans of Hopes to Develop Mideast." 30 September 2003. The New York Times. Available at: http://www.nytimes.com/2003/09/30/international/middleeast/30ARAB.html.… [read more]

Jewish, Muslim, and Christian Conflict Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (722 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Since that time, the Muslims have held unchangingly that both the jews, and their allies the west are the enemies of Allah, and that eventually they would rise up and return the Muslim world to power. This is a process which radical Muslims call the Jihad, a "holy war" which they perceive is just, regardless of the means by which it is carried out.

This is the roots of the current conflict which has evolved into generational hatred among the Muslim and middle eastern peoples. Although Christian and Muslim leaders, call for greatly accelerated U.S. And international efforts to stop Israeli-Palestinian violence and restart negotiations for peace, the generational conflict still rages.

The Committee warned that the current, relatively passive U.S. policy is compounding the suffering and loss of hope among Palestinians and Israelis, jeopardizing the possibility of a two-state solution, and undermining efforts against terrorism.

The escalating belligerence on both sides in the Israeli-Palestinian conflict has caused alliances once again to shift. Suicide attacks on Israel bring partisan Jews into at least temporary alliances. Israeli military attacks on Palestinians bring Muslims of many sorts together, and unite Arab Muslims and Arab Christians in coalition. Yet belligerence also causes fissures and magnifies schisms within communities. Christian communities worldwide cannot avoid this spreading conflict.

While each side in this conflict consider themselves to be religious, godfearing people, perhaps the could learn much be looking into their own scriptures and studying the meaning of forgiveness, and realizing that without forgiveness, we will all suffer the effects of bitterness, a "root that springs up and defiles many"


Marty, Martin E. Spreading Conflict: Fissures between Christians over Israel and Palestine are Growing. 2002. The New Republic Online. Accessed May 31, 2003. http://www.tnr.com

American Jewish, Christian and Muslim Leaders Unite.

American Arab Institute. Accessed May 31, 2003. http://www.aaiusa.org/news/must_read12_18_02.htm.

Beliefnet.com, online

Marty, 2002… [read more]

Israel Mini Country Report Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (711 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Israel's stock exchange has a small capital base and is subject to sudden spikes following the injection or withdrawal of small amounts of money. The long-term prospects of the stock market are generally positive but the recent rapid rise in stock prices is of some concern in the short-term. (Rolnik)

Recent Events

The recent announcement of a "road map" for peace in the Middle East by President Bush and the relatively quick U.S. victory in the war against Iraq are two recent developments that would have the most significant long-term effect on business prospects in Israel. Any businessperson looking at the country for possible investment would have to follow the developments on these two issues very closely.

Assessment of Potential v Risk

Any assessment for future prospects of doing business in Israel has to be looked at in the context of prospects of peace in the Middle East. At the moment, with the United States apparently determined to follow through with its peace plan, the future business prospects in Israel seem bright.

Works Cited

Balance of Payments." Macroeconomic Activity Data Tables. Country Watch. 2003. Countrywatch.com. May 5, 2003. http://www.countrywatch.com/cw_topic.asp?TOPIC=BALPAY&TYPE=MTABL&VCOUNTRY=83

Economic Overview" Israel. Country Watch. 2003. Countrywatch.com May 5, 2003 http://www.countrywatch.com/cw_topic.asp?vCOUNTRY=83&SECTION=ECON&TOPIC=MAOVR&TYPE=TEXT

Government Sector." Macroeconomic Activity tables. Country Watch. 2003. Countrywatch.com. May 5, 2003. http://www.countrywatch.com/cw_topic.asp?TOPIC=GOVSECT&TYPE=MTABL&VCOUNTRY=83

Real GDP Per Capita." Macroeconomic Activity Tables. Country Watch. 2003. Countrywatch.com. May 5, 2003. http://www.countrywatch.com/cw_topic.asp?vCOUNTRY=83&SECTION=SUB&TOPIC=GDPCAP&TYPE=MTABL

Klein, Zeev. "Israel GDP per capita: $18,000." Published by Globes [online] www.globes.co.il- on November 28, 2002. http://www.mafhoum.com/press4/122E18.htm

Rolnik, Guy. "Taking Stock / Bubble, bubble, toil and rubble." Haaretz English print edition. May 06, 2003. Haaretz.com. http://www.haaretzdaily.com/hasen/pages/ShArt.jhtml?itemNo=290645&contrassID=2&subContrassID=2&sbSubContrassID=0&listSrc=Y

Trade Balance (Goods & Services)." Macroeconomic Activity Tables. Country Watch. 2003. Countrywatch.com. May 5, 2003. http://www.countrywatch.com/cw_topic.asp?TOPIC=TRADEBAL&TYPE=MTABL&VCOUNTRY=83

On May 5, 2003 [available online]

Israel… [read more]

Post War Policies Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (2,716 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


The Middle East:

Israel Problem: American foreign policy has always supportive to Israel. Middle East is perhaps the most consistent area of conflict since the Second World War. It has experience wars and devastation during the past and one of the major factors is the foundation of Israel in 1948. There are has been relentless hostility and several wars were… [read more]

King Herod, the Great Term Paper

Term Paper  |  20 pages (5,872 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


In the spring of 30 B.C. Herod met Octavius in Rhodes. But before he left he gave instructions to two of his friends that if was executed then they have to kill Alexandra and Mariamne, so that his sons and his brother Pheroras would rule his kingdom (3).

King Herod played his part well when he came in Rhodes to… [read more]

Middle East Crisis Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (670 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


The solution then is to separate the two and man a border to keep the two separated. With the hatred we have seen between the two, it is likely that even this would not be enough. There needs to be a reason to prevent both sides from striking out against each other. The only method of doing this is to threaten them with military action. With America as the nation calling for peace, America would take on this role. We must now look at what this would mean for America.

Firstly, if America supports military actions in the area, they will be causing destruction in the area, most likely by bombing targets. If this results in peace then both Israel and Palestine will need to rebuild their countries. With American involvement in the area, it is likely that America would be called upon to fund the rebuilding. Secondly, if a truce is imposed, forces would be required to keep the peace. These forces would most likely be American, or at least be led by American forces. Finally, we can consider what the Middle East neighbors will think of the conflict. The Middle East is a region with a history of conflict and the many political, religious and historical problems are difficult to understand. However, it is likely that the American involvement would anger at least some Middle East nations or parties and cause a rise in terrorist groups.

In conclusion, the Middle East conflict is a conflict involving a great deal of hatred. With the complicated reasons for the hatred and the history of it, it is difficult to determine both a real cause and a real solution. However, it can be recognized that peace in the region could only be gained by force. This force would most likely come from America, but in making this decision America takes on a major responsibility with…… [read more]

ISIS Threat Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (724 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Bahrain Intelligence Estimate

Bahrain is nestled in a rather precarious part of the world. Even if things are completely fine within the country's borders, they are nestled in the middle of the Persian Gulf and they are geographically close to a bunch of current or recent hotspots around the world. These hotspots include Egypt, Sudan, Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Iran, Iraq, Pakistan, Afghanistan and Yemen. Whether it be the death of leaders, the forcible removal of leaders, the Arab Spring in general, genocide, the overall activity (and the reactions to), the ISIS threat and so forth, there is quite a bit going on in a very small section of the world. This is nothing new as Northern Africa and the Middle East has been violent and in a constant state of upheaval for centuries (and one to two millennia in some case). However, the threats and goings-on that do exist have to be assessed (CIA, 2015).


One could write a very thick and verbose report about what has gone on in the last generation in the affected area. However, one can also stick to what is happening right now in and around Bahrain. Egypt saw the fairly recent deposing of Mubarak and then Morsi, just after being elected, was removed by the military when he tried to (in the eyes of many) hijack the government and country of Egypt. The long-standing leader of Saudi Arabia has just passed and Yemen just fell in a bloodless coup to the Houthis, a sub-type of the Shia that is pervasive around the Middle East. The starvation and genocide in Sudan has been going on unabated for a while. Oman and United Arab Emirates as well as Qatar are mostly fine and Saudi Arabia is mostly good despite the recent death of their leader King Abdullah. Afghanistan and Iraq has had some violence as of late as the Americans draw down and Pakistan is mostly docile at this point, at least compared to what they usually see. Many countries around the area (including the aforementioned Iraq as well as Syria) have seen the rise of ISIS. They are a very harsh threat as they are stateless…… [read more]

Defeating Islamic Terrorism Research Paper

Research Paper  |  1 pages (393 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


S. interests, as has been seen by the victory of anti-Israeli Hamas amongst the Palestinians via elections. Still, there are viable examples of thriving democratic Islamic states (Chan 2007:9).

The U.S., according to Chan, must make greater use of regional actors and pursue a more balanced policy so it is not seen as hostile to Arab interests. However, Chan wrote his essay before the current conflict erupted in the occupied territories of Israel. There is more pressure than ever before to 'take sides' and less apparent common ground. The U.S. is in a difficult position of wishing to support Israel's right to exist but not all Israeli policies, all the while not seeming opposed to the Palestinian point-of-view. Chan's advice seems valuable in the sense that having more experts involved in military intelligence in the region (and Arab speakers) would be wise but striking a delicate balance between its own interests, the interests of its allies, and trying to be a force of Islamic moderation in the region is far easier said than done.


