"Israel / Palestine / Arab World" Essays

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Faience Necklace Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (574 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

SAMPLE TEXT:

This has a similar description.

As mentioned, Faience is relatively cheap material but the great amount and diversity of colour and shades that tare seen in this beautiful broad chain was likely achieved by the fact that different minerals were added to the basic mixture before it was fired. In this way, the faience sometimes deliberately imitated semi-=precious stones as was in this case here where the beads represented turquoise and lapis lazuli beads. These were quarried and shaped and tehfor4e relatively expensive. The small crumbs and beads at the bottom of the chain that were clustered into peonies or posies and that contrasted each other with White, yellow and red were given the textured finish by adding the small crumbs tot the beads before they were heated.

The chain is strung in two points with these crumbs: towards the top where the crumbs connect the necklace in a horizontal loop and at the bottom where the crumbs tie clusters of pairs into the culminating 'flower'.

The result is a pleasing variety of shapes and sizes culminating into a broad chain that is aesthetically pleasing and tranquilizing due to its contrasting shapes, colours, materials and textures. It must have been an Egyptian with good taste who lay buried in that tomb.

References

Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History. Faience necklace 332-30 BC

http://www.mnh.si.edu/exhibits/eternal-life/mummys-tomb.cfm

Petrie, W.M.F. Diospolis Parva: The cemetery (London, 1901)

Andrews, C.A.R. Catalogue of Egyptian antiques (London, The British Museum Press, 1981)… [read more]


Egyptian History Ancient Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (2,055 words)
Bibliography Sources: 7

SAMPLE TEXT:

This end of the Old Kingdom Period can be thought of as the Golden Age of Egypt because all of the forces seen in Mann's IEMP Model were present to their greatest extent. After this period there were wars with powerful neighbors, longer periods of famine, the economy was not as reliable and other religions replaced the old religion in the minds of many. The late Old Kingdom saw the greatest growth in architecture, land accumulation, kingly power, political structure, academic achievement, and economic growth. Much of this is evidenced in the enormous building projects, especially in the burial tombs of the kings, that the government initiated. Many now believe that these projects were a form of welfare and public works initiated by the government to show the might of Egypt, employ great numbers of people, and honor the kings. This lasted for approximately 200 years.

Decline

The eventual decline and ruin of ancient Egypt started at the end of the Old Kingdom. Mieroop (2011, 240) says that "Ramses II died of old age in 1213, the country he left behind seems to have been in good shape & #8230; One hundred and forty years later, if not earlier, it was in ruins." He goes on to relate the evidence is found in the artifacts that survive from the period, especially the writings of the Egyptians themselves. This evidence states that there was constant pillaging happening from within and without the country, the people were beginning to doubt the deity of the king so his leadership crumbled, and the economic system was in serious decline mainly because of the loss of foreign territories (Mieroop, 2011, 248).

The primary reasons that the ancient power collapsed and never regained its former prominence were primarily economic. The early Intermediate Period, is marked in ancient literature by a drought that lasted for the greater part of 50 years. This extended period did not allow the normal flooding of the Nile, so the kingdom could not grow the immense rations of grain that it needed. This meant that the people who had been take care of by the seat of power for more than a thousand years were not confident in their government any longer, the economy collapsed, and people turned to all manner of pantheistic and other types of religions to try and stop the devastation. This period of decline would be followed by others, the Middle and New Kingdom periods, in which the pharaohs again gained back some of the prowess of earlier days, but they would never quite reach it again. From the research it is actually amazing how quickly the decline happened. Egypt had been building up as a society for the greater part of 1800 years (and possibly longer) and it took less than a tenth of that for it all to lapse into a major decline.

References

Bard, K.A. (2008). An introduction to the archeology of Egypt. London: Blackwell Publishing.

Brewer, D.J. (2005). Ancient Egypt: The origins. New York:… [read more]


U.S. Intervention in Middle East Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (698 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2

SAMPLE TEXT:

As a result, Iraq started complaining that the Kuwaitis were stealing its oil through the use of diagonal drilling technology into the huge Rumaila old field, most of which is inside Iraqi territory. While Iraq continued to complain, Kuwait refused to work out plans that could permit Iraq to access the Persian Gulf. The extent of the conflict was realized in May 1990, when Iraq's president, Saddam Hussein, indignantly complained regarding Kuwait's economic warfare policy against Iraq in an Arab League meeting. During this meeting, Hussein hinted that Iraq would take military action if Kuwait didn't change its over-production of oil.

An analysis of United States intervention in this conflict shows that America interfered in and provoked the dispute between Iraq and Kuwait. Since America was aware of the impending military response by Iraq against Kuwait, the United States capitalized of Iraq's move to conduct a long-planned military intervention in the Middle East. In addition to increasing economic pressure on Iraq as part of its policy, the United States adopted a dramatic change in its military doctrine and strategy toward Iraq (Becker, 1991).

United States intervention in the Iraq-Kuwait conflict is considered as an attempt to continue with its strategy to weaken Middle East countries with the potential of challenging America's dominance. The main goal of this intervention was to use Kuwait as a tool of America's inspired campaign of economic warfare that was geared toward weakening Iraq as a regional power after the end of Iran-Iraq war. Actually, the intervention and involvement of the United States in the conflict contributed to a huge number of casualties in the war. Through its ground war against Iraqi positions, America intervened to destroy Iraq as a regional power.

Bibliography:

Becker, Brian, "U.S. Conspiracy to Initiate the War Against Iraq," The Commission of Inquiry

for the International War Crimes Tribunal, last modified May 11, 1991, http://deoxy.org/wc/wc-consp.htm

Jacek, Brian, "U.S. Role in the Iran-Iraq War and its Negative Implications on U.S.-Iran

Relations," Kulna: For All of Us, last modified March 23, 2011, http://kulna.wordpress.com/2011/03/23/us-role-in-the-iran-iraq-war-and-its-negative-implications-on-us-iran-relations/… [read more]


Construction of a Collective Memory Term Paper

Term Paper  |  9 pages (2,483 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

SAMPLE TEXT:

" (Connerton, p.73) Connerton notes the importance of postures "for communal memory" and that "power and rank are commonly expressed through certain postures relative to others: from the way in which people group themselves and form the disposition of their bodies relative to the bodies of others, we can deduce the degree of authority which each is thought to enjoy… [read more]


Iranian Revolution Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,669 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

SAMPLE TEXT:

Iranian Revolution

Most Americans born in the 1960s or very early 1970s know the name, Ayatollah Khomeini, among the men most hated by Americas in the late 1970s and early 1980s. Khomeini was the Iranian religious and political leader that returned from exile to help the overthrow of the Shah of Iran (Mohammad Reza Pahlavi) in 1979. Americans despised Khomeini… [read more]


Afghan Proposal Foreign Aid Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  9 pages (2,496 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10

SAMPLE TEXT:

Proposed Research Methods

The proposed research will consist of a qualitative study using multiple specific research methodologies including simple observation, interview, a review of media sources and other primary documents related to the research questions, and other reasonable modes of inquiry as they present themselves during the research period. With an estimated timeframe of two years within which to gather… [read more]


Iranian Hostage and Jimmy Carter Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,514 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1

SAMPLE TEXT:

Jimmy Carter and the Iran Hostage Crisis

The period leading up to the Iran hostage crisis was not an easy one for the United States. The Iranian hostage crisis lasted from November 4, 1979 until January 20, 1981 and was a difficult and emotional time for the nation but it was particularly so when the situation is examined against the… [read more]


Lawyers Legal Issues the Public Consumption Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,300 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

SAMPLE TEXT:

Lawyers

Legal Issues

The Public Consumption of Alcohol

Saudi Arabia has a strict moral code that must be followed at all times. This is because the nation is considered to practice Islamic law and customs. At the same time, there are Haditha traditions going back to the times of the prophet Mohamed. In general, this means that there will be specific laws that must be adhered. This is regardless of where the individual is from or their viewpoints on the subject. Otherwise, anyone who is in violation of these regulations will be subject to more severe punishments in comparison with the United States. ("Getting a Drink in Saudi Arabia") ("Saudi Arabia")

In the case of drinking alcoholic beverages, there is a certain amount of tolerance for foreigners who are bringing it in and purchasing it. This will take place at designated locations that will allow everyone to enjoy these products behind closed doors. However, under Islamic law, anyone who is publically in violation of these standards will be subject to: a public lashing, fines, deportation or several weeks / years in prison. ("Getting a Drink in Saudi Arabia") ("Saudi Arabia")

Evidence of this can be seen with the source titled Criminalization of Drug and Alcohol Offenses (2012). According to the information, Saudi Arabia is one of the strictest countries for enforcing the prohibition of consuming alcohol with article stating, "The country that prosecutes people for drinking alcohol or being drunk in public is Saudi Arabia. Punishments for alcohol consumption can ranged from lashings to prison sentences. In places where alcohol is prohibited, addicts often have little recourse for treatment. In utilizing this option, they may face action for alcohol consumption if their condition is not kept private." ("Criminalization of Drug and Alcohol Addiction") These facts are showing how there will be severe penalties that Mr. Edwards will face from not knowing the customs or laws.

This is different from American law (i.e. The U.S. Constitution), where the accused is provided with certain amounts of protection. When visiting another country, these laws are not applicable. As a result, anyone who is in Saudi Arabia must understand different aspects of the law. The fact that Mr. Edwards is not aware of these issues is no excuse for these activities. Therefore, he will be treated as an ordinary criminal suspect (regardless of the cultural misunderstandings that are taking place). ("Getting a Drink in Saudi Arabia") ("Saudi Arabia")

This means that Mr. Edwards can be held for several weeks to months without charge (while Saudi officials are investigating). Moreover, legal council may not have access to the suspect during this time and the courts could appoint another lawyer as representation. This is vastly different form the leniency that is provided under the American legal system. ("Getting a Drink in Saudi Arabia") ("Saudi Arabia")

Analysis

The way that these laws are applicable to the case, is that Mr. Edwards will more than likely be subject to severe penalties. This means that he will face: a… [read more]


Rise and Fall of Egypt Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,352 words)
Style: Chicago  |  Bibliography Sources: 3

SAMPLE TEXT:

As the government strengthened, permanent power structures were built, and the arts and music flourished, Egypt transitioned from village-centered culture to an organized system of settlements along the Nile. The Nile was central to Old Kingdom society, especially as peace and security took root and the population expanded. Fekri Hassan (1997) points out that the "rise in bureaucracy" that accompanied the strengthening of the government led to "a demand for more food producers and craftsman." This cycle resulted in a vibrant economy almost completely dependent on the fertile land provided by the annual floods of the Nile River. At the height of the Old Kingdom, the Nile basin was supporting nearly 1.2 million people (Ibid).

By the reign of Pepy II (2246-2152 BC), the Old Kingdom was a peaceful, productive, flourishing culture with a strong economy, a centralized government, and a vibrant artistic identity. And yet, within decades of Pepy II's death, the entire structure of Egyptian society -- from the monarchy to the farmer -- had completely collapses. Hassan (2011) attributes this collapse to a perfect storm of challenges.

First, Pepy II ruled for over 90 years. While his reign was peaceful, the sheer length of it made the transition to the next monarch very difficult. In fact, the two decades following Pepy's death saw no fewer than 18 different rulers in Egypt (Ibid). This quick turnover eroded the concept of permanence that had become a hallmark of the Old Kingdom government, and led to a sense of unease among a population that had grown up knowing nothing but Pepy II.

In addition, the government administrators had become increasingly powerful during the final years of Pepy II, and the subsequent rulers were unable to wrest the power back (Ibid). The position of Provincial Governor was made hereditary, and these governors increasingly acted according to their own agenda, without regard for the wishes of the monarch. With the erosion of the centralized power of the monarchy, the slightest stress on society was all it took to send the entire system into ruin.

This stress appeared in the environment. In the last few decades of the Old Kingdom, the annual Nile floods unexpectedly diminished and disappeared (Hassan 2011). Without the annual floods, the desert surrounding the river did not get the benefit of the rich layer of silt that made the land arable. The lack of sufficient farmland quickly threw the entire Egyptian population into a dire famine. A firsthand account by the Egyptian philosopher Ipuwer gives a sense of the desperation:

Lo, the desert claims the land. Towns are ravaged. Upper Egypt became a wasteland. Lo, everyone's hair [has fallen out]. Lo, great and small say

"I wish I were dead"…Men stir up strife unopposed, groaning is throughout the land, mingled with laments. (qtd. In Hassan 2011)

Climatologists now consider the deep drought to be the result of global cooling, the result of which was less rainfall falling in northern Africa. But for the average Egyptian at the end of… [read more]


Ancient Egyptian Attitudes Towards Foreigners Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,777 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

SAMPLE TEXT:

There were foreign language speakers in Egypt since the New Kingdom, according to Muzhou Pu, who offers an example of foreigners that were mentioned in Amenophis III: The (Theban) temple workhouse "…is filled with male and female slaves and with children of the princes of every foreign country that his majesty despoiled… It is surrounded by Syrian settlements, in habited by the children of the princes" (Pu, 2005, 32). Apparently these foreign workers / slaves' written communications ("if any") were in Egyptian, Pu explains. Hence it is clear that when foreigners use the Egyptian language that was a way "to achieve cultural assimilation" -- and perhaps eventually be free to become part of the society.

In conclusion, there are many examples in the literature of the negative approaches that ancient Egyptians embraced vis-a-vis foreigners. Some of the examples are obvious, some are subtler, and some examples even showed a tolerance for all foreigners except Asiatics. Knowing this part of ancient Egyptian history empowers readers and students to have a more compete perspective of how the world's societies evolved into what we have today. Comparing the revolutionary -- and violent / chaotic realities today -- Egypt of 2012 with the society that existed in ancient times is fascinating and educational as well.

Works Cited

Ancient Egyptian Texts. (2003). The Instruction of Merikare. Retrieved March 26, 2012, from http://www.reshafim.org.il/ad/egypt/merikare_papyrus.htm.

Poo, Mu-chou. (1999). "Ancient Egyptian Attitudes toward Foreigners," in Politics and Religion in Ancient and medieval Europe and China, Frederick Cheung and Ming-chiu

Lai, Editors. Boston, MA: Brill Publishing.

