"Israel / Palestine / Arab World" Essays

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Cyprus the Island of Cyprus Is Located Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (3,018 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+



The island of Cyprus is located at a very important geo-strategic position in the Mediterranean region. It is situated in the northeastern corner of the Mediterranean Sea and is the third largest island in that area (approximately 3,572 square miles) subsequent to Sicily and Sardinia. "Cyprus is an island located in the northeastern corner of the Mediterranean Sea 40… [read more]

Iran God Has Planted in Every Human Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,616 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … Iran

"God has planted in every human heart the desire to live in freedom'- the belief of President Bush made it clear the American perspective of devising a strategy for democracy in the Middle East confronting the obstacles of reform, the allies of terror along with anticipation of high standards from our parents. (Iran: Solidarity with Iran) The… [read more]

Let's Have an Argument Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (819 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … Bush Right in Invading Iraq?

The controversial U.S. invasion of Iraq which began on March 20, 2003, was roundly slammed by the left-liberal critics who dubbed it a "monumental blunder" that the U.S. would soon come to regret. Two years later, even some former opponents of the Iraq War are beginning to admit that Bush may have been right about invading Iraq after all. Consider:

The tyrannical Saddam regime was toppled in three weeks with minimum casualties and with most of the country's infrastructure intact, including its oil fields. Saddam himself was captured a few months later, as were most of his closest associates. Several countries, including some hard-core supporters of terrorism, began to realize that the U.S. was no "paper tiger" and swiftly changed their spots. For example Colonel Gaddafi of Libya abandoned his nuclear weapons program and withdrew its support for terrorists; Pakistan, the erstwhile mentor of the Talibans became the most valued ally of the U.S. In its war on terror; even the Mullahs in Iran who had previously dubbed the U.S. As "the Great Satan" toned down their anti-U.S. rhetoric and began to co-operate with international weapons inspectors. Democratic elections were successfully held earlier this year in Iraq -- the first time ever in its history. More remarkably, President Bush's bold declaration before the war that "a liberated Iraq can show the power of freedom to transform that vital region" (quoted by Schorr) is beginning to take effect. The deeply Conservative monarchy in Saudi Arabia has been nudged into holding Municipal elections for the first time; demonstrations for democracy in Egypt have prompted Hosni Mubarak to announce free contested presidential elections; and in Lebanon a 'Cedar Revolution' has brought down the puppet government installed by Syria, and forced the withdrawal of Syrian troops from the country. All this would not have been possible if the Bush administration had not been audacious enough to stick his neck out and venture into Iraq. As Charles Krauthammer, writing in the Time magazine recently, quite rightly notes: "It was not people power that set this in motion. It was American power." (Krauthammer, "Three Cheers...")

Let us examine now examine some of the major arguments against the U.S. invasion of Iraq. One argument that has been flogged to death is that the U.S. administration had cited the possession of Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMDs) by Iraq as a reason for invading Iraq, but such weapons have not been…… [read more]

Oil Used for Sustained Development Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (964 words)
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He allowed the Western consortium to continue drilling for oil, and they finally had five active wells by 1972, operating under the name of "Petroleum Development Oman." Over the following years thousands of Omanis were employed to develop an industrial complex, a tank farm, a powerstation, and a marine terminal (Petroleum par 7). The lives of the local peoples were changing drastically. They had been sheep and goat herders, fishermen, and subsistence farmers for the most part. The revenues being generated by this initial investment now supported a series of new infurstructure advances: road construction, government building projects, airports and hospitals.

Some Omani are critical of the influence that the opening up of Oman has had toward its religion and traditions. About 80% of Omanis follow the Ibadi sect of Islam, an austere form of Islam that rejects decadence of any kind, even in mosque architecture (Arabian, p148). They consciously maintain tribal customs and dress, and strictly govern their lives by their Muslim principles. Obviously the inroads made by Television, the Internet, and other media, has created a new tension for the older traditions. In a United Nations article from 2001, entitled, "Gobalization and the Labour Markets in the ESCWA Region," the writers note that the major challenge in this regard involves:

how to preserve cultural identity while joining the rest of the world in enjoying the fruits of technological progress ... not to be isolated, because that could exacerbate the marginalization of Oman in world trade ....to tap into what globalization has to offer and select what is appropriate for Oman (46).

This kind of balancing act is difficult at the best of times, and for a tiny population, like Oman's, it becomes an even greater challenge: a mouse has invited a lion to eat at its table.

Because this economic revolution happened so quickly in Oman, and because its population was so illeterate and unskilled initially, the country had to import vast numbers of expiates to work many of the new jobs. Times have now changed in the sultanate. The schools, colleges and universities have now educated the younger generations, and the Omani are now faceing a problem in rising unemployment levels. The government has therefore started a system of Omanization: reducing the reliance on foreign workers, and slowly pressuring employers towards educated Omani workers. But there are worries in the regard. As the United Nations article points out:

"Mere replacement based on nationality and not on skills, effectiveness and efficiency may reduce the overall competitiveness of the product or service offered. In a globalized economy where mobility and competitiveness are the key, such measures could even prove disadvantageous" (49).

A related problem is the issue of women in the workplace in Oman. Globalization and education has meant that more and more women in the larger cities and towns are taking jobs in areas such as banking,…… [read more]

War in Iraq the Top Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,370 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Most Sunni Arabs are suspicious of the squads, since they are largely composed of Shiite and Kurdish rivals "eager to exact revenge for decades of suppression under Hussein, a Sunni Arab (McDonnell, Moore pp).

The Dawn article is written by a staff correspondent, and concerns the problems the United States is facing due to the increased attacks. It strongly suggests that the steady increase of terrorist attacks in Iraq is adding to the problems of President Bush, who, the article says, "is being criticized for allowing the war to continue for so long" (Iraq 1 pp). The article reports that Bush completed his 100 days into his second term on Friday, and is facing a "precipitous" decline in support for his social security plan (Iraq 1 pp). It cites a recent joint poll by the Washington Post and ABC News, that 58% of Americans do no endorse the way Bush is dealing with the situation in Iraq, and six in ten respondents believed that the United States had got bogged down in Iraq (Iraq 1 pp). The article also claims that to avoid further embarrassment, the Bush administration "has refused to reveal the full extent of terrorist activities in the State Department's annual report to the U.S. Congress" (Iraq 1 pp). The article then cites Congressman Henry A. Waxman's letter to the department which stated, "There appears to be a pattern in the administration's approach to terrorism data: favorable facts are revealed while unfavorable facts are suppressed" (Iraq 1 pp). However, even the incomplete figures reported in this week's Country Report on Terrorism, reveal that U.S. troops are facing a stubborn resistance in Iraq (Iraq 1 pp). According to the report, in late 2004 terrorist attacks in Iraq increased, especially during the run-up to the January 30th election for the transitional National Assembly and regional parliamentary bodies (Iraq 1 pp). The report stated the during 2004 approximately sixty non-combatant Americans, civilian contractors, died in terrorist incidents in Iraq and many others were killed in attacks on coalition military facilities or convoys (Iraq 1 pp).

The Independent Bangladesh also reports on Bush's failings. It reminds its readers of Bush's announcement from the deck of an aircraft carrier on May 1, 2003, that the major fighting in Iraq was over (Iraq2 pp). At that time, just weeks after invading Iraq, 138 American soldiers had died by that point, now, however, two years later and the continuing rise in terrorist attacks, the U.S. military's death toll tops 1,500 "while the Iraqi tally is too high to report accurately" (Iraq2 pp). According to the independent web site "Iraq Body Count" between 21,000 and 24,000 civilians have been killed as a result of the fighting since the beginning of the war (Iraq2 pp). Today, security is every Iraqi's dream but the new government faces a huge challenge to make it a reality (Iraq2 pp). Baghdadi, Shimeran Jassem, says, "Let them provide me with a job ... If a citizen has a job and is earning… [read more]

Economy of the Euphrates River Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,507 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Without the water supply and valuable resource the Euphrates currently supplies, each of these countries could face economic hardship as their ability to maintain business and thrive will decrease over time.

Unfortunately as the supply of water provided by the Euphrates continues to diminish, it is likely that each of these countries will face increased economic hardships over the next several years. In order for each of the countries to continue to survive and thrive, they will have to come to some sort of agreement regarding the use of water from the Euphrates River. As demonstrated, the Euphrates River is clearly a central component of the economic well being and survival of the countries bordering it.


Blanche, Ed. "Mid East Water Crisis: Time is Running Out." The Middle East (April

2001): 19

Holt, Zach; Clark, Marggie; Duckworth, Pam; Howes, Grant. "Euphrates River

History." Bryant College, (2000). Retrieved February 15, 2005:

Hillman, G.C., Legge, A.J., Moore, and M.T. "Village on the Euphrates: From Foraging

to Farming at Abu Hureyra." London: Oxford University Press, (2000).

Kor, Tevfik Emin. "Tigris-Euphrates River Dispute." ICE, (1997). Retrieved February

15, 2005:

Postel, Sandra. "The Politics of Water"…… [read more]

Edition of the Atlantic News Magazine Ran Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (591 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


¶ … edition of the Atlantic news magazine ran a feature article entitled "Will Iran be Next?" The issue of whether or not the United States government plans to stage another preemptive attack in the sovereign nation of Iran has made the headlines of other major news sources. Reasons for the rumors include the potential for Iran to purchase or develop nuclear weapons and other weapons of mass destruction. Because the United States views Iran as a threat to national security and because President Bush has since September 11 painted Iran as a rogue state, the possibility of a new front for the "war on terror" is very real. However, many military and political analysts warn against the decision to strike Iran, claiming that military action invite widespread instability, undermine attempts to rebuild Iraq, and would create a new arms race. Moreover, Iraq has proven to be something of a disaster, and with the recent American track record there and in the rest of the Middle East, entering Iran under the same pretenses would be politically, economically, and diplomatically foolish. Therefore, I am taking a strong position against any American entry into Iran. The following is a detailed outline explaining how I will go about denouncing military action against Iran:

I. General Background and Introductory Information

A. The history of American involvement in the Middle East is controversial, from the first and second world wars onwards, and oil revenues have always been at the center and crux of American foreign relations with countries in the Middle East.

B. Since September 11, the vast cultural and political differences between the United States and the Muslim nations of the Middle East have been underscored and exacerbated.

C. The American government is not interested in peace in the…… [read more]

Egyptian Hieroglyphics and Other Ancient Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (2,050 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


We search in vain for arbitrary symbols like the letters of the alphabet and, in the process, miss the more direct meaning that form can communicate" (113). According to Hegel and Knox, these ancient Egyptian design elements continue to "amaze us by their colossal proportions and mass, while at the same time their individual forms and shapes engross our whole interest by themselves because they have been erected as symbols for purely universal meanings or are even substitutes for books since they manifest the meanings not by their mode of configuration but by writings, hieroglyphics, engraved on their surface" (Hegel & Knox 644). Masonic buildings throughout the country are highly decorated with Egyptian motifs, including hieroglyphics (pers. obs.), and even early 20th century design consultants provided examples of Egyptian hieroglyphics as sample design elements for contemporary practitioners as shown in Figure 4 below:

Figure 4. Hieroglyphics from wall in tomb of Har-em-hab, Egyptian, Ideas molded into pleasing visual symbols [Source: Rasmusen 1950:6].

The application of digital technologies to designing with hieroglyphics has opened up an entirely new horizon for practitioners today. "Periodically, a new technology emerges that is so fundamentally different from what preceded it that it challenges the foundations of commonly held beliefs and assumptions" (Martin 1999:3).


