"Israel / Palestine / Arab World" Essays

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Iran's Global Reach the Degree Research Paper

Research Paper  |  4 pages (1,360 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


It is also noteworthy to mention that on more than one occasion, these "branches" of Iranian intelligence have assisted in the combatting of traditional U.S. allies such as Israel, particularly when the largely Jewish country was engaged in war with Hezbollah militants during 2006. "Israeli defense experts state that...the IRGC and Quds force…may have assisted… during the Israeli-Hezbollah War…Israeli intelligence officers claim to have found command and control centers…of Iranian design" (Cordesman 2007, 10). This quotation demonstrates that in an indirect capacity, Iranian forces have been involved in military operations in countries allied to the United States, which gives credence to the notion that it is possible for those forces to gather intelligence about the U.S. However, the highly indirect nature of both the presence and the location of where this intelligence may be gathered (far from American borders) leaves a significant room for doubt as to the effectiveness of such intelligence -- while alluding to the fact that such measures could be increased if there was a direct need for it.

In fact, there is other evidence that indicates that the gathering of intelligence directly pertaining to U.S. information is a top priority for the IRGC and Iran's army, both of which have "attempted to deal with U.S. signals and communications intelligence collection capabilities by making extensive use of buried fiber optics and secure communications and developing more secure ways to use the internet and landlines" (Cordesman 2007, 5). These initiatives are directly related to the ascertaining of U.S. intelligence, as well as the protection of Iranian communication from the detection of American intelligence operatives. Furthermore, it has been widely noted that the Quds has been fairly instrumental in anti-American activities in Iraq, by supplying explosives and other forms of weapon to counter-U.S. militants (Shane 2007). This act is significant because it not only demonstrates a history of anti-American aggression on the part of the Quds, but when examined in concert with the counter-U.S. measures induced by the IRGC in preceding quotation, it directly implies an adversarial perception of the U.S. By these organizations as well as opportunities and means to gather intelligence about this North American nation.

In conclusion, then, it has been suitably demonstrated that there certainly is a substantial capacity for Iran's intelligence agency, MOIS, by utilizing its own resources and those of its allies, IRGC and the Quds force, to ascertain intelligence about America -- especially if provoked to do so due to U.S. intervention in Iran's nuclear weaponry. As long as that potential exists, the U.S. has every right to measure Iranian intelligence. Yet the effectiveness of the intelligence gathered about the U.S. is certainly not as efficacious as that gathered about its allies in regions closer to the Middle East, and is still largely ascertained in a fairly indirect capacity that substantially compromises its value. Despite the presence of anti-American forces in the form of Quds operation (Associated Press 2007), at this point there is not enough information to warrant the notion that… [read more]

Implications of the Invasion of Iraq for International Law Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (1,044 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3


¶ … Invasion of Iraq for International Law

Over the last 150 years, international law was often seen as a way for different nation states to be able to collectively deal with a host of challenges. This is when James Kent (a prominent political scientist) said, "A comprehensive and scientific knowledge of international law is highly necessary, not only for lawyers practicing in commercial ports. But, to every person who is animated by liberal views and a generous ambition to assume stations of high public trust." As a result, these kinds of theories were given more importance after the end of World War I and the realization that the current structure was ineffective. This would lead the creation of the League of Nations as a way to effectively deal with a host of disputes. (Slomanson 290)

However, it was ineffective in addressing the challenges facing the international community by allowing the conditions to exist for Germany to re militarize (resulting in World War II). Since this time, there have been various treaties enacted that are designed to create a new standard that will hold all nations accountable for their actions. To enforce these different regulations was the creation of organizations such as the United Nations. They have the responsibility for ensuring that anyone who is in violation of these standards is held accountable for their behavior. (Slomanson 1 -- 45)

In the late 1990's and early 2000's, is when Iraq was considered to be in violation of international law when it came to WMD programs. As they had claimed, that they did not have anything beyond the scope of international guidelines. This created suspicion in the international community, as no one knew for sure if Saddam Hussein (the President of Iraq) was telling the truth. The reason why, is because he had been continuing to allow UN inspectors to have limited access on suspected facilities. At the same time, he was continually taking a defiant tone when it came to these programs. This created suspicions that Iraq was secretly building a nuclear bomb and that they had re developed the programs for chemical / biological weapons. (Tirman 101-124) (O'Connell 1 -- 19)

In the United States, this raised concerns that Iraq could pass materials from these kinds of programs to terrorist organizations. To prevent this from happening, the U.S. And Great Britain went to the UN Security Council outlining the different reasons for an invasion. The most notable include that Iraq has continually violated the directives of 16 UN Security Council Resolutions. In 2002, the Security Council had unanimously passed one final resolution called 1441. This specifically asked Iraq to comply with their directives and those of previous resolutions. (Tirman 25 -- 39)

However, the problem is that the world community was largely divided about the legality surrounding the invasion itself. This is because, there are a host of questions as to if the U.S. had justification to engage in such actions. Evidence of this can be seen with the… [read more]

Construction Industry in Iran Current Problems and Possible Solutions Literature Review Chapter

Literature Review Chapter  |  5 pages (1,920 words)
Bibliography Sources: 20


Construction Industry in Iran

Over the last several years, Iran has been going through a number of challenges. The main reason is from large increases in younger population groups. At the same time, efforts by the government to address increasing demand have been ineffective. A good example of this can be seen by looking at the below population demographic table… [read more]

Beliefs, Ideas, and Customs Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (796 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Therefore, Suadi Arabian is people who just follow the religious beliefs and customs of their homeland like any other country.

Being a Suadi Arabian means to have pride in their country. along with believing the customs that their land may hold without other people thinking that it is wrong. And, it is safe to say a Suadi Arabian will defend their beliefs and customs to a person who believes that they are extremely wrong. It may be true women are less than men are in Suadi Arabia. Women do have to cover themselves up from head to toe along with their face.

Some people might say this is unnecessary and also not fair to the women of Suadi Arabia. But, Suadi Arabians believe it is right and a way of life for them. Suadi Arabians may say that the freedom that women have in America is wrong but every country is different. Like Americans, Suadi Arabians will defend their way of life to anyone who claims it is wrong. So, Suadi Arabians are like everyone else in that they will take pride in their way of living and stand up for their precious homeland.

And, being a Suadi Arabian means to fight for the homeland it seems to be under attack by foreigners When A person sees a family member lying dead somewhere due to a foreigner's attack on them, that person might become hostile to that foreign country. And, that is how some Suadi Arabians feel about other countries because most of them want to lead their lives as they are like anyone else would. Suadi Arabians want their homeland to be safe from anyone who wants to harm it and the people of it. So, to be a Suadi Arabians means to be proud of the country that is home and try to protect from harm.

Being a Suadi Arabian is no different from another country especially America because taking pride in the homeland is a part of being one. As Suadi Arabian, the religion and customs are a way of life and they are not wrong because they are different from other countries. And, like anyone else, they will defend their way of life due to the fact it is a part of them Therefore, Suadi Arabians are people who want to protect, have pride in, and believe in their homeland like everyone else…… [read more]

Economic Instability and Ethnic &amp Religious Unrest Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (2,638 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


economic instability and ethnic & religious unrest in Turkey

Despite its glorious past and the individual strengths of the different peoples who have been brought together in the modern nation of Turkey, the country is currently faced with a number of problems. Among the most important and daunting challenges currently facing the country are growing ethnic strife, religious discord that… [read more]

Rational Choice Theory -- Obama White Paper

White Paper  |  2 pages (752 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


S. can do to stop Israel. But a war between Israel and Iran would be a major distraction for the West, and as John Scott points out, human behavior "is not free but determined" -- and it is shaped by the "rewards and punishments that are encountered."

In this case, Obama assumes that by getting tough on Iran -- punishing their economy -- there will be rewards for the West, for the U.S. And Israel, America's ally in the Middle East. "Each participant's behavior rewards or punishes the other," Scott writes (12), and Obama's use of his authority is designed to punish and then receive a reward.

What risk did [Obama] take in making his decision? He risks oil shortages that could cause gasoline prices to go up still more, and in an election year that hurts his chances for re-election. He also risks angering other Muslim countries in that region; many leaders in the Muslim world see the U.S. As a bully, pushing its ideology on others. Obama's decision is basically an economic one, but it has powerful political implications, and that is always risky. Do I have complete information to determine Obama's rational choice? No, there are always behind-the-scenes issues an administration takes into account. But Homans' view that "approval is the most fundamental goal" in RCT fits well into this rational choice Obama has made. He needs the approval of voters, and getting tough on a country that is unpopular and even feared by Americans achieves that goal. Obama probably understands that he is only stalling the inevitable: that Iran will build a nuclear bomb some day, because they have drilled tunnels deep into mountains to protect their nuclear program from attacks from the air.

Nathan Hodge and Tennille Tracy, "Obama Clears Sanctions Against Iran," The Wall Street Journal (2012).

Max Weber, "Conceptual Exposition," In Economy and Society Ed. G. Roth and C. Wittich (1968).

John Scott, "Rational Choice Theory," in Understanding Contemporary Society: Theories of the Present, Eds. G. Browning, A. Halcli, and F. Webster (Sage Publications, 2000).

George Homans, "A Psychological Basis?" In Understanding Contemporary Society: Theories of the Present, Eds. A. Halcli, and…… [read more]

Krik Krat &amp Persepolis Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,592 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


He took one last glance at Guy's bloody corpse, then raced to his car and sped away (Danticat78).

This passage illustrates the figurative significance of the conflict of cultures that is present in "A Wall of Fire Rising." Despite the fact that a native Haitian has just killed himself due to conditions of poverty that are caused by people such as Assad and his family who own large operating plants and land and do not equally distribute such wealth among the native people of that area, Assad's only concern in his hot air balloon -- which is, for all effective purposes, a toy. The contrast between Guy's bloody body and Assad's speeding off in a car (something few Haitians have) to go chase a toy reinforces Guy's loss of will to live that stems from the cultural conflict between the poor Haitians and their wealthy outsiders.

In conclusion, an examination of the works of Danticat and Satrapi elucidate the fact that culture is highly important to people, and that conflicts of culture lead to fairly significant losses to those who are embroiled in clashes of culture. Whether its personal liberty and the desire to keep living for women in Iran in the 1970's and 1980's, or if it's the desire to keep enduring a state of poverty while rich foreigners capitalize on the suffering of the poor in Haiti, those in the throes of conflict of culture have much to lose. They also have as much, if not more, to gain by surviving these problems and overcoming them. However, this fact may seem a little difficult to realize at times.

Works Cited

Danticat, Edwidge. Krik? Krak! New York: Vintage. 1996. Print.

Satrapi, Marjane. The Complete Perseopolis. New YorkL Pantheon. 2007. Print.… [read more]

Islamic Art History Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (771 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Islamic Art: Descriptions of the Monuments of the Middle East

The following paragraphs will describe, in detail, a few of the monuments scattered all over the Middle East and areas of Turkey.

Sultaniyaa - A mausoleum built in the 14th century, and is possibly the mausoleum of Sultan Hasan's mother. This mausoleum, according to researchers, is an example of the characteristic ribbed stones from between 1346 to about 1400 in the region of the former Kingdom of Persia. Furthermore, the mausoleum has characteristic domes of the period, which have double shells, and which is a characteristic of a development in Persia. (Retrieved from https://archnet.org/library/sites/one-site.jsp?site_id=3395)

Great Mongol Shahnama - This is the most elaborate and luxurious manuscript of the Book of Kings or Shahnama, which is known today as the Great Mongol Shahnama. This book today has only 57 illustrations and some pages of text surviving, and these are, at best, scattered. The entire manuscript, however, as an original, would have had over two volumes of 280 pages of text and 190 illustrations. (Retrieved from http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/khan6/hd_khan6.htm)

Complex of Sultan Qalawun - This sultan's complex was built in the 19th century in Cairo and contains a hospital, a madrasa, and a mausoleum for its founder, the sultan himself. According to descriptions the street facade of the complex shows confluence of Syrian (Crusader and Islamic) arrangements. The madrasa is "a four-iwan type with a basilical organization in the qiblai wan," and the Dome of the mausoleum "echoes the octagonal plan of the Dome of the Rock." (Retrieved from http://www.flickr.com/photos/mitopencourseware/2989220325/)

Madrasa of Sultan Hassan - The Sultan Hassan Mosque and Madrasa, meaning school, is a Cairo-based monument. The building was constructed for the Sultan in the 13th century, and was built to serve as a mosque and religious school for all sects. It was, furthermore, said to have been designed so that "each of the four main Sunni sects (orthodox Muslim, or Sunni rites, consisting of Shafite, Malikite, Hanefte and Hanbalite) has its own school while sharing the mosque," according to a description of the complex, which also emphasizes the architectural wonders of the structure. (Retrieved from http://www.touregypt.net/hassanmosque.htm)

Suleymaniye Complex - This is a mosque built for Sultain Suleyman I of the Ottoman Empire. It was constructed from 1548-1559, and serves several functions including education. (Retrieved from https://archnet.org/library/sites/one-site.jsp?site_id=3004)

Topkapi…… [read more]

African Athena Controversy Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,934 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


African Athena

Everyone who has gone to school has heard the term "Western Civilization;" but what exactly is it and from where did it originate. Western Civilization is the culture that has arisen in the territory known as Europe, as well as many of the regions of the world where Europeans either conquered or colonized, such as North America or… [read more]

Social Memory Societies Across the Planet Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (857 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Social Memory

Societies across the planet all experience a phenomenon that has been called "social memory," and involves the idea that the past can be shaped and remembered in a way that is shared by those involved as well as those who come later. The idea of social memory is at the heart of this weeks readings; including a definition of social memory and how it functions, how it can be used to support and strengthen the state, how it can be used to form the basis for a society, and finally how it can be overcome to include parts of the past that society has chosen to forget.

