Study "Israel / Palestine / Arab World" Essays 331-384

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Perception L. Jones Term Paper

… Indeed, I also saw a kind of stoic humor in the people I talked to -- a far cry from the rabid "Jihad!" that most people associate with the Palestiian population. I even recall one young man telling of how he was shot in the leg, and then taken to a field where he was blindfolded and beaten for three hours by three jeeps full of Israeli soldiers -- all for the crime of looking for antiques on his own land. What struck me in this exchange was not the cruelty of the incident as much as his attitude when he told it, as if he did not want to make a big deal -- almost in a "well, what are you gonna do?" way. In fact, his smile never left his face.

A realized that my perceptual blocks set me up to see the Palestiian people according to my stereotype of them as barbaric terrorists. Indeed, my preconception of them, which was only buoyed by my particular frame of reference as an American citizen exposed to a particular cultural and media bias against Arabs in general, only prevented me from seing that they had a very legitimate "side" to the Israeli/Palestiian issue that I had not appreciated before. By living among them, in essence, from a different "point of reference," I began to experience a "paradigm shift" in which I realized that fact.

I believe that the reason I had such a one sided bias against the Arab Palestiians had to do with some of the most common problems of perception that all people suffer from at one time or another. Namely, I accepted limited and misleading information to form an opinion of the issue from only a static point-of-view, I allowed my cultural background to make comparisos and judgemetns concerning a vastly different cultural system -- and jusged that different system as inadequate. And I allowed my personal blinders, "tunnel vision," and my inability to imagine a different point-of-view to classify an entire people as "less than" another. In this instance, as an American, I saw the Palestiian Arabs -- coming from a completely different cultural model, as inferiour and barbaric compared to the more culturally compatable Israeli society. Further, I imagined that I had all of the information I needed to make a judgement about the situation -- i.e. that I had sufficient "saturation" of data in order to assess the conflict. In fact, I had incomplete information and was only able to appreciate that when I was removed from my point-of-view.

In conclusion, I realized that the Palestinians were not barbaric Jihad warriors, but were byandlarge normal people, struggling under extremely harsh circumstances. Further, I also realized that the Israeli soldiers could be extremely cruel and barbaric themselves. In short, I realized that having an clear understanding of the situation depended on experiencing both points-of-view. Although I did not come up with a "solution" to the problem, I now realize that both sides have some significant… [read more]

Race: An Illusion Term Paper

… But is the problem really racial?

Of course, many would argue, within the European community that the race is a factor in the inequality of the other groups -- famously asserting that the Sephardim are "lazy" for example, or that Ethiopian Jews are "uncouth" or "barbaric." However, upon closer examination one notes that these views are not based on physical characteristics, but the cultural and societal beliefs attributed to these groups. For example, Sephardim communities generally are more accepting of outward displays of emotion, and a lasses-faire attitude regarding work and social obligations, while Ethiopian Jews necessarily display some of the cultural traits of the non-Jewish Ethiopian community. None of these issues are racial, nor an intrinsic characteristic of race.

So, too, Jewish Israeli attitudes regarding "Arab" Palestinians is typically one in which the racial "other" represented by the Arab is one of barbaric cruelty, or a hot-bloodedness that runs through their veins as a racial characteristic. However, of course considering the fact that Jews and Arabs are technically from the same "Semitic" race, their differences can hardly be racial in nature. Instead, they are from political, cultural, religious, and economic differences -- none intrinsic racial characteristics.

A further example of how issues of race are illusionary in nature is the positive experience many experience on the annual Muslim pilgrimage known as the Hajj. In this event, as famously related by the late Malcolm X, although there are millions of attendees representing every color on earth, the concept of racial division fades under the unifying cloak of religion.

Whereas an Arab Sudanese slave trader might lord over his booty in war torn southern Sudan, during the Hajj he will pray next to, or even behind, his blackest-Black Muslim brother. Further, even issues of culture take a back seat as the unifying universal practices of Islamic worship allow every participant to fit into a mass of humanity of every color.

Within this practice, one is able to glimpse the true nature of race as an illusion. Not only does race fail to factor in the ability of all present to understand, accept, and even love one another, but it points to the universal truth that there are no racial differences that make incompatibility and conflict a necessary or natural fact of life. Race is not a factor in the ability or inability of people to get along. Instead, it is other factors that contribute to conflicts erroneously attributed to race.

In conclusion, the reasons for the attribution of various conflicts to racial differences are perhaps a cultural or social characteristic in and of itself. After all, for many the most obvious "symbol" of division is race. However, in every instance of so called "ethnic" or "racial" division, one will eventually see the reality of race as a real division evaporate. Instead, one finds other issues -- issues of culture, economics, politics, or social differences and conflicts behind every disagreement or lingering negative memory. The danger in this lies in the individual's… [read more]

Rubber Bullets: The Israeli-Palestinian Conflict Term Paper

… Specifically, he asserts that the switch from traditional ammunition to rubber bullets represented a kind of self-regulation or policing, perhaps -- a self-imposed limitation in response to Israel's moral obligations as a democracy.

Of course, many in the Middle East in general, and the Palestinian Territories, in specific might take issue with the assessment of the humane nature of the switch to rubber bullets (after all, as many Palestinians can attest, rubber bullets were simply used in conjunction with live ammunition, and were still capable of serious permanent injury, or even death), and assert that his view of the, perhaps, moderating Israeli Army and national consciousness is extremely simplistic. Further, even Israeli's themselves might take issue with his entire Israeli consciousness argument (after all, Israeli society is hardly homogenous in ideology, class or influence).

The conclusion of Rubber Bullets seems to assess the decision to use, as well as the "on the ground" implementation of rubber bullets to be an extremely significant commentary on the Israeli government's as well as the collective consciousness of the Israeli people's commitment toward pursuing peace. In particular, he herald's Rabin's election, and the "land for peace" policy that he supported. Although, this may be questionable, it certainly does give one pause in comparison to the current administration under Ariel Sharon.

In short, although Rubber Bullets does give an interesting description of the birth of the rubber bullet policy and its significance with regard to Israeli consciousness, one wonder's at is accuracy. Indeed, given other events of the time -- increases in settlements, widespread closures, as well as an autonomy plan that was far from generous in its plans for "giving back" land occupied by IDF forces, Ezrahi's argument can seem a bit "pie-in-the-sky." Further, perhaps most of interest, Ezrahi seems to deal with the shift toward peace as exemplified in Rubber Bullets as an event wholly unrelated to Palestinian influences and collective change -- as if the Israeli-consciousness side of the equation were all encompassing of the issue.

Finally, Rubber Bullets is an interesting leftist view of the role Israeli consciousness affected the peace process of the late Rabin administration. Of course, the amount of credence one can give to this argument is surely affected by the current policies of the Sharon administration, today. After all, if changes in collective Israeli consciousness evoked a shift toward "rubber bullets," one might wonder at the transformation that occurred to allow Sharon's guided missiles to take their place. Indeed, if one were to chalk this change up to a collective Israeli consciousness, it would be a very frightening reality, indeed.… [read more]

Preemptive Force in Iran Term Paper

… This refers to the manner in which Iraq dominated the proceeding of the Iran-Iraq war, and so if American has succeeded in gaining control in Iraq in spite of the back lashes and struggles there it is most likely to gain better control over Iran.


Decade of Deception and Defiance; Saddam Hussein's Defiance of the United Nations," The White House, September 12, 2002, 21 pp.

Iraq's Weapons of Mass Destruction," The Assessment of the British Government, September 24, 2002, 50 pp.

Russia's Risky Iran Connection," The New York Times, June 10, 2002, p. A24.

Chubin, Shahram and Robert S. Litwak. "Debating Iran's Nuclear Aspirations," The Washington Quarterly, Autumn 2003, vol. 26, no. 4, pp. 99-114.

Gorce, Paul-Marie. Iran's military options. 2003.

Iranian Military Capabilities and Intentions. 2002.

Kerr, Paul. "U.S. Irked by Potential Growth in Russian Nuclear Aid to Iran," Arms Control Today, September 2002, p. 14.

Mlling, Christian. & Neuneck, Gtz. Military Capabilities in the Near and Middle East. Accessed on 24-11-2003.

Peterson, Scott. "Russian Nuclear Know-How Pours Into Iran," The Christian Science Monitor, June 21, 2002, p. A1.

Sestanovich, Stephen. "Russia's Role in Iran and Iraq," The New York…… [read more]

Circassian People, a Brief History Term Paper

… Their ancestors, according to written sources, were once called Kassogs, Zichs and Meots. The Adyghe language belongs to the Abkhaz and Adyghe language group. Along with Russian, the Adyghe language is the official one in the Republic. (Amjad M. Jaimoukha, The Circassians: A Handbook (Peoples of the Caucasus) Hardcover - March 2001.)

In the middle Ages the local population revived the name of Circassians. "The name "zichs" comes from Greek and Latin; while Tartars and Turks called them Circassians, but according to their native language, they are - Adyghes"- wrote the Italian traveler and geographer of Renaissance Georgio Interiano. From the 13th century to the 15th century the land of Adyghes was besitted by Genoese, who founded their towns- trade colonies of Matrega, Kapa, etc. The population of the towns was diverse; here lived Italians, natives, Greeks and Armenians. Citizens salted fish and caviar, which were the most important articles of export. Genuesians were mediators in selling slaves into Minor Asia and Egypt. Later Mamluks appeared on the territory of Egypt. They were guards mainly of Circassian and Turcic origin. In 1250 Mamluks made use of the weakness of ruling dynasty and seized the power in Egypt and Syria. The Circassian dynasty existed there till 1517. Mamluks had a great impact on history of the Near East. The repelled the Crusaders in Egypt and Syria, stopped the army of Tamerlan. Their ruling became a period of prosperity of Mediaeval Egypt.Christianity was introduced to the Circassian between the sixth and twelfth centuries by Byzantine missionaries. However, they have been Sunni Muslims for the past three or four hundred years. Nevertheless, many pagan relics and some forms of Eastern Orthodox Christianity still exist in their oral traditions and religious practices. They are viewed by many of the orthodox Middle Eastern Muslims as being very liberal.(John Colarusso, Nart Sagas from the Caucasus: Myths and Legends from the Circassians, Abazas, Abkhaz, and Ubykhs Princeton University Press, December 2002)

