"Israel / Palestine / Arab World" Essays

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Kuwait Today in the Short Half-Century Thesis

Thesis  |  6 pages (1,964 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 5


¶ … Kuwait Today

In the short half-century since the country gained its independence from the United Kingdom, Kuwait has experienced its fair share of violence when it was invaded by Iraq in 1990 but it has also enjoyed the benefits of numerous economic and social developmental initiatives that have contributed to the state's current enviable standard of living. Notwithstanding… [read more]

Middle East Community Development Essay

Essay  |  7 pages (2,127 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+


Middle East Community Development

The Middle East is a land of conflict which has for centuries raised the interest of the Westerner. Home of terrorism but also of mysticism, the Orient has captured the attention of the international context, which strives to support its development. Like a paradox, the countries in the Middle East are rich in numerous and valuable… [read more]

Sub-Group Americans in Muslim Countries Thesis

Thesis  |  8 pages (2,361 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 7


Americans in Muslim Countries

Minority Communities: The Effects and Challenges of Americans Living in Muslim Countries

Few minority groups in the United States in the past decade have received as much direct attention, both from the media and from the political and scientific communities, than Muslims. Indeed, Islamic radicalism and fundamentalism has raised many questions about the religion and its… [read more]

China's Interests in Iran White Paper

White Paper  |  8 pages (2,657 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10


To this point, all available research on the subject seems to endorse China's growing role in Iran as a way to help bring it into alignment with behaviors and policies that are more consistent with those held as appropriate by the world community. This is especially true where its nuclear policy is concerned, with its role of authority and leadership… [read more]

Saudi Arabia and Our Company Case Study

Case Study  |  2 pages (566 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


Opportunities: There remains a strong desire to establish ties with the west, and to expand the nation's economy into enterprises beyond oil.

Soccer is one of the most popular sports in the world.

Saudi Arabia already embraces soccer.

In an unpublicized match in 2008, two female university teams played soccer in a competition, although no male spectators were allowed (First public female Saudi soccer match, Mideast Youth 2009).

Weaknesses: Still profound cultural differences between Saudi Arabia and non-Islamic countries, which could make doing business difficult, especially for female executives.

Political tensions are still high in the Middle East, especially given the situation between Israel and Hamas.

Oil prices could be dropping further if global recession continues.

The nation is a theologically-dominated monarchy, with one of the most conservative social policies of the entire Islamic world and may not be open to a more free-wheeling and physically oriented sport for its female citizens, as it disdains co-ed spectator gatherings as well as co-ed play.

Limitations upon female physical movement could restrict outdoor sports market to males

High unemployment rate amongst the young means little disposable income for recreational and leisure-time equipment

Threats: Credit crisis could make it difficult to expand to a foreign nation at this time

Crisis of drought in region may make participation in soccer difficult, if there is limited expansion of soccer fields in the future

Works Cited

"Background notes: Saudi Arabia." U.S. Department of State. April 21, 2009.


First public female Saudi soccer match. Mideast Youth. January 29, 2009.


"Saudi Arabia." CIA World Factbook. April 9, 2009. April 21, 2009.

https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/sa.html#Econ… [read more]

Modernity the Discourse Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  9 pages (3,436 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0



The discourse of modernity is unfortunate in that it tends to entail a certain hostility to non-Western cultures. This type of discourse and its inherent hostility operates to exclude non-Western cultures from meaningful participation in the modern world. Simultaneously, it articulates a desire to indeed include them under the condition of "civilization." Modernity seeks to both whitewash and civilize… [read more]

Authoritarian Modernization Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  15 pages (5,553 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Authoritarian Modernization

The reforms undertaken in Iran and Turkey by Reza Shah Pahlavi and Kemal Ataturk respectively, during the early half of the previous century, are two classical cases of authoritarian modernization in the study of political science. Comparisons have frequently been drawn between the two regimes in spite of significant differences existing between the Safavid or Qajar empires and… [read more]

Competitiveness Globalization Is an Extremely Wide Concept Essay

Essay  |  6 pages (1,801 words)
Style: Chicago  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+



Globalization is an extremely wide concept, implying the migration of numerous features across boundaries. These features belong to the fields of economics, finance, politics, technology, national security, culture, environment and so on. Given this status quo then, it is only natural that some changes will occur within business communities, mostly revolving around opportunities presented to the actors in the… [read more]

Doing Business in Another Country Thesis

Thesis  |  6 pages (1,712 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 6


¶ … Business in another Country

Iran Analysis

When deciding upon the option of opening a business in a foreign location, any company, no matter its size or field of activity, must conduct a thorough analysis of the factors that might influence the company's presence in the country in case. Cultural differences are very important factors that must be analyzed… [read more]

French Invasion of Egypt in Early 19th Century Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (889 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 2


Napoleon in Egypt

The two discussions of Napoleon's invasion of Egypt differ widely in terms of tone and details. These differences derive from differences in structure, cultural perspective, and with respect to which side of the conflict they were on (winner or loser). Thus, the information in one narrative seldom supports the information in the other.

Juan Cole writes for a European point-of-view. Immediately, he begins by telling a story, outlining the education and personal background of his subject. This is done to provide context to his narrative. The characters are portrayed as potent but flawed, and are imbued with a sense of history. Al-Jabarti's sense of context is limited, in particular with respect to the actors. The history of the individuals is given short shrift.

Indeed, al-Jabarti's narrative is tied exclusively to a myopic Muslim worldview. His narrative is laced with criticisms that have little bearing on the events. He expounds about the immorality of the French, illustrating that in his worldview this morality is relevant to the legitimacy of French power. In Cole's narrative, we see a similar argument on the side of the French, who enter the conflict with a morality that derives from their republican viewpoints. Neither author expends much energy questioning their worldview or the impact that it has on his interpretation of the events.

The level of historical and personal detail that Cole lends greater legitimacy to his work. Al-Jabarti, for example, criticizes the grammar in the text that Napoleon sent to the Egyptians. Not only is this irrelevant, but there is significant irony in a person criticizing grammatical ignorance being unaware that Napoleon's translators are Maltese and therefore speak a substantially different dialect of Arabic than that of the Al-Jabarti's Egyptian.

Interesting is the treatment the two authors give to the descriptions of battle. Al-Jabarti describes battles in the brief, stark terms typically of Muslim authors (i.e. The Baburnama). He is far more matter-of-fact about the events. Success or failure in battle is viewed as success of failure of the individual leaders. Morality is ascribed to their choices in a consequential matter. Cole, conversely, describes battles in a more detached, complex manner. Success of failure is ascribed to tactics and logistics rather than personal traits. This difference reflects the different manner in which Europeans and Arabs conducted battles at the time. Indeed, it is interesting that although morality is a component of righteousness in al-Jabarti's worldview, he takes pains to denigrate French morality when he dissects Napoleon's letter. Yet he fails to draw the conclusion that the reason the immoral foe won the battle was precisely because of tactics and logistics, rather than because of any personal…… [read more]

Future Problems Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (828 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 6


Overpopulation and Nuclear Genocide in the Future

Over population in the world continues to be a problem within certain geographical areas. However, even when considering China, where the population growth is reportedly increasing by 12 to 13 million people a year, and some of its provinces are as large, or larger than individual countries around the world (Knapp, Ronald, 2009, found online). The Sichuan Province (including Chongqing) is 107,000,000, while the nation of Nigeria is 96,000,000; Mexico is 92,000,000; Germany is 81,000,000; France is 57,300,000; the UK is 58,000,000; Italy is 58,000,000; and Egypt is 58,000,000 (Knapp, online). Even China's remote province of Anhui is 56,000,000, and Hubei is 54,000,000 (Knapp, online). The world population stands at approximately six billion, and China's population is 1/5 of the total world population (20.8%) (Knapp, online). Even with a one child per family policy, China continues to experience an unprecedented growth.

This begs the question of what action will be taken in a future where the population rates cause competition for important planet resources? What happens if there is a natural catastrophic event that makes resources like food, shelter, and energy more scarce? Ninety-five percent of the population of the world has access to family planning resources that could bring about a stabilization in the increasing world population (Wahren, Carl, 1991, 35). The question remains who will decide which families are further restricted beyond choice, and how are those restrictions instituted? The answer is, of course, that it will not happen without violence, because people around the world will not tolerate it, especially when religious leaders take a stand against birth control or forced population control (Mcgurn, William, 1994, 64).

What will ensue, if we allow our imagination to run away with us for a moment; is a competition for vital resources that is deadly. It would not even be unfathomable to expect that some of the more powerful nations will resort to nuclear genocide in order to secure for their own populations vital resources. Genocide raged throughout the world in the twentieth century, during a time when philanthropy and resources were being shared and available (Lippman, Matthew, 2001, 467). Without a strong and assertive world governance, there is nothing short of doom on the forecasted horizon, because even as we saw genocide amongst nations that did not have to compete for resources, we likewise saw an increase in the nationalistic tendencies that will pit nation against nation in a hostile twenty-first century (Lippman, 467). Right now,…… [read more]

Public Issue Life Cycle Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  5 pages (1,964 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 4


Public Issue Life Cycle: Life in Iraq

One of the most interesting issues about the public issue life cycle is that it does not have any relationship to the severity of problems discussed. On the contrary, the public issue life cycle exists because of the limited attention span of the public. How long the public focuses on a particular issue… [read more]

Conflict Resolution and Post Conflict Reconstruction in the International System Thesis

Thesis  |  6 pages (1,956 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3


International Relations

Conflict Resolution and Post-Conflict Resolution in the International System

Conflict is a fact of international relations. States make war on each other and, factions within states disturb internal order. Prior to 1945, the victorious party usually destroyed, punished, or absorbed the loser. Empires were created and dismantled. Civil wars ended in the assumption of control by a particular… [read more]

Economic Consequences of War in Iraq Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  3 pages (1,201 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3


¶ … Consequences of the Iraq War

Military action has not only aggravated a humanitarian crisis, but also had major economic, legal, political, strategic and military repercussions in Iraq. This paper will summarize the economic reasons and consequences of the war. Pre-war speculation that Saddam Hussein had weapons of mass destruction, that he would set fire to Iraq's oil fields or attack Israel with rockets have never proven true, but the resultant fighting in Iraq has had serious economic results in both the U.S. And in Iraq, leading to a generally weakened world economy.

Oil production in Iraq has always been a source of conflict since the day it was discovered, igniting arguments within and without the country. Since Iraq was invaded and occupied in 2003, there have been changes concerning oil production. With Washington running the war, companies friendly to the United States are expecting most of the lucrative deals, which will mean trillions of dollars of profits in the decades to come.

Ever since the invasion of Iraq, the U.S. has advised the Iraqi government to adopt policies opening the country up to foreign investors, and to disband state-owned factories and enterprises. The 2005 Iraqi constitution, influenced by U.S. advisors, has language guaranteeing major roles for foreign investors. Negotiations, soon to be completed, deal with Production Sharing Agreements giving these companies control over certain oil fields, including the super-giant, Majnoon. But their Parliament has yet to pass a new "oil sector investment law" letting foreign companies assume major roles in the country's economy. The United States is withholding funding, as well as promised military and financial support if they do not pass it soon. Though the Iraqi cabinet did endorse a draft law in July of 2007, the Iraqi Parliament has still not passed full legislation. The holdup is that most Iraqis want a national company to have control and the main Iraqi union of oil workers opposes denationalization. (U.N.).

