Study "Israel / Palestine / Arab World" Essays 276-330

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Industrial Relations A2 Coursework

… Industrial Management

Industrial Relations in the United Arab Emirates

Industrial Relations is a field of critical importance in terms of understanding and refining how labor and workplace issues are defined. This has never been truer than today, when the deconstruction of global trade barriers is leading to new and unforeseen economic partnerships between developing nations and multinational corporations. These relationships require constant evaluation if we are to understand their implications for labor and management on a global scale.

Role and Function of Managers in Industrial Relations:

In a general sense, "beyond leadership skill, one must have the leadership vision to lead properly." (Reh, 2) More specifically, in the context of the United Arab Emirates (UAE), there is a particular imperative for management to understand the unique idiosyncrasies of labor relations in the nation. Specifically, though the United Arab Emirates is progressive insofar as its economy is a thriving and globally integrated one, it still struggles with a host of ethnic and gender discrimination issues that are highly culturally driven. According to one source, "Indians and other expatriates in the UAE are increasingly becoming susceptible to the scourge of depression, research has shown. The prime causes are discrimination at the workplace, longer working hours, home-sickness, and the chaotic state of peak-hour traffic." (INP, 1)

Management must take on the role of both a protector of the attendant culture and a progressive leader where such matters are concerned. It will take strong leadership through an industrial relations context to bring about greater equality in the UAE marketplace.

Managing Change Effectively:

According…… [read more]


International Business Turkey Term Paper

… Turkey Textiles

Turkey is a crossroads nation, straddling Europe and Asia. The country was once the hub of the Byzantine Roman and Ottoman Empires, and as such has longstanding cultural and trade links throughout the region. The modern nation is… [read more]


Civil War in Syria Essay

… As an American citizen who appreciates this nation's status of military and economic supremacy, watching a young man who previously studied economics at the University of Aleppo thrust himself headlong into the fray of urban warfare was intensely powerful. It was obvious throughout the video that the Free Syrian Army was grossly undersupplied and disorganized, and despite their courageous willingness to fight tanks with pick-up trucks, the freedom fighters would clearly benefit from American intervention.

It would be disingenuous to criticize the American government's inconsistent approach to the Syrian crisis without also acknowledging that crucial circumstantial shifts have occurred in the region. The increasingly totalitarian regime of Egypt's ostensibly legitimate leader Mohamed Morsi, the tragic killing of an American ambassador in Benghazi, Libya by militant terrorists, and Israel's air campaign against Hamas in the Gaza Strip are all external factors affecting the Obama administration's policymaking process. While these concerns are admittedly complicated, the scenes of civilian devastation depicted by the video The Battle for Syria reminded me of the President's declaration on March 28, 2011, made during his address to the nation on the Libyan intervention, when he reminded the world that "in just one month, the United States has worked with our international partners to mobilize a broad coalition, secure an international mandate to protect civilians, stop an advancing army, prevent a massacre, and establish a no-fly zone with our allies and partners." Yesterday, today and tomorrow in Syria, civilians are in desperate need of protection from a rapidly advancing army, one which has already massacred dissenters for over a year without reprisal from the international community. The ideals underlying President Obama's words were true when he made them in reference to Libya, and no matter the geopolitical implications involved, he has a moral responsibility to apply those same ideals to the Syrian civil war.

References

Goldstein, Joshua S., and Jon C. Pevehouse. International Relations. Brief 6th. New York, NY: Pearson Higher Education, 2011. Print.

Kurth, James. "Humanitarian Intervention After Iraq: Legal Ideals vs. Military Realities." Orbis. Winter. (2005): 87-101. Print.

Obama, Barack. United States. The White House Office of the Press Secretary. Remarks by the President in Address to the Nation on Libya. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 2011. Web. .

Worth, Robert F., and Helene Cooper. "Mideast Unrest Intensifies Debate on U.S. Intervention in Syria." New York Times 16 Sep 2012, A8. Web. 28 Nov. 2012. .… [read more]


Social Variables in the Development and Maintenance Thesis

… ¶ … Social Variables in the Development and Maintenance of Business Relationships with Libyan Companies

The Need for the Research

Expected Contribution to Knowledge

Review of the Chapters

Review of Chapter 2 (Literature Review)

Review of Chapter 3 (Research Methodology)… [read more]


al-Assad: Religious Minority Rule in Syria Research Paper

… al-Assad family has ruled Syria with an iron fist for the past 40 years, and the fallout from the recent uprisings in the Middle East and North Africa have also affected the Syrian people. The purpose of this research is… [read more]


Iran Country Vulnerability Assessment Outlook Research Paper

… Nevertheless, there have been constraints caused by different factors. The gross-Domestic-Product has shown decline last few years. This may be as a result of the population growth. The government is also spending a lot in the military despite the fact that it is not enough. External pressure has been reported especially because of the attacks from Iraq and Afghanistan. This has made the country exposed to attacks because of the many resources it has. The war seems endless and as much as United States of America has shown interest in defending it, United Arab Emirates and Iraq are not giving up.

References

CIA, "World Fact Book: Iran," [database online], Country Profiles; accessed July 29, 2012.

Library of Congress, "Country Profile: Iran"; available from http://lcweb2.loc.gov/frd/pdf/CS_Iran.pdf; Internet; accessed July 30, 2012.

Iran Tracker. 2012. Afghanistan-Iran Foreign Relations. Online, available from Internet, accessed July 17th, 2012.

Karsh, Efraim, ad. The Iran-lraq War: Impact and Implications. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1 World Bank. 2012. Iran at a Glance. Online, available from Internet accessed July 17th, 2012

World Bank. 2012. Iran at a Glance. Online, available from Internet accessed July 17th, 2012… [read more]


Iran Societal Assessment Research Paper

… Analysts say the continuation of this trend will take Iran far beyond and above its Muslim counterparts. But the Neo-conservative government and President Ahmad-Nejd are not happy and want to introduce reforms to help take the population to 120 million

. This seems to hint at the modernization of the populace and the fact that the government and people don't get along very well.

NATIONAL COHESION: If Pakistan has a diverse population with a variety of cultural, social and ethnic groups residing in the country Iran is not far behind. The Iranian nation is composed of more than 10 ethnic groups and a similar number of languages here. The religious composition of the country is also equally diverse. The official religion is Islam and there are 89% Shia Muslims, 9% Sunnis and the last 2% is made up of Christians, Jews, Zoroastrians etc.

The most prominent ethnic groups in the country are: Persians (61%), 16% Azeris, Kurds (10%), Lur (6%), 2% Arabs, 2% Baloch and 2% of Turkmen tribes and 1% of others

. Unlike Pakistan, where ethnic groups are close in quantity and group loyalty has made it difficult for the people to unite, Iran does not have that issue. Its dominant force is the Shia population that is in control of every administrative department. It was religious unity that had provided support to the two revolutions that have shaped the country's history and its current political system. The overwhelming support that Ayatollah Khomeini got in 1979, to bring about the revolution, characterizes the revolution as 'a society vs. state' conflict. All factions of society had some conflict with the existing government: the farmers were saddened over the monetary losses they had faced; the Ulema (cleric) felt the state was alienated from religion, hence rather unreligious in approach. Lastly, the general public was desirous of more freedom. Therefore all of them united to prepare demonstrations and get rid of the rulers. However, the resultant political form has also failed to satisfy the masses. Writer Farideh Farhi, in her book 'Crafting a National Identity Amidst Contentious Politics in Contemporary Iran,' talks about how the people of Iran are now faced with an identity crisis that has them confused and continuously in search of a religious philosophy that would bring them mental and social peace. They have lost faith in the government and their religious reforms

. The two issues of relationships with U.S. And the nuclear program are great burdens on the public's mind and they have adopted a more modern outlook to life than the government would allow. If the 2009 protests are any indication the people are running out of patience with government and their reforms.

Enterprise: Education is the key to a successful, happy life and a nation's children are its future. If they are not well educated, the society can be expected to be illiterate and inefficient and the nation's economic, social and political demise becomes imminent. Education paves the way towards economic and social progress.… [read more]


Comparing Marketing Mix of a Product in 3 Deferent Countries Term Paper

… Apple's Mid-East Marketing Mix

There are few American retail products that have had both the economic and cultural impact of Apple's iPhone. As Apple has unrolled the product in various markets throughout the global economy, it has proven adept at facilitating market adaptation. Indeed, with its momentously popular product achieving a highly intuitive, user friendly, sleek and integrated smartphone template, the iPhone continues to set the pace in the global marketplace. Still, it must weather distinct marketing challenges as it penetrates the mobile media device sector in the Middle East. Owing to the region's considerable cultural, political and commercial differences, the western firm must adapt to context such as Israel, Egypt and Saudi Arabia accordingly.