Circassian women were reputed to be great beauties, and many were sold into slavery in Turkey. Contrary to popular belief, harems were not the luxurious places we like to imagine and the images of voluptuous women clad in diaphanous robes preparing for endless nights of debauchery are oftentimes false. Heavily made-up, bejeweled, bare-breasted women lounging seductively and playing board games beneath lush courtyards are all part of the mythical fabrications of the 19th Century European painters. Ingres' Odalisques' and Gerome's idealized bathing scenes where nude maidens are attended by muscular servants only serve to cement our romanticism of the harem. In truth, the harem was much more like a prison than a luxury hotel. Girls were obtained as prisoners of war, brought in as slaves, or received as gifts from nobles. Since Islamic law forbade the enslavement of Islamic women, Jewish and Christian women were brought to the harem from distant parts such as Circassia (north of the Caucasus Mountains in Russia) and other regions. Upon entering the harem the women were taught reading and writing,… [read more]

Gulf War I ) Term Paper

… These are the general reasons that justify U.S. aggression towards Iraq; however, the primary reason why U.S. is still focusing on Iraq is that it is still suspected of harboring different kinds of weapons of mass destruction. Iraq is most feared by other nations because of its capability to produce weapons for war purposes, and these includes state-of-the-art war weapons, such as biological, chemical, and nuclear weapons. What makes the Iraqi government threatening is that for four years, Iraq had been free from any UN sanctions against the production of these deadly weapons, and in the span of four years, it is possible that the Iraqi government was able to produce numerous weapons that are harmful and deadly when used at war. The possibility of a nuclear weapon production in Iraq is still being questioned and investigated, although there have been satellite photos that shows evidence of "images of new buildings... At a former Iraqi weapons plant," that have plausible activities connected to the production of nuke weapons (Ratnesar p. 44). Thus, Iraq is a powerful nation to reckon with, and in the U.S. government's opinion, the danger of possessing these deadly, lethal weapons, and the desire to 'unleash' them to other nations in times of war, is what makes Iraq and Hussein an enemy of the U.S.

With this reason at hand, U.S. argued its way through the UNSC and its allies in order to propose and declare a war against Iraq under the U.S. government of George W. Bush. However, it is general knowledge among all people in the world that despite UNSC's and the U.S.'s allies' disagreement over an attack against Iraq, U.S. proceeded with the attack anyway, disregarding the power of the United Stations to impose whatever decision has been decided upon by its council. Thus, on March 21, 2003, U.S. led an offensive strike against Iraq, resulting to the total destruction of the country. The U.S. became 'victorious' since it was able to topple down the power of Saddam Hussein and his government, but this victory is not absolute, since Saddam is still alive and there is a possibility that he will conduct a defense attack on U.S.'s actions against his government (Elliott pp 45-52).

A decade-long conflict between Iraq and the U.S. is now seen by the world as a clash between two leader-nations seeking world power and dominance. These two 'versions' of the Gulf War made us realize that: (1) GFI differed from GFII because I is a defensive attack against Iraqi aggression, while II is an offensive strike against the dictatorship of Iraq; (2) the U.S. was backed by the UNSC and its allies in '91, while G.W. Bush ignored disagreements of UNSC and its allies over the war and proceeded on the attack on Iraq; and most importantly, (3) the results of both war shows that in war, both sides never emerge as victorious, since there will always be massive destruction and numerous deaths of innocent people to account for. Thus,… [read more]

Middle East Conflict Term Paper

… Currently, the leadership of Israel has moved in what international critics see as a more hard-line approach. Gone are the days of offering Palestinians anything we could in order to put an end to violence. Modern Israeli leadership has taken the stance that we must fight back and end the violence before we can truly negotiate. And this approach makes sense to many Israeli citizens, but as we have seen throughout history it is not very often that armed opposition has brought about a peaceful settlement.

But it would be unfair to see Ariel Sharon and his Likud party as nothing but war hungry hardliners. In fact, their opposition in the most recent elections could be considered by many to be more unyielding than Mr. Sharon. Benjamin Netanyahu, Sharon's opponent in the most recent election, has often expressed his feeling that a separate state for Palestine should not be established. It very well may be this idea that cost him the election against his bitter rival.

Many Israeli citizens like myself have come to the realization that even though it may not seem like the best option for peace, we have little choice but to accept the reality that this must be done. There is so much international pressure, both close and far, as well as Palestinian outcry, that this must be considered to be the best option both sides have for a peaceful resolution.

In the recent election, which was itself marred by bloodshed, Sharon carried 55.8% of the vote, while Netanyahu could only garner 40.8%. This decisive victory for Sharon certainly hinged on his foreign policy and more importantly on his views on the Palestinian situation. His Likud party, which could be considered center/right by most political standards, has certainly found common ground with the average citizen in Israel.

Now beyond the two major political parties of Israel, Labor (Left) and Likud (Right) there are many other parties and groups vying for power. Obviously Palestinian terrorist groups like the oft mentioned Hamas have made every attempt to force change in the most horrific of ways, with suicide bombings and mass killings of civilians. Now, while they may feel that this has given them a way of pushing their agenda, they have done little but disrupt Israel and empower both major parties. You see, when a terrorist attacks it give the Likud strength because of their stiff resolve and right wing stance. But eventually those attacks hurt tourism, trade and the economy; when this happens people look towards the Labour party because of their strong economic stance. In this same manner the military is often looked to when terrorist attacks first begin, but as they worsen and become prolonged, business leaders are looked to aid the failing economy.

Now beyond the two major parties, and their close associates, there are a variety of other groups that have small shares of power, and the idiosyncratic views to match. These include groups such as the Herut party, which believes that Israel… [read more]

Invasion of Iraq the Impending Term Paper

… The possibility of a nuclear weapon production in Iraq is still being questioned and further investigated, although there have been satellite photos that shows evidence of "images of new buildings... At a former Iraqi weapons plant," that have plausible activities… [read more]

Shmuel Agnon's Only Yesterday Term Paper

… Unfortunately, this caused panic wherever he roams; therefore, the dog takes over the story. The dog's part does not last that long since continuing harassment went on for so long without understanding why he goes mad and bites Kumer. The dog has been understood as everything from the personification of Exile to a daemonic strength, and turns out to be an unforgettable character in a manuscript about the bereavement of God, the dishonesty of dialogue, the authority of concealed eroticism, and the providence of a people portrayed all its shadows and assurances. Only Yesterday sheds light on the good and the evil in life that people have to encounter by decisions that may influence them which can have a major impact on the future.

Shmuel Agnon's Only Yesterday is a wonderful story that tells about a man's many highs and lows that he has in his own life, which are caused by his sometimes ill-fated decisions. It also shows the reader life has many contradictions and paradoxes within itself along with explaining not everything is what a person expects or what it seems to be. For example, when Kumer arrives in Israel he expects to have a high financial and social status right away - instead he had to take a job as a house painter to get by while he was there. It could be concluded that this book shows the reader not to expect anything and always be prepared for new things to experience like Kumer had to do in the story. Therefore, Only Yesterday explores the many aspects of life from finding new meanings, seeing contradictions being made, and encountering new experiences or the unexpected - events that all readers, all human…… [read more]

Third Party Intervention Term Paper

… BBC reporter Kathryn Westcott reports a chilling trend among young teens who emulate their elders and perform suicide bombings. The military action in the West Bank has had the effect that 600,000 children have been unable to attend school. Television propaganda enrages the children and they are now beginning to take part in the violence. We must remember that children learn more by our actions than our words and we can only blame ourselves when a 14-year-old runs into a crowded mall of other school children and pulls the pin on the grenade. Some so-called "Freedom Fighters" are even recruiting children to do their dirty work.

The Jerusalem Post echoes the same inability of the leaders to come to an agreement. Ariel Sharon now reports that he has indisputable evidence linking Arafat to the terrorism and that he will not deal with such as man. Arafat feels that he is being victimized. The World trade Organization, in general tried to stay out of personal conflicts between two countries, unless it sees that intervention would be in the best interest to the world at large.

It has become clear, as little boys play with toy soldiers and army tanks, that the true victims are the women and children who want to do no more than live their lives in peace. As little boys emulate their fathers, the actions of their fathers only serve to guarantee another generation of senseless violence. If this were two school children fighting on a play-ground, an adult would break it up and send them to stand in the corner. Isn't it about time to break up the squabbling school boys before they harm any more?


ABC News. Arafat-Sharon Timeline. Accessed May 5, 2002.

Guardian Unllimited. World trade Organization. 2002. Accessed May 5, 2002

Jerusalem Post Internet Edition. May 5, 2002.;;&cid=1020337077104 Accessed May 5, 2002.

Ramzy Baroud, So, How Do You Define A Massacre? Thursday, May 02, 2002. Palestine

Chronicle. accessed. May 5, 2002.

Shuman, Ellis. Sharon will suggest Palestinian state, without Arafat. May 5, 2002. Isreali Insider. Accessed May

5, 2002.

Tuma, Elias H. "It's Darkest Before Dawn": May Be So In Israeli/Palestinian Relations! April

30, 2002. Accessed May 5, 2002.

Westcott, Kathryn. Children bear scars of Mid-East conflict. BBC News Online. Saturday, 27

April, 2002. Accessed May 5, 2002.… [read more]

Iraq Pre- and Post-Saddam Research Paper

… Iraq

In 2003, the U.S. War on Terror expanded its footprint to incorporate an invasion of Iraq. From the moment that the first Rangers parachuted into the Kurdish-held territory in the north to the moment when President Bush declared victory… [read more]

Syrian Refugee Crisis Essay

… Letter to Editor

I am writing to express my support for your editorial "Still Failing Syria's Refugees." The refugee problem is one of serious concern in this world, and yet there are few countries that are truly willing to take action. But there is a long history of failing refugees, so this issue in Syria ties into a much bigger problem.

The United Nations notes that there are around 10.4 million refugees around the world this year, fleeing from conflict that they did not start and do not participate in (UNHCR, 2014). The United States takes in 70,000 refugees per year, and this is over half the world's total. Clearly, there are many issues at play but the end result is that most refugees have no real hope of resettlement or of returning home.

Conflicts around the world start for any number of reasons, but there are often opportunities for the countries that run this world to intervene. In the case of Syria, this intervention was not forthcoming, because of the same UN system that decries the globe's lack of support for refugee resettlement -- who gave Russia and China veto rights to allow this conflict to fester for four years? The reality is that all nations have contributed to the world's refugee crises, yet only a handful of nations are doing anything to address it. Europe's nations do not pull their weight, taking less than the U.S. combined despite having a higher total population. They also refused to take a stand on Syria when they had the chance.