The systematic destruction of Iraq's normal economy by constant war, foreign impositions of new national guidelines and civil strife has created a 60% unemployment level with over 4 million externally and internally displaced refugees. The country has suffered from the economic, cultural and governmental structural changes which have been imposed on it since the beginning of the invasion.

In December of 2005, the Iraqi government, encouraged by the United States, borrowed $685 million from the International Monetary Fund (IMF). In return, the International Monetary Fund has currently imposed economic reforms, which includes an end to health, food, and fuel subsidies. As the country suffered then, and still does, from the consequences of an ongoing U.S. occupation and a decade of economic sanctions, those food rations and fuel subsides allowed millions of Iraqis to barely survive. Now, without looking at the national economy which includes inflation, rising unemployment, and malnutrition, the IMF has said Iraq's economy is a sign of "success" (Button 1).

As for the U.S., occupation of and plans for a long-term military presence in Iraq will… [read more]

Assimilation W. Diverse Groups Thesis

Thesis  |  2 pages (692 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 2


Arab-Americans Not Fully Assimilated

The events of September 11, 2001 caused the Arab-American community to come under the social microscope. What it revealed is that as an ethnic group Arab-Americans have never fully assimilated into the American mainstream. They remain a separate community within the American community, choosing to participate in America at an economic level of society, but that is really as far as Arab-Americans have taken their assimilation. The largest Arab group to have migrated to America is of a Syrian cultural heritage, and their migration to the U.S. began in the late 19th century (Naff, Alixa, 1993, p. 77). That their migration to the U.S. commenced, and continued from that time, and that, prior to September 11, 2001, so little attention was paid their migration, is suggestive of the way in which the Arab-American community has not fully assimilated into the American mainstream. One reason for this is that many of the early Syrian immigrants to America were Christians (Naff, p. 77). While many Americans do not associate Christianity with Arabs, Syria is in part a divided and conflicted nation because of its Christian population. That Christians, regardless of their cultural origins, migrated to America would not be noticeable. However, a large Muslim Arab community reside in America, and represent the section of the Arab immigrant population that have not fully assimilated into American society.

While Arabs do partake of the economical advantages and opportunities in America, they draw an invisible cultural line in the sand that really prevents them from fully assimilating into the American mainstream. That is in part as a result of their Islamic religion and traditions, which dominates their lives in a way that religion does not dominate the lives of other Americans or ethnic groups that have migrated to America. The male head of the household is endowed with the authority over the family by Islamic law, and this in part prevents full assimilation into American society (Nasser-McMillian, Sylvia and Hamkin-Larson, Julie, 2003, p. 150). One of the ways in which other immigrant groups have accomplished full assimilation…… [read more]

Geopolitics and American Foreign Politics Thesis

Thesis  |  3 pages (977 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 5


Geopolitics and American Foreign Politics

Geopolitics is a theory that can be applied to countries throughout the world. Over the last few years America's foreign policy strategies have been called into question. For the purposes of this discussion is to examine geopolitics in the context of American Foreign Policy.

Many scholars and people throughout the world believe that America has taken the wrong approach in recent years as it pertains to foreign policy. These criticisms came in the wake of the war with Iraq. It has been posited that geopolitics greatly influences American foreign policy. According to Garfinkle (2003) America's relationships with certain countries is motivated by regional geopolitics. This argument can be made, particularly as it pertains to the Middle East. At the current time there is a great deal of conversation taking place concerning Iran and there efforts to create nuclear weapons. America has stated every resolutely that it is opposed to Iran having nuclear weapons.

This opposition to Iran's development of nuclear weapons is of such concern to America because Iran is hostile towards Israel, a long time American ally. Not only is Israel an ally to America, but any attack against Israel would further destabilize the region and lead to violence throughout the region. This region is important to America and essential to the American Economy because of the oil industry and the amount of oil imported into America from the Middle East. Although it is true that America is concerned with the loss of human life that may occur if the region is destabilized, one of the primary reasons for the types of aggressive policies has to do with the protection of oil supplies, this is one way in which geopolitics affects foreign policy. Although there are oil supplies in America, they are not as vast and not as readily available as the supplies in the Middle East. In recent months America has seen the price of gas prices skyrocket. The increase in the price was caused primarily by increases in global demand for oil. Gas prices would be much higher if the oil supplies in the Middle East were disabled because of war and instability. America is now in a position where it is competing with China and India for oil. The population in America is much smaller than the populations of China and India. In addition these countries are growing at an alarming rate. Geopolitics dictates that America must adapt and attempt to pursue foreign policies that will protect American interest -- namely oil (Karle, 2008).

The influence of geopolitics can also be seen in the manner in which America relates/cooperates with other nations throughout the world. Because of America's location (with large bodies of water separating us from Europe and other parts of the world) there are many foreign policy decisions that are made in a hasty manner because America does not have to deal with some of the consequences…… [read more]

Seven Gates of Jerusalem Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  8 pages (2,312 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 4


¶ … Gates

Jerusalem is a city cloaked in intrigue and the city is of great importance to Jews, Muslims, and Christians alike. There are many aspects of the city that have been studied, including the ancient infrastructure of the city. The purpose of this discussion is to provide information concerning the origin and meaning of the seven gates of… [read more]

Was Saddam Hussein's Execution an Essential Point in Establishing Democracy in Iraq? Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (2,462 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 7


Saddam Hussein

The execution of Saddam Hussein has been widely heralded as a turning point in the war in Iraq, if not the central point at which democracy might be established. Gruesome images and videos of the public hanging stirred the Iraqi public and shocked viewers and readers around the world. Most of the mainstream media from Great Britain and… [read more]

European Union and Turkey Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (2,785 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 10


European Union and Turkey

There are controversial issues surrounding Turkey's accession to the EU taking into account the different forces inside the communitarian forum. However, it can be said that the Muslin country has enough attributes to be considered for membership of the European Union. Still, in order to have a better view at the importance of the country for… [read more]

About Saudi Arabia Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (2,993 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Saudi Arabia

The official name of Saudi Arabia is Al-Mamlaka al-Arabiya as-Saudiya or the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (SAMIRAD 2008). It is located in the Middle East, bordering the Persian Gulf and the Red Sea, north of Yemen. Its land area of more than 2 million square kilometers consists of deserts, plateaus and mountains, the highest point of which is… [read more]

Is Pakistan the Most Dangerous Country in the World? Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,740 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 5



Is Pakistan the Most Dangerous Country in the World

Pakistan presents a complex set of problems for political analysts, because it is difficult to understand whom, among the various factions vying for power in the country, will actually prove successful in that regard. Sharif Shuja (2007), writing for Contemporary Review, discusses Pakistan's complexities. Shuja reminds analysts and historians that… [read more]

US Policy Concerning Iraq War Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (3,455 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 6


U.S. policy concerning Iraq war

The war in Iraq is one of the most debated subjects on the international scene for more than four years now. It represents one of the most challenging affairs of the international community due to the fact that controversy has been widely spread concerning the conditions in which this was conducted, the level of trust… [read more]

Demise of the Soviet Union Resulted Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (2,619 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 9


¶ … demise of the Soviet Union resulted in the emergence of 15 independent republics that, in turn, entered a soul-searching period to survive and prosper. At stake were the identities of nation-states whose political and cultural legacies were buried by 70 years of communist rule. Some states like Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania fared better than Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan and… [read more]

Israeli Politics and Society Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (599 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Israeli Politics

Herzog, Hanna. "A Space of their Own: Social-Civil Discourse among Palestinian-Israeli

Women in Peace Organizations." Social Politics. Discourses Among Palestinian- Israeli Women Vol. 6. Oxford University Press Fall 1999. 6: 344-369.

The social status of women in the Middle East is a topic of frequent media discussion and controversy. Hanna Herzog's article entitled "A Space of their Own: Social-Civil Discourse among Palestinian-Israeli Women in Peace Organizations," suggests that during the social fluidity of the Intifada, the position Israeli-Arabs women held in their society experienced a discernable shift. It caused them to rise to positions of power within advocacy and peace organizations, even though women did not gain fully equal status to Palestinian males in jointly run organizations. Herzog also examines the complex question of identity in general in the region. Arabs who are citizens of Israel often find themselves ostracized because of their ethnic and/or national status by Jewish Israelis and non-Israeli Palestinians. The article ask: how does an individual who is socially marginal within Israeli society because of nationality and marginal within their own society because of gender or nationality generate an effective voice within their community?

To better address her research question, Hanna Herzog strives to allow these women, so often silenced, to speak about their experiences and beliefs in narrative form. This personalized approach encompasses fifty in-depth interviews conducted in 1995 with Palestinian-Israeli women who were members of various peace or advocacy organizations. Herzog does not claim to be able to encompass the entire range of opinions of every Israeli-Palestinian woman but she strives to show that there is greater diversity of opinion and identity than may be initially suspected by outsiders. She frames her research with appropriate historical context to demonstrate its importance was well as acknowledges the difficulty of her task.

The…… [read more]

Iran and Their Nuclear Development Program Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,953 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


¶ … Iran and their nuclear development program. Specifically it will examine the issue of Iran's nuclear development program and the tension that it is creating with Western nations. The Iranian government has been involved in nuclear enrichment and development for years, and they hid their nuclear program for eighteen years.

The United Nations Security Council has ordered Iran to… [read more]

Mideast Peace Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,032 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Mideast Peace

The crucial importance of peace in the Middle East

It would not be an exaggeration or alarmist to say that the world today is balanced on a knife-edge. The mainstream media is a daily litany of depressing and ominous news about various danger areas in the world. What is possibly the most worrying aspect is the sense of global involvement that these news broadcasts intimate and the feeling that what is happening in the larger world is directly related to our everyday lives.

There have always been reports of bad and dire news from abroad. What is new however is that the news from abroad now affects us more directly.

It is almost as if there has been a globalization of fear and concern about the future. News reportage and media coverage seems to generate a feeling that these portents of disaster and calamity are not "out there" but affect us intimately and challenge the security and future.

Paramount among all these international issues that impose themselves on us and affect our lives is the situation in the Middle East. There is no one single concern that is so important in the world today as the impact that an escalation of conflict in this region could have on everyone's lives. Peace and a de-escalation of violence and aggression in the Middle East are not only desirable but also essential. This is a view that is echoed by many Middle Eastern experts and commentators and it is one that everyone should be concerned about.

The significance pf peace in the region extends far beyond the factional wars and unrest in the areas itself. The conflict between the Palestinians and Israel and the situation in Iraq, are all issues that are both regional and which have vast political and other implications for world peace. This is a fact that should be obvious to all thinking people, but it is often obscured by details and the focus on specific areas of concern at a given time. It is the overall picture and that way that the various conflicts are interrelated and building towards a crisis that is the important aspect to be emphasized.

Simply stated, if peace does not return to the Middle East and if the situation is exacerbated any further by the myriad points of friction, there is every possibility of, as President Bush has suggested, the horrific possibility of a third world war.

The reasons for this crisis are clear if we take into account the events of the past few years. These events bear repeating and need to be placed in context to provide a comprehensive overview of the situation.