Pu, Muzhou. (2005). Enemies of Civilization: Attitudes…… [read more]


Ethos, Pathos, Logos Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,579 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5

SAMPLE TEXT:

Abul Naga according to the author aims to undermine the Egyptian revolution by claiming that the funds given to Egypt were ways for the Jewish lobby to attain control over the Egyptian administrative structures. She believed that the revolution was a setup by the Jews to make the Egyptian youth believe the illusion of freedom while they penetrated the system to take control. This is where we see the author bring in the concept of pathos and connect an emotional side to the story and what he wants to come across. He claims that the Egyptian youth is vital for every step that will be taken in the future by this transitional government as well as the government that takes over or is democratically selected. He asserts that the Egyptian you must stay aware and updated about their purpose and the lifestyle that instigated them over the edge and fight for a revolution; he urges them to be wary of the fact that forces that could bring back similar circumstances still existed in the region and could be easily brought back if they were not smart in the aftermath of the revolution. Here, one can see that the author aptly presents the revolution to be the first step towards a restructuring of a nation and it requires hard work and legal/global funding support.

References

Freidman, T. The United States Studies Centre at the University of Sydney. 2009. Accessed March 5th, 2012 from: http://ussc.edu.au/people/thomas-friedman

Freidman,…… [read more]


Applications for Economics Finance and Management Research Paper

Research Paper  |  11 pages (3,112 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

SAMPLE TEXT:

¶ … Economics Finance and Management

In 1958, six of the most powerful European countries formed an alliance that was called the European Economic Community. These initial countries were France, Germany, Belgium, the Netherlands, Italy and Luxembourg and the formation was the incipient form of the European Union. Gradually, more countries joined the Union, which is today formed from a… [read more]


Walking on Water: Film Interpretation Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,055 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5

SAMPLE TEXT:

Is it right that Axel and Pia should be judged by the actions of their grandfather, and by judging them, does that not simply alienate them from the cause of Israel, which was supposed to be founded as a moral state as well as a refuge for Jews?

Eyal cannot bring himself to kill the grandfather of Axel and Pia on sight because the man has become too humanized in his eyes, as a result of his interactions with the young Germans. This distancing of one's self from the humanity of others is, after all, the type of cognitive dissonance that allowed the Nazis to commit their own horrific actions. Within Israel, of course, these types of moral debates were front and center in the public consciousness during events such as the Eichmann trial, where formal Nazi war criminals were brought to justice. But this debate about the extent to which the past should be allowed to infect the morality of the present is also haunting Israeli politics today, in terms of the interactions between the Palestinians and the Israelis. Each side on this conflict uses old grievances to justify morally questionable actions. Survival is always the necessary goal, but survival and moving into the future is not supported by the black-and-white morality of secretive actions. This present-day conflict is obliquely referenced when Axel 'picks up' a Palestinian waiter, who is portrayed as serving in a subservient role in Israeli society.

One of the dominant themes of Walking on Water, besides revenge, is the stupidity of prejudice. Initially, Eyal is prejudiced against Axel because Axel is gay as well as German. When he did not know that Axel was gay he willingly took a swim with Axel in the Dead Sea. Eyal disgusted when he sees Axel dancing with a Palestinian in a gay club. Eyal even asks to be removed from the assignment because of his feelings. Eyal's prejudices break down and he actually physically defends Axel at one point against a group of homophobic thugs. There is a double irony -- Axel, the grandson of a Nazi, must be defended by a Jewish citizen whose own relatives were killed because of the forces of prejudice. And Axel also has a 'secret identity' much like Eyal, although Eyal believed he was the only man with a secret of the pair.

At the end of the film it is Axel, not Eyal who assumes the task of killing his dying grandfather. Although this is a sort of 'mercy killing' because of the grandfather's age, it also symbolically suggests that it is the Germans who must bury the evils of their past, and not the Israelis who must shoulder the burden. Axel knew nothing of his grandfather's past until late in his life, and it is not fair to judge him for this any more it is to judge him for his sexuality. The film ends with a note of friendship, as Eyal and Axel make peace as friends, with Eyal… [read more]


Partitioning as a Resolution to Ethnic Conflict Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (891 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2

SAMPLE TEXT:

Partitioning as a Resolution to Ethnic Conflict

Many of the conflicts of the modern era have been the result of nations being formed that contain two or more traditionally separate groups of people, with different ethnic, cultural, linguistic, and/or religious backgrounds creating conflicts when collaboration and unified action/decision-making are required. The conflict in and around Northern Ireland, the heavily Protestant and British/British-descended part of the island that remains a part of the United Kingdom, provides one example of such conflict, which remained ongoing even after the partitioning of the country (though this partition was not truly complete or rigid). In Iraq, which is currently experiencing a much greater degree of conflict and which has (in some ways) more complex problems to solve, no real attempt at officially partitioning the various groups has been attempted, but it is not clear that such a solution would be practically possible or even theoretically effective in this case or any other. Scholars have very different views on the subject of partitioning in a general and historic sense.

Kaufman asserts that partitioning existing nation-states into more homogenous countries is a very viable solution, perhaps the only viable solution, to ending conflicts between ethnicities in such nations. This author contend that all other peacekeeping methods that have been attempted have resulted in a continuation of violence -- at best a suspension of violence during the direct physical enforcement of peace, but a return to violence as soon as such enforcement has ended. By creating separate nations for separate ethnicities/groups, Kaufman contends, inter-ethnic conflicts will decrease simply due to decreased need for collaboration and an increase in the physical distance/mutual isolation of warring groups from each other.

A very different view of partitioning is provided by Sambanis & Schulhofer-Wohl, who argue that the partitioning of nation-states might nominally change the nature of conflict but do nothing to actually resolve inter-ethnic violence. As they see it, creating separate and more homogenous nation states might indeed reduce intrastate violence and conflict, but only with a commensurate increase in interstate violence and conflict. Though the relationship might not be as inversely proportional as this seems to imply, the basic logic is sound: if ethnic diversity is actually causing conflict, then simply adding a new nation while keeping the same ethnic diversity in the region won't really do anything. These authors fail to consider the physical partitioning that Kaufman discusses, which would reduce interaction and therefore the potential for conflict, yet their point remains valid: if ethnic diversity causes conflict, homogenous nations will simply find themselves in conflict with each other rather than within themselves; if ethnicity isn't the root cause of conflict, this cause should…… [read more]


Ethnic Groups and Minorities Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,368 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4

SAMPLE TEXT:

Iranian Immigration to the U.S. In the 1970's-1980's

During the late 1970's and continuing through the 1980's the United States had one of two main influxes of immigrants from Iran (Hakimzadeh & Dixon, 2006). The first influx began around the 1950's and continued right up to the beginning of the Islamic Revolution (Hakimzadeh & Dixon, 2006). This wave of immigrants consisted mainly of students studying in the United States (Hakimzadeh & Dixon, 2006). Though their reasons for coming to the United States were quite different, many stayed for the same reasons that the next wave of Iranians came to the United States (Hakimzadeh & Dixon, 2006). It is this second group that is the focus of this analysis. Though their reasons for leaving Iran varied, most left Iran due to the persecution (or potential persecution) they received at the hands of the new regime following the Islamic Revolution of the time period (Hakimzadeh & Dixon, 2006). Many entered the United States as political and/or religious exiles, and those seeking asylum (Gillis, 2011).

Unfortunately, the assimilation of the Iranian immigrants was hindered by the Iran hostage situation and the general attitude of Americans toward all Iranians at that time (Bozorhmehr, 1998). The blatant anti-Iranianism can best be described using the Conflict Perspective put forth by Karl Marx. Further, the values and beliefs of this immigration group vary widely within the group itself making it difficult to identify as one minority group and therefore also creating a greater gulf between their core beliefs and the beliefs of the majority of people in the United States (Gillis, 2011). Unlike many political or religious immigrants who hope to one day return to their homeland, the present political and religious climate in Iran eliminates that possibility for most. Given the state of affairs at the time they left and the current state of affairs, it certainly behooved them to leave and continues to do so to this day. The oppression for some has not lifted even though the Ayatollah is no longer in control of the political machine (Haugom, 1998).

To better understand the Iranian immigrant it is important to look at the Iranian population as a whole. "The majority of Iran's population converted to the Islamic religion in the seventh century A.D. after invasion by Arab tribes, and the Shi'i sect of Islam has predominated since the sixteenth century. Most of the population (98%) is Muslim, and fully 93% are members of the Shi'i sect. The remaining Muslims are members of the Sunni sect of Islam. There are minority Christian (about 300,000), and Jewish (about 25,000 in 1984) populations, as well as Zoroastrians (about 30,000) and Baha'i (about 350,000). The latter two religions originated in Iran, but practitioners of both have been subjected to persecution by officials of the regime that came to power with the revolution in 1979. In 1987, there were 270,000 Bahais in Iran and 7,000 in the United States, of which 1,000 were identified as Iranian immigrants" (Gillis, 2011).

It… [read more]


Construction Industry in Iran Current Problems and Solutions Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (896 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2

SAMPLE TEXT:

Iranian construction projects are a major part of the overall Iranian economy. Unfortunately many of these important construction projects are stalled, delayed and overly expensive due to a variety of situations and conditions. There are five major factors or categories that may have an effect on or play a role in delaying or disrupting a construction project in Iran, they are:

Economic Issues & Financing

International Sanctions

Education

Production Design

Building Materials

The goal and objective of this study and pursuing research paper is to examine and explore the causes and main consequences in Iranian construction practices. To better understand the obstacles that many construction projects in Iran face and to implement new ideas and methods, to find possible positive solutions to these problems and perhaps promote and develop an ideal construction industry and practices in Iran.

Economic Issues - Inflation has been growing and increasing at or near a 25% rate per year. This leads to rising cost in materials and labor and can result in difficulty starting a project or keeping projects funded throughout. This high inflation rate along with a weak private sector in Iran are two economical issues that plague the construction industry in Iran. Start up capital and financing is difficult to access in Iran as well. So much of Iran's economy is dependent on oil and gas prices.

International Sanctions - Because of unfriendly terms with most of the rest of the world Iran does not benefit from technological advances in equipment and methods. Also because of international sanctions Iran has difficulties gaining foreign investors for any projects. With sanctions comes lack of funds and lack of experience, neither of which are good things in the construction industry.

Education - Proper training and training opportunities are not available in Iran to construction workers. This lack of industry knowledge and education often adds confusion and uncertainty in construction which slows down work and can also cause safety hazards.

Production Design - The regulations that are in place in the construction industry are largely put in place by industrialized countries like Canada, New Zealand and The United States. These strict regulations on design are often not able to be met by Iranian construction crews, the money, technology and knowledge just is not available. Engineers and contractors in Iran do not have computer software available to them in order to design regulation building that will be safe and cost effective.

Building Materials - The materials Iran has are far from meeting international standards. They use low quality and substandard, the budget just is not there for quality materials. Also it is very difficult to order materials to be shipped into Iran and if it is…… [read more]


Egypt the Revolution Essay

Essay  |  6 pages (1,851 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6

SAMPLE TEXT:

During that time the government and its leader created what they referred to as emergency laws. The nation was in a state of emergency and could only be saved if those in power were given additional powers and abilities, even if those powers were not altogether legal. The demands of the 2011 revolutionaries were actually very similar to their 1919 counterparts. Shakry writes that the revolutionaries wanted:

An end to Mubarek [the Egyptian leader], and end to the emergency laws that had strangled political expression in Egypt since 1981, a civil government with a new constitution guaranteeing elections and the curtailment of political power, and trials for those involved in the massacre of the protestors (Shakry).

Essentially, what the 2011 revolutionaries were demanding was to be treated equally under the law and to have laws which were reasonable and fair to all citizens.

Since the revolution, Egypt has had a difficult time rebuilding itself. This situation is made all the more difficult by political situations in nearby Libya and throughout the Middle East. Unlike their neighboring nations, Egyptians have attempted to create change without the use of violence. It is the enemies of the revolutionaries that have most often been the perpetrators of death and bloodshed. One can only hope that other nations whose citizens feel that they are being treated unfairly would learn from the successes of the Egyptian revolutionaries. In the end, all the uprisings that occurred in Egypt have been essentially successful for the people. Unfortunately, all it takes is one disruptive force, the British government before and Mubarek later, to disturb the ideals of a larger group of people.

Works Cited:

Blunt, Wilfrid Scawen. The Secret History of the English Occupation of Egypt. Dublin: Nonsuch,

2007. Print.

Ibrahim, Tamer. "Egyptian Revolution of 1919." Egypt News. 2009. Print.

Shakry, Omnia El. "Egypt's Three Revolutions: The Force of History behind this Popular

Uprising." Web. Oct. 2011. http://www.jadaliyya.com/pages/index/569/egypts-three-revolutions_the-force-of-history-behi

Tignor, Robert L. "The Egyptian Revolution of 1919: New Directions in the…… [read more]


Relief Fragment of a Winged Research Paper

Research Paper  |  6 pages (2,009 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6

SAMPLE TEXT:

There had been several religious and political changes in Iran during 7th and 8th century but still it had deep connection with its past. The gold lion headed terminal bracelet was one of the items that had link with the past of Iran during this time period. This bracelet belongs to a woman but such bracelets were also designed for the men in those times and they very much liked wearing them.

Subject Matter

These bracelets can either be of solid gold or can also be folded and twisted hollow tubes. The bracelet shown in this picture is of cast solid gold with lion heads. Different animal heads were used in these bracelets but lion heads were the most common motifs in these bracelets. Other kinds of bracelet included antelope heads, lynx heads and hound heads.

Formal Qualities

The Bracelet and armlet shown in the above picture are famous as lion headed terminals. It is an open ended gold bracelet with a twisted hoop which is formed of two thick wires attached to solid cast lion terminals.

The shape of the hoops is look more ovoid in shape than circular, since these are made keeping in mind shape of the wrist.

Symbolism

These bracelets with animal headed terminals were initially made in Achaemenid art and became popular in Greece during the 5th century.

The archeological finds prove that bracelets were the most popular adornments of the ancient times. The most ancient of them go back to the Stone Age, when they were fashioned out of mammoth tusks. By the end of New Stone Age appeared bracelets made by drilling. In addition, in the Bronze an Iron Ages metal cast bracelets gained popularity.

The concept of bracelets with lion's head or other animals actually came from Achaemenid Persian period. This kind of Jewelry highlights the choice and style of empires of that period for luxury and jewelry. This type of object features in the sculptures decorating certain monuments, notably the Archers' Frieze in the palace of Darius at Susa (522-486 BC).