Brand:

The iPhone has, since its unveiling in 2007, achieved enormous growth and profitability. In just five years, comScore (2012) reports, Apple used its innovative device launch itself into the heart of a competitive telecom industry. As of the 2012 report, "Apple continued to gain ground in the OEM market with 12.4% share of total mobile subscribers (up 2.2 percentage points)." (comScore, p. 1) This achievement is driven by both the product's considerable and permeating appeal and by the savvy marketing and promotional instruments used by the Apple company. This will be demonstrated in its weathering of the new markets explored here.

Comparison:

Product

One of the interesting realities with which Apple has come face-to-face is the differentials in product expectation among target buyers in different countries and cultures. In markets such as Israel, where the population is uniquely situated in sympathy to western ideals and cultural interests, the device itself remains largely unchanged. Indeed, Apple's contract with the country's trio of mega-carriers, Cellcom, Orange and Bezeq Israel Telecom, suggest that penetration will occur quickly in this market with little product adaptation. (Paczkowski, p. 1)

Such opportunities are less immediately apparent where Egypt is concerned. Apple's initial failure to produce a more functional digital camera in its first model became a consistently cited grievance among young Egyptians. According to Inskeep (2012), "the need for a good camera is something that comes up again and again when talking with younger Egyptians about their phones. Easy internet access, which is one of the features of the iPhone, isn't as important for them as the camera." (Inskeep, p. 1) This underscores the danger in prioritizing technology according to a singular cultural understanding.

For such markets as Saudi Arabia, notable for its dictatorial form of theocratic government, the device's security vulnerability has been a point of contention. In 2011, Saudi Arabia announced, for instance, that the product would be banned from high-security buildings and public spaces. According to Kee (2011), "this ban was declared due to the security concern that these high-tech telecommunication gadgets can be infiltrated easily via hacking, according to London-based Asharq Al Awsat." (Kee, p.1)

Price

Egyptians will pay a rate of 3800 EGP for the iPhone 4S 16GB which calculates to roughly $627.…… [read more]


Compare Two Foundation Literature Review

… ¶ … redefined the Dubai skyline in recent years are the Burj Dubai, reputedly the world's tallest building upon completion, and the Emirates Twin Towers, consisting of a hotel and office complex. Although located in geographically similar areas, the foundation… [read more]


American Foreign Policy Towards the Persian Gulf Research Proposal

… American Foreign Policy Towards the Persian Gulf

Between 1988 and 2010, American foreign policy in the Persian Gulf was focused on achieving a number of different objectives. As, there was an emphasis on maintaining stability in the region by: supporting… [read more]


U.S. Democratic Party's View on U.S. Foreign Policy Essay

… U.S. foreign policy

Democratic Party's view on U.S. Foreign Policy

US Democratic Party's position on the Middle East

In his Middle Eastern policy, the leader of the Democratic Party, President Barak Obama, balances a desire to improve regional stability with a determination to secure U.S. political and economic interests. Obama is the president who was able to hunt down Osama Bin Laden and win a victory over the masterminds of the attacks of September 11, 2001. While he initially opposed the war in Iraq as a senator, unlike his current Secretary of State Hillary Clinton, President Obama has continued military engagement in that country, by virtue of necessity, given the impossibility of pulling out too soon and further destabilizing the region. He continued and intensified the war in Afghanistan, although there are strong signs that he is considering pulling out of that conflict, given the noted corruption of the Afghanistan government supported by the U.S. Obama, and the Democratic Party he represents, can be thus said to have a pragmatic approach to Middle Eastern policy. It is fundamentally grounded in realism, but it also has a strong undercurrent of idealism in its aspirations to foster democracy.

The Democratic Party has been a historically strong supporter of the Jewish state of Israel. Given the wide base of support amongst American Jews for Democrats nationwide, the party has found it politically advantageous to support Israel. Israel is one of the few democratic nations within the region whose government mirrors that of the U.S. However, the continued war between the Israelis and Palestinians has stymied U.S. attempts to broker peace in the region, not just between the immediately affected parties, but between other Arab governments and the U.S. itself. U.S. support for Israel remains a 'sticking point' in improving rapprochement between the U.S. And other Middle Eastern nations, given that so many Arab governments stubbornly refuse to acknowledge Israel's existence.

President Obama and the leadership of the Democratic Party have begun put increased pressure on Israel to extend an olive branch to the Palestinians. "The President had said that a two-state solution, which [Right-wing Prime Minister Benjamin] Netanyahu alleges to support, should be based on the pre-1967 borders" (Klein 2011). Obama has encouraging on Netanyahu to negotiate with Palestinians more aggressively, but sustained violence within the territories makes it difficult for Netanyahu to do so. Obama's terms for Israeli-Palestinian land-swapping agreements are not ground-breaking: they are similar to Bill Clinton's attempts to negotiate peace in 2000. But the mood in Israel and the territories are far more militant than it was ten years ago. The rhetoric of Islamic extremists has grown more threatening, while the determination of Jewish settlers to remain in the territories has likewise stiffened. "Israel's greatest fear: when push comes to shove, the Palestinians have never really acknowledged Israel's right to exist. The one exception to that rule -- Yasser Arafat's signing of the Oslo accords -- seems hollow" (Klein 2011) The U.S. is sustained in its support of a… [read more]


Ethiopian Jews Interesting Story Term Paper

… Kashrut is the body of Jewish law. The food prepared in accordance to the Kashrut law is known as Kosher food. During the migration to Israel has affected the Israel's cuisine as well. Many different places in Israel such as Tel Aviv, Haifa and Be'er Sheva have restaurant which serve Ethiopian food. These offer outstanding unique taste to the people of Israel for a very reasonably price making it affordable by many. (Daniel Rogov)

Even though Israel is the only state which has accepted the Jews of Ethiopian, there are still many issues faced by most of the Beta Israelis. The government of Israel has done a great job in organizing and welcoming the Jews to assist them in many different aspects. The Ethiopian Jews are still facing the issue of racism. Common problems faced by the Beta Israelis include language issue. Beta Israelis coming from Ethiopia speak Amharic which is different from the Israelis. They have come from a country which did not have enough resources to foster the career growth of Beta Israelis. Hence, migrating to Israel with highly competitive market is bound to cause many difficulties for the Ethiopian Jews. Israel is already facing high inflation due to which unemployment is already become an issue. Hence forth the migration of Jews has put a lot of strain on the economy of Israel. This is proven through the use of their hotels as absorption centers which hinders the tourism industry. Also the hospital are highly populated, they have to handle doubt the amount of patients. The estimated cost of assisting the Ethiopian Jews in Israel is estimated to be $300 million in the next couple of years. (Cultural Survival)

References

"Beta Israel" Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia. Wikipedia Foundation, Web.

"The History of Ethiopian Jews." Israel Association for Ethiopian Jews (IAEJ), Jewish Virtual Library, Web.

"Ethiopian Jews in Israel." Cultural Survival.

Nicole Hyman, "A modern-day Pessah miracle" The Jerusalem Post, 27th April 2011.

Anderson, Phil. "Ethiopian Jews." St. Rosemary Educational Institution, February 21, 2011. Web. Retrieved on: Sunday 1st May 2011

"Time line of Ethiopian History." Israel Association for Ethiopian Jews (IAEJ), Jewish Virtual Library, Web.

"Ethiopian Jews" The Free Encyclopedia. The Encyclopedia and…… [read more]


Violence the Definition Essay

… References

Aluf, B. (2011) Understanding history won't help us make peace, Foreign Policy, Issue 184, p. 70

Barron, P. & Sharpe, J.; (2008) Local conflict in post-Suharto Indonesia: Understanding variations in violence levels and forms through local newspapers, Journal of East Asian Studies, Vol. 8, Issue 2, pp. 395 -- 423

Barron, P.; Kaiser, K.; Pradhan, M.; ( 2004) Local conflict in Indonesia: Measuring incidence and identifying patterns, Policy Research Working Paper No. 3384. Washington, DC: World Bank.