Firstly, the Middle East is not only of strategic importance but it is also rich in oil. This fact alone makes it a sensitive area in times of the decline in the sources of fossil fuel in the world. This also makes the region vulnerable in terms of the political and other aspirations. Coupled with this is… [read more]

Turkey Reflects US Economy Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (2,356 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 5


Turkey Reflects Us Economy

Turkey and the U.S. Economy

Economy is the undisputed force that both unites and separates global entities. Countries are economically united in the meaning that they share similar goals, such as reducing the national debt, or the governmental deficit, improving the population's living standards by increasing their wages and pensions, keeping prices under control or strengthening… [read more]

Tourism Strategy and Policy of Tourist Development in Qatar Term Paper

Term Paper  |  12 pages (3,276 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Tourist Development

Strategy And Policy


Qatar (pronounced CUT-er) leads the current "charge" by of gulf nations "into the roughly half-trillion-dollar global travel market." (Sherwood, 2006) Qatar, according to Dew, Shoult, and Wallace, (2002, p, 28) specifically intends to transform itself into a popular tourist destination.

Along with aiming to further its economic goals, Qatar, regularly transforms, articulates, contests… [read more]

Contemporary Issues in International Relations Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,425 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … International Relations

At this point, Iraq and obtaining political and military stability in Iraq is the most important challenge for the U.S. foreign policy. Ranging from leaving the country altogether or staying in until achieving a complete stabilization, the options of the U.S. government are still quite diverse, as are the challenges and provocations in Iraq and the… [read more]

Current Trading Problems in Turkey Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,222 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 6


¶ … trading problems in Turkey

In 2006, Turkey's exports amounted to $95.2 billion, while its imports were in value of $120.9 billion, leading to an overall negative balance of $26 billion. Although necessarily not a significant problem at this point, the current account deficit is something that the Turkish government will have to watch in the future so as not to destabilize the Turkish macroeconomy.

Turkey's trade is currently concentrated on its relationship with the European Union, following the country's aspiration to become a full member of the EU in the 21st century. The statistics are relevant in this sense, with the EU ranking first in both Turkey's exports and imports as the most important trade partner. At the same time, Turkey is also an important partner for the EU, ranking 7th in EU's imports and 5th in its export markets ranking.

Turkey and the EU have established a customs union in 1995, which means that they have eliminated internal tariffs on products and services, while at the same time practicing a common customs tariff for third countries outside the customs union. The customs union with the EU partially explains the fact that most of Turkey's trade is directed towards this economic block.

At the same time, Turkey is member of the World Trade Organization (WTO) and the U.S. is an important trade partner. In figure, this translates into imports from the U.S. amounting $2.9 billion (2003) and exports of $3.8 billion, a clear surplus in the trade relationship with the U.S. The country has also signed free trade agreements with has EFTA, Israel, the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Croatia, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Tunisia, Morocco, the Palestinian Authority, Syria, Egypt and Albania, thus bolstering trade with these nations as well.

One of the potential trading problems in the case of Turkey is the necessity of the government to offer protection to local producers, which will lead to particular measures in terms of tariff and trade restrictions. The most important sector where this is shown is in the agricultural products sector. The need to protect local producers from foreign exports that could takeover their market share induced the Turkish government to increase ad valorem tariff rates on imports of animal products to 227.5%, while in 2003, the government increased the import tariff practiced on corn imports from 20% to 70%.

With Turkey a predominantly Muslim country, the duty on alcoholic beverages is also very high.

The non-tariff barriers are however much more used than the simple tariff ones. For example, import licenses are used in some of the industrial products imports and this in fact leads to the possibility of using administrative barriers and delays to hamper the natural trade flow. In general, this is shown through an increased number of bureaucratic formalities that need to be handled, which lead to an increased lag time and cost for the exporter on the Turkish market.

The problems that appear in terms of service trade with Turkey and barriers that the government lays… [read more]

Saudi Arabia Geography and Oil Compared Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,255 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3


Saudi Arabia


Compared to other geographical regions of the world, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia which stretches from the Gulf of Aqaba and the Red Sea in the west to the Persian Gulf in the east and border the nations of Jordan, Iraq, Kuwait, Bahrain, Qatar, the UAE, Oman and the Republic of Yemen, occupies a unique position, due to two important facts. First, it is extremely limited when it comes to natural resources, such as arable land for crops, lumber for building homes and adequate freshwater resources for its population of just over 17,000,000 people. Second, Saudi Arabia has been blessed with one of the world's largest oil reserves on the planet, a situation which created a gross national product of over $374 billion dollars in 2006 (the Middle East, 387). Obviously, Saudi Arabia has come out on top of the economic mountain as a result of its oil reserves which would not exist if it were not for the geographical and geological nature of this huge Middle-Eastern peninsula.

Geographically, Saudi Arabia is generally divided into regions characterized by very distinctive terrain, such as coastlines, sand deserts, plateaus, escarpments and mountain ranges. Along the eastern shore of the Red Sea, a narrow plain runs the entire length of the coastline and gradually rises from the shore to mountain ranges averaging between 4,000 and 7,000 feet in height. Just south of the holy cities of Mecca and Medina, the rugged coastal highlands of the Asir is composed of peaks rising more than 9,000 feet in height. East of this area lies the central rocky plateau known as the Najid.

In the north, the immense Syrian desert extends southward into "the 22,000 square miles of the reddish al-Nufud desert, where a narrow strip of desert known as al-Dahna... arcs downward" toward one of the largest sand deserts in the world, "the Rub al-Khali or Empty Quarter which measures more than 250,000 square miles" (the Middle East, 388). The Eastern Province which slopes toward the sandy coastline of the Persian Gulf contains Saudi Arabia's rich oil fields, "the main source of the country's national income, formed by sedimentary rocks, gravel and sand" which constitutes "common oil-producing land formations typical of the Middles East" ("Saudi Arabia," 301).

As previously mentioned, Saudi Arabia lacks many essential natural resources, due to its geographical composition. This immense expanse of sand makes it impossible for permanent rivers and other bodies of water to exist which not surprisingly makes this area extremely dry. Rainfall, ground water, desalinated seawater and very scarce surface water are the only sources for Saudi Arabia's rather minuscule agricultural output which mostly is used to feed the country's growing population. As a result, Saudi Arabia has invested more than $20 billion dollars in desalination projects and is currently the largest producer of desalinated water in the world (the Middle East, 388). However, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, due to its geological composition, also makes use of and exports a wide range… [read more]

Turkey's Economy the Republic Term Paper

Term Paper  |  15 pages (3,934 words)
Style: Harvard  |  Bibliography Sources: 5


Turkey's Economy

The Republic of Turkey is a state situated in South-Western Asia and South-Eastern Europe, covering approximately 779,452 sq m. The state is inhabited by 57,326,000 people and the capital is Ankara. In 1993, the medium income was of approximately $1,630 per inhabitant.

The two parts that compose Turkey, the European and the Asian one, have different natural conditions.… [read more]

Night Draws Near Chapter 13 of Anthony Term Paper

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Night Draws Near

Chapter 13 of Anthony Shadid's chronicle of the American military's recent experience in Baghdad Night Draws Near is intriguingly entitled "A Bad Muslim." Americans often state explicitly or imply that goodness and Islam cannot coexist, or the only 'good' Muslims are those Muslims who serve the interests of a secular, pro-American state first, with the Islamic faith a distant second in terms of their ideological priorities. Shadid's title asserts that this is certainly not true in the mindset of Iraqis, and that what constitutes good moral standards for many Iraqis Muslims are profoundly different from the pro-secular American mindset.

Iraqi standards of morality are often based upon a past sense of religious and national heritage that Americans cannot understand. Americans regard their own system of values as universal and neutral, while Iraqis regard Americans as encroachers into their territory and as no less partisan and imperialist in their ideology than any other foreign power. Shadid makes a compelling case at very least that the American mindset is indeed foreign to the minds of most Iraqis, and to Iraqi culture, or cultures, given the religious and ethnic pluralism endemic to the Middle East.

Shadid is intent in pointing out in this chapter that there is often a tremendous difference in the status given to religion and national origin in the mindset of Americans vs. The Iraqi mindset. Americans come from a young nation, and saw themselves as liberators in Iraq, as liberators of an oppressed people from a tyrant's rule. "The Americans in Baghdad frame the tumult in Iraq from the perspective of their own heritage and expressed them in the familiar vocabulary of democratic ideals" (279). Familiar, that is, to Americans. In the American mindset, democracy is inevitable, as is progress from the past, national, and religious ideals of Islam into an embrace of truth, justice, and the American way. Secularism and pluralism are good; parochialism and fundamentalism are 'bad.' Ideas such as those expressed by one Iraqi: "Under Islam, you should not shake hands with Americans, you should not eat with Americas, and you should not help Americans" are incomprehensible, like part of another, past feudal era (284). Was not, Americans might point out, their army quite influential in making Iraq freer by liberating it from a tyrant -- why should America be viewed with hostility when they made Iraq 'free'?

Iraq, however, according to Shadid, is a nation where grievances cannot be swept away merely by toppling a regime, rather it is a land where these grievances accumulate, and have accumulated, year after year. Although the American army may have been initially embraced by some Iraqis with open arms, even those Iraqis with grievances against Saddam Hussein did not wish to pay homage to an America army they regarded as secular and foreign. Most Iraqis, moreover, no matter what their feelings about Hussein, or their religious status, perceived the occupation as illegitimate, and a threat to their identity and way of life, as Iraqis, and… [read more]

High Aswan Dam Benefits and Losses Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (2,153 words)
Style: Turabian  |  Bibliography Sources: 2


¶ … history of the High Aswan Dam and the benefits and losses to Egypt because of it. It seems the High Aswan Dam has always been surrounded in controversy, even before it actually began construction. An engineering marvel, the dam took over ten years to complete and created one of the largest manmade lakes on earth. Today, the dam… [read more]

Voss Water International Marketing Plan for the Turkish Term Paper

Term Paper  |  29 pages (7,740 words)
Style: Turabian  |  Bibliography Sources: 10


Voss Water

Today, Turkey is emerging as an increasingly important nation that serves as a bridge between the Middle East and the European Union and points beyond. Turkey's full membership in the European Union appears to be a matter of when rather than if, and the Turkish population has enjoyed the economic benefits of a secular state seeking to become… [read more]

Iraq and Oil Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (3,492 words)
Bibliography Sources: 15


Oil and the U.S.

In his 2006 State of the Union Address, President Bush stated the obvious: "Keeping America competitive requires affordable energy. And here we have a serious problem: America is addicted to oil, which is often imported from unstable parts of the world." The Bush administration denied that oil had anything to do with the decision to invade… [read more]

Iraq in the Ottoman Empire Ottoman Rule Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (2,468 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 4


Iraq in the Ottoman Empire

Ottoman rule in Iraq began in 1535 and lasted until World War I.
During this time Iraq became a central player in Ottoman religious,
economic, and political developments, as it was important to Ottoman
interests in protecting its lands from the Eastern threats, primarily those
of modern day Iran. Also, Iraq helped the Ottoman's to… [read more]

Iran U.S. Relations Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,606 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


U.S. Iran Relations

and Iran relations have not been friendly since the fall of Shah's government. The realtions between the two countries has almost acquired a satus of conflict that the war with Iran is considered an option for the U.S. Diplomatic efforts are underway but in the light of current circumstances would the situation be resolved diplomatically by the… [read more]

War in Iraq Was Necessary Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (931 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


¶ … War in Iraq Was Necessary

The years 2002-2003 marked several changes for Iraq. During this time, the United Nations (UN) Security Council reevaluated Iraq's existing sanctions and replaced them with "smart sanctions," thus allowing more goods to reach civilians and preventing equipment entering the country from being put to military use. The Bush administration criticized the UN's enforcement of these sanctions and, in response, the UN strengthened its restrictions on Iraq. Weapons inspectors returned to Iraq, finding eleven undeclared empty chemical warheads and two illegal Al-Samoud missiles. As a result of these discoveries, the U.S., Britain, and Spain sought a military resolution; whereas France, Germany, and Russia sought tougher inspections as a final chance for peace. Finally, on March 19th, 2003, President Bush declared war on Iraq, citing Iraq's continued weapons of mass destruction (WMD) development, ties to terrorism, and a need for democracy to succeed the country's former dictatorship as major reasons (Brunner). While widely criticized for acting without sufficient proof, ample evidence suggests otherwise.