The research showed that the system of picture-writing known as hieroglyphics that emerged in ancient Egypt was a significant source of inspiration for surface design during the three centuries from 1700 to 2000, a source that continues to endure today. The reason for this continuing interest in Egyptian hieroglyphics as a source of inspiration for design elements is, perhaps, two-fold. On the one hand, Egyptian hieroglyphics tend to immediately communicate a sense of the mysterious and exotic to modern observers; on the other hand, these symbols are also aesthetically pleasing to the eye, a fact that was not lost on the designers from the 300-year period discussed above. The addition of cartouches to the picture-writing did not adversely affect the beauty of the system, but merely added to its ultimate utility for the Egyptians and provided an additional source of insight for contemporary scholars. The legacy of the ancient Egyptians can still be found in architectural elements around the world, and it is likely that designers in the 22nd, 23rd and 24th centuries will also be looking to Egyptian hieroglyphics as a source of inspiration for the same fundamental reasons as their 18th, 19th and 20th century counterparts.

Works Cited

Brunner, Hellmut. (2004). Decipherment of hieroglyphic writing: Champollion's decipherment.

In Encyclopedia Britannica [premium service].

Cavendish, Richard. Man, Myth & Magic: An Illustrated Guide to the Supernatural, Vol. 10.

New York: Marshall Cavendish Corporation, 1970.

Hamlin, A.D.F. History of Architecture. New York: Longmans, Green, 1911.

Hegel, G.W.F. And T.M. Knox. Aesthetics: Lectures on Fine Art, Vol. 2. Oxford,

England: Clarendon Press, 1998.

Martin, Arlene. (October 29, 1999). White Paper: New perspectives: art and design in the digital age. ComputerWeekly.com. Available: http://www.computerweekly.com/Article42124.htm.

Lichten, Frances. Decorative Art of Victoria's Era. New York: Scribner, 1950.… [read more]

Bush's Invasion of Iraq Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,173 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


S. To hunt down Al-Qaeda terrorists in its territory and has extended invaluable support to the U.S. In its war on terror. All this would not have been possible if the U.S. had not demonstrated its resolve and the willingness to use force against Iraq.

Iraq, after being freed from the clutches of dictatorship, is now confidently embarked on the road to democracy despite formidable hurdles. An interim government has been sworn in, law and order is gradually improving, and elections in Iraq are scheduled before the end of January. Some people have expressed their doubts about the viability of holding elections in Iraq so soon, but President Bush has expressed his determination that the elections shall proceed as scheduled.

(Eberle) Once Iraq becomes a truly democratic country, the whole map of the Middle East might change and the other authoritarian regimes would not be able to resist the yearning for freedom and democracy by their people. Already, countries like Saudi Arabia are beginning to realize that they cannot continue with their anachronistic system of government for long.

Some people have expressed the view that the cost of winning freedom for the Iraqis, in terms of the American lives lost is not worth it. While even one human life lost is one too many, we must remember that brave nations sometimes have to endure sacrifices in order to prevent greater calamities. When compared with the American soldiers killed in other wars such as the World War II (405,000), World War I (116,000) and the Vietnam War (58,000), the number of American soldiers killed in the Iraq war (about 1000) is far less. (Brookes, para 5)

One test of judging the rights or wrongs of an undertaking such as the Iraq War is by looking at the public opinion of the countries involved. In case of Iraq, a survey conducted by the BBC and the ABC news network in March 2004, found that a majority of Iraqis (48%) thought the invasion was right, while only 39% considered it was wrong. A full 70% saw their lives getting better over the next one year. (Range, para 3) As for the American public, it endorsed Bush's invasion of Iraq by re-electing the President in the November elections: a mandate for staying the course in Iraq and to continue the policy of dealing firmly with terrorism around the world.

Works Cited

Brookes, Peter. "The World is a Safer Place." The Heritage Foundation. September 12, 2004. December 13, 2004. http://www.heritage.org/Press/Commentary/ed091304a.cfm

Eberle, Bobby. "Bush Firm on January Elections in Iraq." Talon News. December 7, 2004. December 13, 2004.

Phillips, James. "Iraq: One Year Later." The Heritage Foundation. March 22, 2004


Range, Peter Ross. "Why the Iraq War Was Right." Spiegel Online. March 22, 2004. December 13, 2004.

West, Diana. Clinton snaps over Somalia. Jewish World Review. August 6, 2002. December 13, 2004.

Qaddaffi is reported to have told the Italian Prime Minister that he did so after seeing what happened to Saddam's… [read more]

Old Kingdom Egypt Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (709 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


The Great Pyramid of Giza is still considered to be one of the Seven Wonders of the World, and there are still mysteries surrounding how it was built. There are still theories that aliens built the pyramid, or that possibly people from the lost continent of Atlantis built it, but none of these theories has ever been proven (The Great, 2004).

What has been shown, however, is that the pyramids are impressive because of their size and the difficulty in constructing them when there were no modern-day tools to use. The Egyptians have been said to have used up to 3200 men per day to quarry the stones and move them to the pyramid site (The Great, 2004). Despite the fact that many people still believe that human muscle could not have built the pyramids, there have been many experiments done by researchers that have determined that men could have done the work and created these great monuments to those that they basically worshipped as gods on earth.

Even though the pharaohs were the only ones that originally had pyramids built for them, immortality was a very important goal for all Egyptians, even if they had little money. Because of this, all Egyptians during that time strived for ways to have their own pyramid, so that they could remain immortal like their kings. Eventually, time moved on and the Egyptian people changed their opinions about who or what actually ruled their lives, but the pyramids remain an awe-inspiring sight for many Egyptians and for tourists as well. Some of them have been robbed and pillaged, but many were also excavated to learn information about the culture and religion of these fascinating people.

Works Cited

Koeller, David W. (1999). Old Kingdom Egypt. http://campus.northpark.edu/history/Web Chron/Africa/OldKingdom.html

Lamb, Annette, & Johnson, Larry. (2003). The topic: Ancient Egypt. http://www.42explore2.com/egypt.htm

Tangen, Turid. (1996). Pyramid building begins. http://campus.northpark.edu/history/Web Chron/Africa/Pyramids.html

The Great Egyptian Pyramid (2004). http://www.geocities.com/TheTropics/7210/pyramid.htm

Understood, Steve. (2004). Egypt temples and tombs. http://www.culturefocus.com/egypt.htm… [read more]

God Can Be Seen Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (345 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


In order to curb the possibility of idolatry then, God commands that all human beings left alive in besieged towns should be killed so they cannot teach their idolatrous ways to God's people (Deut 20:18).

Another interesting element is that God also at times strikes fear into the hearts of his own people. His role as provider of security is thus coupled with his role as punisher in the case of disobedience. Thus, obedience is rewarded with upliftment, supremacy and security, while the reward of disobedience is fear. God does not hesitate to make an example of the disobedient, for whom the punishment is often death (Deut. 21:21). Joshua's warning to Israel suggests this fear (Josh 24:26). God and Israel thus has a rather ambivalent relationship, based upon a system of reward and punishment according to Israel's obedience level.


Coogan, Michael D. (ed.) The New Oxford Annotated…… [read more]

Baghdad Diaries Persepolis Nuha Al-Radi Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,747 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Nonetheless, Satrapi's Persepolis is perhaps at its most powerful in revealing the devastating effect of war on personal freedoms and equality. Through her childish eyes, the reader understands how war can destroy not only life but freedom and as well. In this sense, Persepolis is a more powerful portrayal of the effect of war on the death of freedom than al-Radi's Baghdad Diaries. Baghdad Diaries, while a powerful work, fails to delve deeply into the loss of personal freedoms that result from the war, and instead focuses more on the personal daily realities of the war.

In conclusion, Satrapi's Persepolis and al-Radi's Baghdad Diaries are important and effective illustrations of how Iranians and Iraqis deal with the uncertainty, political repression, deprivation, and war that have impacted their homelands in recent years. In her novel, Baghdad Diaries, al-Radi effectively tells the story of the average Iraqi, but fails to provide a larger political context or a deep understanding of the war's effect on personal freedoms. In contrast, Satrapi's Persepolis provides a complex understanding of war's impact on ideals of equality and personal freedom, but does not provide as intimate a portrait of the effects of war on the average individual. Taken together, however, these two books provide a complex portrait of how war can impact the individual and ideal through the use of engaging personal and national histories.

Works Cited al-Radi, Nuha. 2003. Baghdad Diaries: A Woman's Chronicle of…… [read more]

Kings in the Bible Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (488 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


As devotion to God was his strength he was successful, and ruled Israel with an iron fist. However, being a human being he was also weak. David was an adulterer, and perhaps knew that he was doing something wrong, but in spite of his weaknesses he didn't forget God. This is in contrast to what Saul did. Saul was a great ruler too and didn't have weakness like David's. However, he gained far too much pride and this was his downfall (Aust, 1998).

After King David, Solomon Led Israel as king, he was similar to his father. Like king David God's favor rested upon him. He was a child of promise and prayed for God's strength to help him rule the people of Israel. Here again like king David his strength was faith in the lord, as at times of battle and trials he prayed to God for strength (Aust, 1998).

Similar to David, Solomon made a rash judgment involving a woman. However, his actions were far worse than David's. This is because he married the daughter of an Egyptian ruler, which was obviously against the will of God. This was because of the fact that he put the rest of Israel't risk of being taken over.


The Holy Bible. King James Version. University of Philadelphia. 2003.

Desta, Lishan. Of Saul, David and Solomon. 2003.

Aust, Jerold. Lesson from a Wise…… [read more]

Narrative Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,176 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


I have lived in the United States for five years. Yet even before I came to the United States, it was customary for me to live amongst many people of many different competing belief systems and values. I came, not judging harshly from a solitary cultural tradition, but with open eyes to the possibilities diversity can yield.

Some of the things that were most difficult to adjust to in the United States might not be immediately obvious to a native-born resident. For instance, when I first came to the United States, I was struck by the fast pace of things here. Everyone wanted everything -- right now, if not sooner! Even waiting in line for so much as a hamburger in a drive-through seemed to tax the patience of the average American driver. I was used to waiting in line in Lebanon, and taking my time to get to different places. But I was also struck by the friendliness of ordinary individuals on the streets of America. People smiled much more in America than I was accustomed to see at home, on the street. I felt welcomed from the very outset, but perhaps in a slightly superficial fashion. Are people really this happy, I wondered?

It was much harder adjusting over a long period of time, as I gradually came to grips with some of the prejudices, innocent and otherwise, individuals had about my nation of origin. I began to gradually realize that I was no longer fully Lebanese or American in my orientation in the world. This has been a great advantage to me in some ways. I feel privileged to be part of both an old nation and a relatively new nation. I feel that my perspective as a human being is richer from living in two different countries, and appreciating the wealth, bounty, and opportunities present in America, as well as appreciating the rich and troubled culture I have left behind.

However, with this added perspective also comes a sense of loneliness. Of course, I am hardly the first individual to come to America, seeking a new life and a new identity through education. But the small nation I come from is not one with a secure place in the world community. Thus, sometimes I feel I have left a place, and not established a secure place in my new nation -- yet I do not have a sure and certain place to travel back to, either on the globe, or within myself.

