"Journalism / Media / PR / News" Essays

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Media Review News Story Essay

Essay  |  8 pages (2,918 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 6


Hence, propaganda model comes into play here.

Bloomberg Business Week

Bloomberg Business Week published a couple of abridged versions of the story on the issue, which also introduced the company by giving a short introduction. Look at the following short stories, published there followed by an analysis at the end:

About the Company: Viking Air Limited has been working as… [read more]

Parallels in Journalism Studies Culture Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (1,187 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Sometimes though, in very heated and dangerous situation, journalists are one of the few groups of people who are allowed safe passage and access to dangerous or rare or amazing situations, places, people, and information. Journalism students and professionals should remember the history and the connection to democratic practices as part of their journalistic practice as well. Like other chapters discussed in the paper, McNair has a very strong sense and grasp of world history and how cultural shifts influence modes of expression and communication such as journalism and mass media.

In chapter 21, Ward writes upon a very closely related topic to journalism and democracy, which is ethics in journalism. This is very serious issue that can confuse journalists and can have serious consequences or affects upon audiences, as journalism students who are abreast of world press may well know. Journalism is a profession where ethics are often in questions and if journalists lack ethics, certainly it is their choice, but that choice will have repercussions. Not only does the chapter discuss the notion of ethics and ethics in journalism, the chapter additionally explains the five stages in the development of ethics in journalism as well as four approaches to the study of ethics in journalism today. Thus, even if one is a new journalism student, one understands that the issue of ethics is not one to be taken lightly, and that there is vigorous research and guidance toward a standard of ethics or ethical code by which journalism professionals are expected follow or at least of which they should be aware.

Finally, the focus of chapter 24 takes the themes and ideas expressed in the aforementioned chapters, and blows them up to the global scale as Cottle writes about journalism and globalization. Globalization is a movement that can be directly attributed to the advent of certain forms of digital technology including the Internet. There are very, very few industries and disciplines that have not been affected by either positively or negatively by processes of globalization. Now more than ever, journalism is an international field that garners a great deal more global exposure and attention than before things like the Internet. Cottle stresses the importance of cultural sensitivity and the roles of news media in the communication of culture and not just news. In many of the headings in this chapter, Cottle uses the word emissary to describe the function of media. Emissaries are like ambassadors or diplomats; they represent the culture and the country from which the media originates. This kind of perspective is interesting and potentially very positive. It will make journalists take their work seriously and take their professional seriously, hopefully working with humility, grace, and a sense of professional responsibility.


Coleman, R., McCombs, M. & Shaw, D & Weaver, D. (2009). Agenda Setting. In K. Wahl-Jorgensen & T. Hanitzsch (Eds.), The Handbook of Journalism. (pp. 147-160). New York, NY: Routledge. (chapter 11)

Cottle, S. (2009). Journalism and Globalization. In K. Wahl-Jorgensen & T. Hanitzsch… [read more]

Racism in Media Television News Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,594 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3


Having watched the advertisement, it appears as though the only thing missing from this advertisement was blackface. A second advertisement from the company is equally racist and depicts two -- apparently well-off business executives -- conversing in ebonics and imitating black mannerism, that is, until a black co-worker walks up and they immediately stop their behavior as though such comportment is something to be ashamed of (Minato). While advertising executives should realize before they release advertising campaigns that certain approaches are blatantly racist, it is only after public outcry is heard that these campaigns are stopped. Given the countless number of racist advertisements in existence, it is a wonder how it is possible that these advertisements got beyond the brainstorming phase of creation.

As much as people may try to deny stereotypes in the media, the fact remains that Blacks are continuously negatively depicted in news broadcast reports and stories, as well as in the advertisements that fill the time between news reports. While there is no reason for such a divide between blacks and whites to exist in the media, given media history, the only time anything is ever done to stop discrimination in the media is when the public speaks out, however, it has also been demonstrated the public only speaks out when a matter concerns or impacts them personally.

Works Cited

Balkaran, Stephen. "Mass Media and Racism." The Yale Political Quarterly Vol. 21 No. 1

(October 1999). Web. 3 December 2012.