Chan, W. (2007). Defeating Islamic terrorism. USAWC Strategy Research Project.… [read more]

Syrian Conflict the Syrian Civil Research Paper

Research Paper  |  4 pages (1,365 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


The United Nations, of course, is one such body that has not only dedicated human resources in efforts to govern areas highly populated by Syrian refugees, but also other material resources as well. Another international organization with disparate members throughout the world that has produced aid for refugees (and which is highly indicative of the interdependencies of countries across border) is the European Union. The EU, which has members all throughout the European continent, has sent a considerable amount of financial aid to refugees in various countries (EuroMed). It is essential to note that the constituency of this group includes some of the most wealthy (and evidently generous) countries in Europe, as well as the most powerful. Other international entities that have dedicated resources to Syrian refugees include the International Organization for Migration. The fact that conglomerates of countries, and not just separate nations, have made dedicated efforts to provide reliefs to Syrian refugees is a powerful testimony to the fact that the Syrian civil war is a problem which has traversed borders and largely affects the entire world.

The largess extended to Syrian refugees is not limited to financial aid or vital supplies -- although these offerings are exceedingly welcomed by those escaping the civil war and are tangible suggestions of the global connectedness demonstrated by this military affair. But one of the most tangible signs that the civil war has affected the global community as a whole is the fact that many countries have gladly extended their territory to welcome and accommodate Syrian refugees. Whereas a number of them have done so on a temporary basis, which is assumed to last for the duration of the war itself, some have done so on a permanent basis which is highly encouraging and a further testimony to the global interdependency at work within this event. Sweden is one such country that has decided to offer Syrian immigrants the opportunity to have permanent residency in light of the civil war (The Local). Additionally, South American countries such as Brazil and Argentina have allowed Syrian refugees to come into their nations while seeking solace. Brazil has even effected special visas for refugees so that they can legally reside within the country, while in parts of Iraq there are certain territories that aid and training are provided to men so that these territories can become controlled by Syrian refugees (UNHCR).

Finally, it is important to realize that the great amount of refugees spread throughout the world is also cause for certain countries to apply political pressure to the warring factions within Syria. Representatives of some of the countries that are closer to Syria -- such as Lebanon, Turkey, and Jordan -- have referenced the fact that there are high amounts of Syrians migrating to their countries as reasons for the cessation of war efforts. Although these demands have not necessarily produced much tangible action, they are still vital to understanding how the martial activity in one country can produce reverberations and effects throughout… [read more]

International Accounting Culture Changing Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,229 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


doing it in the United States. Showing the sole of one's foot in the United States is commonplace and most people do not pay it a second thought but it's a cultural problem to many Arabs as they see the sole of the foot as unclean and thus should not be exposed in any context or situation while in public (Wade, 2004).


The author of this report has certainly seen the proverbial social and cultural "butting of heads" that is on par with the translation issues mentioned by the case study. Just as one example, many Muslim-oriented businesses specifically and intentionally operate with their Muslim faith in mind, up to and including the use of sharia law to help draw up, execute and resolve disputes surrounding legal contracts. Such entanglement between religion and the law countries like the United States is not heard of but legal decisions are usually based on the letter of the law, whether a contract exited, whether the contract was enforceable and little else.

There obviously has to be some mediation and understanding that is met when it comes to non-Egyptian countries operating in Egypt and Egyptian companies operating in foreign countries. While it's understandable that translation issues would lead to Egypt using their own standards, there is also a major trend in the international accounting world to use international accounting standards like the International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) and that is done in large part to keep things as consistent as possible from country to country and from world region to world region. It would probably behoove Egypt to re-join the international accounting trend if/when the translation issues get worked out. While they may prefer to keep things in-house, it will probably slow their progress with the international community and their integration into and it and lax enforcement standards and the following thereof is not going to help. The recent kerfuffle with Morsi taking power and then being deposed after he made a power grab is only going to slow things down until thing settle, assuming that they even do so in the foreseeable future.


As new communication methods and mediums make the world much smaller and as the business scopes of more and more businesses grows ever-larger and more international, it is clear that the cultural and social differences between the regions and countries of the world will become more and more of an issue. While it would be nice for some potentially offended countries to not be so easily offended at an unintentional insult from someone who clearly carries themselves and lives different, it is also not a bad or wrong thing to suggest that people should be culturally sensitive and well-versed on what is expected and forbidden in a given area. Accounting standards are no different in the sense that while different countries and regions of the world have different accounting rules and motives for the same. At the same time, any particular country throwing a fit or refusing to… [read more]

Global Organization Researching Cultural Issues Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,398 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


It of course is very unethical to arrest a young student expressing a viewpoint about the political culture he experiences.

A blogger and journalist in Azerbajian (an independent state that once was part of the old Soviet Union) was arrested, punched, kicked, and beaten with a baton after posting an announcement on Facebook that there was a protest planned against the government. His name is Tural Abbasli, and he was sentenced to two-and-a-half years in prison for "organizing public disorder," according to Amnesty International. Abbasli had been pursuing a degree in journalism but after posting on Facebook he and 13 others were rounded up, beaten, and thrown in prison.

The good news for Abbasli and some of the other 13 is that they were released by presidential pardon, according to AI. The thousands of letters and emails that were received by the Azerbajian government certainly had an influence over the fact that the students were released from prison. The lack of ethical standards in Azerbajian has shown the world that this regime has created a sense of fear in those who would consider protesting against government corruption and abuses of human rights. A culture that allows the government to arbitrarily and violently arrest and detain innocent people needs to be exposed to the world, and that is what the tens of thousands of Amnesty International activists around the globe have done. The ethical perspective in this case is very obvious -- injustice to anyone in any country must be dealt with on an international scale, the AI is the organization that takes on that responsibility.

Compare these ethical perspectives across cultures AI is involved with The case of the young man in Iran who gave a public speech and was arrested and mistreated is quite different from the instance in Chechnya (another state that was once part of the Soviet Union) where journalist Anna Politkovskaya was killed after criticizing the lack of human rights in her country. Politkovskaya wrote "extensively" about abuses to innocent civilians (not only in Chechnya but in Russia), and she received international recognition for her investigative newspaper stories into corruption as well. She had been poisoned at one point and was harassed and threatened often; but in 2006 she was shot and killed. In the case of Tavakkoli, he was not killed although he was sent to prison.

The two cultures (Iran and Chechnya) are very different, and the treatment of people who try to expose corruption and violations of human rights is also different, but Amnesty International isn't concerned with the specific cultures that abuse people, they are concerned with exposing the abuses and getting prisoners freed.

In the case of the "collective punishment" that students in Gaza face because they are basically being blocked from crossing the border and getting an education is far different from the abuse of Abbasli in Iran, who simply posted a notice on Facebook that there would be a protest against the government. And yet, while the two cultures… [read more]

GCC Discuss and Decide Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (727 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


"Most of the national labor force has been employed in the government sector with higher wage expectations than the expatriate workers" (Fasano & Iqbal 2003). A rentier state is defined a state which "derives all or most of its national income from its property or investments. In the Middle East, these are oil rich states…. Rentier states have a more difficult time developing civil society (industry, internal public works like highways, etc.) because people are generally relatively content with their situations" (Kolberg 2013). Several of these nations, Saudi Arabia most notably, have largely theocratic governments dominated by religious rather than objective, democratic principles. In exchange for providing citizens with material comforts, the government expects complacency of the populace. Regimes tend to be buffeted by economic and political crises which could exert pressure upon them to change. "Within rentier states, there is little opportunity for private enterprise. Domestic businesses necessarily are closely tied to the state" (Kolberg 2013).

This helps explain what some have called the 'Dubai paradox,' namely that while the UAE is home to many foreign expatriates and boasts a booming nightclub scene, as well as all of the architectural trappings of modernization, "of the world's eight remaining absolute monarchies, in terms of autocratic structures and lack of political freedom, the UAE consistently ranks second only to Saudi Arabia" (The UAE's modernization and (shaky) religious credentials, 2011, Dubaiornotdubai). Even though the UAE lacks the conservative religious trappings of Saudi Arabia (one reason it is so attractive to Westerners and Western investment) no seeds of political liberalization or true entrepreneurial spirit have been generated as a result of this vast wealth, and the population remains dependent upon the government for its solvency. Given that some form of participatory democracy seems like a needed standard to characterize a nation as truly 'developed,' the GCC continues to fall short.


Fasano, U. & Iqbal, Z. (2003). GCC Countries. IMF. Retrieved:


Kolberg, A. (2013). Corruption and the rentier state. Prezi. Retrieved:


The UAE's modernization and (shaky) religious credentials. (2011). Dubaiornotdubai.


http://dubaiornotdubai.wordpress.com/2011/02/27/the-uae%E2%80%99s-modernization-and-shaky-religious-credentials/… [read more]

Effects of Technology and Social Media on Turkish Youth Society Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,495 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 7


¶ … Technology and Social Media on Turkish Youth

The media has become increasingly important to the youth culture around the world both in terms of bringing news of important events -- and the political issues and problems surrounding those events -- and carrying messages (including protests) by youth through social media to the greater community. In Turkey, as is… [read more]

Industrial Relations A2 Coursework

A2 Coursework  |  2 pages (518 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


Industrial Management

Industrial Relations in the United Arab Emirates

Industrial Relations is a field of critical importance in terms of understanding and refining how labor and workplace issues are defined. This has never been truer than today, when the deconstruction of global trade barriers is leading to new and unforeseen economic partnerships between developing nations and multinational corporations. These relationships require constant evaluation if we are to understand their implications for labor and management on a global scale.