Being a student is often a difficult period in anyone's life. A student is always learning new things, and having his or her intellectual balance slightly offset by the many things he or she is learning on a daily basis. Constantly I ask myself what my future personal and professional place will be in the world. Yet, as a former resident of Lebanon, I am also always asking exactly how I should regard my past and my ethnic identity in regards to the new… [read more]

War on Iraq Long Road Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (937 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Johnson's article presents a clear illustration of the after-effects of the offensive attack against Iraq. Through this article, readers become informed about the two sides of Iraqis inside Iraq: one group who wants independence with U.S. assistance, and the other group who wants independence without U.S. assistance. Although Iraqis do not approve of Hussein as their leader, neither do they want their nation be commandeered by Americans, since they know the cultural and religious differences that Americans and Iraqis have. This Newsweek article presents the "human side" of civil society-led insurgencies, a more dangerous and serious problem than the issue concerning Saddam, since Iraqis themselves are now expressing their disapproval of U.S. intervention in rebuilding Iraq through violent means/methods.

Beyer, L. "Inside the Kingdom." September 15, 2003. TIME Magazine. pp. 16-27.

Lisa Beyer's cover article for TIME Magazine delves into the political and social system of Saudi Arabia, a Muslim nation that is a declared ally of the U.S. In its war against terrorism. Beyer's focus, however, is about the danger that Saudi Arabia poses against the U.S., primarily because its actions does not parallel with its statements on anti-terrorism. The reporter provides an in-depth analysis of Saudi Arabia as a nation and its leaders, all of whom Beyer alleges to be supporters and financiers of terrorist groups, which Beyer qualifies as "Taliban extremists" and "Pakistani radicals." In addition to this information, Beyer also reports on Wahhabism, a religious movement (Muslim) that is dominant in Saudi Arabia. Wahhabism is relevant in Beyer's report because this is the primary ideology that Saudi Arabia uses in motivating and training members of radical and extremist groups that they finance. The article ends with a skeptical look on the future of U.S.-Saudi Arabia relations. While U.S. And Saudi Arabia are presently allies (not necessarily against terrorism), it is still questionable whether Saudi Arabia will maintain its pro-U.S. stance in the future. Beyer's report is also another analysis of the present and future effects of the U.S.-Iraq war on the U.S.'s relationships with Muslim nations. The article's critical look on Saudi Arabia gives the readers an idea of the stance of the reporter, which is clearly anti-Saudi Arabia, if its loyalty and honesty with the U.S. will be gauged. Moreover, this TIME article also mirrors the truth that aside from problems, criticisms, and possible attacks against Americans in Iraq, there is more at stake when other countries, specifically Muslim nations, are put into the picture of the current U.S. "rehabilitation program" in the Middle East.… [read more]

Archaeology the Archaeological and Historical Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (930 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


S. Force responsible for the destruction of their museum and believe that they should provide recovery aide and help get the stolen artifacts back. But the chances remain slim that these value artifacts will ever be returned to their rightful home and consequently, the Iraq national Museum will never be the same again.

According to National Geographic (2003), "Some of Iraq's most significant sites, such as the ancient Assyrian capital of Nimrud and its gold-filled royal tombs which were uncovered in 1988, show serious signs of stress. Bullet shell casings have been discovered on the ground and slabs from the walls of one of the palaces had been stolen. American soldiers now guard Nimrud."

Other sites have not fared as well. Ninevah bore the scars of sledgehammers in the palace and several holes dug by looters seeking gold and ivory artifacts. At the sites of Khorsabad and Tell Billa, the area was littered with unexploded bombs and abandoned military equipment. The Mosul Museum was not as lucky as its counterparts and was the victim of considerable bombing damage, with several shattered windows, which left its artifacts in full view for looters. Bronze reliefs and inscribed bricks were among the missing.

One site that remained intact was Nippur known as the holy city of ancient Mesopotamia, where scribes went to school to learn to read and write and protected by Iraqi tribal guards (National Geographic News, 2003).

In the capital city of Babylon, U.S. troops have taken over Saddam's palace and use it as a central headquarters. Not far from the palace, the museum lies in ruin and the library has been burned and looted. Both represent more desecration to the cultural foundation of Iraq.

Even royal cemeteries and temples have been damaged and are now occupied by Coalition forces. Additionally, many other gardens and palaces have suffered similar fates and most of them continue to be threatened by the elements and the lack of resources to repair them.

It has been widely noted that U.S. Force are now providing support to protect cultural sites and archaeological digs that have not been totally destroyed or looted and the FBI has agreed to help in recovering stolen objects.

The war has inflicted scars on Iraq that many may not see. But anyone who knows the value of a country's history and it's contribution to civilization knows that more has been lost in this war than makes it seem worthwhile. Hugh temples and ancient monuments are no more and the remains of the artifacts of war have taken their place.


http://www.news.nationalgeographic.com."Ancient Iraqi Sites Show Theft, Destruction." National Geographic News. June 2003.

Iraq: For Many, Destruction of Cultural Sites The Most Devastating Aspect of War." Zamira Eshanova. Radio Free Europe Reprint. 2003.… [read more]

Region Suffering From Resource Shortages Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,282 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


One of the most pressing problems in the past few years, and has been exacerbated since the war is the issue of food.

Food delivered under the oil-for-food program is insufficient for Iraq's 22 million people, the trade minister said.Millions of impoverished Iraqis live off government food rations consisting of basic items such as flour, sugar, rice, tea and legumes (Faleh, 1999). The rationing system was introduced shortly after the United Nations slapped sweeping economic sanctions on Iraq for its 1990 invasion of Kuwait. The sanctions were eased in 1996 when the United Nations allowed the government to export limited amounts of oil, now worth $5.2 billion every six months (Faleh, 1999), to pay for imports of food, medicine and other humanitarian supplies."Since the implementation of the oil-for-food program three years ago, Iraq has been resorting to its national (food) reserves to meet the inadequacy of items contracted for under the program," the agency quoted Saleh as saying. "Without our national reserves of food, the distribution of foodstuffs would not have been stable in the past three years (Faleh, 1999)."

The food, water and electricity issues in Iraq have created political and economic stress. The nation has had to develop contracts with outside countries and if those contracts have not been fulfilled or the Iraqi leaders believe they were not fulfilled the poltical tensions, already filled with stress become worse. The economic factors in the need and development of said resources is also a tense issue in the nation as the sanctions brought about by the United States in the early 1990's threatened to destroy the nation from the inside out.

Currently the war is also contributing to the shortage of resources, but because of the war the United States as well as other nations have been working to improve the resource replenishment currently being experienced in Iraq. Food and water supplies have been brought in by truck and aircraft but it is a temporary solution to a long-term problem. The current solutions cannot sustain a long-term need of a nation and politicians are currently working to help bridge agreements between Iraq and other nations that can provide resources.

Economically it will be important for the future of the new Iraq to develop sources for the needed resources. In addition there is an oil production commodity that Iraq can use as a bargaining chip in exchange for those needed resources.


The political and economic future of the new Iraq will be heavily dependent on the ability to strengthen the resources the nation has at its disposal. With the new Iraq being built the resource question is a strong platform for those who want to have a hand in the restructuring of the nation. Oil is a commodity that the nation can use to bargain with for resources, and while it is a needed resource in other parts of the world it is not as useful as water, food, and electricity will be in Iraq. The government support of food… [read more]

U.S. Invasion of Iraq Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (626 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Iraq gained independence in 1932, but the British remained in indirect control until 1958, after a coup of the British-allied government.

The 1914 British invasion of Iraq progressed along remarkably similar lines to today's war. British troops first entered Basra in the south and proceeded north to seize Baghdad. "Coalition" troops followed a similar path. Furthermore, Iraq was just as divided along ethnic and tribal lines then as it is now. The Shiite majority is dominated by a substantial elite Sunni minority. Copeland notes that these divisions exist even within the exiled Iraqi community.

The Iraqi community learned to mistrust the intentions of the Western powers. According to Copeland's sources, the Iraqi people don't want non-Muslim rule of their country. Any government installed by the Americans will be resented and rejected. Currently, the Iraqi National Congress is touted as the new regime. However, any leader associated with the Congress will be associated with the invasion.

Of course, there are differences between what happened in the early 20th century and what is happening today. Saddam Hussain was a "homegrown despot," unlike the Ottomans. Moreover, Iraq was not an independent state in 1917, as it is today. The Iraqi people are also more self-aware, more "sophisticated" and have a strong sense of national identity. Because of these things, resistance in 2003 might even be stronger than it was ninety years ago.

The current invasion of Iraq suits the needs of the American and British superpowers, not the Iraqi people. Iraqis recognize the "familiar arrogance" of the American approach, which mirrors what happened almost a century ago. The Iraqi people fear that history is repeating itself, and the Western powers will continue to impose foreign values on a sovereign nation.

Works Cited

Copeland, Libby. "For Iraq: Deja vu All Over Again:…… [read more]

1998 Edition of the Christian Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (372 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


As with any relationship conflict, both sides have valid points.

Whitmore's article proves that cross-cultural relationships are always too intricate and complex to draw simple solutions. Both sides of the conflict share an equal responsibility to the Iraqi people and both sides are incorrect in assuming they have the moral high ground. In any complex relationship, especially one involving whole nations and the world at large, oversimplification is dangerous. The United Nations conflict over the Iraqi sanctions illustrates the need for mutual understanding, third-party mediation, and a willingness to embrace compromise. Now that Iraq has been invaded, the United Nations still faces a major conflict between that nation's future government and that of the United States.

Works Cited

Whitmore, Todd David. "An Occasion of Sin: Economic sanctions against Iraq continue to cause conflict between the United Nations and Saddam Hussain." The Christian Century. 2 Dec. 1998. Find Articles. 15 Apr 2003. http://www.findarticles.com/cf_0/m1058/33_115/53390004/p1/article.jhtml?term=%22united+nations%22+conflict… [read more]

Saddam Goes. I Appreciate Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (335 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


While I agree with Powell's stance and support his optimistic viewpoint, I am disappointed to see such an American-centered bias. I would like to suggest future research and exposition on the future of Iraq's diverse economy: including tourism, education, construction, medicine, and other sectors that will benefit not only Americans but all persons in the Middle East.

This raises another point in connection with Powell's article. Powell seems to be salivating at the prospective business and real estate interests that will come available after the tyranny of Saddam Hussein. Although he clarifies his stance with a quasi-sympathetic statement, the article is still a bit untimely. While the economy of Iraq deserves assistance from the United States and Great Britain, the need for humanitarian aid and other programs less related to the world of finance are necessary. I would personally like to see more willingness to offer corporate financial assistance, as well as more compassion from the world…… [read more]

Persian Gulf War of 1991 Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (769 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Powell's presentation was met with mixed reactions from the international community, but the U.S. And Britain soon began efforts to convince countries to support a resolution to give Iraq an ultimatum: disarm or face war. The security council continued to search for peaceful and diplomatic solutions to Iraqi compliance, but U.S. President George W. Bush issued his own ultimatum to Hussein on March 17, 2003: leave Iraq or face war. Hussein was given a forty-eight hour deadline, but before that deadline even passed, he flatly refused to leave, saying he was ready to meet the consequences. War was launched soon after, being called the "War for Iraqi Freedom."

While the Iraqi people do live under a dictatorship, the war is not a war to free the Iraqi people. Instead, it is a response to Iraq's continued failure to comply not only with Gulf War treaty resolutions set over a decarde ago, but countless efforts since then. The UN and the international community have constantly worked to stop the development and stockpiling of weapons of mass destruction throughout the world and specifically in Iraq. The current war on Iraq is to remove the alleged "direct threat" that Iraq poses with its development and housing of WMD. Iraq has used WMD since the early 1980's (against Iranian soldiers and Kurds during the Iran-Iraq War) and has used them as recently as the Gulf War in 1991. While Hussein is believed to oppress his own people through his "evil regime," the current war on Iraq aims to stop Hussein's threat to international security and safety.