As a concept, "social memory" is not something that each individual maintains inside their own head, but it "exclusively exists between subjects and not within them; its form of existence consists of communication." (Welzer, 2010, p.5) in other words, it is what people are expected to remember in public, while they interact with others. One example of this type of phenomenon took place in Spain after its civil war. In order to maintain power and stability, the atrocities committed by the Nationalists under Franco had been erased from the social memory for decades. In the case of nations, "this phenomenon is quite common when the construction of the state and national identity calls for highlighting patriotism, victory, and cohesion, on one hand, and for concealing uncomfortable episodes, especially those related to violence, on the other." (Cenarro, 2002, p.3) Social memory was used in Spain as a means of maintaining Franco's power by rewriting history and imposing this rewritten history on the people.

While social memory can be used as a means of repression, it can also be used to create a new cultural identity; as in the case of the Palestinians. What the Palestinians refer the "Nakba," or the loss of their traditional homeland when the state of Israel came into existence, has become the basis of their social memory. But unlike the Spanish, the Palestinians have maintained a social memory that remembers "every tree, every stone fence, every grave, house, mosque, every street and village square [the refugees] left behind." (Allen, 2007, p.2) Instead of removing unpleasant memories from the social memory, the Palestinians have used these painful episodes as a means of social cohesion in the face of the social destruction experienced in their flight from their homeland and their new life in the refugee camps.

But this kind of memory is limited to the experiences of the people involved. As time goes by, and new generations…… [read more]

Iraq Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (825 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


The median age is 19.2 years, while the life expectancy rate is 68.26 years, and the population growth rate is 2.74% (www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/geos/iz.html)."

The ethnic breakdown of the population is "Arab 75-80%; Kurdish 15-20%, and Assyrian or other 5%. The language spoken is Arabic, Kurdish (official in Kurdish regions), Assyrian, and Armenian, and the religions worshiped are Muslim-97% (Shi'a 60-65%, Sunni 32-37%), and Christian or other- 3% (www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/geos/iz.html)." In terms of literacy, 40.4% of those who are over 15 can read and write.


The currency of Iraq is the New Iraqi dinar, and the GDP in 2003 was $37.92 billion, while the GDP per capita was $1,500. Iraq's import partners are "Jordan, Vietnam, the United States, German, Russian, UK, France and Italy, while its export partners are the United States, Taiwan, Canada, Jordan, Italy, Morocco and Brazil. The main imports of Iraq are food, medicine, and manufactures, while its chief export is crude oil (www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/geos/iz.html)."

Government and Military

There is currently an interim government in place. The Iraqi Armed Forces was recently dissolved by the United States and the UK, and they are "implementing plans to create a new Iraqi Army with a purely defensive mission and capability (www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/geos/iz.html)." The country belongs to a number of associations which include "ABEDA, ACC, AFESD, AMF, CAEU, FAO, Interpol, IOC, OPEC, UN, and WHO (www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/geos/iz.html)."

Living Symbol

The flag of Iraq is "three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and black with three green five-pointed stars in a horizontal line centered in the white band; the phrase ALLAHU AKBAR (God is Great) in green Arabic script - Allahu to the right of the middle star and Akbar to the left of the middle star - was added in January 1991 during the Persian Gulf crisis (www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/geos/iz.html)."


Iraq is a country that is in the middle of vast changes. By examining details of the country, one is able to gain a better understanding of the people who live there.

Works Cited

(World Factbook- Iraq. (Accessed 29 November, 2004).

< www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/geos/iz.html>).… [read more]

Current Global Problems Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (994 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Global Issues & Inequality

The purpose of this work is to examine the global issues of war and social conflicts and environmental degradation in relation to the war in Iraq and to examine the inequality and inequity of the people living in Iraq and how they as individuals suffer from the sociological perspective due to that inequality that exists in today's world.

How easy it is to forget as the Christmas lights brighten the paths of our holiday treks to sit down to dinner with family and ensue stuffing the human body with more food in a day than many in the world have accessible for their nutrition in an entire week, or perhaps even month that there are those who in this war with Iraq are not only hungry but homeless, sick, scared and without hope. How easy too it is to forget that there are individuals who will never see a return to full health because their native land has been contaminated with uranium and mustard gas and even if full health did return, the return of their sons and daughters lost in a war against a much stronger ally whom they didn't desire to war against will never return to them.

In the meantime it is nearing Christmas in the country that is ripping apart the little poor country, the cities and town and even the desolate places within the country where there is no Christmas and it must appear very unfair to the people of Iraq.

Surely there is not an American that is glad for the suffering of these people who are individually not responsible for those actions supposedly inflicted by Saddam Hussein and his evil regime. Just as well it is certain that no American citizen has directly or purposely brought these people to their knees in every way imaginable. Within society, indeed within the balance of the world there exists a great imbalance in terms of equality.

I. The Facts according to the Arab States:

According to Richani (2002) in the work "Political Parties, Justice Systems and the Poor: The Experience of the Arab States":

The 1990's witnessed the Arab states responding to the changing global environment." Richani (2002). The following three categories were named by the author:

1. An authoritarian backlash (Algeria and Sudan) that led to exacerbated civil wars and to the consolidation of military dictatorships in Iraq, Libya, and Syria;

2. The consolidation of monarchies, with little if any political openings (Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, Qatar, Oman and Bahrain)

3. The opening of political systems to accommodate rising political forces largely by pacting agreements that guarantee the hegemonic political forces a privileged position in the power structure circumscribing the democratization process leading to the emergency of electoral democracies.(Morocco, Tunisia, Jordan, Kuwait, Egypt, Yemen, and Lebanon)."

II. Polyarchy

In this work the author addresses the problems associated with what is referred to as 'polyarchy'. Polyarchy is defined as incomplete democratized political regimes and according to Nazih (2002):…… [read more]

Paul Wolfowitz Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (2,317 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Paul Wolfowitz

Considered by many "one of the most hawkish members of the Bush administration," Paul Wolfowitz is seen as the main artisan of war against terror and is known for his advocacy of military action as the potential and most sustainable and efficient solution for any outside provocation. Working for 24 years under six different presidents, Paul Wolfowitz's career… [read more]

Learning From Each Others Differences Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (378 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Learning From Each Other's Differences

Wayne Dyer once said "The highest form of ignorance is when you reject something you don't know anything about." Because of the personal truth that I found in this quote, I have attempted to become more knowledgeable about others. My potential classmate, therefore, would be someone who is Jewish. I am a Palestinian, and most people know that there has been a conflict between Jews and Muslims for a long time. It is not likely that it will be resolved in my lifetime, if ever, but there are things that I can do to make my life and others' lives more pleasant while I am here. This potential classmate and I cannot change any of the big problems and I know this, as I am sure that he or she would know it, as well. However, he or she and I could at least compromise and try to understand more about one another. I want to know more about the Jewish culture, and I want to know more than I think I know now. There are always opportunities for learning, but sometimes they are…… [read more]

Surge of Islamic Movements Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,148 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Iraq comes to mind as the best example, but Egypt has never enjoyed democratic conditions after obtaining its independence. We may thus conclude that, in some Islamic states, post-colonialism was assimilated to experiments meant to determine the best governance for the future. Many of these have failed, including socialism assimilation attempts (Syria, Iraq), nationalistic approaches (Egypt) or Western approaches (the Shah rule in Iran). The void that occurred in many cases was filled with political Islam (Iran). In other cases, a third way was chosen, like in Egypt, for example.

It is difficult to discuss political Islam without relating to its main source of financial backing and to the most important resource in the area (next to the human resource, obviously not negligible): petrol. The thesis of petro-Islam finds different arguments in authors who are for or against the idea. While rejecting the thesis for Saudi Arabia or other smaller regional actors, Beinin and Stork state that "the case for petro-Islam in Iran is even weaker"

. The intrinsic connection between Islam and petrol is rejected because of previous historical events that have shown an incumbent form of political Islam (in Iran, for example, at the beginning of the 20th century, in the form of political activism of the mullahs).

On the other hand, historical events of the 1970s need to be taken into consideration. As it has been shown, "the financial clout of Saudi Arabia had been amply demonstrated during the oil embargo against the United States, following the Arab-Israeli war of 1973"

. Evidence speaks for itself. In the aftermath of the Arab-Israeli war, Islamic factions in power in Saudi Arabia, under the rule of the Wahhabite family, provoked the extreme rise in oil prices simply by decreasing the offer of oil on the international markets. As such, at this particular point, political Islam also had a financial backing. Further more, Saudi Arabia showed the way for other states in the region where political Islam is powerful.

For example, Iran plays a key regional and strategic role. The question in Iran is not necessarily the fact that it is an Islamic state or the fact that political Islam is so strong here, but the key issue resides in the fact that Iran has some of the most important oil reserves in the world nowadays. Any conflict against Iran needs to take this factor into consideration: Iran, by itself, is able to drive the oil prices ten times higher than they were after 1973. As such, from an international economic perspective, the association between political Islam and oil resources is the most important negotiation element that the countries in the region have in their dialogue with Western powers.

Undoubtedly, political Islam has numerous causes, related to the specificity of the region, to its historical conditions and to the international context it has operated in during the last century. Some of them have been listed and analyzed in this essay, together with the most notable consequences in the short run.… [read more]

Bilateral Negotiation Is Mainly Characterized Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,061 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


So, you may be entitled to use a third party in a negotiation so as to bring new, but at the same time, impartial ideas that may help surpass the stalemate position.

B) The main advantage that should be considered is the fact that a third party is usually not involved and can thus bring an impersonal note to the negotiation process. In turn, someone who is not directly implicated may come up with ideas that the other interlocutors are less likely to perceive, due to their direct involvement in the negotiating process.

The disadvantage of using a third party may come from the fact that, even if the third party is supposed to provide impartial advice and mediation, the two conflicting sides may still regard it as taking sides and treat him with distrust. In this sense, it is best to use a third party upon which no suspicion of impartiality should fall, under any conditions during the negotiation process.

C) As the best example of the use of a third party mediator, we may remember the negotiations between Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanahyu and the Palestinian leader Arafat at Camp Davis, at the end of the 90s. The U.S. president Bill Clinton acted as the mediator in this case.

The advantages and disadvantages of using a mediator can be clearly seen in this case. The Palestinian delegation always regarded Bill Clinton as being an inch closer to Israel rather than the Palestinian cause. On the other hand, Bill Clinton provided valuable ideas for the two disputing leaders, ideas which may have taken the negotiations out of the stalemate they had arrived to, had there not been the tremendous differences between the two parties.

4. A) The Russian President Vladimir Putin may be deemed as an enforcer from this point-of-view. As a former KGB agent, Putin has learned manipulation techniques and he does not hold back from using them. Additionally, the position from which Putin plays is excellent for such practices. He is the leader of a state that is still the largest in the world, with enormous natural resources and human potential. Additionally, Russia is still one of the greatest nuclear powers. Despite not being one of the two existing superpowers anymore, Russia remains a reputable opponent for anybody.

In this sense, Vladimir Putin can take strong position and enforce his point-of-view on almost any issue, may it be the Orange Revolution in Ukraine or delivering nuclear resources (uranium) to Iran.

B) It seems important when dealing with such a tough negotiator to use surprise tactics that may destabilize his position and make him vulnerable to unexpected new challenges. One such tactic may be the surprise stratagem. By this, the negotiator can use new and unexpected arguments that may modify the situation in the field and may create a new perspective on the issue.

On the other hand, the negotiator can take one thing a time and attempt to win small concessions from his tougher partner before moving… [read more]

Cultural Dimensions Culture Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (2,623 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Women, who do not have to maintain the rigidity of the UAE expectations, should also be dressed with elegance and taste; dresses, skirts, and blouses, should build on the classic colors of gray, navy, and white. Non-verbal communication, of which dress is an intrinsic part, is also important in Mexico, where eye contact is not always made, a local custom… [read more]

Invasion of Iraq Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,545 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Invasion on Iraq

It is clear that Iraq had been attacked and presently occupied neither for growth and development of the Iraqi economy nor for the advancement of American values, such as freedom and liberty. Instead, the actual motive behind the invasion and occupation had been to gain control over the vast untapped oil resources of oil within Iraq. Furthermore,… [read more]

Autobiography Was Born Cameron Jon Keene Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (563 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Autobiography was born Cameron Jon Keene in Aberdeen, Scotland on December 3, 1987. My mother, Yvonne, and my older sister, Danielle, were also born in Aberdeen, while my father, Morris, a petroleum engineer, hails from Havre, Montana. We lived in Aberdeen for the first seven years of my life, and traveled frequently to places such as Portugal, Lanzarote, and the Canary Islands. I attended the local Montessori school, Hamilton, when I was three years old, and at four and a half years of age, I was enrolled in Robert Gordons, which is considered one of the best private schools in the city. I enjoyed school and took an active part in sports, doing quite well in swimming galas, and winning many of my events during school sports days. I also played for a junior team of the local Grammar School Rugby Club and attended several Rugby International Games with the team at Murrayfield in Edinburgh to watch Scotland play against several other countries.

At age seven and a half, my family moved to Qatar, a small Middle Eastern country adjacent to Saudi Arabia. There, I attended a British School and made friends with students from India, Saudi Arabia, Lebanon, Qatar, Sweden, and Australia. One of my friends was a younger son of the Emir of Qatar, and I spent many weekends at his home. I truly enjoyed the time we spent in Qatar. I learned to Jet Ski and we often took our boat to nearby islands to play in the warm waters off the city of Doha, the capital of Qatar. While in Doha, I played tennis, soccer, rugby, and was a member of the local swim team. I went…… [read more]

US War on Terrorism Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,450 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


U.S. war on terrorism

The present paper focuses on the motives for the change in attitude of the international community after the U.S.-led invasion in Iraq.

The central point of the paper is the assumption that, after the war in Afghanistan, the U.S. motivated its military actions in Iraq by the existing breach of human rights conventions. Although there was… [read more]

Causes of Terrorism? The Roots Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (2,511 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … Causes of Terrorism?