Role and Function of Managers in Industrial Relations:

In a general sense, "beyond leadership skill, one must have the leadership vision to lead properly." (Reh, 2) More specifically, in the context of the United Arab Emirates (UAE), there is a particular imperative for management to understand the unique idiosyncrasies of labor relations in the nation. Specifically, though the United Arab Emirates is progressive insofar as its economy is a thriving and globally integrated one, it still struggles with a host of ethnic and gender discrimination issues that are highly culturally driven. According to one source, "Indians and other expatriates in the UAE are increasingly becoming susceptible to the scourge of depression, research has shown. The prime causes are discrimination at the workplace, longer working hours, home-sickness, and the chaotic state of peak-hour traffic." (INP, 1)

Management must take on the role of both a protector of the attendant culture and a progressive leader where such matters are concerned. It will take strong leadership through an industrial relations context to bring about greater equality in the UAE marketplace.

Managing Change Effectively:

According…… [read more]

International Business Turkey Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (2,122 words)
Bibliography Sources: 9


Turkey Textiles

Turkey is a crossroads nation, straddling Europe and Asia. The country was once the hub of the Byzantine Roman and Ottoman Empires, and as such has longstanding cultural and trade links throughout the region. The modern nation is a secular Muslim republic of 80 million. The country has an economy that is predominantly free market in nature, but… [read more]

Civil War in Syria Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (851 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


As an American citizen who appreciates this nation's status of military and economic supremacy, watching a young man who previously studied economics at the University of Aleppo thrust himself headlong into the fray of urban warfare was intensely powerful. It was obvious throughout the video that the Free Syrian Army was grossly undersupplied and disorganized, and despite their courageous willingness to fight tanks with pick-up trucks, the freedom fighters would clearly benefit from American intervention.

It would be disingenuous to criticize the American government's inconsistent approach to the Syrian crisis without also acknowledging that crucial circumstantial shifts have occurred in the region. The increasingly totalitarian regime of Egypt's ostensibly legitimate leader Mohamed Morsi, the tragic killing of an American ambassador in Benghazi, Libya by militant terrorists, and Israel's air campaign against Hamas in the Gaza Strip are all external factors affecting the Obama administration's policymaking process. While these concerns are admittedly complicated, the scenes of civilian devastation depicted by the video The Battle for Syria reminded me of the President's declaration on March 28, 2011, made during his address to the nation on the Libyan intervention, when he reminded the world that "in just one month, the United States has worked with our international partners to mobilize a broad coalition, secure an international mandate to protect civilians, stop an advancing army, prevent a massacre, and establish a no-fly zone with our allies and partners." Yesterday, today and tomorrow in Syria, civilians are in desperate need of protection from a rapidly advancing army, one which has already massacred dissenters for over a year without reprisal from the international community. The ideals underlying President Obama's words were true when he made them in reference to Libya, and no matter the geopolitical implications involved, he has a moral responsibility to apply those same ideals to the Syrian civil war.


Goldstein, Joshua S., and Jon C. Pevehouse. International Relations. Brief 6th. New York, NY: Pearson Higher Education, 2011. Print.

Kurth, James. "Humanitarian Intervention After Iraq: Legal Ideals vs. Military Realities." Orbis. Winter. (2005): 87-101. Print.

Obama, Barack. United States. The White House Office of the Press Secretary. Remarks by the President in Address to the Nation on Libya. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 2011. Web. .

Worth, Robert F., and Helene Cooper. "Mideast Unrest Intensifies Debate on U.S. Intervention in Syria." New York Times 16 Sep 2012, A8. Web. 28 Nov. 2012. .… [read more]

Social Variables in the Development and Maintenance Thesis

Thesis  |  58 pages (16,820 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10


¶ … Social Variables in the Development and Maintenance of Business Relationships with Libyan Companies

The Need for the Research

Expected Contribution to Knowledge

Review of the Chapters

Review of Chapter 2 (Literature Review)

Review of Chapter 3 (Research Methodology)

Review of Chapter 4 (Research Findings)

101.5.4 Review of Chapter 5 (Research Discussion)

101.5.5 Review of Chapter 6 (Recommendation &… [read more]

Iran Country Vulnerability Assessment Outlook Research Paper

Research Paper  |  4 pages (1,513 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Nevertheless, there have been constraints caused by different factors. The gross-Domestic-Product has shown decline last few years. This may be as a result of the population growth. The government is also spending a lot in the military despite the fact that it is not enough. External pressure has been reported especially because of the attacks from Iraq and Afghanistan. This has made the country exposed to attacks because of the many resources it has. The war seems endless and as much as United States of America has shown interest in defending it, United Arab Emirates and Iraq are not giving up.


CIA, "World Fact Book: Iran," [database online], Country Profiles; accessed July 29, 2012.

Library of Congress, "Country Profile: Iran"; available from http://lcweb2.loc.gov/frd/pdf/CS_Iran.pdf; Internet; accessed July 30, 2012.

Iran Tracker. 2012. Afghanistan-Iran Foreign Relations. Online, available from Internet, accessed July 17th, 2012.

Karsh, Efraim, ad. The Iran-lraq War: Impact and Implications. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1 World Bank. 2012. Iran at a Glance. Online, available from Internet accessed July 17th, 2012

World Bank. 2012. Iran at a Glance. Online, available from Internet accessed July 17th, 2012… [read more]

Iran Societal Assessment Research Paper

Research Paper  |  4 pages (1,160 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Analysts say the continuation of this trend will take Iran far beyond and above its Muslim counterparts. But the Neo-conservative government and President Ahmad-Nejd are not happy and want to introduce reforms to help take the population to 120 million

. This seems to hint at the modernization of the populace and the fact that the government and people don't get along very well.

NATIONAL COHESION: If Pakistan has a diverse population with a variety of cultural, social and ethnic groups residing in the country Iran is not far behind. The Iranian nation is composed of more than 10 ethnic groups and a similar number of languages here. The religious composition of the country is also equally diverse. The official religion is Islam and there are 89% Shia Muslims, 9% Sunnis and the last 2% is made up of Christians, Jews, Zoroastrians etc.

The most prominent ethnic groups in the country are: Persians (61%), 16% Azeris, Kurds (10%), Lur (6%), 2% Arabs, 2% Baloch and 2% of Turkmen tribes and 1% of others

. Unlike Pakistan, where ethnic groups are close in quantity and group loyalty has made it difficult for the people to unite, Iran does not have that issue. Its dominant force is the Shia population that is in control of every administrative department. It was religious unity that had provided support to the two revolutions that have shaped the country's history and its current political system. The overwhelming support that Ayatollah Khomeini got in 1979, to bring about the revolution, characterizes the revolution as 'a society vs. state' conflict. All factions of society had some conflict with the existing government: the farmers were saddened over the monetary losses they had faced; the Ulema (cleric) felt the state was alienated from religion, hence rather unreligious in approach. Lastly, the general public was desirous of more freedom. Therefore all of them united to prepare demonstrations and get rid of the rulers. However, the resultant political form has also failed to satisfy the masses. Writer Farideh Farhi, in her book 'Crafting a National Identity Amidst Contentious Politics in Contemporary Iran,' talks about how the people of Iran are now faced with an identity crisis that has them confused and continuously in search of a religious philosophy that would bring them mental and social peace. They have lost faith in the government and their religious reforms

. The two issues of relationships with U.S. And the nuclear program are great burdens on the public's mind and they have adopted a more modern outlook to life than the government would allow. If the 2009 protests are any indication the people are running out of patience with government and their reforms.

Enterprise: Education is the key to a successful, happy life and a nation's children are its future. If they are not well educated, the society can be expected to be illiterate and inefficient and the nation's economic, social and political demise becomes imminent. Education paves the way towards economic and social progress.… [read more]

Comparing Marketing Mix of a Product in 3 Deferent Countries Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (976 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


Apple's Mid-East Marketing Mix

There are few American retail products that have had both the economic and cultural impact of Apple's iPhone. As Apple has unrolled the product in various markets throughout the global economy, it has proven adept at facilitating market adaptation. Indeed, with its momentously popular product achieving a highly intuitive, user friendly, sleek and integrated smartphone template, the iPhone continues to set the pace in the global marketplace. Still, it must weather distinct marketing challenges as it penetrates the mobile media device sector in the Middle East. Owing to the region's considerable cultural, political and commercial differences, the western firm must adapt to context such as Israel, Egypt and Saudi Arabia accordingly.


The iPhone has, since its unveiling in 2007, achieved enormous growth and profitability. In just five years, comScore (2012) reports, Apple used its innovative device launch itself into the heart of a competitive telecom industry. As of the 2012 report, "Apple continued to gain ground in the OEM market with 12.4% share of total mobile subscribers (up 2.2 percentage points)." (comScore, p. 1) This achievement is driven by both the product's considerable and permeating appeal and by the savvy marketing and promotional instruments used by the Apple company. This will be demonstrated in its weathering of the new markets explored here.