Bibliography

http://art.thewalters.org/detail/77451/pair-of-bracelets-with-antelope-heads / http://art.thewalters.org/browse/location/ancient-treasury/?page=3

http://www.louvre.fr/llv/oeuvres/detail_notice.jsp?CONTENT%3C%3Ecnt_id=10134198673226457&CURRENT_LLV_NOTICE%3C%3Ecnt_id=10134198673226457&FOLDER%3C%3Efolder_id=9852723696500803&baseIndex=19&bmLocale=en http://www.louvre.fr/llv/oeuvres/detail_notice.jsp?CONTENT%3C%3Ecnt_id=10134198673226457&CURRENT_LLV_NOTICE%3C%3Ecnt_id=10134198673226457&FOLDER%3C%3Efolder_id=9852723696500803&baseIndex=19&bmLocale=en… [read more]


Middle East Partnership Initiative Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  3 pages (967 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+

SAMPLE TEXT:

Middle East Partnership Initiative (MEPI) is a program that was established in December 2002 with the goal of continuing and strengthening America's long-term commitment to working with all people in the Middle East region. This interaction is geared towards improving the daily lives of people in this region and assisting them to face the future with hope. The initiative reflected the softer elements of America's foreign policy considering the ongoing war against terrorism and reconstruction of Iraq. Furthermore, the program was a significant component in Bush's policy of fostering democracy within the Middle East region.

Objectives of the Middle East Partnership Initiative:

The objectives of the Middle East Partnership Initiative can be classified into four major categories i.e. economic, political, and educational reforms as well as women's empowerment (Sharp, p. 2). Through its economic reforms strategies, MEPI seeks to help in closing employment gap within this region by sponsoring programs that foster economic reforms and the development of private and public sectors. Politically, this initiative is geared towards bridging the freedom gap among Arab nations by sponsoring local programs that fortify the Arab civil society. It also seeks to develop political participation and encourage a more open media.

The women's empowerment objective is for the creation of awareness of women's rights within the Middle East region through supporting programs that are aimed at developing women. Through the educational reforms initiative, the Middle East Partnership Initiative is intended to close the knowledge gap in Arab countries by offering increased access to higher education for young people. Under this objective, the initiative will also bridge the gap in knowledge through the improvement of the quality of education in local schools. MEPI will achieve these objectives by collaborating with Arab governments and sponsoring programs that are in line with its goals.

Programs of the Middle East Partnership Initiative:

Since the launch of this initiative, it has organized more than 50 programs within its four main objectives or pillars with some of the programs being in operation for a long period. The programs of this initiative can either function in one or two countries or even within the entire Middle East region. The biggest beneficiaries of MEPI programs are Morocco, Bahrain, Yemen, Persian Gulf and other North African countries. Most of these beneficiaries have taken action towards developing quasi-democratic institutions and permitted political opposition parties to participate in elections. The presence of this initiative in Saudi Arabia is ultra-conservative because the country's authorities are more sensitive to initiatives and programs that are reform-minded.

Yemen is a significant country to MEPI because it has the initiative's pilot program in education reform and assistance objective. In this country, the Middle East Partnership Initiative has a program that is geared towards promoting women's literacy and plans to establish increased internet access for rural populations. Additionally, the initiative is working to support and fund training programs for primary and secondary school…… [read more]


Iran History Essay

Essay  |  6 pages (2,097 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6

SAMPLE TEXT:

As Iran's economy is focused in only a few sectors and rigidly controlled by the government, "Iran continues to suffer from double-digit unemployment and underemployment," and particularly "underemployment among Iran's educated youth [which] has convinced many to seek jobs overseas, resulting in a significant "brain drain" (CIA 2011). This more than anything else demonstrates the unsustainability of Iran's political and economic policies, and indeed, the rampant unemployment has precipitated the emergence of a new revolutionary movement, this time free from any religious ideologies that would turn its democratic potential towards violence and authoritarianism. Of course, this movement again serves to subvert the western powers as well, because although it rejects the theocracy of the Islamic Revolution it does not concurrently reject the nationalism felt for Iran, such that this new democratic society may ultimately prove as threatening to the western powers as it did back in 1953, when the idea of an Iran in control of its own oil reserves was too much for the United States to bear.

Thus, while at the moment Iran has yet to fulfill the potential of its people, it appears as if it is only a matter of time until a combination of failed policies and the inevitable march towards greater human decency transforms Iran's political landscape once again. Similarly, this seems to prove that nearly every question of governing ultimately revolves around economics, rather than religion or politics, and that no regime, no matter how intimidating or committed, can control a population that no longer consents to believe in the ability of that regime to follow through on its threats and promises. Thus, Iran's culture is in such a state of flux that one may only look back at the information discussed here in order to predict the vaguest picture of where the country will head next.

In order to understand Iran and its culture, it was necessary to briefly investigate the history of Persia before turning towards the political and social history of Iran over the course of the twentieth century. Doing this reveals a revolutionary streak that is alternatingly nurtured, subverted, and subsumed by groups with motives other than expressing the will of the Iranian people. Beginning with the CIA's coup in 1953, the democratic will of the Iranian people has been diverted, first by the Shah and later by the Supreme Leader and the rulers of the Islamic Revolution. These regimes have ruled through force, rather than the legitimate acceptance of the ruled, and have brought with them attendant economic and societal costs. For instance, western countries' desire to control Iran's oil production and distribution led to the Islamic Revolution and the rise of a violent theocracy, but that theocracy's inability to provide for its citizens is helping to foment a new revolutionary movement seeking to discard those ideologies which must use force and the threat of force as a means of maintaining power.

Works Cited

Behdad, S., & Nomani, F. (2009). What a revolution! thirty years of social class… [read more]


Jewish Humor Different Authors Present Remarkably Similar Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (694 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5

SAMPLE TEXT:

Jewish Humor

Different authors present remarkably similar views on the questions, "what is Jewish Humor?" And "what is a Jewish Joke?" Some, like Abrami and others who focus on Freud's analysis of Jewish humor, note that self-hatred and masochism are the key characteristics of Jewish humor. Others, like Spalding, present a view of Jewish humor that is steeped in Biblical traditions and themes. Some focus more on Eastern European Jewish cultures to reveal the historical and cultural roots of jokes. Yet others synthesize the wealth and complexity of Jewish history and tradition to provide a holistic answer to the question, "What is Jewish Humor?"

What is Jewish humor? What is a Jewish joke? The answer to both questions begins with the theme of self-reflection and self-satire. The "funny you don't look Jewish" theme, for example, addresses many layers of the Jewish experience including diaspora and diversity within the Jewish community. The concept of "looking Jewish" is contrasted with the stigma of "looking Jewish" and ultimate is sublimated into pride related to being Jewish through the power of humor. While some authors like Abrami discuss the self-reflexive nature of Jewish humor in psychoanalytic terms, others do so in more existential or sociological terms.

All authors writing about Jewish humor refer to the timelessness of Jewish jokes as defining characteristics. The jokes may morph to reflect prevailing historical and cultural realities without sacrificing their core meanings, which related back to the experience of being Jewish. For example, in What's the Joke? A Study of Jewish Humour Through the Ages, Chaim Bermant answers the question "What is Jewish Humor?" In a straightforward manner by stating that Jewish humor reflects the lives of Jewish people. A Jewish joke is one that resonates with Jewish people throughout the diaspora because of the recognition of common cultural bonds. Often those bonds are forged through the emotional connection of pain.

A Jewish joke can create insider humor and in-group bonds. In Life is Like a Glass of Tea: Studies of Classic Jewish Jokes Richard Raskin traces the origin of several Jewish jokes to their…… [read more]


In the Graveyard of Empires Book Review

Book Review  |  5 pages (1,628 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1

SAMPLE TEXT:

Graveyard Afghanistan

In the Graveyard of Empires: America's War in Afghanistan (Jones, 2009), the author Seth G. Jones provides an up-to-date and well-researched analysis of what has happened or failed to happen in America's efforts in Afghanistan. He examines not only the role that American forces have played in the conflict but also the role that other NATO forces have… [read more]


Turkey Join the European Union Research Paper

Research Paper  |  8 pages (2,133 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 12

SAMPLE TEXT:

By glancing over the Turkish economy trade traits, ever since the implementation of the custom union 1995 Turkey has readily invaded the European trade market and exhausted all the possibilities of integrated trade but with its accession to the European union as a full member the labor market of Turkey will also be prone to the European influence. Keeping in view the per capita income and the Gross Domestic Products of Turkey are low as compared to the others countries of the European Union so the labor shift would be an unavoidable phenomena if Turkey attains full membership to the European union.

The other rather an integral issue supporting the fact that Turkey should refrain from the membership of the European Union human resource constraint. About thirteen million people that form the 20% of the total population of Turkey are Kurdish. The basic rights and the privileges of human rights are not being duly granted to the Kurds that are forming a small minority of the Turkish population. This basic and proved violation of the Kurdish people in Turkey made the overall status of the country unacceptable and unfit in the European Union.

The officials and the policies of European Union portray high standards for the non-member countries to become a full member of the European Union. So as an associate member of the European Union, many projects have been initiated in Turkey so that Turkey can elevate its standards to quickly match with the prescribed standard of the European Union and attain its full membership (Martin, 2003). The fact needs immediate catering that the European Union will attain more benefits from Turkish entry to the European Union because of the discussed factors. It is expected that the labor market of Turkey will show some drastic increase in the near future the mal populated European countries may offer high incentives to attract the labor force for enhancing there own trade policies and standing. Keeping in view the discussed points the agenda of the research has been highlighted that Turkey should not join the European Union.

Turkish developments and individual standing gives a clear idea that Turkey is a major Muslim country and rather than subjugating its development and progress for getting an entry a s a full member of the European Union it should adhere to its prescribed code of advancements and technologies. Because the major hope of Turkey's future developments are based on the upcoming skilled labor that will further elevate the standing of Turkish goods in the European market and the labor and entrepreneurs can be retained within Turkey to ensure further enhancements. At this point of time Turkey should focus on its trade strategies and make the best use of the custom union policies as well as the its status in the European Union as an associate member rather than a full member.

Hence Turkey should not join the European Union to for its own good at large.

References

L Baracani, E. (2007). Pre-accession and Neighbourhood. The… [read more]


Britain and France's Imperialism and Competition in Egypt Research Paper

Research Paper  |  10 pages (3,144 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10

SAMPLE TEXT:

Britain and France's Imperialism And Competition In Egypt

Britain and France locked horns over Egypt at the dawn of the New Imperialism. Both nations had significant interest in Egypt for reasons of money, pride and power; both nations staked claims to the area before the turn of the twentieth century. From those years up to the "scramble for Africa" and… [read more]


Determinants of Economic Growth Case in Saudi Arabia Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  6 pages (1,682 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2

SAMPLE TEXT:

Economic Growth in Saudi Arabia

Determinants of Economic Growth: the Case of Saudi Arabia

Economic growth is a top priority among both industrialized and developing nations. Economic growth has a positive effect on society by promoting a higher standard of living and improved social welfare systems. Economic growth has attracted considerable academic attention in the past several years. As a… [read more]


Abu Dhabi -- Current Events Article Critique

Article Critique  |  2 pages (592 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1

SAMPLE TEXT:

" (New York Times, 2010)

I. Reasons for Museum Construction

It is reported that instilling national pride plays a primary consideration in the museum building initiative of Abu Dhabi and other Arab countries in the Middle East. In fact, the precise idea is to "tell a new story, one that breaks with a long history of regional decline, including the recent upheavals caused by militant fundamentalism and to re-establish a semblance of cultural parity with the West." (New York Times, 2010) According to one Arab consultant "there are religious extremists in the Middle East -- even here…" and the hope is that the projects' "cosmopolitan influences…may help 'open up the minds o these younger Emiratis before they go down that road." (New York Times, 2010) It is reported that Norman Foster upon presenting his first proposal for the museum design was informed that something much grander was wanted and the new design is stated to feature "an enormous landscaped mound capped by five featherlike wind towers -- the tallest rising 300 feet -- an attempt to evoke falconry, a favorite pastime of Arab royals." (New York Times, 2010) It is reported that in the 1950s and 60s that architects came in great numbers to the Middle East and it is in fact something that the New York Times article states is at least partially to blame for the "rise of fundamentalist violence…" due to the reinforcement of "divisions between a privileged elite -- modern, educated, in turn with the West -- and a struggling underclass, something that was not a small factor in the rise of fundamentalist violence." (New York Times, 2010)

References

Curoussoff, Nicolai (2010) Building Museums and a Fresh Arab Identity. The New York…… [read more]


Crisis in Jewish Faith at the Time of Jesus Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (533 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0

SAMPLE TEXT:

Crisis in Jewish Faith

The emergence of great religious figures cannot be considered accidental; they are the people who mark the major cultural shifts in the history of mankind. Yet, they can't be thought of as products of the shifts either. What makes them great is the way in which they put their own mark on the shift. Jesus emerged at a very critical point in the history of the Jewish faith and its people. Just within 40 years of Jesus' death, the Temple was destroyed. What came out of that disaster were two distinct religions: rabbinic Judaism and Christianity.

During the first century AD, the Jewish faith experienced a crisis of cultural erosion caused by foreign influences. For thousands of years, the Jewish people were subject to foreign rule (Egyptian, Syrian, Babylonian, Persian, Greek, and Roman), with only very short periods of independence. The foreign domination threatened the entire Jewish community and there were groups of Jews that tried to preserve it and uphold their norms and values. Foreign domination and the influences of foreigners took its toll on the Jews and the Jewish faith suffered from a major crisis. Many groups believed that because of the domination and influence, a redefinition was needed, at least partly, of traditional Jewish norms, or the emphasizing of parts of the tradition at the expense of others. Many of the groups had differing views, however, which caused some definite challenges. Some of the differing views had to do with ritual and purity laws, how to live under foreign domination, and the expectations of the Messiah.