Banville, Lee. "U.S. - Iraq Relations After the Gulf War." PBS Online NewsHour. 25 Mar, 2003. http://www.pbs.org/newshour/bb/middle_east/iraq/us_policy.html.

Key points of resolution on Iraq." BBC News World Edition. 25 Mar, 2003. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/americas/2412837.stm.

Persian Gulf War." Encyclopedia Britannica 2003 Encyclopedia Britannica Online. 25 Mar, 2003 http://search.eb.com/eb/article?eu=60828.

Powell presents evidence to U.N. In the case against Iraq." PBS Online NewsHour Update. 25 Mar, 2003. http://www.pbs.org/newshour/updates/powell_02-05-03.html.

Timeline: Modern Iraq." PBS Online NewsHour. 25 Mar, 2003. http://www.pbs.org/newshour/bb/middle_east/iraq/time1.html.… [read more]

Invading Iraq. The Writer Argues Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,563 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+




While it is important to control the amount of power Iraq ultimately builds, because of its previous threats to the U.S., at this time the United States has more important problems to deal with. The real threat is not from Iraq, but from Bin Ladin and his followers. To divide the troops and the military funds at this time to invade Iraq, would be pointless. It would also provide Iraq with something to build allies with. As long as the U.S. does not have the support of others to invade Iraq, and as long as the U.S. is still under serious and immediate threat by Bin Ladin and his cause it must give up the anger at Iraq and stop devoting time to an invasion plan.


Author not available (2002). BRAZIL CALLS FOR U.S.-IRAQ DIALOGUE TO AVOID WAR., Xinhua News Agency, 09-12-2002.

Author not available (2002). WHY AREN'T SADDAM'S NEIGHBORS AFRAID OF HIM?., The Palm Beach Post, 08-02-2002, pp 19A.

Wallace, Richard (2002). U.S. warn Bush over war., The Mirror, 08-14-2002, pp

Diamond, John (2002). U.S. war planners waiting for Iraq to cross the line., USA Today, 07-12-2002, pp 05A.

Author not available (2002). U.S. PLANNING MASSIVE ATTACK ON IRAQ: U.S. NEWSPAPER., Xinhua News Agency, 07-05-2002.

SAMEER N. YACOUB, Associated Press Writer, Saddam's son warns Iran to stay clear of Iraq in case of U.S. attack., AP Worldstream, 07-14-2002

The Associated Press, Poll Suggests Public Divided on Iraq., AP Online, 08-13-2002.… [read more]

Advertising in a Conservative Society Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,378 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


It is this educated class in Saudi Arabia that is bringing all sorts of changes. For instance, a certain Faisaliah Center in Riyadh aimed to keep itself open during prayer times and provide room for socializing through theme restaurants (Schneider, 2001). However this shopping center was soon visited by religious police and forced to operate according to Saudi laws. Though such radical steps do not stand a chance of being successful, slow and subtle changes have been taking place in the Saudi society as a whole. For instance, women have begun to venture out into retailing, marketing, banking and industry to seek employment or own businesses (Powell, 1998). It cannot be however ignored that media is still largely restricted and monitored by the Saudi Government. Saudi Arabia has the most sophisticated but most restricted media scenes in the Middle East. The state Broadcasting Service of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (BSKSA) broadcasts all programs under direct control of the Ministry of Information. Satellite dishes are banned though some households do possess them and watch more liberal TV channels from the neighboring countries such as Al-Jazeera from Qatar (BBC News, 2002). Officials have tried to counter the influence of satellite TV by encouraging the development of homegrown stations such as Iqra TV, banning satellite dishes and developing a wireless cable system, which gives the government control over which channels can be viewed. Internet was only made available in 1998 where the government invested heavily in security systems to block access to sites it deems offensive or irreligious. All Saudi newspapers are created by royal decree. Foreign papers are available but censored by the government, which includes coloring the exposed arms and legs of women in newspapers with black ink. Moreover Saudi women are not allowed to appear on TV without their black robe and scarf. It is this kind of a societal set-up that an organization has to do any selling.

Saudi Arabia is vastly different from its Western counterparts such as the United States. This is because no other state carries the responsibility of being a religious center especially the U.S. which is a melting pot and hence cannot maintain anyone religious outlook. Moreover the U.S. is an open society with freedom of speech and action that are not governed by any absolute standards of either religion or morality. Therefore advertising can be very explicit without any restrictions. Moreover firms usually use sex appeal of celebrities to sell their products, which is absolutely impossible in Saudia. Therefore the methods that are applied in Saudia are limited to showing content that is approved by the authorities without using any women to sell products. Moreover Saudi firms usually focus on point-of-sale displays and effective shelve-stocking in order to attract customer. In such a society, however it is only the method of direct mailing that can work. Saudi firms can engage in direct mail strategy in marketing and advertising their products since what people receive in mail is not subject to inspection by… [read more]

Turkey: Economy in the 1970s Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,297 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


In November 1979, after another change of government, a second economic stabilization plan was introduced with emphasis on private-sector initiative. This program too met with limited success due to the ongoing civil unrest.

The 1990s

Overview of Major Events

Turgut Ozal, an economist by profession, was re-elected as the Prime Minister of Turkey in 1989, whose government allowed U.S. To launch air strikes on Iraq from its territories during the Persian Gulf War of 1991. Despite massive dislocation of the Kurds, Turkey kept its border closed as it was already facing increasing Kurdish nationalism. Demirel gain became the Prime Minister after defeating Ozal's motherland party in the elections of 1991.Tansu Ciller of the True Path Party became the first woman Prime Minister of the country in 1993. By now the economic boom of the late 80s was an old story. High inflation, increasing foreign debt and deficit financing led to another economic crisis in 1994. Increasing social instability led to the popularity of Islamic fundamentalists. In the parliamentary elections of 1995, the Islamic Welfare Party became the single largest party and formed a coalition government -- the first 'Islamic' government since the Kemalist revolution. However, the secular military, increasingly alarmed by the Welfare Party's support for Islamic education and culture, forced the resignation of the government in 1997 -- banning the Welfare Party in 1998. During this period, high rates of inflation continued to plague the economy. On the foreign front tensions with Greece persisted over the partition of Cyprus and territorial disputes, and the country was accused of human rights abuses over its handling of the Kurdish nationalist movement. Two major earthquakes hit Northwest Turkey in 1999, killing thousands. Relations with Greece improved somewhat with both countries offering aid to quake victims in each other's countries. In late 1999 Turkey was invited to apply for membership of the European Union, reversing a 1997 rejection of such a move.

The 1990s Economy:

The Turkish economy had benefited greatly from the stabilization programs carried out by the Ozal government in 1980s. The Iran-Iraq War (1980-88) proved to be a boon for Turkey as well, since both the warring countries became its major trading partners and Iraq relied on it for the export route of its crude oil. Turkey benefited not only by getting its oil supplies from the pipelines passing through its territory, it also got substantial export fee from the Iraqi oil pipelines. The boom period ended with the Gulf war in 1991, as the UN embargo on Iraq stopped the export of its oil through Turkey. According to estimates the Turkish economy lost over U.S. $3 billion by stoppage of its trade with Iraq. However, after compensation for the loss by Saudi Arabia, Kuwait and the UAE, Turkey's economy began to show signs of improvement in 1992.

The economy again plunged into crisis in 1994. This was the accumulated result of large government spending and heavy public-sector borrowings that reached a record 17% of the GDP in 1993. This… [read more]

Baghdad, Written by Christopher Dickey Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (911 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


In March 1995, the group was ready to launch a coup attempt. However, when they were about to begin, they received a cable from the national security advisor of the U.S., saying they would not receive any support from Washington and the United States. They began their uprising anyway, and a CIA agent with them said they "racked up stunning results over the next few days," but no one in the United States government wanted to know anything about it. "The State Department and the CIA are not interested in dealing with us,' says Chalabi."


It is very difficult to decide which side is right in this story of Chalabi and his group. Why is he so determined to rid Iraq of Saddam? Does he hope to regain the family power that was lost when the monarchy was overthrown? Is he using the millions of dollars he has gotten for his own gain? These questions go unanswered in this article, and really raise more questions.

The author alternately portrays Chalabi as a hero who wants to liberate Iraq from the tyranny of Saddam Hussein, to a scheming "Machiavellian plotter," only out for his own gain, and hoping to drag the U.S. into war with Iraq. Who is he really? I do not think the author answers that question either. He leaves us wondering about the man and his motives at the end of the article. The only thing we really know is Chalabi's background, and what his organization has tried to do before.

Another thing the author mentions is Chalabi's "many friends on Capitol Hill and the Pentagon." They "see him as the driving force who kept the Iraqi opposition alive through years of neglect by the Clinton administration." So, is his support all political, and really has no substance in the real day-to-day world?

My reaction to this article is that it raises many more questions for me than it answers. After reading it several times, I searched for other information on the Internet, to see if I could fill in the holes. It made me want to learn more, and dig deeper into INC, and Chalabi himself. I think the author did a good job of introducing the man and his organization, but left so many things hanging that the reader is also left hanging, and wanting to tie up some of those loose ends. Why do so many organizations find him "ineffectual," yet he still gets money from the government? The man seems to be an enigma, and this article does not clear up any of those lingering questions, in fact, it makes him even more of…… [read more]

Hitting ISIS Where it Hurts Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (535 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Also, the disparate and diffuse nature of loyalties in Iraq must be taken into account. The Iraqi government must carefully marshal support from a diverse range of regional interests spanning from nations like Turkey, the Kurdish population, and from Sunnis. The U.S. can provide assistance with these efforts but cannot be the sole 'prop' of support. The overall philosophy of Johnston is to invest independence in the entities currently responsible for governing Iraq but to maintain U.S. support to ensure an effective policy is being maintained and U.S. interests are appropriately advanced without raising anti-U.S. sentiment or creating the impression that the current regime is a lackey of the United States.

Johnston's philosophy has yet to be tested and may have some problems but his overall ethos seems supported by past events. Creating an impression that a new regime is beholden to the U.S. is no way to gain critical grassroots support, particularly in the Middle East. By giving the regime tools to help itself and combat terrorism, the U.S. can strike a balance between intervention and a completely hands-off attitude. Johnston's assessment of the situation also underlines the need to tailor an attack on terrorist financing to the specific needs of the situation. There is no one-size-fits-all approach to cutting off sources of aid.


Johnson, P. (2014).Hitting ISIS where it hurts: Disrupt ISIS cash flow in Iraq. RAND. Retrieved

from: http://www.rand.org/blog/2014/08/hitting-isis-where-it-hurts-disrupt-isiss-cash-flow.html… [read more]

Cardboard Factory in Jeddah Business Plan

Business Plan  |  2 pages (619 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


The company will follow efforts to hire Saudis, especially for managerial roles, but is willing to hire foreign workers to contain costs and to fill requirements for manual labor positions. All workers must be fluent in Arabic and all managers must also have a working knowledge of English.


The location of the factory is close to industrial areas in Jeddah and along the Red Sea coast, and these areas will be the main target market initially. The market size is significantly more than the expected output of the factory. Jeddah is a historic trade centre and a major port, and so there are also opportunities to export our cardboard to other, nearby countries like Egypt, Jordan, Ethiopia, through the Suez Canal to the Mediterranean markets or across the Arabian Peninsula to Riyadh and the Gulf States. Marketing is primarily going to be done on the basis of strong relationships of the management team with other manufacturing and trading concerns in the region. The company has set a goal to be at 80% capacity in the first year, thereby providing some funding for future expansion of capacity.


