Study "Israel / Palestine / Arab World" Essays 221-275

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5th Fleet in Bahrain Term Paper

… Ultimately, Tehran's only credible choice is to disrupt activity in this major Gulf trade route. Is the Strait of Hormuz really vital to the world's oil market? The answer is: Much less than it used to be.

US and EU… [read more]

Israeli-Egypt Conflict and Iraq War Essay

… Israel could contain any attacks by Syria or Jordan during this period" (Hammond, 2010).

Given the criteria presented in the spectrum of justification for war this conflict may be classified as an easier-to-justify preventative war. The Arab states had indeed demonstrated acts of hostile intent, preparatory steps toward hostile action, and made inflammatory rhetoric in the face of reasonable offers of negotiation. Since there is some room for doubt that an attack was pending this war cannot be classified as justified. Whether or not Israel was morally justified in taking this action is debatable, however when placed in the context of the time a strong argument may be made that it was.

Iraq War

On March 19, 2003, American and British forces began "Operation Iraqi Freedom" otherwise known as the Iraq War. There are several issues that may be pointed to as the basic reasons for the second major war between a United States led coalition and Iraq. First, there were lingering tensions and hostilities, remnants left over from the first Gulf war of 1991. At the close of that war the Iraqi government agreed to surrender and/or destroy several types of weapons including SCUD missiles and various Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMDs). The United Nations was tasked with sending weapons inspectors to confirm the destruction of Iraqi weapons and to search for any prohibited weapons the believed to be in hidden by the Iraqi government. Additionally, two "No Fly Zones" were established over northern and southern Iraq for the protection of Iraqi minority groups in opposition to the Saddam Hussein government. Allied aircraft patrolled the air over these zones in order to prevent Iraqi aircraft… [read more]

Welcome Israel Case Study

… ¶ … Israel

Case Analysis: Wellcome Israel

Situation Analysis:

The process of corporate acquisition and merger is typically extremely complex. It is exponentially more so in the case of Wellcome Israel, a pharmaceutical division of Promedico, a payee of Wellcome Hellas and a prospective addition to Glaxo. These overlapping forces have created a particularly challenging scenario for CEO Ozra Sherman, who must navigate Wellcome Israel through a decidedly uncertain period. This is true in spite of the company's excellent performance, or perhaps one might argue, even in light of it. The profitability of Wellcome Israel has been ironic for a number of reasons, not the least of which is the relative struggles of its parent company in Promedico. This was true to the extent that Wellcome Israel accounted for no less than 50% of all sales from the company's pharmaceutical and diagnostics division.

An additional irony is Wellcome's success in a country which has largely remained incognito within the context of the company's literature. Because of Wellcome's emphasis on sales within particular Arab country markets, the nature of its operations in Israel are subject to a great deal of political pressure. The result is an operation that has been shrouded by the presence of the parent company Promedico. It was becoming clear beyond a reasonable doubt though, even before the imminent approach of Glaxo's buyout, that this was a scenario which simply could not be sustained. As Wellcome Israel continued to enjoy not just a high degree of success but a significant amount of internal harmony, operational functionality and high morale, its presence within Promedico remained uneasy and best and poorly matched to the parent company's limited capabilities at worst.


This…… [read more]

Iran Intelligence Essay

… There are Directorates for Iraq; Lebanon, Palestine, and Jordan; Afghanistan, Pakistan, and India; Turkey and the Arabian Peninsula; Asian countries of the former Soviet Union, Western nations (Europe and North America), and North Africa."[footnoteRef:9] This depth of influence should not be easily discounted. Many of those in these areas have problems with Israeli-American propaganda. There is a growing body of evidence shows Iran's ties to weapons transportation and distribution.[footnoteRef:10] And it is this capacity that reinforces how well a nation like Iran can still present itself as being bigger in reality than it may be in truth as a war power. [8: Global Security. Qods (Jerusalem) Force, Iranian Revolutionary Guard Corps (IRGC - Pasdaran-e Inqilab) (Accessed December 14, 2011).] [9: A. Cordesman, Iran's Revolutionary Guards. 2006, 9.] [10: A. Samii, Factionalism, 2002. ]


Blanche, E. Iran's Golden Arms Network. Current Affairs. The Middle East. March 2010. 27-29.

Bruno, G. Iran's Revolutionary Guards. Council on Foreign Relations. Backgrounder. Oct. 25, 2011. (Accessed December 14, 2011).

Cordesman, A.H. Iran's Revolutionary Guards, the Al Quds Force and Other Intelligence and Paramilitary Forces. Working Draft. Center for Strategic and International Studies: Washington, D.C., 2006. 1-17.

Cordesman, A.H. And Kleiber, M. Iran's Military Forces and Warfighting Capabilities: The threat in the Northern Gulf. Center for Strategic and International Studies: Washington, D.C. 2007.

Erdbrink, T. Iranian Official Warns U.S. Not to Spy on His Country: Comments Describe a 'Full Fledged Intelligence War'Between U.S., Iran. Washington Post Foreign Services. January 19, 2009.

Global Security. Qods (Jerusalem) Force, Iranian Revolutionary Guard Corps (IRGC - Pasdaran-e Inqilab) (Accessed December 14, 2011).

Samii, A.W. Factionalism in Iran's Domestic Security Forces. Middle East Intelligence Bureau. February 2002. Vol. 4. No. 2.… [read more]

Global Wealth and Poverty Research Paper

… Global Wealth and Poverty: Zimbabwe and the United Arab Emirates

Recent innovations in telecommunications and transportation have created new opportunities for many of the seven billion people in the world today, but in some cases, the stark differences in wealth between the affluent nations of the world and their impoverished counterparts in developing nations has never been greater. This is certainly the case with the United Arab Emirates, one of the richest nations in the world, and Zimbabwe, which is currently among the poorest. To gain some fresh insights into why such drastic economic disparities exist between these two countries, this paper provides a review of the relevant peer-reviewed and scholarly literature, followed by a summary of the research and important findings in the conclusion.

Review and Analysis


Like many African nations, Zimbabwe experienced a rocky transition during its transition to African majority rule following its independence in 1980. The newly installed black majority government sought to continue many of the macroeconomic policies of the past, with some mixed results (Mumbengegwi, 2002). Like many other African countries as well, Zimbabwe has significant deposits of natural resources, including diamonds and other minerals (Zimbabwe, 2011). Despite some encouraging signs of economic growth during the transition period following independence, an increasingly massive public sector and large government investments in education and infrastructure resulted in unsustainably large deficits that adversely affected further development during the 1980s and 1990s (Mumbengegwi, 2002). According to Mumbengegwi (2002), the economic growth that immediately followed independence was short-lived, due to a combination of two consecutive droughts and diminished global demand for Zimbabwe products. As a result, "Agricultural output declined by almost 20 per cent, reducing incomes and effective demand for manufacturing sector output. Gross fixed capital formation (GFCF) as a percentage of GDP declined after 1982 and stabilized at around 12 -- 13 per cent throughout the decade, which was hardly adequate to cover replacement capital" (Mumbengegwi, 2002).

More recently, and despite the lingering effects of the global economic downturn, Zimbabwe's economy has experienced rapid growth notwithstanding ongoing political instability (Zimbabwe, 2011). In this regard, U.S. government analysts report that, "Following a decade of contraction, Zimbabwe's economy recorded real growth of 5.9% in 2010" (Zimbabwe, 2011, para. 2). Nevertheless, a number of significant challenges confront continued economic development in the country, including widespread corruption, uncontrolled inflation, a staggering 95% unemployment rate and a population that is forced to subsist on less than $2 a day (Zimbabwe, 2011). While Zimbabwe experiences its first solid economic growth in more than 10 years, U.S. analysts caution that future success will depend on a resolution of the country's political problems (Zimbabwe, 2011).