There was social…… [read more]


Sino Iranian Relations in Changing Context Research Paper

Research Paper  |  10 pages (3,555 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6

SAMPLE TEXT:

Sino Iranian Relations in Changing Context

Sino Iran Relations in Changing Context

Since the early 1970's, the relationship between Iran and China has been consistently evolving. Part of the reason for this, is because of a strategic and cultural difference that both nations feel towards the policies that have been directed against them by the West. While at the same… [read more]


Mustafa Kemal Ataturk: The Chosen Research Paper

Research Paper  |  4 pages (1,264 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

SAMPLE TEXT:

However, this was a much easier task once the Caliphate was already collapsed. (Ataturk.com)

Ataturk also assisted his nation of Turkey in social reform. Perhaps one of his most significant reforms, Ataturk recognized the equality between men and women. Taking almost a decade to complete, the new equality reform gave new freedoms to women in areas of divorce, education, voting, and inheritance. (Ataturk.com) In 1929, the women of Turkey had their very first beauty contest and in 1930, the first women judges were appointed (Ataturk.com). In 1925, Ataturk accomplished a headgear and dress reform, banning male turbans and giving women the right to choose to wear a headdress or not. The male headgear of the army and the civil service let others know that they were superior, and the abolishment of such allowed for more equality. (Ataturk.com) In order to have his people become more Westernized and become more equal both in and out of his nation, 1935 saw the requirement of surnames and the banning of traditional Turkish titles such as Pasha, Effendi, and Hanim. Citizens were able to choose from a list of approved surnames and were able to refer to themselves as Bay, Bayan, Mr., Mrs., or Miss. (Ataturk.com) At this point Mustafa finally received his official name: Adopting for himself the name of Ataturk, or "Father of the Turks," ridding himself of the name Mustafa. He received his official surname, given to him by a prior teacher: Kemal, meaning "perfection." (Ataturk.com)

Thirdly, Ataturk worked towards an educational reform. With the effort to make men and women equal, Ataturk encouraged education to girls and women. With the passing of the new Turkish alphabet, Ataturk set up 'People's Houses' around the nation for people to come as they pleased to learn the new alphabet. Ataturk even personally encouraged people to visit the learning houses because he was passionate about increasing the literacy of his people. It benefitted his people more so than Arabic because it already fit into the Turkish phonetics, but was quite a bit easier and quicker to learn. (Karpat, 1985)

Lastly, Ataturk assisted in the economic reform. In 1925, Ataturk abolished the tithe. This greatly helped and relieved the peasants because under the Ottoman period, the farmers and peasants were originally required to deliver one tenth of their produce to the state. This tax, known as a-ar, and sprung from ?eriat, or the Canon Law, which made it hard for farmers to become self-sufficient. Whether or not the peasants and farmers grew crops, they were required to deliver the tax. Along with the abolishment of a-ar, the ?eriat was also destroyed by Ataturk, replacing it with a far more reasonable tax. (Kocaturk 1988)

Mustafa Kemal Ataturk's biographer Andrew Mango stated that there was one big difference between Ataturk and his competition: His lack of fear of the outside world. He believed that Turkey needed to be Westernized, to be equalized (Ataturk.com). Ataturk was well aware of the arguments between traditional and liberal thoughts at a… [read more]


Global Challenges Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (664 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3

SAMPLE TEXT:

Negotiation

Global Challenges

Negotiation: The differences between domestic and international negotiation

Negotiation: The differences between domestic and international negotiation

The most obvious difference between business negotiations that are conducted domestically vs. negotiations conducted internationally are the linguistic and cultural barriers that must be overcome. When two different parties literally speak different languages, much can be lost in translation. Subtleties of discourse, colloquial phrasing, connotative meanings of language, irony, and joking -- all of the aspects of conversational intimacy that can relax two negotiating parties can be lost in a literal translation. An obvious example of this is the word 'no.' In the low-context cultural environment of the United States where people tend to 'mean what they say,' 'no means no.' However, in Japan, the word 'no' is almost never used, and is considered to be fairly rude in a formal setting (Beer 2007).

Instead, in Japan the term 'maybe' is more often deployed, although culturally this is understood to mean 'no.' However, an American negotiating with a Japanese firm may take 'maybe' at face value, particularly when the word is conveyed through a translator. Even in the absence of imperfect translation, the use of body language and nonverbal communication can also convey unintentional emotion or information when individuals come from different cultures. For example, direct eye contact is expected in the West, but frowned upon in many Asian countries (Beer 2007).

In domestic negotiations, even though sexism and racism still exist, all parties are members of the same legal environment and context. But with negotiations abroad, a woman might find herself treated with less respect than her male colleagues. In France, a more highly-charged sexual atmosphere between men and women in the workplace may be expected. In some nations of the Middle East, women are not customarily part of business negotiations at all, and seeing a female in a leadership role can create cognitive dissonance for the other side (Women in business in Saudi Arabia, 2010, World Business Culture). Nations that are…… [read more]


How Do the United States and Iran Demonize Each Other? Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,257 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

SAMPLE TEXT:

¶ … United States and Iran demonize

How do the United States and Iran demonize each other?

The relationship between the United States and Iran is possibly at its worst in decades. Official diplomatic connections are essentially none existent and there is great hesitancy to have this altered. Historically the leadership of both countries has employed a discourse that is designed to inflame the passions of their citizens while at the same time cast the other country, not simply in a negative light, but as evil. This use of demonization by both states creates a scenario which makes any future corporation highly unlikely.

Beeman (2005) posits that the relationship between the two states cannot simply be understood as a conflict of interest or the resistance of westernization. It goes beyond those conceptual structures and is best described as the construction of a "mythological image." This image is designed to demonize the other party, and it is "calculated to be immediately understood by the man in the street" (Beeman 2005, p.1).Demonization then is a deliberate strategy that paints the other side as evil, the purpose of which is to galvanize support amongst your people.

A central feature of this issue is the Iranian assessment of the historical role of Western Powers in the Middle East. To establish their case for the west as evil the Iranians point to what may be considered a central tenet of the historical interpretation. Western powers are seen as brigands, whose sole purpose being to raid the mineral reserves of Middle Eastern countries. These mineral reserves are seen as their patrimony, the blessing they have received for being the children of God. Indeed it is not without good cause that this view is adopted as the West has frequently inserted itself in the politics of the Middle East, often with disastrous consequences. The establishment of many Middle Eastern governments can be attributed to Western meddling in the politics of those countries.

It is though the American action that the Shah of Iran maintained his hold on political power until he was deposed. Thus the Iranian revolution marked not only the removal of the shah but also the repudiation of American policies. During the Iran Iraq war America supported Iraq and the Saddam Hussein regime against Iran. Iranian leaders identify these historical actions as the Americans acting in the vein of previous western powers. Seeking to control the destiny of Iran, with a view to shield their economic interests and secure access to mineral reserves. The economic interest in Iran is sizable "Iran's gas reserves are second in the world, and its significant oil resources make it a pivotal player in energy" (Wright & Bakhash 1997 p.125). America is seen as meddling robbers, seeking only its national interests and having no concern for the interests of the people of Iran.

The creation of the mythology is an important aspect of this analysis. Both sides have created a myth surrounding the other, while this has some basis in… [read more]


Turkey a Cultural Bridge Between East and West Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (1,051 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6

SAMPLE TEXT:

Turkey: A Cultural Bridge between East and West

Key features of Turkey's unique identity

The most noteworthy characteristic of Turkey is that it does indeed constitute a cultural bridge between the West and the East. It integrates elements of both western modernity as well as eastern traditionalism. From this standpoint, Turkey, it could be said, finds itself at a cross roads between long standing traditions and the process of globalization from the west, which is making its presence incrementally felt.

Another element of unique Turkish identity is given by the geographic location in a region rich in cultural as well as military conflicts. A relevant example in this sense is offered by the country's relationship with the Kurds, which are sometimes enemies in armed conflicts, and other times, welcomed as refugees (Eller, p.143). Aside the Kurds however, Turkey "is an amalgam of various Muslim ethnic groups, including Kurds as well as Bosniacs, Albanians, Circassians, Georgians, Greek-speaking Muslims and ethnic Turks, among others" (Cagaptay). This myriad of ethnicities constitutes yet another key determinant in the analysis of the Turkish identity.

In light of these rich and diverse values of Turkish identity, a question is being posed relative to the dominant cultural values. In order to support the EU accession process, the Turks focused primarily on a democratic stand which embraces western values. Yet, in the aftermath of the terrorist attacks at the World Trade Center, the country found it more and more difficult to further distance itself from its Muslim roots (Tank, p.463).

2. The role of religion in the Turkish society

The large majority of the Turks -- namely an estimated 99.8 per cent of the entire population -- seems to belong to the Muslim religion, mostly Sunni. The remaining people belong to several minorities, out of which Christianity and Judaism are the most popular (Central Intelligence Agency). At a formal level, Turkey is recognized as a secular state -- this basically means that it does not assume any religion as a state religion; additionally, the country allows religious freedom to all citizens. Finally, as a secular state, religion plays a limited role in the political decision making process.

While it has not been mentioned throughout the previous section, Turkey is the only democratic state in which most citizens belong to the Muslim religion -- and this also constitutes an intriguing aspect of unique Turkish identity. "Religious influence is also largely minimised in the public sphere, and religion no longer holds the same importance in people's lives as it used to. Today Muslim countries and societies are in the focal point of political observations as the religion seems to be the main obstacle on the way to a sustainable democracy and promotion of human rights. Turkey is the only democratic country among the Muslim countries which prescribes laicite [secular in French] in its constitution" (Gokhan).

3. The potential of religion and ethnicity on political cooperation / conflict in Turkey

While the country has made significant efforts in the direction of… [read more]


International Business -- Communication Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (858 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0

SAMPLE TEXT:

international Business -- Communication Case Study

A business associate once described an unsuccessful attempt to establish a business relationship with prospective partners in Saudi Arabia. In retrospect, it was a tremendous mistake not to conduct the necessary research into Saudi Arabian business culture and practices before attempting to negotiate a deal in their country. Since that experience, the individual involved has become much more familiar with Saudi Arabian customs, practices and expectations.

Arranging the Business Meeting

The first mistake concerned the manner in which the initial business meeting was arranged. The individual established an initial connection through traditional mailed correspondence and then followed up with an email exchange to introduce the business and the idea of a proposal. Then, following regular business practices in the United States, he requested the opportunity of an in-person meeting. His executive assistant inquired on his behalf into the availability of the prospective business partner and indicated several specific dates and times for a scheduled meeting.

In retrospect, this was already a breach of Saudi Arabian business practices and expectations because it is not customary for Saudis to schedule a meeting with foreigners abroad. They strongly prefer to schedule any such meeting only after the foreigner has already arrived in Saudi Arabia. The prospective Saudi partner granted the meeting only because it would have been too awkward to refuse; on the other hand, this obvious ignorance of Saudi customs and expectations was already the proverbial "first strike" against the likely success of the venture.

Personal Introductions

The second set of mistakes committed by the foreigner hoping to do business in Saudi Arabia occurred in connection with the introduction phase of the meeting. Unlike American business customs, in Saudi Arabia, it is common for the host to serve a full multiple-course meal before ever discussing any business. Before that, it is customary for everyone in the room to be personally introduced to everyone else with a handshake. At that time, it is also expected that they will exchange their business cards as well.

Upon being introduced, the foreigner took each business card as it was offered. Because he is left-handed, he usually handed his own card with his left hand. Unfortunately, in Saudi Arabia (and much of the Middle East), the left hand is considered unclean because it is used for cleaning one's self. The hosts were too polite to say anything, but they must have been extremely uncomfortable with that element of the introduction and card exchange.

Making matters worse, all of the Saudi business cards were printed on both sides with Arabic on…… [read more]


Foreign Exchange Risk Management Research Paper

Research Paper  |  15 pages (5,032 words)
Style: Harvard  |  Bibliography Sources: 15

SAMPLE TEXT:

Foreign Exchange Risk Management in the Companies of the Steel Industry in Eastern European Countries

Today, there are some interesting developments taking place in Eastern Europe in general and the Ukraine in particular as well as Turkey that will have an important impact on the global steel industry in the years to come. Following the collapse of the Soviet Union… [read more]


Semi-Structured Interviewing Method Developed by Brown, Karley Thesis

Thesis  |  4 pages (1,802 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3

SAMPLE TEXT:

¶ … semi-structured interviewing method developed by Brown, Karley, Boudville, Builas, Garg and Muirhead (2008) for use in their study of living kidney donors. In the Brown et al. study, the researchers conducted a series of semi-structured interviews which will be administered to both paid and non-paid living kidney donors who agree in advance to participate in the study. The… [read more]


Kidney Donation From Live Donors and Ethical Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  4 pages (1,093 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3

SAMPLE TEXT:

¶ … Kidney Donation from Live Donors and Ethical Considerations in Legal Organ Sales

Briefly discuss which experimental design you have chosen for your nursing research proposal and why.

The proposed study will use a qualitative, phenomenological approach and a purposeful sampling design following the semi-structured interview procedures used by Brown, Karley, Boudville, Builas, Garg and Muirhead (2008) in their study of living kidney donors to gain new insights about the decision-making processes that living kidney donors use and the psychosocial issues that these experience to inform transplant programs concerning the needs of living donors and improve quality assurance practices. In this regard, Brown and his colleagues report that living kidney transplants are accounting for an increasing percentage of all transplanted kidneys. In response to these trends, there has been a concomitant increase in interest concerning the long-term psychosocial implications of paid- and nonpaid living kidney donations (Brown et al., 2008).

The studies to date have indicated that kidney donors may enjoy quality of life levels and self-esteem that are higher than those of the general population, but some researchers have suggested that there are some downsides to kidney donation, including anxiety, depression, and suicidal ideation (Brown et al., 2008). In addition, kidney donation has been shown to have positive as well as negative effects on marital, family, and sibling relationships (Brown et al., 2008). Although most clinicians agree that the kidney donation process is safe for living donors, there remains a lack of substantive medical guidelines that should be followed in counseling living donors. For instance, Ross, Siegler and Thistlethwaite (2007) report that, "On September 19, 2007, the board of the United Network for Organ Sharing deferred a decision to adopt uniform medical guidelines to protect the safety of living kidney donors. There is disagreement about what the guidelines should say, primarily because there is a lack of definitive data about living organ donors" (p. 37). Therefore, the proposed study can help illuminate both the decision-making process that living kidney donors undergo to reach a positive decision as well as what pre- and post-operative counseling can help minimize any adverse clinical outcomes that may result in order to improve legal organ donation rates, including the model used in Iran, the only country in the world where organ sales are legal (Hippen, 2008; Unique model, 2007).

Explain your choice of subjects for your research (the sample)

The purposeful sample of subjects will consist of both paid and non-paid Iranian living kidney donors who agree to participate in the study. Any donor-recipient relationship will be noted and other variables such as gender, age, and geographic location will be captured. These subjects will form the basis for the semi-structured interviews that will be based on a comprehensive review of the literature and conducted pre- and post-surgery to identify effective approaches to increasing kidney donation rates from live donors and the corresponding ethical considerations involved in legal organ sales in Iran today.