The size of the market is sufficient that this project has a high likelihood of success. Equipment for cardboard production is relatively easy and inexpensive to source, and to ship to Jeddah. Furthermore, there is ample labor supply in the area. The region has a large market for cardboard and is a strong trading centre as well, which provides even more opportunity for market growth. It is likely that we can meet our market objectives for the first year, and probably our financial ones as well.


Saudi Embassy. (2013). Industrial cities. Embassy of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia to Washington, DC. Retrieved February 25,…… [read more]

Kurdish Genocide What Countries Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (639 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Kurdish Genocide

What countries were responsible for the genocide against the Kurdish people in northern Iraq? This paper focuses on that question, and the clear answer will be presented; to wit, both Iraq and Turkey had hands in these evil deeds against innocent people, albeit the most draconian and inhumane aggression against the Kurds was committed by Saddam Hussein.

Hussein's Attack and the Aftermath

According to a peer-reviewed article in the scholarly journal Critical Arts: A South-North Journal of Cultural and Media Studies (Leurs, 2011), in March, 1988, the "largest poisonous gas attack ever to have been directed against civilians" compromised the health while killing many innocent people in Halabja, Iraq. For two days, Saddam Hussein's military planes dumped chemical weapons on Halabja in northern Iraq.

The estimate of the number of citizens killed in that two day attack was 5,000 -- at least those that were instantly killed by the chemicals. "In the years that followed thousands more have died and survivors will bear atrocious injuries" all the remaining years they live (Leurs, 298). The chemicals that Hussein's aircraft doused the Kurds with in March, 1988, included: mustard gas, sarin and tabun, Leurs explains (298). Sarin is a nerve gas that is listed as a weapon of mass destruction by the United Nations, and tabun is another very toxic chemical that (like sarin) is odorless and colorless -- but tabun interferes with the functioning of the nervous system in mammals.

The harm done to civilians (those who didn't die immediately) is ongoing; the harm includes miscarriages, birth defects, and leukemia, plus lung cancer and skin cancer (Leurs, 298). Why did Hussein attack the Kurds? Various answers to that question are available but the most common reason given was that Hussein was basically trying to eliminate all Kurds from his country. In 1982 Hussein's motorcade through Dujail (in Kurdish territory) was attacked, and shortly thereafter Hussein send hundreds of…… [read more]

Mummy's Curse Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (580 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


" (Tour Egypt, 2013, p.1) This show, which was presented near the Piccadilly Circus in London in 1821, is reported to have "inspired a little known novelist named Jane Loudon Webb to write a book called 'The Mummy'." (Tour Egypt, 2013, p.1) The book had as its feature a mummy returning to life full of revenge and threatening to strangle the heroes in Loudon's book.

A Scientific Study

The Mummy's Curse was taken so seriously that Nelson (2002) report the examination of the survival of the individuals who were exposed to the 'mummy's curse' or those who were associated with King Tut's tomb being opened in Luxor, Egypt between February 1923 and November 1925. The study was a retrospective cohort study with 44 Westerners identified by Howard Carter as being present in Egypt on the specified dates, 25 of the individuals having been exposed to the curse. The primary outcome measures were the length of survival after the date of potential exposure. Nelson reports that among the 25 individuals exposed to the curse "the mean age at death was 70 years compared with 75 in those not exposed. Survival after the date of exposure was 20.5 versus 28.9 years respectively. The study concludes that "there was no significant association between exposure to the mummy's curse and survival and thus no evidence to support the existence of a mummy's curse." (Nelson, 2002, p.1) However, it has been reported in the work of Lee (nd) that there has been the hypothesis stated that a microbe caused the deaths of those associated with the discovery of the tomb. Dr. Hans…… [read more]

United States Has Since 2005 Imposed Sanctions Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (619 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


¶ … United States has since 2005 imposed sanctions and built a multi-lateral coalition to do the same in response to the development of Iran's nuclear program. The sanctions have been further tightened in subsequent rounds, but Iran remains defiant and continues with its nuclear program. This failure -- to this point - makes the Iranian sanctions a good case study for the effectiveness of actions taken under different worldviews. The realist perspective stresses competitiveness and conflict (Korab-Karpowicz, 2013). Sanctions, especially those implemented with little corresponding dialogue, represent a realist approach to the problem.

Maloney (2012) argues that it is only under the Obama Administration that the stick has been used as a motivator for Iran, rather than the carrot. This is an interesting take given how feeble the negotiations of the past have been. But the point does raise questions about how much the former approach to Iran was rooted in realist ideology. As van Kemenade (2010) notes, the approaches that different nations have taken to sanctions against Iran are complex, and this is the case with the United States as well.

Another view on the U.S. sanctions is that they are little more than a feel-good effort designed to create the impression of action, all the while knowing that the sanctions would do little to persuade the intransigent Islamic regime (O'Sullivan, 2010). If this is the case, there is very little realism in the sanctions -- they are merely a smokescreen for a realist approach. A truly realistic approach might be more confrontational.

This leads us to the current study. The current study can analyze effectively whether or not the ongoing sanctions against Iran are likely to be effective, using the realist point-of-view. In addition, it is worth considering what a realist might think is the end-game for such sanctions. Surely at this point, there is little…… [read more]

Branding Ponds Pest Analysis Political Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (583 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


However, the Turkish are frequently conducting multiple conversations at once and being interrupted is a natural occurrence in this culture. The business culture includes high levels of reciprocity and performing favors maybe be called upon more so than in other countries. The purchasing of facial moisturizers would therefore be furthered significantly from a spokesperson who would endorse the product that had achieved a high status in the hierarchy.


Turkey is one of the most technologically advanced countries in the region and the use of the internet is exploding; especially in the younger demographics. Half of its 75m people are under 30. Around 44% of Turks use the internet, up from just 14% in 2006 and 3% in 2000. They comprise Facebook's seventh-largest national audience (The Economist, 2012). The high rates of internet users in the country have helped to spur a lot of foreign investment in technology sectors that have also expedited high growth rates. Targeted the target market with an online campaign might be a strategy that is not only efficient but also cost effective. Since the growth of online capabilities have increased exponentially, reaching the youth in Turkey with a Ponds marketing message would represent and ideal marketing platform.

Works Cited

Bureau, P. (2012, November 3). PESTLE Analysis of Turkey. Retrieved from Market Analysis: http://market-analyis.blogspot.com/2012/11/pestle-analysis-of-turkey.html

Business Insider. (2011, March 9). Turkey: A Model of Middle East Stability. Retrieved from Business Insider: http://www.businessinsider.com/turkey-a-model-of-middle-east-stability-2011-3

Carter, P. (2010, September). Marketing in Turkey. Retrieved from Dr. Patrick Carter: http://www.drpatrickcarter.com/blog/2010/09/marketing-in-turkey/

The Economist. (2012, December 22). Boom on the Bosperus. Retrieved from The Economist: http://www.economist.com/news/business/21568762-lots-young-people-eager-shop-and-play-online-no-wonder-turkeys-internet-industry

U.S. Embassy. (2012). Ankara Turkey. Retrieved from Doing Business in Turkey: http://turkey.usembassy.gov/doing_business_in_turkey.html… [read more]

Large Kneeling Statue of Hatshepsut Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (630 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


[footnoteRef:2] [2: Abeer El-Shahawy, Farid S. Atiya, The Egyptian Museum in Cairo (American University in Cairo Press, 2005): 160.]

According to the Metropolitan Museum of Art, even the way in which the statue is dressed is symbolic: "the pharaoh wears the nemes headdress, and around her neck is a chain of tubular beads from which hangs an amulet of somewhat enigmatic form (a double pouch pierced with a thorn)."[footnoteRef:3] The statue holds two circular globes in each of its hands, probably designed to represent order and balance. It is possible that the globes represent globes of milk as offerings. [footnoteRef:4] [3: Large Kneeling Statue of Hatshepsut, The Metropolitan Museum of Art] [4: El-Shahawy & Atiya, 160.]

Perhaps most interestingly of all, the inscription on the statue refers to the queen using masculine titles (as a king) but also refers to the queen in the feminine third person.[footnoteRef:5] Even female leaders in ancient Egypt were referred to as kings, given the masculine status that leaders were supposed to uphold. Once again, this underlines the symbolic nature of the statue. Hatshepsut is less of a real woman than she is a stand-in for a representation of godlike, ruling power on earth. Her human qualities matter less than what she embodies as a representation of an idea about ruling and the relationship of rulers to the gods. She is a 'real' woman, but she is also a 'king,' just like she was a 'real' leader whose image is given symbolic significance as representing something about leadership. [5: Ibid.]


El-Shahawy, Abeer & Atiya, Farid S. The Egyptian Museum in Cairo. American University in Cairo Press, 2005

Large Kneeling Statue of Hatshepsut. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, Available:

http://www.metmuseum.org/collections/search-the-collections/100000735 [3 Mar 2013]… [read more]

Sinuhe the Egyptian the Story Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,830 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Many people have had to leave their countries without any notice because of war. Major steps are taken by various international bodies to aid such people and in helping countries to reconcile.

The United Nations is an example of organizations created help people in times of war. Refugees are also helped by being provided with aid in terms of food, shelter and clothing (Gardiner and Alan 22). The story has helped in shaping the society by showing the effects of war. Moreover, peace talks have been the major tool used to cool down tensions that could slowly transform to war. This talk help in creating a peaceful society that hosts people from any background.

Religion has also been followed in modern society just like Sinuhe observed in the story. Religion creates a moral society that does right gives thanks to their god for every step they make in life (Gardiner and Alan 34). Through the story, the modern society has set days that people worship their gods. People believe in the existence of a supernatural being that control events that happen on earth. People believe that this being assures people security, good health and provides them with life that they have. It is through divine intervention that Sinuhe is provided with strength on his flight while on exile until the time he returned to his homeland. Sinuhe also prayed for a return to his home after winning against his opponent in the single combat. He prays for God to pity him and to hearken to his prayer because he was far away. He prays for god to lead him to his homeland, Egypt. This story was well created and as analyzed, it is of great relevance to both the western culture and the modern society.

Works cited.

Bullock, Ronald. The Story of Sinuhe. London: Probsthain, 1978. Print.

Gardiner, Alan H. Notes on the Story of Sinuhe. Paris: Librairie Honore? Champion, 1916. Print.

Matthews,…… [read more]

Acculturation of International Students Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (832 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


" (Razek and Coyner, 2011, p.44)

The work of Shaw (2009) reports "Success strategies the Saudi participants developed included goal setting, time management, study skills, study groups, taking advantage of campus resources, hard work, and persistence." (p.1) Shaw additionally reports" the successful Saudi students who participated in this research are resilient, and they have developed intercultural competence. Resilience and intercultural competence are foundational qualities that enabled the participants to bridge the gap between Saudi Arabia and the United States, settle comfortably in a new environment, adjust to rapid-fire changes and challenges, and develop the strategies to successfully work on reaching their academic goals." (2009, p.3)

The present study involved interviews with female Saudi Arabian students who were asked as to what the most difficult thing to adjust to in the culture of the United States and answers given include the difficulty in understanding the language and in the eating habits of the United States. When questioned concerning their religious obligations answers provided including that they practiced their prayer at home since there was a shortage of local mosques.