Then there are the Arab states. One of the reasons so few Syrian refugees have been resettled is that America and other Western states have, as you argued, taken a cautious approach and screened refugee applicants carefully, and some governments have been quite specific in blaming the need for additional screening to keep out radicals as slowing the process down (Levitz, 2014). But what of the Arab states? The ones will all the oil money, who import millions of laborers from South Asia to help fuel their economic growth. Do they have any room for Syrians, themselves Arabs. Five countries in the region only are offering places for Syrians -- one of which is Turkey, so where are the other Arab states, and the other Muslim nations in this crisis? Surely we cannot only blame the West, despite the shortcomings of many Western countries.

African refugees also face tremendous problems in resettlement, and often are left to live out their lives as migrants, sometimes even stateless (Crisp, 2002). So we know the problem of ignoring refugee situations is not new. But it remains a concern and we need more people like the NYT editorial board expressing this call to action. The reality is that there are hundreds of thousands of people who have been displaced in Syria. They are fleeing the Assad regime, and they are fleeing ISIS. All these people want is a welcoming place to be safe so that… [read more]

IR Aouzou Strip Essay

… Aouzou Strip is a strip of land along the Chad-Libya border, located in the Sahara Desert. This region is named after the oasis town of Aouzou, which is the principle population center in the region. The strip runs along the… [read more]

Isis and Syria Research Paper

… ISIS first began as an al Qaeda splinter cluster. The main objective of ISIS is to generate an Islamic state within the Sunni areas of Syria and Iraq. Their tactics are brutal, with violence and deaths recurring as a result… [read more]

Turkey's National Security Research Paper

… The Western-backed BTC is now being challenged by a Russian-backed Friendship Pipeline, which bypasses Turkey. It is no longer in Turkey's best interest to be wholly allied with NATO and the U.S. Turkey must respond to the Russian-support Friendship nations. Its support of military intervention (as in Syria, for instance) has not entirely resulted in the desired effect. Assad remains in power after years of fighting and the UN and Russia have shown that the aggressors in Syria are terrorist-backed organizations -- not the so-called Freedom Fighters that the West has made them out to be. If Turkey will denounce Israel for its war crimes in Gaza, it may need to reassess its attitude towards the Syrian "rebels," who are also committing war crimes.

Understandably, when considering the long-term threat to its security, Turkey finds itself in a difficult position. It may be left out in the cold if it refuses to consider an alliance with Russia. On the other hand, it may alienate the only power interested in assisting it, the U.S. Yet, as the U.S.'s fortunes in the Middle East deteriorate, what with the increasing stability in Iraq and Afghanistan, it may be bad for Turkey if the U.S. fully withdraws from the region. The BTC will be consigned to irrelevance and Turkey's economy may not survive the long-term loss of projected income. Its military is currently in suitable condition, but should direct conflict arise, Turkey may need to bolster its security by appealing to a power that has significant deals in the works, as Russia has with China in East Asia.

In conclusion, near and long-term threats to Turkey's security are several. There is the rise of IS in the region, which is only the latest manifestation of terrorism. This group must be dealt with militarily. The near-term threat of this group is border instability and interior violence as well as instability from refugees seeking asylum. Turkey has already accepted many hundred thousand refugees. Long-term threats may be seen in the much larger conflict between the U.S. And Russia, as plays for the world's energy supplies create conflict in different regions. Currently, those conflicts are seen in Ukraine and Syria. Turkey remains a crucial link between the Middle East and the EU, so this conflict, and the result of pipeline completion, will affect the nation in the long run.

Reference List

Catholic Online. (2014). ISIS begins killing Christians in Mosul. Retrieved from

Dawson, R. (2012). Syrian Super Thread. Anti-Neocons. Retrieved from

Escobar, P. (2011). Playing Chess in Eurasia. Asia Times Online. Retrieved from

Frizell, S. (2014). President Obama Explains Why the U.S. is Bombing ISIS. Time.

Retrieved from

Nichol, J. (2011). Russian Political, Economic, and Security Issues and U.S. Interests.

CRS Report for Congress. DC: Congressional Research Service.

Seibert, T. (2014). Erdogan May Win the Turkish Presidency, But He'll Face the ISIS

Crisis. The Daily Beast. Retrieved from… [read more]

Jdl the Threats That Derive Research Paper

… It sees an immediate need to place Judaism over any other "ism" and ideology and calls for the use of the yardstick: "Is it good for Jews?"

It is clear that the JDL is a self-interested group that seeks no real means of cooperation and peaceful cohabitation with others. The JDL does not tolerate those who disagree with them and are not afraid to use violence. The Jewish tradition, which essentially states that this ethnic group's interests are superior to all others, is violent at its core and preaches an indignant attitude towards peace and stability. The ability to fuse this dogmatic belief with political activism makes the JDL a very anti-American force that needs to be reckoned with and treated with the proper response.

Recruiting members for the JDL relies on their ability to tap into both religious and nationalistic attitudes of the Jewish race. Since Israel identifies Jews as an ethnic race and not a religion, the racist overtones of the JDL are incredibly forthright and blatant. Jewish supremacy is not usually scorned as white supremacy, black supremacy or any other type of similar philosophy. This makes it very easy for unsuspecting Jews to align themselves with such a cause. The infiltration of the Israeli lobby within the United States Government also allows this group to flourish in many ways that other terrorist groups cannot.

Neff (1999) best explained this group when he wrote "For more than a decade, the Jewish Defense League (JDL) has been one of the most active terrorist groups in the United States. Since 1968, JDL operations have killed 7 persons and wounded at least 22. Thirty- nine percent of the targets were connected with the Soviet Union; 9% were Palestinian; 8% were Lebanese; 6%, Egyptian; 4%, French, Iranian, and Iraqi; 1%, Polish and German; and 23% were not connected with any states. Sixty-two percent of all JDL actions are directed against property; 30% against businesses; 4% against academics and academic institutions; and 2% against religious targets."


Jewish Defense League Homepage. Viewed 25 Mar 2014. Retrieved from

Jewish Virtual Library (nd). Meir Kahane. Viewed on 25 Mar 2014. Retrieved from

Southern Poverty Law Center (nd). Jewish Defense League. Viewed 26 Mar 2014. Retrieved from

Neff, D. (1999). Jewish Defense League Unleashes Campaign of Violence in America. Washington Report on Middle East Affairs, July/Aug 1999. Retrieved from… [read more]

Culture the First Quiz Case Study

… Kosher meat must be slaughtered by a pious Jew. Thus, kosher meat and halal meat are mutually exclusive of each other, and kosher meat would be haram for the lack of a Muslim butcher and invocation to Allah. Perhaps it is the writer of the quiz that needs to "brush up a bit more."

I think that my cultural awareness is strong enough to know when the quiz is wrong about something. However, some of my right answers were guesses -- I had a 50/50 shot. So that doesn't really reflect strong cultural awareness, just basic mathematics. With respect to weaknesses, definitely points of etiquette, because I genuinely cannot imagine that such things matter. Most British people do not even realize there is apparently a proper way to eat soup, for example. I am ignorant of such rules and am actually happy to remain so. Same thing with Brazilians and shoes. I gather that they probably do not wear Havaianas to business meetings, but don't know what shoes they wear, don't care, and will wear whatever shoes I feel like wearing that day.

Things like the Thai face issue are more concerning to me, because that type of stuff can actually scuttle a business deal. So as far as learning more about cultures, that is one of those tricky concepts that I would want to understand better. Reading about it, or discussing it with Asian immigrants who can effectively translate the concept to my foreigner's way of thinking so that I understand it better are two techniques that I would use.

Otherwise, the quizzes went about as expected. I did reasonably well, but the questions were often about little details. It would be near impossible to know all of these little details about every culture in the world. The key is that when you are doing business with people of a different culture to ensure that you have a high level of competence in that particular culture. It is especially important to understand which elements are important to the deal and which ones are trivial. For example, while I may not have known that Georgian is a Caucasian language and Armenian is Indo-European, I do know that I'm better off speaking English in Tbilisi rather…… [read more]

Country Experience Being Essay

… ¶ … Country Experience

Being in a foreign country is not easy. This is because it is a relatively new experience which one is not used to and thus it might feel awkward and is even worse when you are in a non-English speaking country. Not all countries in the world speak English there are others where they speak other languages apart from English. I really had a rough time when I went to study in Iraq. At first I had thought of it as an opportunity to go outside my country of origin and get to know how people out there lived. However, when I got there it was the least of my expectations. First of all in Iraq the official languages are Arabic and we all know communication is a very important thing. Without communication there can be a lot of misunderstanding and even possible conflicts. Therefore being in a non-English speaking country was very difficult for me. Personally I do not understand Arabic or the Kurdish. The only languages I can speak and understand are English and was therefore very difficult for me to communicate to people around me. For a foreigner like me who did not know the whereabouts in that country it was quite hectic. I used to spend a lot of time trying to figure my way out around the country. Unfortunately I could not ask for any assistance since no one seemed to understand or speak English.

Fortunately the school I was going to was an international school. I was luck enough to get other foreign students like me who were in the same situation I was in .once we realized we had the same problem we immediately came together and became of these students had take some Arabic classes before the came to Iraq. For him he was able to pick up a few things though not all. When I realized this I convinced him we share rooms so that he could help me as I learnt…… [read more]

Policy Advisement on Efficacy Term Paper

… Whatever happens now, America will withdraw in defeat. Armies are for winning wars, not building nations. Armies that keep fighting a war they've won, will lose it" (Jonas, 2010). This distinction between the role and mission of our armed forces is fundamental to this debate, because as a nation founded on the ideal of democratic freedom, becoming a force of occupation does not align with our military's legitimate objectives. As one prominent foreign policy journalist observed in 2007, when the Iraqi insurgency had reached its bloody crescendo of suicide bombings and assassination attempts -- "the moment the United States invaded the way it did, and occupied the nation as boorishly as it did, the outcome couldn't have been any different than it is now" (Tristam).