United Arab Emirates

With a population roughly half the size of Zimbabwe's (see Table 1 below), the United Arab Emirates' (UAE) gross domestic product per capita is almost one-thousand times as high ($49,600 versus $500). Moreover, the UAE is just a fifth of the size of Zimbabwe, but it does have something that Zimbabwe does not have: proven reserves of… [read more]

Hamas Often When People Think Term Paper

… The International Court did rule that some of Israel's purposed wall location were beyond jurisdiction and that those areas would have to be rerouted (Jones 2009).

The Israeli courts have done everything to ensure that their government is not doing… [read more]

Oslo Accords Essay

… At which point, they began to look for some kind of solution to address these challenges. In this aspect, the Oslo Accords did not look like anything surrounding the common dilemmas the two sides were facing. Yet, it also was a combination of these different external pressures to work out some kind of a deal that would help to sort out these issues. So that there could be; a long-term solution that will establish a lasting peace. Therefore, the Oslo Accords did not look like anything that came out of the negotiations, in that it failed to understand the severity of the issues itself. While at the same time, the external pressures meant that both sides had to take a new approach in addressing these issues. In this aspect, these events were illustrating how the common dilemma would push both sides to seek out some kind of agreeable solution in dealing with these problems over the long-term. (Brown, 2003, pp. 244 -- 254)


Clearly, the Oslo Accords were a major breakthrough in that they provided a basic foundation for establishing a lasting peace between the Israelis and the Palestinians. As, they addressed a number of different issues including: Israelis right to exist, the beginnings of a new Palestinian state and they allowed for the withdrawal of the IDF from various areas of the West Bank along with the Gaza Strip. Yet, they failed to address the most pressing issues facing the two sides most notably: the control of the City of Jerusalem, Palestinian refugees, security, borders and settlements. These different elements are important, because they are illustrating how the agreement was a basis for future negotiations. Where, they failed in that none of these problems were addressed in future negotiations and continued to remain an issue of contention.

As far as the negotiations are concerned, the Oslo Accords were considered to be breakthrough. This is because they embraced a number of different concepts to bring the two parties together including: introducing alternatives, understanding the other sides reserve position and finding areas for potential agreement. These elements are important, because they are illustrating, a few of the tactics that were used to create an agreement that was favorable to both sides. In this aspect, the Oslo Accords were considered to be a success because they provided a basic foundation for future negotiations and it created a framework for implementing a lasting peace. As a result, the agreement was considered to be a success based upon the breakthroughs that were established. While at the same time, it was a failure because it did not address the most pressing issues. Instead, it moved them down the road for someone else to work out these problems. Over the course of time, this would lead to increased amounts of tension between the two sides based upon these issues.


Brown, N. (2003). Palestinian Politics after the Oslo Accords. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.

Isseroff, A. (2003). The Peace Process is Dead. Mew Views.… [read more]

Corruption, Political Stability and Development Research Paper

… Egypt holds a vast range of natural resources like petroleum, manganese, talc, natural gas, iron ore, zinc, phosphate, limestone, gypsum, lead and asbestos. They also pride themselves of vast agricultural land and weather that enables them to engage in cotton,… [read more]

Influence of Antisemitism on Palestinian Terrorism Research Proposal

… Anti-Semitism and Palestinian Terrorism

Global anti-Semitism is escalating at an alarming rate (Spencer 2010). While there are many deep-rooted, impassioned conflicts between Arab Palestinians and Israeli Jews, the question remains: to what degree can today's continued unrest being attributed to… [read more]

Israeli Settlement Policies Research Paper

… Israeli Settlement Policies

There are Israeli settlements in the West Bank, Golan Heights and East Jerusalem. These highly contested Jewish communities range in size from small villages to now recognized cities. To better understand this situation, this paper will overview… [read more]

Conflict There Is a Difference Essay

… Conflict

There is a difference between the individual action and corporate action. The difference arises from the inherent nature of the actor as an individual and the corporation as an actor. The relationship of the actor and corporation to sin is also different, thus conversion is articulated differently for both entities. Entrenched structural and practical considerations limit the scope of corporate conversion. For the individual personal and familiar challenges, become an impediment. The path to conversion is therefore different for the individual and the corporation. The corporation has a greater challenge demonstrating and creating conversion than the individual.

The conversion of the individual requires that the person accept the existence of sin as a motivating force in their life. This sin may be considered "original sin" that has passed from the action of Adam and Eve unto the human family. There is no escape from the effect of original sin on the lives of humans. Original sin is pervasive. It intrudes into all the crevices of human endeavor and pollutes everything that it meets. Consequently, it is possible for actions to appear good and noble but be vile and corrupt because of the influence of sin on the motives of the actor. The nature of original sin makes conversion difficult for the individual but not impossible.

The corporation is beset by the problem of creating collective action. The creation of collective action is hampered by structural and systemic considerations within the corporation. If the corporation is to change or be converted, it has to overcome entrenched structures that form the basis of the division of power, and privilege within the corporation. The powerful within the corporation are often opposed to the creation of change since change will affect their fortunes and positions (Hodges). The change must be generated from the ranks of the very persons least likely to have the capacity to create the necessary change.

Sin manifests itself as injustice and unfairness within the corporation. Over time, unjust and unfair practices become calcified as part of the structure and are considered as normal. When these practices are resisted, the corporation responds in a myriad of ways but most often, the change is resisted. The path of conversion for the corporation passes through conflict and struggle (King Jr.). This requires many years to become fruitful.

Individuals can change easier than corporations can. Individual conversion does not require that they go against the established structures. It may at times create hostility within the family and self, but the impact of the decision is usually personalized. The decision, and hence conversion, will not generally influence the structures. Immoral persons may decide to become moral or act in moral ways. The social structure is not affected by this personal decision. The potential for greater impact only occurs when the numbers of persons changing is significant to threaten the structure.

The conflict between Israel and Palestine is an enduring and complicated conflict. The Jewish people, trace their right to the land back to biblical… [read more]

Middle East Essay

… Middle East

Because of a number of elements, the Middle East found itself profoundly changed after World War I. Although this was the case for many countries, the region experienced it most keenly as a result of not only its… [read more]

Israeli Palestinian Conflict Essay

… Israeli-Palestinian Conflict

Based on the new information learned from studying the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict, my advice to President Obama is to seek peace but maintain a level of impartiality to the entire conflict.

Numerous governments, including the United States of American, England, and France, have tried to enact peace treaties, perfect boundaries, and other forms of solutions to promote peace and end to the conflicts. The one problem is the geographics of the region. Even if you end the conflict between Israel and Palestine, the majority of the Arab countries in the Middle East still resent or wishes to destroy the nation of Israel. They will not even recognize the existence of Israel as a nation. I think President Obama should remain diplomatic but be careful of taking sides. The following paper tries to summarize the basis behind the problems and why a solution will not be an easy one and may lead to another world war.

The Israeli-Palestinian Conflict is a very complex situation that has been raging for centuries. The land has changed hands so often it is hard to determine the nationality of the inhabitants in the small country. Though the topic deals with Israel and Palestine, the overall picture and the reasons go back to early Biblical times. It is a clash between religions, the Jewish and Christians (Israel) versus the Islamic and Muslims (Arabs). For this paper we will concentrate on the situation of the land dispute but acknowledgement needed to be made to the root cause.

The land in question was inhabited through the years by many different nationalities and each was conquered by another country. Evidence from fossil bones found in the region show that the area has been inhabited for tens of thousands of years. Around 2000 BC they land was occupied by the Canaanite, Amorites, and other Semitic people. Israelites are thought to be a combination of the people of the region and especially the Canaanites and a…… [read more]

Developing Nations Essay

… Oil and Religion: Europe in the Middle East.

Following the end of the First World War, the European powers, and later the U.S. And the Soviet Union, dominated the Middle East in terms of political, social, and economic structures, and set in motion a series of events which have impacted world events and global peace to the present day. This brief paper will outline the impact of Europe on this critical world region as it played out during the 20th Century.