The adjustment to the culture of the United States is reported as hard for international students due to the various cultures from which international students come and the fact that the U.S. culture is a combination of various different cultures resulting in confusion for international students.

Findings and Conclusion

The international students from Saudi Arabia who attend colleges in the United States are attempting to assimilate into a culture that is very different from their own and with few supports to make this transition. While there have been studies adding knowledge to this area of study, the research is still lacking in quantity of studies conducted and due to lack of data gathered for analysis of the acculturation of Saudi Arabian students in U.S. universities. This study concludes that there is a great deal more research needed in this area of inquiry therefore, recommended is that more study be focused on this area of research.


Razek, NA and Coyner, SC (2011) Behind the Veil: Cultural Challenges and Opportunities for a New International Student Group. Allied Academies International Conference page 43. Proceedings of the Academy of Educational Leadership, Volume 16, Number 2 Las Vegas, 2011. Retrieved from:

Shaw, DL (2009) Bridging Differences, Saudi Arabian Students Reflect on their Educational Experiences…… [read more]

Feeling Different Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (700 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Feeling Different

I got a scholarship to study in the U.S. And I felt very excited about it. However I knew this would come as a challenge since it was to be my first time in the U.S. And I did not know what to expect in the new country. I expected it to feel different since this was not my native country and there were different cultures and beliefs.

When I arrived at the airport I felt I was given different treatment from other passengers not only from the staff at the airport but also from fellow passengers and people generally. This ranged from how the people spoke to me and even through their actions. It was a very awkward moment as the people there were looking at me in a funny way. Their eyes were full of suspicion and most of them avoided getting close to me. When I went to join a queue for collecting luggage almost everyone moved away apart from two young men and a lady who were Muslims and I suppose were also from my country. I chose to remain calm since I did not want any confrontations that would lead to a more uncomfortable situation. When I was taking my luggage the person who was handing them to me remarked "young man hope you do not have a bomb in there." This came as a surprise to me since there and then I felt that anyone from the Middle East was stereotyped for being a terrorist or being associated with terrorism. This is a great problem of perception, this is among the many varied ways that westerners in the U.S. And in my case that man misinterpret and applied blanket stereotype on people from the Middle East. I told him that not everyone from the Middle East is a terrorist and he should not judge me based on that stereotype. As I walked from the airport to outside where I was to meet with the person who had been sent to puck m and take me to the school, everyone seemed to move…… [read more]

Night That Made Kingdom Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (630 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


That was the story that we were taught in school and also can be found in the history books. However, there is another story that been told by people.

The other story does not show king Abdulaziz as a hero, but it shows that he took over Riyadh by deceit. In this version, King Abdulaziz and his 40 men went to Riyadh at night and a spy opened one of the forts gates without the guards notice. King Abdulaziz and his men walked through the city quietly until they reached Bin Jalawi's house, where they jumped and killed him and his guards. Following these events, they announced that King Abdulaziz is the new king.

Both of these stories are discussed, but the first one seems to be the plausible one. It is well know that the first, second, and third Saudi Kingdoms were established with only one purpose, which was to unite these diverse and disputed areas under Islam. This noble goal contradicts the means that were used to conquer Riyadh in the second story. Also, lack of documentation of the second story decreases its plausibility. There is no book in history that documents the second story or any fact related to it, which might indicate that this story might be just a fable.

The history of Saudi Arabia contains many different perspectives and conflicting stories. Many of these stories have two sides and there are no enough facts to support either side. The future of Saudi Arabia, just like any other country, will continue to develop more stories that conflicting accounts. History will keep record of these stories and people will ultimately have to choose which side to believe. Until there are solid facts to eliminate one side, many elements continue to be unknown similar to the story about the death of King Faisal in 1975 in which people are…… [read more]

Memory Studies Memories of Cyprus Term Paper

Term Paper  |  11 pages (3,506 words)
Bibliography Sources: 11


However, these are official histories and don't not entirely represent the memories of the residents of the two societies. Furthermore, where the history has been twisted for political purposes, one needs to understand that these both the states have a synchronized culture, presenting them to have an identical identity. This is where the concept of Cypriotism emerges. Hence, a combined… [read more]

Egypt's Outline (Main Heading) Political Instability Abets Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (831 words)
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Egypt's Outline

(Main Heading) Political instability abets Corruption and begets underdevelopment in Egypt

(Attention Getter)

Does a direct correlation exist between political instability, inbred corruption, and country's underdevelopment?

Thesis (Points that guide the reader as to the content of your paper.)

Egypt has suffered a lot of underdevelopment due to the absolute corruption that exists there in and the unstable politics that has prevailed in the country.

Body (Heading) Egypt's Climate

1st Point (Subheading) -- Issues & Economic Effects

Share common trends

Oil fueled economy


Lines of delineation

Unclear differentiation of religion and state

b. Socialism regime

2nd Point (Subheading) -- Developmental Issues

Natural resources

a. Origin of raw materials -- petroleum, manganese, talc, etc.

b. Assets for generating revenue

Vast Agricultural land

a. Conducive weather

b. Ability to grow cotton, wheat, rice, corn, fruits, etc.

3. Potential Exports

a. Several raw materials -- crude oil, raw cotton, petroleum, etc..

b. Trade activity with USA, Japan, and Europe

C. 3rd Point (Subheading) -- Political Environment

1. Dynamic History

a. Highly centralized and powerful

b. Removal of Mubarak, resulted in Military Rule since February 11, 2011

2. Corruption

a. Mubarak spearheaded many corrupt cases

b. Privatization of major government operations stopped by El-Shobaki

c. Insurance Companies claiming corruption of misuse of funds

d. Favoritism in government appointments

D. 4th Point (Subheading) -- Solutions

1. Transparent and Fair Elections

a. Conducted by independent bodies

b. Witnessed by international observers

2. Internal Engagement

a. Increase involvement to facilitate more jobs for youth

b. Eliminate bipartisan ideologies that may intoxicate the process.

3. Regional Integration

a. Gain democracy tips for neighboring countries

b. Serve as a guide in the quest for democracy.

4. Security

a. State sponsored terrorism

b. Politically engineered violence

5. Civil Vigilance

a. Society created to monitor corruption

b. Evidence exists that such interventions are effective

D. 5th Point (Subheading) -- Emergence of Pro-Democratic Sentiments

1. Democratic Islamic Parties

a. Turkey with moderate ideologies

b. Iraq under the united Iraqi Alliance

2. Middle East and North Africa (MENA)

a. In 1957, the Eisenhower Doctrine was the start of American Democracy promotion

b. Critics stated democracy cannot be imposed on a people

c. Egyptian new governance will establish a structure that will ensure political stability, thus reducing corruption.

III. Conclusion

A. (Restate Thesis)

Egypt has suffered a lot of underdevelopment due to the absolute corruption that exists there in and the unstable politics that has prevailed in the country.

B. References introduction

Ahram Online, (2011). Employees…… [read more]

Marketing Analysis Key Conclusions Technology Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (2,439 words)
Bibliography Sources: 8



Finances. The start-up costs of this initiative are minimal, and the entire enterprise can be effectively launched for less than $500, making this a highly feasible component as well. The pricing strategy would be cheaper than our competitors as we are going to provide the services by our selves. Also, our services attract customers from different levels of incomes.… [read more]

People's Revolution in Egypt Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (1,084 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


People's Revolution In Egypt

On January 28th Egypt would explode into nearly three weeks of mass protests that would end with ouster of President Hosni Mubarak. This was an important event from a sociological perspective, because it highlights how the conflict theory is correct in identifying the underlying causes of the uprising. As the majority of the people wanted better economic opportunities and working conditions. This is supports the ideas presented in the theory, which states that conflicts will occur in society based upon the lack of: opportunity and equality that exists. (Newman, 2008, pp. 292 -- 316) in the case of Egypt, this is true as the Mubarak government ruled for thirty years and created various divisions in society. These two factors would help to fuel the anger and resentment that boiled over in Tahrir (Liberation) Square, with this becoming the epicenter for the resistance movement. ("Egypt Revolution," 2011) However, to fully understand what took place from a sociological perspective requires examining: the role of the various groups involved and how the social conflict theory would play a part in analyzing these events. Together, these different elements will provide the greatest insights, as to what are the underlying root causes of the revolution.

The Role of Different Groups Involved in the Uprising

During the uprising there were a number of different groups that were a part of the events that took place. Some of the most notable include: President Mubarak, the Egyptian Army and the protestors. These various groups all contributed to the outcome, based upon the actions that were taken during the uprising.

As far as President Mubarak is concerned, he was attempting to hold on to power as long as possible. At first, he a cracked down on the protests by: using the police and then he supported attacks from political operatives. They would directly engage the protestors in Tahrir Square. This would escalate the underlying levels of violence, as the government was unable to prevent the protest from continuing. Once it became clear, that this approach was not working, there would be a shift in tactics. In this case, Mubarak would reshuffle his cabinet, in an attempt to restore order. However, this was ineffective, as the protests would continue until Mubarak officially resigned. This is important, because it shows how the Mubarak government wanted to maintain the status quo at all costs. As he would use force and then addressing the demands of the protestors to calm fears. ("Egypt Revolution," 2011)

The Egyptian Army would play a role in the conflict, by serving as a go between for the protestors and the government. This is because the Army has been directly in control of the government, from behind the scenes since the 1950's. At the same time, they had the respect of the protestors. During the uprising, their refusal to use force against the protestors would mean that Mubarak's options were becoming limited. Where, the Army was starting to side with the protestors, by refusing to… [read more]

Mezuzah and the Jewish Culture Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (579 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Mezuzah in Jewish Culture

The mezuzah (Hebrew for "doorpost") is a traditional symbol of Judaism. It is a small container usually approximately one inch to several inches long and less than an inch wide. The mezuzah is usually affixed to the right doorpost of the front door of Jewish homes and apartments. Typically, it is positioned at an angle and it is belief that this represents a compromise between Rabbis centuries ago who could not decide whether the mezuzah should be mounted vertically or horizontally.

History and Significance

Contrary to common belief, the mezuzah actually is not symbolic of the famous Passover incident in Ancient Egypt when Jews painted calves' blood on their doorways so that God would recognize their homes and spare them from the plagues imposed on the Egyptians to pressure the release of Jewish slaves in Egypt. The inspiration for the mezuzah is actually one of the two biblical passages that are contained within the mezuzah. According to Deuteronomy 6:9, 11:19, God commanded the Jews to keep his words in their minds at all time and to write them on the doorposts on their homes. It is Deuteronomy 6:4-9, a passage known as the "Shema" (Hebrew for the commandment "Listen") after the first words of the passage, "Hear O. Israel…" part of which contains the specific instruction to affix God's words to the doorpost.

Physical Design

The mezuzah itself contains a small piece of parchment paper on which Deuteronomy 6: 4-9 and Deuteronomy 11: 13-21 are written along with the name of God on the opposite side. Orthodox and more observant Jews usually use a hand-written parchment and believe that mezuzahs with machine printed scripture do not fulfill the obligation of affixing God's words to the…… [read more]

Turkey Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (664 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Turkey is one of the most important countries from the European horizon. However, its borders strech at the level of Asia and Africa as well. Given its geostrategic position and its human potential, Turkey is today an essential player on the international scene. From this point-of-view, the internal affairs of the state are relevant subjects for debate worldwide. One such subject is related to the internal struggles with the PKK, or the Kurdish Working Party. Thus the Turkish state and the PKK have fought a series of important political and military battles and are representative for the Turkish politics. In the context of EU accession, the issue of the PKK as well as the Kurdish problem are essential for the reactions of the EU countries.