Identify how you will recruit the participants for your research proposal.… [read more]


Equity Market in Saudi Arabia Thesis

Thesis  |  3 pages (959 words)
Style: Harvard  |  Bibliography Sources: 2

SAMPLE TEXT:

Equity Market in Saudi Arabia

Saudi Arabia is the largest exporter of oil, feature which translates into the economy's great dependency on oil revenues. In more recent years however, the authorities at Riyadh have implemented several policies to support an economic growth through diversification, which would resolve several social issues, such as a high unemployment level, a significant income gap between the oil exporting parties and the rest of the population, or the fact that the young Saudi Arabians are poorly educated and have few prospects for the future (Central Intelligence Agency, 2009). With this objective in mind, more support has also been offered to the development of the equity market.

Funding through equity has been an existent opportunity for people conducting business in Saudi Arabia for two decades now. Its feasibility was however limited until only recently. To this day, Saudi Arabia does not possess a derivative market, a hedge fund market or a securities lending market. It is nevertheless a promising emergent market, despite the youth of its capital market. Returning to the equity market, its actual role came in force in 2003. Prior to this year, the market was present more in a theoretical context, with its practical applications being virtually inexistent. Yet, with the 2003 privatization of Saudi Telecom -- a transaction of $4.08 billion -- the modern equity market in Saudi Arabia was born (Global Investor, 2009) -- it will nevertheless have to go a long way to meet all the functions of a highly developed equity market.

By 2005 and relative to other equity markets in the region, the equity market of Saudi Arabia was characterized as large, but only limitedly accessible. It was following a trend similar to that of the more developed western societies, and it was striving to align itself to the economic principles of the United States. Yet, advancements were made at a slow rate. There were other countries in the Gulf region which regulated smaller markets, and were as such more flexible. A relevant example is Bahrain (Abraham and Seyyed, 2005).

In 2006, the Saudi Arabian equity market was met with an unprecedented boom, created however on seemingly undesirable conditions. At this stage, the TASI (Tadawul All-Share Index) had decreased by more than SAR 1.96 trillion; this virtually meant that the capitalization of the market suffered drastic reductions. The direct result of this situation was that of the radical devaluation of assets. To investors then, the opportunities to purchase assets enhanced. What these realizations came to was a "buying euphoria" that materialized in "bubble-like tendencies" (Mahmood, 2007).

By 2007, signs of improvement were already obvious. The percentage of the oil revenues in the overall gross domestic product decreased, as the industry diversified and the other non-oil sectors were beginning to register income and attract investors. The risk of investments had significantly decreased, and the country ratings had significantly…… [read more]


Issue of Turkey Joining the EU Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  6 pages (1,888 words)
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Turkey EU

In December 1999 at the Helsinki European Council, Turkey became a candidate country for EU membership. The prospect of Turkey joining the EU is one of the most ambitious -- and contentious -- moves that the Union has made. Negotiations began in 2005 and have proceeded at a relatively slow pace. There are a wide range of issues… [read more]


Middle East Iraqi Kurdistan Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  8 pages (2,826 words)
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¶ … Kurdish Homeland Possible?

The Kurdish people in the Middle East primarily reside in four nation-states of Turkey, Iraq, Iran and Syria The Kurdish people have suffered cultural and political strife over the years while they desperately campaign for their own sovereign state. Consisting of nearly 30 million people, the Kurds believe they deserve a Kurdish homeland. This, if… [read more]


Country Analysis Our Company Is Considering Two Thesis

Thesis  |  4 pages (1,136 words)
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Country Analysis

Our company is considering two markets to enter in the near future. Italy represents a strong established world market, while Turkey represents a developing market with significant potential. This paper will analyze the characteristics of each market and make a determination as to which market is best for our company. A market entry strategy will then be outlined.

Italy is one of the world's leading economies. Italy has 58 million people, making it one of the largest nations in the developed world. The country's GDP (purchasing power parity) ranks 11th in the world at $1.823 trillion, although it ranks lower in GDP per capita. The nation's economic structure is divided between the wealthy industrial north and the relatively poor, agricultural south.

In business consulting, marketing is often relationship-driven. This is the case in Italy as well. Firms in the north are more willing to carry multiple consulting relationships and shop around, while in the south the emphasis is placed on long-standing relationships. Professional consulting is a less well-established concept there. The industry overall is stronger in the north as well, due to the business culture that more resembles central and western Europe. As with consulting elsewhere in the world, Italy's industry is facing a downturn in business as corporations seek to contain costs during these times of economic uncertainty.

The political environment in Italy can be volatile, but that lends the impacts on business a certain consistency. Elections are frequent, as are coalition governments. However, this instability hinders the ability of government to get things done. As a result, "Italy has moved slowly on implementing needed structural reforms, such as lightening the high tax burden and overhauling Italy's rigid labor market and overgenerous pension system." (CIA World Factbook, 2009). When these changes do occur, however, it is expected that they will increase the demand for the services of consultants with experience in less rigid business regimes. Also, Italy is within the EU, meaning that it is subject to the whims of that considerable bureaucracy.

In terms of resources, Italy has a favorable environment. The key inputs in the consulting industry are money and talent. Italy -- especially the north -- is rich in both. The education system is strong and the country's managers are experienced. The emphasis on small and medium-sized businesses provides a rich talent pool from which to draw and the nation's wealth and free capital markets provides access to the necessary financing.

In some respects, Turkey is similar to Italy, but the pace of its development has been slower, resulting in some significant differences as well. Turkey is a large market of 76 million people, and is the 17th largest economy in the world. On a per capita basis, however, Turkey's economy places it in the second world. The market is moving towards a free capitalist system, but the state remains in control of several large industries, including banking. An estimated 30% of the country is still employed in basic agriculture.

Because of the government's… [read more]


Americans in Muslim Countries American Women Thesis

Thesis  |  3 pages (951 words)
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Americans in Muslim Countries

American Women in Saudi Arabia

Living in a culture different than one's own can be a very arduous ordeal, on many levels and for many reasons. Often, the hardest things to get used to are the differences in one's daily life that occur in a foreign country and with a foreign culture. Things like going to the store and buying and cooking food can be completely different in another country -- the process of buying might include the expectation of haggling in some areas, whereas in others it could be considered extremely rude; the types of food available and even what is considered fit for human consumption vary hugely from culture to culture, and even the technologies and utensils for cooking are quite different. Styles of dress, transportation, and what is considered appropriate conduct in all sorts of social situations are changed drastically depending on geographic and ethnic location. All of these factors can lead to unique artifacts being produced by small minority populations living amid other cultures; an adherence to the customs and ways in which they grew up leads to certain interactions with the dominant culture of a given area that create circumstances, practices, and even objects that could not exist without such cultural interaction, or even without the dominance and power structure of the two cultures.

Because of this, the artifacts that arise within or because of minority groups living among especially stringent and controlling cultures are more extreme and pronounced than others. The interactions that occur are more likely to be negative in nature -- the more oppose the dominant culture is to the minority group's the more direct conflict will ensue. It is, of course, quite possible for vastly different cultures to coexist peaceably, but when the requirements and standards of one culture are incompatible with the other culture's practices and sensibilities this coexistence sometimes becomes an impossibility, and conflict is the necessary result.

One modern example of this type of scenario, where a minority group is attempting to live inside a dominant culture with several oppositional cultural beliefs and practices, is the existence of the many Americans living abroad in Muslim countries. Not all Muslim countries are run as strict theocracies, imposing Islamic law or sharia on all of their citizens and even visitors. There are several counties in the Middle East, however, that do run their countries in this fashion, making the culture very restrictive to non-Muslims or those that practice a less strict form of the religion. One such country is Saudi Arabia, and issues involving women there have been a problem for many years. This is true even of women who grew up in Saudi Arabian society, but the effects of this culture on minority groups -- such as Americans -- within the country have stirred up even more of a to-do…… [read more]


Afghanistan and Rwanda: Comparison of Economic Thesis

Thesis  |  10 pages (3,630 words)
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¶ … Afghanistan and Rwanda:

Comparison of Economic and Social Development

Since the advent of modern foreign policy, officials have used a myriad of names to refer to those countries that seem stunted in their growth. The term third world was first used during the period of bipolarity that was the cold war, but continues to be used today to… [read more]


Women Education and Labor Enforcement in Turkey and Iran Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  10 pages (2,901 words)
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Women Education and Labor Enforcement in Turkey and Iran

The Republic of Turkey occupies today an area of 780, 580 sq km with a total population of almost 72 mi. people (CIA the World Fact Book). The Republic of turkey was founded under the leadership of Mustafa Kemal, later called Ataturk (father of Turkey), in 1923. The new republic inherited… [read more]


Is King Tut's Curse Fact or Fiction? Thesis

Thesis  |  10 pages (3,024 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5

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¶ … King Tut's "curse," and research whether it is fact or fiction. For centuries, there has been a legend swirling around the discovery and pillaging of King Tut's tomb in Egypt. The legend involves the people who first found the tomb, and then subsequently went back to uncover more of the riches found buried with the once famous king.… [read more]


Afghanistan Political Stability and Economic Prosperity Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,394 words)
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Afghanistan

Political stability and economic prosperity for Afghanistan are not realistic long-term objectives for Afghanistan. It is rare in Afghan history for political security to exist. In the past several centuries, Afghanistan has lacked long-term political stability (Roe, 2005). It is conceivable that the country could achieve stability in the form of a strong militaristic ruler but the country at present is a patchwork of tribes and warlords. There are intense rivalries between these warlords that will always threaten stability in the absence of a powerful central government. Such instability is endemic in Central Asia and has been for centuries, as evidenced in historical works such as the Baburnama. Today, in order for a central government to have sufficient power to overcome such tribal allegiances, it would need to provide Afghanistan with substantial financial incentive.

The provision of such an incentive is difficult. The land is poor as is access to the world's developed markets. The country has few viable sources of income, of which illicit drugs are the most likely candidates for economic development. However, because of the illegal nature of these products, no central government will be allowed by the international community to support their production and marketing. The replacement of opium poppies as the most economically viable cash crop for Afghanistan would require a substantial drop in global demand for the product, which would suppress prices to the point where poppies could reasonably be replaced with saffron or other valuable crops (Felbab-Brown, 2005).

Without a strong economy, Afghanistan is unlikely to have a strong central government. Government would instead be required to lean on foreign nations for its strength, the way that the old monarchy did, a situation that is inherently unstable. It seems unlikely, given the social structure of the nation and the economic reality that either long-term political stability or economic prosperity is likely without substantial structural changes.

2. The primary impediment to economic growth in Afghanistan at present is the dependence on opium poppy production. The income that poppy production generates for average Afghans is the economic engine in many regions (Felbab-Brown, 2005). Poppy production discourages involvement of farmers in other crops, to the detriment of the nation, which is then forced to import food and other goods.

The problem with poppy production is mainly political. If the global economy is based on specialization of labor, then the role of Afghanistan in a truly free market is to produce opium and heroin. That these products are illegal is a political issue. Were these products not illegal, supply from other parts of the world may increase, lowering prices and causing Afghanis to diversify their economic base somewhat. Alternately, the Afghans could make all of their money on opiate production, and use drug profits to purchase food and consumer goods. In either case, the current political climate regarding the most valuable of Afghanistan's commercial crops is an impediment to economic growth in the nation.

The other key impediment is the lack of political stability (Ibid.). This… [read more]


Country Company Social Responsibility Thesis

Thesis  |  7 pages (2,118 words)
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Country/Company Social Responsibility

McDonald's in Iraq

The sole common feature that unites all players in the contemporaneous society is change. This is obvious in the way we live our lives, our modifying hobbies and interests, our living standards or our purchasing habits. But the changes are also obvious at corporate levels, which now place an increased emphasis on the employees,… [read more]


Gibran Khalil Thesis

Thesis  |  5 pages (1,450 words)
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Gibran Khalil Gibran and the Plight of the Syrian Poor

Khalil Gibran influenced both western and eastern thought throughout his life. The life work of Khalil Gibran was focused on a central theme, stemming from an early life of poverty. Gibran's humble beginnings provided the inspiration for his quest to improve the lives of Syrians who could not help themselves.… [read more]


Kite Runner Is Essentially a Moving Story Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,040 words)
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¶ … Kite Runner is essentially a moving story about two boys from very different backgrounds going through the early stages of life in Afghanistan as the Monarchy is ending and the war is arriving. Amir, a young man of privilege (the narrator in the book) and his dear friend Hassan, have some interesting and very startling, even frightening things happen along the way.

Amir's friend Hassan is the son of Amir's father's servant, which makes the story very interesting because of the dramatic difference in socio-economic and cultural / ethnic positions of the two boys. The story is also very compelling because it takes place just prior to the invasion of Afghanistan by the Soviet Union.

Why is Amir afraid to be Hassan's true friend? Amir is afraid to be Hassan's "true friend" because of ethnic and social differences between the two boys' families and cultures. Amir is from the Wazir Akbar Khan district of Kabul, in the upper class of Afghanistan. Hassan is a Hazara, supposedly an "inferior race" according to a mean local bully who is named Assef (who has some sympathies with the Nazis). When Amir is being threatened by the bully, Hassan stands up to the bully; but when Hassan is being attacked, Amir does nothing. But again, the point is that Amir is a bit of a coward in that sense and he loves his friend Hassan but fears being totally true friends for fear of reprisals.

Amir feels threatened on several fronts. This in part explains why he is a bit less than totally devoted to and loyal to Hassan. He is to a degree insecure, despite his father's wealth.

One, he feels threatened by the bully Assef, because Assef doesn't like a boy from the upper class like Amir hanging out with a boy from the lower class like Hassan. Also, when the confrontation took place with Assef pulling out brass knuckles and threatening to hurt Amir, Hassan pulled out his slingshot and threatened to attack Assef if he didn't back off. Assef, in turn, threatened to get even, to retaliate against Hassan and Amir, hence Amir was reticent to get involved too deeply in a social way with Hassan.