The roots of terrorism in the Middle East are deep and ancient. They can be traced all the way back to the struggles of the western world with the Ottoman Empire some 1300 years ago and it shows no sign of finding any relief. Through Western policies, embargos, fear and greed, the Middle East has… [read more]

Mesopotamia Versus Egypt Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (883 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Mesopotamian and Egyptian Art and Architecture

Mesopotamia" is the Greek word for "between the rivers" and refers to that region between the Tigris and the Euphrates Rivers, presently occupied by Iraq, Turkley and Syria (Delahunt 2006). The region was occupied in ancient times by many groups, including the Sumerians, Akkadians, Assyrians, Amorites, Kassites, Persians, Greeks, and Chaldeans. They passed their powers on to the Arabs, who now occupy current-day Mesopotamia. There is little rainfall in this region and access to the two rivers has been difficult. People in the region have built dams and grew food in the rich soil. They built canals in order to distribute scanty water, an activity, which united them. They also invented the plough to raise their cattle and sheep. The Mesopotamians invented the cuneiform and arithmetic for their purchases of goods, built schools, temples, palaces, workshops and statutes, drawn from a theocratic culture. They were a religious people who greatly feared their gods whom they served. Examples of their statutes are found at the Abu Temple in Tell Asmar, built around 27000 BCE, and illustrate the Sumerian culture. These were typically cones and cylinders and made up of arms and legs like pipes, smooth and round skirts, faces with large eyes. The size of these figures reflected some kind of hieratic imaging system, wherein the most important persons were the tallest. A figure with a beard meant that it belonged to one in a position of power. Art and architectural structures also included two-dimensional depictions of heads, elgs and feet in profile with their shoulders and torso shown frontally. Their wealth and natural resources of copper ore, limestone, alabaster and marble made them the object of envy by other peoples, te Hammurabis of Babylon, specifically. Thus, Mesopotamian art and architecture express pillaging, cities being torn down and their submission to enemies. Mesopotamians also believed that if their conquests and fights passed the test of their omens and prophets, they would get the blessings of their gods (Delahunt).

Egypt is historically known as the land of the pyramids, which stand prominently from mountains of stones (Gombrich 2006). Egypt may be mystical and mysterious but their history, art and architecture say a lot about their organized culture. This culture reflects a line of rich and powerful kings who could compel thousands of workers and slaves to work for many years, to quarry stones and drag them to build sites, and erect the tombs. The pyramids point to the importance of kings and pharaohs in the eyes of their subjects.

These subjects could have viewed their kings and pharaohs as no less than divine beings who deserved their…… [read more]

Tourism Strategy and Policy of Tourist Development in Qatar Term Paper

Term Paper  |  12 pages (3,276 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Tourist Development

Strategy And Policy


Qatar (pronounced CUT-er) leads the current "charge" by of gulf nations "into the roughly half-trillion-dollar global travel market." (Sherwood, 2006) Qatar, according to Dew, Shoult, and Wallace, (2002, p, 28) specifically intends to transform itself into a popular tourist destination.

Along with aiming to further its economic goals, Qatar, regularly transforms, articulates, contests… [read more]

Media Devices Are Particularly Influential Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (867 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


As the U.S. presidential elections are closing in more and more individuals start to express their opinion concerning the nominees. Bradley Burston's article relates to Mitt Romney, a person who, from the writer's perspective, seems much more qualified to be a president in comparison to the present U.S. leader, Barack Obama. This particular article is influential because it emphasizes a series of Romney's abilities with the purpose of having readers understand that they are facing a future president who is actually capable to put across behavior characteristic to an U.S. leader.

Romney's interaction with Israel was rather different from collaborations between former U.S. presidents and the state. It appears that his feelings were more genuine and that he was hesitant about putting across the feeling that he was fully committed to assisting Israel. His attitude was most probably owed to the fact that he did not want people to think that he had the tendency to put across propaganda with the purpose of influencing people in appreciating him. Although the article paints a perfect picture of Romney as a president, it is difficult for readers to understand whether they should support this candidate or not. People in the contemporary society are in search of perfection and are often inclined to support unjust individuals simply because they have what it takes to make the masses feel that they are perfect.

According to Burston, Romney is different from other candidates because he is unwilling to pose as the likeable individual. Instead, he wants to be a just president that has the ability to assist individuals from around the world, regardless of their status or of their relationship with him. The writer obviously wanted readers to sympathize with Romney and to express interest in supporting him at the next presidential elections and thus focused on painting the picture of a moral person that is not necessarily interested in public image. Judging from Burston's article, it appears that Romney is more concerned about helping the world than he is about promoting his image as a 'friendly' president.

Works cited:

Burston, Bradley, "Romney, a subdued pilgrim, walks a wary line in Jerusalem," Retrieved July 31, 2012, from the CNN Website: http://edition.cnn.com/2012/07/30/opinion/jerusalem-postcard/index.html

"Deja Vu All Over Again? Iraq's Escalating Political Crisis," Retrieved July 31, 2012, from the International Crisis Group Website: http://www.crisisgroup.org/en/publication-type/media-releases/2012/mena/iraq-deja-vu-all-over-again-iraq-s-escalating-political-crisis.aspx… [read more]

Canada Iran Diplomatic Conflict Research Paper

Research Paper  |  5 pages (1,505 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1



On September 7, 2012, Canadian Foreign Minister John Baird announced that the country was closing its embassy in Tehran, and the Iranian embassy in Ottawa. The move signified a cessation of the ties between Canada and Iran, and was the culmination of a steady deterioration in relations between the two countries over the course of the last decade. The… [read more]

Iraq Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (826 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Iraq is one of the most renowned countries in Western Asia, partly due to the recent war that took place there and partly because of the fact that it is positioned in the Ancient land of Mesopotamia. In spite of its power, its stability has been threatened through the years because of religious tension and because its leaders have trouble promoting a single type of political ideology.

Iraq's capital is in Baghdad and it contains around 7,216, 040 people and it is the largest city in the 31 million people country. Arabic and Kurdish dominate most of the country, with minorities representing a very small proportion of the country's inhabitants. "Today more than three-quarters of Iraqis are Arabs, at least 15% are Kurds, and the rest include Turkomans, Persians, and Assyrians" (Hassig & Al Adely, 51). Jal Talabany is the country's current President and it is curious that in spite of the country's demographics he is the first non-Arab ruler. Shia Muslims represent the majority, but they are generally regarded as being inferior to Sunni Muslims. The country is mostly Muslim and there are very few individuals worshiping other religions there.

Iraq is a Western Asian country bordering Iran to the east, Jordan to the southwest, Kuwait and Saudi Arabia in the south, Syria in the northwest, and Turkey in the north. The country opens to the Persian Gulf and its coastline is very narrow, taking into account that it only measures 36 miles of coast. Similar to the ancient Mesopotamians, Iraq thrived through time because it was located near two of the principal rivers in Western Asia, Tigris and Euphrates. In contrast to many countries in Western Asia, its positioning means that it has an advantage, as the country is generally surrounded by barren lands. The country's land area can be compared with the U.S. state of California, given that it is about 166,859 square miles.

Faisal bin Hussein bin Ali al-Hashemi was king of Iraq from 1921 until 1933 and he expressed particular interest in removing discrimination from within the country's borders. In spite of his efforts, he achieved little success because foreign influence prevented the country's inhabitants from understanding the significance of being united. Saddam Hussein is certainly one of the most controversial characters in the country's history. The leader's authority could be observed ever since the early 1970s, when he "was widely recognized as the power behind President al-Bakr, who after 1977 was little more than a figurehead" (Etheredge,…… [read more]

Revolution in Egypt_ Modern Citizens Article Review

Article Review  |  3 pages (1,073 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Under the emergency law political activists were imprisoned without trial in illegal and undocumented detention facilities, and newspaper staff members rejected based on their political affiliation. Police brutality was also a factor that led to the social revolution in Egypt. Police before the revolution perpetuated torture and abuse. The Ministry of Interior, State Security Investigative Service (SSIS), police, and other government agencies presided over torture to extract information and force confession. Bloggers used social media to post videos of police officers sodomizing a bound naked woman. This infuriated the general public. Law enforcement agencies on many instances used excessive on unarmed public. Finally, corruption, coercion not to vote, manipulation of election results, and demographic and economic challenges also contributed to the Egypt's social revolution. Mubarak was the only candidate to run for election up to the year 2005. As was suggested earlier in this paper social media is not the only factor that fuelled the social revolution in Egypt. Other factors included moral reasoning, clutter, and the social movement model of unconventional warfare (UW).

Coming to the level of clutter in Egypt, it appears that the information that was disseminated in the run up to the Egyptian revolution was not receptive to the targeted audience. The recipients of the information were so vulnerable to an extent that information they received was deemed credible no matter the source. The government's attempt at closing Twitter and Bambuser never helped the situation as the general public resorted to using proxies to tweet.

Moral behavior also sparked social revolution in Egypt (Myyry, 2003). Egyptians after enduring 30 years of repression finally gained a moral standing. They were resolute that they had to break with the past where police brutality, corruption, and repressive laws were the norm. They wanted to shape their destiny by taking part in free and fair elections.

As opposed to the widely held belief that social media was the reason behind the Egyptian social movement, social media only funned the revolution 'fire'. The actual causes of the Egyptian Revolution were the moral reasoning, clutter, and the social movement model of unconventional warfare (UW). These are factors that have seldom been mentioned by writers delving into causes of the Egyptian social movement. Egyptians were desperate for any peace of information regardless of how credible it was. After Hosni Mubarak's 30-year rule Egyptians gained a moral standing and were resolute that they had to do away with police brutality, corruption, and repressive laws.

References List

Aziz, M.A. & Hussein, Y. (2002). The President, the Son, and the Military: Succession in Egypt.

Arab Studies Journal, 9(10), 73 -- 88.

Gladwell, M. (2002). Tipping Point: How Little Things Can Make a Big Difference. New York:

Back Bay Books.

Krebs, V. (2006). It's the Conversation Stupid: The Link between Social Interaction and Political Choice. Retrieved from http://www.extremedemocracy.com/chapters/Chapter%20Nine-Krebs.pdf 28

McAdam, D. (2003). Beyond Structural Analysis in Social Movements and Networks: Relational

Approaches to Collective Action. New York: Oxford University Press.

Myyry, L. (2003). Components of Morality: A… [read more]

Action Has President Obama Proposed Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (743 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10




Who are antagonists who oppose the president's proposal and why?

Clearly, Syrian President Assad is opposed to President Obama's proposal because it will hamper his efforts to overcome the opposition forces arrayed against him. Russian President Putin, Syria's long-time sponsor and China also oppose U.S. intervention, along with many members of the U.S. Congress, and popular opinion in the U.S. And the rest of the world against further military adventurism by the U.S. anywhere in the Middle East or Northern Africa as part of its global war on terrorism.


Where do you stand regarding the president's proposal and why?

The horrors of chemical warfare on the battlefields of World War I were so severe that even as the world continued research and development into improved ordnance and munitions otherwise, the international community came together to outlaw the use of these weapons in the future. In reality, though, dead combatants do not know what killed them and it seems disingenuous to develop rules of niceties concerning how to wage war in the post-September 11, 2001 age. It is reasonable to conclude that if hordes of North Koreans and Chinese soldiers came pouring into the United States and all other means of repelling them had been exhausted, the citizens of the United States would be very much in favor of using chemical weapons to save themselves and their homeland against these foreign invaders as a last resort. Even in the Syrian context, 2,000 casualties as the result of chemical weapons pales in comparison to the more than 100,000 people who have already been killed, and these deaths simply went unnoticed by the international community until an arbitrary red line had been crossed.


Grier, P. (2013, April 26). Syria chemical weapons: Where did they come from? The Christian

Science Monitor, 37.

Mulrine, A. (2013, April 26). Syria chemical weapons: Pentagon weighs evidence, plans response. The Christian Science Monitor, 19.

Shoichet, C.E. & Watkins, T. (2013, August 31). Strike against Syria?…… [read more]

Public Opinion to American Foreign Policy Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (610 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


¶ … Public Opinion to American Foreign Policy Towards Iran

Why Iran is important to U.S.

The United State's reign as the preeminent global superpower has traditionally been challenged by nondemocratic nations predicated on a distinct ideological objective, from the European domination of Nazi Germany in World War II to the encroachment of Communism by the Soviet Union during the Cold War. Today, with America locked in a prolonged struggle against the threat of radicalized Islam, the Islamic Republic of Iran has emerged as the most potent opposition to the U.S. foreign policy agenda. The relationship between the U.S. And Iran has always been tumultuous at best, and openly hostile at worst, with the conflict stemming from the 1953 overthrow of Iran's democratically elected Shah Dr. Mohammad Mosaddegh, and the subsequent installation of Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi to facilitate American and British interests in the region. When the puppet government of America's chosen Shah was overthrown in 1979, the Iranian Revolution led by Islamic fundamentalist Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini signaled the beginning of a decades-long standoff between the two countries.

Among the many points of contention between American and Iranian leadership are latter's overt efforts to procure nuclear capabilities, ostensibly for energy reasons, because the world rightfully fears a fanatical government obtaining nuclear weaponry. Iran's stated goal of obliterating Israel, which is America's strongest ally in the Middle East, has also exacerbated the hostilities, with both sides engaging in political posturing to maintain their status.

According to a recent policy analysis conducted by the John F. Kennedy School of Government at Harvard University, "three core issues are at stake here: Iran's right to develop nuclear technology for verifiably peaceful purposes; Israeli concerns that an Iranian nuclear bomb would be an existential threat, which Israel will never allow to happen; and, Western fears of Iran's military power,…… [read more]

American Public Opinion Toward Iran Literature Review Chapter

Literature Review Chapter  |  4 pages (1,425 words)
Bibliography Sources: 7


Realism and Liberalism in U.S. Foreign Policy Towards Iran

One of the longer international conflicts in recent history is the perpetual state of conflict which has existed between the United States and Iran, a revamped Cold War of ideological rivals that has simmered since the 1979 Islamic Revolution resulted in a prolonged hostage crisis. Beginning with President Jimmy Carter's humiliation… [read more]

Gasoline Prices -- Oil Issues Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (754 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Gasoline Prices -- Oil Issues

What was Peyton Feltus referring to (in the article by Elizabeth Souder) when he said the word "shortage" conjures up "images for us older folks of the old days of the 70s…"?