Iraq maintained an active interest in acquiring WMD even after its unsuccessful invasion of Kuwait. Iraq attempted to acquire high-strength aluminum tubes that could be used in a centrifuge enrichment program. The UN Oil-for-Food program, intended for the benefit of Iraqi citizens, rendered Iraq goods and equipment that were put to military use. Iraq tried to hide its wrongdoings. It withheld logs, technical documents, experimental data, accounting of materials, and foreign assistance regarding Iraq's nuclear weapons program from the UN Special Commission and the International Atomic Energy Agency. Further, Baghdad concealed data regarding its enrichment techniques, foreign procurement, and weapons designs from inspectors.

The Iraqis maintained a chemical warfare capability and acknowledged several chemical filled munitions. Such weapons included 250-gauge chemical bombs, 500-gauge chemical bombs, DB-2 chemical bombs, R-400 chemical bombs, 155mm chemical shells, Al-Husayn chemical warheads, and 122mm rockets ("Iraq's Weapons of Mass Destruction Programs" ). Since August of 1983, the CIA has documented at least ten cases of Iraqi chemical weapons deployment against Iran and Kurdish populations ("Iraq's Weapons of Mass Destruction Programs"). One such attack took place in Halabja on March 16, 1988. In a U.S. Department of State article, Dr. Christine Gosden states, "5,000 civilians, many of them women, children, and the elderly, died within hours of the attack. 10,000 more were blinded, maimed, disfigured, or otherwise severely and irreversibly debilitated. Thousands died of horrific complications, debilitating diseases, and birth defects in the years after" (Gosden). The chemicals used in the Halabja attack were a mixture of mustard gas and nerve agents such as Sarin, Tabun, and VX.

In addition to chemicals, Iraq possessed the capability to put legitimate vaccines and biopesticide plants to use for biological warfare. In 1995, after four years of claiming to be conducting small-scale biological research for defensive…… [read more]

Iraq War History Teaches Humans Lessons Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (2,192 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Iraq War

History teaches humans lessons. History tells us that when American occupation in Vietnam took the country to hell but today the country survived. Americans withdrew from Vietnam and country was built again from the ashes. It was not American forces that eventually rebuilt Vietnam. It was the people of the country who did not give up and took… [read more]

Mesopotamia Versus Egypt Term Paper

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Mesopotamian and Egyptian Art and Architecture

Mesopotamia" is the Greek word for "between the rivers" and refers to that region between the Tigris and the Euphrates Rivers, presently occupied by Iraq, Turkley and Syria (Delahunt 2006). The region was occupied in ancient times by many groups, including the Sumerians, Akkadians, Assyrians, Amorites, Kassites, Persians, Greeks, and Chaldeans. They passed their powers on to the Arabs, who now occupy current-day Mesopotamia. There is little rainfall in this region and access to the two rivers has been difficult. People in the region have built dams and grew food in the rich soil. They built canals in order to distribute scanty water, an activity, which united them. They also invented the plough to raise their cattle and sheep. The Mesopotamians invented the cuneiform and arithmetic for their purchases of goods, built schools, temples, palaces, workshops and statutes, drawn from a theocratic culture. They were a religious people who greatly feared their gods whom they served. Examples of their statutes are found at the Abu Temple in Tell Asmar, built around 27000 BCE, and illustrate the Sumerian culture. These were typically cones and cylinders and made up of arms and legs like pipes, smooth and round skirts, faces with large eyes. The size of these figures reflected some kind of hieratic imaging system, wherein the most important persons were the tallest. A figure with a beard meant that it belonged to one in a position of power. Art and architectural structures also included two-dimensional depictions of heads, elgs and feet in profile with their shoulders and torso shown frontally. Their wealth and natural resources of copper ore, limestone, alabaster and marble made them the object of envy by other peoples, te Hammurabis of Babylon, specifically. Thus, Mesopotamian art and architecture express pillaging, cities being torn down and their submission to enemies. Mesopotamians also believed that if their conquests and fights passed the test of their omens and prophets, they would get the blessings of their gods (Delahunt).

Egypt is historically known as the land of the pyramids, which stand prominently from mountains of stones (Gombrich 2006). Egypt may be mystical and mysterious but their history, art and architecture say a lot about their organized culture. This culture reflects a line of rich and powerful kings who could compel thousands of workers and slaves to work for many years, to quarry stones and drag them to build sites, and erect the tombs. The pyramids point to the importance of kings and pharaohs in the eyes of their subjects.

These subjects could have viewed their kings and pharaohs as no less than divine beings who deserved their…… [read more]

Causes of Terrorism? The Roots Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (2,511 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … Causes of Terrorism?

The roots of terrorism in the Middle East are deep and ancient. They can be traced all the way back to the struggles of the western world with the Ottoman Empire some 1300 years ago and it shows no sign of finding any relief. Through Western policies, embargos, fear and greed, the Middle East has… [read more]

US War on Terrorism Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,450 words)
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U.S. war on terrorism

The present paper focuses on the motives for the change in attitude of the international community after the U.S.-led invasion in Iraq.

The central point of the paper is the assumption that, after the war in Afghanistan, the U.S. motivated its military actions in Iraq by the existing breach of human rights conventions. Although there was… [read more]

Autobiography Was Born Cameron Jon Keene Term Paper

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Autobiography was born Cameron Jon Keene in Aberdeen, Scotland on December 3, 1987. My mother, Yvonne, and my older sister, Danielle, were also born in Aberdeen, while my father, Morris, a petroleum engineer, hails from Havre, Montana. We lived in Aberdeen for the first seven years of my life, and traveled frequently to places such as Portugal, Lanzarote, and the Canary Islands. I attended the local Montessori school, Hamilton, when I was three years old, and at four and a half years of age, I was enrolled in Robert Gordons, which is considered one of the best private schools in the city. I enjoyed school and took an active part in sports, doing quite well in swimming galas, and winning many of my events during school sports days. I also played for a junior team of the local Grammar School Rugby Club and attended several Rugby International Games with the team at Murrayfield in Edinburgh to watch Scotland play against several other countries.

At age seven and a half, my family moved to Qatar, a small Middle Eastern country adjacent to Saudi Arabia. There, I attended a British School and made friends with students from India, Saudi Arabia, Lebanon, Qatar, Sweden, and Australia. One of my friends was a younger son of the Emir of Qatar, and I spent many weekends at his home. I truly enjoyed the time we spent in Qatar. I learned to Jet Ski and we often took our boat to nearby islands to play in the warm waters off the city of Doha, the capital of Qatar. While in Doha, I played tennis, soccer, rugby, and was a member of the local swim team. I went…… [read more]

Learning From Each Others Differences Term Paper

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Learning From Each Other's Differences

Wayne Dyer once said "The highest form of ignorance is when you reject something you don't know anything about." Because of the personal truth that I found in this quote, I have attempted to become more knowledgeable about others. My potential classmate, therefore, would be someone who is Jewish. I am a Palestinian, and most people know that there has been a conflict between Jews and Muslims for a long time. It is not likely that it will be resolved in my lifetime, if ever, but there are things that I can do to make my life and others' lives more pleasant while I am here. This potential classmate and I cannot change any of the big problems and I know this, as I am sure that he or she would know it, as well. However, he or she and I could at least compromise and try to understand more about one another. I want to know more about the Jewish culture, and I want to know more than I think I know now. There are always opportunities for learning, but sometimes they are…… [read more]

Cultural Dimensions Culture Term Paper

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Women, who do not have to maintain the rigidity of the UAE expectations, should also be dressed with elegance and taste; dresses, skirts, and blouses, should build on the classic colors of gray, navy, and white. Non-verbal communication, of which dress is an intrinsic part, is also important in Mexico, where eye contact is not always made, a local custom… [read more]

Bilateral Negotiation Is Mainly Characterized Term Paper

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So, you may be entitled to use a third party in a negotiation so as to bring new, but at the same time, impartial ideas that may help surpass the stalemate position.

B) The main advantage that should be considered is the fact that a third party is usually not involved and can thus bring an impersonal note to the negotiation process. In turn, someone who is not directly implicated may come up with ideas that the other interlocutors are less likely to perceive, due to their direct involvement in the negotiating process.

The disadvantage of using a third party may come from the fact that, even if the third party is supposed to provide impartial advice and mediation, the two conflicting sides may still regard it as taking sides and treat him with distrust. In this sense, it is best to use a third party upon which no suspicion of impartiality should fall, under any conditions during the negotiation process.

C) As the best example of the use of a third party mediator, we may remember the negotiations between Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanahyu and the Palestinian leader Arafat at Camp Davis, at the end of the 90s. The U.S. president Bill Clinton acted as the mediator in this case.

The advantages and disadvantages of using a mediator can be clearly seen in this case. The Palestinian delegation always regarded Bill Clinton as being an inch closer to Israel rather than the Palestinian cause. On the other hand, Bill Clinton provided valuable ideas for the two disputing leaders, ideas which may have taken the negotiations out of the stalemate they had arrived to, had there not been the tremendous differences between the two parties.

4. A) The Russian President Vladimir Putin may be deemed as an enforcer from this point-of-view. As a former KGB agent, Putin has learned manipulation techniques and he does not hold back from using them. Additionally, the position from which Putin plays is excellent for such practices. He is the leader of a state that is still the largest in the world, with enormous natural resources and human potential. Additionally, Russia is still one of the greatest nuclear powers. Despite not being one of the two existing superpowers anymore, Russia remains a reputable opponent for anybody.

In this sense, Vladimir Putin can take strong position and enforce his point-of-view on almost any issue, may it be the Orange Revolution in Ukraine or delivering nuclear resources (uranium) to Iran.

B) It seems important when dealing with such a tough negotiator to use surprise tactics that may destabilize his position and make him vulnerable to unexpected new challenges. One such tactic may be the surprise stratagem. By this, the negotiator can use new and unexpected arguments that may modify the situation in the field and may create a new perspective on the issue.

On the other hand, the negotiator can take one thing a time and attempt to win small concessions from his tougher partner before moving… [read more]

Surge of Islamic Movements Term Paper

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Iraq comes to mind as the best example, but Egypt has never enjoyed democratic conditions after obtaining its independence. We may thus conclude that, in some Islamic states, post-colonialism was assimilated to experiments meant to determine the best governance for the future. Many of these have failed, including socialism assimilation attempts (Syria, Iraq), nationalistic approaches (Egypt) or Western approaches (the Shah rule in Iran). The void that occurred in many cases was filled with political Islam (Iran). In other cases, a third way was chosen, like in Egypt, for example.

It is difficult to discuss political Islam without relating to its main source of financial backing and to the most important resource in the area (next to the human resource, obviously not negligible): petrol. The thesis of petro-Islam finds different arguments in authors who are for or against the idea. While rejecting the thesis for Saudi Arabia or other smaller regional actors, Beinin and Stork state that "the case for petro-Islam in Iran is even weaker"

. The intrinsic connection between Islam and petrol is rejected because of previous historical events that have shown an incumbent form of political Islam (in Iran, for example, at the beginning of the 20th century, in the form of political activism of the mullahs).