Diehl, P.F. & Lepgold, J.;( 2003) Regional conflict management, Oxford: Rowman & Littlefield

Ephron, D. (2010) Who needs peace, love and understanding anyway? Newsweek, Vol. 155, Issue 2, pp. 44-47

Gorringe, H. (2006) Which is violence? Reflections on collective violence and Dalit Movements in South India, Social Movement Studies, Vol. 5, Issue 2, pp. 117 -- 136

Huhn, S. (2009) A history of nonviolence? The social construction of Costa Rican peaceful identity, Social Identities, Vol. 15, Issue 6, pp. 787 -- 810

Graham, K. & Felicip, T.; (2006) Regional security and global governance: A study of interactions between regional agencies and the UN Security Council with a proposal for a regional-global security mechanism, Brussels, VUB Brussels University Press

Justino, P. (2005) Redistribution and civil unrest, Paper prepared for the meeting of the American Economic Association, Philadelphia, January 7 -- 9, 2005

Kalyvas, S. (2008) Promises and pitfalls of an emerging research program: The microdynamics of civil war, Order, Conflict, Violence, ed.Stathis N. Kalyvas, Ian Shapiro, and Tarek Masoud. Cambridge: Cambridge…… [read more]


European Colonialism in the Middle East History Essay

… European Colonialism in the Middle East

History reveals how the European powers carved out their own colonies in the Middle East, partly for the sheer power of ownership and domination, and partly due to Europe's need for the valuable resources… [read more]


Diversity International Business Diversity Training: The Middle Research Paper

… ¶ … Diversity International Business

Diversity training: The Middle East

Because of the wealth and oil concentrated in the region, the Middle East is becoming one of the most critical areas of the world involved in modern commerce. However, despite the fact that the globe is becoming increasingly interconnected, notable divisions exist between the United States' and the Middle East's cultural assumptions that must be kept in mind when doing business.

According to the characterizations or 'indexes' of the theorist Geert Hofstede, the Middle East rates high on Hofstede's power discrepancies between superiors and subordinates. It also rates high on Hofstede's uncertainty avoidance indexes which indicates "a caste system that does not allow significant upward mobility of its citizens….[the Middle East is] highly rule-oriented with laws, rules, regulations, and controls in order to reduce the amount of uncertainty, while inequalities of power and wealth have been allowed to grow within the society" (Taylor 2007). Many of the Arab states are known as rentier states, in which the majority of the oil wealth is controlled by the state, and doled out to the citizens. In contrast, the United States emphasizes the need for upward mobility amongst its citizens, and, at least in theory, believes strongly in the value of change and growth.

Foreign negotiators must be cognizant of the ranks of the individuals whom they are addressing when doing business in the Middle East. Addressing someone of a lower rank first, for example, might be seen a sign of serious disrespect, while in the United States it might merely be regarded as a minor or even humorous faux paux. In the Middle East, there is a strong divide between managers and subordinates; also, age is important when exhibiting deference to superiors. Proper etiquette must be strictly observed: "Arabian culture utilizes the concept of face to solve conflicts and avoid embarrassing or discomforting others. In a business context, preventing loss of face is equally important' (Gorrill 2007).

For female executives, one of the foremost concerns is the manner in which…… [read more]


Western Civilization Proposal Research Proposal

… " For an American Jew to feel sufficiently strong about her identity as a Jew that she would choose to emigrate from the United States to the fledgling Jewish state indicates a remarkable sort of faith in the long-term prospects of the great Zionist dream.

But there is another reason, I think, why Meir was such a resonant symbolic figurehead. The chief antagonists of the Israeli state during the time of Meir's premiership were largely the surrounding countries, predominantly Arab and overwhelmingly Muslim. (The Arab identity is made problematic largely by Iran: a very large neighbor of Israel whose population are not Arabs and whose language is not Arabic, but whose Shi'a Islam is Islam nonetheless; the Muslim identity is made problematic by Lebanon and Syria, or even Egypt, which have large Christian populations, including ones which underwent their schism with the Western church almost as long ago as Islam did -- these include the Coptic, Maronite, and Nestorian sects.) But it is no secret that both Arab and Islamic cultures have in common a largely repressive or antiquated attitude towards the social role of women -- something which Judaism lacks. Judaism is (interestingly) a matrilineal religion: the accepted rabbinic law holds that a person requires a Jewish mother to be Jewish (but not necessarily a Jewish father). One might consider rabbinic definitions of Judaism to be purely academic until one considers the centrality to Israel's constitution, its statehood, and its enshrinement of the "Right of Return," which hinges on the legal definition of what makes one a Jew (considering it to be a Jewish mother). There are ample reasons, in order words, why Meir's status as a woman should provoke all kinds of symbolic associations (socially, culturally and religiously) which made her leadership of Israel in a period of war and mild social crisis an intriguing case study.

Methods of research for studying Golda Meir will include not only biographies of the woman herself, but studies of women's involvement in politics and religion, and also a critical look at depictions of Meir in the mass media (including Spielberg's film Munich) to see in what way they use her biography and her leadership symbolically, to suggest things about the Jewish people or the Israeli state, and their often fraught relationship with…… [read more]


Colonialism in Africa Term Paper

… Africa

Colonialism

Events in Europe's social, political, and economic environments caused Africa to go through a rapid process of colonization in the interval of 1880 to 1900.

By the late 1800s, Africa had been sandwiched between different nations: the Turks had Tunisia, Egypt and Libya; Spain possessed NW Africa; whilst France claimed settlements in Senegal, Cote d'Ivore, Benin, and some of Algeria. Now, Britain claimed pieces of it, as, by 1880s, did Europe. Liberia and Ethiopia remained locally governed, but the rest of Africa became a European domicile.

Colonization of Africa had come about due to exploration of the 'dark continent' revealing its values. Another cause had been European settlers settling throughout Africa in order to discourage Arabs and Africans from trading humans as slaves. These settlers sought to establish alternate lucrative means of trade and industry to replace the lucrative peddling of humans. They also sought to educate the "dark continent" in order to maximize its output.

European colonization became a status quo continued until the end of World War I. Then tired and strength ebbing, Africa regained its independence quietly and incrementally through the course of the 1950s and 1960s.

Promised and provided benefits of colonization included: an improved education system; arguably, Christian religion; a formalized monetary system (as opposed to bartering); construction of infrastructure (such as hospitals); and formal industries (such as agricultural, mining etc.).

The negatives of colonization included: exploitation of land and resources; the Europeans expropriating land that belonged to locals to themselves; abusing women and children; migration of African men who sought jobs outside their homes leading to disruption of family and communal life; and loss of African identity.

Topic 2: Mohammed Ali of Egypt

Self-declared leader and dictator of Egypt, Mohammed Ali was notorious and famous for his reforms and development of the country. His reforms in military, economic, and cultural…… [read more]


Ethnic Conflict Why Is Nationalism Relevant Research Paper

… Ethnic Conflict

Why is nationalism relevant to the experience of ethnic conflict? What are the main points Perlmutter highlights about nationalism and ethnic conflict? Which emotions does Moisi identify with specific regions of the world in his clash of emotions analysis?

There are mainly two forms of nationalism that states throughout the world have adopted. The first is civic nationalism that refers to viewing all citizens of a state as members of one nation. The United States is a prime example of a country that exhibits civic nationalism. The second is ethnic nationalism that is based on ethnicity. An example of a country exhibiting ethnic nationalism would be Turkey where the state has identified ethnic Kurds as Turks for the last eighty years, and this state policy has caused internal problems in Turkey. Ethnic nationalism may exist within a country, and therefore ethnic conflicts may emerge within the designated territories of a nation or be directed against members of a different ethnicity in a different country. More often, ethnic conflicts take place in countries exhibiting ethnic nationalism than civic nationalism. Since ethnicity is directly tied to official nationalism of the state, nationalism of different kinds become the main source of ethnic conflicts.

As Perlmutter (2000) argues, ethnic conflicts often come out of the interplay of myths and realities. In the modern world, ethnic identity politics has contributed to ethnic conflicts in various parts of the world. While identity politics can become a source of being and belonging to a particular group and may be a unifying force, it may "also provoke a destructive sense of 'otherness' and hostility towards other groups that have similar needs, but which originated and developed in a different context." Even a universally acknowledged right of self-termination may lead to ethnic conflicts, since "a group that struggled for its self-determination, its separation from a larger and/or stronger entity, in most cases can become itself an oppressor of smaller, weaker groups" that have either lived in the same territory or in an adjacent one with claims to the disputed territory (Perlmutter). In some other cases, ethnic identity politics may lead to ethnic conflicts because of the fear of "cultural bastardization" between ethnicities living in the same or neighboring nations.