One of the interesting realities with which Apple has come face-to-face is the differentials in product expectation among target buyers in different countries and cultures. In markets such as Israel, where the population is uniquely situated in sympathy to western ideals and cultural interests, the device itself remains largely unchanged. Indeed, Apple's contract with the country's trio of mega-carriers, Cellcom, Orange and Bezeq Israel Telecom, suggest that penetration will occur quickly in this market with little product adaptation. (Paczkowski, p. 1)

Such opportunities are less immediately apparent where Egypt is concerned. Apple's initial failure to produce a more functional digital camera in its first model became a consistently cited grievance among young Egyptians. According to Inskeep (2012), "the need for a good camera is something that comes up again and again when talking with younger Egyptians about their phones. Easy internet access, which is one of the features of the iPhone, isn't as important for them as the camera." (Inskeep, p. 1) This underscores the danger in prioritizing technology according to a singular cultural understanding.

For such markets as Saudi Arabia, notable for its dictatorial form of theocratic government, the device's security vulnerability has been a point of contention. In 2011, Saudi Arabia announced, for instance, that the product would be banned from high-security buildings and public spaces. According to Kee (2011), "this ban was declared due to the security concern that these high-tech telecommunication gadgets can be infiltrated easily via hacking, according to London-based Asharq Al Awsat." (Kee, p.1)


Egyptians will pay a rate of 3800 EGP for the iPhone 4S 16GB which calculates to roughly $627.…… [read more]

Compare Two Foundation Literature Review Chapter

Literature Review Chapter  |  7 pages (2,013 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


¶ … redefined the Dubai skyline in recent years are the Burj Dubai, reputedly the world's tallest building upon completion, and the Emirates Twin Towers, consisting of a hotel and office complex. Although located in geographically similar areas, the foundation engineering for the two projects involved different testing protocols and regimens as well as different substrata considerations that required different… [read more]

American Foreign Policy Towards the Persian Gulf Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  7 pages (2,346 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 5


American Foreign Policy Towards the Persian Gulf

Between 1988 and 2010, American foreign policy in the Persian Gulf was focused on achieving a number of different objectives. As, there was an emphasis on maintaining stability in the region by: supporting regimes and governments that were friendly towards U.S. interests. Part of the reason for this, was because there was a… [read more]

U.S. Democratic Party's View on U.S. Foreign Policy Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (1,230 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


U.S. foreign policy

Democratic Party's view on U.S. Foreign Policy

US Democratic Party's position on the Middle East

In his Middle Eastern policy, the leader of the Democratic Party, President Barak Obama, balances a desire to improve regional stability with a determination to secure U.S. political and economic interests. Obama is the president who was able to hunt down Osama Bin Laden and win a victory over the masterminds of the attacks of September 11, 2001. While he initially opposed the war in Iraq as a senator, unlike his current Secretary of State Hillary Clinton, President Obama has continued military engagement in that country, by virtue of necessity, given the impossibility of pulling out too soon and further destabilizing the region. He continued and intensified the war in Afghanistan, although there are strong signs that he is considering pulling out of that conflict, given the noted corruption of the Afghanistan government supported by the U.S. Obama, and the Democratic Party he represents, can be thus said to have a pragmatic approach to Middle Eastern policy. It is fundamentally grounded in realism, but it also has a strong undercurrent of idealism in its aspirations to foster democracy.

The Democratic Party has been a historically strong supporter of the Jewish state of Israel. Given the wide base of support amongst American Jews for Democrats nationwide, the party has found it politically advantageous to support Israel. Israel is one of the few democratic nations within the region whose government mirrors that of the U.S. However, the continued war between the Israelis and Palestinians has stymied U.S. attempts to broker peace in the region, not just between the immediately affected parties, but between other Arab governments and the U.S. itself. U.S. support for Israel remains a 'sticking point' in improving rapprochement between the U.S. And other Middle Eastern nations, given that so many Arab governments stubbornly refuse to acknowledge Israel's existence.

President Obama and the leadership of the Democratic Party have begun put increased pressure on Israel to extend an olive branch to the Palestinians. "The President had said that a two-state solution, which [Right-wing Prime Minister Benjamin] Netanyahu alleges to support, should be based on the pre-1967 borders" (Klein 2011). Obama has encouraging on Netanyahu to negotiate with Palestinians more aggressively, but sustained violence within the territories makes it difficult for Netanyahu to do so. Obama's terms for Israeli-Palestinian land-swapping agreements are not ground-breaking: they are similar to Bill Clinton's attempts to negotiate peace in 2000. But the mood in Israel and the territories are far more militant than it was ten years ago. The rhetoric of Islamic extremists has grown more threatening, while the determination of Jewish settlers to remain in the territories has likewise stiffened. "Israel's greatest fear: when push comes to shove, the Palestinians have never really acknowledged Israel's right to exist. The one exception to that rule -- Yasser Arafat's signing of the Oslo accords -- seems hollow" (Klein 2011) The U.S. is sustained in its support of a… [read more]

Ethiopian Jews Interesting Story Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,869 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10


Kashrut is the body of Jewish law. The food prepared in accordance to the Kashrut law is known as Kosher food. During the migration to Israel has affected the Israel's cuisine as well. Many different places in Israel such as Tel Aviv, Haifa and Be'er Sheva have restaurant which serve Ethiopian food. These offer outstanding unique taste to the people of Israel for a very reasonably price making it affordable by many. (Daniel Rogov)

Even though Israel is the only state which has accepted the Jews of Ethiopian, there are still many issues faced by most of the Beta Israelis. The government of Israel has done a great job in organizing and welcoming the Jews to assist them in many different aspects. The Ethiopian Jews are still facing the issue of racism. Common problems faced by the Beta Israelis include language issue. Beta Israelis coming from Ethiopia speak Amharic which is different from the Israelis. They have come from a country which did not have enough resources to foster the career growth of Beta Israelis. Hence, migrating to Israel with highly competitive market is bound to cause many difficulties for the Ethiopian Jews. Israel is already facing high inflation due to which unemployment is already become an issue. Hence forth the migration of Jews has put a lot of strain on the economy of Israel. This is proven through the use of their hotels as absorption centers which hinders the tourism industry. Also the hospital are highly populated, they have to handle doubt the amount of patients. The estimated cost of assisting the Ethiopian Jews in Israel is estimated to be $300 million in the next couple of years. (Cultural Survival)


"Beta Israel" Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia. Wikipedia Foundation, Web.

"The History of Ethiopian Jews." Israel Association for Ethiopian Jews (IAEJ), Jewish Virtual Library, Web.

"Ethiopian Jews in Israel." Cultural Survival.

Nicole Hyman, "A modern-day Pessah miracle" The Jerusalem Post, 27th April 2011.

Anderson, Phil. "Ethiopian Jews." St. Rosemary Educational Institution, February 21, 2011. Web. Retrieved on: Sunday 1st May 2011

"Time line of Ethiopian History." Israel Association for Ethiopian Jews (IAEJ), Jewish Virtual Library, Web.

"Ethiopian Jews" The Free Encyclopedia. The Encyclopedia and…… [read more]

Violence the Definition Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,758 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 10



Aluf, B. (2011) Understanding history won't help us make peace, Foreign Policy, Issue 184, p. 70

Barron, P. & Sharpe, J.; (2008) Local conflict in post-Suharto Indonesia: Understanding variations in violence levels and forms through local newspapers, Journal of East Asian Studies, Vol. 8, Issue 2, pp. 395 -- 423

Barron, P.; Kaiser, K.; Pradhan, M.; ( 2004) Local conflict in Indonesia: Measuring incidence and identifying patterns, Policy Research Working Paper No. 3384. Washington, DC: World Bank.

Diehl, P.F. & Lepgold, J.;( 2003) Regional conflict management, Oxford: Rowman & Littlefield

Ephron, D. (2010) Who needs peace, love and understanding anyway? Newsweek, Vol. 155, Issue 2, pp. 44-47

Gorringe, H. (2006) Which is violence? Reflections on collective violence and Dalit Movements in South India, Social Movement Studies, Vol. 5, Issue 2, pp. 117 -- 136

Huhn, S. (2009) A history of nonviolence? The social construction of Costa Rican peaceful identity, Social Identities, Vol. 15, Issue 6, pp. 787 -- 810

Graham, K. & Felicip, T.; (2006) Regional security and global governance: A study of interactions between regional agencies and the UN Security Council with a proposal for a regional-global security mechanism, Brussels, VUB Brussels University Press

Justino, P. (2005) Redistribution and civil unrest, Paper prepared for the meeting of the American Economic Association, Philadelphia, January 7 -- 9, 2005

Kalyvas, S. (2008) Promises and pitfalls of an emerging research program: The microdynamics of civil war, Order, Conflict, Violence, ed.Stathis N. Kalyvas, Ian Shapiro, and Tarek Masoud. Cambridge: Cambridge…… [read more]

European Colonialism in the Middle East History Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,806 words)
Bibliography Sources: 9


European Colonialism in the Middle East

History reveals how the European powers carved out their own colonies in the Middle East, partly for the sheer power of ownership and domination, and partly due to Europe's need for the valuable resources that the Middle East could provide. These power grabs have had a profound effect on the lives of the people… [read more]

Diversity International Business Diversity Training: The Middle Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (676 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … Diversity International Business

Diversity training: The Middle East

Because of the wealth and oil concentrated in the region, the Middle East is becoming one of the most critical areas of the world involved in modern commerce. However, despite the fact that the globe is becoming increasingly interconnected, notable divisions exist between the United States' and the Middle East's cultural assumptions that must be kept in mind when doing business.