On the other hand, historical events of the 1970s need to be taken into consideration. As it has been shown, "the financial clout of Saudi Arabia had been amply demonstrated during the oil embargo against the United States, following the Arab-Israeli war of 1973"

. Evidence speaks for itself. In the aftermath of the Arab-Israeli war, Islamic factions in power in Saudi Arabia, under the rule of the Wahhabite family, provoked the extreme rise in oil prices simply by decreasing the offer of oil on the international markets. As such, at this particular point, political Islam also had a financial backing. Further more, Saudi Arabia showed the way for other states in the region where political Islam is powerful.

For example, Iran plays a key regional and strategic role. The question in Iran is not necessarily the fact that it is an Islamic state or the fact that political Islam is so strong here, but the key issue resides in the fact that Iran has some of the most important oil reserves in the world nowadays. Any conflict against Iran needs to take this factor into consideration: Iran, by itself, is able to drive the oil prices ten times higher than they were after 1973. As such, from an international economic perspective, the association between political Islam and oil resources is the most important negotiation element that the countries in the region have in their dialogue with Western powers.

Undoubtedly, political Islam has numerous causes, related to the specificity of the region, to its historical conditions and to the international context it has operated in during the last century. Some of them have been listed and analyzed in this essay, together with the most notable consequences in the short run.… [read more]

Invasion of Iraq Term Paper

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Invasion on Iraq

It is clear that Iraq had been attacked and presently occupied neither for growth and development of the Iraqi economy nor for the advancement of American values, such as freedom and liberty. Instead, the actual motive behind the invasion and occupation had been to gain control over the vast untapped oil resources of oil within Iraq. Furthermore,… [read more]

Paul Wolfowitz Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (2,317 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Paul Wolfowitz

Considered by many "one of the most hawkish members of the Bush administration," Paul Wolfowitz is seen as the main artisan of war against terror and is known for his advocacy of military action as the potential and most sustainable and efficient solution for any outside provocation. Working for 24 years under six different presidents, Paul Wolfowitz's career… [read more]

Current Global Problems Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (994 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Global Issues & Inequality

The purpose of this work is to examine the global issues of war and social conflicts and environmental degradation in relation to the war in Iraq and to examine the inequality and inequity of the people living in Iraq and how they as individuals suffer from the sociological perspective due to that inequality that exists in today's world.

How easy it is to forget as the Christmas lights brighten the paths of our holiday treks to sit down to dinner with family and ensue stuffing the human body with more food in a day than many in the world have accessible for their nutrition in an entire week, or perhaps even month that there are those who in this war with Iraq are not only hungry but homeless, sick, scared and without hope. How easy too it is to forget that there are individuals who will never see a return to full health because their native land has been contaminated with uranium and mustard gas and even if full health did return, the return of their sons and daughters lost in a war against a much stronger ally whom they didn't desire to war against will never return to them.

In the meantime it is nearing Christmas in the country that is ripping apart the little poor country, the cities and town and even the desolate places within the country where there is no Christmas and it must appear very unfair to the people of Iraq.

Surely there is not an American that is glad for the suffering of these people who are individually not responsible for those actions supposedly inflicted by Saddam Hussein and his evil regime. Just as well it is certain that no American citizen has directly or purposely brought these people to their knees in every way imaginable. Within society, indeed within the balance of the world there exists a great imbalance in terms of equality.

I. The Facts according to the Arab States:

According to Richani (2002) in the work "Political Parties, Justice Systems and the Poor: The Experience of the Arab States":

The 1990's witnessed the Arab states responding to the changing global environment." Richani (2002). The following three categories were named by the author:

1. An authoritarian backlash (Algeria and Sudan) that led to exacerbated civil wars and to the consolidation of military dictatorships in Iraq, Libya, and Syria;

2. The consolidation of monarchies, with little if any political openings (Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, Qatar, Oman and Bahrain)

3. The opening of political systems to accommodate rising political forces largely by pacting agreements that guarantee the hegemonic political forces a privileged position in the power structure circumscribing the democratization process leading to the emergency of electoral democracies.(Morocco, Tunisia, Jordan, Kuwait, Egypt, Yemen, and Lebanon)."

II. Polyarchy

In this work the author addresses the problems associated with what is referred to as 'polyarchy'. Polyarchy is defined as incomplete democratized political regimes and according to Nazih (2002):…… [read more]

Iraq Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (825 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


The median age is 19.2 years, while the life expectancy rate is 68.26 years, and the population growth rate is 2.74% (www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/geos/iz.html)."

The ethnic breakdown of the population is "Arab 75-80%; Kurdish 15-20%, and Assyrian or other 5%. The language spoken is Arabic, Kurdish (official in Kurdish regions), Assyrian, and Armenian, and the religions worshiped are Muslim-97% (Shi'a 60-65%, Sunni 32-37%), and Christian or other- 3% (www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/geos/iz.html)." In terms of literacy, 40.4% of those who are over 15 can read and write.


The currency of Iraq is the New Iraqi dinar, and the GDP in 2003 was $37.92 billion, while the GDP per capita was $1,500. Iraq's import partners are "Jordan, Vietnam, the United States, German, Russian, UK, France and Italy, while its export partners are the United States, Taiwan, Canada, Jordan, Italy, Morocco and Brazil. The main imports of Iraq are food, medicine, and manufactures, while its chief export is crude oil (www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/geos/iz.html)."

Government and Military

There is currently an interim government in place. The Iraqi Armed Forces was recently dissolved by the United States and the UK, and they are "implementing plans to create a new Iraqi Army with a purely defensive mission and capability (www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/geos/iz.html)." The country belongs to a number of associations which include "ABEDA, ACC, AFESD, AMF, CAEU, FAO, Interpol, IOC, OPEC, UN, and WHO (www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/geos/iz.html)."

Living Symbol

The flag of Iraq is "three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and black with three green five-pointed stars in a horizontal line centered in the white band; the phrase ALLAHU AKBAR (God is Great) in green Arabic script - Allahu to the right of the middle star and Akbar to the left of the middle star - was added in January 1991 during the Persian Gulf crisis (www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/geos/iz.html)."


Iraq is a country that is in the middle of vast changes. By examining details of the country, one is able to gain a better understanding of the people who live there.

Works Cited

(World Factbook- Iraq. (Accessed 29 November, 2004).

< www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/geos/iz.html>).… [read more]

War on Iraq, and Considers Term Paper

Term Paper  |  9 pages (3,561 words)
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Obviously, the transition to democracy in Iraq was not, is not, smooth. To let people loose, who had previously - all of their lives - been told what to do, when to do it, and how to do it, was always going to be a shock for them, particularly when there are millennia-long disputes between different factions in Iraq, which… [read more]

Iraq Invaded Kuwait. The Invasion Term Paper

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Bibliography Sources: 1+


S. Ambassador to Iraq, April Glaspie. In it, Glaspie asks the Iraqi dictator why he has amassed his troops on Kuwait's border. Hussein responds in no uncertain terms that he is about to enter negotiations with Kuwait (the meeting mentioned earlier), and if he does not achieve the results that he wants, he will invade Kuwait, giving up on his ongoing war with Iran. Hussein then asks the United States' opinion. Glaspie responded with, "We have no opinion on your Arab - Arab conflicts, such as your dispute with Kuwait. Secretary (of State James) Baker has directed me to emphasize the instruction, first given to Iraq in the 1960's, that the Kuwait issue is not associated with America."

America claimed it had no connection to Kuwait. It had no opinion on the matter. That is certainly a far cry from the President's response when the invasion took place a few days later. President Bush condemned the invasion and Iraqi assets in America were frozen the same day. Does that change the complexion of Saddam's plan? Did he invade thinking America would choose not to get involved in an "Arab - Arab conflict?" It would certainly make the idea more attractive.

While Iraq refused to respond to diplomatic solutions before and during the crisis, there are two main points to consider. First, if the Kuwaiti had agreed to moderate their oil production, Iraq may have been content to grumble. Secondly, if the United States had firmly denounced the idea of the invasion before it started, Saddam Hussein might have come to his senses at the thought of confronting American military might. Saddam's history of stubbornness, however, could also lead one to conclude that his dreams of conquest were so great that the crisis was unavoidable.

The diplomatic efforts surrounding the crisis were commendable. In the five months of negotiations and economic sanctions preceding Operation Desert Storm, Iraq was given numerous opportunities to withdraw. Before the ground war, there was a failed attempt at peace settlement spearheaded by the Soviet Union. The United States rejected the Soviet peace plan.

In the end, diplomacy fell short of resolving the crisis. It was the combined military forces of the Coalition and the effective deployment of Operation Desert Storm that ended the crisis and restored Kuwait. Desert Storm has been lauded as one of the most successful military operations in history. Whether or not the crisis could have been preempted through political channels still remains to be seen.


April Glaspie Transcript." What Really Happened. 1996. What Really Happened. 9 Mar 2004 http://www.whatreallyhappened.com/ARTICLE5/april.html

Chronology of the Kuwait Crisis." The Kuwait Information Office. 2004. The Kuwait

Information Office. 9 Mar 2004 http://www.kuwait-info.org

Final Report to Congress: Conduct of the Persian Gulf War." Apr 1992. The National Security Archive 11 Feb 2004. George Washington University. 9 Mar 2004 http://www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/nsa/the_archive.html

President George Bush. "National Security Directive 54." 15 Jan 1991. The National Security Archive 11 Feb 2004. George Washington University. 9 Mar 2004 http://www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/nsa/the_archive.html

President George Bush. "National… [read more]

Persia Became Iran Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,712 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


The usage Iran has been in application since the Achaemenid Period (ca 550-331 BC). (Iran or Persia)

Even though the application of Persia as the assignment for the country is less prevalent, it is still applied in its perusal form that is Persian to pinpoint to language and culture. Hence using term Persia pinpointing to the Ancient and/or current Iran not historically nor geographically would be apt. Applying term Persia or Persian associates to the small part of Empire of Iran. This word may give a hand to portray a certain aspect of product of species such Persian Rug or Persian cat, but of course would be inappropriate and informal to name Iran, anything in dearth of Iran. Therefore it is highly appropriate to use Iran usage when it associates to the History of Iran, Land and its populace.


Gold Coins of Persia: A Brief History of Persia" (n.d) Retrieved at http://www.taxfreegold.co.uk/persia.html. Accessed on 12/08/2003

Iran or Persia." (2003) Retrieved at http://www.sanibrite.ca/iran/page10.asp. Accessed on 12/08/2003

Mackey, Sandra. "The Iranians: Persia, Islam and the Soul of a Nation" (1996) Plume: New York, p.5

Yarshater, Ehsan. "Persia or Iran? When Persia Became Iran" (n.d) Retrieved from…… [read more]

EU and Italy Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (405 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


He also said, "Italy's semester won't change the world but it will contribute to the building of a Europe that is greater and a bigger player on the international stage" (People's Daily 1). One of the ways in which Italy planned to do this was by healing divisions with the United States following the downward turn in relations caused by the war in Iraq. Thus, perhaps Berlusconi's support of Israel is his way of showing good faith in the United States as well, contributing to his overall EU goal of strengthening Europe's position in the world.