Brown, Michael K. Whitewashing Race: The Myth of a Color-Blind Society. Los Angeles:

University of California Press, 2003. GoogleBooks. 3 December 2012.

Entman, Robert M. And Andrew Rojecki. The Black Image in the White Mind: Media and Race

in America. Chicago: The University of Chicago…… [read more]

Presence of Media Bias Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (797 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


To refer back to the first question asked, I would say that when considering and limiting the scope of the argument to local and national news in the United States broadcast on basic, non-cable channels, the answer is yes. These programs and stations are out of control with regard to displays and demonstrations of bias. I do not personally watch "regular" news that often because it is deeply depressing and staggering. Most of the stories are about horrific crimes and tragedies; often a series of these kinds of stories are shown in a row -- one after another of some terrible accident, horrendous crime, or lack of justice in the world. It is unbearable. Many stations cast white anchors as leads with limited ethnic cast members. Many stations give the male news casters the top stories or the most dangerous or cinematic stories. These are reflections of bias. Both the stories that are reported and the stories that go left unreported reflect bias as well. Any day of the week, an American can turn to their afternoon or evening local news and hear a report of a violent crime perpetrated by a minority. This does not mean only minorities commit violent crimes or that minorities comment a large quantity of violent crimes, but with the absence of counterstories or variations on that story, that is what the average, moderately literate viewer thinks. The bias of "regular" news sustains many kinds of stereotypes that have negative impacts on society.

The media is biased; it has always been biased. The largest, wealthiest, and most powerful companies or individuals that own biased news programs consist of affluent, conservative white men. When there is more diversity at the top, the removal of bias or at least diversity of bias will trickle down. Objectivity is a fairly impossible state to achieve in general. At least programs and stations could be more open about their biases and acknowledge them as well as the biases of others. Then consumers can make more informed decisions about what news media they consume as well as make more informed choices about perceptions of others and the world.


Giles, D. (2003) Media Psychology. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.: Mahway, NJ.

Wahl-Jorgensen, K. & Hanitzsch, T. (eds) (2009) The Handbook of Journalism…… [read more]

Citizen Journalism, Tech, Advertising Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,841 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


Their conclusion is that the return falls short because there is too little in the outcome that is a promising and verifiable as expected (The Open Newsroom 6).

FINANCIAL UNCERTAINTY: If support means something, citizen journalism has a future. Several sites are offering technical, legal and even broadcast incentives to encourage more people to be involved as citizen reporters (The Open Newsroom 7). CNN is widely recognized for this as it seeks to capture videos of local news and events. The issue of money and advertising, however, is much less certain. Some writers are beginning to expect to be paid something on the belief that their visibility on the Internet has some value, even if they are not writing for profit. The balance of this with the different purposes of the genre is not well understood yet but there still seems to be many opportunities for all types of innovations that could well cash-in on a well-established pattern of possibilities.


Bandon, F. Citizen Journalism & Democracy in Africa: An exploratory study. HighwayAfrica.com. Open Society Foundation for Africa. 2010. Retrievable from http://www.highwayafrica.com/media/Citizen_Journalism_and_Democracy_Book.pdf.

Bentley, C.H. Citizen Journalism: Back to the Future. Discussion Paper: Carnegie-Knight Conference on the Future of Journalism, Cambridge, MA. June 20-12, 2008. Retrievable from http://citizenjournalism.missouri.edu/researchpapers/bentley_cj_carnegie.pdf.

Bruns, A. Citizen Journalism and Everyday Life: A case study of Germany's myHeimat.de. ARC Centre of Excellence for Creative Industries and Innovation Queensland University of Technology. 1-11. No date. Retrievable from http://www.highwayafrica.com.

Hurst, N. Citizen Journalism vs. Legacy News: The battle for supremacy. Missouri School of Journalism. Columbia, MO. July 8, 2010. Web. Viewable at http://journalism.missouri.edu/2010/07/citizen-journalism-vs.-legacy-news-the-battle-for-news-supremacy/.