According to the characterizations or 'indexes' of the theorist Geert Hofstede, the Middle East rates high on Hofstede's power discrepancies between superiors and subordinates. It also rates high on Hofstede's uncertainty avoidance indexes which indicates "a caste system that does not allow significant upward mobility of its citizens….[the Middle East is] highly rule-oriented with laws, rules, regulations, and controls in order to reduce the amount of uncertainty, while inequalities of power and wealth have been allowed to grow within the society" (Taylor 2007). Many of the Arab states are known as rentier states, in which the majority of the oil wealth is controlled by the state, and doled out to the citizens. In contrast, the United States emphasizes the need for upward mobility amongst its citizens, and, at least in theory, believes strongly in the value of change and growth.

Foreign negotiators must be cognizant of the ranks of the individuals whom they are addressing when doing business in the Middle East. Addressing someone of a lower rank first, for example, might be seen a sign of serious disrespect, while in the United States it might merely be regarded as a minor or even humorous faux paux. In the Middle East, there is a strong divide between managers and subordinates; also, age is important when exhibiting deference to superiors. Proper etiquette must be strictly observed: "Arabian culture utilizes the concept of face to solve conflicts and avoid embarrassing or discomforting others. In a business context, preventing loss of face is equally important' (Gorrill 2007).

For female executives, one of the foremost concerns is the manner in which…… [read more]

Western Civilization Proposal Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  2 pages (902 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


" For an American Jew to feel sufficiently strong about her identity as a Jew that she would choose to emigrate from the United States to the fledgling Jewish state indicates a remarkable sort of faith in the long-term prospects of the great Zionist dream.

But there is another reason, I think, why Meir was such a resonant symbolic figurehead. The chief antagonists of the Israeli state during the time of Meir's premiership were largely the surrounding countries, predominantly Arab and overwhelmingly Muslim. (The Arab identity is made problematic largely by Iran: a very large neighbor of Israel whose population are not Arabs and whose language is not Arabic, but whose Shi'a Islam is Islam nonetheless; the Muslim identity is made problematic by Lebanon and Syria, or even Egypt, which have large Christian populations, including ones which underwent their schism with the Western church almost as long ago as Islam did -- these include the Coptic, Maronite, and Nestorian sects.) But it is no secret that both Arab and Islamic cultures have in common a largely repressive or antiquated attitude towards the social role of women -- something which Judaism lacks. Judaism is (interestingly) a matrilineal religion: the accepted rabbinic law holds that a person requires a Jewish mother to be Jewish (but not necessarily a Jewish father). One might consider rabbinic definitions of Judaism to be purely academic until one considers the centrality to Israel's constitution, its statehood, and its enshrinement of the "Right of Return," which hinges on the legal definition of what makes one a Jew (considering it to be a Jewish mother). There are ample reasons, in order words, why Meir's status as a woman should provoke all kinds of symbolic associations (socially, culturally and religiously) which made her leadership of Israel in a period of war and mild social crisis an intriguing case study.

Methods of research for studying Golda Meir will include not only biographies of the woman herself, but studies of women's involvement in politics and religion, and also a critical look at depictions of Meir in the mass media (including Spielberg's film Munich) to see in what way they use her biography and her leadership symbolically, to suggest things about the Jewish people or the Israeli state, and their often fraught relationship with…… [read more]

Colonialism in Africa Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (617 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1




Events in Europe's social, political, and economic environments caused Africa to go through a rapid process of colonization in the interval of 1880 to 1900.

By the late 1800s, Africa had been sandwiched between different nations: the Turks had Tunisia, Egypt and Libya; Spain possessed NW Africa; whilst France claimed settlements in Senegal, Cote d'Ivore, Benin, and some of Algeria. Now, Britain claimed pieces of it, as, by 1880s, did Europe. Liberia and Ethiopia remained locally governed, but the rest of Africa became a European domicile.

Colonization of Africa had come about due to exploration of the 'dark continent' revealing its values. Another cause had been European settlers settling throughout Africa in order to discourage Arabs and Africans from trading humans as slaves. These settlers sought to establish alternate lucrative means of trade and industry to replace the lucrative peddling of humans. They also sought to educate the "dark continent" in order to maximize its output.

European colonization became a status quo continued until the end of World War I. Then tired and strength ebbing, Africa regained its independence quietly and incrementally through the course of the 1950s and 1960s.

Promised and provided benefits of colonization included: an improved education system; arguably, Christian religion; a formalized monetary system (as opposed to bartering); construction of infrastructure (such as hospitals); and formal industries (such as agricultural, mining etc.).

The negatives of colonization included: exploitation of land and resources; the Europeans expropriating land that belonged to locals to themselves; abusing women and children; migration of African men who sought jobs outside their homes leading to disruption of family and communal life; and loss of African identity.

Topic 2: Mohammed Ali of Egypt

Self-declared leader and dictator of Egypt, Mohammed Ali was notorious and famous for his reforms and development of the country. His reforms in military, economic, and cultural…… [read more]

Ethnic Conflict Why Is Nationalism Relevant Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (772 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Ethnic Conflict

Why is nationalism relevant to the experience of ethnic conflict? What are the main points Perlmutter highlights about nationalism and ethnic conflict? Which emotions does Moisi identify with specific regions of the world in his clash of emotions analysis?

There are mainly two forms of nationalism that states throughout the world have adopted. The first is civic nationalism that refers to viewing all citizens of a state as members of one nation. The United States is a prime example of a country that exhibits civic nationalism. The second is ethnic nationalism that is based on ethnicity. An example of a country exhibiting ethnic nationalism would be Turkey where the state has identified ethnic Kurds as Turks for the last eighty years, and this state policy has caused internal problems in Turkey. Ethnic nationalism may exist within a country, and therefore ethnic conflicts may emerge within the designated territories of a nation or be directed against members of a different ethnicity in a different country. More often, ethnic conflicts take place in countries exhibiting ethnic nationalism than civic nationalism. Since ethnicity is directly tied to official nationalism of the state, nationalism of different kinds become the main source of ethnic conflicts.

As Perlmutter (2000) argues, ethnic conflicts often come out of the interplay of myths and realities. In the modern world, ethnic identity politics has contributed to ethnic conflicts in various parts of the world. While identity politics can become a source of being and belonging to a particular group and may be a unifying force, it may "also provoke a destructive sense of 'otherness' and hostility towards other groups that have similar needs, but which originated and developed in a different context." Even a universally acknowledged right of self-termination may lead to ethnic conflicts, since "a group that struggled for its self-determination, its separation from a larger and/or stronger entity, in most cases can become itself an oppressor of smaller, weaker groups" that have either lived in the same territory or in an adjacent one with claims to the disputed territory (Perlmutter). In some other cases, ethnic identity politics may lead to ethnic conflicts because of the fear of "cultural bastardization" between ethnicities living in the same or neighboring nations.

Ethnic conflicts that are the result of ethnic identity politics or the ideology of…… [read more]

Response to Showdown With Iran Video Essay

Essay  |  6 pages (1,674 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1



The United States has interfered in Iranian affairs since the 1950s, and the resutls have been nothing less than catastrophic. Although the PBS Frontline video "Showdown in Iran" does not delve too much into the history of U.S.-Iranian relations in the 20th century, the producers do illustrate clearer than any mainstream media report that Iran was one of the… [read more]

International Retail Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (737 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


International Retail

The company is choosing between three different countries for its Middle East launch -- Jordan, Morocco and the UAE. There are a number of different sources for information that can help to make this choice. The initial research should include an analysis of the basic economic and political environments of these three countries, using information found on the CIA World Factbook. Jordan has 6.4 million people, around half of whom live in the capital Amman. This implies easy distribution as our stores would probably only be in Amman. There are 3.7 million people within the 15-64 demographic that we target. The GDP is $32 billion, ranked 104th in the world. The government is relatively open for the Middle East. This equates to $5,200 per capita.

Morocco has 31.6 million people, 20 million of which are in our target demographic range. They are spread around a number of different cities, which presents distribution challenges. The economy is the 58th largest in the world with a GDP of $145.6 billion, which equates to $4,700 per capita. As with Jordan, Morocco is a kingdom, but the government has pursued increased economic openness in recent years. Morocco receives large numbers of tourists as well, both Muslim and Western.

The UAE market is focused on the three "open" emirates, Dubai, Abu Dhabi and Sharjah. In total, the country has 5 million people, most of whom live in these three major emirates. There are nearly 4 million people in our target demographic. The UAE has significant wealth, with a GDP of $186 billion, good for 53rd in the world. The per capita GDP is $38,900, which is comparable with Western European nations. Each emirate has its own government, with these three being the most open. Major businesses are tightly controlled but retailing is an open sector.

The next step is to understand the sociological aspects of each country. Shopping is a major pastime in the UAE, and as a result the market for high fashion is substantial. The retail clothing sector is well-developed, with malls, factory outlets and other elements familiar to Western firms (AME Info, 2008). Both Dubai and Abu Dhabi have at various times promoted themselves as shopping holiday destinations,…… [read more]

Why it Is a Good Idea for the U.S. Companies to Invest in Dubai Research Paper

Research Paper  |  5 pages (1,472 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


¶ … Invest in Dubai?