Italy has also been busy working on a new constitution for the European Union, and has been presiding over an Intergovernmental Conference (IGC) that must ultimately decide on and adopt the constitution. The constitution should be set in motion by the time Italy's EU presidency term expires at the end of December.

Works Cited

"Italy to Take over European Union Presidency." 1 July 2003. People's Daily. 18 Nov. 2003 < http://english.peopledaily.com.cn/200307/01/eng20030701_119192.shtml>.

Schattner, Marius. "Sharon Heads to Italy for Meeting With Berlusconi." 16 Nov. 2003. Agence France-Presse (via ClariNet). 17 Nov. 2003 < http://www.softcom.net/webnews/wed/du/Qmideast-israel-eu-italy.RmdJ_DNG.html>.… [read more]

War in Iraq Dissertation

Dissertation  |  5 pages (1,340 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


The war will be devastating to the people of Iraq which will force mass migrations to cities like Baghdad and Basra. The mass migrations into the cities will only increase the food and water shortages. Famine is an extreme and protracted shortage of food that causes emaciation of the affected population and a substantial increase in the number of people who will die in Basra. "Basra is in a shortage of everything, even food...they have equipment that works with generators, but the generators work only with fuel. If the fuel supply stops (the generators won't work). (Barrett) During the war, it is expected that many power stations will be destroyed, leaving the inhabitants of Basra without electricity. "The city's electricity was knocked out Friday during United States and British bombing. That in turn shut down Basra's water pumping and treatment plants." (Mellgren) The United Nations Children's Fund has estimated that up to 100,000 Basra children under the age of 5 are at immediate risk of severe disease from the unsafe water.

Soon, even those that did stockpile food and drinking water will be at risk. Diseases like cholera will easily be spread in this environment where human waste will possibly mix with water that these citizens will be forced to drink if they do not wish to die of dehydration. Cholera is an acute intestinal infection caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholera. It has a short incubation period, from less than one day to five days, and produces an enterotoxin that causes a copious, painless, watery diarrhea that can quickly lead to severe dehydration and death if treatment is not promptly given. Vomiting also occurs in most stricken with the disease.

Another worry for the citizens of Basra is an out break of typhus. Louse-borne Typhus is the only rickettsial disease which can cause explosive epidemics in humans. In the past, it has often been associated with wars and human disasters and it is still endemic in the highlands and cold areas of Africa, Asia and Central and South America. This deadly disease is transmitted by the human body louse, Pediculus humanus corporis, which is infected while feeding on the blood of people with acute typhus fever. (Head lice or pubic lice play no role in transmission.) Infected lice excrete rickettsiae when feeding on a second host. People are infected by rubbing louse fecal matter or crushed lice into the bite wound or through scratching. The body louse lives in clothing and multiplies very rapidly under poor hygienic conditions, such as those in Basra. Lice proliferate rapidly in refugee camps and other crowded, unsanitary conditions and the risk can be expected to increase in rainy seasons, when more clothing and blankets are used. Because citizens of Basra will not have access to fresh water stores, hygiene will suffer making the spread of disease a strong possibility. "The sewage and electricity is bad in much of Iraq, but especially in Basra." (Traver)

Iraq as a whole will suffer. But, as discussed,… [read more]

President Bush's War on Iraq Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (1,941 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Support for an Invasion

National Security Adviser Condoleessa Rice is a strong supporter for a possible war with Iraq. Rice is concerned about Saddam Hussein and the destruction he is capable of.

At the University of Virginia, The College Republicans support President Bush's policies and are distributing pro-war pamphlets.

They are holding a rally in an attempt to draw attention to a possible war, while gathering support for their cause (Lamesa, 2002).

Democrats verses Republicans

Many prominent Democrats oppose a war with Iraq. Senator Edward Kennedy feels the Bush administration hasn't proved the United States is in enough danger to warrant a pre-emptive strike and war. Representative John Lewis of Georgia thinks President Bush is concentrating more on a possible war, than dealing with matters such as the economy and corporate corruption (Martz A1).

Republicans such as Defense Secretary Donald Rumsfeld feel a pre-emptive strike is necessary because rogue nations that support terrorists can cause situations that may "be more dangerous than the Cold War (Martz A1)." Republicans also believe a pre-emptive strike could deter another terrorist attack.

They admit going to war is not an easy decision, but worry there are more risks involved if nothing is done (Martz A1).


President Bush is trying to gain support for a pre-emptive strike against Iraq. The issue has been addressed in Senate hearings with the Democrats encouraging patience and the Republicans urging a war with Iraq. Countries around the world are watching the proceedings and many have already decided if they are going to support the United States if an invasion does occur.

President Bush has many things to consider before making the ultimate decision of invading Iraq, such as the cost of war, how big a threat Hussein is and what the aftermath of a war would be.

Many Americans feel Bush should finally address these issues, make a decision to either invade Iraq or wait on U.N. sanctions and commit to it.

Works Cited

COVER EDITORIAL / Convince Us / 4 Questions Bush Must Answer Before Deciding to Invade Iraq. Newsday. (2002): 03 August. Pp.B01.

DON'T BLAME THEH SANCTIONS. Denver Rocky Mountain News. (2001):

03 December. Pp. 38A.


Xinhua News Agency. (2002): 04 April.

The Iraqi question. The Washington Times. (2002): 18 January.

Jahn, George. Inspector: War or Peace Up to Iraq. Associated Press. (2002): 17 November.

Lamesa, Anthony. U.Virginia students split over support for possible war on Iraq.

University Wire. (2002): 14 November.

Martz, Ron. Making the case on Iraq Rumsfeld: Backing is there. The Atlanta Journal and Constitution. (2002): 28 September. Pp. A1.

Williams, Daniel. Jordan Struggles to…… [read more]

Political Debate Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (653 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


" Many Democrats are worried the Republicans are using the Senate hearing debates concerning Iraq as political arenas. Meanwhile, President Bush has yet to answer many of the questions posed to him by those against an immediate invasion, leaving many to wonder if he is prepared for a war.

Iraq's Response leading newspaper in Iraq recently said, "Iraq has no intention of threatening neighboring countries or world security (Yacoub, 2002)."

Iraq asked the United Nations to supervise an international conference to "identify what is terror and to root out its causes (International Conference, 2002)."

Iraq feels the United States is using anti-terrorism as an excuse to attack other countries, thus creating a greater animosity between the two nations.

Recent Developments

President Bush set a three-week deadline for Saddam Hussein on November 17th, 2002, edging the United States closer to war with Iraq. Hussein must give U.N. weapons inspectors the locations of weapons of mass destruction (Jahn, 2002)" or prove he has removed them from Iraq.

Bush has warned Iraq he will take military action if his demands are not met, causing experts to feel the "question of war and peace (Jahn, 2002)" is up to Hussein.


The United States is on the brink of war with Iraq because of the terrorist attacks. There are many debates being argued on this matter, but some of the most compelling prove, that before Bush commits the country to war, he needs to make sure he has carefully considered all of the facts and options before him.

Works Cited

COVER EDITORIAL / Convince Us / 4 Questions Bush Must Answer Before Deciding to Invade Iraq. Newsday. (2002): 03 August. Pp.B01.

DON'T BLAME THEH SANCTIONS. Denver Rocky Mountain News. (2001): 03 December. Pp. 38A.

Frazza, Luke. U.S.-GEPHARDT-DASCHLE-IRAQ. Agence France Presse. (2002): 25 September.


Jahn, George. Inspector: War or Peace Up to Iraq. Associated Press. (2002): 17…… [read more]

Attacks of September 11, 2001 Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,175 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


The risks of inaction." He acknowledged there are many risks associated with the use of force against Iraq but said the suggestion that removing Saddam's regime would cause regional instability seems "exaggerated."

Wolfowitz said that sooner or later the world will have to cope with Saddam's demise.

In the interests of minimizing whatever risks there are to larger regional stability, it would be far better for this enormous change to take place when the eyes of the world are upon Iraq and when the United States and a strong coalition are committed to seeing it through to a successful conclusion," he said.

In short, to take place on the world's terms, not on Saddam's or on some fateful roll of the dice," he added.

Wolfowitz dismissed skeptics who say an attack on Iraq would disrupt the U.S. war on terror. "It is hard to see how we can expect to be successful in the long run (in the anti-terror war) if we leave Iraq as a sanctuary for terrorists and its murderous dictator in defiant safety," he said.

To those who argue the United States should wait until the threat from Saddam is imminent, Wolfowitz countered that "the notion that we can wait until the threat is imminent assumes that we will know when it is imminent."

Noting that no one knew the Sept. 11, 2001, attacks were imminent before they happened, he said the world "cannot afford to wait until Saddam or a terrorist supplied by him attacks us with a chemical, biological or... nuclear weapons to recognize the danger that we face."

Reacting to concerns that the U.S. might act alone against Saddam, Wolfowitz insisted "we do not plan to act unilaterally" and said some countries have indicated they will be part of a U.S.-led coalition with or without a U.N. resolution.

Other countries directly threatened by Iraq will not openly back the U.S. until they are certain Washington will act and "that is why American resolve and determination to act -- not to be hamstrung by the waverings of the weak or those who still hope to seek favors from the Baghdad regime -- is important to embolden others to join us," he said.

Waiting for another time, when other crises have been resolved, is not an acceptable option, Wolfowitz said.

There will always be problems with acting at any time. But one thing we can say with certainty: the danger of acting grows with time because if military action against Saddam Hussein becomes necessary, the greatest danger will be his weapons of mass destruction."

Works Cited

Fraser, T.G. The Arab-Israeli Conflict. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1995.

Korn, David A. The making of the United Nations Security Council Resolution 242: Centerpiece of Arab-Israeli Negotiations.

Mitchell, Lena. "Locals support Bush's case for military action against Iraq." 9 October 2002 Northeast Mississippi Daily Journal http://www.djournal.com/djournal/site/articles/news/1289510.htm.

Crook, Olive. "Lets Give International Law All the Respect It Is Due." 15 October 2002. Atlantic Online http://www.theatlantic.com/politics/nj/crook2002-10-15.htm.

Mitchell, Jason P. Letter. "U.S.… [read more]

Economic Instability and Ethnic &amp Religious Unrest Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (2,638 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


economic instability and ethnic & religious unrest in Turkey

Despite its glorious past and the individual strengths of the different peoples who have been brought together in the modern nation of Turkey, the country is currently faced with a number of problems. Among the most important and daunting challenges currently facing the country are growing ethnic strife, religious discord that… [read more]

Beliefs, Ideas, and Customs Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (796 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Therefore, Suadi Arabian is people who just follow the religious beliefs and customs of their homeland like any other country.

Being a Suadi Arabian means to have pride in their country. along with believing the customs that their land may hold without other people thinking that it is wrong. And, it is safe to say a Suadi Arabian will defend their beliefs and customs to a person who believes that they are extremely wrong. It may be true women are less than men are in Suadi Arabia. Women do have to cover themselves up from head to toe along with their face.

Some people might say this is unnecessary and also not fair to the women of Suadi Arabia. But, Suadi Arabians believe it is right and a way of life for them. Suadi Arabians may say that the freedom that women have in America is wrong but every country is different. Like Americans, Suadi Arabians will defend their way of life to anyone who claims it is wrong. So, Suadi Arabians are like everyone else in that they will take pride in their way of living and stand up for their precious homeland.