The Open Newsroom. Citizen Journalism: A primer on the definition, risks and benefits and main debates in media communications research. 1-10. No date. Retrievable from http://www.theopennewsroom.com/documents/Citizen_%20journalism_phenomenon.pdf.

WAN-IFRA. Study says: citizen journalism not yet a threat. World Association of Newspapers and News Publishers. Editor's Weblog. May 8, 2010. Web. Viewable at http://www.editorsweblog.org/2010/05/28/study-says-citizen-journalism-not-yet-a-threat.… [read more]

New Media Implications the Improvement Essay

Essay  |  10 pages (3,186 words)
Bibliography Sources: 20


Others view them as heroes that are fettering out the facts and figures that the established news media does not want others to see. Whether one views them as legitimate news makers or just part of the audience that is just stirring things up can vary, but this obviously is an example of the lines between audience and newsmakers blurring… [read more]

Language of News Reporting Thesis

Thesis  |  8 pages (2,320 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 4


Language of News Reporting

In the modern era most journalism analysts concentrate on the impact that the text and language used in an article has on overall results attained. For example, Blommeart in his study conducted in 1999 explains:

"Texts generate their publics, publics generate their texts and the analysis of 'meanings' now has to take into account a historiography… [read more]

Partisanship of the News Media Research Paper

Research Paper  |  12 pages (3,829 words)
Style: Turabian  |  Bibliography Sources: 12


Partisanship of the News Media and Its Effect on the Last 25 Years of United States History

Media Impact & Partisanship

In the 21st century, there has been a particular development on the media front, and which has completely changed the outlook of media towards political factions (Merriam-Webster). The act of partisanship has been on the rise and media houses… [read more]

Pulitzer Prize's Effect on Journalism Essay

Essay  |  13 pages (3,734 words)
Style: Chicago  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+



Joseph Pulitzer and his Eponymous Prize: The Shaping and Stature of Modern American Journalism

Joseph Pulitzer is remembered variously as a pioneering voice and face in the newspaper industry and the field of journalism, and as a quasi-robber baron with more greed than conscience and a willing to sell principles if it meant selling papers. Neither view can be… [read more]

Growth of Mass Media in the United States Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (490 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 2


Growth of Mass Media in the United States

How does the history of New York City predict the history of the development and growth of most of the mass media in the United States?"

New York City is famously the city that never sleeps -- and its morning, afternoon, and evening newspapers were harbingers of the 24/7 connected media society we live in today. Early on in its history, due to the fact that so many immigrants chose to settle within its confines, every neighborhood of New York took on different character. Immigrants gravitated to areas where their native languages were spoken. These concentrated ethnic neighborhoods often produced community institutions such as newspapers written in the language of the neighborhood. This is reflected the segmentation of mass media today, where people who are conservative tune into Fox news, while liberal individuals read similarly-spirited blogs. Every ethnicity or nationality can find access to the media voices that speak the language of their culture on the World Wide Web.

New York City's rapid industrialization and high population density made it the ideal location to launch yellow journalism, or highly inflammatory, populist journalistic style characteristic of the New York World, run by Joseph Pulitzer and the New York Journal, run by William Randolph Hearst, both of which began in the 19th century ("Yellow Journalism, Think Quest, 2007). New York's relatively small environment also enabled an intimate relationship with politicians and celebrities alike. What the mayor of New York…… [read more]

First Broadcast News Job After College at a TV Station in a Low Market Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,193 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … Broadcast News Job

In today's world, media, through the broadcasters and/or journalists has been playing a detrimental part to the people's lives. Becoming a journalists and/or a broadcaster entails a lot of efforts already, and it presents a big impact to the majority of readers or viewers or listeners.