What Feltus was alluding to was the 1973 Arab oil embargo -- carried out by the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) -- that had a profound impact on transportation in the U.S. And caused sharp political responses from the United States toward the Arab states. The embargo was basically a political tactic by the Muslim states to punish the U.S. And other Western countries (including the Netherlands) that were supporting Israel in the Yom Kippur War of October 1973.

To understand the background for the OPEC Oil Embargo it is important first to relate to the reasons for the attack on Israel by Egypt and Syria. The OPEC nations (Saudi Arabia, Algeria, Bahrain, Egypt, Iraq, Kuwait, Libya, Qatar and Syria) used the power of their oil in October 1973 during the Yom Kippur War, which was launched against Israel by Egypt and Syria (who were not in OPEC at that time). The reason for the attack on Israel was to force Israel to withdraw from the territories they had occupied since the 1967 war. The Yom Kippur war started on the 6th of October, according to the History Learning Site. That is the holiest day of the year in the Jewish faith; Yom Kippur is "The day of Atonement" -- a day of prayer and fasting -- and apparently Egypt and Syria thought they could catch the Israeli military forces by surprise.

The war began with an estimated 1,400 Syrian tanks faced off against 150 Israeli tanks on the Golan Heights; in the Suez region, the History Learning Site claims that there were only 500 Israeli soldiers against an estimated 80,000 Egyptian troops. Other nations in that region helped the Arab cause (Libya gave money and weapons to Egypt; Iraq donated MIG fighter planes; Tunisia, Sudan and Morocco joined in the war by supporting Egypt and Syria) and by October 8, Israeli troops began to push back and turn the tide. Reportedly the reason the Israeli military was able to attack and repel the aggression -- besides the fact…… [read more]

Suffering in Night and Mornings Book Report

Book Report  |  2 pages (747 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


The presence of my teachers, my friends, my companions…" (Wiesel 118). Throughout the entirety of the book, Elie suffers. Many Holocaust survivors struggled after they were liberated, unsure how to go on with daily life after being subjected to such horrible treatment. The greatest suffering Elie experiences is arguable the loss of his father, but it might also be the loss of his belief in God. He says, "I suffer hell in my soul and my flesh. I also have eyes and I see what is being done here. Where is God's mercy? Where's God" (Wiesel 77). After witnessing and experiencing all that he has, young Elie can no longer believe in God because, he reasons, no all-powerful God would allow all of this.

Susan Abulhawa's novel tells of a different kind of suffering. Her book is about the Palestinians and how they suffered after being removed from the land which would become Israel. Mornings in Jenin is about how the Palestinians were made to suffer by the Israelis such as one instance where a death is caused unfairly. She writes, "How was it that a man could not walk onto his own property, visit the grave of his wife, eat the fruits of forty generations of his ancestors' toil, without moral consequence?" (Abulhawa 48). Other atrocities are committed against the main character and her family members which is meant to symbolize all the horrors committed against all the Palestinians, including the kidnapping of a Palestinian boy by an Israeli soldier and a myriad of other abuses levied at the Palestinian refugees.

Suffering is a universal thing. Everyone everywhere will experience it at some point. Some people will experience death or poverty or starvation, all of which are forms of abject suffering. For the people described in these two books, their suffering was greater than most people's. By witnessing what is discusses here, it becomes clear that even though these books talk about very different people, places, and times, the ability to suffer is the same and the way people handle to that pain is also the same.

Works Cited

Abulhawa, Susan. Mornings in Jenin: A Novel. New York: Bloomsbury, 2010. Print.

Wiesel, Elie. Night.…… [read more]

Technologies, Modern Media Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (879 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Computer processes have made it all the easier for piracy to transpire (Deibert 2010,-page 55). Though the process of piracy is illegal, the economic growth in Nigeria that was brought about by the widespread criminality was able to create a legitimate film industry which is now allowing for legal creation and distribution of material (Larkin 2004,-page 290). Larkin argues that in this country, the influence of the western world has not only improved the economic standing of what had been a financially endangered nation, but also was directly linked to the creation of a new industry in Nigeria.

As the technologies continue to progress and new ones are developed, there is going to be further cultural interaction and a culture will either develop negatively in response to the foreign influence such as in Saudi Arabia, or positively such as in Nigeria (Benkler 2011,-page 155). The two articles are from entirely different perspectives and each is compelling in its argument. Of the two, the Larkin article seems to be more convincing, but this may be in no small part due to my own cultural influences. Being a part of western culture, I am more likely to believe that the influence of the western world is a beneficial world. Also, being part of this culture influences the gender normative in which I believe, which is that women should be treated equally and thus I will not see the arguments against female agency as a problem and wish the Saudi Arabians would change their entire social structure. Cultural homogenization is a problem according to the Saudi Arabians, a point which is agreed to by John Tomlinson (1995). While it is true that there needs to be individuality in cultural identity, certain influences are not necessarily bad things.

The two articles disagree as to how the influence of western cultures will alter or affect the nation which interacts with the western world. Saudi Arabia and their government have resisted the influences of the west and have violently protested any culture contributions which might be western in origin. Nigeria on the other hand has benefited greatly from the western influence.

Works Cited:

Benklar, Y. (2011). Wikileaks and the Protect-IP Act: a new public-private threat to the internet commons. Daedalus, the Journal of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. 154-64.

Deibert, R. & Rohozinski, R. (2010). Liberation vs. control in cyberspace. Journal of Democracy. (21:4). 43-57.

Kraidy, M. (2009). Reality television, gender, and authenticity in Saudi Arabia. Journal of Communication. International Communication Association. 59, 345-66.

Larkin, B. (2004). Degraded images, distorted sounds: Nigerian video and the infrastructure of piracy. Public…… [read more]

Communication Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (539 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Although biting, this response was directly related to the Romney comments and the sarcasm is clearly understood by the American audience.

4. Romney's comments about Israel and Palestine reveals ignorance as well as insensitivity to the issues at stake. Romney grossly oversimplified the causes of income disparity in the Middle East.

c) What advice would make to improve multicultural communication?

To improve multicultural communication, it is crucial to refrain from making unnecessary judgments or criticisms. Especially when visiting a host nation, respect is key. Learning about the host country and its culture is the second most important step in improving multicultural communication. What Romney did both in London and in Jerusalem is to impose his personal values on other cultures. He is neither British nor Israeli and has no basis upon which to make his comments. Instead of criticism, Romney could have offered complements.

The first and most important step to multicultural communication is knowledge: learning about the history and context of cultures. Second, humility plays an important role in effective multicultural communication. Coming from a place of, "I don't know that, so please teach me," helps to prevent misunderstandings and enables multiple parties to find common ground. Third, it is best to avoid, rather than cultivate, antagonism. Misunderstandings may arise even with the best of intentions. However, with an attitude that is positive and supportive, miscues can be avoided.


Hunt, K. & Laub, K. (2012). "Mitt Romney Comments At Fundraiser Outrage Palestinians."

"Mitt…… [read more]

Iran Country Assessment -- Economic Research Paper

Research Paper  |  4 pages (1,960 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


[10: CIA. 2012. The World Fact book -- Iran. Online, available from Internet, accessed July 17th, 2012.]

Physical Resources

Natural Resources:

Iran has been bestowed with rich natural resources in the form of lands, forests, minerals, natural gas and oil products, etc. In its rich agri land, Iran grows a number of food products; including wheat, rice, wool, cotton, fruits, sugarcane, and dry fruits. The excess quantities of these products are exported to other countries.


Iran exports oil and natural gas, chemical and petrochemical products, and fruits to China, Japan, Turkey, Italy, Spain, South Korea, and India. China is currently the biggest export partner of Iran by taking more than 19% of its export commodities. Iran's total exports for the year 2011 were $131.8 billion as compared to $107.5 billion in 2010.


On the other hand, Iran imports capital goods, technological services, consumer goods, and food products from China, Germany, UAE, Turkey, Italy, and South Korea. The country's imports for the year 2011 were $76.1 billion as compared to the previous year's $70 billion. China and UAE are the largest import partners of Iran[footnoteRef:11]. [11: The Library of Congress. 2012. Country Studies: Iran. Online, available from Internet, accessed July 17th, 2012.]

Electricity and Oil products:

The Electricity production of the country is 212.8 billion kWh while consumption is 206.7 billion kWh. Iran has exported its electricity worth 6.15 billion kWh in 2011. Iran is the 4th largest producer of oil and gas products with production level of 4.252 million barrels per day. The daily consumption of the oil products is only 1.845 million barrels which shows that Iran has much excess oil resources to export to other countries. In 2011, Iran exported 2.523 million barrels per day of its oil products.

Natural Gas:

The second most excessive resource which Iran has is the natural gas. But the level of production hardly matches the local consumption; thus natural gas contributes a minor portion to the total exports of the country. The natural gas exports of the country are 7.87 billion cu m in 2010 whereas its imports are 6.9 billion cu m[footnoteRef:12].

[12: CIA. 2012. The World Fact book -- Iran. Online, available from Internet, accessed July 17th, 2012.]


CIA. 2012. The World Fact book -- Iran. Online, available from Internet, accessed July 17th, 2012.

The Heritage Foundation. 2012. 2012 Index of Economic Freedom. Online, available from Internet, accessed July 17th, 2012.

World Bank. 2012. Iran at a Glance. Online, available from Internet accessed July 17th, 2012.

The Library of Congress. 2012. Country Studies: Iran. Online, available from Internet, accessed July 17th, 2012.

Iran Tracker. 2012. Afghanistan-Iran Foreign…… [read more]

Syria Current Conflict Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (666 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Opposition to the regime has been unusually strident, even from members of the Arab and Muslim world. Syria was expelled from the Arab League after it failed to observe the terms of an UN-backed peace agreement. Jordan and Turkey, and the Arab League members have publicly condemned the regime's oppression. The United Nations General Assembly also condemned Syria's oppression of dissents in February 2012 (Syria news, 2012, The New York Times). There are hopeful signs of organized civilian resistance to the regime. "A general strike in Damascus called to protest the recent massacres have also proved surprisingly successful" (Bloomfield & Sherlock 2012).

The year-long conflict has left 10,000 dead (Syria news, 2012, The New York Times). Unlike Libya, where the opposition was fairly organized, Syria has continued to devolve into sectarian violence beyond that of the regime vs. The insurgents. The Sunni majority opposes the Alawite minority, which is itself divided, internally within the Assad government. However, familial and other sectarian rivalries currently prevent an organized, effective opposition to the regime, causing international authorities to fear that a Bosnia-like situation might occur, with no end in sight to the warfare. Recently, "government tanks opened fire in central Damascus for the first time in the 15-month uprising against President Bashar al-Assad this weekend" (Bloomfield & Sherlock 2012). Talk about an international intervention has been quelled by staunch Russian and Chinese opposition. The Russians have long been military backers of Assad, and have been much-criticized for preventing international intervention until now. However, if the violence continues, such intervention may prove to be inevitable.


Bloomfield, Adam & Ruth Sherlock. (2012). Syrian rebels take battle to heart of Damascus.

The Telegraph. Retrieved: http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/middleeast/syria/9323103/Syrian-rebels-take-battle-to-heart-of-Damascus.html

McFarquhar, Nick. (2012). After a year, deep divisions hobble Syrian opposition.

The New York Times. Retrieved: http://www.nytimes.com/2012/02/24/world/middleeast/syrian-opposition-is-hobbled-by-deep-divisions.html?_r=1&ref=world

Syria news. (2012). The New York Times. The New York Times. Retrieved:

http://topics.nytimes.com/top/news/international/countriesandterritories/syria/index.html… [read more]

Genocide the Second Most Studied Research Paper

Research Paper  |  8 pages (2,562 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 2


The result was to portray Armenians as hostile to Turkish interests and the genocide as a conflict between the Turks and a potential oppressor in which both sides suffered casualties (Ulgen, 2010). The importance of Kemalism, as Ulgen refers to the ideology of Kemal, cannot be underestimated in its effect on Turkey's treatment of the Armenian question long after Kemal's… [read more]

Cinematic Image of the Sabra Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,495 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


Instead, there was an emphasis upon the newly powerful state, moving into a future, free of the former threats the Jewish population had endured due to its vulnerable status in Europe. The establishment of Israel was seen as the triumph of good over evil. Gradually, this began to change in the 1970s, after Israel's sobering near-defeat during the Yom Kippur… [read more]

Ethics of Repatriation: Egyptian Artifacts Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (3,593 words)
Bibliography Sources: 8


Counter-arguing the opponents

Artifact protection is an obligation

As the artifacts are a link to the past and they tell us about the culture, heritage, norms, events that took place at the time from which they were, therefore, it is very important to protect them. As, they can help our coming generations in understanding where they come from and what… [read more]

Cyprus Problem Ancient History Establishment Dissertation

Dissertation  |  55 pages (15,734 words)
Bibliography Sources: 55


This agreement forestalled actual admission as a British possession for a time; Cyprus remained under Turkish control while the British occupied the island for military purposes. The British performed the duty of protectorate nation until 1914 when, at the advent of the First World War, the island was "formally annexed" (U.S. State Department, 2011) by the United Kingdom. The island… [read more]

Iran-Contra Affair Historical Research Paper

Research Paper  |  20 pages (8,295 words)
Style: Chicago  |  Bibliography Sources: 20


Security about the location of the hostages and the kidnappers was tight and prevented rescue. Public pressure and pressure from families was keen, eventually leading to a deterioration of the practice of not negotiating and not giving concessions to terrorists to which the Americans and the French held themselves. The Reagan administration violated official Congressional policy to negotiate secret arms-for-hostage… [read more]

Great War for Civilisation Fisk Book Report

Book Report  |  6 pages (1,764 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


The Next chapter, 23, entitled Atomic Dog, Annihilator, Arsonist, Anthrax, Anguish and Agamemnon were a description of the events of the 2003 American invasion of Iraq. The American attack was a massive undertaking with a massive amount of ordinance dropped on Iraq. While the Americans claimed they were targeting only military targets, the author's visits to hospitals prove that the majority of the wounded were civilians. Fisk described the wound of children he encountered stating "Heartbreaking is the only word to describe ten-year-old Maryam Nasr and her five-year-old sister Hoda." (962) He also discussed the ground invasion and the massive destruction inflicted on the Iraqis by the Americans. The destruction caused by the Americans was a major theme of Fisk, and he ended this chapter with a look at the looting and arson which destroyed many of the government buildings and the Americans who did nothing to stop the destruction of Iraq's history and culture.