Any discussion of the Middle East must begin with perhaps the two most important factors which have determined the course of events in the region for the last century: oil and religion. Oil has served as the economic motivation for Europe and other powers which have mingled in the region's affairs. Religion has served as the complicating force which has made social and political stabilization under a Western model difficult to achieve. The geography of the region and its oil reserves have made it strategically important throughout the period of empire building and the Cold War, but the fierce independence and religious heterogeneity of the Arab people have made the populations notoriously difficult organize for both Western and Arab leaders (Grenville, 421). At least part of this difficulty has been the result of the interference of the British and, to a lesser extent, the French in political affairs across the Middle East as Europe attempted to colonize the region politically in order to afford the kind of system they thought necessary to allow the exploitation of oil reserves to proceed peacefully.

Grenville writes that the British attempted to "secure the benefits of empire in the Middle East while minimizing the costs of control" (422). In order to do this, they engaged immediately after WWI in a pattern of establishing British-style constitutions in Egypt, Iraq, and areas of the now dissolute Ottoman Empire. Later, they developed treaties with Transjordan, Iran, and Saudi Arabia which essentially made those areas British protectorates. Both sets of arrangements allowed the British to have advisory impact on the areas without having to incur the costs of rule. Their intent was to set up a peaceful set of governments that would allow them to go in a get the oil. However, this system caused several problems. The Arab monarchies proved to be neglectful and oppressive of their people, and the British stood aside, leading to the development of distrust among the populace of Western influence, a distrust that was exploited by Arab religious leaders…… [read more]

Nations and Nationalism Since 1780? For E.J Essay

… Nations and Nationalism since 1780? For E.J. Hobsbawm

Analysis of Israel as Potential Destination for Conducting Business

Based on the opportunities created by globalization and market liberalization, more and more economic agents cross boundaries to geographically expand their businesses. The… [read more]

Psychological Aspects of Conflict and Resolutions Essay

… Questions Concerning the Psychology of Conflict and Conflict

The conflict between Israel and the surrounding Arab neighbors with
which it has frequently come to blows is precipitated on a host of
territorial, historical, ethnic and political terms. However, with… [read more]

Culture Constraining a Culture: The Restrictions Essay

… Culture

Constraining a Culture: The Restrictions of Borders

Culture helps keep life interesting and helps make who we are. It is a basic foundation of our personalities and social behaviors. What would happen if the constraints caused by border conflicts actually helped stifle the development of various cultures within those conflicts. As seen in the Israeli-Palestinian conflict, there are some border conflicts which can get way out of hand causing the socio-economic disenfranchising of an entire culture along with placing citizens of both nations in physical danger. This constraining qualities of heightened border tension and policies is also similarly seen in the United States with its border facing Mexico. In this conflict, although much less extreme, presents elements very similar to the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. However, it is a third hybrid culture sprung out of the combination of the two which suffers most from trying to juggle identities revolving around two hostile cultures. Both cases have seen continuous failure of resolution, leaving little room for hope.

There are very similar shifts in culture emanating from the West Bank in the Middle East. This area of the world has been under constant turmoil since the end of World War II and the creation of the Israeli nation-state in controversial area once believed to be Palestine. Initially a Palestinian territory, the West Bank consists of the western portion of the River Jordan. Yet, the religious significance for the Jewish Israeli people proved to great of a lure, and Israel has occupied the area for generations. This move has caused great strife within the area with Palestine's refusal to simply give up their territory. In recent years, tensions have continued to rise, leading to failure of negotiations and all out physical hostility towards one another. In the midst of such looming conflict, the boundaries of the province have been renewed with new rigorous checkpoints which further isolate the two cultures and create a center tension point between the two nations. This tension then turns into resentment and xenophobia between two very similar, yet eternally different cultures. It creates two very different worlds within the same space.

The difficulties caused by the extreme separation and the rigor of getting through various checkpoints between the two nations have serious consequences on the two nations involved. Although Israel has strong Western allies which it can rely on for international trade and tourist income, Palestine finds little Western affiliated luxuries. In fact, the occupation of the West Bank and the tension within the given area has severely limited Palestine's potential to trade…… [read more]

Yom Kippur War Thesis

… Yom Kippur War

The Long-Term Implications of the Yom Kippur War

As forces from Egypt, Syria, Jordan and Iraq massed around Israel's borders in 1967, Israel launched a six-day air campaign which crippled the capacity of its opponents to wage… [read more]

Education Development in Syria Thesis



According to many prominent Middle Eastern historians and scholars, the nation of Syria, located at the eastern end of the Mediterranean Sea and sharing borders with Turkey, Iraq, Jordan, Israel and Lebanon, faces many… [read more]

Government Economic and Business in the Middle East Term Paper

… ¶ … government, economics, and business in the Middle East. Specifically it will discuss the economic interaction between Iran and Israel from 1975 until 1985 and how the Islamic Revolution in 1979 has influenced the economy during this time until… [read more]

Geography in the Middle East Term Paper

… ¶ … geography in the Middle East. Specifically it will discuss the road toward Middle East peace and the Annapolis Conference, and how they relate to peace in the area. The Road Map for Peace in the Middle East formulates… [read more]

Attack on U.S. Marine Compound in Beirut Airport in 1983 Internationalism Term Paper

… American Middle East Unilateralism

Attack on U.S. Marine Compound in Beirut Airport in 1983

In 1983, 241 United States Marines were killed in Beirut, Lebanon (CBS News, 2003). On the world stage, the United States, under the Reagan administration, stood… [read more]

International Conflict Resolution Term Paper

… International Conflict Resolution

For policymakers who wish to resolve conflicts - through political, economic, and military tools - there are several proven ways and means of arriving at closure. This paper will review some of those strategies and point to… [read more]

USA Arms Exports Term Paper

… U.S. Arms Exports

The impact of United States arms exports on human rights around the world

In 1948, just shortly after the end of WWII, the UN adopted the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. The purpose of this document was… [read more]

Iranian Revolution of 1979 Gave Rise Term Paper

… Iranian revolution of 1979 gave rise to a wave of radical acts such as kidnappings, taking of American hostages, offering support in the Hezbollah operations in Lebanon, as well as several bombing of U.S. installations; these acts can be considered terrorism (Sick: 84). As far as the Hezbollah, it is important to note that Iran has supported their cause ever since their beginning in 1982, as a response to U.S. And Israeli foreign policy efforts. Their affiliation with the Islamic Revolution of Iran has resulted in numerous terrorist attacks during the 1980s and 1990s (Katzman: 28). These two decades saw Iran involved in supporting and sponsoring Shiite Muslim extremist groups that generated crises in the member states of the Gulf Cooperation Council - Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Bahrain, Qatar, Oman, and the United Arab Emirates. Their effort of destabilizing local peace and security were futile because the states in question became close allies of the United States.

Today, Iran's policy regarding terrorist acts is considerably different than after the revolution that took place more than 25 years ago. Despite this apparent decrease in the number of terrorist acts, U.S. State Department still considers Iran "the most active sponsor of terrorism" (Byman: 2). Iran has abandoned the policies of hostage-taking among its neighboring countries, as well as the targeted assassinations of enemies. Its current policy consists mainly of support for radical anti-Israeli groups in Palestine (Sick: 85). On several occasions,…… [read more]

Educational Background of 2 Or More Cleft Term Paper

… ¶ … educational background of 2 or more Cleft National Cultures. The Cleft Cultures consist of the following: Malaysian, Nigeria, Israel, Italy, & Belgium

One of the most unique facets of the modern Israeli state it is simultaneously homogeneous and heterogeneous character. On one hand, Israel has an official religion, because it is the self-designated homeland of all of the Jewish population of the world. On the other hand, because it embraces Jews from all over the world, Israel's population may compose that of a highly educated doctor or a recent immigrant from a developing nation with little access to education. Within Israel as well: "Education in Israel has been characterized historically by the same social and cultural cleavages separating the Orthodox from the secular and Arabs from Jews. In addition, because of residential patterns and concentrations -- of Orientals in development towns, for example -- or because of 'tracking' of one sort or another, critics have charged that education has been functionally divided by an Ashkenazi-Oriental distinction, as well" (Israel: Education, 2007, U.S. Library of Congress). However, despite these divides, Israel also has notable universities for professional education, as well as fine primary and secondary institutions of schooling within its borders, and thus resembles the modern United States.