First, there are series of responsibilities that all broadcasts journalists should adhere to. Journalists and broadcasters must learn to accept that their role requires being humble and publicly, that what they do is far more subjective and far less detached than the aura of objectivity implies -- and the public wants to believe. If the broadcasters and journalists stop claiming to be mere objective observers, it will not end the charges of bias but will allow them to defend what they do from a more realistic, less hypocritical position (Gillmor, 2004, para 4). Also, journalists and broadcasters need to free (and encourage) reporters to develop expertise and to use it to sort through competing claims, identify and explain the underlying assumptions of those claims, and make judgments about what readers and viewers need to know to understand what is happening (Gillmor, 2004, para 8).

The above stated responsibilities may seem very hard to uphold, but that is really part of the job. These responsibilities serve as a guiding point when starting the broadcast career job after college.

The Broadcast News Career

On Regular workload

Being in a broadcast industry, on whatever country, it can be expected that broadcasters or broadcast journalist will be on call 24/7, 365 days a year. This is because every minute counts. There are always news and issues everyday that the public must know. The fresher the news gets published or aired, the better it is for the public. It can also be expected that press conference, announcements and various turn of events do not happen on a per schedule basis, especially if it concerns the national issues such as security and safety, health, calamities and disasters etc.

Hence, a responsible broadcast journalist should always be active and on the go on for every update.

Indeed, being in a broadcast news career would mean a 24-hour a day work load.

On Skills Required

An entry level position in a broadcast news career would require dynamism at work. Any broadcaster or journalist at this level should have the so-called 'nose for news' where in he/she must know what things, issues or events are news worthy, where to get the news, how to get and when to get it. This is a very important skill because this will weigh the credibility and capability of the broadcast journalist is in providing the news.

Moreover, a broadcast news reporter or journalist - entry level or not - must know how to communicate and/or interact well with people. Most often than not, people are the best source of information, hence if the broadcast news personnel is not armed with the right skills in talking, interviewing or interacting with people, no… [read more]

Ethnic/Race in the News Media Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,922 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


But all agree that there is room for improvement." (Rifkin) This is undoubtedly the case. The way in which ethnic and racial issues are covered by the media is skewed. The news media, as well as the entertainment aspects of the media, have an agenda to get ratings. This means that morality and social justice are often curbed in order to bring in the most money. "News gathering, to be sure, is a highly imperfect art, and problems with basic facts, not to mention nuances, are common. But when you are talking about conflicts that are at their root racial, ethnic or religious, the stakes are higher. This is the stuff riots, wars and deep-seated prejudices are made of, and the news media has an even greater responsibility than it normally does to get it right." (Rifkin) Since 9/11 and the introduction of the so-called War on Terror, it is even more dangerous that the media continues to fling racial and ethnic issues around carelessly.


AAR. "History of AAR." Artists Against Racism. http://www.vrx.net/aar/history.html

Creeley, Will and Rendall, Steve. "White Noise: Voices of Color Scarce on Public Radio." Extra! September/October 2002. Fairness & Accuracy in Reporting. http://www.fair.org/extra/0209/white-noise.html

Douglas, Susan. Listening In: Radio and American Imagination. New York: Times Books, 1999.

Ely, Melvin Patrick. The Adventures of Amos 'N' Andy: A Social History of an American Phenomenon. New York: The Free Press, 1991.

Entman, Robert and Rojecki, Andrew. The Black Image in the White Mind: Media and Race in America. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2000.

Gilliam, Frank. "The Local Television News Media's Picture of Children - 2001." Study on Race, Ethnicity and the News. October 2001. Children Now. Complete Study Findings Available for Download at http://www.childrennow.org/newsroom/news-01/pr-10-23-01.cfm.

Hangen, Tona. "The Adventures of Amos 'n' Andy: A Social History of an American Phenomenon. Melvin Pattrick Ely. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 2001." Journal of Popular Culture. August 2004 Vol. 38 Issue 1, p 214, 2p.

Nachman, Gerald. Raised on Radio. New York: Pantheon Books, 1998.