Of all the financial centers throughout the Middle East, only one has the ability to meld together cultures, businesses, financial institutions and a government that favors foreign investment to create exceptional opportunities for growth. Dubai, United Arab Emirates has emerged as one of the leading banking and finance centers globally because of these factors. The… [read more]

Health Care Systems Management Dissertation

Dissertation  |  35 pages (9,550 words)
Bibliography Sources: 20


Health Care Systems Management

As the society grew and evolved, its focus on healthcare increased and it has eventually come to a situation in which the life expectancy at birth doubled or even tripled. Macau is for instance the country with the highest life expectancy at birth with 84.36 years. It is followed by Andorra with 82.51 years, Japan with… [read more]

Roadblocks to Democracy in Iraq Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (2,823 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


Roadblocks to Democracy in Iraq

When President Bush was looking for justifications as to why America should invade Iraq, one of the most convincing pieces of evidence was the assertion that the 9/11 terrorist hijackers had met surreptitiously with Iraqi officials a few months before the 9/11 attacks in the United States (Janda, Berry, & Goldman 2009). He was also… [read more]

King David's Influence on Jerusalem Research Paper

Research Paper  |  5 pages (1,250 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


King David's Influence On Jerusalem

The city of Jerusalem is one of the world's oldest and most highly prized urban centers. It plays a starring role in Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. It has been the source of battle for millennia, with many of those wars fought to retain or capture control of the city itself. Jerusalem is both tangible and symbolic; it is itself a beautiful historical site and it stands as an icon for religious identity. King David, one of the earliest Kings of that city, had a lasting influence on Jerusalem. Through history, religion, mythology, and politics, the legacy of King David remains active three thousand years after he ruled the city of Jerusalem.

King David in the Bible

According to the Books of Samuel, David lived approximately 3,000 years ago. He was the second king of Israel, and is depicted as being fundamentally powerful and ethically righteous. While he is known for many things, including his battle with Goliath and his adulterous affair with Bathsheba, he is perhaps most importantly remembered for his many years spent ruling Jerusalem.

David came to Jerusalem following many battles. He conquered the city that was then called Jebus, and made it his capitol. To solidify his rule, David brought the Ark of the Covenant to Jerusalem, with the intent of building a temple there to permanently hold that holy object. God forbade this action, since David was a warrior and the building of a temple must fall to a man of peace. Although the temple would not be built until many years later -- when David's son Solomon completed the task -- the "house of David" was established for eternity. Later in his life, when he is bedridden, David issued his final wishes that his ancestors would inherit his throne forever. He was buried in the City of David, a palace adjacent to the Temple Mount in Jerusalem, after 33 years of rule over that city.

To this day, many observant Jews believe that their Messiah will be a descendent of David's. Moses Maimonides (also known as Rabram) was a Rabbi in the middle ages. He sought to integrate Jewish thinking and became a revered spiritual leader. For him, the ideal messiah will "arise and restore the kingdom of David to its original state." (Ariel, 1995: 230). Thus, David's time ruling over Jerusalem is still idealized and yearned for in many modern Jewish circles.

While the story of David as presented in the New Testament may be seen superficially as the "classic bandit tale" (Finelstein, 2003: 32), it has been studied and interpreted well beyond its entertainment value. David's legacy in Jerusalem is religious, political, and even infra-structural. He established the city of Jerusalem as a Jewish center, and attempted to build a temple there to commemorate that orientation. He ruled the city as a politician, employing the Jebusites who were there when he arrived. He built the City of David, which remains an important stop on tours of Jerusalem. Essentially,… [read more]

Enemy to Paraphrase John Donne, No Speech Research Paper

Research Paper  |  15 pages (4,518 words)
Bibliography Sources: 11


¶ … Enemy

To paraphrase John Donne, no speech is an island. And this is especially true of the best speeches, for while each speech is addressed to a specific audience and is a response to a particular moment in history, it is also an echo of other speeches made in similar and sometimes dissimilar times. Good speeches resemble each… [read more]

South East Asia Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (1,317 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Purdah: Purdah is practice of keeping women out of the view of men, through both segregation and clothing. A common practice in many Islamic nations and among many Hindus in India, Purdah is seen as repressive by Western standards.

Kikuyu: The Kikuyu are the most populous ethnic group in Kenya, indigenous since the modern period with ancestry that likely came from the north. The g Kikuyu have been and are hugely important in Kenya's political progression both before and after independence.

Ba'ath Party: The Ba'ath Party was first founded in Syria, but is established in many Arab countries. The party pushes for the unification of all Arab countries and is strongly nationalist and quasi-socialist in its views, policies, and actions.

Salman Rushdie: Rushdie is an Indian-British author, now knighted and long well respected in the literary and scholarly communities. Rushdie is most famous for the controversy caused by his novel The Satanic Verses, which angered many Muslims.

Dalits: Dalits are members of the lowest caste or outcastes in many South East Asian societies, especially India, known as the "untouchables." Their designation and segregation was outlawed by the Indian Constitution, but prejudice persists.

Shamba: A Swahili word originally used to designate an external garden area, generally ornamental. The term is now used to refer to any growing area, but especially a small area or strip of land used for the growing of food crops, belonging to an individual or organization.

Camp David Agreement: Signed at the Presidential retreat Camp David, the Camp David Accord (or Agreement) created peace between Israel and Egypt. It was signed by Egypt's Anwar Sadat and Israel's Menachem Begin, and witnessed by President Jimmy Carter.

Intifada: Intifada is an Arabic word that means "shaking off," but has been used to refer to many Arabic uprisings throughout the modern era. Most prominent in recent decades have been the intifadas by the Palestinians against perceived Israeli occupation.

al-Qaeda: al-Qaeda is a multinational Islamist group, considered a terrorist organization by much of the world. The group advocates a fundamentalist Sunni interpretation of Islam and violent military/guerilla action to bring this about in governmental practice.

Gamal Abdul Nasser: Nasser was Egypt's second president and one of it's strongest and most charismatic leader. He helped to bring Egypt into the modern age and out of the Third World, and was also a major advocate for Arab nationalism and pan-Arabism.

The wabenzi: The term "wabenzi" is a Swahili creation referring to those who drive a Mercedes-Benz or other expensive foreign car. The term is a derogatory way of referring to a false "tribe" of Kenya's economic elite.

Muslim Brotherhood: Another Sunni multinational organization/political party, the Muslim Brotherhood is especially active in Egypt. They promote a fundamentalist interpretation of Islam and the need for state advocacy of Islamic governance.

Tutsi and Hutu: The Tutsis and the Hutus are two tribal and/or caste divisions (this is in dispute) in Rwanda and the surrounding countries. Colonial rule created greater strife between these groups, with the result… [read more]

Jerusalem in the Old Testament Jerusalem: Ancient Thesis

Thesis  |  5 pages (1,500 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 5


¶ … Jerusalem in the Old Testament

Jerusalem: Ancient Roots in a Modern Context

The Holy Land has long been a source of great spiritual meanings and international conflict. For thousands of years, the city has stood tall and strong as the people within it continue the good fight to keep the city within Jewish hands. However, much of the… [read more]

Role Islam Played in the Iran-Iraq War Thesis

Thesis  |  8 pages (2,913 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 8


Role Islam Played in the Iran-Iraq War

Throughout history, mankind has engaged in wars of various sorts, ranging from truly noble causes to the downright bizarre, and it is in the latter category that the Iran-Iraq war must be grouped given its enormous impact on these two countries for reasons that remain better described than understood in the West. As… [read more]

USS Liberty Incident and the 6 Days War Thesis

Thesis  |  4 pages (1,469 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+


Liberty Incident, an attack on a neutral U.S. Navy Technical Research ship by the Israeli air force and torpedo boats, during the 6-Day Arab-Israel War on June 08, 1967 has aroused considerable controversy and debate since its occurrence. While the Israeli and the U.S. governments have always officially maintained that it was a case of an unfortunate but unintended "friendly… [read more]

Negotiation in Financial Media a Process Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (769 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3


Negotiation in Financial Media

A process of communication by which parties attempt to resolve a dispute between them ("Short Glossary" n.d.).

In this article, the economic recovery package proposed by the Obama administration is discussed, including its scope, expenses, and intended results. The article states that the package pledges aid to businesses and individuals, in addition to providing funds for public areas like schools and military bases. In addition, Hitt and Weisman state that the package costs more than the Iraq war, and is the largest passed since FDR's New Deal. The gives 35% of its funds to tax cuts, provides aid for those who have lost jobs, and funds for businesses. In addition, a controversial requirement mandates that bill money go toward American made products. The plan is different than the one President Obama had originally designated, and is receiving mixed reviews.

Discussion: Negotiation played a primary role in the drafting of this bill, and so much is stated in the article. For instance, Republicans wanted the funds from the bill to go, primarily, to tax cuts, and much of the bill is now stipulated for tax cuts. Thus, members of different parties were forced to negotiate in order to come up with a plan that would pass both institutions of Congress.

URL: Hitt, G. And Weisman, J. (2009, February 12). Congress Strikes $789 Billion

Stimulus Deal. Retrieved January 12, 2009, from the Wall Street Journal. Web Site: http://online.wsj.com/article/SB123436825805373367.html

Summary: In this article, the author argues that President Obama's election may be able to foster the peace making process between Israel and Palestine. During the Bush presidency, the authors suggest that the administration did not attempt to foster peace between the nations. Although the recent Israeli election, which has yet to yield a winner, along with Obama's commitment to the American economy as priority might make the peace-making process slow, the author suggests that Obama can accomplish such a peace if he acknowledges and informs the world of his plan for a Palestinian state, force Israel to face consequences for aggression, and negotiating with Hamas.