Although the preponderance of evidence clearly demonstrates that nation building in Iraq proved to be a disastrous military strategy, legitimate signs of progress have emerged from the wreckage of the Middle East which show that nation building, if performed in strict moderation, may provide tangible benefits for native populations while serving wider national security interests. As respected national columnist David Brooks wrote in an op-ed published by The New York Times, "it's hard to know what role the scattershot American development projects have played, but this year Iraq will have the 12th-fastest-growing economy in the world, and it is expected to grow at a 7% annual clip for the next several years" (2010), and this economic growth is surely an encouraging sign that America's sacrifices may not have been wholly in vain. Brooks goes on to observe that "there has been substantial progress on the things development efforts can touch most directly: economic growth, basic security, and political and legal institutions & #8230; (and) after the disaster of the first few years, nation building, much derided, has been a success" (2010). While this bold statement may not be entirely accurate, the sentiment of Brooks' message must be appreciated, because there will no doubt be instances in the future which require the nation building efforts of America's humanitarian arm. The earthquake-ravaged island of Haiti, for example, remains in desperate need of the same infrastructure repair, sanitation and other nation building exercises which only seem to be directed to restore damage caused by our own application of military force.

Sincerely Yours, A Concerned Advisor

Works Cited

Babbin, Jed. "Iraq in the Rearview Mirror." American Spectator. 22 Dec 2011: Web. 27

Oct. 2013. .

Brooks, David. "Nation Building Works." New York Times. 30 Aug 2010, A2. Web. 27 Oct.

2013. .

Jonas, George . "Nation-building would be great, if it were possible." National Post [Toronto,

Ontario] 07 July 2010: Web. 27 Oct. 2013.


Kurth, James. "Humanitarian Intervention After Iraq: Legal Ideals vs. Military Realities." Orbis. Winter. (2005): 87-101. Print.

Tristam, Pierre. "Nation-Building Fuels Civil Destruction." Nation Building:…… [read more]

Action Has President Obama Proposed Essay

… 19).


Who are antagonists who oppose the president's proposal and why?

Clearly, Syrian President Assad is opposed to President Obama's proposal because it will hamper his efforts to overcome the opposition forces arrayed against him. Russian President Putin, Syria's long-time sponsor and China also oppose U.S. intervention, along with many members of the U.S. Congress, and popular opinion in the U.S. And the rest of the world against further military adventurism by the U.S. anywhere in the Middle East or Northern Africa as part of its global war on terrorism.


Where do you stand regarding the president's proposal and why?

The horrors of chemical warfare on the battlefields of World War I were so severe that even as the world continued research and development into improved ordnance and munitions otherwise, the international community came together to outlaw the use of these weapons in the future. In reality, though, dead combatants do not know what killed them and it seems disingenuous to develop rules of niceties concerning how to wage war in the post-September 11, 2001 age. It is reasonable to conclude that if hordes of North Koreans and Chinese soldiers came pouring into the United States and all other means of repelling them had been exhausted, the citizens of the United States would be very much in favor of using chemical weapons to save themselves and their homeland against these foreign invaders as a last resort. Even in the Syrian context, 2,000 casualties as the result of chemical weapons pales in comparison to the more than 100,000 people who have already been killed, and these deaths simply went unnoticed by the international community until an arbitrary red line had been crossed.


Grier, P. (2013, April 26). Syria chemical weapons: Where did they come from? The Christian

Science Monitor, 37.

Mulrine, A. (2013, April 26). Syria chemical weapons: Pentagon weighs evidence, plans response. The Christian Science Monitor, 19.

Shoichet, C.E. & Watkins, T. (2013, August 31). Strike against Syria?…… [read more]

Revolution in Egypt_ Modern Citizens Article Review

… Under the emergency law political activists were imprisoned without trial in illegal and undocumented detention facilities, and newspaper staff members rejected based on their political affiliation. Police brutality was also a factor that led to the social revolution in Egypt. Police before the revolution perpetuated torture and abuse. The Ministry of Interior, State Security Investigative Service (SSIS), police, and other government agencies presided over torture to extract information and force confession. Bloggers used social media to post videos of police officers sodomizing a bound naked woman. This infuriated the general public. Law enforcement agencies on many instances used excessive on unarmed public. Finally, corruption, coercion not to vote, manipulation of election results, and demographic and economic challenges also contributed to the Egypt's social revolution. Mubarak was the only candidate to run for election up to the year 2005. As was suggested earlier in this paper social media is not the only factor that fuelled the social revolution in Egypt. Other factors included moral reasoning, clutter, and the social movement model of unconventional warfare (UW).

Coming to the level of clutter in Egypt, it appears that the information that was disseminated in the run up to the Egyptian revolution was not receptive to the targeted audience. The recipients of the information were so vulnerable to an extent that information they received was deemed credible no matter the source. The government's attempt at closing Twitter and Bambuser never helped the situation as the general public resorted to using proxies to tweet.

Moral behavior also sparked social revolution in Egypt (Myyry, 2003). Egyptians after enduring 30 years of repression finally gained a moral standing. They were resolute that they had to break with the past where police brutality, corruption, and repressive laws were the norm. They wanted to shape their destiny by taking part in free and fair elections.

As opposed to the widely held belief that social media was the reason behind the Egyptian social movement, social media only funned the revolution 'fire'. The actual causes of the Egyptian Revolution were the moral reasoning, clutter, and the social movement model of unconventional warfare (UW). These are factors that have seldom been mentioned by writers delving into causes of the Egyptian social movement. Egyptians were desperate for any peace of information regardless of how credible it was. After Hosni Mubarak's 30-year rule Egyptians gained a moral standing and were resolute that they had to do away with police brutality, corruption, and repressive laws.

References List

Aziz, M.A. & Hussein, Y. (2002). The President, the Son, and the Military: Succession in Egypt.

Arab Studies Journal, 9(10), 73 -- 88.

Gladwell, M. (2002). Tipping Point: How Little Things Can Make a Big Difference. New York:

Back Bay Books.

Krebs, V. (2006). It's the Conversation Stupid: The Link between Social Interaction and Political Choice. Retrieved from 28

McAdam, D. (2003). Beyond Structural Analysis in Social Movements and Networks: Relational

Approaches to Collective Action. New York: Oxford University Press.

Myyry, L. (2003). Components of Morality: A… [read more]

Public Opinion to American Foreign Policy Term Paper

… ¶ … Public Opinion to American Foreign Policy Towards Iran

Why Iran is important to U.S.

The United State's reign as the preeminent global superpower has traditionally been challenged by nondemocratic nations predicated on a distinct ideological objective, from the European domination of Nazi Germany in World War II to the encroachment of Communism by the Soviet Union during the Cold War. Today, with America locked in a prolonged struggle against the threat of radicalized Islam, the Islamic Republic of Iran has emerged as the most potent opposition to the U.S. foreign policy agenda. The relationship between the U.S. And Iran has always been tumultuous at best, and openly hostile at worst, with the conflict stemming from the 1953 overthrow of Iran's democratically elected Shah Dr. Mohammad Mosaddegh, and the subsequent installation of Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi to facilitate American and British interests in the region. When the puppet government of America's chosen Shah was overthrown in 1979, the Iranian Revolution led by Islamic fundamentalist Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini signaled the beginning of a decades-long standoff between the two countries.

Among the many points of contention between American and Iranian leadership are latter's overt efforts to procure nuclear capabilities, ostensibly for energy reasons, because the world rightfully fears a fanatical government obtaining nuclear weaponry. Iran's stated goal of obliterating Israel, which is America's strongest ally in the Middle East, has also exacerbated the hostilities, with both sides engaging in political posturing to maintain their status.

According to a recent policy analysis conducted by the John F. Kennedy School of Government at Harvard University, "three core issues are at stake here: Iran's right to develop nuclear technology for verifiably peaceful purposes; Israeli concerns that an Iranian nuclear bomb would be an existential threat, which Israel will never allow to happen; and, Western fears of Iran's military power,…… [read more]

American Public Opinion Toward Iran Literature Review

… Realism and Liberalism in U.S. Foreign Policy Towards Iran

One of the longer international conflicts in recent history is the perpetual state of conflict which has existed between the United States and Iran, a revamped Cold War of ideological rivals… [read more]

Gasoline Prices -- Oil Issues Essay

… Gasoline Prices -- Oil Issues

What was Peyton Feltus referring to (in the article by Elizabeth Souder) when he said the word "shortage" conjures up "images for us older folks of the old days of the 70s…"?

What Feltus was alluding to was the 1973 Arab oil embargo -- carried out by the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) -- that had a profound impact on transportation in the U.S. And caused sharp political responses from the United States toward the Arab states. The embargo was basically a political tactic by the Muslim states to punish the U.S. And other Western countries (including the Netherlands) that were supporting Israel in the Yom Kippur War of October 1973.

To understand the background for the OPEC Oil Embargo it is important first to relate to the reasons for the attack on Israel by Egypt and Syria. The OPEC nations (Saudi Arabia, Algeria, Bahrain, Egypt, Iraq, Kuwait, Libya, Qatar and Syria) used the power of their oil in October 1973 during the Yom Kippur War, which was launched against Israel by Egypt and Syria (who were not in OPEC at that time). The reason for the attack on Israel was to force Israel to withdraw from the territories they had occupied since the 1967 war. The Yom Kippur war started on the 6th of October, according to the History Learning Site. That is the holiest day of the year in the Jewish faith; Yom Kippur is "The day of Atonement" -- a day of prayer and fasting -- and apparently Egypt and Syria thought they could catch the Israeli military forces by surprise.

The war began with an estimated 1,400 Syrian tanks faced off against 150 Israeli tanks on the Golan Heights; in the Suez region, the History Learning Site claims that there were only 500 Israeli soldiers against an estimated 80,000 Egyptian troops. Other nations in that region helped the Arab cause (Libya gave money and weapons to Egypt; Iraq donated MIG fighter planes; Tunisia, Sudan and Morocco joined in the war by supporting Egypt and Syria) and by October 8, Israeli troops began to push back and turn the tide. Reportedly the reason the Israeli military was able to attack and repel the aggression -- besides the fact…… [read more]

Suffering in Night and Mornings Book Report

… The presence of my teachers, my friends, my companions…" (Wiesel 118). Throughout the entirety of the book, Elie suffers. Many Holocaust survivors struggled after they were liberated, unsure how to go on with daily life after being subjected to such horrible treatment. The greatest suffering Elie experiences is arguable the loss of his father, but it might also be the loss of his belief in God. He says, "I suffer hell in my soul and my flesh. I also have eyes and I see what is being done here. Where is God's mercy? Where's God" (Wiesel 77). After witnessing and experiencing all that he has, young Elie can no longer believe in God because, he reasons, no all-powerful God would allow all of this.