Ethnic conflicts that are the result of ethnic identity politics or the ideology of…… [read more]


Response to Showdown With Iran Video Essay

… Iran

The United States has interfered in Iranian affairs since the 1950s, and the resutls have been nothing less than catastrophic. Although the PBS Frontline video "Showdown in Iran" does not delve too much into the history of U.S.-Iranian relations… [read more]


International Retail Term Paper

… International Retail

The company is choosing between three different countries for its Middle East launch -- Jordan, Morocco and the UAE. There are a number of different sources for information that can help to make this choice. The initial research should include an analysis of the basic economic and political environments of these three countries, using information found on the CIA World Factbook. Jordan has 6.4 million people, around half of whom live in the capital Amman. This implies easy distribution as our stores would probably only be in Amman. There are 3.7 million people within the 15-64 demographic that we target. The GDP is $32 billion, ranked 104th in the world. The government is relatively open for the Middle East. This equates to $5,200 per capita.

Morocco has 31.6 million people, 20 million of which are in our target demographic range. They are spread around a number of different cities, which presents distribution challenges. The economy is the 58th largest in the world with a GDP of $145.6 billion, which equates to $4,700 per capita. As with Jordan, Morocco is a kingdom, but the government has pursued increased economic openness in recent years. Morocco receives large numbers of tourists as well, both Muslim and Western.

The UAE market is focused on the three "open" emirates, Dubai, Abu Dhabi and Sharjah. In total, the country has 5 million people, most of whom live in these three major emirates. There are nearly 4 million people in our target demographic. The UAE has significant wealth, with a GDP of $186 billion, good for 53rd in the world. The per capita GDP is $38,900, which is comparable with Western European nations. Each emirate has its own government, with these three being the most open. Major businesses are tightly controlled but retailing is an open sector.

The next step is to understand the sociological aspects of each country. Shopping is a major pastime in the UAE, and as a result the market for high fashion is substantial. The retail clothing sector is well-developed, with malls, factory outlets and other elements familiar to Western firms (AME Info, 2008). Both Dubai and Abu Dhabi have at various times promoted themselves as shopping holiday destinations,…… [read more]


Why it Is a Good Idea for the U.S. Companies to Invest in Dubai Research Paper

… ¶ … Invest in Dubai?

Of all the financial centers throughout the Middle East, only one has the ability to meld together cultures, businesses, financial institutions and a government that favors foreign investment to create exceptional opportunities for growth. Dubai,… [read more]


Health Care Systems Management Dissertation

… Health Care Systems Management

As the society grew and evolved, its focus on healthcare increased and it has eventually come to a situation in which the life expectancy at birth doubled or even tripled. Macau is for instance the country… [read more]


Roadblocks to Democracy in Iraq Term Paper

… Roadblocks to Democracy in Iraq

When President Bush was looking for justifications as to why America should invade Iraq, one of the most convincing pieces of evidence was the assertion that the 9/11 terrorist hijackers had met surreptitiously with Iraqi… [read more]


King David's Influence on Jerusalem Research Paper

… King David's Influence On Jerusalem

The city of Jerusalem is one of the world's oldest and most highly prized urban centers. It plays a starring role in Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. It has been the source of battle for millennia, with many of those wars fought to retain or capture control of the city itself. Jerusalem is both tangible and symbolic; it is itself a beautiful historical site and it stands as an icon for religious identity. King David, one of the earliest Kings of that city, had a lasting influence on Jerusalem. Through history, religion, mythology, and politics, the legacy of King David remains active three thousand years after he ruled the city of Jerusalem.

King David in the Bible

According to the Books of Samuel, David lived approximately 3,000 years ago. He was the second king of Israel, and is depicted as being fundamentally powerful and ethically righteous. While he is known for many things, including his battle with Goliath and his adulterous affair with Bathsheba, he is perhaps most importantly remembered for his many years spent ruling Jerusalem.

David came to Jerusalem following many battles. He conquered the city that was then called Jebus, and made it his capitol. To solidify his rule, David brought the Ark of the Covenant to Jerusalem, with the intent of building a temple there to permanently hold that holy object. God forbade this action, since David was a warrior and the building of a temple must fall to a man of peace. Although the temple would not be built until many years later -- when David's son Solomon completed the task -- the "house of David" was established for eternity. Later in his life, when he is bedridden, David issued his final wishes that his ancestors would inherit his throne forever. He was buried in the City of David, a palace adjacent to the Temple Mount in Jerusalem, after 33 years of rule over that city.

To this day, many observant Jews believe that their Messiah will be a descendent of David's. Moses Maimonides (also known as Rabram) was a Rabbi in the middle ages. He sought to integrate Jewish thinking and became a revered spiritual leader. For him, the ideal messiah will "arise and restore the kingdom of David to its original state." (Ariel, 1995: 230). Thus, David's time ruling over Jerusalem is still idealized and yearned for in many modern Jewish circles.

While the story of David as presented in the New Testament may be seen superficially as the "classic bandit tale" (Finelstein, 2003: 32), it has been studied and interpreted well beyond its entertainment value. David's legacy in Jerusalem is religious, political, and even infra-structural. He established the city of Jerusalem as a Jewish center, and attempted to build a temple there to commemorate that orientation. He ruled the city as a politician, employing the Jebusites who were there when he arrived. He built the City of David, which remains an important stop on tours of Jerusalem. Essentially,… [read more]


Enemy to Paraphrase John Donne, No Speech Research Paper

… ¶ … Enemy

To paraphrase John Donne, no speech is an island. And this is especially true of the best speeches, for while each speech is addressed to a specific audience and is a response to a particular moment in… [read more]


South East Asia Essay

… Purdah: Purdah is practice of keeping women out of the view of men, through both segregation and clothing. A common practice in many Islamic nations and among many Hindus in India, Purdah is seen as repressive by Western standards.

Kikuyu: The Kikuyu are the most populous ethnic group in Kenya, indigenous since the modern period with ancestry that likely came from the north. The g Kikuyu have been and are hugely important in Kenya's political progression both before and after independence.

Ba'ath Party: The Ba'ath Party was first founded in Syria, but is established in many Arab countries. The party pushes for the unification of all Arab countries and is strongly nationalist and quasi-socialist in its views, policies, and actions.

Salman Rushdie: Rushdie is an Indian-British author, now knighted and long well respected in the literary and scholarly communities. Rushdie is most famous for the controversy caused by his novel The Satanic Verses, which angered many Muslims.

Dalits: Dalits are members of the lowest caste or outcastes in many South East Asian societies, especially India, known as the "untouchables." Their designation and segregation was outlawed by the Indian Constitution, but prejudice persists.

Shamba: A Swahili word originally used to designate an external garden area, generally ornamental. The term is now used to refer to any growing area, but especially a small area or strip of land used for the growing of food crops, belonging to an individual or organization.

Camp David Agreement: Signed at the Presidential retreat Camp David, the Camp David Accord (or Agreement) created peace between Israel and Egypt. It was signed by Egypt's Anwar Sadat and Israel's Menachem Begin, and witnessed by President Jimmy Carter.

Intifada: Intifada is an Arabic word that means "shaking off," but has been used to refer to many Arabic uprisings throughout the modern era. Most prominent in recent decades have been the intifadas by the Palestinians against perceived Israeli occupation.

al-Qaeda: al-Qaeda is a multinational Islamist group, considered a terrorist organization by much of the world. The group advocates a fundamentalist Sunni interpretation of Islam and violent military/guerilla action to bring this about in governmental practice.

Gamal Abdul Nasser: Nasser was Egypt's second president and one of it's strongest and most charismatic leader. He helped to bring Egypt into the modern age and out of the Third World, and was also a major advocate for Arab nationalism and pan-Arabism.

The wabenzi: The term "wabenzi" is a Swahili creation referring to those who drive a Mercedes-Benz or other expensive foreign car. The term is a derogatory way of referring to a false "tribe" of Kenya's economic elite.

Muslim Brotherhood: Another Sunni multinational organization/political party, the Muslim Brotherhood is especially active in Egypt. They promote a fundamentalist interpretation of Islam and the need for state advocacy of Islamic governance.

Tutsi and Hutu: The Tutsis and the Hutus are two tribal and/or caste divisions (this is in dispute) in Rwanda and the surrounding countries. Colonial rule created greater strife between these groups, with the result… [read more]


Jerusalem in the Old Testament Jerusalem: Ancient Thesis

… ¶ … Jerusalem in the Old Testament

Jerusalem: Ancient Roots in a Modern Context

The Holy Land has long been a source of great spiritual meanings and international conflict. For thousands of years, the city has stood tall and strong… [read more]


Role Islam Played in the Iran-Iraq War Thesis

… Role Islam Played in the Iran-Iraq War

Throughout history, mankind has engaged in wars of various sorts, ranging from truly noble causes to the downright bizarre, and it is in the latter category that the Iran-Iraq war must be grouped… [read more]


USS Liberty Incident and the 6 Days War Thesis

… Liberty Incident, an attack on a neutral U.S. Navy Technical Research ship by the Israeli air force and torpedo boats, during the 6-Day Arab-Israel War on June 08, 1967 has aroused considerable controversy and debate since its occurrence. While the… [read more]


Negotiation in Financial Media a Process Essay

… Negotiation in Financial Media

A process of communication by which parties attempt to resolve a dispute between them ("Short Glossary" n.d.).