And, being a Suadi Arabian means to fight for the homeland it seems to be under attack by foreigners When A person sees a family member lying dead somewhere due to a foreigner's attack on them, that person might become hostile to that foreign country. And, that is how some Suadi Arabians feel about other countries because most of them want to lead their lives as they are like anyone else would. Suadi Arabians want their homeland to be safe from anyone who wants to harm it and the people of it. So, to be a Suadi Arabians means to be proud of the country that is home and try to protect from harm.

Being a Suadi Arabian is no different from another country especially America because taking pride in the homeland is a part of being one. As Suadi Arabian, the religion and customs are a way of life and they are not wrong because they are different from other countries. And, like anyone else, they will defend their way of life due to the fact it is a part of them Therefore, Suadi Arabians are people who want to protect, have pride in, and believe in their homeland like everyone else…… [read more]

When Evolution Collides With Religious Dogma Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (724 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Teaching History

Christine Counsell points out that being able to engage students into conversations about change and continuity should be incorporated into any well-planned lesson or a thoughtful week in a challenging curriculum. After all, no matter what career they choose, or who they decide to partner with, or what part of the country they will decide to live in, change will come. When change comes it may be swift and shocking. It could be psychologically devastating and it may also be catastrophic or demeaning to the individual. As hard as change is to accept, preparing for anything -- and everything -- when it comes to change is beneficial and if the instructor is successful, it shows creative depth and resourcefulness on the part of the instructor.

Accepting Science in the Face of Religious Dogma

Number two on the list of 20 strategies for helping students become more effective at handling topics of change and continuity -- including looking closely at views on "continuity in religious practice" -- will be presented in this paper.

Here's the scenario: a young woman was brought up in the home of evangelicals, who believe in "creationism," the belief that God created the universe about 10,000 years ago. Frankly, her parents have rejected science and injected their strict constructionist views into her during her formative years. Any turning away from the religious conservatism on her part would bring extreme tension into the home. In front of the church where her family worships is a marquee that gives the times of worship services; it also has these prominent words presented: "Jesus or Darwin: which will you choose"?

But now she is in college, and in a required science class the instructor is laying the groundwork for a unit on evolution. A peer-reviewed article in the journal Evolution offers suggestions and background in terms of how to persuade certain religious students to accept a change in thinking. Evolution is frequently seen as "contentious and 'troubling', the authors explain, because evolutionary biology " ... intersects and often challenges religious beliefs and values" (Chinsamy, et al., 2008). The authors point out that is isn't just religious evangelicals that are at odds…… [read more]

Arabic Perceptions of Franks Reaction Paper

Reaction Paper  |  2 pages (599 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Muslim Interpretation of the Crusades

The first of the important events (in chronological order) that Malouf identifies in his work of non-fiction entitled Crusades Through Arab Eyes is that which is largely known as the beginning of the Crusades. Specifically, this event is Pope Urban II's announcement at Clermont in 1095 that infidels had taken over significant portions of what he perceived as the Holy Roman Empire, and that crusaders should go to take back that land. It is important to realize that the Crusades actually began in Nicaea and started off auspiciously for the Arab occupants of this territory. Peter the Hermit led a Frankish army that was handily rebuffed by Kilij Arsla. However, when the Franks returned a year later, they were much better prepared and had a substantially larger force than that which they began the Crusades with, and were able to successfully conquer a succession of Arabic states including, most imminently, with the sacking of Jerusalem in 1099. They would go on to control that state (which has immense significance in Christianity) until the end of the 12th century.

The author also details a number of important cultural implications the Crankish occupation of these territories that were traditionally Arabic. The first is that the Arabic people generally regarded the Frankish invaders as savages who attacked them without provocation. Malouf also emphasizes the fact that the success of the Frankish armies was largely based on a dearth of solidarity of the Arabic forces. One of the particular weaknesses towards the hegemony of Arabia during the time depicted in Malouf's narrative is intrinsically related to succession. Many of the Arabic states would digress and lose whatever unity was had after the death of an important ruler -- at which point numerous princes would vie for power and…… [read more]

Promoting Dialogue: Building Bridges Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (888 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Building Bridges: NGO

Building Bridges teaches communication skills to a diverse array of young Israeli, Palestinian, and American young people through the use of skill-building activities. Students can "learn new perspectives through communication skills-building sessions as well as experiential, outdoor, and creative play workshops and day-to-day contact with each other. The activities are designed to expose participants to seven program building blocks: identity; integration; socialization; perspective; gender lens; communication; and leadership development" ("Program theory," 2014). The ultimate goal of the organization is to create a more tolerant society by changing the minds of young people. The Israeli-Palestinian conflict is one of the most longstanding and violent of recent memory. The hope is that by fostering interpersonal contact and positive feelings between the two groups and affirming one another's humanity that the future can be more peaceful, versus the current stalemate which exists today.

How does it try to achieve its goals?

Over the course of its residential programs students live together. "This promotes the breakdown of stereotypes, and fosters the development of personal relationships" ("Program theory," 2014). Creative play and learning about the unique perspective of others builds a more tolerant society one person at a time. The perspective of the program is said to be specifically gendered: all participants learn skills traditionally associated with women, such as communitarian decision-making. They also learn leadership skills. "Participants are encouraged to think about how to bring what they've learned back to their home communities, and are given tools in program planning and implementation to help them execute change projects in their home communities" ("Program theory," 2014).

What are some of the NGO critiques?

Building Bridges has faced criticism from both sides of the Israeli-Palestinian divide. Because of the violence which has been waged on both sides of the conflict, often by or directed against young people (many of the Palestinians involved in the intifada have been children and young Israelis were recently killed in the most recent outbreak of violence), the program's personalized perspective which emphasizes individual healing makes many people uncomfortable. The hope is that by changing individuals the larger society can be changed but it could be argued that there is a limit to the degree that major changes can be created with just one or two people. This does not necessarily mitigate the influence of violence in wider society or silence the voices of extremists on both sides. The most extreme voices are unlikely to allow their children to participate in the program. The children whose parents are willing to let them be involved in the program already have a more nuanced view of the Palestinian-Israeli conflict. Also, individual solutions and friendships (which…… [read more]

Tourism in Turkey Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (875 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Turkey Tourism

The Turkey 2023 Tourism strategy is a government-led initiative that outlines the different steps that the Minister of Culture & Tourism will undertake in order to foster growth in the important tourism sector of the Turkish economy. The Turkish government has undertaken several elements of this strategy, such as creating tourism development zones, highlighting areas for further development, and focusing on different strategies for cities, ecotourism and for development corridors. Government has a role in coordinating the efforts of provincial and local governments, and it can dedicate resources to transportation infrastructure, and influence local government zoning decisions as part of its strategy ("Ministry of Culture & Tourism"). The Ministry of Tourism would then follow this development effort with marketing programs. Much of the country is divided into sectors for tourism development. Oddly, the cities initiative does not reflect leveraging Istanbul or other cities, but rather is an initiative to develop ten tourism cities where there are none at present ("Ministry of Culture & Tourism" 55).

Role of Ideology

The Turkish government is nominally a secular democracy, but has heavy socialist influences. The state controls more sectors than would be found in, say, the European Union. There are elements of democratic socialism in the structure of the government, while the current ruling party leans more towards conservatism. There is little doubt the ideology can play a role in public policy, and tourism in Turkey could be significantly affected by the shift in ideology resulting from the new government.

Democratic socialism is manifested in the relatively high level of central government control in Turkey. The government maintains fairly strong control over many key industries, and has played a heavy hand in developing the country's current tourism industry, now one of the largest in the world. Turkey has a centralized economy by European standards, though by the standards of a Muslim nation Turkey's economy is fairly liberal.

The recent shift towards conservatism has actually been good for the country's economy. The conservatism reflects mainly in religious, social ideology rather than economic. This emergence has been challenging for Turkey, as it runs counter to Ataturk's vision of Turkey as a secular state. Economically, the rise of a class of socially conservative entrepreneurs, known colloquially as Anatolian tigers. When the Turkish economy was under heavy central government influence, its performance was often poor, including bouts of hyperinflation. The new conservative economy has not only stabilized Turkey, but allowed for strong economic growth and the rise of the mid-sized enterprise in the country (Hakura 1).

The impact on tourism development of the socially conservative economy will be varied. There are already…… [read more]

Tourism in Turkey Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (906 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Tourism in Turkey

The Turkey 2023 Tourism strategy is a government-led initiative that outlines the different steps that the Minister of Culture & Tourism will undertake in order to foster growth in the tourism sector. In most countries the development of tourism industries will always involve input national, provincial and local governments. "The influence of the governments is expressed in terms of the policies…to guide invstors and consumers in the industry" (Sisulu page number). This report will focus on the transportation and infrastructure part of the strategy. Government plays a critical role, by dedicating resources to building out critical tourism infrastructure such as airports, railways and highways. The national government also influences provincial and local governments on such matters as zoning, which allow for the development of concentrated tourism areas.

The Turkish government has traditionally been a secular democracy, with socialist influences in a high level of state control of many industries. There are elements of democratic socialism in the strong centralized role that government plays in the economy. The current government, recently arrived in power, leans more towards conservatism. The government traditionally has played a significant role in developing the country's current tourism industry, now one of the largest in the world.

The recent shift towards conservatism has actually been good for the country's economy. The conservatism reflects mainly in religious, social ideology rather than economic. This emergence has been challenging for Turkey, as it runs counter to Ataturk's vision of Turkey as a secular state. Economically, the rise of a class of socially conservative entrepreneurs, known colloquially as Anatolian tigers, has sparked an economic revival. When the Turkish economy was under heavy central government influence, its performance was often poor, including bouts of hyperinflation. The new conservative economy has not only stabilized Turkey, but allowed for strong economic growth and the rise of the mid-sized enterprise in the country (Hakura, 1-16).

The Tourism Strategy of Turkey 2023 shows many influences of the old democratic socialist view of the economy. Most of the work done in this strategy is done by different government agencies, with the influence of private enterprise being somewhat marginalized. This runs counter to the conservative "Anatolian tiger" mindset that has been driving other sectors of the Turkish economy recently. In part, however, this lingering democratic socialism is because conservatism in Turkey is more socio-religious in nature than anything to do with free-market capitalism.

In the handbook for the 2023 strategy, there is discussion about increasing the role of the private sector (21). If the public sector's investment is limited to transportation infrastructure, the private sector will have to be more involved. "Conservatism is, as its name implies, an ideology which places emphasis on conserving what exists, the is…… [read more]

Ethnographic Perspective: Guests of the Sheik Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,376 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1



Although Fernea also relates to the community as a whole, her presence in the group of women means that she was more exposed to their values than to the village's community in general. The writer's experience during the Ramadan provides a more complete image of Iraqi women and their religious thinking. Most religious services Fernea attended were held in private houses with a Sayid woman being in charge of the overall rituals. Religious services are often accompanies by fasting - a period during which people have to refrain from performing a series of activities considered to be immoral and in disagreement with religious values during time of religious celebration.

Fasting lasts until the end of Ramadan and people in the community are required to put across best behaviors throughout this period. Tradition then dictates that everyone needs to celebrate the Iid el-Fitr -- a feast associated with the end of fasting. "For the three days of the Iid the sheik's mudhif would be the scene of tribal feasting." (Fernea) Fernea takes part in Ramadan celebrations from beginning till end and this helps her gain a more complex understanding of the celebration as well as of how determined people were to respect their cultural values.