Susan Abulhawa's novel tells of a different kind of suffering. Her book is about the Palestinians and how they suffered after being removed from the land which would become Israel. Mornings in Jenin is about how the Palestinians were made to suffer by the Israelis such as one instance where a death is caused unfairly. She writes, "How was it that a man could not walk onto his own property, visit the grave of his wife, eat the fruits of forty generations of his ancestors' toil, without moral consequence?" (Abulhawa 48). Other atrocities are committed against the main character and her family members which is meant to symbolize all the horrors committed against all the Palestinians, including the kidnapping of a Palestinian boy by an Israeli soldier and a myriad of other abuses levied at the Palestinian refugees.

Suffering is a universal thing. Everyone everywhere will experience it at some point. Some people will experience death or poverty or starvation, all of which are forms of abject suffering. For the people described in these two books, their suffering was greater than most people's. By witnessing what is discusses here, it becomes clear that even though these books talk about very different people, places, and times, the ability to suffer is the same and the way people handle to that pain is also the same.

Works Cited

Abulhawa, Susan. Mornings in Jenin: A Novel. New York: Bloomsbury, 2010. Print.

Wiesel, Elie. Night.…… [read more]

Iraq Research Paper

… Iraq is one of the most renowned countries in Western Asia, partly due to the recent war that took place there and partly because of the fact that it is positioned in the Ancient land of Mesopotamia. In spite of its power, its stability has been threatened through the years because of religious tension and because its leaders have trouble promoting a single type of political ideology.

Iraq's capital is in Baghdad and it contains around 7,216, 040 people and it is the largest city in the 31 million people country. Arabic and Kurdish dominate most of the country, with minorities representing a very small proportion of the country's inhabitants. "Today more than three-quarters of Iraqis are Arabs, at least 15% are Kurds, and the rest include Turkomans, Persians, and Assyrians" (Hassig & Al Adely, 51). Jal Talabany is the country's current President and it is curious that in spite of the country's demographics he is the first non-Arab ruler. Shia Muslims represent the majority, but they are generally regarded as being inferior to Sunni Muslims. The country is mostly Muslim and there are very few individuals worshiping other religions there.

Iraq is a Western Asian country bordering Iran to the east, Jordan to the southwest, Kuwait and Saudi Arabia in the south, Syria in the northwest, and Turkey in the north. The country opens to the Persian Gulf and its coastline is very narrow, taking into account that it only measures 36 miles of coast. Similar to the ancient Mesopotamians, Iraq thrived through time because it was located near two of the principal rivers in Western Asia, Tigris and Euphrates. In contrast to many countries in Western Asia, its positioning means that it has an advantage, as the country is generally surrounded by barren lands. The country's land area can be compared with the U.S. state of California, given that it is about 166,859 square miles.

Faisal bin Hussein bin Ali al-Hashemi was king of Iraq from 1921 until 1933 and he expressed particular interest in removing discrimination from within the country's borders. In spite of his efforts, he achieved little success because foreign influence prevented the country's inhabitants from understanding the significance of being united. Saddam Hussein is certainly one of the most controversial characters in the country's history. The leader's authority could be observed ever since the early 1970s, when he "was widely recognized as the power behind President al-Bakr, who after 1977 was little more than a figurehead" (Etheredge,…… [read more]

Technologies, Modern Media Term Paper

… Computer processes have made it all the easier for piracy to transpire (Deibert 2010,-page 55). Though the process of piracy is illegal, the economic growth in Nigeria that was brought about by the widespread criminality was able to create a legitimate film industry which is now allowing for legal creation and distribution of material (Larkin 2004,-page 290). Larkin argues that in this country, the influence of the western world has not only improved the economic standing of what had been a financially endangered nation, but also was directly linked to the creation of a new industry in Nigeria.

As the technologies continue to progress and new ones are developed, there is going to be further cultural interaction and a culture will either develop negatively in response to the foreign influence such as in Saudi Arabia, or positively such as in Nigeria (Benkler 2011,-page 155). The two articles are from entirely different perspectives and each is compelling in its argument. Of the two, the Larkin article seems to be more convincing, but this may be in no small part due to my own cultural influences. Being a part of western culture, I am more likely to believe that the influence of the western world is a beneficial world. Also, being part of this culture influences the gender normative in which I believe, which is that women should be treated equally and thus I will not see the arguments against female agency as a problem and wish the Saudi Arabians would change their entire social structure. Cultural homogenization is a problem according to the Saudi Arabians, a point which is agreed to by John Tomlinson (1995). While it is true that there needs to be individuality in cultural identity, certain influences are not necessarily bad things.

The two articles disagree as to how the influence of western cultures will alter or affect the nation which interacts with the western world. Saudi Arabia and their government have resisted the influences of the west and have violently protested any culture contributions which might be western in origin. Nigeria on the other hand has benefited greatly from the western influence.

Works Cited:

Benklar, Y. (2011). Wikileaks and the Protect-IP Act: a new public-private threat to the internet commons. Daedalus, the Journal of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. 154-64.

Deibert, R. & Rohozinski, R. (2010). Liberation vs. control in cyberspace. Journal of Democracy. (21:4). 43-57.

Kraidy, M. (2009). Reality television, gender, and authenticity in Saudi Arabia. Journal of Communication. International Communication Association. 59, 345-66.

Larkin, B. (2004). Degraded images, distorted sounds: Nigerian video and the infrastructure of piracy. Public…… [read more]

Canada Iran Diplomatic Conflict Research Paper

… Canada-Iran

On September 7, 2012, Canadian Foreign Minister John Baird announced that the country was closing its embassy in Tehran, and the Iranian embassy in Ottawa. The move signified a cessation of the ties between Canada and Iran, and was… [read more]

Communication Term Paper

… Although biting, this response was directly related to the Romney comments and the sarcasm is clearly understood by the American audience.

4. Romney's comments about Israel and Palestine reveals ignorance as well as insensitivity to the issues at stake. Romney grossly oversimplified the causes of income disparity in the Middle East.

c) What advice would make to improve multicultural communication?

To improve multicultural communication, it is crucial to refrain from making unnecessary judgments or criticisms. Especially when visiting a host nation, respect is key. Learning about the host country and its culture is the second most important step in improving multicultural communication. What Romney did both in London and in Jerusalem is to impose his personal values on other cultures. He is neither British nor Israeli and has no basis upon which to make his comments. Instead of criticism, Romney could have offered complements.

The first and most important step to multicultural communication is knowledge: learning about the history and context of cultures. Second, humility plays an important role in effective multicultural communication. Coming from a place of, "I don't know that, so please teach me," helps to prevent misunderstandings and enables multiple parties to find common ground. Third, it is best to avoid, rather than cultivate, antagonism. Misunderstandings may arise even with the best of intentions. However, with an attitude that is positive and supportive, miscues can be avoided.


Hunt, K. & Laub, K. (2012). "Mitt Romney Comments At Fundraiser Outrage Palestinians."

"Mitt…… [read more]

Media Devices Are Particularly Influential Term Paper

… As the U.S. presidential elections are closing in more and more individuals start to express their opinion concerning the nominees. Bradley Burston's article relates to Mitt Romney, a person who, from the writer's perspective, seems much more qualified to be a president in comparison to the present U.S. leader, Barack Obama. This particular article is influential because it emphasizes a series of Romney's abilities with the purpose of having readers understand that they are facing a future president who is actually capable to put across behavior characteristic to an U.S. leader.

Romney's interaction with Israel was rather different from collaborations between former U.S. presidents and the state. It appears that his feelings were more genuine and that he was hesitant about putting across the feeling that he was fully committed to assisting Israel. His attitude was most probably owed to the fact that he did not want people to think that he had the tendency to put across propaganda with the purpose of influencing people in appreciating him. Although the article paints a perfect picture of Romney as a president, it is difficult for readers to understand whether they should support this candidate or not. People in the contemporary society are in search of perfection and are often inclined to support unjust individuals simply because they have what it takes to make the masses feel that they are perfect.

According to Burston, Romney is different from other candidates because he is unwilling to pose as the likeable individual. Instead, he wants to be a just president that has the ability to assist individuals from around the world, regardless of their status or of their relationship with him. The writer obviously wanted readers to sympathize with Romney and to express interest in supporting him at the next presidential elections and thus focused on painting the picture of a moral person that is not necessarily interested in public image. Judging from Burston's article, it appears that Romney is more concerned about helping the world than he is about promoting his image as a 'friendly' president.

Works cited:

Burston, Bradley, "Romney, a subdued pilgrim, walks a wary line in Jerusalem," Retrieved July 31, 2012, from the CNN Website:

"Deja Vu All Over Again? Iraq's Escalating Political Crisis," Retrieved July 31, 2012, from the International Crisis Group Website:… [read more]

Iran Country Assessment -- Economic Research Paper

… [10: CIA. 2012. The World Fact book -- Iran. Online, available from Internet, accessed July 17th, 2012.]

Physical Resources

Natural Resources:

Iran has been bestowed with rich natural resources in the form of lands, forests, minerals, natural gas and oil products, etc. In its rich agri land, Iran grows a number of food products; including wheat, rice, wool, cotton, fruits, sugarcane, and dry fruits. The excess quantities of these products are exported to other countries.


Iran exports oil and natural gas, chemical and petrochemical products, and fruits to China, Japan, Turkey, Italy, Spain, South Korea, and India. China is currently the biggest export partner of Iran by taking more than 19% of its export commodities. Iran's total exports for the year 2011 were $131.8 billion as compared to $107.5 billion in 2010.


On the other hand, Iran imports capital goods, technological services, consumer goods, and food products from China, Germany, UAE, Turkey, Italy, and South Korea. The country's imports for the year 2011 were $76.1 billion as compared to the previous year's $70 billion. China and UAE are the largest import partners of Iran[footnoteRef:11]. [11: The Library of Congress. 2012. Country Studies: Iran. Online, available from Internet, accessed July 17th, 2012.]

Electricity and Oil products:

The Electricity production of the country is 212.8 billion kWh while consumption is 206.7 billion kWh. Iran has exported its electricity worth 6.15 billion kWh in 2011. Iran is the 4th largest producer of oil and gas products with production level of 4.252 million barrels per day. The daily consumption of the oil products is only 1.845 million barrels which shows that Iran has much excess oil resources to export to other countries. In 2011, Iran exported 2.523 million barrels per day of its oil products.

Natural Gas:

The second most excessive resource which Iran has is the natural gas. But the level of production hardly matches the local consumption; thus natural gas contributes a minor portion to the total exports of the country. The natural gas exports of the country are 7.87 billion cu m in 2010 whereas its imports are 6.9 billion cu m[footnoteRef:12].