Secondly, Amir feels threatened by his father's lack of total support. He feels that possibly his father may like Hassan more than his father likes him. Truthfully, his father sired Hassan by having an affair with Hassan's mother, but Amir does not know this. In fact, Hassan is Amir's half-brother, and by keeping this a secret from Amir and from Hassan, Amir's father (Baba) is actually stealing from both of them, in an off-handed way. So Amir is being criticized by his father because Hassan is more of a brave young man than Amir is, and Amir feels self-conscious about that. Interestingly, Hassan's father, the servant for Baba and Amir, is very kind to Amir and encourages him to write.

Thirdly, there is pressure on Amir because in the back of his… [read more]


Iran Revolution Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (863 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5

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Iran Revolution

The Iranian Revolution represented an important moment for the history of Iran on the one hand and for the evolution of the Cold War on the other hand.

There are two perspectives over the impact of the Iranian Revolution. There is the one which presents the facts at the time of the revolution, in terms of the situation in 1979 from the point-of-view of the oil, the religious aspect, and the European intervention; at the same time, there is the perspective of the eventual results on the above mentioned issues.

In the first case, the situation prior and during the revolution included several aspects. On the one hand in terms of the oil industry, Iran was one of the most important trading partners of the Western world. More precisely, the security of supply was for the U.S. In particular the most important element of the relationship with the Shah and the main reason for which the West supported his reign. Therefore, by the time the first signs of the revolution became visible, the international scene started to reconsider its position in terms of alternative oil supplies because of the state owned oil industry; nonetheless, the resources from Iran were crucial for the development of the world.

In terms of the relationship between the state and religion the situation before the Revolution was mixed. On the one hand, there were those that supported a return to the traditional relations between the state and the religion based on Shari'ah and ulama administration and, on the other hand, there were the proponents of the Western style of government of laic administration. This caused a certain sense of social convulsions and disorientation.

As for the issue of the European colonial matter, prior to the Iranian revolution, the idea of the Iranian revolutionaries was that of considering colonialism as an evil that must be dealt with. Therefore, the Iranians looked at the Americans, the Europeans as enemies of their well being.

From the other perspective, that offered by the outcome of the Revolutions, the analysis must follow the same lines. In this sense, the oil industry had to suffer majorly. Thus, after the Revolution most foreign workers in the oil processing were sent to their countries; one of the most interesting effects the Revolution had was on the security of the oil supply. More precisely, oil during the Khomeini regime was used more as a negotiating tool rather than an economic means of development.

In the second matter related to religion and the state, the arrival of the Khomeini regime placed more tensions on…… [read more]


Syrian-Lebanese Conflict Syria and the Possibility Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,183 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3

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¶ … Syrian-Lebanese Conflict

Syria and the Possibility of Further UN Action

Syria and Lebanon were established after World War I from the territory known formerly as Damascus. Lebanon and Syria do not have a long history of diplomatic relations and remain politically independent. Currently, Syria faces pressure from the international community regarding alleged meddling in the affairs of Lebanon. Syria also faced allegations of supporting terrorist groups. These allegations were investigated at the request of the UN. The Mehlis investigation found that the Syrian government's actions against the Lebanese are criminal. This study will explore the possibility for further UN actions against Syria for their role in these activities.

The key point of contention, according to the UN Security Council is Syria's involvement in the assassination of former Lebanese Prime Minister Rafiq Hariri. In October of 2005, eleven of the fifteen nations comprising the Security Council an agreement was reached to help Lebanon investigate the assassination of their leader. The UN demonstrated solidarity in this resolution. The Mehlis Investigation revealed that Syria made several false claims regarding its involvement in the assassination of Hariri.

The assassination of this leader caused considerable destabilization in the Middle East. The UN Security Council feels that making demands upon Syria to cooperate represents a united front. This show of solidarity is meant to place pressure on Syria to cooperate with the investigation. Provision of inaccurate information was viewed as deception on the part of Syrian officials. The decision to supply deceptive information implies, but does not prove their role in the assassination. This sparked the UN to search further for information that placed the blame on Syria.

The UN resolution required Syria to take into custody Syrian officials or individuals that were suspects in all phases of the crime. The bombing that killed Hariri was classified as a "terrorist act." The resolution stated that if Syria did not comply with all of the terms of the resolution, further action by the UN would be taken. The Mehlis Investigation represented the defining document that would determine the role that Syria took in the assassinations. The Syrian government went to great lengths to discredit the Mehlis report. These actions created a considerable amount of suspicion that resulted in stronger language from the UN regarding compliance.

The purpose of the UN is to make certain that every possible attempt at a peaceful resolution to a situation is taken before resulting to more forceful measures. Article 41 of the UN Charter states that sanctions are the first line of defense against member states that do not comply with the terms of a resolution. Under this article sanctions can result in complete or partial interruption of all means of communication and disruption of diplomatic relations. This would be the first action taken against Syria for lack of compliance with the re solution. Should sanctions and the diplomatic procedures outlined in Article 41 fail, Article 42 gives the UN permission to take military action against the country that is… [read more]


Resistance During the Holocaust Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,060 words)
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Resistance During the Holocaust

The purpose of this paper is to introduce and analyze the topic of Holocaust studies during World War II. Specifically it will explain why resistance is an important part of the history of the Holocaust. Jewish resistance to the Holocaust is important for a number of reasons. First, it is often not recognized that Jews did fight back during the Holocaust, often they are portrayed as meekly following the Germans' will as they are rounded up first in Jewish Ghettos and then sent to the concentration camps. In reality, the Jews did fight back in many areas. Another reason it is so important to understand this resistance is that for the most part, the Jews fought back alone, no one from the outside joined them in their war against the Germans, and their plight was largely unacknowledged in the outside world. Thus, the history of the Jewish resistance needs to be told so it can be understood and appreciated by everyone, not just the Jews, and the families of the Jews that took part in this vital resistance.

The first indication that the Germans planned to manage and then systematically eliminate the Jews of Europe came between 1939 and 1943 when the Germans forcibly relocated Jewish families into ghettos all over Europe. The Museum's publication notes, "The ghettos varied greatly in size, from those confining several hundred Jews to the largest ghetto in Warsaw, where almost one-half million Jews lived at the peak of the ghetto's population in late 1940" (Editors 9). As the Jews were herded to the ghettos and began disappearing, some of the people who survived determined they would resist the Germans as long as they could. This was especially true in some of the ghettos that were not totally sealed, such as Warsaw, where there were opportunities to obtain illicit weapons and communicate with the outside world.

Resistance was difficult in the ghettos for a number of reasons, including the diverse populations living so closely crowded together, and the inability to gain arms and plan formalized resistance, especially in the early parts of the Jewish relocation to the ghettos. In addition, many Jews did not initially resist the Germans until they realized their very survival was at stake. As it became clear the Germans were going to withhold food and decent living conditions, and then begin to relocate Jews to camps where they disappeared forever, the resistance began to grow and take shape. One woman wrote, "Jewish armed resistance..., when it came, did not spring from a sudden impulse; it was not an act of personal courage on the part of a few individuals or organized groups: it was the culmination of Jewish defiance, defiance that had existed from the advent of the ghetto" (Editors 10). Initially, the resistance groups were small, and they formed to support each other and attempt to decide how to manage the situation. Often, youth joined the groups and kept them going. The editors continue, "Young men… [read more]


Withdrawal From Iraq Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,365 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 4

SAMPLE TEXT:

¶ … U.S. Troops From Iraq: An Uncertain Outcome

On January 28, 1999, a symposium was held at the Hart Senate Building in Washington, D.C. Addressing that symposium, Charles W. Freeman, Jr., President of the Middle East Council, said, referring to the idea of deposing Iraq's dictator Saddam Hussein, "But let's be optimistic and return to the question that we are here to discuss today. What if we get what we want, and Saddam (Hussein) no longer rules Baghdad (Clawson, Patrick, Parasilliti, Andrew and Francke, Rend Rahim, 1999, p. 1)?" The remarks here reflect that a symposium of experts and world leaders gathered in Washington, D.C., to discuss a Middle East, an Iraq, without Saddam Hussein - and that it is what the group wanted (p. 1). Freeman followed those remarks by asking several questions, "What would that mean inside Iraq? What would it mean in the region? And what would it mean in Iraqi relations with the United States? What sort of regime would likely follow? Does it make a difference how Saddam goes? What sort of regime is possible in Iraq? Would a post-SaddamIraq evolve into a democracy, or would it perpetuate the previous pattern of dictatorship (p. 1)?" Today, of course, we have the answers to these questions. This paper explores those answers in conjunction with the question that is the focus of this paper: What if the United States withdraws American forces currently deployed to Iraq?

The pressure is one to bring American troops home from Iraq (Western Mail, 2005, p. 10). Bringing the troops home would seal the fate of the Republican party, as being responsible for the chaos in Iraq and allowing the U.S. To become mired in yet another military occupation that has, and will continue, to exact an overwhelming burden on U.S. resources. It would render the opposition party, Democrats, in a position to win the 2008 elections with a sweeping victory. Americans, like the English are war weary and tired of the struggle (Ackerman, Spencer, 2006, p. 34). But it would spell disaster for Iraq and the Middle East and for the relationship between the U.S. And Middle Eastern countries.

The answer to Freeman's question hold the answer to the question of what would become of Iraq should the U.S. pull out of Iraq. Freeman asked, what if we get what we want, and Saddam (Hussein) no longer rules Baghdad; is, today, obvious. The initial response among the Iraqi people was one of relief. Perhaps it was a relief that only compounded their long standing trauma of being under the thumb of the brutal dictator, but there followed what seemed to be a lull in the mood and thinking of the Iraqi people, and no one really stepped forward with an aggressive pro-democratic agenda - or even another kind of political leadership agenda. The answer to what that would mean inside and outside of Iraq are, also, clear. Inside Iraq, chaos has ensued as a result of poor planning on the… [read more]


Turkish Immigration to the U.S Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,528 words)
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Immigration

Turkish Immigration to the United States: Explanations and Analysis

The factors influencing the long-term immigration of any cultural group to another nation can be complex. For many groups, however, the major push/pull factors and the aftermath of mass emigration are well documented. The Irish or Italian immigrations to the United States serve as good examples of this. However, other… [read more]


Assimilation Threat With the Rise of Globalization Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (366 words)
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Assimilation Threat

With the rise of globalization and the increase of technology, there is hardly a first-world or even less developed country on the globe that can claim either cultural or religious purity. Assimilation has become a part of life for people from all ethnic and religious backgrounds. Jews are a particularly poignant example of this. This nation seems to have been displaced ever since the beginnings of their history, if biblical evidence is taken into account. As such, their resistance to assimilation has always proved to be their sustenance and salvation in times of adversity and threat.

The Jewish concern with assimilation has been a constant worry since biblical times. Indeed, according to Stephen S. Pearce, the first Jew to face assimilation was Joseph. He was kidnapped as a slave to Egypt, where he won the favor of the king, and was subsequently thoroughly assimilated into the new culture. As the story unfolds, it however becomes clear that Joseph's heart is still Jewish, and he refuses to denounce his cultural or religious principles, even in the face of temptation.

Today, the Jewish…… [read more]


Civilization Egypt and Mesopotamia Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (684 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2

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Civilization Egypt and Mesopotamia

Define and defend the essential characteristics of what you consider civilization by comparing and contrasting the evolution of government and society of both Mesopotamia and Egypt. Relate how geography may have affected the way of life (culture) of both societies, creating societies that were distinctly coherent or distinctly diverse and varied.

Mesopotamian society was primarily characterized by its unpredictability, in terms of its climate and geography. Its terrain was prone to frequent flooding, unlike the gentler and more easily contained Egyptian land near the Nile. The Egyptians viewed their proximity to an easy source of water as a gift, while the Mesopotamians regarded water with fear. The fear of water figures prominently in the Mesopotamian mythology, such as the tale of "Gilgamesh," while the life-giving attributes of the natural world, such as the daily birth and death of the sun figure prominently in the mythology of the Egyptians.

The Mesopotamian conception afterlife reflected this sense of being buffeted on all sides by the environment and by fate. The Mesopotamian gods were uncaring, and the life after this one was desolate, where souls dwelled in desolation and shadows, eating clay in the darkness. In contrast, the Egyptian afterlife was very much like life in Egypt -- a similar class system, and stable and predictable (Burton, 2007). People were even buried with household implements to use in the next world. In fact, the Egyptian Pharaoh himself was considered a god to be worshipped, and the presumably positive feelings of awe, reverence, and obedience expected by the population for this god show how the afterlife and the will of the goods was seen as beneficial. Mesopotamian gods were believed to own cities and live in the temples of their cities, but this presence was more symbolic, and seen as evidence of the gods' desire to avoid the climate of the afterlife, which Mesopotamians feared and dreaded. The greatest gift one could have as a Mesopotamian is to have a long life, which is also reflected in the tale of "Gilgamesh," as…… [read more]


Samson as a Tragic Hero Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,451 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0

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Samson as a Tragic Hero

When one reads the story of Samson in the Bible, one is struck by the similarities between Samson and other heroes in literary tragedies. Like many other tragic heroes, Samson is set apart from other people at birth. Samson has unnatural abilities, which give him the power to save society. As a result, Samson's job… [read more]


Bible Literature Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (407 words)
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Biblical Exegesis

The Book of Judges tells how the Israelites reverted to older forms of worship, and denied the gifts their true God had given them, such as a homeland. But in the Book of Judges, God send individuals with righteous characters, such as Deborah to return to the nation of Israel to its old ways and to restore the covenant of Abraham. The book also attempts to show why the Israelites had difficulty, after the death of the warrior Joshua, taking control of the full territory of the Holy Land. It was, the book suggests, a moral failure as well as a military failure (Keathley, 2007).

One of the more interesting features of the book is how women essentially pick up the military and religious roles temporarily vacated by the less courageous men, such as Deborah, who proclaims: "Village life in Israel ceased, / ceased until I, Deborah, arose, / arose a mother in Israel. 8 When they chose new gods, / war came to the city gates, / and not a shield or spear was seen / among forty thousand in Israel. / 9 My heart is with Israel's princes, / with the willing volunteers among the people. / Praise the…… [read more]


Political Analysis in His Lamp Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (688 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3

SAMPLE TEXT:

Political Analysis

In his LAMP analysis of the nuclear issue that is the focus of Mr. Gadd's paper, he handled many of the steps very well. The first of these is determining the issue for which he is predicting the most likely issue. Mr. Gadd provides a clear and in-depth description of the issue at hand as it relates to the nuclear situation. For the second step, he also clearly identifies the actors involved, which include Iran, Iraq and Israel. Step five is also done well, with a description of the major issues involved. What Mr. Gadd did specifically well in Step 1, 2 and 5 is the way in which he demonstrated his analyses via a point system. The points are clear and summarize particularly the issues and scenarios involved. Step 1 for example briefly introduces the issue, followed by a specification of the issues to be addressed in the later analysis. This is logically and clearly connected with Step 2. Step 5 provides a good springboard for the rest of the steps, which involve an analysis of the different scenarios and likely futures. There is nothing in these three steps that I would do differently.