Italy is a similarly diverse and highly regionalized nation, as the quality of education may vary from North to South, much like the cultures of these different regions within the nation. However, much like school system of Belgium, Italy and Belgium, like most European nations have a certain element of cohesiveness because of a state-set curriculum and because higher education is based upon an examination system, a system also paralleled in Malaysia. State examinations and national curriculums may help create greater unity in Cleft national cultures (Gannon, 2006). Finally, Nigerian education is even more diverse: "There were three fundamentally distinct education systems in Nigeria in 1990: the indigenous system, Quranic schools, and formal European-style education institutions. In the rural areas where the majority lived, children learned the skills of farming and other work, as well as the duties of adulthood, from participation in the community" (Nigeria: Education, 2007, U.S. Library…… [read more]

International Competition Middle East Term Paper

… Middle East Region

There is no hard and fast rule that defines what constitutes Middle East. It traditionally includes countries or regions in Southwest Asia and parts of North Africa. Persian Gulf is considered as the main centre the area… [read more]

Middle East -- a Region of Ancient Term Paper

… Middle East -- a region of ancient conflicts and changing American policies

The Middle East has always been an important region in the modern diplomatic history of the United States. But "if the chief natural resource of the Middle East were bananas, the region would not have attracted the attention of U.S. policymakers as it has for decades." (Richman, 1991) Economically, the Middle East is a critical source of oil, the fuel that propels the productivity of America and the entire industrialized world. But the availability of oil is not merely a matter of dollars and cents for the U.S. The nations that control the sources of these vital fossil fuels have additional political power, in comparison to their neighbors, as well as economic capital. This fact has made the Middle East a source of anxiety politically as well as economically for the United States, and the economic outlook for America's future cannot be severed from the geopolitical balance of the region.

Until the 1990s, virtually every policy of the United States was overshadowed by the specter of communism. In 1957, President Eisenhower said: "Russia's rulers have long sought to dominate the Middle East...International Communism...seeks to mask its purposes of domination by expressions of good will and by superficially attractive offers of political, economic and military aid. But any free nation, which is the subject of Soviet enticement, ought, in elementary wisdom, to look behind the mask." (Eisenhower, 1957) "The idea of a strategic relationship between the United States and Israel emerged after the Suez crisis, when the Eisenhower administration realized that both countries had an interest in containing Nasser's influence...He was the first to provide Israel with sophisticated weapons and to commit the United States to a policy of maintaining Israel's regional military superiority." (Richman, 1991) Israel was America's one, secure friend in the Middle East. Although it was a small nation, it must become militarily strong to act as a counterweight to Soviet influence. In contrast, the leaders of Egypt, and later Libya, Syria, and Iraq, formed alliances with the Soviet Union. However, "neither Syria nor Egypt was controlled by the Soviet Union; they were not even independent communist regimes." (Richman, 1991) Still, even when Israel's policies, such as the invasion of Lebanon, were questionable morally, the United States did not condemn such actions, in light of the its long-standing strategic policy to support Israel, and that any action of an enemy of the Soviet Union should be endorsed or at least not formally censored by the United States. (Richman, 1991)

The Soviet Union's dissolution caused a seismic change in the world geopolitical scene, as it spelled the decline of the bipolar balance of power in the world. However, although it called into question a number of the polices of the United States, it could be argued that the collapse of the Soviet Union, ideologically, had less of an impact upon the Middle East than the rise of Islamic fundamentalism. Communism had never been a formidable force in… [read more]

World Problem Term Paper

… ¶ … Darfur Refugees

The conflict in Darfur has been ongoing for some time. It is located in the Darfur region, which is in the western Sudan, and the problems have been mainly between those that are non-Arab and the… [read more]

History of the Modern Middle East Term Paper

… ¶ … Middle East

My Enemy's Enemy is My Friend -- Even if that Enemy is Democracy and Economic Progress in the Middle East

According to James L. Gelvin's book The Modern Middle East: A History, the central irony of the post-Cold War "Age of Democratization" and "Age of Globalization," is that while much of the rest of the formerly colonized world has been freeing itself from tyranny and outmoded economic ideas, the Middle Eastern nations of the Islamic world are becoming increasingly tyrannical and economically stagnant. Even nations that were oil-rich, such as Saudi Arabia and Kuwait have yet to build extensive economic infrastructures that rely on commodities other than the non-renewable economic resources of oil. Democracy and capitalism have yet to take root even in nations with extensive exposure to Western ideals. However, Gelvin's so-called irony is less surprising when viewed in conjunction with the fact that resistance to European colonial domination since the end of World War I in the Middle East has always been framed in terms of a resistance to all European cultural and religious ideologies -- including democracy and capitalism, as well as Christianity.

While Gelvin points out that so-called "traditional" fundamentalist and pro-nationalist Islamic revolutions, such as occurred in Iran are actually contemporary in their worldview, in the sense that they look back to a mythical and fictional pure Islamic past, the ideological nature of these revolutions also demonstrate how such apparently progressive ideas like women's rights have become associated with Western-controlled leaders like the Shah of Iran. The Shah himself was also a dictator, tainting the ideal of democracy for many Iranians, who thus turned to anti-democratic fundamentalism as a solution. (Gelvin 191) Even in Egypt, which secular leaders such as Nasser and Sadat have dominated in the post-colonial era, totalitarian rulers defined the debate of national independence. Resistance meant following cults of personality enforced by charismatic rulers like Nasser. Nationalized economic strategies (like the pan-Arab nationalization of the Suez that wrested control from the British) were popularized over attempts at capitalist reform. (Gelvin 215) Sadat, who eventually signed the Camp David Peace Accords with Israel and sought to broaden Egypt's economic perspective, became the victim of a successful assassination attempt.

Thus, in the paradoxical logic (to Western eyes) of the Middle East, democracy and a free market are conjoined with colonialism and European dominion. Sun Allah Ibrahim's book The Committee is an unsparing depiction of how Western ideologies, such as global capitalism and democracy, are fused with totalitarianism in the Middle Eastern mind. The West may see Islamic militarism as totalitarian. The oppressive nature ruling Committee of Ibrahim's book, in its militarism, might seem to be a stand-in for the totalitarian state regimes described by Gelvin, as have exist or have existed in Syria, Iraq, and other modern Middle Eastern nations. But the members of Ibrahim's Committee are blond, European, and do not speak Arabic.

This suggests that Ibrahim is not so much concerned about oppressive rule of Islamic fundamentalists, but… [read more]

Iran and the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Term Paper

… " (Ibid)

Punishing Iran for its noncompliance with U.S. ideals, however, accomplishes nothing other than further eroding relations between the two countries and worsening the economic situation in Iran. By "inflicting harm on Tehran," the United States has achieved its… [read more]

Middle Least Term Paper

… ¶ … Middle East [...] given a position of power as a strong international leader, what I would want the Arabs and Israelis to do to find a lasting peace, and what I would expect to happen. Historically, the Middle East has been at odds for centuries, and it does not seem any closer now to a lasting and viable peace any more than it has in decades. Personally, I do want the Israelis and Arabs to reach a lasting peace, but it seems there are so many differences between them that a lasting peace just may be a pipe dream - always hoped for but never quite attained.