Fisk concluded his book with a discussion of the American occupation of Iraq in chapter 24 Into The Wilderness. The author stressed the fact that Iraq had nothing to do with 9/11 and Al Qaeda, in fact Osama bin Laden hated Saddam Hussein as a western "stooge." The reasons behind the Iraqi invasion has nothing to do with 9/11 but instead about economic issues. Fisk also used this chapter to discuss the effects of occupation on the Americans, and, like the Israelis before them, could engage in criminal and brutal behavior. The book ended at a…… [read more]

Bible: 1 Samuel 17 Essay

Essay  |  10 pages (2,915 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


"Israel! I say again, on this the morning of the 41st day of a war without with battle, COME AT ME! SEND ME A CHAMPION!!" Quiet. Stillness. A thousand implacable faces staring back at me. "Israel, I defy you! SEND ME A -- "

A ripple in the crowd began to part the Israeli forces. One by one, Israeli soldiers… [read more]

Awake My People Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (691 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


The second half of the infamous line about being Jews alone in your tents is that every Jew should also be "a brother to your countrymen and a servant to your king."[footnoteRef:5] Many have interpreted this as giving up one's Jewish identity and assimilating to the culture of the nation. It is hard to argue with this assessment. Particularly since, in the footnotes on this edition of "Awake My People!," the footnote reads "Gordon at first believed that the Jews' isolation was at the root of all the troubles that plagued them."[footnoteRef:6] If this is the case, then Gordon does indeed believe that assimilation is important for Jewish survival, but his intentions are for the aid of the Jewish population. He believed that it was standing out from the larger group that made Jewish people the target of antagonism and keeping a lid on things would make those occasions of acrimony occur less often. [5: Gordon. "Awake My People!" 1995, 28] [6: Gordon. 1995. ]

Gordon was an important member of the Haskalah. The central concern of this group was "Jews' political status and their relationship to European culture." [footnoteRef:7] During this period, the legal discrimination against Jewish people in European nations was collapsing and the Haskalah wanted to use these freedoms to create an era of relative peace. If this required that the Jewish population be a bit less vocal about their religious practices, then it was an acceptable price to pay. This did not mean that Jews were asked to give up any of their religious practices or forget their own culture, but to do so in a way that would not cause trouble. [7: Immanuel Etkes. "Haskalah." Last Modified 2010. http://www.yivoencyclopedia.org/article.aspx/Haskalah ]

Works Cited:

Immanuel Etkes. "Haskalah." Last Modified 2010.


Judah Leib Gordon. "Awake My People!" The Jew in the Modern World. (New York: Oxford

UP, 1995),

Michael Stanislawski. "Russia." Last Modified 2010.

http://www.yivoencyclopedia.org/article.aspx/Russia/Russian_Empire… [read more]

Policy Advisement on Efficacy Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,000 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


Whatever happens now, America will withdraw in defeat. Armies are for winning wars, not building nations. Armies that keep fighting a war they've won, will lose it" (Jonas, 2010). This distinction between the role and mission of our armed forces is fundamental to this debate, because as a nation founded on the ideal of democratic freedom, becoming a force of occupation does not align with our military's legitimate objectives. As one prominent foreign policy journalist observed in 2007, when the Iraqi insurgency had reached its bloody crescendo of suicide bombings and assassination attempts -- "the moment the United States invaded the way it did, and occupied the nation as boorishly as it did, the outcome couldn't have been any different than it is now" (Tristam).

Although the preponderance of evidence clearly demonstrates that nation building in Iraq proved to be a disastrous military strategy, legitimate signs of progress have emerged from the wreckage of the Middle East which show that nation building, if performed in strict moderation, may provide tangible benefits for native populations while serving wider national security interests. As respected national columnist David Brooks wrote in an op-ed published by The New York Times, "it's hard to know what role the scattershot American development projects have played, but this year Iraq will have the 12th-fastest-growing economy in the world, and it is expected to grow at a 7% annual clip for the next several years" (2010), and this economic growth is surely an encouraging sign that America's sacrifices may not have been wholly in vain. Brooks goes on to observe that "there has been substantial progress on the things development efforts can touch most directly: economic growth, basic security, and political and legal institutions & #8230; (and) after the disaster of the first few years, nation building, much derided, has been a success" (2010). While this bold statement may not be entirely accurate, the sentiment of Brooks' message must be appreciated, because there will no doubt be instances in the future which require the nation building efforts of America's humanitarian arm. The earthquake-ravaged island of Haiti, for example, remains in desperate need of the same infrastructure repair, sanitation and other nation building exercises which only seem to be directed to restore damage caused by our own application of military force.

Sincerely Yours, A Concerned Advisor

Works Cited

Babbin, Jed. "Iraq in the Rearview Mirror." American Spectator. 22 Dec 2011: Web. 27

Oct. 2013. .

Brooks, David. "Nation Building Works." New York Times. 30 Aug 2010, A2. Web. 27 Oct.

2013. .

Jonas, George . "Nation-building would be great, if it were possible." National Post [Toronto,

Ontario] 07 July 2010: Web. 27 Oct. 2013.


Kurth, James. "Humanitarian Intervention After Iraq: Legal Ideals vs. Military Realities." Orbis. Winter. (2005): 87-101. Print.

Tristam, Pierre. "Nation-Building Fuels Civil Destruction." Nation Building:…… [read more]

Country Experience Being Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (678 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


¶ … Country Experience

Being in a foreign country is not easy. This is because it is a relatively new experience which one is not used to and thus it might feel awkward and strange.it is even worse when you are in a non-English speaking country. Not all countries in the world speak English there are others where they speak other languages apart from English. I really had a rough time when I went to study in Iraq. At first I had thought of it as an opportunity to go outside my country of origin and get to know how people out there lived. However, when I got there it was the least of my expectations. First of all in Iraq the official languages are Arabic and Kurdish.as we all know communication is a very important thing. Without communication there can be a lot of misunderstanding and even possible conflicts. Therefore being in a non-English speaking country was very difficult for me. Personally I do not understand Arabic or the Kurdish. The only languages I can speak and understand are English and French.it was therefore very difficult for me to communicate to people around me. For a foreigner like me who did not know the whereabouts in that country it was quite hectic. I used to spend a lot of time trying to figure my way out around the country. Unfortunately I could not ask for any assistance since no one seemed to understand or speak English.

Fortunately the school I was going to was an international school. I was luck enough to get other foreign students like me who were in the same situation I was in .once we realized we had the same problem we immediately came together and became friends.one of these students had take some Arabic classes before the came to Iraq. For him he was able to pick up a few things though not all. When I realized this I convinced him we share rooms so that he could help me as I learnt…… [read more]

Attacks of September 11, 2001 Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,175 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


The risks of inaction." He acknowledged there are many risks associated with the use of force against Iraq but said the suggestion that removing Saddam's regime would cause regional instability seems "exaggerated."

Wolfowitz said that sooner or later the world will have to cope with Saddam's demise.

In the interests of minimizing whatever risks there are to larger regional stability, it would be far better for this enormous change to take place when the eyes of the world are upon Iraq and when the United States and a strong coalition are committed to seeing it through to a successful conclusion," he said.

In short, to take place on the world's terms, not on Saddam's or on some fateful roll of the dice," he added.

Wolfowitz dismissed skeptics who say an attack on Iraq would disrupt the U.S. war on terror. "It is hard to see how we can expect to be successful in the long run (in the anti-terror war) if we leave Iraq as a sanctuary for terrorists and its murderous dictator in defiant safety," he said.

To those who argue the United States should wait until the threat from Saddam is imminent, Wolfowitz countered that "the notion that we can wait until the threat is imminent assumes that we will know when it is imminent."

Noting that no one knew the Sept. 11, 2001, attacks were imminent before they happened, he said the world "cannot afford to wait until Saddam or a terrorist supplied by him attacks us with a chemical, biological or... nuclear weapons to recognize the danger that we face."

Reacting to concerns that the U.S. might act alone against Saddam, Wolfowitz insisted "we do not plan to act unilaterally" and said some countries have indicated they will be part of a U.S.-led coalition with or without a U.N. resolution.

Other countries directly threatened by Iraq will not openly back the U.S. until they are certain Washington will act and "that is why American resolve and determination to act -- not to be hamstrung by the waverings of the weak or those who still hope to seek favors from the Baghdad regime -- is important to embolden others to join us," he said.

Waiting for another time, when other crises have been resolved, is not an acceptable option, Wolfowitz said.

There will always be problems with acting at any time. But one thing we can say with certainty: the danger of acting grows with time because if military action against Saddam Hussein becomes necessary, the greatest danger will be his weapons of mass destruction."

Works Cited

Fraser, T.G. The Arab-Israeli Conflict. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1995.

Korn, David A. The making of the United Nations Security Council Resolution 242: Centerpiece of Arab-Israeli Negotiations.

Mitchell, Lena. "Locals support Bush's case for military action against Iraq." 9 October 2002 Northeast Mississippi Daily Journal http://www.djournal.com/djournal/site/articles/news/1289510.htm.

Crook, Olive. "Lets Give International Law All the Respect It Is Due." 15 October 2002. Atlantic Online http://www.theatlantic.com/politics/nj/crook2002-10-15.htm.

Mitchell, Jason P. Letter. "U.S.… [read more]

Political Debate Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (653 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


" Many Democrats are worried the Republicans are using the Senate hearing debates concerning Iraq as political arenas. Meanwhile, President Bush has yet to answer many of the questions posed to him by those against an immediate invasion, leaving many to wonder if he is prepared for a war.

Iraq's Response leading newspaper in Iraq recently said, "Iraq has no intention of threatening neighboring countries or world security (Yacoub, 2002)."

Iraq asked the United Nations to supervise an international conference to "identify what is terror and to root out its causes (International Conference, 2002)."

Iraq feels the United States is using anti-terrorism as an excuse to attack other countries, thus creating a greater animosity between the two nations.

Recent Developments

President Bush set a three-week deadline for Saddam Hussein on November 17th, 2002, edging the United States closer to war with Iraq. Hussein must give U.N. weapons inspectors the locations of weapons of mass destruction (Jahn, 2002)" or prove he has removed them from Iraq.

Bush has warned Iraq he will take military action if his demands are not met, causing experts to feel the "question of war and peace (Jahn, 2002)" is up to Hussein.


The United States is on the brink of war with Iraq because of the terrorist attacks. There are many debates being argued on this matter, but some of the most compelling prove, that before Bush commits the country to war, he needs to make sure he has carefully considered all of the facts and options before him.

Works Cited

COVER EDITORIAL / Convince Us / 4 Questions Bush Must Answer Before Deciding to Invade Iraq. Newsday. (2002): 03 August. Pp.B01.

DON'T BLAME THEH SANCTIONS. Denver Rocky Mountain News. (2001): 03 December. Pp. 38A.

Frazza, Luke. U.S.-GEPHARDT-DASCHLE-IRAQ. Agence France Presse. (2002): 25 September.


Jahn, George. Inspector: War or Peace Up to Iraq. Associated Press. (2002): 17…… [read more]

President Bush's War on Iraq Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (1,941 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Support for an Invasion

National Security Adviser Condoleessa Rice is a strong supporter for a possible war with Iraq. Rice is concerned about Saddam Hussein and the destruction he is capable of.

At the University of Virginia, The College Republicans support President Bush's policies and are distributing pro-war pamphlets.

They are holding a rally in an attempt to draw attention to a possible war, while gathering support for their cause (Lamesa, 2002).

Democrats verses Republicans

Many prominent Democrats oppose a war with Iraq. Senator Edward Kennedy feels the Bush administration hasn't proved the United States is in enough danger to warrant a pre-emptive strike and war. Representative John Lewis of Georgia thinks President Bush is concentrating more on a possible war, than dealing with matters such as the economy and corporate corruption (Martz A1).

Republicans such as Defense Secretary Donald Rumsfeld feel a pre-emptive strike is necessary because rogue nations that support terrorists can cause situations that may "be more dangerous than the Cold War (Martz A1)." Republicans also believe a pre-emptive strike could deter another terrorist attack.

They admit going to war is not an easy decision, but worry there are more risks involved if nothing is done (Martz A1).


President Bush is trying to gain support for a pre-emptive strike against Iraq. The issue has been addressed in Senate hearings with the Democrats encouraging patience and the Republicans urging a war with Iraq. Countries around the world are watching the proceedings and many have already decided if they are going to support the United States if an invasion does occur.

President Bush has many things to consider before making the ultimate decision of invading Iraq, such as the cost of war, how big a threat Hussein is and what the aftermath of a war would be.

Many Americans feel Bush should finally address these issues, make a decision to either invade Iraq or wait on U.N. sanctions and commit to it.

Works Cited

COVER EDITORIAL / Convince Us / 4 Questions Bush Must Answer Before Deciding to Invade Iraq. Newsday. (2002): 03 August. Pp.B01.

DON'T BLAME THEH SANCTIONS. Denver Rocky Mountain News. (2001):

03 December. Pp. 38A.


Xinhua News Agency. (2002): 04 April.