The moment when Fernea becomes accepted by her peers in the Iraqi community things change significantly. One of the high points of her stay there involves her being able to go on a pilgrimage to the holy city of Karbala, a location generally respected by the Shi'a group. The pilgrimage represents the end of a religious process known as Muharram. "Each year during Muharram the pious Shiite community in Iraq and Iran and in India commemorate Imam Hussein's martyrdom, through daily krayas and through mourning processions and passion plays which dramatize each important occasion in the last days of the martyr." (Fernea) The moment when Fernea steps on a person's prayer rug is especially interesting when regarding people's attitudes toward anything they consider in disagreement with their traditions.

Being and ethnographer

The fact that Fernea was somewhat required to become an active part of the community she wanted to study helped significantly with her work. She was provided with a unique perspective on these people and their community -- most ethnographers are unable to reach such a stage, as the communities they interact with are typically hesitant about allowing them in. As a consequence, her ability to adapt and to influence other women to accept her as one of them proves that one needs to do everything in his or her power in order to achieve best results in his or her work.

Among the most difficult concepts that Fernea came across was the fact that she was a Westerner at heart. As much as she began to understand the Iraqi community and as much as it began to accept her as one of them, it was actually impossible for her to refrain from considering ideas that were engraved into her mind as she lived… [read more]

Jerusalem Some Cities Prove Evocative Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (659 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Jerusalem is a microcosm of the world.

Any visitor to Jerusalem is immediately struck by its inherent multiculturalism. Judaism is a rainbow culture, and is far more than a religion. It is a family. Non-Jews who feel drawn to and connected with Jerusalem likewise understand their role in the human family. All peoples of the Book including Christians and Muslims understand the centrality of Jerusalem in their cultural and religious heritages. The city is more than just a city. As Yehoshua explains in the novel, ordinary cities are about mundane daily existence: working, eating, sleeping. These mundane activities do and must take place in Jerusalem: after all, it is a living city and not a museum. There are vendors and restaurants, lawyers and doctors in Jerusalem old and new. Yet there are other dimensions to the city that are absent from almost all other cities on the planet. People who live in Jerusalem have their feet in different worlds: old and new, spiritual and mundane.

The novel paints a dramatic picture of a life lived, and ended in the holy city. Yulia moves to Jerusalem as a sort of spiritual migrant, as many do. It was certainly not about finding a job or meeting a man. Moving to Jerusalem is a decision made by the soul. Jerusalem belongs to everyone because it is a soulful city that reconnects each person with the core meaning of what it is to be a human being. No other city in the world offers the opportunity to feel connected to each and every other person on the planet regardless of ancestral lineage. The troubles in Jerusalem occur unfortunately because too few realize the potential of this city to prove the interconnectedness of all life.

Works Cited

Messud, Claire. "Travels with Julia." The New York Times. 13 Aug, 2006. Retrieved online: http://www.nytimes.com/2006/08/13/books/review/Messud.t.html?pagewanted=print

Yehoshua, A.B. A Woman in Jerusalem. 2004.… [read more]

Tragedy in Boston Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (645 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Boston Marathon Bombing

The events from April 15, 2013 are showing how terrorism can occur through individuals who are radicalized on the American homeland. In this particular situation, the Tsarnaev brothers were targeting the Boston Marathon. They wanted to kill or wound as many people as possible. This is because they felt the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan are unfairly targeting Muslim civilians. To extract revenge, they believed that these individuals are collateral damage in achieving these objectives. This is illustrating how their mindset was different from traditional terrorists. To fully understand what occurred requires focusing on those factors that motivated them. These elements will illustrate how certain beliefs encouraged them to plan and conduct the bombing. (Bodden, 2014) (Feifer, 2014)

What Motivated the Tsarnaev Brothers?

The Tsarnaev brothers were motivated by the events they experienced during their childhood in Chechnya. This is when they saw the brutal civil war directed at the Muslim population. Unable to prevent it, they immigrated to the U.S. Before this happened, their mother instilled radical Islamic ideas about who they are and their role in the world. (Bodden, 2014) (Feifer, 2014)

After they arrived, the Tsarnaevs' were seen as outsiders and had trouble adapting to American culture. This alienated them even further, by not feeling a sense of connection with their new country. While at the same time, they failed to understand the mindset of the Chechnians living the U.S. As they were seen as weak and unable to become a force for bringing the events to the forefront. This created feelings of isolation and hatred directed at America. Over the course of time, these opinions were turned inward and directed a single country (i.e. The U.S.). (Bodden, 2014) (Feifer, 2014)

In 2012, they traveled to Chechnya and visited several terrorist training camps. This is when they were radicalized even further. In this case, officials were able to build upon the sense of loneliness and anger…… [read more]

Media Imperialism Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (2,416 words)
Bibliography Sources: 16


Other scholars further argue that western imperialism is responsible for transmitting modern colonial agendas (Baber 21)

Globalization influences on western imperialism and Orientalism in Saudi Arabia

Globalization is perhaps the most important aspect in transforming modern cultures and political environments. During the medieval times, ancient Persia rulers concentrated on governing subjects based on Muslim traditions. However, globalization, which began with… [read more]

Virtual Museum Tour Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (691 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Khufu was not just a citizen of Egypt but one of its rulers. Ancient Egyptians believed that there rulers were actually the physical incarnations of aspects of the divinity -- somewhat like an avatar. Therefore, there was a great deal of importance placed on the building of Khufu's tomb which resulted in the sprawling girth of the Great Pyramid, which contains "some four million stone blocks, which the builders moved by means of a system of ramps and poles" (p. 39). The average weight of the blocks is estimated to be 2.5 tons (Banks et al., 2000, p. 142). These huge blocks were considered a necessity for Khufu's tomb because he was considered important enough to warrant such a sprawling final resting place -- a fact which reveals the degree of importance Egyptians placed on the afterlife.

Although the exterior of the Great Pyramid is certainly august, the same sentiment applies to its interior. The pyramid was built so big to be able to encompass the belongings of Khufu. This fact alludes to the Egyptian religious concept that the dead will also be able to take some of their belongings to the afterlife. The interior of the Great Pyramid contains a king's chamber (for Khufu), additional chambers and even an underground room (Banks et al., 2000, p. 142). It took approximately 20 years to construct and considerably taxed the labor of Egyptians' citizens, who were called upon to labor on this enormous project. The fact that the Egyptians were willing to make most available citizens work on this tomb shows how valuable their conception of religion and the afterlife was.

In summary, the Great Pyramid of Khufu reveals how important the afterlife was to the ancient Egyptians. It was a tomb for Khufu, and was considered a resting place for him to transition into the eternal life comfortably.


Banks, J.A., Beyer, B.K, Contreras, G., Craven, J., Ladson-Billings, G., McFarland, M.A., Parker, W.C. (2000). Ancient World: Adventures in Time and Place. New York: McGraw-Hill.


Asena a Turkish Myth Just Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (695 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Generally the ancient peoples believes that the wolf possessed spiritual powers, and that some parts of its body retained specific powers that could be used for different needs by the people (Turks). Moreover, in the modern Turkish nationalism the name Asena figures prominently. Asena have tended to inspire the names and have been used as a symbol of the Grey Wolves, the youth organization of the Turkish Nationalist Movement Party. In another area the Turkish Nationalist Movement Party utilized the name Asena as an ultra-nationalistic symbol.

As Turkish political groups known as Grey wolf ("Bozkurtla" in Turkish) and Idealist Youth ("Genclik" in Turkish) it has formed ultra-nationalistic neofascist youth organization. Such organization has been named after Asena who is the she-wolf in the mythodology associated with the Turkic ethnic origins. The baseline of this Turkic myth is to explain the way the Turkic people were created.

The grey wolf 'Bozkurt' has been the main totem of ancient Turkish tribes and was once the national symbol from Hun to Ottoman Empire. Prior to the adoption of Islam by the Turks, a head of a grey wolf was used when putting tips of flag poles, though was replaced later by crescent and star. Grey wolf has been admired as a strong, freedom loving and intelligence animal among the entire Turks as well as it has represented the nation of Turks from the Northern Pacific Ocean passing west Siberia to the Eastern Europe and the Mediterranean Sea.


Although to some extent the Grey wolf as groups have been associated with other forms of unaccepted acts against the human rights, the Asena mythology is still respected as a sign of unity. The Grey Wolf is Asena and Asena according to Turkic mythology is a female wolf. However because of this association of the grey wolf to modern rightist existing political groups found in Turks, has made the modern population shy away from the initially existing loyalty, beauty, strength, and intelligence that the ancestor of the nation rightfully chose as their symbol.… [read more]

Mustafa Kemel Ataturk's Reforms Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,772 words)
Style: Turabian  |  Bibliography Sources: 5



Mustafa Kemal Ataturk's reforms

Mustafa Kemal Ataturk's reforms

Mustafa Kemal Ataturk was the founder of the First President of the Republic of Turkey. Mustafa was born in 1881 in Salonica (Selanik). During his military term, he served as a successful commander in 1912-1914, and further took part in the First World War in 1914-1918. In 1920,… [read more]

Why China Backs Iran Research Paper

Research Paper  |  11 pages (2,797 words)
Bibliography Sources: 11


¶ … China backs Iran

China and Iran are two of the most significant countries of the world in general and Asia and Middle East in particular. Since the two countries are neighbors, the two countries are of strategic importance to each other. China is called the factory of the world as it manufactures almost everything that is available in… [read more]

Remains Is a Film Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (622 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Their movements are restricted and they feel a sense of isolation from their people. ("The Song Remains," 2009)

Next, the film shifts to focus on Fuad and Eila during the 1980s. This is when Fuad has become older and is relying on his son to help him seek out medical assistance (as he has become fraile). One day Eila is told that he must leave the country or face the possibility of arrest. This is because he has been actively observing the altercations that are taking place between Israeli police and Palestinian youths (who are a part of the Intifada). The problems for Eila begins when, he watches what happens and is considered to be a participant as well as supporter (from his passive involvement with these events). This is illustrating how the total amounts of discrimination have evolved to the point that innocent Palestinians are being targeted for doing nothing other than witnessing something. ("The Song Remains," 2009)

The film then fast forwards to 2008. This is when Elia is sitting on the porch with his wife and they see the fireworks celebrating Israel's 60th anniversary of independence. He turns his back to what is happening and encourages his family members to do the same. This is because he feels that the Israeli authorities have terrorized him and generations of his family. In order to show a lack of support for their cause, this simple act is designed to highlight defiance. ("The Song Remains," 2009)

These different scenes are illustrating how Palestinians in Israel are subject to discrimination and persecution. The only way that the Suleiman's can fight back is through engaging in small acts of civil disobedience. This is taking place with the family holding onto their culture and rejecting the authority along with control exerted over them by the Israelis. ("The Song Remains," 2009)

References…… [read more]

Egypt Bankruptcy and Occupation Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,584 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Egypt -- Bankruptcy and Occupation:

Imperialism by European countries in the Middle East region did not only incorporate the use of colonization and occupation. This is primarily because economic and political factors also contributed to the emergence of sectarianism in the eastern Mediterranean. For instance, the prosperity of the Christian community in the Mediterranean coast increased significantly during the 19th… [read more]

Economic Geography of Pearl Market in Bahrain Essay

Essay  |  9 pages (2,424 words)
Bibliography Sources: 20


Economic Geography of Pearl Market in Bahrain

The Pearl Market in Bahrain

Bahrain is one of the countries that are surrounded by certain misconceptions from Western countries. This situation can be attributed to the fact that there is little information on Bahrain that is based on real data and that Western countries are interested in. This means that Bahrain should… [read more]

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