The Arabs and Israelis must look beyond their obvious differences to find their obvious commonalities, and there are many. I would want them to explore these commonalities and expand on them, finding ways to creatively solve their differences rather than solving them with violence, hatred, and misunderstanding. As one author notes, "Neither side appreciates the depth of the other's perception of great asymmetry of power. Both sides must get close enough to feel each other's losses and to find means of transforming relationships" (Duffey). I would want small groups of people throughout the area to work together to solve their differences and to learn about each other. One-on-one relationships often show that we are much more alike than we are willing to admit, and it seems that these kinds of relationships could foster more understanding between Arabs and Israelis that could least to more peaceful and amicable relationships throughout the region.

I would also expect them to want peace. In a region that has been torn by violence and hatred for so long, it would seem that many residents must be tired of the process, and must wish for a better relationship and a better way of life. With Israel's commitment to eventual withdrawal from the Gaza Strip, it seems the first real extension of understanding has been created in a while, and that the two sides should expand on this showing of mutual respect, rather than allowing it to stand on its own.…… [read more]

US Role in Present Lebanese Civil War Term Paper

… U.S. Role in the Present Lebanese Political Crisis

When Lebanon's former Prime Minister Rafik al-Hariri was assassinated on February 14, 2005, the Middle Eastern country was plunged into a serious crisis that threatens to escalate into a civil war.

The… [read more]

U.S. Policies in the Middle Term Paper

… One example is that of Jordan, which received aid from the U.S.A. despite the widespread repression at the time and also its autocratic rule. It is sometimes stated that the U.S. policies have given rise to the upsurge and rising of Islamic governments as well as Islamic movements. The U.S.A. has been showing great concern about the rising of the Islamic movement in the Middle East, and what must be understood is the fact that Islam is a religion that is very much diverse in its interpretations of the teachings of Islam and these teachings can also be applicable to contemporary political issues. Not all of the religion is intolerant of the West; in fact there are some people who believe that believe in an innate cooperation and moderation in their dealings with the West. At the same time, there are Islamic individuals who are vociferous in their opposition to the West and also to other religions, and ironically, the U.S.A. has in fact been lending its support to these movements. (10 things to Know about the U.S. Policy in the Middle East)

These are certain specific incidents of the U.S. policies in the Middle East: in 1948, the U.S.A. supported the Palestinian plan of returning to Israel form where they had been expelled, in 1956, when Israel, Britain and France raided Egypt, the U.S. did not lend its support, but the intervention of its NATO allies damaged its reputation, in 1970, during the Civil War between Jordan and PLO, U.S. joins hands with Israel in its plans to back Jordan if Syria were to support the PLO. The years 1980 to 1988 saw the War between Iran and Iraq, and U.S. offered support to Iraq, and secretly provided arms to Iran. In 1993, U.S. launched a missile attack on Iraq, and in 1998, both UK and U.S. bombed Iraq. In 2000, the U.S. offered arms to Israel so that a Palestinian uprising could be quelled. (Middle East Time Line) In a study conducted on the U.S. policies today in the Middle East, it was obvious that there was in fact, a disparity in the effort and in the interest that was being out in, and this was affecting the desired outcome. In addition, it was also clear that there was no obvious clear and coherent theme to link all the elements of the policies together, and this was reducing the efficiency of the policies. If they were linked in a perfect symmetry, then they would definitely do better. (An Option of Difficulties, Countering Asymmetric Threats)

Everyone knows that 'surprise' in a government is not something that is pleasant or attractive; it is more likely a complicated bureaucratic procedure that would be better avoided. U.S. policies must therefore most firmly and strongly target all those states that support terrorism and surprise attacks, and when this is carried out, the policies would in fact become more efficient in achieving their innate purpose, which is that of providing safety and security to… [read more]

Colonialism in the Middle East Term Paper

… In the post World War II period, the Western colonial powers blatantly supported dictatorial regimes in the Middle East in order to retain their control of the region's vast oil resources. The role of the imperialist power has been taken over by the United States from Britain. The U.S. government's lop-sided support of Israel has prevented it from playing the role of an honest broker, besides encouraging Israel into taking increasingly extreme position on issues such as withdrawal from the occupied territories and Jewish settlements. The role of the Western powers has not been exemplary on other fronts in the Middle East either. For example, the U.S. cynically supported Saddam Hussain in his war against Iran during the 1980s. When he was emboldened into occupying Kuwait, the U.S. realized blatantly that he had to be stopped leading to the first Gulf War.

Decades later, the legacy of colonialism continues to haunt the region. The neo-conservatives in the United States are expounding the same centuries' old colonialist theory of the "white man's burden" of guiding the 'lesser' nations towards the 'right path.' Forgetting the advice of Thomas Jefferson that, "The laws which must effect [a people's happiness] must flow from their own habits, their own feelings, and the resources of their own minds. No stranger to these could possibly propose regulations adapted to them," the U.S. has embarked on a crusade to create a "model" of democracy in the Middle East for the Arabs and the Muslim countries to follow. The British attempted a similar exercise unsuccessfully in the early part of the 20th century. Not having learnt the lessons of history, the U.S. is repeating the same mistake.

Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Bulgaria

Letter to W. Lee, 1819… [read more]

Urban and Redevelopment Planning a Comparative Study of the Emirates of Abu Dhabi and Dubai Term Paper

… ¶ … United Arab Emirates Abu Dhabi and Dubai

A Comparative Study: Emirates of Abu Dhabi

It has often been recalled throughout history that it is said that the Phoenix will rise from the ashes if the saying has only… [read more]

History of Zionism Term Paper

… Zionism did come into conflict with the Israeli administration when Israel's first Prime Minister, Ben-Gurion, insisted to keep Zionist leaders from influencing Israel's policy decisions.

Zionism has of course been vehemently denounced by the Arab nations and the UN even adopted a resolution in 1975, equating Zionism with racism. Zionists have, however, continued to work towards their objectives relentlessly -- the safety of the state of Israel and the right of any Jew to settle there

-- they have been successful on both counts to date.


Cohen, Michael Joseph. "Zionism." Article in Encyclopedia Encarta, CD-ROM Version, 2002

Edelheit, Abfaham J. And H. Edelheit. "History of Zionism: A Handbook and Dictionary."

Westview Press, 2000

Spiro, Rabbi Ken. "Crash Course in Jewish History Part 62 - Return to the Land of Israel." Jan 27, 2002 (accessed December 7, 2004)

---------------- -- . "Crash Course in Jewish History Part 64 - The British Mandate." (accessed December 7, 2004)

'Zionism - The Beginnings." World Union of Jewish Students. (accessed December 7, 2004)

'Zionism." Article in Encyclopedia Britannica, CD-ROM Version, 2003

The word 'Zionism' is derived from Zion, the hill on which the Temple of Jerusalem was located

"Zionism: The Beginnings"

The Jews have been maligned as Christ killers and the people who rejected his teachings.

"Zionism" Britannica Article

Alfred Dreyfus, a Jewish artillery officer in the French Army, was falsely accused and convicted of treason.

Hezl observed later that the Dreyfus affair turned him into a Zionist

Edelheit (2000). "The History of Zionism" pp. 89-90

Ibid. p. 101

The Congress was so successful that Hezl noted in his diary, "At Basel I founded the Jewish State. Perhaps in five years but certainly in 50 everyone will know it." Exactly 50 years and some months later, the state of Israel was born. (Quoted by Spiro, Part 62)

"Zionism." Britannica Article

Spiro, "Crash Course in ... " Part 64


Cohen, "Zionism" Encarta

The Zionists have been particularly active in arranging immigration of Jews from Russia… [read more]

Middle East Peace Talks Term Paper

… That means that during this exploratory period, it would be up to all participants to put all issues, grievances and beliefs about historical wrongs on the table where they can be understood by all. I would choose this course of action because otherwise, undisclosed issues will come up, sometimes unstated or disguised as other issues. This exploratory phase should persist until all parties can explain what opponents believe dispassionately, without exaggeration, without adding comments about their own perspective, without assigning blame, and without any other non-neutral overlays. Only if each side understands the others' frames of references can they talk with each other about these issues.