[12: CIA. 2012. The World Fact book -- Iran. Online, available from Internet, accessed July 17th, 2012.]


CIA. 2012. The World Fact book -- Iran. Online, available from Internet, accessed July 17th, 2012.

The Heritage Foundation. 2012. 2012 Index of Economic Freedom. Online, available from Internet, accessed July 17th, 2012.

World Bank. 2012. Iran at a Glance. Online, available from Internet accessed July 17th, 2012.

The Library of Congress. 2012. Country Studies: Iran. Online, available from Internet, accessed July 17th, 2012.

Iran Tracker. 2012. Afghanistan-Iran Foreign…… [read more]

Syria Current Conflict Essay

… Opposition to the regime has been unusually strident, even from members of the Arab and Muslim world. Syria was expelled from the Arab League after it failed to observe the terms of an UN-backed peace agreement. Jordan and Turkey, and the Arab League members have publicly condemned the regime's oppression. The United Nations General Assembly also condemned Syria's oppression of dissents in February 2012 (Syria news, 2012, The New York Times). There are hopeful signs of organized civilian resistance to the regime. "A general strike in Damascus called to protest the recent massacres have also proved surprisingly successful" (Bloomfield & Sherlock 2012).

The year-long conflict has left 10,000 dead (Syria news, 2012, The New York Times). Unlike Libya, where the opposition was fairly organized, Syria has continued to devolve into sectarian violence beyond that of the regime vs. The insurgents. The Sunni majority opposes the Alawite minority, which is itself divided, internally within the Assad government. However, familial and other sectarian rivalries currently prevent an organized, effective opposition to the regime, causing international authorities to fear that a Bosnia-like situation might occur, with no end in sight to the warfare. Recently, "government tanks opened fire in central Damascus for the first time in the 15-month uprising against President Bashar al-Assad this weekend" (Bloomfield & Sherlock 2012). Talk about an international intervention has been quelled by staunch Russian and Chinese opposition. The Russians have long been military backers of Assad, and have been much-criticized for preventing international intervention until now. However, if the violence continues, such intervention may prove to be inevitable.


Bloomfield, Adam & Ruth Sherlock. (2012). Syrian rebels take battle to heart of Damascus.

The Telegraph. Retrieved:

McFarquhar, Nick. (2012). After a year, deep divisions hobble Syrian opposition.

The New York Times. Retrieved:

Syria news. (2012). The New York Times. The New York Times. Retrieved:… [read more]

Genocide the Second Most Studied Research Paper

… The result was to portray Armenians as hostile to Turkish interests and the genocide as a conflict between the Turks and a potential oppressor in which both sides suffered casualties (Ulgen, 2010). The importance of Kemalism, as Ulgen refers to… [read more]

Social Memory Societies Across the Planet Essay

… Social Memory

Societies across the planet all experience a phenomenon that has been called "social memory," and involves the idea that the past can be shaped and remembered in a way that is shared by those involved as well as those who come later. The idea of social memory is at the heart of this weeks readings; including a definition of social memory and how it functions, how it can be used to support and strengthen the state, how it can be used to form the basis for a society, and finally how it can be overcome to include parts of the past that society has chosen to forget.

As a concept, "social memory" is not something that each individual maintains inside their own head, but it "exclusively exists between subjects and not within them; its form of existence consists of communication." (Welzer, 2010, p.5) in other words, it is what people are expected to remember in public, while they interact with others. One example of this type of phenomenon took place in Spain after its civil war. In order to maintain power and stability, the atrocities committed by the Nationalists under Franco had been erased from the social memory for decades. In the case of nations, "this phenomenon is quite common when the construction of the state and national identity calls for highlighting patriotism, victory, and cohesion, on one hand, and for concealing uncomfortable episodes, especially those related to violence, on the other." (Cenarro, 2002, p.3) Social memory was used in Spain as a means of maintaining Franco's power by rewriting history and imposing this rewritten history on the people.

While social memory can be used as a means of repression, it can also be used to create a new cultural identity; as in the case of the Palestinians. What the Palestinians refer the "Nakba," or the loss of their traditional homeland when the state of Israel came into existence, has become the basis of their social memory. But unlike the Spanish, the Palestinians have maintained a social memory that remembers "every tree, every stone fence, every grave, house, mosque, every street and village square [the refugees] left behind." (Allen, 2007, p.2) Instead of removing unpleasant memories from the social memory, the Palestinians have used these painful episodes as a means of social cohesion in the face of the social destruction experienced in their flight from their homeland and their new life in the refugee camps.

But this kind of memory is limited to the experiences of the people involved. As time goes by, and new generations…… [read more]

African Athena Controversy Term Paper

… African Athena

Everyone who has gone to school has heard the term "Western Civilization;" but what exactly is it and from where did it originate. Western Civilization is the culture that has arisen in the territory known as Europe, as… [read more]

Islamic Art History Term Paper

… Islamic Art: Descriptions of the Monuments of the Middle East

The following paragraphs will describe, in detail, a few of the monuments scattered all over the Middle East and areas of Turkey.

Sultaniyaa - A mausoleum built in the 14th century, and is possibly the mausoleum of Sultan Hasan's mother. This mausoleum, according to researchers, is an example of the characteristic ribbed stones from between 1346 to about 1400 in the region of the former Kingdom of Persia. Furthermore, the mausoleum has characteristic domes of the period, which have double shells, and which is a characteristic of a development in Persia. (Retrieved from

Great Mongol Shahnama - This is the most elaborate and luxurious manuscript of the Book of Kings or Shahnama, which is known today as the Great Mongol Shahnama. This book today has only 57 illustrations and some pages of text surviving, and these are, at best, scattered. The entire manuscript, however, as an original, would have had over two volumes of 280 pages of text and 190 illustrations. (Retrieved from

Complex of Sultan Qalawun - This sultan's complex was built in the 19th century in Cairo and contains a hospital, a madrasa, and a mausoleum for its founder, the sultan himself. According to descriptions the street facade of the complex shows confluence of Syrian (Crusader and Islamic) arrangements. The madrasa is "a four-iwan type with a basilical organization in the qiblai wan," and the Dome of the mausoleum "echoes the octagonal plan of the Dome of the Rock." (Retrieved from

Madrasa of Sultan Hassan - The Sultan Hassan Mosque and Madrasa, meaning school, is a Cairo-based monument. The building was constructed for the Sultan in the 13th century, and was built to serve as a mosque and religious school for all sects. It was, furthermore, said to have been designed so that "each of the four main Sunni sects (orthodox Muslim, or Sunni rites, consisting of Shafite, Malikite, Hanefte and Hanbalite) has its own school while sharing the mosque," according to a description of the complex, which also emphasizes the architectural wonders of the structure. (Retrieved from

Suleymaniye Complex - This is a mosque built for Sultain Suleyman I of the Ottoman Empire. It was constructed from 1548-1559, and serves several functions including education. (Retrieved from

Topkapi…… [read more]

Krik Krat and Persepolis Essay

… He took one last glance at Guy's bloody corpse, then raced to his car and sped away (Danticat78).

This passage illustrates the figurative significance of the conflict of cultures that is present in "A Wall of Fire Rising." Despite the fact that a native Haitian has just killed himself due to conditions of poverty that are caused by people such as Assad and his family who own large operating plants and land and do not equally distribute such wealth among the native people of that area, Assad's only concern in his hot air balloon -- which is, for all effective purposes, a toy. The contrast between Guy's bloody body and Assad's speeding off in a car (something few Haitians have) to go chase a toy reinforces Guy's loss of will to live that stems from the cultural conflict between the poor Haitians and their wealthy outsiders.

In conclusion, an examination of the works of Danticat and Satrapi elucidate the fact that culture is highly important to people, and that conflicts of culture lead to fairly significant losses to those who are embroiled in clashes of culture. Whether its personal liberty and the desire to keep living for women in Iran in the 1970's and 1980's, or if it's the desire to keep enduring a state of poverty while rich foreigners capitalize on the suffering of the poor in Haiti, those in the throes of conflict of culture have much to lose. They also have as much, if not more, to gain by surviving these problems and overcoming them. However, this fact may seem a little difficult to realize at times.

Works Cited

Danticat, Edwidge. Krik? Krak! New York: Vintage. 1996. Print.

Satrapi, Marjane. The Complete Perseopolis. New YorkL Pantheon. 2007. Print.… [read more]

Rational Choice Theory -- Obama White Paper

… S. can do to stop Israel. But a war between Israel and Iran would be a major distraction for the West, and as John Scott points out, human behavior "is not free but determined" -- and it is shaped by the "rewards and punishments that are encountered."

In this case, Obama assumes that by getting tough on Iran -- punishing their economy -- there will be rewards for the West, for the U.S. And Israel, America's ally in the Middle East. "Each participant's behavior rewards or punishes the other," Scott writes (12), and Obama's use of his authority is designed to punish and then receive a reward.

What risk did [Obama] take in making his decision? He risks oil shortages that could cause gasoline prices to go up still more, and in an election year that hurts his chances for re-election. He also risks angering other Muslim countries in that region; many leaders in the Muslim world see the U.S. As a bully, pushing its ideology on others. Obama's decision is basically an economic one, but it has powerful political implications, and that is always risky. Do I have complete information to determine Obama's rational choice? No, there are always behind-the-scenes issues an administration takes into account. But Homans' view that "approval is the most fundamental goal" in RCT fits well into this rational choice Obama has made. He needs the approval of voters, and getting tough on a country that is unpopular and even feared by Americans achieves that goal. Obama probably understands that he is only stalling the inevitable: that Iran will build a nuclear bomb some day, because they have drilled tunnels deep into mountains to protect their nuclear program from attacks from the air.

Nathan Hodge and Tennille Tracy, "Obama Clears Sanctions Against Iran," The Wall Street Journal (2012).

Max Weber, "Conceptual Exposition," In Economy and Society Ed. G. Roth and C. Wittich (1968).

John Scott, "Rational Choice Theory," in Understanding Contemporary Society: Theories of the Present, Eds. G. Browning, A. Halcli, and F. Webster (Sage Publications, 2000).