Discussion: Because it deals with conflict, this article is rather relevant to the concept of negotiation. It suggests that negotiation must occur if there is to be peace in the Middle East. In fact, many believe that peace…… [read more]

Conflict Management Is it Feasible Essay

Essay  |  7 pages (2,237 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 6


Conflict Management

Is it feasible to apply the principles of democracy and capitalism as practiced in the U.S. To nation-building projects in the developing world? Is so, how; if not, why not?

When considering the first part of this questions, if one looks at the Iraq war at this point, five years after George W. Bush sent invading forces into… [read more]

Public Archaeology Essay

Essay  |  7 pages (2,216 words)
Style: Harvard  |  Bibliography Sources: 8


Public Archeology

Nationalism And Public Archeology

Although there are numerous positive and negative motivations that inspire archeologists to search for ancient ruins and civilizations in various countries, the spread of modernization as a result of the ever-changing cultural face of the world related to technology and population growth has now created what is known as public archeology, being excavations "which… [read more]

International Management Cultural Comparison Paper: Staring Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (943 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


International Management

Cultural comparison paper: Staring a business in the U.S. versus the United Arab Emirates

The United Arab Emirates (UAE), like many other Muslim nations, is often referred to as a high-context culture by anthropologists who study the workplaces of different nations. High-context nations are nations in which one's societal position and relationship is often more important than what is directly stated during a negotiation. "High-context refers to societies or groups where people have close connections over a long period of time. Many aspects of cultural behavior are not made explicit because most members know what to do and what to think from years of interaction with each other" (Beer 2003). In contrast, the United States is a low-context culture, as it is a highly pluralistic and diverse society characterized by a tolerance of diversity and fluid relationships. In contrast to high-context societies, there is a strong perceived barrier between an individual's private and public life, and business negotiations are often made between people who know one another only as associates, not as individuals with long, complex familial, ethnic, and religious histories and identities that are of vital significance when imparting meaning. In the United Arab Emirates, Islamic law and philosophy permeates almost every facet of daily life, even if individuals may have different interpretations of that law, based upon their upbringing and social class. Public and private, the secular and the religious are not seen as separate areas of human life.

Unlike high-context societies, low-context cultures like the U.S. are dependent upon verbally explicit communication, such as contracts and government laws, not on tacit understandings between individuals. But the United Arab Emirates, as is characteristic of most high-context societies, is less dependent upon written rules than it is upon relationships in government and business -- in other words, who is in charge is more important than what the law says, and an individual doing business in the nation may need to accept that bribery, gifts, and other forms of 'making nice' with the 'right people' are seen as acceptable, and may even be necessary. "On a practical basis, names are very important for doing deals in Islamic countries...Who you know is key. Similarly, relationships and family connections are vital in business....Personal staff can be very influential and should not be underestimated, he continued. The man who meets you at the airport or who chats you up in a company's waiting room may turn out to be a relative or confidant of the person you're there to do business with" (Lagace 2002). Even in a business that caters mainly to expatriates and tourists in the region, local contacts are necessary to establish trust with government officials and employees, and particularly in these tense times during the Muslim and the Western world, it is essential that strong relationships are forged with…… [read more]

Greece Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (2,644 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 6


Greece can be considered to be one of the most important countries in the European Union and of the region. This is largely due to its geostrategic position as well as the resources it has at its disposal in terms of financial and political capital. At the same time, it represents a connecting point for two essential regions of the… [read more]

Iraq and Kuwait Conflict Precipitating the Gulf War Kuwait's Point-Of-View Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,573 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 5


¶ … Iraq and Kuwait conflict pecipitating the Gulf war - Kuwaits' point-of-view

There are turbulent times facing the world we live in. As the Cold War has ended, with the victorious win of democracy, of justice, and humanity, another one is threatening the security of our land. This time however, it includes the clearest breach of the international law.… [read more]

Turkey Language Policy Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,750 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3



The Republic of Turkey: Language Policy and Nationalism

Despite surface appearances, many modern countries exhibit a considerable amount of linguistic diversity. One notable example, the Republic of Turkey, officially endorses Turkish as its national language while many minority groups within its territory actually speak other languages - many of them entirely unrelated to the national tongue. A number of… [read more]

Iranian Nuclear Ambitions and American Options Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,254 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+


Iranian Nuclear Ambitions and American Options

Iran is Persian Gulf oil-rich country that insists that it needs nuclear power for civilian purposes. Strong pressure from the United States in the form of economic sanctions and political isolation have not deterred Iran from its nuclear ambitions, and demands for inspection by the world community of nuclear regulators to ensure against military use of nuclear technology in Iran have been unproductive.

Given the geopolitical relationships in the region, (and the unnecessary redundancy of nuclear power and vast resources of Persian Gulf oil), it is highly unlikely that Iran's only intentions are to develop nuclear power facilities for civilian use. It has already installed thousands of high-speed centrifuges in cascades used to enrich Uranium, and without international oversight, it is impossible to verify that the enrichment process is being used to produce low-grade Uranium from weapons-usable grades capable of incorporation into nuclear weapons of war (Cirincione, 2007).

Israel, and India, rather than the United States, are the likely targets of any Iranian militaristic intentions, and Iranian President Ahmadinejad has made very clear that he hopes to wipe Israel off the face of the Earth. Analysts suggest that the Iranian president does not actually possess the authority over the Iranian military and that the regime itself is not likely to pursue the radical course of action advocated so vocally by Ahmadinejad.

Nevertheless, Israel has indicated its commitment to prevent Iran from ever developing the capacity for an operational nuclear weapons program, and many within the U.S. administration view a nuclear Iran as a global threat that is so great as to warrant

U.S. attack on Iranian nuclear facilities if international pressures and sanctions against unsupervised nuclear technology in Iran are ultimately unsuccessful.

The Military Threat of a Nuclear Iran::

In all likelihood, the United States does not have to fear directly from a nuclear- armed Iran, in fact, given the realities of the doctrine of mutually assured destruction

MAD) that prevailed for most of the second half of the last century between the East and West, it is arguable that even Israel would be attacked directly by Iran, because any such attack would ensure its own destruction in response. On the other hand, in light of the nature of radical Islamic beliefs, the current Jihad inspired by Osama bin Laden and Al

Qaeda, and Israel's ongoing experience with suicidal attacks, it is perfectly understandable that Israel may not be comfortable relying on MAD to protect herself from nuclear annihilation by Muslim fanatics who consider themselves "martyrs" in the name of Allah,

Unlike Israel, the U.S. is far enough from Iran that even in the worst case scenario of a regime change to one much more radical than the clerical establishment currently led by Ayatollah Khamenei, we are safe from a military nuclear attack, simply by virtue of Iran's inability to produce intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBM) technology capable of such distant reach (Cirincione, 2007).

Non-Military Threats of a Nuclear Iran:

By far, the U.S. is… [read more]

Latin American Critical Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (883 words)
Style: Turabian  |  Bibliography Sources: 0


However, other Arab-Argentinean authors saw a kind of intuitive cultural connection between Arab and Argentinean history, specifically the wandering Arab and the gaucho. The gaucho as a kind of nationalist folk hero thus paradoxically becomes a way of Arab immigrants to participate in native Argentinean culture.

To examine the way Argentinean subjectivity was constructed during this period, Civantos deploys both literary and historical techniques. She creates a distinction in her rendering of how the Arab functioned within Latin American culture. Arabs were real, material presence, workers, writers, intellectuals, and cultural refashoiners of Argentinean culture within their own community. However, as it was in Europe the looming presence of "the Arab" and "the Orient" was also kind of a trope or a construction that had a life independent of real Arabs. Thus immigrants from the Arab nations were an actual presence and community within Argentina, who were intent upon writing their own national literature, and participating in Argentinean life. But Argentine writers were also intent upon writing these individuals 'out' of the true Argentinean national identity as exotic interlopers, rather than 'the real' members of Argentinean society and culture.

Even for individuals who are not specifically devoted to research in this region of the world or these two immigrant groups can find interesting features in Civantos' case study of the construction of Argentine identity instructive. She suggests that there is no singular, pure identity that can be discovered apart from colonization. Argentina was torn between natives and Euro-Argentines even before the influx of new immigrant groups, and the greater diversity of the society both sharpened and blurred this divide. Argentines grew more anxious to define their national identity in an exclusive fashion, but they also adopted Indo-Argentine figures in retelling the tale of their homeland.