In the late 70s, the PKK was formed as a result of the contant discriminatory treatment of the Kurdish minority especially in the East and South. At this moment, it is considered that the Ankara government has a different policy towards the Kurdish groups around Turkey which prevents a positive political, economic, and social view on the Kurdish population. This in turn has determined retailatory actions from the PKK, the largest and most important Kurdish party in Turkey.

Today, the PKK represents an even greater danger for Turkey because it sets in question the country's actual possiblities of accession to the EU and its valuable role as a NATO member. The most important demand the group has is related to the creation of an independent, sovereign Kurdish state in the south east of Turkey, with full rights as state. Turkey however denies any possiblity of this taking place. Moreover, the relations Kurds have over the border in Iraw only deepens the problems the PKK pose to the Turkish state. In this sense, at the moment, the PKK is considered to be a terrorist organization (BBC, 2008).

This is not an issue to change over night particularly because the PKK has embraced a violent and distructive policy towards…… [read more]

Amir and Baba in America Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (578 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Kite Runner

Two Views of America in Kite Runner

In Khaled Hosseini's novel the Kite Runner, Amir and his father Baba are forced to leave the life of wealth and luxury that they enjoy in Afghanistan when the Soviet's invade the country, and they find themselves in Fremont, California where the aristocratic and even noble Baba, according to his own reckoning of his lineage, works as a gas attendant. Both of these characters have very different views of their new home in America, largely based on the differences in there own personal histories both before their arrival in the country and as they experience the very different life that America offers them Amir has always been somewhat scared of Baba, who views him as somewhat weak and cowardly; Amir also wonders if his father blames him for his mother's death, because she died while giving birth to him. Amir is also hiding from a very shameful and ultimately spiteful act that he carried out against his best friend in Afghanistan, and this also colors the way that he views America in comparison to his father.

Baba has always been resilient and steadfast, and though one might expect his arrogance and confidence to have been diminished by his fall from wealth and his new position as a gas station attendant, this is not at all what happens. He perseveres, attempting to forge a living for himself and his son. His life to this point has consisted of people listening to him, however, and he runs into trouble at times, with Amir apologizing, "My father is still adjusting to life in America" (128). Though he certainly strives to build a successful new life, Baba still sees America from a primarily Afghani…… [read more]

Iran Hostage Crisis Thesis

Thesis  |  1 pages (419 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 2


Robert Ode- What Life Was Like as a Hostage

Robert Ode, a retired diplomat who accepted a short-term assignment in Tehran, was one of the Americans taken hostage in Iran. His captors were students, who said that they took the hostages because of problems with the American government, not because of a hatred of all Americans. When one looks at how they treated the hostages, this seems both true and false. The students tied up the hostages, confiscated their personal possessions, and initially had them in deplorable living conditions with filthy toilets, limited access to cold showers, and prohibited from talking with the other hostages. This behavior indicates a certain level of personal animosity. However, it does not appear that the students engaged in routine brutality towards the hostages.

In fact, image seemed to be very important to the students who took the hostages. They allowed the hostages to communicate, even though some of the communication was sporadic. Ode's estimates suggest that about 1/3 of the mail he sent actually reached the people to whom he was writing. About midway through captivity, the students seemed to be making concessions for the hostages' comfort. They made efforts to provide Ode and the other hostages with air conditioning, clothing, and personal…… [read more]

Egyptian Art in Narmer's Palette and Akhenaten Essay

Essay  |  1 pages (484 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Egyptian Art in Narmer's Palette And Akhenaten's Stela

Egyptian art was remarkable for a variety of reasons, including its stylized depictions of historical events and personalities, and its basic consistency for thousands of years. Reflective of the Egyptian cultural and political environments, the art of ancient Egyptian communicated civic lessons and religious themes, and memorialized pharaohs and mythic gods. It remained as stable in its depictions as the Egyptian culture did in its long-lived history. This basic truth, however, should not be taken as an indication that there were no stylistic changes that emerged in different periods of history, or that different art pieces were not meant to serve different ends. This paper will compare two important pieces made almost two thousand years apart -- "The Narmer Palette" and the "Stela of Akhenaten and His Family" -- in order to describe a few such evident changes.

The "Palette" was made during the predynastic reign of Narmer, who unified Upper and Lower Egypt around 3100 BCE. It consists of front and back raised carved panels which depict a number of militaristic scenes interpreted largely to indicate the king's unifying conquests. The stark, stylized depictions of violence and ritual military behavior, including troop inspections and a possible execution, are balanced with symbolic depictions of animals in a variety of poses which speak to the king's strength and successful conquest. The emphasis in the piece is on order and disciplined, ritualized behavior. The depictions of…… [read more]

Withdraw of Soldiers From Iraq Thesis

Thesis  |  1 pages (345 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


¶ … Soldiers from Iraq

Our soldiers shouldn't be in Iraq in the first place.

Though the atrocities of the Hussein regime were well-known, this was never our fight.

After the invasion, many other military units were sent to Iraq -- at least twenty-one non-U.S. units existed in the country in 2007 (Global Security.org, 2009).

presence is no longer necessary.

Many attempts have been made to hand the security issue over to the Iraqis; they can either step up to the plate or not (Shadid, 2009).

Some argue that because we started the invasion, it is our responsibility to see it through.

This argument holds merit, but it has its limits.

After so many years, the Iraqis should be able to handle their own security.

The majority of the population is quite glad to have Saddam's regime gone; our job has to end sometime.

Our effectiveness has diminished greatly, if it ever existed with any strength.

A. This is according to policy makers and soldiers on the ground alike

(Khanna, 2009).

3.…… [read more]

Khaled Hosseini's 2003 Novel the Kite Runner Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (581 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Khaled Hosseini's 2003 novel The Kite Runner should be considered an
important work of its time and place. The 324 page book, published by
Riverhead Books, tells the narrative of two families of intertwined
misfortunes across the borders of Afghanistan and America. I initially had
read this text on the advice of a friend. An extremely popular and
critically acclaimed work of its year, I read it with great interest and
found that a number of its themes are extremely compelling and worthy of
critical evaluation. In particular, I selected the work for its themes of
friendship and betrayal, which emerge the relationship between Amir and
Hassan. That this personal story is delivered before the inhospitable
backdrop of Afghanistan would make it a particularly suitable choice for
its relevance to current events. The fact that Hosseini's work was a
bestseller is indicative of the interest of mainstream audiences in such a
subject matter. There is a clear cultural undercurrent disposing people to
interest and education about Afghanistan and its people.
The main characters of the story are initially Amir and Hassan, whose
class distinctions in a caste-driven Afghanistan cause them to run afoul of
an aggressive and psychologically sick boy names Assef. When Amir
witnesses his best friend raped by Assef, he hides in a bush out of fear.
The guilt of this cowardice causes him to frame his friend of theft and
have him ejected from his father's house. The story revolves on the guilt
suffered by Amir upon escaping Afghanistan to California and his efforts at
achieving reconciliation through Hassan's son Sohrab.
Sohrab is another important character in the narrative. As Hassan's
son, he remains the only link to a man who had been killed for standing up…… [read more]

Not Without My Daughter 1991 Movie Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (591 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


¶ … movie, "Not without my daughter," the character Betty adapted to Muslim culture in order to escape her abusive husband in a non-American country. "Betty Mahmoody (Field) is an American married to Moody (Alfred Molina), an Iranian immigrant who works, somewhat unhappily, in the U.S. As a doctor. They have a young daughter, the unfortunately named Mahtob (Sheila Rosenthal). The moody, who feels he's suffering discrimination at work, needs a break and decides to take the family for a visit back to his homeland. Betty's goal, of course, is to get the hell out of Iran, but not without her daughter, but to do so she's going to have to find a sort of Iranian underground railroad, a chain of sympathetic taxi drivers, document forgers, and smugglers, to help her out. The off-putting thing about Not Without My Daughter is its relentlessly ugly depiction of Islam and the Muslims who practice it. By all reports, the book on which the movie was based was more subtle and educational about Islamic practices" (Not without my daughter). Therefore, in order leave the country, Betty had to adapt to the culture to get her daughter and herself out safely.


Along with that, Betty began to wear the proper clothes for a woman in Iran in order to appear she was accepting of this culture. By appearing as though she respected the culture, she was able to find individuals that were willing to help her to leave the hostile environment, which seemed anti-American.

Betty did manage clandestinely to make contacts with people in the underground, who also wanted out of Iran. She snuck such meetings into her shopping schedule when she was able to move about. The Swiss Embassy and a few other people, both Iranian and…… [read more]

Europe From 1948 to 2004 From Cooperation to Integration Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,507 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Europe From 1948 to 2004

The ascension of Turkey into the European Union has been one of the most historically difficult of all expansion moves. Several member states with limited or strained relations with Turkey, (mainly France and Greece) opposed the absorption of Turkey into the EU. Their cited reasons for opposition included their own political agendas as well as… [read more]

Accidental Threats to Security in Turkey Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,160 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 4


Accidental Threats Turkey

Accidental threats such as car accident, plane crashes and industrial accidents are significant social threats to any nation. In Turkey, as in other nations occupational hazards are likely the most foundational of accidental threats to attempt to prevent. These accidental threats can be regulated through safety legislation and enforcement of such regulation upon industry.

In Turkey there was a significant drop in the rates of occupational injuries that resulted in lost work days, and/or ended in fatalities between the years 1997 and 2005 only for the rate of incident to rise again in 2006, to greater than previous levels.

1997 1474, 1998-1252, 1999-1333,2000-1291, 2001-1008, 2002 878, 2003 811, 2005-1096, 2006-1601

Occupational injuries which resulted in temporary or permanent incapacitation showed a more fragmented pattern but were still significant in number with a demonstrative spike in 2006.

1997 ND, 1998-3850, 1999-3407, 2000-1848, 2001-2183, 2002-2087, 2003-1596, 2004-1693, 2005-1639, 2006-2267.

The statistic for all non-fatal occupational injuries, reported by insured workers demonstrate a marked decline as the number of (insured) workers out of 100, 000 who reported injuries was 69 in 1998, 68 in 1999, 35 in 2000, 45 in 2001, 40 in 2002, 28 in 2003, 27 in 2004, 24 in 2005 and 29 in 2006, which shows a marked decline in the number per 100, 000 which coincides with a marked decrease in the incidence, in relation to the total number of insured workers over the years. By far the most dangerous job category is mining and quarrying which in 1998 claimed 1840 non-fatal injuries (of insured persons out of 100,000) Fatal injury statistics in the same parameters (number out of 100,000 insured workers reporting) 1997 29.0, 1998 22.5, 1999 22.9, 2000 24.6, 2001 20.6, 2002 16.8, 2003 14.4, 2004 13.6, 2005 15.8 and 2006 20.5. * Clearly this category has a shining star of danger in that a much higher number of workers were killed in mining and quarrying operations than in any other occupational category. The limitations of this data, though it is valuable is that there are likely many individuals who do not report injuries, as well as many unnumbered individuals who work in occupations but are not insured.