In this article, the economic recovery package proposed by the Obama administration is discussed, including its scope, expenses, and intended results. The article states that the package pledges aid to businesses and individuals, in addition to providing funds for public areas like schools and military bases. In addition, Hitt and Weisman state that the package costs more than the Iraq war, and is the largest passed since FDR's New Deal. The gives 35% of its funds to tax cuts, provides aid for those who have lost jobs, and funds for businesses. In addition, a controversial requirement mandates that bill money go toward American made products. The plan is different than the one President Obama had originally designated, and is receiving mixed reviews.

Discussion: Negotiation played a primary role in the drafting of this bill, and so much is stated in the article. For instance, Republicans wanted the funds from the bill to go, primarily, to tax cuts, and much of the bill is now stipulated for tax cuts. Thus, members of different parties were forced to negotiate in order to come up with a plan that would pass both institutions of Congress.

URL: Hitt, G. And Weisman, J. (2009, February 12). Congress Strikes $789 Billion

Stimulus Deal. Retrieved January 12, 2009, from the Wall Street Journal. Web Site: http://online.wsj.com/article/SB123436825805373367.html

Summary: In this article, the author argues that President Obama's election may be able to foster the peace making process between Israel and Palestine. During the Bush presidency, the authors suggest that the administration did not attempt to foster peace between the nations. Although the recent Israeli election, which has yet to yield a winner, along with Obama's commitment to the American economy as priority might make the peace-making process slow, the author suggests that Obama can accomplish such a peace if he acknowledges and informs the world of his plan for a Palestinian state, force Israel to face consequences for aggression, and negotiating with Hamas.

Discussion: Because it deals with conflict, this article is rather relevant to the concept of negotiation. It suggests that negotiation must occur if there is to be peace in the Middle East. In fact, many believe that peace…… [read more]


Conflict Management Is it Feasible Essay

… Conflict Management

Is it feasible to apply the principles of democracy and capitalism as practiced in the U.S. To nation-building projects in the developing world? Is so, how; if not, why not?

When considering the first part of this questions,… [read more]


Public Archaeology Essay

… Public Archeology

Nationalism And Public Archeology

Although there are numerous positive and negative motivations that inspire archeologists to search for ancient ruins and civilizations in various countries, the spread of modernization as a result of the ever-changing cultural face of… [read more]


International Management Cultural Comparison Paper: Staring Essay

… International Management

Cultural comparison paper: Staring a business in the U.S. versus the United Arab Emirates

The United Arab Emirates (UAE), like many other Muslim nations, is often referred to as a high-context culture by anthropologists who study the workplaces of different nations. High-context nations are nations in which one's societal position and relationship is often more important than what is directly stated during a negotiation. "High-context refers to societies or groups where people have close connections over a long period of time. Many aspects of cultural behavior are not made explicit because most members know what to do and what to think from years of interaction with each other" (Beer 2003). In contrast, the United States is a low-context culture, as it is a highly pluralistic and diverse society characterized by a tolerance of diversity and fluid relationships. In contrast to high-context societies, there is a strong perceived barrier between an individual's private and public life, and business negotiations are often made between people who know one another only as associates, not as individuals with long, complex familial, ethnic, and religious histories and identities that are of vital significance when imparting meaning. In the United Arab Emirates, Islamic law and philosophy permeates almost every facet of daily life, even if individuals may have different interpretations of that law, based upon their upbringing and social class. Public and private, the secular and the religious are not seen as separate areas of human life.

Unlike high-context societies, low-context cultures like the U.S. are dependent upon verbally explicit communication, such as contracts and government laws, not on tacit understandings between individuals. But the United Arab Emirates, as is characteristic of most high-context societies, is less dependent upon written rules than it is upon relationships in government and business -- in other words, who is in charge is more important than what the law says, and an individual doing business in the nation may need to accept that bribery, gifts, and other forms of 'making nice' with the 'right people' are seen as acceptable, and may even be necessary. "On a practical basis, names are very important for doing deals in Islamic countries...Who you know is key. Similarly, relationships and family connections are vital in business....Personal staff can be very influential and should not be underestimated, he continued. The man who meets you at the airport or who chats you up in a company's waiting room may turn out to be a relative or confidant of the person you're there to do business with" (Lagace 2002). Even in a business that caters mainly to expatriates and tourists in the region, local contacts are necessary to establish trust with government officials and employees, and particularly in these tense times during the Muslim and the Western world, it is essential that strong relationships are forged with…… [read more]


Greece Term Paper

… Greece can be considered to be one of the most important countries in the European Union and of the region. This is largely due to its geostrategic position as well as the resources it has at its disposal in terms… [read more]


Iraq and Kuwait Conflict Precipitating the Gulf War Kuwait's Point-Of-View Term Paper

… ¶ … Iraq and Kuwait conflict pecipitating the Gulf war - Kuwaits' point-of-view

There are turbulent times facing the world we live in. As the Cold War has ended, with the victorious win of democracy, of justice, and humanity, another… [read more]


Turkey Language Policy Term Paper

… Linguistics

The Republic of Turkey: Language Policy and Nationalism

Despite surface appearances, many modern countries exhibit a considerable amount of linguistic diversity. One notable example, the Republic of Turkey, officially endorses Turkish as its national language while many minority groups… [read more]


Iranian Nuclear Ambitions and American Options Term Paper

… Iranian Nuclear Ambitions and American Options

Iran is Persian Gulf oil-rich country that insists that it needs nuclear power for civilian purposes. Strong pressure from the United States in the form of economic sanctions and political isolation have not deterred Iran from its nuclear ambitions, and demands for inspection by the world community of nuclear regulators to ensure against military use of nuclear technology in Iran have been unproductive.

Given the geopolitical relationships in the region, (and the unnecessary redundancy of nuclear power and vast resources of Persian Gulf oil), it is highly unlikely that Iran's only intentions are to develop nuclear power facilities for civilian use. It has already installed thousands of high-speed centrifuges in cascades used to enrich Uranium, and without international oversight, it is impossible to verify that the enrichment process is being used to produce low-grade Uranium from weapons-usable grades capable of incorporation into nuclear weapons of war (Cirincione, 2007).

Israel, and India, rather than the United States, are the likely targets of any Iranian militaristic intentions, and Iranian President Ahmadinejad has made very clear that he hopes to wipe Israel off the face of the Earth. Analysts suggest that the Iranian president does not actually possess the authority over the Iranian military and that the regime itself is not likely to pursue the radical course of action advocated so vocally by Ahmadinejad.

Nevertheless, Israel has indicated its commitment to prevent Iran from ever developing the capacity for an operational nuclear weapons program, and many within the U.S. administration view a nuclear Iran as a global threat that is so great as to warrant

U.S. attack on Iranian nuclear facilities if international pressures and sanctions against unsupervised nuclear technology in Iran are ultimately unsuccessful.

The Military Threat of a Nuclear Iran::

In all likelihood, the United States does not have to fear directly from a nuclear- armed Iran, in fact, given the realities of the doctrine of mutually assured destruction

MAD) that prevailed for most of the second half of the last century between the East and West, it is arguable that even Israel would be attacked directly by Iran, because any such attack would ensure its own destruction in response. On the other hand, in light of the nature of radical Islamic beliefs, the current Jihad inspired by Osama bin Laden and Al

Qaeda, and Israel's ongoing experience with suicidal attacks, it is perfectly understandable that Israel may not be comfortable relying on MAD to protect herself from nuclear annihilation by Muslim fanatics who consider themselves "martyrs" in the name of Allah,

Unlike Israel, the U.S. is far enough from Iran that even in the worst case scenario of a regime change to one much more radical than the clerical establishment currently led by Ayatollah Khamenei, we are safe from a military nuclear attack, simply by virtue of Iran's inability to produce intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBM) technology capable of such distant reach (Cirincione, 2007).

Non-Military Threats of a Nuclear Iran:

By far, the U.S. is… [read more]


Latin American Critical Research Paper

… However, other Arab-Argentinean authors saw a kind of intuitive cultural connection between Arab and Argentinean history, specifically the wandering Arab and the gaucho. The gaucho as a kind of nationalist folk hero thus paradoxically becomes a way of Arab immigrants to participate in native Argentinean culture.