Steps 6-12 focus on the alternative futures Mr. Gadd analyzed. This is also done well, initially by means of tables, followed by a discussion of the different scenarios, with a conclusion to summarize the findings. The tables include the different future scenarios, with a value assigned to each according to its likelihood. These scenarios are then discussed according to their order of likelihood. Each discussion incorporates Steps 9-12. This is a good strategy, as the reader is presented with clearly organized information regarding not only the likelihood of each event, but also its potential to develop in modern times, its focal points, and the indicators related to these focal points.

For these steps also, I would not change anything. Mr. Gadd provided a clear description of the issues, as well as tables that provide analytical information. The steps are well organized and documented via discussion and conclusions.…… [read more]


Iran the Current President Term Paper

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Iran

The current president of Iran, Mohammed Khatami, won the "deeply flawed elections" (Supporting Human Rights and Democracy: The U.S. Record 2003-2004, Iran) held in 2004. The Iranian government has continued to commit serious human rights violations, as well as numerous abuses, such as "summary executions, disappearances, extremist vigilantism, widespread use of torture," restrictions on workers rights and freedom of association, attacks on students, protesters and journalists (Ibid.) that culminated with the death of a Canadian citizen photographer who had been imprisoned in Iran. The government has made no real effort to stop discrimination and violence; on the contrary, it has continued to harass the "Baha'i community and other religious and ethnic minority groups, including Jews, Christians, and Sunni and Sufi Muslims" (Ibid.)

The main argument of President Bush upon his decision to invade Iraq was a two-fold theory based on the hypothesis that the war was needed in order to counter-attack the threat of Jihad terrorist acts to the U.S. And that the war would reduce the global number of terrorist acts and terrorists. Despite this motivation provided by the President for the invasion of Iraq, it is also true that no evidence of such a threat has been presented or made…… [read more]


Egyptian Culture. The Writer Explores the Food Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,813 words)
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¶ … Egyptian culture. The writer explores the food, family life, and music, spiritual and other elements of Egyptian culture.

The Culture of Modern Egypt

While the western culture is relatively new when compared to the history and age of mankind, the Egyptian culture dates back more than 5,000 years and is filled with traditions that have been handed down… [read more]


U.S. Became Involved in Desert Storm Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,416 words)
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¶ … U.S. became involved in Desert Storm.

On January 15, 1990, Press Secretaty Marlin Fitzwater announces, "the liberation of Kuwait has begun."(Operation Desert Storm, n.d.) in his turn, President Bush told the people "Five months ago, Saddam Hussein started this cruel war against Kuwait. Tonight, the battle has been joined."(the History page, 2007)it was the start of what came… [read more]


Political Study Middle East Region Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (972 words)
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Political Study

Middle East region is in trap of terrorism and ongoing political turmoil. The oil rich region is under intense local and international influence, which has demarcated the region into different divisions on the basis of political ideology, instead of geographical location. Recently many foreigners, and pro-western local population and political figures have experienced deadly attacks; the international investors are under continued threats of severe consequences, and financial losses. 'American businessman Nicholas Berg's body was found on May 8 near a Baghdad overpass; a video of his supposed decapitation death by knife appeared on an alleged Al-Qaeda-linked website (www.al-ansar.biz) on May 11' (Ritt Goldstein Asia Times). However that is just one side of the picture, taking into account the social and political situation of Qatar, Kuwait, Bahrain, Jordan and Egypt, the situation is reversed. The terror threats and political uncertainty have not even spared journalists, in Iraq and Palestinian the press representatives are under attack, and the governing authorities have so far failed to provide enough protection to the press.

The political conflicts experienced by the regional countries have developed major consequences on the spectrum of the economic and social development that was earlier forecasted. Following are the different areas where the regional countries have still more to achieve and apply,

Rise in the population: In 1950's the total population of the middle East region was around 112 million, and presently the tally stands at 415 million, the regional governments have been warned that if concrete social development majors are not incorporated immediately, the regional population is likely to jump to 825 million.

Explosion of youth (particularly in group of 20-24 years): The population of the youth has surged tremendously, the youth population previously stood at 10 million in 1950m and presently it stands at 36 million. If the current growth rate persists, the population of youth is likely to reach 56 milliom by 2050.

Lack of global competitiveness, The region has failed to practiced and introduce diversified economy, and the economic growth of the region is mainly dependent upon mineral production, the regional authorities have failed to create new jobs, and no major breakthrough has taken place in global emerging technologies i.e. telecommunication, management, research. The unemployment rate of the Middle Eastern countries is around fifteen percent. Many graduates and qualified professionals fail to secure job, as there is not much to be offered.

A steady decline in non-petroleum exports as a percentage of world trade over the last half a century, and an equal pattern of decline in regional GDP as a share of global GDP' (Strategic Insights: Globalization has eluded the Middle East).

Decline in agricultural and traditional trades due to mass migration: The region mainly imports the agricultural goods from Australia, Europe and South Asian countries. The rising proportion of the agricultural import is due to the over urbanization. Since 1950's the urban population has surged from 15 million to 173…… [read more]


Iran Contra Affair Term Paper

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¶ … Iran-Contra Affair of the 198os. Specifically, it will discuss and analyze lessons learned from successes or failures of the Iran-Contra counterintelligence operations. The Iran-Contra Affair galvanized America and made Ollie North a common household name. There were many lessons learned from the Iran-Contra affair, and perhaps the most important was the United States government has more power and intrigue than people had previously imagined or believed.

What lead to the Iran-Contra Affair? There were two distinct parts that came together to create the affair. The first was a civil war in Nicaragua, where the contras were fighting the Sandinistas for control of the government. President Ronald Reagan and his cabinet supported the contras, and wanted to get arms to them to aid in their fight against their rivals. Congress created legislation that prohibited the administration or several other agencies from providing aid to the contras. The National Security Agency (NSA) was not on the list of prohibited agencies, and so the administration provided aid through that agency, including funding. Marine Lt. Col. Oliver North commanded the operation. The agency was also involved in supplying weapons to Iran even though the nation had enacted a trade and arms embargo against Iran. By supplying arms, the U.S. hoped to gain western support in the country and gain the release of American hostages. Thus, both the contra aid and Iran aid came through the NSA and North at some point.

The mission failed for a number of reasons. First, there were so many lies and secrets involved that it was inevitable they would become known eventually. "The Iran-contra story is largely about lies, secrecy, and deception. Oliver North and the other principal characters in the story admitted to withholding evidence, writing false chronologies, and shredding documents."

In addition, there were so many people involved it seems inevitable that information would leak. As another writer notes, "These domestic and international realities challenge the very premise of covert operations -- that they can be kept secret and deniable."

The mission failed because it was…… [read more]


Betty Mahmoody and Marjane Satrapi Term Paper

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¶ … Betty Mahmoody and Marjane Satrapi

There are many perspectives from which a certain issue can be looked at. This is true especially when considering a sensitive subject such as the image of a nation or that of a cultural and political structure. Betty Mahmoody and Marjane Satrpi are two well-known writers who dealt with the issue of the… [read more]


Marjane Satrapi &amp Martin Luther King Converging Term Paper

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Marjane Satrapi & Martin Luther King

Converging Philosophies: Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. & Marjane Satrapi

Introduction to Marjane Satrapi

The madness, bloodshed and ethnic slaughter goes on in the Middle East, very near to where Marjane Satrapi was born and raised, and the insanity may never stop because hatred is alive and well all over the world. And because… [read more]


Conflict in the Middle East Term Paper

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Conflict in the Middle East: Can There Ever Be Peace?

The Holy Bible advises that there will always be wars and rumors of war, and history has borne this out; however, the Middle East in particular has historically been wracked by violent conflict for a variety of reasons. While the reasons for these conflicts have been varied, they have all been characterized by three fundamental aspects: (a) competition for scarce resources; (b) a highly patriarchal social framework that disenfranchises women and encourages violence as a legitimate and acceptable practice; and - inter- and intra-religious differences, a situation that is further exacerbated by the need to share such holy sites as Jerusalem between sometimes mutually-hostile faiths. This paper provides a review of the related literature to show how these three fundamental aspects have contributed to the historic incidence of violence in the Middle East, followed by a summary of the research in the conclusion.

Review and Discussion

Competition for Scarce Resources.

According to Morrissette and Borer (2004), "Many of the wars of the 20th century were about oil, but wars of the 21st century will be over water. While it is clear that many of those sources of conflict remain salient today, future war in the Middle East also will be increasingly influenced by economic and demographic trends that do not bode well for the region" (p. 86). The World Bank has estimated that by 2025, world population will reach eight billion; more alarming, over 90% of this projected growth will occur in developing countries where most people depend on local renewable resources (Morrissette & Borer, 2004). Likewise, Richards and Waterbury (1996) emphasize that, "The continued pressure of population on scarce resources poses serious problems for the region" (p. 75). Indeed, competition over resources has been a source of conflict throughout history, but many of the nations of the Middle East are relatively small and some are resource-poor, at least in terms of renewable resources. According to Gray (2002):

The new world order is consigned to the rubbish heap, and the outlines of the world in which we will live over the coming century have become clearer. The end of secular ideology has not brought peace. It has simply changed the character of war. In the Persian Gulf, we see nations playing out new struggles. Those struggles are about the control of scarce resources. Ideological conflicts are being replaced by geopolitics. The strategic rivalries of the cold war are being followed by resource wars (emphasis added). (p. 20)

Alas, while modern technology may avoid these dire Malthusian predictions, or at least ameliorate them somewhat in the…… [read more]


Organize a Protest Rally Term Paper

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Protest Rally

Nearly three thousand U.S. troops and 100,000 Iraqi civilians have lost their lives in our war with Iraq. War always brings death, but hopefully the end justifies the means. However, in the Iraqi situation, I believe death and destruction have occurred needlessly. For this reason, I am organizing an anti-war rally to bring out troops home from Iraq… [read more]


Albert Camus the Guest Term Paper

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Camus "The Guest" schoolteacher struggles with the colonial paradigm in Albert Camus' "The Guest." Daru admits that Northern Africa was "cruel to live in," and the stark landscape of Algeria adds to the sense of alienation and isolation in the short story. He also perceives the oppressive power of the colonial French regime when Balducci arrives with the Arab and delivers Daru his "orders." Thus, Daru is instantly caught between blind obedience to the colonial government and his own conscience. As Daru develops a friendship with the Arab, he deepens his dilemma. Daru conveniently allows the Arab to choose for himself which path to take: adherence to societal rule, signified by the rigidly hierarchical police headquarters, or total freedom, signified aptly by the nomads who are trapped neither by rules nor by geography. Throughout "The Guest" Daru is shown to be caught between those two poles, as a Franch man isolated both from his own society and that of the indigenous Arabs.

The guest therefore symbolizes the breakdown of the colonial enterprise and the budding of self-determination in Northern Africa. Daru allowed the…… [read more]


Art for Day-To-Day Living Term Paper

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Art for Day to Day Living

Sample picture of an Ancient Egyptian Mirror

If one wonders how important art and the usefulness of an artist is in day-to-day living, all one has to do is look around. If one is inside a house or an office, everything the eye can see has been designed by an artist, from the stapler on the designer desk to the rug beneath one's Nike sneakers to the very walls around one, as architects had to design them, as well. This has been the case since humans moved indoors to keep out of the rain. They had to design and build shelters; they shaped clothes, tools, cooking ware, and implements of daily living from materials they had at hand. Base metals, such as copper, were refined and then combined to create bronze. Products made from metal have survived through millenniums so we see what daily implements looked like during ages past. In Egypt, Garments were made from the fiber of the flax plant, woven into linen, while knives and needles used to cut and sew the resulting cloth were shaped or carved from bone or stone, copper, or bronze. The King Tut Shop web site contains examples, as well as the complete history, of many Ancient Egyptian objects. (King Tut 1)

Robes were fashioned from almost sheer linen, and shawls were thrown over the heads and shoulders. The long, linen robes that Egyptian women wore were rectangles, crossed over and tied behind the neck, or at the back or on both sides to form a dress. Sheer outer garments were then worn over the dresses or kilts (for men) and the resulting semi-transparent fashions were attractive, as well as cool in the hot weather typical of Egypt. Comfort, beauty and cleanliness were important to Egyptian noble people and it is reflected in their everyday clothes.