Rifkin, Ira. "Covering Conflict: How the News Media Handles Ethnic Controversy." Media & Values, Issue 43. Spring 1988. Print Journal Archived Online by the Center for Media Literacy. http://www.medialit.org/reading_room/article382.html

Stark, Phyllis. "A History of Radio Broadcasting." Billboard. November 1, 1994. http://www.kcmetro.cc.mo.us/pennvalley/biology/lewis/crosby/bilboard.htm

Stockman, Robbie. "Amos 'n' Andy-ism: What it Was and What It Is." http://people.ucsc.edu/~dramadon/Amos_and_Andy.htm… [read more]

Media: An Exercise in Sensationalism Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (946 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


This results in a narrow perspective and limits the information available to consumers about important issues in the world.

The pursuit of profits and increasing mergers between news companies has resulted in inadequate media coverage. According to Croteau and Hoynes (2001) increasingly news media agents are pursuing profits by working together, but the result is an edging out of ideas and discussion of topics and subjects that might be more valuable to the public than sensationalism. News divisions in recent years are merely the product of capitalist society, having become "just another profit center for conglomerate parents" that are required to yield profit ratios (Champlin & Knoedler, 2002). A trend toward media "concentration" is also occurring where most of the mass media in the country is dominated by a few large corporations including AOL-Time Warner, Disney (ABC), Viacom (CBS) and NewsCorp (Fox News Channel) (Champlin & Knoedler, 2002). Because the power of coverage is limited to a few big mega corporations, (such as AOL Time Warner which regulates CNN), the content more and more is becoming shaped by advertisers and other agents looking to boost profits rather than really offer the public a fair portrait of the news. News for profit requires that ratings be obtained (Champlin & Knoedler, 2002) thus the quality of news has decreased and the entertainment and sensationalist aspects of news coverage have increased significantly in recent years.

The news media has failed consumers in many ways, primarily by focusing on sensationalist tactics geared toward increasing profits rather than providing objective and well rounded coverage of important world events. The power of news media is controlled by a few large corporations that are concerned with making profits and improving ratings rather than supplying the public with the best possible coverage. A majority of news coverage is either very limited in nature or biased. News reporters aren't focused on reporting and analyzing from many different perspectives. Rather, only the most dramatic tales are offered in the media, and when they are concentrated on to improve ratings rather than inform and educate the public. Much of the news can be considered simply an agent for entertainment rather than a journalistic venue. The duty of the news media is to report on an event and subsequently analyze it from many different perspectives. Unfortunately this is not happening and consumers are suffering as a result.


Baker, William F., and George Dessart. Down the tube: An inside account of the failure of American television. New York: Basic Books, 1998

Champlin, D. & Knoedler, J. (2002). "Operating in the public interest or in the pursuit of private profits? News in the age of media consolidation." Journal of Economic Issues, 36(2) 459.

Croteau, David, and William Hoynes. (2001). The business of media: Corporate media and the public interest. Thousand Oaks,…… [read more]

War Coverage-Media Obsession to Argue Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,676 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


However, intending no disrespect to her, Pfc. Lynch is not a heroine - which she herself recently acknowledged to Diane Sawyer in her first TV interview - but merely the victim of an unfortunate wrong turn."

The media mood swings have actually created a great deal of confusion as public feels betrayed and misled after the media realized its own errors in reporting and the hype that it creates about a certain event. The war is a crucial time for any nation and this is when the public expects to be told the truth. However what we receive from newspapers and television is half-baked stories with candy-colored icing. For example during the U.S.-Iraq war, the media presented distorted picture of war and its purpose. The truth was told later but by then, it was already too late. The difference with the Internet is that news comes in from various quarters and we get to read news from other channels as well. This helps us in developing a more balanced view of war and other events. This is the reason why some Internet users even prefer online newspapers to print newspapers as the study revealed: "Online is preferred over print, in some cases by considerable margins, for respondents' ability to find the information they need, the time they save finding the right information, entertainment, enjoyability, how the information is organized, how detailed it is and how useful the information is." (5) For this reason we can conclude that while print newspapers will always be our main source of authentic information, online newspapers are rapidly catching up and may pose a threat to regular newspapers soon.


Stuart Allan, News Culture. Open University Press: Buckingham 1999

William V. Kennedy, The Military and the Media: Why the Press Cannot Be Trusted to Cover a War.: Praeger Publishers. Westport, CT. 1993.