To examine the way Argentinean subjectivity was constructed during this period, Civantos deploys both literary and historical techniques. She creates a distinction in her rendering of how the Arab functioned within Latin American culture. Arabs were real, material presence, workers, writers, intellectuals, and cultural refashoiners of Argentinean culture within their own community. However, as it was in Europe the looming presence of "the Arab" and "the Orient" was also kind of a trope or a construction that had a life independent of real Arabs. Thus immigrants from the Arab nations were an actual presence and community within Argentina, who were intent upon writing their own national literature, and participating in Argentinean life. But Argentine writers were also intent upon writing these individuals 'out' of the true Argentinean national identity as exotic interlopers, rather than 'the real' members of Argentinean society and culture.

Even for individuals who are not specifically devoted to research in this region of the world or these two immigrant groups can find interesting features in Civantos' case study of the construction of Argentine identity instructive. She suggests that there is no singular, pure identity that can be discovered apart from colonization. Argentina was torn between natives and Euro-Argentines even before the influx of new immigrant groups, and the greater diversity of the society both sharpened and blurred this divide. Argentines grew more anxious to define their national identity in an exclusive fashion, but they also adopted Indo-Argentine figures in retelling the tale of their homeland.

But no cultural narrative is privileged, and Arab Argentineans, seeing the centrality of the figure of the gaucho, were equally interested in laying claim to their right to inhabit the nation, based upon resonances between the gaucho's lifestyle and attitude and their own constructed past. Civantos, however, adds a further layer of irony -- by romanticizing the gaucho, and demonstrating the gaucho's commonality with their own past, even the Arab Argentine writers engaged in a kind of essentialization of their own identity. Once Orientalism takes hold within a culture as a system of representation Civantos suggests, even the group that is being 'othered' grows tempted to engage in Orientalism, albeit in a positive light. This is perhaps her most radical claim, as it challenges the notion that Orientalism is something perpetuated upon 'the East' by 'the West' and…… [read more]


Economics of the Middle East Countries Term Paper

… Economies of Middle Eastern Countries Brief Overview of Some Basic Facts

Country Formation/Independence Population Birth rate per 1000 Gender ratio m/f % Christians % Muslims % Jews % Others Turkey 1923 71,158,647 16.4-1.02 0-99 0-1 Syria 1946 18,881,361 27.19 1.05-10-88 0-2 Lebanon 1943 (French) 3,826,018 18.08 0.94-39-59.7-0-1.3 Israel 1948 6,352,117 17.71 0.99 2.1-14.6-76.5-6.8 West Bank and Gaza 3,889,249 34.4-1.04 0.7-98.7-0.6-0 Iraq 1932 26,783,383 31.44 1.02 3-97 0-0 Iran 1979 68,688,433 16.57 1.04 0.5-99 0.5-0 Saudi Arabia 1932 27,019,731 29.1-1.21 0 100 0-0 Egypt 1922 (UK) 78,887,007 22.53 1.02 6-91 0-0 Libya 1951 (UN) 5,900,754 26.09 1.05-97 Yemen 1990 21,456,188 42.67 1.04-99 Oman 1650 (Portugal) 3,102,229 35.76 1.26 0-99 0-1 United Arab Emirates 1971 2,563,212 16.09 1.442 4-96 0-0 Qatar 1971 (UK) 885,359 15.56 1.88 0-95 0-5 Bahrain 1971 (UK) 698,585 17.53 1.27 9-85 0-6 Kuwait 1961 (UK) 2,418,393 21.95 1.52-15-85

Country

Formation/Independence

Population

Birth rate per 1000

Gender ratio m/f

Christians

Muslims

Jews

Other Countries Argentina 1816 (Spain) 39,921,833 16.53 0.97-94 1.5-2-2.5 Australia 1901 (UK) 20,264,082 12.02 0.99-67.4-1.5 Brazil 1822 (Portugal) 188,078,227 16.3-0.98-89 0.02 0-10.98 Germany 1871 82,422,299 8.2-0.96-68 3.7-0-28.3 Italy 1861 58,133,509 8.54 0.96 1.7 France 486 60,876,136 12.91 0.95-90 7.5-1-1.5 Mexico 1810 (Spain) 107,449,525 20.36 0.96-95 0.3-0-4.7 Netherlands 1579 16,491,461 10.7-0.98-51 6-0-43 Norway 1905 4,610,820 11.27 0.98-90.1-1.6-0-8.3 Russia 1991 142,893,540 10.92 0.86-15 Spain 8th Century 44,108,530 9.98 0.96-94 2.5-0-3.5 South Korea 1945 (Japan) 48,846,823 9.93 1.01-26 0.04 0-73.96 UK 10th Century 60,609,153 10.67 0.98-71.6-2.7-0-5.7 USA 1776 298,444,215 14.16 0.97-76 1.4-1-21.6

Country GDP ($ billion) % of USA GDP per capita % of USA Trade volume ($ billion) % of GDP Political regime Last election Turkey 508.7-4.329362 7,400.00-18.45387 139.8925 27.5 Republican parliamentary democracy 2007 Syria 60.44 0.514383 3,400 8.478803 27.2524 45.09 Military 2007 Lebanon 18.83 0.160255 5,000 12.46883 9.198455 48.85 Republic 1998 Israel 129 1.097872 20,800 51.87032 80.7411 62.59 Parliamentary democracy 2006 West Bank and Gaza 768 6.53617 600 1.496259 Iraq 54.4-0.462979 2,100 5.236908 Interim government 2005 Iran 516.7-4.397447 7,700 19.202 Theocratic republic 2006 Saudi Arabia 310.2-2.64-12,000 29.92519 165.3676 53.31 Monarchy n/a Egypt 316.3-2.691915 4,200 10.47382 Republic 2005 Libya 37.48 0.318979 6,700 16.70823 23.24135 62.01 Jamahiriya 2006 Yemen 16.25 0.138298 800 1.995012 Republic 2006 Oman 38.09 0.32417 13,100 32.66833 30.53294 80.16 Monarchy n/a United Arab Emirates 63.67 0.541872 25,200 62.84289 81.63767 128.22 Federation 2004 Qatar 19.49 0.165872 23,200 57.85536 17.58583 90.23 Traditional monarchy n/a Bahrain 13.01 0.110723 19,200 47.8803 16.08036 123.6 Constitutional hereditary monarchy n/a Kuwait 48 0.408511 21,300 53.11721 34.9344 72.78 Nominal constitutional monarchy n/a Argentina 483.5-4.114894 12,400 30.92269 84.5158 17.48 Republic 2003 Australia 611.7-5.205957 30,700 76.5586 211.1588 34.52 Democratic federal state system Brazil 1492 12.69787 8,100 20.1995 345.8456 23.18 Federative republic 2006 Germany 2362 20.10213 28,700 71.57107 1360.984 57.62 Federal republic 2004 Italy 1609 13.69362 27,700 69.07731 700.5586 43.54 Republic 2006 France 1737 14.78298 28,700 71.57107 858.7728 49.44 Republic 2007 Mexico 1006 8.561702 9,600 23.94015 545.0508 54.18 Federal republic 2006 Netherlands 481.1-4.094468 29,500 73.56608 552.7358 114.89 Constitutional monarchy n/a Norway 183 1.557447 40,000 99.75062 99.369 54.3 Constitutional monarchy n/a Russia 1408 11.98298 9,800 24.4389 713.0112 50.64 Federation… [read more]


Assassination of the Former Lebanese Prime Minister Rafik Hariri Term Paper

… Assination of Rafik Hariri: Extinguishing a Light in the Middle East

Lebanon is an oddity in the Middle East; a diverse cultural mixture that were it not for outside influences vying for power and control of the country might perhaps… [read more]


Ramesses by Joyce Tyldesley Term Paper

… Ramesses II was known as the greatest Egyptian pharaoh of the New Kingdom. His reputation has mostly escalated as part of his own propaganda, with a myriad of written texts commissioned by him to depict his greatness. During his rule,… [read more]


Operation Desert Storm a Catalyst for Islamist Opposition to Saudi Arabia Royal Family Term Paper

… Operation Desert Storm a catalyst for Islamist opposition to Saudia Arabia royal family

During the Gulf War (1990-91) Saudi Arabia played an important part in the defeat of Iraq and the liberation of Kuwait. Due to its important role as… [read more]


Joshua 24 Term Paper

… Joshua 24 is first of all seen by its commentators as one of the Covenant rituals between the God of Israel and its people, which may be included in the series of the covenants made initially by Abraham and then… [read more]


Germany Reunify? What Caused This to Happen? Term Paper

… ¶ … Germany reunify? What caused this to happen?