Makeup was a popular product in Ancient Egypt. Egyptian women applied kohl, a black dye kept in a jar or pot, to line their eyes and eyebrows, using a brush made from a reed of papyrus while they held mirrors made of polished brass. Men also used kohl, which was supposed to protect their eyes against eye infections. The women used a dye called henna to color their nails and lips red. Both men and women wore wigs of curled human hair or…… [read more]


Developing a Maritime Policy for Saudi Arabia Term Paper

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¶ … Rational Maritime Policy for Saudi Arabia

The Untapped Potential of Saudi Arabia's Maritime Resources

Saudi Arabia is not a nation whose fate has been historically associated with the oceans. Images conjured of Saudi Arabia will involve oil fields and vast deserts. At first blush, there seems little reason to even consider a maritime policy for the nation, let… [read more]


Political, Legal, Economic Risk Analysis Term Paper

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Turkey suffers from a problem of over regulation and businesses are being hampered and affected by a weak financial system which is prevalent in the country. (Turkey a new corporate world for Europe) Besides, there are instances of human rights violation cases that range from tortures to treatment of humans. Turkey fares baldy in human rights violation issues. The government disagrees with the accusations against them, however the human rights commission does not agree with the Turkish Government. (Turkey: Economic Policy Analysis)

(c) Economic Risks: Turkey is currently in a debt trap which is so severe that even if they were to pay just the interest, they will not be capable to repay the debt within the next 100 years. Turkish economy is among the worst performing economies worldwide. Continuous high inflation and unemployment, wide disparity in income and low investment levels are the important characteristics of the Turkish economy. The Oxford Analytica risk factor linked with the Turkish economy is very high and the accompanying political turmoil of Turkey does not leave enough space for optimism. As the country is among the biggest World Bank debtors and chances are rife that the foreign debt will go on rising in the years to come. The income gap between Turkey and the EU as also the wide regional income disparities in Turkey have since for a long time been important concerns. (Turkey: Economic Policy Analysis)

II. Choice of country for starting a hotel business:

Taking the contrasting scenarios of the two country into consideration, as regards their political, legal and economic risks, the country of Spain is preferable to start a new hotel business since the business climate is more conducive for opening a hotel in that particular country. Spain has come to be a more active player in international affairs. Europe is the prime focus of the Spanish foreign policy. As the EU's 5th largest nation as regards population, output and production, and 2nd largest with respect to geographical size, over the years Spain has come to be an important economic player and trade competitor not just confined within the EU and with Latin America, but also in the wider world market. (Doing Business in Spain: An Introductory guide to the market)

It gets generous assistance by way of the EU's structural and cohesion funds as well as the Common Agricultural Policy. Another point of advantage in favor of Spain for opening a hotel is the fact that its economy is currently dominated by services which is between 60-65% of all the employment and that of the total GDP. This will be conducive for opening a hotel as hotel industry comes under the service sector. Spain is the second largest tourist destination following France with bout 50 million tourist arrivals and another 20 million business travelers. With such a huge inflow of people, the country augurs well for opening a hotel. (Doing Business in Spain: An Introductory guide to the market)

References

Doing Business in Spain: An Introductory guide to… [read more]


Bernard Lewis the Middle East a Brief History Term Paper

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Bernard Lewis, in his book The Middle East, undertakes a topic that many western authors have attempted in recent years. Namely, he aims to provide a concise history of the region over the past two millennia; however, his emphasis will be somewhat different than many of his predecessors. He sees one fundamental shortcoming of previous writers as being that they have downplayed the significance of the pre-Islamic rivalry between Byzantium and Persia. With this in mind, Lewis hopes to generate a more tangible link between the Middle East we are familiar with today -- which is vastly different from that of two centuries ago in many ways -- and that of the ancient empires that occupied the region. So, although Islam has succeeded in altering the cultural makeup of the Middle East, Lewis contends that the formation of the Islamic state must be understood within the context of that which came before it.

Additionally, Lewis tackles the driving issue of Western influence upon the Middle East. To him, the most apparent outward indicator of the recent changes in the region is how people dress: "The first, most obvious visible change is in the clothes that he [the stereotypical citizen] wears." (Lewis, 3). Nevertheless, this change must be put into its historical context; this is not the first time that cultural changes, like dress, have come about through outside influences. Lewis notes that this also occurred when the Mongols invaded in the Middle Ages. Lewis also sees many of the current political and social battles in the Middle East as stemming from the divisions created by the colonial powers. So, if there was one pervasive theme that a historian could extract from the history of the region, according to Lewis, it would be dispute and competition between opposing powers.

As the past two hundred years have seen significant changes within the Middle East there have also been alterations to the social order. Lewis writes, "Modernization -- or as many saw it, Westernization -- widened the gap between rich and the poor. It also made that gap more visible and more palpable." (Lewis, 384). One of the pressing difficulties, for today, in the Middle Eastern world is that the social order is organized such that the elite social and political leaders exercise an undue amount of power over the masses based upon their levels of education, and their financial capabilities. The situation, in general, is "that the orthodox majority in every country, consisting of religious leaders with traditional education and the uneducated masses who blindly follow them, are vehemently opposed to any change in the existing way of thinking or living." (Husain, 98). Many are convinced that the only social changes that are reasonable are those that act to restore society to an imagined gilded age. Consequently, those philosophies…… [read more]


George Bush's Speech to UN Session Term Paper

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George Bush's Speech to UN Session

More than 80 Heads of States and governments attended 59th session of the United Nation's general Assembly held in New York City on September 21, 2004. The setting of General Assembly has always been there for some serious discussion. Different heads of states choose this occasion to show their point-of-view to the world. The General Assembly session is an annual ritual where general assembly members gather and discuss world issues. President Bush dressed up somberly and smartly in a crisp white shirt and a navy tie with a tailored suit also used this occasion to let his views known. President stood at the foreground podium with Kofi Annan sitting at the larger podium behind. A large screen projected Bush's live mage while he addressed the UN session. The total duration of the speech was 24 minutes.

President Bush immediately tried to build a rapport with the audience by welcoming them to his country and UN session. He started his speech by applauding people and UN who stand for liberty. His overall approach to starting a speech was effective and good. Right from the start he tried to build a theme of liberty, justice and freedom and later as he moved on, he addressed many issues with this theme in the background. Through out the speech he used gestures and eye contact to emphasize certain points. Everyone was interested in knowing Bush's stance on the violent situation in Iraq so he had a captive audience that measured and listened to each and every word he uttered.

Before President Bush made his speech, UN secretary General Kofi Annan opened the UN general assembly session by mentioning that the "rule of law" is at risk around the world. Anann's views on war in Iraq and its legitimacy also made headlines before when he considered it illegal and lacking Security Council Approval. Annan said, "no one is above law" and also discussed issues like brutal treatment meted out to Iraqi prisoners at Abu Ghraib. Even different nations questioned the legitimacy of Iraq's invasion including people in the countries who supported this war. In this scenario Bush's situation was a little precarious and all eyes were fixed on him.

President did not use any aid or support in his speech as he spoke directly from the paper. In such a high profile setting of UN session the words make the difference rather than any aids. Its speech and points, people are interested in, so the best idea is to deliver the speech in a better way because use of aids could be distracting in this scenario.

The overall organization of the speech had a flow and was good. The theme Bush picked up in the beginning that is of freedom, liberty and justice, he…… [read more]


Identify and Analyze the Feasibility of Investing FDI and Portfolio in Pakistan Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,239 words)
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Pakistan FDI and Portfolio Investment

Without a doubt, the tone of foreign investment in Pakistan's economy has been reset by President Pervez Musharraf's willingness to act as an ally to America in that country's "war on terror." American President Bush and Musharraf have reaffirmed the obligation to strengthen financial bonds between the two countries as their political bonds have been twined together after the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001.

When President George W. Bush and President Pervez Musharraf met in New York on September 22, 2004 they reaffirmed their commitment to widening and strengthening the American-Pakistan economic relationship in staying in line with the concepts and goals agreed to in their meeting at Camp David in June last year.

According to the Weekly Compilation of Presidential Documents, "The two Presidents reviewed progress in the global war on terror, and pledged to continue working together, ensuring that the appropriate resources are available. President Bush expressed appreciation for Pakistan's efforts in this area. They also welcomed the progress of the Joint Working Group on Terrorism and law Enforcement and agreed to further strengthen bilateral cooperation in this regard.

President Musharraf highlighted the need for addressing the underlying causes that have given rise to disaffection and frustration in the Islamic world. In this connection, he recalled his concept of Enlightened Moderation which envisages cooperation of the United States and other leading world powers in finding solutions to long standing issues that affect the Muslim world." (Weekly Compilation, 2004)

To a large degree, this means opening up the Muslim world to foreign investment, starting with America's newest ally in the region, Pakistan. The consensus of the presidents was that economic inequity breeds hatred and violence, so one of the critical manners in which to slow the spread of terror is through economic cooperation and, from America's end, assistance to Pakistan.

Musharraf and Bush also reiterated their cooperation to stop the spread of weapons of mass destruction, and committed to sustain full efforts towards this end.

Most importantly, the two leaders discussed the importance of building security and prosperity in the region. They noted the urgency of maintaining a safe environment for fair elections in Afghanistan and President Bush thanked President Musharraf for his efforts in support of out-of-country voting in Pakistan.

On a direct economic agenda, "President Bush noted the significant economic progress that Pakistan has made in recent years, and reaffirmed U.S. support for Pakistan's efforts to sustain reform and growth. He reiterated the U.S. Administration pledge of $3 billion over five years to help in important areas such as security and the social sector. President Musharraf expressed appreciation for U.S. support to Pakistan's social sector, economic development and poverty reduction programs." (Weekly Compilation, 2004)

The two presidents reiterated their commitment to further expand bilateral trade and investment, which essentially forms the topic of this paper.

Finally, President Musharraf repeated his focus on democracy and his intent to strengthen the country's democratic institutions and bring sustainable democracy to Pakistan.

In return for… [read more]


How Westernization Impact on Iran Culture Social Value Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,503 words)
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Middle East

BACKGROUND INFORMATION OF IRAN TRADITIONAL CULTURE.

HOW THEY ISOLATED FROM WESTERN CULTURE AND RESTRICTED

ABOUT WESTERNIZATION. WHAT DOES IRAN CLUTURE VALUE?

EVIDENCE OF WESTERN INFLUENCE

EXAMPLES-BLACK MARKET (DRUG, FOOD, CLOTHES, WEAPON) - RELIGION (CHRISTIAN)

EFFECTS ON IRAN CULTURE

CHANGING WOMEN'S ROLE

RELIGIOUS CONFLICTS (WESTERN VALUES ARE VIOLATED KORAN WHICH IS ISLAMIC LAWS) -MORDINIZATION PLEASE USE SEPECIFIC EXAMPLES TO… [read more]


Iraq War Since the Attacks Term Paper

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S. intervention in the future of Iraq and want the U.S. And other countries to withdraw their forces. The U.S. due to its own private agenda refuses to do so and hence the conflict. There has also been a really high toll (in thousands) of civilian killings in Iraq because of the American bombings which were supposed to be a show of precision and targeted attacks.

Further the shameful incident at the Abu Ghraib prison, which is a direct result of disregarding the Geneva Convention, has been the main cause of increased abduction and slaughter of civilians working in Iraq. The organization conducting such activities has claimed to do so in a direct reaction to the Abu Ghraib incident.

What the U.S. needs to do is forget about its hidden agendas which include acquiring control over oil resources, and leave Iraq. Elections have been and the majority of Iraqis voted for the "United Iraqi Alliance" thus choosing their leader. A functional government is in play and the U.S. should recognize that it itself is the main cause of the violence. The longer it spends time in Iraq the more the conditions will worsen.… [read more]


Iraq-Iran-Kurd Conflict the Kurdish Uprisings Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (570 words)
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"(1)

apart from recognizing the position of Kurds on the issue, Iraqis also need to focus on the religious tension in the country. The country is divided into Shia and Sunni where a Sunni minority has always ruled. Whoever rules the country now, it is important for regional prosperity that Shia and Sunnis work in harmony in this country. Iran needs to understand that fighting with Iraq on the basis on its large Shia majority is of no use since Iraqi Shias are vehemently opposed to the idea of joining forces with Shias in Iran.

The following steps must be considered for lasting peace in the region:

1. Iraq must recognize Kurdish right to self-determination. They should be allowed to have sufficient representation in a federal system of government. Northern Iraq should have a more autonomous local government and Kurds must be allowed to work with the federal government. They should also be allowed fair participation in matters of national interest.

2. Despite restoration of diplomatic ties between Iraq and Iran, there are still some land and maritime boundaries issues that need to be resolved in order to establish permanent peace. This can be done with the help of initiation of serious dialogue that would allow the countries to chalk out an agreement. A third party involvement would be desirable.

2. U.S. should allow this region to solve its own problems and interference must be kept to a minimum but it can act a third party if two sides willingly agree to have someone involved.

Work Cited

1. Peter W. Galbraith, "Protect the Kurds,"…… [read more]


Warsaw Ghetto Uprising (April 19 Term Paper

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Due to its contacts with the Polish underground, the organization possessed a limited quantity of small arms. The Hashomer Hatzair was a Zionist socialist youth movement that later evolved into the ?OB (the Jewish Fighting Organization); it played a major role in the armed revolt against the Germans during the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising. The Bund had its own malitia that… [read more]


Wretched of the Earth Term Paper

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¶ … Wretched of the Earth by Frantz Fanon is another short essay about imperialism in the world, and it takes "Things Fall Apart" one step further by telling the reader just how imperialism happens and what it does to the native people of a country. Fanon puts it very well when he writes, "decolonization is quite simply the replacing of a certain 'species' of men by another 'species' of men. Without any period of transition, there is a total, complete, and absolute substitution" (Fanon 129). Reading this essay made the situation in the Middle East a little more clear, and a little more frightening, because it is a form of decolonization going on in Afghanistan and Iraq right now, and just like the author says, it creates chaos and great change, and it "never takes place unnoticed" (Fanon 130). That is what is happening in Iraq right now, and why so many people in the world are protesting, because the happenings are not unnoticed.

The author writes about the differences between the white towns and the native towns, and it sounds like much of Southern American before the Civil Rights movement. It also sounds like a terrible place to live if you…… [read more]


Iraq's New Government and Social Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,557 words)
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" AP Worldstream; 29 April 2005; pp.

"Iraq's new government faces tough battle to prove itself."

Agence France Presse English; 30 April 2005; pp.

"Iraq's new government faces tough battle to prove itself."

Agence France Presse English; 30 April 2005; pp.

"Iraq's new government faces tough battle to prove itself."

Agence France Presse English; 30 April 2005; pp.

"Iraq's new government faces tough battle to prove itself."

Agence France Presse English; 30 April 2005; pp.

"Iraq's new government faces tough battle to prove itself."

Agence France Presse English; 30 April 2005; pp.

"Iraq's new government faces tough battle to prove itself."

Agence France Presse English; 30 April 2005; pp.

"Iraq's new government faces tough battle to prove itself."

Agence France Presse English; 30 April 2005; pp.

"Iraq's new government faces tough battle to prove itself."

Agence France Presse English; 30 April 2005; pp.

Seely, Hart. "The Cost of War: Two Years Later." The Post-Standard (Syracuse, NY); 20 March 2005; pp.

Wagner, Thomas. "Insurgents Strike Across Iraq, Killing 50."

AP Online; 30 April 2005; pp.

Wagner, Thomas. "Insurgents Strike Across Iraq, Killing 50."

AP Online; 30 April 2005; pp.

Wagner, Thomas. "Insurgents Strike Across Iraq, Killing 50."

AP Online; 30 April 2005; pp.

Wagner, Thomas. "Insurgents Strike Across Iraq, Killing 50."

AP Online; 30 April 2005; pp.

Wagner, Thomas. "Insurgents Strike Across Iraq, Killing 50."

AP Online; 30 April 2005; pp.

Wagner, Thomas. "Insurgents Strike Across Iraq, Killing 50."

AP Online; 30 April 2005; pp.

Wagner, Thomas. "Insurgents…… [read more]

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