The Iraqi question. The Washington Times. (2002): 18 January.

Jahn, George. Inspector: War or Peace Up to Iraq. Associated Press. (2002): 17 November.

Lamesa, Anthony. U.Virginia students split over support for possible war on Iraq.

University Wire. (2002): 14 November.

Martz, Ron. Making the case on Iraq Rumsfeld: Backing is there. The Atlanta Journal and Constitution. (2002): 28 September. Pp. A1.

Williams, Daniel. Jordan Struggles to…… [read more]

War in Iraq Dissertation

Dissertation  |  5 pages (1,340 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


The war will be devastating to the people of Iraq which will force mass migrations to cities like Baghdad and Basra. The mass migrations into the cities will only increase the food and water shortages. Famine is an extreme and protracted shortage of food that causes emaciation of the affected population and a substantial increase in the number of people who will die in Basra. "Basra is in a shortage of everything, even food...they have equipment that works with generators, but the generators work only with fuel. If the fuel supply stops (the generators won't work). (Barrett) During the war, it is expected that many power stations will be destroyed, leaving the inhabitants of Basra without electricity. "The city's electricity was knocked out Friday during United States and British bombing. That in turn shut down Basra's water pumping and treatment plants." (Mellgren) The United Nations Children's Fund has estimated that up to 100,000 Basra children under the age of 5 are at immediate risk of severe disease from the unsafe water.

Soon, even those that did stockpile food and drinking water will be at risk. Diseases like cholera will easily be spread in this environment where human waste will possibly mix with water that these citizens will be forced to drink if they do not wish to die of dehydration. Cholera is an acute intestinal infection caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholera. It has a short incubation period, from less than one day to five days, and produces an enterotoxin that causes a copious, painless, watery diarrhea that can quickly lead to severe dehydration and death if treatment is not promptly given. Vomiting also occurs in most stricken with the disease.

Another worry for the citizens of Basra is an out break of typhus. Louse-borne Typhus is the only rickettsial disease which can cause explosive epidemics in humans. In the past, it has often been associated with wars and human disasters and it is still endemic in the highlands and cold areas of Africa, Asia and Central and South America. This deadly disease is transmitted by the human body louse, Pediculus humanus corporis, which is infected while feeding on the blood of people with acute typhus fever. (Head lice or pubic lice play no role in transmission.) Infected lice excrete rickettsiae when feeding on a second host. People are infected by rubbing louse fecal matter or crushed lice into the bite wound or through scratching. The body louse lives in clothing and multiplies very rapidly under poor hygienic conditions, such as those in Basra. Lice proliferate rapidly in refugee camps and other crowded, unsanitary conditions and the risk can be expected to increase in rainy seasons, when more clothing and blankets are used. Because citizens of Basra will not have access to fresh water stores, hygiene will suffer making the spread of disease a strong possibility. "The sewage and electricity is bad in much of Iraq, but especially in Basra." (Traver)

Iraq as a whole will suffer. But, as discussed,… [read more]

EU and Italy Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (405 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


He also said, "Italy's semester won't change the world but it will contribute to the building of a Europe that is greater and a bigger player on the international stage" (People's Daily 1). One of the ways in which Italy planned to do this was by healing divisions with the United States following the downward turn in relations caused by the war in Iraq. Thus, perhaps Berlusconi's support of Israel is his way of showing good faith in the United States as well, contributing to his overall EU goal of strengthening Europe's position in the world.

Italy has also been busy working on a new constitution for the European Union, and has been presiding over an Intergovernmental Conference (IGC) that must ultimately decide on and adopt the constitution. The constitution should be set in motion by the time Italy's EU presidency term expires at the end of December.

Works Cited

"Italy to Take over European Union Presidency." 1 July 2003. People's Daily. 18 Nov. 2003 < http://english.peopledaily.com.cn/200307/01/eng20030701_119192.shtml>.

Schattner, Marius. "Sharon Heads to Italy for Meeting With Berlusconi." 16 Nov. 2003. Agence France-Presse (via ClariNet). 17 Nov. 2003 < http://www.softcom.net/webnews/wed/du/Qmideast-israel-eu-italy.RmdJ_DNG.html>.… [read more]

Persia Became Iran Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,712 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


The usage Iran has been in application since the Achaemenid Period (ca 550-331 BC). (Iran or Persia)

Even though the application of Persia as the assignment for the country is less prevalent, it is still applied in its perusal form that is Persian to pinpoint to language and culture. Hence using term Persia pinpointing to the Ancient and/or current Iran not historically nor geographically would be apt. Applying term Persia or Persian associates to the small part of Empire of Iran. This word may give a hand to portray a certain aspect of product of species such Persian Rug or Persian cat, but of course would be inappropriate and informal to name Iran, anything in dearth of Iran. Therefore it is highly appropriate to use Iran usage when it associates to the History of Iran, Land and its populace.


Gold Coins of Persia: A Brief History of Persia" (n.d) Retrieved at http://www.taxfreegold.co.uk/persia.html. Accessed on 12/08/2003

Iran or Persia." (2003) Retrieved at http://www.sanibrite.ca/iran/page10.asp. Accessed on 12/08/2003

Mackey, Sandra. "The Iranians: Persia, Islam and the Soul of a Nation" (1996) Plume: New York, p.5

Yarshater, Ehsan. "Persia or Iran? When Persia Became Iran" (n.d) Retrieved from…… [read more]

Iraq Invaded Kuwait. The Invasion Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,131 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


S. Ambassador to Iraq, April Glaspie. In it, Glaspie asks the Iraqi dictator why he has amassed his troops on Kuwait's border. Hussein responds in no uncertain terms that he is about to enter negotiations with Kuwait (the meeting mentioned earlier), and if he does not achieve the results that he wants, he will invade Kuwait, giving up on his ongoing war with Iran. Hussein then asks the United States' opinion. Glaspie responded with, "We have no opinion on your Arab - Arab conflicts, such as your dispute with Kuwait. Secretary (of State James) Baker has directed me to emphasize the instruction, first given to Iraq in the 1960's, that the Kuwait issue is not associated with America."

America claimed it had no connection to Kuwait. It had no opinion on the matter. That is certainly a far cry from the President's response when the invasion took place a few days later. President Bush condemned the invasion and Iraqi assets in America were frozen the same day. Does that change the complexion of Saddam's plan? Did he invade thinking America would choose not to get involved in an "Arab - Arab conflict?" It would certainly make the idea more attractive.

While Iraq refused to respond to diplomatic solutions before and during the crisis, there are two main points to consider. First, if the Kuwaiti had agreed to moderate their oil production, Iraq may have been content to grumble. Secondly, if the United States had firmly denounced the idea of the invasion before it started, Saddam Hussein might have come to his senses at the thought of confronting American military might. Saddam's history of stubbornness, however, could also lead one to conclude that his dreams of conquest were so great that the crisis was unavoidable.

The diplomatic efforts surrounding the crisis were commendable. In the five months of negotiations and economic sanctions preceding Operation Desert Storm, Iraq was given numerous opportunities to withdraw. Before the ground war, there was a failed attempt at peace settlement spearheaded by the Soviet Union. The United States rejected the Soviet peace plan.

In the end, diplomacy fell short of resolving the crisis. It was the combined military forces of the Coalition and the effective deployment of Operation Desert Storm that ended the crisis and restored Kuwait. Desert Storm has been lauded as one of the most successful military operations in history. Whether or not the crisis could have been preempted through political channels still remains to be seen.


April Glaspie Transcript." What Really Happened. 1996. What Really Happened. 9 Mar 2004 http://www.whatreallyhappened.com/ARTICLE5/april.html

Chronology of the Kuwait Crisis." The Kuwait Information Office. 2004. The Kuwait

Information Office. 9 Mar 2004 http://www.kuwait-info.org

Final Report to Congress: Conduct of the Persian Gulf War." Apr 1992. The National Security Archive 11 Feb 2004. George Washington University. 9 Mar 2004 http://www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/nsa/the_archive.html

President George Bush. "National Security Directive 54." 15 Jan 1991. The National Security Archive 11 Feb 2004. George Washington University. 9 Mar 2004 http://www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/nsa/the_archive.html

President George Bush. "National… [read more]

War on Iraq, and Considers Term Paper

Term Paper  |  9 pages (3,561 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Obviously, the transition to democracy in Iraq was not, is not, smooth. To let people loose, who had previously - all of their lives - been told what to do, when to do it, and how to do it, was always going to be a shock for them, particularly when there are millennia-long disputes between different factions in Iraq, which… [read more]

Culture the First Quiz Case Study

Case Study  |  2 pages (776 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Kosher meat must be slaughtered by a pious Jew. Thus, kosher meat and halal meat are mutually exclusive of each other, and kosher meat would be haram for the lack of a Muslim butcher and invocation to Allah. Perhaps it is the writer of the quiz that needs to "brush up a bit more."

I think that my cultural awareness is strong enough to know when the quiz is wrong about something. However, some of my right answers were guesses -- I had a 50/50 shot. So that doesn't really reflect strong cultural awareness, just basic mathematics. With respect to weaknesses, definitely points of etiquette, because I genuinely cannot imagine that such things matter. Most British people do not even realize there is apparently a proper way to eat soup, for example. I am ignorant of such rules and am actually happy to remain so. Same thing with Brazilians and shoes. I gather that they probably do not wear Havaianas to business meetings, but don't know what shoes they wear, don't care, and will wear whatever shoes I feel like wearing that day.

Things like the Thai face issue are more concerning to me, because that type of stuff can actually scuttle a business deal. So as far as learning more about cultures, that is one of those tricky concepts that I would want to understand better. Reading about it, or discussing it with Asian immigrants who can effectively translate the concept to my foreigner's way of thinking so that I understand it better are two techniques that I would use.

Otherwise, the quizzes went about as expected. I did reasonably well, but the questions were often about little details. It would be near impossible to know all of these little details about every culture in the world. The key is that when you are doing business with people of a different culture to ensure that you have a high level of competence in that particular culture. It is especially important to understand which elements are important to the deal and which ones are trivial. For example, while I may not have known that Georgian is a Caucasian language and Armenian is Indo-European, I do know that I'm better off speaking English in Tbilisi rather…… [read more]

Jdl the Threats That Derive Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (852 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


It sees an immediate need to place Judaism over any other "ism" and ideology and calls for the use of the yardstick: "Is it good for Jews?"

It is clear that the JDL is a self-interested group that seeks no real means of cooperation and peaceful cohabitation with others. The JDL does not tolerate those who disagree with them and are not afraid to use violence. The Jewish tradition, which essentially states that this ethnic group's interests are superior to all others, is violent at its core and preaches an indignant attitude towards peace and stability. The ability to fuse this dogmatic belief with political activism makes the JDL a very anti-American force that needs to be reckoned with and treated with the proper response.

Recruiting members for the JDL relies on their ability to tap into both religious and nationalistic attitudes of the Jewish race. Since Israel identifies Jews as an ethnic race and not a religion, the racist overtones of the JDL are incredibly forthright and blatant. Jewish supremacy is not usually scorned as white supremacy, black supremacy or any other type of similar philosophy. This makes it very easy for unsuspecting Jews to align themselves with such a cause. The infiltration of the Israeli lobby within the United States Government also allows this group to flourish in many ways that other terrorist groups cannot.

Neff (1999) best explained this group when he wrote "For more than a decade, the Jewish Defense League (JDL) has been one of the most active terrorist groups in the United States. Since 1968, JDL operations have killed 7 persons and wounded at least 22. Thirty- nine percent of the targets were connected with the Soviet Union; 9% were Palestinian; 8% were Lebanese; 6%, Egyptian; 4%, French, Iranian, and Iraqi; 1%, Polish and German; and 23% were not connected with any states. Sixty-two percent of all JDL actions are directed against property; 30% against businesses; 4% against academics and academic institutions; and 2% against religious targets."


Jewish Defense League Homepage. Viewed 25 Mar 2014. Retrieved from http://www.jdl-uk.org/p/faqs.html

Jewish Virtual Library (nd). Meir Kahane. Viewed on 25 Mar 2014. Retrieved from http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/biography/kahane.html

Southern Poverty Law Center (nd). Jewish Defense League. Viewed 26 Mar 2014. Retrieved from http://www.splcenter.org/get-informed/intelligence-files/groups/jewish-defense-league

Neff, D. (1999). Jewish Defense League Unleashes Campaign of Violence in America. Washington Report on Middle East Affairs, July/Aug 1999. Retrieved from http://www.ifamericansknew.org/us_ints/pg-jdl.html… [read more]

Turkey's National Security Research Paper

Research Paper  |  6 pages (2,034 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 6


The Western-backed BTC is now being challenged by a Russian-backed Friendship Pipeline, which bypasses Turkey. It is no longer in Turkey's best interest to be wholly allied with NATO and the U.S. Turkey must respond to the Russian-support Friendship nations. Its support of military intervention (as in Syria, for instance) has not entirely resulted in the desired effect. Assad remains in power after years of fighting and the UN and Russia have shown that the aggressors in Syria are terrorist-backed organizations -- not the so-called Freedom Fighters that the West has made them out to be. If Turkey will denounce Israel for its war crimes in Gaza, it may need to reassess its attitude towards the Syrian "rebels," who are also committing war crimes.

Understandably, when considering the long-term threat to its security, Turkey finds itself in a difficult position. It may be left out in the cold if it refuses to consider an alliance with Russia. On the other hand, it may alienate the only power interested in assisting it, the U.S. Yet, as the U.S.'s fortunes in the Middle East deteriorate, what with the increasing stability in Iraq and Afghanistan, it may be bad for Turkey if the U.S. fully withdraws from the region. The BTC will be consigned to irrelevance and Turkey's economy may not survive the long-term loss of projected income. Its military is currently in suitable condition, but should direct conflict arise, Turkey may need to bolster its security by appealing to a power that has significant deals in the works, as Russia has with China in East Asia.