Germany was reunified as a result of the decay of Communism in Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union in the late 1980s. The background and brief account of the event is as follows: Germany was divided after World War II as a result of Cold War tensions. East Germany adopted communism as the state policy, while West Germany chose democracy and Capitalism. The relations between the two Germanys remained frosty until the advent of the reformist Soviet leader, Mikhail Gorbachev in 1985 whose liberal policies encouraged the populations of other East European countries including GDR to struggle for greater freedom. In August 1989, when Hungary removed border restrictions with the neighboring Austria, thousands of East Germans started to escape to the West via this route; others organized mass demonstrations against the GDR government. The hard-line East German leader, Erich Honecker, was forced to resign in October 1989 as a result of public pressure and withdrawal of support by Gorbachev. When the new East German government decided to issue visas to East Berliners for visit to the West on November 9, thousands of East Germans rushed to the Berlin Wall and the border guards, overwhelmed by the numbers allowed them through. It was the beginning of the end of the Berlin Wall and led to the formal reunification of Germany after the defeat of the ruling Communist Party in the free, multiparty elections held in March 1990 ("The Reunification...").

What is the basic problem between the Palestinians and the Israelis? Is it religion? Race? Economics? Or a combination of these factors?

The Israeli-Palestinian conflict is a complex issue that has religious, racial, and politico-economic overtones, but most of all it is a territorial dispute. The root of the conflict lies in the fact that both the Israelis and the Palestinians believe that the land rightfully belongs to them. The claim of the Palestinians is based on the fact that at the time of the start of the Zionist movement in the 1880s, the population of Palestine, which was part of the Ottoman Empire, was overwhelmingly (about 95%) Arab and had been so for the previous several centuries; the Jews were a small minority (5%). However, the Jewish people have a historical claim on the Palestinian territory where the Jewish nation originated over 3,200 years ago and…… [read more]


American Arab Anti-Discrimination Committee Term Paper

… American-Arab Anti-Discrimination Committee

This committee is involved with ensuring that the American people and the Arab people build tolerance with one another and do not discriminate against one another based on where they come from and their ethnicity (ADC, 2006). The committee is a 'grassroots' organization, is non-profit, and is designed to ensure civil rights (American, 2006). Senator James Abourezk started the organization in Washington, DC, in 1980, and the committee now claims to be the largest of its kind when it comes to Arab-American organizations (American, 2006). A court case was argued in 1999, Reno v. American-Arab Anti-Discrimination Committee, where individuals that were not legally in this country stated that they were being discriminated against based on deportation because they were Arabs, but the court ruled that the fact that they were here illegally was enough, and that they were not being discriminated against because of their ethnicity (Reno, 1999).

Despite that court case, however, the American-Arab Anti-Discrimination Committee is a peaceful organization that promotes understanding and tolerance between Americans and Arabs (ADC, 1996). There are many chapters in different states, and they were not all created…… [read more]


Hezbollah Terrorist Group Term Paper

… Hizballah Terrorist Group

Hizbollah (also spelled Hezbollah and Hizbullah) is an officially sanctioned political party in the Middle East. The group has been linked to several terrorist attacks, both directly (as by taking credit for the actual attack) and indirectly… [read more]


Realism v. Institutionalism Term Paper

… In this vein, realists have often suggested that nation-states such as Israel, because they wish to protect their territory, act in inherently aggressive ways and that territorial expansion is only constrained by an opposing and powerful military force. However, although… [read more]


Ancient Greek Trade Term Paper

… ¶ … contact with the Arabian peninsula existed at this time. What does that suggest about cross-cultural contact?

The contact with the Arabian peninsula suggests that there was a great deal of contact across cultures, even that far back in history. This is important, due to the fact that some people seem to believe that different cultures are not able to work together and that these different cultures will never be able to understand one another well enough to get along. While this may be true with some people in various cultures, this evidence would indicate that many people can work across different cultures quite well and that the differences that they have can be put aside long enough to do what is necessary. Without the ability to do this, the contact with the Arabian peninsula would not have been possible and would not have continued. Erythraei (1989) talks about the many different ports that were visited, and the "continual intercourse and intermarriage" that took place (p. 61). Because of this, those that traded with others were able to acclimate themselves to different cultures enough to work with those cultures and ensure that they were accepted to the point that they could trade what they had to offer for what they needed from others. The significance of this cannot be overstated, and this cultural blending is something that has continued, not always that successfully, from the time of The Periplus to the present day.

2. To whom would these descriptions be important?

The descriptions in the information provided on The Periplus could be important to many different groups of people. One of the most overlooked groups would be those that study navigation, since the Periplus refers to a "sailing around" of all of the ports in a particular area (Periplus, 2005). Naturally, those that study Ancient Greece and its culture would be interested…… [read more]


International Politics Term Paper

… International Politics: Is Bush Planning an Assault on Iran?

Is the Bush Administration secretly planning to invade Iran with ground forces, or launch sudden preemptive air strikes, in a calculated attack on the Islamic nation that Bush has called "a rogue nation"? Will it be an attack similar to the one which the U.S. launched its assault on Iraq? Is attacking Iran a good idea, strategically or in terms of international diplomacy? And what evidence is there that would indicate an American plan as provocative as an attack on Iran, in particular given the disastrous, seemingly endless war the U.S. finds itself bogged down with in Iraq? These are questions that cry out for answers in an unstable world that looks to the U.S. For leadership but sees the world's most influential superpower acting the role of a bully.

A recent article in the Atlantic Monthly noted that in July, 2004, Iran said "it would not ratify a protocol of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty giving inspectors greater liberty within its border" (Fallows, 2004). In August, Iran announced that if it "suspected a foreign power -- specifically the United States or Israel -- of preparing to strike its emerging nuclear facilities, it might launch a pre-emptive strike of its own," Fallows' article continued. One target, Iran asserted, could be U.S. forces across the border in Iraq. And in September, the article reported, "Iran announced that it was preparing thirty-seven tons of uranium for enrichment, supposedly for power plants," but the possibility is that a nuclear weapons program might be well underway, giving Bush justification, the theory goes, to attack Iran.

Brief History of American - Iranian Relations: Meanwhile, many Americans certainly remember the Islamic revolution of 1979 that sent the U.S.-backed Shah of Iran fleeing Iran, and installed the Ayatollah Khomeini as head of the government. Most Americans will also remember the hostage crisis in Teheran, where for 444 days, staff members working in the American Embassy in Teheran were held captive by "Islamic extremists" in the Khomeini government.

But how many Americans remember - or even know - that much of the resentment and bitterness Islamic peoples in Iran, and around the world, felt - and feel - towards the United States resulted from the CIA-directed coup which placed the Shah in power on August 18, 1953? It was called "Operation Ajax," a blatant, unilateral imposition of American will on a sovereign nation, engineered under orders of President Eisenhower, and led by General H. Norman Schwarzkopf, father of the commander who led American forces in the Gulf War in 1992, according to Stephen Kinzer's 2003 book, All the Shah's Men (Reed, 2003).

Is there a link between the religious fundamentalism that sprang to life during the Ayatollah Khomeini's regime and bin Laden? "It's not far-fetched," writes Kinzer - a New York Times reporter who has filed stories from 50 different countries - to draw a line from Operation Ajax through the Shah's repressive regime and then Islamic Revolution [that sent… [read more]


Raja Shehadeh's When the Birds Stopped Singing Term Paper

… Birds

When the Birds Stopped Singing

When the Birds Stopped Singing is a delicate title for a book about a harsh period of recent Israeli history. The book's focus is on the 2002 Israeli invasion of Ramallah, perhaps inevitably, given that the book is written from the perspective of a resident of this city, and told chronologically. But to fully appreciate the book, one must understand the overall context of the region's intifada. The uprising of Palestinians on the West Bank and Gaza Strip of Israeli-occupied territory, which at the time was increasingly encroached upon by fundamentalist settlers, encouraged many young Palestinians to spontaneously revolt and agitate against their perceived Israeli military occupiers and oppressors.

Although the PLO and other official organizations supported these young Palestinian people, throwing rocks and shouting at the occupying soldiers, rather than tossing bombs and shooting bullets, the intifada was not largely a calculated movement, at least not in all of its first, fleeting efforts of anger at the speed of reform. Thus, this uprising gained certain addition legitimacy for the Palestinian cause, internationally. The shadow government Palestinian government of then still living Yassar Arafat also benefited from the uprising in a way that it had not from its earlier efforts to gain sympathy and attention through the use of forms of terrorist activities.