The Washington Times. Lynch, West and Common Sense. November 23, 2003. B05.

Christopher Hanson, American Idol: The Press Finds the War's True Meaning. Columbia Journalism Review. Volume: 42. Issue: 2. July-August 2003, 58+.

By NAA Market and Business Analysis Staff Print and Online Components Bring Strength to Newspapers


Rusty Coats Online newspapers: are they helping or killing their print parents? -…… [read more]

Mass Media and Politics Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (2,565 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


The Commission also referred to the three major and crucial responsibilities of the press that are central to its political role-- to provide true and undistorted information, educate the public to make them capable of self-government, and to serve as a watchdog on government. Another function of the press is to represent the various segments of the society as they… [read more]

Social Media's Massive Influence Essay

Essay  |  6 pages (1,540 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


Everyone should understand that what they watch on TV or in the films are there to help them alter their mindsets regarding given viewpoints or opinions. This is a matter of social control since the society in the contemporary era has most of its affairs implicated upon by the media. In the current epoch of globalization, everyone must be conscious of the diverse features that apply in the production of TV programs and films and their connotation on the diverse ethnicities and divisions of the society. The media civilization of current times incline to promote numerous entrepreneurial principles, by damaging the marginal interests, and depicts a profound effort that exists among diverse races, social classes, sex, and societal groups. People should appreciate and understand the character and effect of the production maneuvers of the media relics and their implication on individuals in a given society. It is pertinent to look deeper and comprehend the media society as to its functioning, and how it serves to alter our mindsets, inclinations, and viewpoints, resulting in a social control all at the media's discretion.


Biagi, S. 2011. Media Impact: An Introduction to Mass Media: An Introduction to Mass Media, Toebben: Cengage Learning.

Conrad, R. 2002. How, if at all, have the mass media reinforced social inequalities? Munich: GRIN Verlag.

Dill, K. 2009. How Fantasy Becomes Reality: Seeing Through Media Influence, New…… [read more]

Children and Media Technology Surrounds Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,902 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10


This creates a sense of protection that they are able to feel. By being immediately informed about the occurrence of any eminent danger, these media sources are in fact protecting the children that they at times could harm developmentally.

In all, the dire effects that the media has on children are undeniable. The mainstream and social media create false expectations about image, societal values, and privacy. Today's children are affected developmentally by all of these occurrences, as their world is surrounded by these technological advances. However, despite the negativity that is at times associated with the development of mainstream and social media, they have also had positive effects on the lives of today's children. The youth of today are exposed to numerous cultures around the world and are able to better learn from personal interactions with them. The mainstream media has also assisted in keeping children up-to-date with current events and has also served as a medium through which to deliver emergency news if necessary. Mainstream and social media will only continue to develop and its effects on the lives of today's children need to be continuously monitored.


Anderson, D.R. & Hanson, K.G. (2009). Children, media, and methodology. American Behavioral Science. 52(8), 1204-1219.

Bargh, J.A. & McKenna, K.Y.A. (2003). The internet and social life. Annual Review of Psychology. 55, 573-590.

Chau, C. (2010). YouTube as a participatory culture. New Directions for Youth Development. 2010(128), 65-74.

Christakis, D.A. & Zimmerman, F.J. (2009). Young Children and media: Limitations of current knowledge and future directions for research. American Behavioral Science. 52(8), 1177-1185.

Livingstone, S. & Helsper, E.J. (2006). Does Advertising Literacy Mediate the Effects of Advertising on Children? A Critical Examination of Two Linked Research Literatures in Relation to Obesity and Food Choice. Journal of Communication. 56(3), 560-584.

Mangold, W.G., & Faulds, D.J. (2009). Social media: The new hybrid element of the promotion mix. Business horizons, 52(4), 357-365.

Oakes, J.M. (2009). The Effect of media on children: A methodological assessment from a social epidemiologist. American Behavioral Science. 52(8), 1136-1151.