Then the separate groups should make lists of what they want in order to bring peace. Only if every faction participates in these negotiations with true intent to find solutions will it work. Next, the group of leaders will have to do the hard work of finding solutions compromising, and staying focused on the future instead of nursing old hurts. Once they have all identified the history, they must be willing to treat it as history and be ready to move forward, not look backwards at past grievances.

If some factions are barred because they are terrorists or for some other reason, the process will not work. This group of individuals will not be able to force peace on others any more than European powers were able to do it earlier in the 20th century. This may be more than the groups involved can do. They may not be willing to forget old grievances, including some that are quite old. But without truly understanding each others' views and a group will to look forward, real, lasting peace is unlikely.… [read more]

Pursuit of Justice Paine's Ideas Term Paper

… From international law, a state is defined as having three main elements that can prove its existence: territory, population and a government. In Paine's times, a population that gained a territory (thus, independence in that respective territory) could then elect a government and be a state with all rights and obligations deriving form this.

Notice that the government, in Paine's text, is someone who represents the people, the people choosing to delegate some of is natural rights to the government, who can best achieve and enforce these rights.

Starting from this, we can discuss Golda Meir's memoir and his famous statement according to which "there are no Palestinians (...) only Arabs." If we consider the state of affairs in the Middle East at the time (and it is also applicable to the present), the Palestinians have constantly asked, ever since the proclamation of the state of Israel in 1948, for a territory. Having talked about the main elements of a state (territory, population, government), the Palestinians needed a territory to form a state, because they already had an established Palestinian population. The question that needs to be asked here is whether this demand for a territory is just. Thus, the answer to such a question is directly related to whether the Palestinians do form a nation. If one denies their existence as a nation, the question of territory needn't even be asked, because they have not fulfilled the first condition.

Thus, Golda Meir finds and applies the easiest mean to deny the right for a free Palestine by denying the existence of the Palestinian nation. In this sense, the underlying principles on which the new states are founded and indeed, the principles which will subsequently lead to the foundation of a new state, do not exist if the existence of the…… [read more]

Arab-American in Detroit Started Term Paper

… Detroit's Arab-Americans have their own share of success in politics. An example of which is Spencer Abraham. Abraham is one Michigan's senator and served as an advisor of Vice President Dan Quayle (Gold, 2001). Another is Ishmael Ahmed, a leader of an Arab-American service agency known as ACCESS (Arab Community Center for Economic and Social Services) (Gold, 2001).

As with other ethnic minorities, the Arab-Americans share an experience of racial discrimination and prejudices as well. Brought by ignorance, they are oftentimes stereotyped in a negative manner (PBS). In movies, for instance, the Arab-Americans are usually regarded as among the enemies. This perception about them was worsened by the crises caused by the Gulf War, the 9-11 attack to U.S. In 2001, and the terrorist activities in the Middle East that still exist today.

The Arab-American community preserves a wide array of tradition and culture, mixed with Western traditions. This is evident in their different activities in education, politics, social life, and others. According to the Provider's Guide to Quality and Culture online, the Arab-Americans have three common factors that protect and bind them. These are community, family, and respect for Western medicine. The Arab-Americans preserve a strong bond within their community. Similarly, they also hold on strong family ties giving honor and respect for each family member. Lastly, the Arab-Americans have strong belief for Western medicine, much of which, in fact, originated from the Arabics.


Caught in the Crossfire.

PBS. Feb 09, 2004.

Gold, Steven. Arab-Americans in Detroit.

2001. Michigan State University. Feb 09, 2004.


The Provider's Guide to Quality and Culture. Feb 09, 2004. module=provider& language=English… [read more]

Iraq War Term Paper

… C., that every major move Bush makes in terms of publicity or PR or policy, is orchestrated or at least partially tweaked by Rove.

According to Time Magazine (Elliott, 2003), on May 1, 2003, Bush landed "in flying gear on… [read more]

Iran's Nuclear Program Began Term Paper

… History has shown us that the Allatollah regime in Iran is not only a dictatorship but is fundamentalist, and thus instigating towards fundamentalist groups that use terrorism and suicide bombings as a means to get their message across.

Israel has shown their disapproval of Iran's nuclear program on many occasions and while Iraq was deemed more of a regional threat than Iran, now that preemptive force has been labeled as 'successful' in the area, it leaves many to consider that Iran could be next on the list.

While history doesn't show Iran as receiving as much foreign support as Iraq, it is namely on a political agenda fuelled by fear that would have the U.S. using preemptive force in Iran to squash their nuclear program. No doubt, Israel would offer assistance, but the rest of the world would not be as quick to agree that the use of force in Iran is justified.

For arguments sake, if the U.S. were to use force in Iran, the repercussions of such an attack would be detrimental. U.S. Policies would take an even further turn down their ongoing downward spiral as allies in the region would become very suspicious of any political dealing with the U.S. And its allies from the Iran Strike.

Furthermore, countries that otherwise would ally with the U.S. - namely Australia and UK - would have taken a backseat in this event, only offering to provide (if anything) medical assistance and troops for the 'clean-up'. Such use of force would open an extremely large can of worms that U.S. Policy and government could otherwise not afford.

Unlike opinions on Iraq, it would stand to reason that vigilant containment of Iran's nuclear program would work far better than any use of force. Walt believed this would have worked with Iraq, but in the case of Iran, and currently political policies and relations with neighboring countries, it would be better to use this option in a region that is recovering from a foreign led war and needs physical proof that U.S. policy in the region is not based on force.

As far as using preemptive force in Iran to quell its nuclear proliferation, I feel it would not be in the best interest of the U.S. To do so. Despite efforts from it's strongest ally in the region, Israel, to put an end to 'the nuclear threat of Iran', there is not enough historical and physical evidence to suggest that a U.S. led strike would be justified, let alone well received in the region.

The Bush Administration should take the upper-hand by using vigilant containment plans to control the progress of Iran's nuclear program, without insulting their other allies in the region and ensure to the American people that they do not have to prepare for another war and therefore live through another struggling economy.


Implementation of the NPT safeguards agreement in the Islamic Republic of Iran.

Report of the International Atomic Energy Agency, June 2003.

Online version,

Walt,… [read more]

U.S. War on Iraq Term Paper

… S. plans to further expand on its program for the Middle Eastern region, particularly in dealing with social, political, and economic problems in Iraq, as well as dealing with the continuing conflict of Palestine and Israel over land territories. However, another important topic discussed in this article is how Iran looms as a possible threat to U.S. security (as well as international security) because of its possible production of nuclear weapons, which the Iran government has been vehemently denying of having ("International Atomic Energy Agency has given Iran a deadline of Oct. 31 to prove it is not using a nuclear power plant to enrich uranium for weapons"). Thus, what resulted after the U.S.-Iraq war are the deteriorating relations U.S. have among Middle Eastern countries, particularly countries hostile to democracy and the U.S., not to mention the poor living conditions Iraqis are in right after the war.


Treaster, J. "Powell tells Arab-Americans of Hopes to Develop Mideast." 30 September 2003. The New York Times. Available at:… [read more]

Jewish, Muslim, and Christian Conflict Term Paper

… Since that time, the Muslims have held unchangingly that both the jews, and their allies the west are the enemies of Allah, and that eventually they would rise up and return the Muslim world to power. This is a process which radical Muslims call the Jihad, a "holy war" which they perceive is just, regardless of the means by which it is carried out.

This is the roots of the current conflict which has evolved into generational hatred among the Muslim and middle eastern peoples. Although Christian and Muslim leaders, call for greatly accelerated U.S. And international efforts to stop Israeli-Palestinian violence and restart negotiations for peace, the generational conflict still rages.

The Committee warned that the current, relatively passive U.S. policy is compounding the suffering and loss of hope among Palestinians and Israelis, jeopardizing the possibility of a two-state solution, and undermining efforts against terrorism.