The Palestinian cause, historically, had long been unpopular, at least in America, because the Palestinians had, in the 1940s resisted a two-state solution. But the vulnerable position of the unarmed, young, and fresh-faced members of the intifada against armed soldiers stirred up sympathy as the once precarious position of Jewish settlers had before. But alas, the world's sympathy, the author of When the Birds Stopped Signing, suggests, is not always translated into political currency. Where are the real, practical territorial reforms and gains, he asks?

The content and structure of the book takes the form of a day-by-day diary, thus stressing the increasingly small and confined, almost prison-like existence of the author. The author is a human rights lawyer in the occupied city. But his expressed political attitudes, far from setting activist tone, strike the reader as having a rather nebbishy and neurotic (or the Arab version thereof) quality. At first, he states outright that in the face of horror from all sides, he desires to bury himself in work rather than fight and lead an "ordinary, orderly life." (5)

Raja Shehadeh initially liked living in Ramallah because the presence of foreigners provided some protection for his family and his activities, and kept down the presence of the Israeli military's shows of might. The invasion ended all such pretence, and much of the foreign presence. On the very first day, March 28, 2002, chronicled by the book, the foreigners are in retreat, out of fear, as the Israeli army moves into occupy the man's…… [read more]


Jerusalem and the Jewish People Term Paper

… Jerusalem and the Jewish People

The Jewish people have endured many struggles throughout history. After their successful escape from Egyptian captivity following Moses, they wandered through the desert for four decades before entering the Promised Land (McDowell and Stewart, 1992). They endured numerous conflicts with neighboring societies, but for many centuries, were able to maintain a unified state in Jerusalem.

This occupation of Jerusalem was not permanent, though. In 722 BC, the northern area of the Hebrew state was lost to Assyrian raiders. By 586 BC, Jerusalem was conquered by the Babylonians. The land of Israel was ruled by Persians, Macedonians, Greeks, Syrians, and Romans in the time that followed. It was not until 1917 that an attempt to reestablish Palestine as the Jewish homeland started. By 1948, the State of Israel became an independent country.

The people of Israel trace their origin to Abraham, who taught his people that there is only one God, the creator of the universe (Israel Science and Technology Homepage, 2004). Abraham, his son Yitshak (Isaac), and his grandson Jacob (Israel) are viewed as the patriarchs of the Israelites. All three patriarchs lived in the Land of Canaan, which later came to be known as the Land of Israel.

Abraham's people evolved into a nation at about 1300 BCE, following their Exodus from Egypt under the leadership of Moses (Israel Science and Technology Homepage, 2004). He led them out after the Egyptians were afflicted with ten plagues. Shortly after the Exodus, Moses passed on the Torah, and the Ten Commandments to the people of this nation.

After wandering through the Sinai desert, Moses led them to the Land of Israel,…… [read more]


Eastern and Western European Jewry Term Paper

… European Jewry

In the history of the Jewish people there are many transitory themes. The reasons for this follow the trend of the relative liquidity of place for the entire culture. Jews have spent much of their time on the… [read more]


Syrian Empire Term Paper

… Due to the fact that Greater Syria was generally ruled by foreigners, the inhabitants traditionally identified themselves with their cities, and even today in contemporary Syria each city continues to have a unique sociopolitical character (McGowan Pp).

One recurrent theme of Greater Syria's history has been the encounters between Eastern and Western powers on its soil (McGowan Pp).

Even during the ancient period, Greater Syria was the focus of a continual dialectic, both intellectual and bellicose, between the Middle East and the West (McGowan Pp). During the medieval period this dialectic was intensified as it became colored by diametrically opposed religions regarding rights to the land (McGowan Pp). The Christian Byzantines contended with Arabs, and later the Christian Crusaders competed with Muslim Arabs, for this land that they all held sacred (McGowan Pp).

The advent of Arab Muslim rule in A.D. 636 provided the two major themes of Syrian history, the Islamic religion and the world community of Arabs (McGowan Pp). The greatest period of Islamic history, according to traditionalist Muslims, was during the brief rule of Muhammad and the first four caliphs, when man presumably behaved as God commanded and established a society on earth unequaled before or after (McGowan Pp). It was during this period that religion and state were one and Muslims ruled Muslims according to Muslim law (McGowan Pp). The succeeding Umayyad, 661-750, and Abbasid, 750-1258, caliphates were extensions of the first period and proved the military and intellectual might of Muslims (McGowan Pp). During the early medieval period, the history of Greater Syria is essentially the history of political Islam at one of its most glorious moments, the Umayyad caliphate when the Islamic empire, with Damascus as its capital, stretched from the Oxus River to southern France (McGowan Pp).

Many of Greater Syria's major contributions to civilization were developed during the ancient period, with Syria's greatest legacy, the alphabet being developed by Phoenicians during the second millennium (McGowan Pp). In ancient Syria, the secrets of metallurgy were also discovered, the possibility of hammering bronze and copper into shapes that would serve domestic, military, and aesthetic uses (Ministry pp). During the Greek and Roman eras, Syria served as a center for culture and politics, in fact, several Roman emperors were natives of Syria (Ministry pp). Greater Syria was central to the rise of the world's monotheistic religions, including Christianity which began its expansion from there (Ministry pp). Antioch was the home of the first Christian community in the first century AD (Ministry pp). The oldest churches in the world are found in Syria (Ministry pp).

Works Cited

History of Syria

http://www.syriagate.com/Syria/about/general/history.htm

Syria: History

http://www.syriatoday.com/history.htm

Syrian History

http://i-cias.com/e.o/syria_5.htm

McGowan, Afaf Sabeh. "Syria: Chapter 1A. Historical Setting."

Countries of the World. January 01, 1991; Pp.

Ministry of Tourism

http://www.syriatourism.org/new/modules.php?op=modload&name=Subjects&file=index&req=viewpage&pageid=708… [read more]


Beirut to Jerusalem Term Paper

… ¶ … Beirut...to Now book review of Thomas Friedman's classic work of political journalism From Beirut to Jerusalem

Thomas Friedman's From Beirut to Jerusalem was written in 1989, after the author's tenure as the New York Times correspondent in Beirut.… [read more]


Social and Cultural History Term Paper

… Social and Cultural

Herodotus in Egypt -- Question 1: Read Herodotus' account of Egypt in the Xerox reader. Consider the problems faced by a Greek visitor trying to make sense of Egyptian history and culture. Is his presentation of Egypt consistent with what we read in the native-Egyptian texts in Bailkey? What are his sources of knowledge, and how reliable are they? In what ways might he be misled? What cultural biases, if any, does he have regarding the Egyptians?

Travelogues as sources of accurate history are problematic. By definition, they are written by outsiders rather than insiders to a particular land, culture and time. Travel writing even in our historical present, has a notorious unreliability as sources of data. They are filtered through the point-of-view of someone who, even if he or she is conversant in the language of the region, is not always equally fluent in the culture, and must rely upon the point-of-view of those selected by the ruling regime. For instance, the voices of the "Work Songs from Ancient Egypt: Voices of Ordinary Men and Women," as chronicled in Chapter 12 of Bailkey are entirely absent, as these voices of the hands, backs, and sweat that the great pyramids were constructed by were not part of the exposure of the historian. Perhaps they might not have been as interesting, to Herodotus, as the great visions of the pyramids themselves, given that the Greek Herodotus himself was part of a culture that accepted slavery as a necessity.

Herodotus is freed of the constraints of a modern historian, moreover, ethical constraints that might encourage him to be politically correct or diplomatic -- or at least not to assume that his own Greek country's and culture's customs are correct, in comparison to the fascinating but 'backward' Egyptians. "The people also, in most of their manners and customs, exactly reverse the common practice of mankind. The women attend the markets and trade, while the men sit at home at the loom; and here, while the rest of the world works the woof up the warp, the Egyptians work it down; the women likewise carry burdens upon their shoulders, while the men carry them upon their heads." (Herodotus, "Histories," Chapter II) This is not to say that Herodotus judged Egypt harshly. "Concerning Egypt itself I shall extend my remarks to a great length, because there is no country that possesses so many wonders, nor any that has such a number of works which defy description." (Chapter II)

His Histories contains valuable information about the ancient kingdom of Egypt that would be lost to modern readers, otherwise. Still, he assumes what is Greek is right -- for instance, the "Father of History" does not merely record that the Egyptians wrote from right to left, instead of left to right like the Greeks, but that this schema of writing was backward. The fact that Egyptians ate outside and used toilet facilities indoors was seen as wrong, not as a difference of architecture and… [read more]

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