But no cultural narrative is privileged, and Arab Argentineans, seeing the centrality of the figure of the gaucho, were equally interested in laying claim to their right to inhabit the nation, based upon resonances between the gaucho's lifestyle and attitude and their own constructed past. Civantos, however, adds a further layer of irony -- by romanticizing the gaucho, and demonstrating the gaucho's commonality with their own past, even the Arab Argentine writers engaged in a kind of essentialization of their own identity. Once Orientalism takes hold within a culture as a system of representation Civantos suggests, even the group that is being 'othered' grows tempted to engage in Orientalism, albeit in a positive light. This is perhaps her most radical claim, as it challenges the notion that Orientalism is something perpetuated upon 'the East' by 'the West' and…… [read more]

Economics of the Middle East Countries Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,139 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Economies of Middle Eastern Countries Brief Overview of Some Basic Facts

Country Formation/Independence Population Birth rate per 1000 Gender ratio m/f % Christians % Muslims % Jews % Others Turkey 1923 71,158,647 16.4-1.02 0-99 0-1 Syria 1946 18,881,361 27.19 1.05-10-88 0-2 Lebanon 1943 (French) 3,826,018 18.08 0.94-39-59.7-0-1.3 Israel 1948 6,352,117 17.71 0.99 2.1-14.6-76.5-6.8 West Bank and Gaza 3,889,249 34.4-1.04 0.7-98.7-0.6-0 Iraq 1932 26,783,383 31.44 1.02 3-97 0-0 Iran 1979 68,688,433 16.57 1.04 0.5-99 0.5-0 Saudi Arabia 1932 27,019,731 29.1-1.21 0 100 0-0 Egypt 1922 (UK) 78,887,007 22.53 1.02 6-91 0-0 Libya 1951 (UN) 5,900,754 26.09 1.05-97 Yemen 1990 21,456,188 42.67 1.04-99 Oman 1650 (Portugal) 3,102,229 35.76 1.26 0-99 0-1 United Arab Emirates 1971 2,563,212 16.09 1.442 4-96 0-0 Qatar 1971 (UK) 885,359 15.56 1.88 0-95 0-5 Bahrain 1971 (UK) 698,585 17.53 1.27 9-85 0-6 Kuwait 1961 (UK) 2,418,393 21.95 1.52-15-85




Birth rate per 1000

Gender ratio m/f




Other Countries Argentina 1816 (Spain) 39,921,833 16.53 0.97-94 1.5-2-2.5 Australia 1901 (UK) 20,264,082 12.02 0.99-67.4-1.5 Brazil 1822 (Portugal) 188,078,227 16.3-0.98-89 0.02 0-10.98 Germany 1871 82,422,299 8.2-0.96-68 3.7-0-28.3 Italy 1861 58,133,509 8.54 0.96 1.7 France 486 60,876,136 12.91 0.95-90 7.5-1-1.5 Mexico 1810 (Spain) 107,449,525 20.36 0.96-95 0.3-0-4.7 Netherlands 1579 16,491,461 10.7-0.98-51 6-0-43 Norway 1905 4,610,820 11.27 0.98-90.1-1.6-0-8.3 Russia 1991 142,893,540 10.92 0.86-15 Spain 8th Century 44,108,530 9.98 0.96-94 2.5-0-3.5 South Korea 1945 (Japan) 48,846,823 9.93 1.01-26 0.04 0-73.96 UK 10th Century 60,609,153 10.67 0.98-71.6-2.7-0-5.7 USA 1776 298,444,215 14.16 0.97-76 1.4-1-21.6

Country GDP ($ billion) % of USA GDP per capita % of USA Trade volume ($ billion) % of GDP Political regime Last election Turkey 508.7-4.329362 7,400.00-18.45387 139.8925 27.5 Republican parliamentary democracy 2007 Syria 60.44 0.514383 3,400 8.478803 27.2524 45.09 Military 2007 Lebanon 18.83 0.160255 5,000 12.46883 9.198455 48.85 Republic 1998 Israel 129 1.097872 20,800 51.87032 80.7411 62.59 Parliamentary democracy 2006 West Bank and Gaza 768 6.53617 600 1.496259 Iraq 54.4-0.462979 2,100 5.236908 Interim government 2005 Iran 516.7-4.397447 7,700 19.202 Theocratic republic 2006 Saudi Arabia 310.2-2.64-12,000 29.92519 165.3676 53.31 Monarchy n/a Egypt 316.3-2.691915 4,200 10.47382 Republic 2005 Libya 37.48 0.318979 6,700 16.70823 23.24135 62.01 Jamahiriya 2006 Yemen 16.25 0.138298 800 1.995012 Republic 2006 Oman 38.09 0.32417 13,100 32.66833 30.53294 80.16 Monarchy n/a United Arab Emirates 63.67 0.541872 25,200 62.84289 81.63767 128.22 Federation 2004 Qatar 19.49 0.165872 23,200 57.85536 17.58583 90.23 Traditional monarchy n/a Bahrain 13.01 0.110723 19,200 47.8803 16.08036 123.6 Constitutional hereditary monarchy n/a Kuwait 48 0.408511 21,300 53.11721 34.9344 72.78 Nominal constitutional monarchy n/a Argentina 483.5-4.114894 12,400 30.92269 84.5158 17.48 Republic 2003 Australia 611.7-5.205957 30,700 76.5586 211.1588 34.52 Democratic federal state system Brazil 1492 12.69787 8,100 20.1995 345.8456 23.18 Federative republic 2006 Germany 2362 20.10213 28,700 71.57107 1360.984 57.62 Federal republic 2004 Italy 1609 13.69362 27,700 69.07731 700.5586 43.54 Republic 2006 France 1737 14.78298 28,700 71.57107 858.7728 49.44 Republic 2007 Mexico 1006 8.561702 9,600 23.94015 545.0508 54.18 Federal republic 2006 Netherlands 481.1-4.094468 29,500 73.56608 552.7358 114.89 Constitutional monarchy n/a Norway 183 1.557447 40,000 99.75062 99.369 54.3 Constitutional monarchy n/a Russia 1408 11.98298 9,800 24.4389 713.0112 50.64 Federation… [read more]

Assassination of the Former Lebanese Prime Minister Rafik Hariri Term Paper

Term Paper  |  16 pages (4,528 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Assination of Rafik Hariri: Extinguishing a Light in the Middle East

Lebanon is an oddity in the Middle East; a diverse cultural mixture that were it not for outside influences vying for power and control of the country might perhaps achieve a culturally and economically successful society. It has on more than one occasion in its war torn history attempted… [read more]

Ramesses by Joyce Tyldesley Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,767 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1


Ramesses II was known as the greatest Egyptian pharaoh of the New Kingdom. His reputation has mostly escalated as part of his own propaganda, with a myriad of written texts commissioned by him to depict his greatness. During his rule, Ramesses II presided over an era of unprecedented wealth and peace in Egypt that lasted for nearly six decades. As… [read more]

Operation Desert Storm a Catalyst for Islamist Opposition to Saudi Arabia Royal Family Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,629 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 5


Operation Desert Storm a catalyst for Islamist opposition to Saudia Arabia royal family

During the Gulf War (1990-91) Saudi Arabia played an important part in the defeat of Iraq and the liberation of Kuwait. Due to its important role as an international oil provider and due to its location, Saudi Arabia became an important ally of the coalition led by… [read more]

Joshua 24 Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (3,138 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Joshua 24 is first of all seen by its commentators as one of the Covenant rituals between the God of Israel and its people, which may be included in the series of the covenants made initially by Abraham and then by Moses.

The Old Testament text of Joshua 24 has been long commented and analyzed by scholars, in what regards… [read more]

Germany Reunify? What Caused This to Happen? Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (788 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … Germany reunify? What caused this to happen?

Germany was reunified as a result of the decay of Communism in Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union in the late 1980s. The background and brief account of the event is as follows: Germany was divided after World War II as a result of Cold War tensions. East Germany adopted communism as the state policy, while West Germany chose democracy and Capitalism. The relations between the two Germanys remained frosty until the advent of the reformist Soviet leader, Mikhail Gorbachev in 1985 whose liberal policies encouraged the populations of other East European countries including GDR to struggle for greater freedom. In August 1989, when Hungary removed border restrictions with the neighboring Austria, thousands of East Germans started to escape to the West via this route; others organized mass demonstrations against the GDR government. The hard-line East German leader, Erich Honecker, was forced to resign in October 1989 as a result of public pressure and withdrawal of support by Gorbachev. When the new East German government decided to issue visas to East Berliners for visit to the West on November 9, thousands of East Germans rushed to the Berlin Wall and the border guards, overwhelmed by the numbers allowed them through. It was the beginning of the end of the Berlin Wall and led to the formal reunification of Germany after the defeat of the ruling Communist Party in the free, multiparty elections held in March 1990 ("The Reunification...").

What is the basic problem between the Palestinians and the Israelis? Is it religion? Race? Economics? Or a combination of these factors?

The Israeli-Palestinian conflict is a complex issue that has religious, racial, and politico-economic overtones, but most of all it is a territorial dispute. The root of the conflict lies in the fact that both the Israelis and the Palestinians believe that the land rightfully belongs to them. The claim of the Palestinians is based on the fact that at the time of the start of the Zionist movement in the 1880s, the population of Palestine, which was part of the Ottoman Empire, was overwhelmingly (about 95%) Arab and had been so for the previous several centuries; the Jews were a small minority (5%). However, the Jewish people have a historical claim on the Palestinian territory where the Jewish nation originated over 3,200 years ago and…… [read more]

American Arab Anti-Discrimination Committee Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (377 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


American-Arab Anti-Discrimination Committee

This committee is involved with ensuring that the American people and the Arab people build tolerance with one another and do not discriminate against one another based on where they come from and their ethnicity (ADC, 2006). The committee is a 'grassroots' organization, is non-profit, and is designed to ensure civil rights (American, 2006). Senator James Abourezk started the organization in Washington, DC, in 1980, and the committee now claims to be the largest of its kind when it comes to Arab-American organizations (American, 2006). A court case was argued in 1999, Reno v. American-Arab Anti-Discrimination Committee, where individuals that were not legally in this country stated that they were being discriminated against based on deportation because they were Arabs, but the court ruled that the fact that they were here illegally was enough, and that they were not being discriminated against because of their ethnicity (Reno, 1999).

Despite that court case, however, the American-Arab Anti-Discrimination Committee is a peaceful organization that promotes understanding and tolerance between Americans and Arabs (ADC, 1996). There are many chapters in different states, and they were not all created…… [read more]