In conclusion, near and long-term threats to Turkey's security are several. There is the rise of IS in the region, which is only the latest manifestation of terrorism. This group must be dealt with militarily. The near-term threat of this group is border instability and interior violence as well as instability from refugees seeking asylum. Turkey has already accepted many hundred thousand refugees. Long-term threats may be seen in the much larger conflict between the U.S. And Russia, as plays for the world's energy supplies create conflict in different regions. Currently, those conflicts are seen in Ukraine and Syria. Turkey remains a crucial link between the Middle East and the EU, so this conflict, and the result of pipeline completion, will affect the nation in the long run.

Reference List

Catholic Online. (2014). ISIS begins killing Christians in Mosul. Retrieved from http://www.catholic.org/news/international/middle_east/story.php?id=56481

Dawson, R. (2012). Syrian Super Thread. Anti-Neocons. Retrieved from http://www.rys2sense.com/anti-neocons/viewtopic.php?f=11&t=29233&start=7

Escobar, P. (2011). Playing Chess in Eurasia. Asia Times Online. Retrieved from http://www.afgazad.com/Zabanhaye-Eropaei/122211-Playing-Chess-in-Eurasia.pdf

Frizell, S. (2014). President Obama Explains Why the U.S. is Bombing ISIS. Time.

Retrieved from https://time.com/3095598/obama-iraq-isis/

Nichol, J. (2011). Russian Political, Economic, and Security Issues and U.S. Interests.

CRS Report for Congress. DC: Congressional Research Service.

Seibert, T. (2014). Erdogan May Win the Turkish Presidency, But He'll Face the ISIS

Crisis. The Daily Beast. Retrieved from http://www.thedailybeast.com/articles/2014/08/09/erdogan-may-re-win-the-turkish-presidency-but-he-ll-face-the-isis-crisis.html… [read more]

Iraq Pre- and Post-Saddam Research Paper

Research Paper  |  10 pages (3,490 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10



In 2003, the U.S. War on Terror expanded its footprint to incorporate an invasion of Iraq. From the moment that the first Rangers parachuted into the Kurdish-held territory in the north to the moment when President Bush declared victory on the aircraft carrier, the Iraq war was controversial. The expressed motives for the conflict where, well, conflicting, and if… [read more]

IR Aouzou Strip Essay

Essay  |  10 pages (3,066 words)
Bibliography Sources: 8


Aouzou Strip is a strip of land along the Chad-Libya border, located in the Sahara Desert. This region is named after the oasis town of Aouzou, which is the principle population center in the region. The strip runs along the entire (now Chadian) side of the boundary and is approximately 100km wide.

Historically, this region was not under any meaningful… [read more]

Isis and Syria Research Paper

Research Paper  |  5 pages (1,663 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


ISIS first began as an al Qaeda splinter cluster. The main objective of ISIS is to generate an Islamic state within the Sunni areas of Syria and Iraq. Their tactics are brutal, with violence and deaths recurring as a result of their actions. Because of this thousands of people have died or fled from Syria and Iraq in order to… [read more]

Syrian Refugee Crisis Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (1,092 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Letter to Editor

I am writing to express my support for your editorial "Still Failing Syria's Refugees." The refugee problem is one of serious concern in this world, and yet there are few countries that are truly willing to take action. But there is a long history of failing refugees, so this issue in Syria ties into a much bigger problem.

The United Nations notes that there are around 10.4 million refugees around the world this year, fleeing from conflict that they did not start and do not participate in (UNHCR, 2014). The United States takes in 70,000 refugees per year, and this is over half the world's total. Clearly, there are many issues at play but the end result is that most refugees have no real hope of resettlement or of returning home.

Conflicts around the world start for any number of reasons, but there are often opportunities for the countries that run this world to intervene. In the case of Syria, this intervention was not forthcoming, because of the same UN system that decries the globe's lack of support for refugee resettlement -- who gave Russia and China veto rights to allow this conflict to fester for four years? The reality is that all nations have contributed to the world's refugee crises, yet only a handful of nations are doing anything to address it. Europe's nations do not pull their weight, taking less than the U.S. combined despite having a higher total population. They also refused to take a stand on Syria when they had the chance.

Then there are the Arab states. One of the reasons so few Syrian refugees have been resettled is that America and other Western states have, as you argued, taken a cautious approach and screened refugee applicants carefully, and some governments have been quite specific in blaming the need for additional screening to keep out radicals as slowing the process down (Levitz, 2014). But what of the Arab states? The ones will all the oil money, who import millions of laborers from South Asia to help fuel their economic growth. Do they have any room for Syrians, themselves Arabs. Five countries in the region only are offering places for Syrians -- one of which is Turkey, so where are the other Arab states, and the other Muslim nations in this crisis? Surely we cannot only blame the West, despite the shortcomings of many Western countries.

African refugees also face tremendous problems in resettlement, and often are left to live out their lives as migrants, sometimes even stateless (Crisp, 2002). So we know the problem of ignoring refugee situations is not new. But it remains a concern and we need more people like the NYT editorial board expressing this call to action. The reality is that there are hundreds of thousands of people who have been displaced in Syria. They are fleeing the Assad regime, and they are fleeing ISIS. All these people want is a welcoming place to be safe so that… [read more]

Turkey a Cultural Bridge Between East and West Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (1,051 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


Turkey: A Cultural Bridge between East and West

Key features of Turkey's unique identity

The most noteworthy characteristic of Turkey is that it does indeed constitute a cultural bridge between the West and the East. It integrates elements of both western modernity as well as eastern traditionalism. From this standpoint, Turkey, it could be said, finds itself at a cross roads between long standing traditions and the process of globalization from the west, which is making its presence incrementally felt.

Another element of unique Turkish identity is given by the geographic location in a region rich in cultural as well as military conflicts. A relevant example in this sense is offered by the country's relationship with the Kurds, which are sometimes enemies in armed conflicts, and other times, welcomed as refugees (Eller, p.143). Aside the Kurds however, Turkey "is an amalgam of various Muslim ethnic groups, including Kurds as well as Bosniacs, Albanians, Circassians, Georgians, Greek-speaking Muslims and ethnic Turks, among others" (Cagaptay). This myriad of ethnicities constitutes yet another key determinant in the analysis of the Turkish identity.

In light of these rich and diverse values of Turkish identity, a question is being posed relative to the dominant cultural values. In order to support the EU accession process, the Turks focused primarily on a democratic stand which embraces western values. Yet, in the aftermath of the terrorist attacks at the World Trade Center, the country found it more and more difficult to further distance itself from its Muslim roots (Tank, p.463).

2. The role of religion in the Turkish society

The large majority of the Turks -- namely an estimated 99.8 per cent of the entire population -- seems to belong to the Muslim religion, mostly Sunni. The remaining people belong to several minorities, out of which Christianity and Judaism are the most popular (Central Intelligence Agency). At a formal level, Turkey is recognized as a secular state -- this basically means that it does not assume any religion as a state religion; additionally, the country allows religious freedom to all citizens. Finally, as a secular state, religion plays a limited role in the political decision making process.

While it has not been mentioned throughout the previous section, Turkey is the only democratic state in which most citizens belong to the Muslim religion -- and this also constitutes an intriguing aspect of unique Turkish identity. "Religious influence is also largely minimised in the public sphere, and religion no longer holds the same importance in people's lives as it used to. Today Muslim countries and societies are in the focal point of political observations as the religion seems to be the main obstacle on the way to a sustainable democracy and promotion of human rights. Turkey is the only democratic country among the Muslim countries which prescribes laicite [secular in French] in its constitution" (Gokhan).

3. The potential of religion and ethnicity on political cooperation / conflict in Turkey

While the country has made significant efforts in the direction of… [read more]

Britain and France's Imperialism and Competition in Egypt Research Paper

Research Paper  |  10 pages (3,144 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10


Britain and France's Imperialism And Competition In Egypt

Britain and France locked horns over Egypt at the dawn of the New Imperialism. Both nations had significant interest in Egypt for reasons of money, pride and power; both nations staked claims to the area before the turn of the twentieth century. From those years up to the "scramble for Africa" and… [read more]

Determinants of Economic Growth Case in Saudi Arabia Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  6 pages (1,682 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Economic Growth in Saudi Arabia

Determinants of Economic Growth: the Case of Saudi Arabia

Economic growth is a top priority among both industrialized and developing nations. Economic growth has a positive effect on society by promoting a higher standard of living and improved social welfare systems. Economic growth has attracted considerable academic attention in the past several years. As a… [read more]

Crisis in Jewish Faith at the Time of Jesus Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (533 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Crisis in Jewish Faith

The emergence of great religious figures cannot be considered accidental; they are the people who mark the major cultural shifts in the history of mankind. Yet, they can't be thought of as products of the shifts either. What makes them great is the way in which they put their own mark on the shift. Jesus emerged at a very critical point in the history of the Jewish faith and its people. Just within 40 years of Jesus' death, the Temple was destroyed. What came out of that disaster were two distinct religions: rabbinic Judaism and Christianity.

During the first century AD, the Jewish faith experienced a crisis of cultural erosion caused by foreign influences. For thousands of years, the Jewish people were subject to foreign rule (Egyptian, Syrian, Babylonian, Persian, Greek, and Roman), with only very short periods of independence. The foreign domination threatened the entire Jewish community and there were groups of Jews that tried to preserve it and uphold their norms and values. Foreign domination and the influences of foreigners took its toll on the Jews and the Jewish faith suffered from a major crisis. Many groups believed that because of the domination and influence, a redefinition was needed, at least partly, of traditional Jewish norms, or the emphasizing of parts of the tradition at the expense of others. Many of the groups had differing views, however, which caused some definite challenges. Some of the differing views had to do with ritual and purity laws, how to live under foreign domination, and the expectations of the Messiah.

There was social…… [read more]

Sino Iranian Relations in Changing Context Research Paper

Research Paper  |  10 pages (3,555 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


Sino Iranian Relations in Changing Context

Sino Iran Relations in Changing Context

Since the early 1970's, the relationship between Iran and China has been consistently evolving. Part of the reason for this, is because of a strategic and cultural difference that both nations feel towards the policies that have been directed against them by the West. While at the same… [read more]

How Do the United States and Iran Demonize Each Other? Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,257 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … United States and Iran demonize

How do the United States and Iran demonize each other?

The relationship between the United States and Iran is possibly at its worst in decades. Official diplomatic connections are essentially none existent and there is great hesitancy to have this altered. Historically the leadership of both countries has employed a discourse that is designed to inflame the passions of their citizens while at the same time cast the other country, not simply in a negative light, but as evil. This use of demonization by both states creates a scenario which makes any future corporation highly unlikely.

Beeman (2005) posits that the relationship between the two states cannot simply be understood as a conflict of interest or the resistance of westernization. It goes beyond those conceptual structures and is best described as the construction of a "mythological image." This image is designed to demonize the other party, and it is "calculated to be immediately understood by the man in the street" (Beeman 2005, p.1).Demonization then is a deliberate strategy that paints the other side as evil, the purpose of which is to galvanize support amongst your people.

A central feature of this issue is the Iranian assessment of the historical role of Western Powers in the Middle East. To establish their case for the west as evil the Iranians point to what may be considered a central tenet of the historical interpretation. Western powers are seen as brigands, whose sole purpose being to raid the mineral reserves of Middle Eastern countries. These mineral reserves are seen as their patrimony, the blessing they have received for being the children of God. Indeed it is not without good cause that this view is adopted as the West has frequently inserted itself in the politics of the Middle East, often with disastrous consequences. The establishment of many Middle Eastern governments can be attributed to Western meddling in the politics of those countries.

It is though the American action that the Shah of Iran maintained his hold on political power until he was deposed. Thus the Iranian revolution marked not only the removal of the shah but also the repudiation of American policies. During the Iran Iraq war America supported Iraq and the Saddam Hussein regime against Iran. Iranian leaders identify these historical actions as the Americans acting in the vein of previous western powers. Seeking to control the destiny of Iran, with a view to shield their economic interests and secure access to mineral reserves. The economic interest in Iran is sizable "Iran's gas reserves are second in the world, and its significant oil resources make it a pivotal player in energy" (Wright & Bakhash 1997 p.125). America is seen as meddling robbers, seeking only its national interests and having no concern for the interests of the people of Iran.

The creation of the mythology is an important aspect of this analysis. Both sides have created a myth surrounding the other, while this has some basis in… [read more]

Global Challenges Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (664 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3



Global Challenges

Negotiation: The differences between domestic and international negotiation

Negotiation: The differences between domestic and international negotiation

The most obvious difference between business negotiations that are conducted domestically vs. negotiations conducted internationally are the linguistic and cultural barriers that must be overcome. When two different parties literally speak different languages, much can be lost in translation. Subtleties of discourse, colloquial phrasing, connotative meanings of language, irony, and joking -- all of the aspects of conversational intimacy that can relax two negotiating parties can be lost in a literal translation. An obvious example of this is the word 'no.' In the low-context cultural environment of the United States where people tend to 'mean what they say,' 'no means no.' However, in Japan, the word 'no' is almost never used, and is considered to be fairly rude in a formal setting (Beer 2007).

Instead, in Japan the term 'maybe' is more often deployed, although culturally this is understood to mean 'no.' However, an American negotiating with a Japanese firm may take 'maybe' at face value, particularly when the word is conveyed through a translator. Even in the absence of imperfect translation, the use of body language and nonverbal communication can also convey unintentional emotion or information when individuals come from different cultures. For example, direct eye contact is expected in the West, but frowned upon in many Asian countries (Beer 2007).

In domestic negotiations, even though sexism and racism still exist, all parties are members of the same legal environment and context. But with negotiations abroad, a woman might find herself treated with less respect than her male colleagues. In France, a more highly-charged sexual atmosphere between men and women in the workplace may be expected. In some nations of the Middle East, women are not customarily part of business negotiations at all, and seeing a female in a leadership role can create cognitive dissonance for the other side (Women in business in Saudi Arabia, 2010, World Business Culture). Nations that are…… [read more]

International Business -- Communication Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (858 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


international Business -- Communication Case Study

A business associate once described an unsuccessful attempt to establish a business relationship with prospective partners in Saudi Arabia. In retrospect, it was a tremendous mistake not to conduct the necessary research into Saudi Arabian business culture and practices before attempting to negotiate a deal in their country. Since that experience, the individual involved has become much more familiar with Saudi Arabian customs, practices and expectations.