Collectively when data is compared it can also be said that most if not all industries have shown a marked decline in accidental death and injuries, as compared to the numbers of people employed. There is a clear sense that Turkey has progressed significantly in injury prevention. This work will then attempt to analyze how Turkey has made such strides. Many would say that external pressures from organizations such as international labor organization, the first specialized agency of the United Nations, established in 1919 and partnered with the UN as its first specialized agency in 1946. The mission of the organization is not only to collect labor data, but also to work in all nations to develop fair labor conditions for all employees, as a way of helping reach the UN goal of lasting peace ("About… [read more]

Criminal Threats in Turkey Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,237 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 4


Criminal Threats in Turkey

Turkey has been an interesting case study for international relations for decades now. It is neither a Muslim, nor a European country, yet its foreign policy prospects include the affirmation of an increasingly important role in both regions. However, such an ambitious plan requires the resolution of internal crises that press on the society. It can be said that the Turkish state faces serious challenges in insuring a proper human security environment and up to this point there is little improvement in this sense, rather an escalation of the threats facing the society.

By far the most important criminal threat which the Turkish society and government must face is the PKK or the Kurdistan Workers Party. The state has taken serious action in response to their terrorist acts and fueled the conflicting situation. Currently, it can be said that the society is threatened by the possibility of more attacks, while the government has deployed troops in Northern Iraq to hunt down Kurdish terrorists.

The threat the Kurds represent for the Turkish society is not of recent date; however, the political aspect of the constant Kurdish insurrections dates back to 1978 when the PKK was formed. The party promoted a nationalistic view directed towards the eventual establishment of a Kurdish state that would have included the entire Kurdish population. (Cerrah, 2006) the group is labeled by all parties involved and by the international community as a terrorist group because their actions have "caused the deaths of over 30,000 people, including Kurdish civilians, members of the security forces, and terrorists." (Cerrah, 2006) Therefore, the reactions of the authorities have been somewhat motivated by the need and international demand to maintain the civil peace inside the Turkish society.

The importance of the Kurdish issue has been acknowledged especially in the light of the latest developments at the Iraqi border where Turkish troops have been deployed. (Torchia, 2007). The Kurdish issue is essential for both the equilibrium in the area, and for the national and ethnic framework of the Turkish state. For the neighboring countries, the claims of the PKK for a national Kurdish state would imply the reorganization of their own national territory, taking into account the fact that the Kurds are also spread in Iran, Iraq, and Syria. In Turkey, they represent almost 20% of the population. (Federation of American Scientists, 2007) Despite this overwhelming presence, there is no recognition of the Kurdish nationality, the population being subjected to increased censorship and control.

There are certain measures the authorities use to protect the Turkish population from the violent manifestations of the rebels against the local population. In this sense, the most radical step taken by President Abdullah Gul is the use of troops against the Kurdish rebels in Northern Iraq. This measure was taken in order to prevent the killing of more Turkish soldiers by the PKK.

Aside from the military measures taken against the terrorist group, the Turkish authorities have also been active in trying to limit… [read more]

Empire Reflection on Rashid Khalidi's Resurrecting Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,223 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1



Reflection on Rashid Khalidi's Resurrecting Empire: Western Footprints, and America's Path in the Middle East

How does Khalidi frame his analysis of the current war/conflict in Iraq?

According to Rashid Khalidi, quite often the current crisis in Iraq, like so many Middle Eastern conflicts previously, is framed in terms comprehensible to the Western powers -- that of progress vs. fanaticism. In other words, representatives of the West and proponents of Western institutions and culture are depicted as advocates of freedom and democracy, contrary to the forces of oppression. Viewed as such, the West is seen as a liberating and progressive force contrary to religious and nationalist movements that would presumably pull the Middle East back into tyranny and theocracy. The West is rendered neutral, while representatives of native movements become non-neutral 'evils' and backward elements that are roadblocks in the way of a morally neutral good known as democracy.

This is a cogent analysis of how the United States became involved in the current quagmire in Iraq. The U.S., in its own self-image, but not in the cultural understanding of the Middle East itself, becomes a neutral force of democracy, while representatives of the Iraqi religious communities are portrayed as fundamentalist in the Western media and therefore evil, just as Saddam Hussein can have no support from 'good' progressive Iraqis. Little historical context is given to the region, either in the understanding of policymakers or in the terms the issue is framed to the general population.

How is the current crisis in Iraq and Afghanistan related to other problems in the Middle East and Central Asia?

However, in Iraqi and Afghanistan terms, quite often what the West sees as fundamentalist, these nations see as nationalistic and anti-colonial in nature, even by persons who have received secular educations and who are highly literate. The United States condemned and mocked the Soviet tanks that came into Afghanistan and called Russia a force of national liberation. The secular Soviets were then replaced by a fundamentalist regime in the form of the Taliban. But the United States made the same mistake in Iraq and used a similar universalizing ideology, albeit one of democracy and not of communism on par with the Soviets.

Regardless, the legacy of colonialism is more recent in the Middle East than the United States, which did not have major colonial holdings within the region, might realize. Khalidi points out that almost any citizen over the age of fifty in any Middle Eastern nation has some memory of the colonial past, in other words, most young persons' grandparents. This age group includes most of the ruling and powerful patriarchs of the Middle East, fostering a distrust of the West, Western institutions, and Western ideology, of which democracy is seen as one -- amongst every nation's cultural leaders and shapers.

Amongst young people, this memory of colonialism is kept alive within their own civic institutions such as the national school system, holidays, monuments, and all of the other types of cultural… [read more]

Battle of Khafji Desert Storm Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (320 words)
Style: Turabian  |  Bibliography Sources: 1



The first "major ground action" of the Persian Gulf War occurred in January of 1991 in the coastal town of Khafji, Saudi Arabia. A surprise attack of around 500 Iraqi soldiers left two Marine reconnaissance teams trapped in a building. They were later rescued by allied forces, who provided almost all of the counterattack force in Khafji. The death toll of the "hit and run" attack varied between different sources. While Washington claimed that 12 Saudis and 28 Iraqis had died in the incursion, the Saudi commander, General Khalid Bin Sultan claimed 200 Iraqi deaths. Later Marine reports noted that 17 Iraqi tanks had been destroyed in Khafji, and Marine aviators had destroyed 15 more Iraqi military vehicles during their retreat from Khafji. Near the Kuwaiti border, Marines held back another ground offensive which resulted in the destruction of 22 tanks. No American casualties were incurred at Khafji but 11 Marine deaths were reported in the skirmishes along the…… [read more]

Beethoven Iraq During a Brief Respite Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (398 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 2




During a brief respite from the attacks that have paralyzed his city, an Iraqi man takes his children out for ice cream. For one moment on the news, America sees an Iraqi father watch his children lap up soft serve during an ordinary moment of family togetherness. The man shrugs when asked if he believes that peace is near. He is philosophical, not hating (or loving) America or the Iraqi fundamentalist insurgents. He merely regrets the circumstances that have inhibited the course of his ordinary life. Other images, like soldiers 'rapping' with Iraqi children might seem like more radical cultural mergers of American and Iraqi society are really just status quo images of wartime and have parallels with other typical dramatic media images of war, like the tearing down of the statue of Lenin. But this image of an apparently ordinary day is really the most avante guard image -- it shows that Iraqis just want to get on with their lives. Their culture is not exotic and most Iraqis are obsessed with religion or politics. Most people remember personal aspects of their lives as fond memories, not the toppling of Saddam Hussein, and they are not…… [read more]

Nuclear Crisis in Iran at Present Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (368 words)
Style: Harvard  |  Bibliography Sources: 2


¶ … Nuclear Crisis in Iran

At present there seems to be a failure in the efforts of international diplomacy to turn Iran away from pursuing a path of nuclear proliferation. The European Union, as in keeping with idealistic solutions of conciliation, offered a non-proliferation incentive package to Tehran in the beginning of summer 2005 which was "comprised of nuclear technology, trade advantages, and a security dialogue," and was "far from empty" in terms of the bonuses it offered (Dupre, 2007).

But Tehran rejected this package, and although an idealist might suggest another, more attractive offer, a realist solution seems more feasible. Furthermore, independent analysis suggests that there is no way that Iran's nuclear technology is designed for energy purposes alone, as Iran alleges. Furthermore, there is no right to enrich uranium under the Nuclear Proliferation Treaty, and Iran stands in flagrant violation of this stipulation. Also, "Tehran breached the Paris Agreement, resumed conversion, and undertook R&D enrichment and production of enriched uranium up to 3.5% with 164 centrifuges (April 2006) while testing a second cascade with the intention to install 3000 centrifuges by…… [read more]

Baray's Analysis of Cultural Miscommunication Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,387 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3


Baray's Analysis of Cultural Miscommunication -- Between German and American Jews, between Native and White Americans

The sociologist Laray M. Barna (1997) suggests in her essay "Intercultural Communication Stumbling Blocks" that, ironically, one of the first cultural stumbling blocks someone in a new cultural environment may encounter, a barrier that impedes full, true understanding of 'the other' is the naive assumption that people are all alike, because they are human. Although this may sound like a good thing at first, this assumption can often lead to a failure to recognize the foreign person's needs and desires. This is seen poignantly in the fate of the German refugee Oscar Gassner. Oscar is conflicted between his sense of German nationalism, which he still retains within his soul, and the impersonal New York environment, which assumes that everyone who comes to the city, loves the city, and is willing to embrace a new identity, that of an American. Oscar still remembers his wife, a non-Jew, back in Germany, and wonders if "in her heart," she was "a Jew hater," and that all non-Jews are Jew haters (Malmud, p.25) Also, Oscar's fellow Jews assume that he is happy to be in America, and that America is good place for Jews to live. Oscar is assumed to be the same as Americanized Jews, because he is of the same persecuted religion.

The second barrier to cultural understanding between two people from different cultural contexts is that of language, on the obvious level of linguistic mistranslation but also an a third level of nonverbal communication. Although Oscar Gassner speaks English, this sense of a barrier is also frequently expressed in the pain of Bernard Malmud's "The German Refugee." This German survivor of the initial Nazi persecution still feels as if he expresses himself best in his German language, even though he hates what Germany has done to Jews like himself in the name of German nationalism. Oscar may speak English, but German is the language that he feels most comfortable speaking in, in terms of his emotions -- and no Americans seem to understand this.

The story suggests although German Jews like Oscar have found a physical place of sanctuary in America but that they are aching within, because their uncertain relationship with the new English language is not understood by American Jews, and because these refugees can only imperfectly express themselves in English. They cannot "say what was in them to say," even when asked to talk about subjects specific to the German-Jewish experience like "The Literature of the Weimar Republic," a lecture that Oscar is asked to give to an assembled crowd of persons from his new nation, a lecture Oscar can never bring himself to give. (Malmud p.20)

Malmud's story is set in 1939, and the protagonist knows that most New Yorkers think he should be happy, to some extent, to have escaped the suffering that lay behind him in Germany but because Oscar feels that his suffering is impenetrable, inexpressible, and unheard… [read more]

Regime Change and Democratization of Iraq Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,807 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


¶ … regime change and democratization of Iraq has led to an emerging market that can become extremely susceptible to new market products. In the six months after liberation in Iraq, 20 million cell phones were distributed among the population. The explosion of consumerism is due to the denied access to luxury goods in the last regime that resulted in… [read more]

Oil for What? Illicit Iraqi Oil Contracts Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,578 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Oil for What? Illicit Iraqi Oil Contracts and the UN Security Council

In Heaton's (n.d.) work, the United Nation's Iraqi Oil-For-Food program, and its suspected illicit dealings, are investigated.

Over a 6 1/2-year period, beginning in 1996, more than 1,300 oil contracts were issued, with the intended purpose of humanitarian relief for the Iraqi people. However, many have questioned whether… [read more]