George Homans, "A Psychological Basis?" In Understanding Contemporary Society: Theories of the Present, Eds. A. Halcli, and…… [read more]

Construction Industry in Iran Current Problems and Possible Solutions Literature Review

… Construction Industry in Iran

Over the last several years, Iran has been going through a number of challenges. The main reason is from large increases in younger population groups. At the same time, efforts by the government to address increasing… [read more]

Cinematic Image of the Sabra Term Paper

… Instead, there was an emphasis upon the newly powerful state, moving into a future, free of the former threats the Jewish population had endured due to its vulnerable status in Europe. The establishment of Israel was seen as the triumph… [read more]

Implications of the Invasion of Iraq for International Law Essay

… ¶ … Invasion of Iraq for International Law

Over the last 150 years, international law was often seen as a way for different nation states to be able to collectively deal with a host of challenges. This is when James Kent (a prominent political scientist) said, "A comprehensive and scientific knowledge of international law is highly necessary, not only for lawyers practicing in commercial ports. But, to every person who is animated by liberal views and a generous ambition to assume stations of high public trust." As a result, these kinds of theories were given more importance after the end of World War I and the realization that the current structure was ineffective. This would lead the creation of the League of Nations as a way to effectively deal with a host of disputes. (Slomanson 290)

However, it was ineffective in addressing the challenges facing the international community by allowing the conditions to exist for Germany to re militarize (resulting in World War II). Since this time, there have been various treaties enacted that are designed to create a new standard that will hold all nations accountable for their actions. To enforce these different regulations was the creation of organizations such as the United Nations. They have the responsibility for ensuring that anyone who is in violation of these standards is held accountable for their behavior. (Slomanson 1 -- 45)

In the late 1990's and early 2000's, is when Iraq was considered to be in violation of international law when it came to WMD programs. As they had claimed, that they did not have anything beyond the scope of international guidelines. This created suspicion in the international community, as no one knew for sure if Saddam Hussein (the President of Iraq) was telling the truth. The reason why, is because he had been continuing to allow UN inspectors to have limited access on suspected facilities. At the same time, he was continually taking a defiant tone when it came to these programs. This created suspicions that Iraq was secretly building a nuclear bomb and that they had re developed the programs for chemical / biological weapons. (Tirman 101-124) (O'Connell 1 -- 19)

In the United States, this raised concerns that Iraq could pass materials from these kinds of programs to terrorist organizations. To prevent this from happening, the U.S. And Great Britain went to the UN Security Council outlining the different reasons for an invasion. The most notable include that Iraq has continually violated the directives of 16 UN Security Council Resolutions. In 2002, the Security Council had unanimously passed one final resolution called 1441. This specifically asked Iraq to comply with their directives and those of previous resolutions. (Tirman 25 -- 39)

However, the problem is that the world community was largely divided about the legality surrounding the invasion itself. This is because, there are a host of questions as to if the U.S. had justification to engage in such actions. Evidence of this can be seen with the… [read more]

Iran's Global Reach the Degree Research Paper

… It is also noteworthy to mention that on more than one occasion, these "branches" of Iranian intelligence have assisted in the combatting of traditional U.S. allies such as Israel, particularly when the largely Jewish country was engaged in war with Hezbollah militants during 2006. "Israeli defense experts state that...the IRGC and Quds force…may have assisted… during the Israeli-Hezbollah War…Israeli intelligence officers claim to have found command and control centers…of Iranian design" (Cordesman 2007, 10). This quotation demonstrates that in an indirect capacity, Iranian forces have been involved in military operations in countries allied to the United States, which gives credence to the notion that it is possible for those forces to gather intelligence about the U.S. However, the highly indirect nature of both the presence and the location of where this intelligence may be gathered (far from American borders) leaves a significant room for doubt as to the effectiveness of such intelligence -- while alluding to the fact that such measures could be increased if there was a direct need for it.

In fact, there is other evidence that indicates that the gathering of intelligence directly pertaining to U.S. information is a top priority for the IRGC and Iran's army, both of which have "attempted to deal with U.S. signals and communications intelligence collection capabilities by making extensive use of buried fiber optics and secure communications and developing more secure ways to use the internet and landlines" (Cordesman 2007, 5). These initiatives are directly related to the ascertaining of U.S. intelligence, as well as the protection of Iranian communication from the detection of American intelligence operatives. Furthermore, it has been widely noted that the Quds has been fairly instrumental in anti-American activities in Iraq, by supplying explosives and other forms of weapon to counter-U.S. militants (Shane 2007). This act is significant because it not only demonstrates a history of anti-American aggression on the part of the Quds, but when examined in concert with the counter-U.S. measures induced by the IRGC in preceding quotation, it directly implies an adversarial perception of the U.S. By these organizations as well as opportunities and means to gather intelligence about this North American nation.

In conclusion, then, it has been suitably demonstrated that there certainly is a substantial capacity for Iran's intelligence agency, MOIS, by utilizing its own resources and those of its allies, IRGC and the Quds force, to ascertain intelligence about America -- especially if provoked to do so due to U.S. intervention in Iran's nuclear weaponry. As long as that potential exists, the U.S. has every right to measure Iranian intelligence. Yet the effectiveness of the intelligence gathered about the U.S. is certainly not as efficacious as that gathered about its allies in regions closer to the Middle East, and is still largely ascertained in a fairly indirect capacity that substantially compromises its value. Despite the presence of anti-American forces in the form of Quds operation (Associated Press 2007), at this point there is not enough information to warrant the notion that… [read more]

Saladin and the Muslim Identity Research Paper

… Saladin and the Muslim Identity


In the western community, there is a tendency driven by political, cultural and ideological differences to demonize or dismiss many of the leaders of the modern Muslim community as being warlike and resistant to modernization. It is thus that there is a particular value in understanding the role that the great warrior Saladin played in the evolving identity of the people of Islam. Indeed, in Saladin's leadership and resistance to the European Crusades in the name of Jesus, it is possible to better understand the perception of radicalized Muslim leaders as freedom fighters and political revolutionaries. Certainly, the model for this perspective is found in the life and legacy of Saladin.

Saladin would be, after Muhammad, the first of the great political figures in the development of Islam. According to Lane-Poole (2007) Saladin was born in Mesopotamia, which is now modern-day Iraq, in 1138 and lived until 1193. Born of Kurdish ethnicity to a warrior family. His father and uncle, Lane-Poole reports, were both soldiers and yet, evidence suggests, Saladin would be blessed with an extensive education and a great interest in religion. It was only under the duress of the real conflict that Saladin emerged to warrior status himself. (Lane-Poole, Ch. V)

In particular, his leadership would emerge at a time when the Muslim faith was under its greatest survival challenge to that point. The English and European feudal armies that connected themselves to the patronage of the Christian Church had begun to spread their influence throughout the Middle East by way of the violent Crusades. These were intended to either convert all of those who did not adhere to the Christian faith or to punish their heresy with death. Into the face of these challenges, the Mesopotamia-born (modern-day Iraq) Saladin inserted himself both in sharp political strategy and in tenacious military leadership. Accordingly, Walker (2010) reports that "in the late 12th century he succeeded in uniting various parts of the Middle East and Mesopotamia and in overtaking the Christian armies of the early crusades through a combination of shrewd diplomacy and decisive attacks." (Walker, p. 1)

Indeed, as the…… [read more]

Compare and Contrast the Arguments Made by Walt Friedman and Nayan Essay

… Walt, Friedman and Nayan.

Stephen. M.Walt (2010) says that he was among the realists who opposed the United States involvement in Vietnam on strategic rather than moral ground and also opposed the Iraq war in 2003.

Walt finds it odd that many academicians see realism as a hawkish view of world politics and thinks that realists are big fans of using military power at the expense of others.

Walt argues that the invasion of Afghanistan in 2002 was not the only past cold war military operations that realists supported. He says that most realists supported Desert storm, the 1991 liberation of Kuwait and even giving the most optimistic pre- war forecasts of how easy that war was likely to be while the doves and surprising number of hawks seemed to think that getting Saddam from Kuwait was going to be very hard.

Walt also argue that realists supported Desert storm for good balance of power reason because if Saddam had conquered Kuwait permanently, its GDP would have increased by 40% and it could have translated the additional wealth into additional military power. Although Saddam's machines were never impressive by U.S. standards, stronger Iraq might have posed a more serious long-term threat to the regional balance in the gulf and presented a more serious threat to Saudi- Arabia in particular.

He also says that it was right decision for them not to go back to Baghdad because toppling Saddam would have dragged them into precisely the same quagmire they have been dealing with since they invaded in 2003.

Walt says that since United States has always sought to prevent any single power from dominating this oil rich region, it strategized good by expelling Iraq from Kuwait and to degrade its military power in the process of which most of the rest of the world agreed and that's why they helped and the operation did not spoil their national image. He also says that realists understand that military power is crude instrument and that governing alien society is costly business.

Nayar .J.(2007) Says that people live in different worlds whereby others live in a world of legal tests in which the academic reformers, politicians, gather to promise equality, justice, prosperity and security for all people. He also says that other people live in the world of realities in which the minorities of groups of power gather to implement their visions of the world which inflict violence, humiliation and death upon the majorities who are weak and therefore they cannot defend themselves.

Nayar also argues that there is nothing natural about the present order of human societies within the scheme of the totality of global political -- legal cultural imagination. There are only few being in the public voices who have dominated as leaders.

Nayar argues that there is nothing to talk about the world apart from uncontrolled inhumanity to the people in the world, lie of the law which maintains idealism of the violent orders that govern people. Constitutions are made which… [read more]

Ethics of Repatriation: Egyptian Artifacts Term Paper

… Counter-arguing the opponents

Artifact protection is an obligation

As the artifacts are a link to the past and they tell us about the culture, heritage, norms, events that took place at the time from which they were, therefore, it is… [read more]

Increased Gas Prices in the US Essay

… Gas Prices

Gas in Flux: A Global Phenomenon

The United States has seen a rise in gasoline prices for the past several years, but this recent summer the prices reached a high point. The cause of this increase can be directly related to the increase in unrest in the Middle East, particularly in places such ahs Libya, Syria, Egypt, Tunisia, and Bahrain.

Ironically, in the past several months as the Arab Spring erupted, American oil was suddenly in higher demand than it has been in fifty years, causing prices to rise for American oil consumers who were now competing for the oil once destined only for American gasoline stations. The American public has had relatively cheap gas in comparison to Europe, but a feeling of anxiety has risen in the nation because of high gas prices in an already struggling economy. Now with the winter approaching, meaning fewer vehicles on the roads, and the troubles in the Middle East waning down, gas prices should return to reasonable prices. This up and down cycle is very different than the extremely cheap and stable gas prices of the Middle East, which is the overwhelmingly largest region for the export of oil.