Arranging the Business Meeting

The first mistake concerned the manner in which the initial business meeting was arranged. The individual established an initial connection through traditional mailed correspondence and then followed up with an email exchange to introduce the business and the idea of a proposal. Then, following regular business practices in the United States, he requested the opportunity of an in-person meeting. His executive assistant inquired on his behalf into the availability of the prospective business partner and indicated several specific dates and times for a scheduled meeting.

In retrospect, this was already a breach of Saudi Arabian business practices and expectations because it is not customary for Saudis to schedule a meeting with foreigners abroad. They strongly prefer to schedule any such meeting only after the foreigner has already arrived in Saudi Arabia. The prospective Saudi partner granted the meeting only because it would have been too awkward to refuse; on the other hand, this obvious ignorance of Saudi customs and expectations was already the proverbial "first strike" against the likely success of the venture.

Personal Introductions

The second set of mistakes committed by the foreigner hoping to do business in Saudi Arabia occurred in connection with the introduction phase of the meeting. Unlike American business customs, in Saudi Arabia, it is common for the host to serve a full multiple-course meal before ever discussing any business. Before that, it is customary for everyone in the room to be personally introduced to everyone else with a handshake. At that time, it is also expected that they will exchange their business cards as well.

Upon being introduced, the foreigner took each business card as it was offered. Because he is left-handed, he usually handed his own card with his left hand. Unfortunately, in Saudi Arabia (and much of the Middle East), the left hand is considered unclean because it is used for cleaning one's self. The hosts were too polite to say anything, but they must have been extremely uncomfortable with that element of the introduction and card exchange.

Making matters worse, all of the Saudi business cards were printed on both sides with Arabic on…… [read more]

Foreign Exchange Risk Management Research Paper

Research Paper  |  15 pages (5,032 words)
Style: Harvard  |  Bibliography Sources: 15


Foreign Exchange Risk Management in the Companies of the Steel Industry in Eastern European Countries

Today, there are some interesting developments taking place in Eastern Europe in general and the Ukraine in particular as well as Turkey that will have an important impact on the global steel industry in the years to come. Following the collapse of the Soviet Union… [read more]

Semi-Structured Interviewing Method Developed by Brown, Karley Thesis

Thesis  |  4 pages (1,802 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


¶ … semi-structured interviewing method developed by Brown, Karley, Boudville, Builas, Garg and Muirhead (2008) for use in their study of living kidney donors. In the Brown et al. study, the researchers conducted a series of semi-structured interviews which will be administered to both paid and non-paid living kidney donors who agree in advance to participate in the study. The… [read more]

Kidney Donation From Live Donors and Ethical Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  4 pages (1,093 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3


¶ … Kidney Donation from Live Donors and Ethical Considerations in Legal Organ Sales

Briefly discuss which experimental design you have chosen for your nursing research proposal and why.

The proposed study will use a qualitative, phenomenological approach and a purposeful sampling design following the semi-structured interview procedures used by Brown, Karley, Boudville, Builas, Garg and Muirhead (2008) in their study of living kidney donors to gain new insights about the decision-making processes that living kidney donors use and the psychosocial issues that these experience to inform transplant programs concerning the needs of living donors and improve quality assurance practices. In this regard, Brown and his colleagues report that living kidney transplants are accounting for an increasing percentage of all transplanted kidneys. In response to these trends, there has been a concomitant increase in interest concerning the long-term psychosocial implications of paid- and nonpaid living kidney donations (Brown et al., 2008).

The studies to date have indicated that kidney donors may enjoy quality of life levels and self-esteem that are higher than those of the general population, but some researchers have suggested that there are some downsides to kidney donation, including anxiety, depression, and suicidal ideation (Brown et al., 2008). In addition, kidney donation has been shown to have positive as well as negative effects on marital, family, and sibling relationships (Brown et al., 2008). Although most clinicians agree that the kidney donation process is safe for living donors, there remains a lack of substantive medical guidelines that should be followed in counseling living donors. For instance, Ross, Siegler and Thistlethwaite (2007) report that, "On September 19, 2007, the board of the United Network for Organ Sharing deferred a decision to adopt uniform medical guidelines to protect the safety of living kidney donors. There is disagreement about what the guidelines should say, primarily because there is a lack of definitive data about living organ donors" (p. 37). Therefore, the proposed study can help illuminate both the decision-making process that living kidney donors undergo to reach a positive decision as well as what pre- and post-operative counseling can help minimize any adverse clinical outcomes that may result in order to improve legal organ donation rates, including the model used in Iran, the only country in the world where organ sales are legal (Hippen, 2008; Unique model, 2007).

Explain your choice of subjects for your research (the sample)

The purposeful sample of subjects will consist of both paid and non-paid Iranian living kidney donors who agree to participate in the study. Any donor-recipient relationship will be noted and other variables such as gender, age, and geographic location will be captured. These subjects will form the basis for the semi-structured interviews that will be based on a comprehensive review of the literature and conducted pre- and post-surgery to identify effective approaches to increasing kidney donation rates from live donors and the corresponding ethical considerations involved in legal organ sales in Iran today.

Identify how you will recruit the participants for your research proposal.… [read more]

Equity Market in Saudi Arabia Thesis

Thesis  |  3 pages (959 words)
Style: Harvard  |  Bibliography Sources: 2


Equity Market in Saudi Arabia

Saudi Arabia is the largest exporter of oil, feature which translates into the economy's great dependency on oil revenues. In more recent years however, the authorities at Riyadh have implemented several policies to support an economic growth through diversification, which would resolve several social issues, such as a high unemployment level, a significant income gap between the oil exporting parties and the rest of the population, or the fact that the young Saudi Arabians are poorly educated and have few prospects for the future (Central Intelligence Agency, 2009). With this objective in mind, more support has also been offered to the development of the equity market.

Funding through equity has been an existent opportunity for people conducting business in Saudi Arabia for two decades now. Its feasibility was however limited until only recently. To this day, Saudi Arabia does not possess a derivative market, a hedge fund market or a securities lending market. It is nevertheless a promising emergent market, despite the youth of its capital market. Returning to the equity market, its actual role came in force in 2003. Prior to this year, the market was present more in a theoretical context, with its practical applications being virtually inexistent. Yet, with the 2003 privatization of Saudi Telecom -- a transaction of $4.08 billion -- the modern equity market in Saudi Arabia was born (Global Investor, 2009) -- it will nevertheless have to go a long way to meet all the functions of a highly developed equity market.

By 2005 and relative to other equity markets in the region, the equity market of Saudi Arabia was characterized as large, but only limitedly accessible. It was following a trend similar to that of the more developed western societies, and it was striving to align itself to the economic principles of the United States. Yet, advancements were made at a slow rate. There were other countries in the Gulf region which regulated smaller markets, and were as such more flexible. A relevant example is Bahrain (Abraham and Seyyed, 2005).

In 2006, the Saudi Arabian equity market was met with an unprecedented boom, created however on seemingly undesirable conditions. At this stage, the TASI (Tadawul All-Share Index) had decreased by more than SAR 1.96 trillion; this virtually meant that the capitalization of the market suffered drastic reductions. The direct result of this situation was that of the radical devaluation of assets. To investors then, the opportunities to purchase assets enhanced. What these realizations came to was a "buying euphoria" that materialized in "bubble-like tendencies" (Mahmood, 2007).

By 2007, signs of improvement were already obvious. The percentage of the oil revenues in the overall gross domestic product decreased, as the industry diversified and the other non-oil sectors were beginning to register income and attract investors. The risk of investments had significantly decreased, and the country ratings had significantly…… [read more]

Issue of Turkey Joining the EU Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  6 pages (1,888 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 7


Turkey EU

In December 1999 at the Helsinki European Council, Turkey became a candidate country for EU membership. The prospect of Turkey joining the EU is one of the most ambitious -- and contentious -- moves that the Union has made. Negotiations began in 2005 and have proceeded at a relatively slow pace. There are a wide range of issues… [read more]

Middle East Iraqi Kurdistan Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  8 pages (2,826 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 6


¶ … Kurdish Homeland Possible?

The Kurdish people in the Middle East primarily reside in four nation-states of Turkey, Iraq, Iran and Syria The Kurdish people have suffered cultural and political strife over the years while they desperately campaign for their own sovereign state. Consisting of nearly 30 million people, the Kurds believe they deserve a Kurdish homeland. This, if… [read more]

Country Analysis Our Company Is Considering Two Thesis

Thesis  |  4 pages (1,136 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 2


Country Analysis

Our company is considering two markets to enter in the near future. Italy represents a strong established world market, while Turkey represents a developing market with significant potential. This paper will analyze the characteristics of each market and make a determination as to which market is best for our company. A market entry strategy will then be outlined.

Italy is one of the world's leading economies. Italy has 58 million people, making it one of the largest nations in the developed world. The country's GDP (purchasing power parity) ranks 11th in the world at $1.823 trillion, although it ranks lower in GDP per capita. The nation's economic structure is divided between the wealthy industrial north and the relatively poor, agricultural south.

In business consulting, marketing is often relationship-driven. This is the case in Italy as well. Firms in the north are more willing to carry multiple consulting relationships and shop around, while in the south the emphasis is placed on long-standing relationships. Professional consulting is a less well-established concept there. The industry overall is stronger in the north as well, due to the business culture that more resembles central and western Europe. As with consulting elsewhere in the world, Italy's industry is facing a downturn in business as corporations seek to contain costs during these times of economic uncertainty.

The political environment in Italy can be volatile, but that lends the impacts on business a certain consistency. Elections are frequent, as are coalition governments. However, this instability hinders the ability of government to get things done. As a result, "Italy has moved slowly on implementing needed structural reforms, such as lightening the high tax burden and overhauling Italy's rigid labor market and overgenerous pension system." (CIA World Factbook, 2009). When these changes do occur, however, it is expected that they will increase the demand for the services of consultants with experience in less rigid business regimes. Also, Italy is within the EU, meaning that it is subject to the whims of that considerable bureaucracy.

In terms of resources, Italy has a favorable environment. The key inputs in the consulting industry are money and talent. Italy -- especially the north -- is rich in both. The education system is strong and the country's managers are experienced. The emphasis on small and medium-sized businesses provides a rich talent pool from which to draw and the nation's wealth and free capital markets provides access to the necessary financing.

In some respects, Turkey is similar to Italy, but the pace of its development has been slower, resulting in some significant differences as well. Turkey is a large market of 76 million people, and is the 17th largest economy in the world. On a per capita basis, however, Turkey's economy places it in the second world. The market is moving towards a free capitalist system, but the state remains in control of several large industries, including banking. An estimated 30% of the country is still employed in basic agriculture.

Because of the government's… [read more]

Americans in Muslim Countries American Women Thesis

Thesis  |  3 pages (951 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Americans in Muslim Countries

American Women in Saudi Arabia

Living in a culture different than one's own can be a very arduous ordeal, on many levels and for many reasons. Often, the hardest things to get used to are the differences in one's daily life that occur in a foreign country and with a foreign culture. Things like going to the store and buying and cooking food can be completely different in another country -- the process of buying might include the expectation of haggling in some areas, whereas in others it could be considered extremely rude; the types of food available and even what is considered fit for human consumption vary hugely from culture to culture, and even the technologies and utensils for cooking are quite different. Styles of dress, transportation, and what is considered appropriate conduct in all sorts of social situations are changed drastically depending on geographic and ethnic location. All of these factors can lead to unique artifacts being produced by small minority populations living amid other cultures; an adherence to the customs and ways in which they grew up leads to certain interactions with the dominant culture of a given area that create circumstances, practices, and even objects that could not exist without such cultural interaction, or even without the dominance and power structure of the two cultures.

Because of this, the artifacts that arise within or because of minority groups living among especially stringent and controlling cultures are more extreme and pronounced than others. The interactions that occur are more likely to be negative in nature -- the more oppose the dominant culture is to the minority group's the more direct conflict will ensue. It is, of course, quite possible for vastly different cultures to coexist peaceably, but when the requirements and standards of one culture are incompatible with the other culture's practices and sensibilities this coexistence sometimes becomes an impossibility, and conflict is the necessary result.

One modern example of this type of scenario, where a minority group is attempting to live inside a dominant culture with several oppositional cultural beliefs and practices, is the existence of the many Americans living abroad in Muslim countries. Not all Muslim countries are run as strict theocracies, imposing Islamic law or sharia on all of their citizens and even visitors. There are several counties in the Middle East, however, that do run their countries in this fashion, making the culture very restrictive to non-Muslims or those that practice a less strict form of the religion. One such country is Saudi Arabia, and issues involving women there have been a problem for many years. This is true even of women who grew up in Saudi Arabian society, but the effects of this culture on minority groups -- such as Americans -- within the country have stirred up even more of a to-do…… [read more]

Afghanistan and Rwanda: Comparison of Economic Thesis

Thesis  |  10 pages (3,630 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 5


¶ … Afghanistan and Rwanda:

Comparison of Economic and Social Development

Since the advent of modern foreign policy, officials have used a myriad of names to refer to those countries that seem stunted in their growth. The term third world was first used during the period of bipolarity that was the cold war, but continues to be used today to… [read more]

Women Education and Labor Enforcement in Turkey and Iran Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  10 pages (2,901 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 17


Women Education and Labor Enforcement in Turkey and Iran

The Republic of Turkey occupies today an area of 780, 580 sq km with a total population of almost 72 mi. people (CIA the World Fact Book). The Republic of turkey was founded under the leadership of Mustafa Kemal, later called Ataturk (father of Turkey), in 1923. The new republic inherited… [read more]

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