The escalating belligerence on both sides in the Israeli-Palestinian conflict has caused alliances once again to shift. Suicide attacks on Israel bring partisan Jews into at least temporary alliances. Israeli military attacks on Palestinians bring Muslims of many sorts together, and unite Arab Muslims and Arab Christians in coalition. Yet belligerence also causes fissures and magnifies schisms within communities. Christian communities worldwide cannot avoid this spreading conflict.

While each side in this conflict consider themselves to be religious, godfearing people, perhaps the could learn much be looking into their own scriptures and studying the meaning of forgiveness, and realizing that without forgiveness, we will all suffer the effects of bitterness, a "root that springs up and defiles many"


Marty, Martin E. Spreading Conflict: Fissures between Christians over Israel and Palestine are Growing. 2002. The New Republic Online. Accessed May 31, 2003.

American Jewish, Christian and Muslim Leaders Unite.

American Arab Institute. Accessed May 31, 2003., online

Marty, 2002… [read more]

Israel Mini Country Report Term Paper

… Israel's stock exchange has a small capital base and is subject to sudden spikes following the injection or withdrawal of small amounts of money. The long-term prospects of the stock market are generally positive but the recent rapid rise in stock prices is of some concern in the short-term. (Rolnik)

Recent Events

The recent announcement of a "road map" for peace in the Middle East by President Bush and the relatively quick U.S. victory in the war against Iraq are two recent developments that would have the most significant long-term effect on business prospects in Israel. Any businessperson looking at the country for possible investment would have to follow the developments on these two issues very closely.

Assessment of Potential v Risk

Any assessment for future prospects of doing business in Israel has to be looked at in the context of prospects of peace in the Middle East. At the moment, with the United States apparently determined to follow through with its peace plan, the future business prospects in Israel seem bright.

Works Cited

Balance of Payments." Macroeconomic Activity Data Tables. Country Watch. 2003. May 5, 2003.

Economic Overview" Israel. Country Watch. 2003. May 5, 2003

Government Sector." Macroeconomic Activity tables. Country Watch. 2003. May 5, 2003.

Real GDP Per Capita." Macroeconomic Activity Tables. Country Watch. 2003. May 5, 2003.

Klein, Zeev. "Israel GDP per capita: $18,000." Published by Globes [online] on November 28, 2002.

Rolnik, Guy. "Taking Stock / Bubble, bubble, toil and rubble." Haaretz English print edition. May 06, 2003.

Trade Balance (Goods & Services)." Macroeconomic Activity Tables. Country Watch. 2003. May 5, 2003.

On May 5, 2003 [available online]

Israel… [read more]

Post War Policies Term Paper

… The Middle East:

Israel Problem: American foreign policy has always supportive to Israel. Middle East is perhaps the most consistent area of conflict since the Second World War. It has experience wars and devastation during the past and one of… [read more]

King Herod, the Great Term Paper

… In the spring of 30 B.C. Herod met Octavius in Rhodes. But before he left he gave instructions to two of his friends that if was executed then they have to kill Alexandra and Mariamne, so that his sons and… [read more]

Middle East Crisis Term Paper

… The solution then is to separate the two and man a border to keep the two separated. With the hatred we have seen between the two, it is likely that even this would not be enough. There needs to be a reason to prevent both sides from striking out against each other. The only method of doing this is to threaten them with military action. With America as the nation calling for peace, America would take on this role. We must now look at what this would mean for America.

Firstly, if America supports military actions in the area, they will be causing destruction in the area, most likely by bombing targets. If this results in peace then both Israel and Palestine will need to rebuild their countries. With American involvement in the area, it is likely that America would be called upon to fund the rebuilding. Secondly, if a truce is imposed, forces would be required to keep the peace. These forces would most likely be American, or at least be led by American forces. Finally, we can consider what the Middle East neighbors will think of the conflict. The Middle East is a region with a history of conflict and the many political, religious and historical problems are difficult to understand. However, it is likely that the American involvement would anger at least some Middle East nations or parties and cause a rise in terrorist groups.

In conclusion, the Middle East conflict is a conflict involving a great deal of hatred. With the complicated reasons for the hatred and the history of it, it is difficult to determine both a real cause and a real solution. However, it can be recognized that peace in the region could only be gained by force. This force would most likely come from America, but in making this decision America takes on a major responsibility with…… [read more]

ISIS Threat Essay

… Bahrain Intelligence Estimate

Bahrain is nestled in a rather precarious part of the world. Even if things are completely fine within the country's borders, they are nestled in the middle of the Persian Gulf and they are geographically close to a bunch of current or recent hotspots around the world. These hotspots include Egypt, Sudan, Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Iran, Iraq, Pakistan, Afghanistan and Yemen. Whether it be the death of leaders, the forcible removal of leaders, the Arab Spring in general, genocide, the overall activity (and the reactions to), the ISIS threat and so forth, there is quite a bit going on in a very small section of the world. This is nothing new as Northern Africa and the Middle East has been violent and in a constant state of upheaval for centuries (and one to two millennia in some case). However, the threats and goings-on that do exist have to be assessed (CIA, 2015).


One could write a very thick and verbose report about what has gone on in the last generation in the affected area. However, one can also stick to what is happening right now in and around Bahrain. Egypt saw the fairly recent deposing of Mubarak and then Morsi, just after being elected, was removed by the military when he tried to (in the eyes of many) hijack the government and country of Egypt. The long-standing leader of Saudi Arabia has just passed and Yemen just fell in a bloodless coup to the Houthis, a sub-type of the Shia that is pervasive around the Middle East. The starvation and genocide in Sudan has been going on unabated for a while. Oman and United Arab Emirates as well as Qatar are mostly fine and Saudi Arabia is mostly good despite the recent death of their leader King Abdullah. Afghanistan and Iraq has had some violence as of late as the Americans draw down and Pakistan is mostly docile at this point, at least compared to what they usually see. Many countries around the area (including the aforementioned Iraq as well as Syria) have seen the rise of ISIS. They are a very harsh threat as they are stateless…… [read more]

Defeating Islamic Terrorism Research Paper

… S. interests, as has been seen by the victory of anti-Israeli Hamas amongst the Palestinians via elections. Still, there are viable examples of thriving democratic Islamic states (Chan 2007:9).

The U.S., according to Chan, must make greater use of regional actors and pursue a more balanced policy so it is not seen as hostile to Arab interests. However, Chan wrote his essay before the current conflict erupted in the occupied territories of Israel. There is more pressure than ever before to 'take sides' and less apparent common ground. The U.S. is in a difficult position of wishing to support Israel's right to exist but not all Israeli policies, all the while not seeming opposed to the Palestinian point-of-view. Chan's advice seems valuable in the sense that having more experts involved in military intelligence in the region (and Arab speakers) would be wise but striking a delicate balance between its own interests, the interests of its allies, and trying to be a force of Islamic moderation in the region is far easier said than done.


Chan, W. (2007). Defeating Islamic terrorism. USAWC Strategy Research Project.… [read more]

Syrian Conflict the Syrian Civil Research Paper

… The United Nations, of course, is one such body that has not only dedicated human resources in efforts to govern areas highly populated by Syrian refugees, but also other material resources as well. Another international organization with disparate members throughout the world that has produced aid for refugees (and which is highly indicative of the interdependencies of countries across border) is the European Union. The EU, which has members all throughout the European continent, has sent a considerable amount of financial aid to refugees in various countries (EuroMed). It is essential to note that the constituency of this group includes some of the most wealthy (and evidently generous) countries in Europe, as well as the most powerful. Other international entities that have dedicated resources to Syrian refugees include the International Organization for Migration. The fact that conglomerates of countries, and not just separate nations, have made dedicated efforts to provide reliefs to Syrian refugees is a powerful testimony to the fact that the Syrian civil war is a problem which has traversed borders and largely affects the entire world.