Gas prices in the Middle East are remarkably less than they are in America, or other parts of the West. This is largely due to the large oil deposits found in much of the Middle East, but also to a feeling of self-pride and even nationalism when it comes to the cheap and plentiful supply of gasoline, even in non-major oil producing nations. The past six months however has been harsh for some of these oil-producing countries, such as Libya. Libya has been going through a civil war of sorts, a rebel force overthrowing the long-sitting dictator and his personal military. The oil production of this company was sidetracked in the war, and not only was Libya now not exporting oil, but it has been unable to supply its own cities with oil, with backups at gas stations miles long. This lack of oil was one of the most troubling…… [read more]

Greater Middle East Gulf Region Essay

… ¶ … Middle East/Gulf, a region that is not well defined (Hatipoglu,2004) is shaped by its various regional geographies as well as and its geo-economic importance. The Greater Middle East region is very important due to its abundant economic resources as well as its strategic location in linking Asia, Africa and Europe. Hatipoglu (2004,p117) indicated that the region's geo-strategic value coupled with its geo-economic value effectively places the region in the epicenter of the global politics. The region hosts the world's largest gas and oil reserves. About three quarters of the global oil resources are located in thirteen nations of the Greater Middle East. In this essay, we describe how the Greater Middle East region is shaped by its various regional geographies as well as and its geo-economic importance.

Short summary

The Greater Middle East/Gulf, a region that possesses immense geo-economic as well as geo-strategic value is greatly shaped by the various regional geographies and its geo-economic factors that it possesses. These assertions have great implication to global energy security as well as general security as a consequence of its abundant supply and volatility respectively.

Regional geographies

Middle East vs. Gulf vs. North Africa

The Middle East and North African political unrest

The recent Middle East and North African political unrest is a perfect example of how the Greater Middle East/Gulf is shaped by itself (Blanchard,2011;Billon and Khatib,2003;Shah,2011).The underlying common Arab nationalism and socialist ideologies that these regions shared are the key factors that harmonized the running of these governments. However, the general populations of the Greater Middle East have stood up to oppose the dictatorial tendencies of the ruling regimes in these regions. The fact that the systematic wave of resistance in the form of uprisings and protests to the incumbent Great Middle East regimes is therefore a clear indication that the region is realigning itself/shaping itself ideologically as well as politically. These realignments are viewed by the international security as appositive move. However, concerns over its implications to the global security in regard to terrorism has also been voiced (Flandro et ak.,2011).Others have viewed the Arab revolt as a great 'opportunity' for fighting terrorism (Holden and Maclean,2011). The revolt was as a consequence of the rather extremely authoritarian and extremely conservative ideology that never gave their citizens personal freedom. The revolt therefore indicates that ideologically the Greater Middle East regions shaped it in two distinct forms. The first form is in regard to…… [read more]

Cyprus Problem Ancient History Establishment Dissertation

… This agreement forestalled actual admission as a British possession for a time; Cyprus remained under Turkish control while the British occupied the island for military purposes. The British performed the duty of protectorate nation until 1914 when, at the advent… [read more]

Iran-Contra Affair Historical Research Paper

… Security about the location of the hostages and the kidnappers was tight and prevented rescue. Public pressure and pressure from families was keen, eventually leading to a deterioration of the practice of not negotiating and not giving concessions to terrorists… [read more]

Threatening Communications and Game Theory Data Analysis Chapter

… Game Theory:

Iran relations is an example of game theory. One of the games played in their interaction, for instance, is the 'game of chicken' where neither player yields to the other. The United States, for instance, imposed multilateral sanctions on Iran, but Iran still continued its game of uranium enrichment. The ongoing game played between the two countries is one of mistrust and unwillingness to make concessions. Each has its own goals and options, and each uses different strategies to gain its particular ends. Iran, for instance, argues that it produces low level enriched uranium for nuclear fuel use, but the West claims Iran plans further enrichment suitable for making atomic bombs. Using Western-style reasoning, Iran contends that it has an "inalienable right" under Article IV of the Nonproliferation of Nuclear Weapons Treaty to develop, research, and produce nuclear energy for peaceful purposes Each country plays the game of trying to gain the upper position, of stalemating and not letting the other win. In the U.S.-Iran situation, each side tries to win by threatening the other (Source: Torbat, a. (March 26, 2007) U.S.-Iran "Game of Chicken": Iran Stays Firm despite UN Sanctions

Phonological features

Phonological features dealing with the ways that sound functions or conveying encoded meaning. Surrounded by security, the head of the Ku Klax Khan, Roy Larson prides himself on being the face of hate. Meeting with journalists of at an undisclosed hotel in Indiana he discussed his opinions as to why membership in the KKK was on the rise and then, in the course of conversation, hinted that were presidential candidate Obama to be elected President, his life would be cut short: "I don't need to worry about it because someone else from the South will do the job.. If that man was elected candidate he will be shot sure as hell." Further on he said: "The hate will be so deep from down south,…… [read more]

Great War for Civilisation Fisk Book Report

… The Next chapter, 23, entitled Atomic Dog, Annihilator, Arsonist, Anthrax, Anguish and Agamemnon were a description of the events of the 2003 American invasion of Iraq. The American attack was a massive undertaking with a massive amount of ordinance dropped on Iraq. While the Americans claimed they were targeting only military targets, the author's visits to hospitals prove that the majority of the wounded were civilians. Fisk described the wound of children he encountered stating "Heartbreaking is the only word to describe ten-year-old Maryam Nasr and her five-year-old sister Hoda." (962) He also discussed the ground invasion and the massive destruction inflicted on the Iraqis by the Americans. The destruction caused by the Americans was a major theme of Fisk, and he ended this chapter with a look at the looting and arson which destroyed many of the government buildings and the Americans who did nothing to stop the destruction of Iraq's history and culture.

Fisk concluded his book with a discussion of the American occupation of Iraq in chapter 24 Into The Wilderness. The author stressed the fact that Iraq had nothing to do with 9/11 and Al Qaeda, in fact Osama bin Laden hated Saddam Hussein as a western "stooge." The reasons behind the Iraqi invasion has nothing to do with 9/11 but instead about economic issues. Fisk also used this chapter to discuss the effects of occupation on the Americans, and, like the Israelis before them, could engage in criminal and brutal behavior. The book ended at a…… [read more]

Cultgeo Zakaria, Fareed. "How Democracy Can Work Essay

… Cultgeo

Zakaria, Fareed. "How Democracy Can Work in the Middle East." Time. 3 Feb 2011. Retrieved online:,8599,2045888,00.html

Before the NATO and allied intervention into Libya, even before the Libyan people protested Gaddafi en mass, Fareed Zakaria offered poignant commentary related to the cultural geography of the entire region. Now nearly every nation in the Middle East is turning itself upside down and inside out. Each country has its own unique history and domestic issues and peculiar relationships with the United States and other foreign powers. Zakaria focuses on Egypt to illustrate the diversity of the Middle East, even the diversity within Egypt itself. Moreover, Zakaria quells fears that the democratic revolutions taking place throughout the Middle East may help give rise to Muslim extremism. After all, what is apparently a genuine populist trend throughout the region has caused some anxiety among Americans, Europeans, and Israelis as well as the citizens of these nations. Zakaria argues that those fears are largely unwarranted because "in this sense, these might be the Middle East's first post-American revolutions," (p. 4). Taken in the context of European colonialism and imperialism, the recent revolutions can be seen as the first organic outcroppings of homegrown democracy.

Zakaria therefore frames the Egyptian revolution -- and arguably those in Libya, Bahrain, and other Middle Eastern countries -- in a historical context. A cultural geographer must understand that Middle Eastern history has been one of colonialism and imperialism and foreign intervention over the course of several centuries. First, the Ottomans bore down on the region to offer a false sense of unity under Muslim heritage. Then, the First World War saw the downfall of the Ottoman regime. The downfall of the Ottoman regime revealed the fissures within Middle Eastern society, but Europeans painted the whole area with one broad cloth. Whether due to ignorance, xenophobia, or racism, the Western imperialist trend was the third step…… [read more]

Bible: 1 Samuel 17 Essay

… "Israel! I say again, on this the morning of the 41st day of a war without with battle, COME AT ME! SEND ME A CHAMPION!!" Quiet. Stillness. A thousand implacable faces staring back at me. "Israel, I defy you! SEND… [read more]

Bardach's Eightfold Path Lays Out a Method A2 Coursework

… Bardach's Eightfold Path lays out a method for addressing a problem that is generally resistant to a simpler path. Bardach's strategy allows for a number of fresh starts and regroupings. As such, it bears little in common with the better known Noble Eightfold Path of Buddhism, a life plan for freeing the self of attachment and desires. Brabach is not interesting in understanding Truth, although (to be fair) he is interested in helping people to discover partial truths and helping them to let go of some of the compulsivity that can run through and destabilize a life.

His four and fifth steps -- to construct alternatives to a way of doing something and to establish criteria -- do offer the possibility of breaking old patterns. For example, a manager who can rally his workers to be more productive and a better integrated team but cannot sustain this new work ethic could look to these two steps and use them to reframe his strategy. One of the most deadly traits in management is to attempt to remedy past mistakes by trying the same remedy in spades. Sometimes the most effective strategy is to stop and be still, at least metaphorically.

One of the key ways in which Brabach's model is in fact like that proposed by Buddha is that he understands that force is usually not the best way to proceed. By stopping and asking oneself about alternatives and then proceeding to the next step of establishing criteria for a new strategy, a manager can understand what the logjam is in his current strategy. For example, he might decide that he simply needs to reframe his concept of success.

An alternative framework to demanding that his workers perform at their top capacity at all times -- something that is simply not possible -- is that the manager can conceive of his work schedule in segments. During some of these segments, he expects his workers to go all out. In order to ensure that this is not overwhelming for his workers and does not discourage them -- or build up serious levels of resentment -- the manager must make it clear that he is not expecting such a rate of work to be ongoing.

Hard work that is rewarded by periods of relatively down time is much easier to maintain than is hard work that stretches off into the unending future. By establishing new criteria -- such as that a certain amount of work has to be accomplished each month but that a flux of work can be allowed so that workers can accommodate demands at work to their own needs -- the manager can create a new way of looking at success that allows him to create a long-term workable partnership with his workers.

Memo Two

Anyone who has ever worked as a reporter is familiar with the idea of --…… [read more]

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