The largess extended to Syrian refugees is not limited to financial aid or vital supplies -- although these offerings are exceedingly welcomed by those escaping the civil war and are tangible suggestions of the global connectedness demonstrated by this military affair. But one of the most tangible signs that the civil war has affected the global community as a whole is the fact that many countries have gladly extended their territory to welcome and accommodate Syrian refugees. Whereas a number of them have done so on a temporary basis, which is assumed to last for the duration of the war itself, some have done so on a permanent basis which is highly encouraging and a further testimony to the global interdependency at work within this event. Sweden is one such country that has decided to offer Syrian immigrants the opportunity to have permanent residency in light of the civil war (The Local). Additionally, South American countries such as Brazil and Argentina have allowed Syrian refugees to come into their nations while seeking solace. Brazil has even effected special visas for refugees so that they can legally reside within the country, while in parts of Iraq there are certain territories that aid and training are provided to men so that these territories can become controlled by Syrian refugees (UNHCR).

Finally, it is important to realize that the great amount of refugees spread throughout the world is also cause for certain countries to apply political pressure to the warring factions within Syria. Representatives of some of the countries that are closer to Syria -- such as Lebanon, Turkey, and Jordan -- have referenced the fact that there are high amounts of Syrians migrating to their countries as reasons for the cessation of war efforts. Although these demands have not necessarily produced much tangible action, they are still vital to understanding how the martial activity in one country can produce reverberations and effects throughout… [read more]

International Accounting Culture Changing Essay

… doing it in the United States. Showing the sole of one's foot in the United States is commonplace and most people do not pay it a second thought but it's a cultural problem to many Arabs as they see the sole of the foot as unclean and thus should not be exposed in any context or situation while in public (Wade, 2004).


The author of this report has certainly seen the proverbial social and cultural "butting of heads" that is on par with the translation issues mentioned by the case study. Just as one example, many Muslim-oriented businesses specifically and intentionally operate with their Muslim faith in mind, up to and including the use of sharia law to help draw up, execute and resolve disputes surrounding legal contracts. Such entanglement between religion and the law countries like the United States is not heard of but legal decisions are usually based on the letter of the law, whether a contract exited, whether the contract was enforceable and little else.

There obviously has to be some mediation and understanding that is met when it comes to non-Egyptian countries operating in Egypt and Egyptian companies operating in foreign countries. While it's understandable that translation issues would lead to Egypt using their own standards, there is also a major trend in the international accounting world to use international accounting standards like the International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) and that is done in large part to keep things as consistent as possible from country to country and from world region to world region. It would probably behoove Egypt to re-join the international accounting trend if/when the translation issues get worked out. While they may prefer to keep things in-house, it will probably slow their progress with the international community and their integration into and it and lax enforcement standards and the following thereof is not going to help. The recent kerfuffle with Morsi taking power and then being deposed after he made a power grab is only going to slow things down until thing settle, assuming that they even do so in the foreseeable future.


As new communication methods and mediums make the world much smaller and as the business scopes of more and more businesses grows ever-larger and more international, it is clear that the cultural and social differences between the regions and countries of the world will become more and more of an issue. While it would be nice for some potentially offended countries to not be so easily offended at an unintentional insult from someone who clearly carries themselves and lives different, it is also not a bad or wrong thing to suggest that people should be culturally sensitive and well-versed on what is expected and forbidden in a given area. Accounting standards are no different in the sense that while different countries and regions of the world have different accounting rules and motives for the same. At the same time, any particular country throwing a fit or refusing to… [read more]

Global Organization Researching Cultural Issues Term Paper

… It of course is very unethical to arrest a young student expressing a viewpoint about the political culture he experiences.

A blogger and journalist in Azerbajian (an independent state that once was part of the old Soviet Union) was arrested, punched, kicked, and beaten with a baton after posting an announcement on Facebook that there was a protest planned against the government. His name is Tural Abbasli, and he was sentenced to two-and-a-half years in prison for "organizing public disorder," according to Amnesty International. Abbasli had been pursuing a degree in journalism but after posting on Facebook he and 13 others were rounded up, beaten, and thrown in prison.

The good news for Abbasli and some of the other 13 is that they were released by presidential pardon, according to AI. The thousands of letters and emails that were received by the Azerbajian government certainly had an influence over the fact that the students were released from prison. The lack of ethical standards in Azerbajian has shown the world that this regime has created a sense of fear in those who would consider protesting against government corruption and abuses of human rights. A culture that allows the government to arbitrarily and violently arrest and detain innocent people needs to be exposed to the world, and that is what the tens of thousands of Amnesty International activists around the globe have done. The ethical perspective in this case is very obvious -- injustice to anyone in any country must be dealt with on an international scale, the AI is the organization that takes on that responsibility.

Compare these ethical perspectives across cultures AI is involved with The case of the young man in Iran who gave a public speech and was arrested and mistreated is quite different from the instance in Chechnya (another state that was once part of the Soviet Union) where journalist Anna Politkovskaya was killed after criticizing the lack of human rights in her country. Politkovskaya wrote "extensively" about abuses to innocent civilians (not only in Chechnya but in Russia), and she received international recognition for her investigative newspaper stories into corruption as well. She had been poisoned at one point and was harassed and threatened often; but in 2006 she was shot and killed. In the case of Tavakkoli, he was not killed although he was sent to prison.

The two cultures (Iran and Chechnya) are very different, and the treatment of people who try to expose corruption and violations of human rights is also different, but Amnesty International isn't concerned with the specific cultures that abuse people, they are concerned with exposing the abuses and getting prisoners freed.

In the case of the "collective punishment" that students in Gaza face because they are basically being blocked from crossing the border and getting an education is far different from the abuse of Abbasli in Iran, who simply posted a notice on Facebook that there would be a protest against the government. And yet, while the two cultures… [read more]

GCC Discuss and Decide Essay

… "Most of the national labor force has been employed in the government sector with higher wage expectations than the expatriate workers" (Fasano & Iqbal 2003). A rentier state is defined a state which "derives all or most of its national income from its property or investments. In the Middle East, these are oil rich states…. Rentier states have a more difficult time developing civil society (industry, internal public works like highways, etc.) because people are generally relatively content with their situations" (Kolberg 2013). Several of these nations, Saudi Arabia most notably, have largely theocratic governments dominated by religious rather than objective, democratic principles. In exchange for providing citizens with material comforts, the government expects complacency of the populace. Regimes tend to be buffeted by economic and political crises which could exert pressure upon them to change. "Within rentier states, there is little opportunity for private enterprise. Domestic businesses necessarily are closely tied to the state" (Kolberg 2013).

This helps explain what some have called the 'Dubai paradox,' namely that while the UAE is home to many foreign expatriates and boasts a booming nightclub scene, as well as all of the architectural trappings of modernization, "of the world's eight remaining absolute monarchies, in terms of autocratic structures and lack of political freedom, the UAE consistently ranks second only to Saudi Arabia" (The UAE's modernization and (shaky) religious credentials, 2011, Dubaiornotdubai). Even though the UAE lacks the conservative religious trappings of Saudi Arabia (one reason it is so attractive to Westerners and Western investment) no seeds of political liberalization or true entrepreneurial spirit have been generated as a result of this vast wealth, and the population remains dependent upon the government for its solvency. Given that some form of participatory democracy seems like a needed standard to characterize a nation as truly 'developed,' the GCC continues to fall short.


Fasano, U. & Iqbal, Z. (2003). GCC Countries. IMF. Retrieved:

Kolberg, A. (2013). Corruption and the rentier state. Prezi. Retrieved:

The UAE's modernization and (shaky) religious credentials. (2011). Dubaiornotdubai.

Retrieved:… [read more]

Effects of Technology and Social Media on Turkish Youth Society Term Paper

… ¶ … Technology and Social Media on Turkish Youth

The media has become increasingly important to the youth culture around the world both in terms of bringing news of important events -- and the political issues and problems surrounding those… [read more]

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