Ponte, C. (2007). Mapping news on children in the mainstream press. European Societies. 9(5), 735-754.

Stice, E., Maxfield, J., & Wells, T. (2003). Adverse Effects of social pressure to be thin on young women: An experimental investigation of the effects of "fat talk." International Journal of Eating Disorders. 34(1), 108-117.

Von Feilitzen, C. (2012). Children's media use in…… [read more]

Embedded Weapons of Mass Deception How the Media Failed to Cover War in Iraq Book Report

Book Report  |  20 pages (6,480 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 20


Embedded: The Relationship Between Form and Theoretical Assumption in an Account of the Iraq War

Danny Schechter's book Embedded: Weapons of Mass Deception looks at the media coverage surrounding the Iraq war and attempts to argue that the American news media failed in its duty to robustly investigate the claims made by the military and civilian government. However, the book's… [read more]

Media Culture Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (871 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Media Culture

My opinion of traditional news has definitely changed. I am more critical of the news now that I understand theories of framing and agenda setting. For the most part, news outlets play to their target audience, the audience that they intend to deliver to their advertisers. This definitely helps to frame the way that they present the news and present their arguments. By framing issues the way that they do, news agencies can impact on how people think about the facts that are being presented. This can affect the way that people think about certain issues.

News organizations can definitely influence our political decisions. When people vote, they do so on the basis of their understanding of the issues and where the different candidates stand on those issues. Much of this information is disseminated through the news media. The news media therefore plays an important role in educating the public prior to voting. When the news media shows bias in its framing of issues or positions, it impacts on that thought process. For example, when a politician makes proposals to solve the budget problem, but those proposals are useless from an economic perspective, but the media frames the proposal as being serious, that makes people think that there is a serious proposal. The media needs to educate people better, for example pointing out the flaws in such a proposal so that the people are voting based on good knowledge and not knowledge that has been randomly selected and presented in an uncritical way. If the media chooses only to present facts, it should help to educate voters on how to interpret those facts so that issues are more properly understood. Right now, the way that media frames issues, it seems that the media does a poor job of helping voters to understand issues and positions properly. This results in some low-quality people being elected, which ultimately harms our nation.

2. Media literacy helps us to be critical of the messages that media sends and the way that those messages are framed. However, media literacy messages can be disrupted by a number of means. The first is that media literacy messages are sometimes suppressed, so that the intended audience does not receive the message. This can lower the degree of media literacy, so that people are generally less critical about what they see and hear. People therefore become more trusting of the media, and this reduces the effectiveness, for example, of public service messages or even of the news. If we consider the relatively low number of people who study media literacy and communications,…… [read more]

Privatization of U.S. Media Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (627 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 2


Media Privatization U.S.

Privatization of the media in the United States has promoted growth in new media technologies and helped the country reach its current position as a global leader in communications. However, a privatized media restricts access to communications resources, limiting editorial voices to the for-profit sector. Corporate-run media means more potential for economic growth but stifles diversity of opinion. Moreover, media privatization has enabled the current conglomeracy situation in which a relatively few number of major corporations own and operate almost all the media outlets in the United States. If the media is essential to a democracy in disseminating information and permitting a plurality of voices, then media conglomeracy may in itself be undemocratic. By definition, privatized media restricts access to resources. The general public does not read, listen to, or see that which has not cleared the editorial offices of the major media outlets. Those outlets are headed by profit-hungry corporations that pander to investors at the expense of the truth. Biases in reporting and coverage is also a by-product of media privatization and especially of media conglomeracy.

Public influence on traditional media content is negligible. Letters to the editor are often the only opportunities an average citizen, one who is not associated with the media, can voice an opinion and reach a wide audience. New media offers a wealth of venues for voices alternative to the mainstream: blogs and other personal Web sites allow individuals to express themselves freely. With regards to the content contained in reputable media outlets online, though, private companies still control what and how topics are covered. What passes as newsworthy differs from source to source but generally an editorial staff selects content that best suits its bottom line. Because media conglomerates are composed of companies with interests other than those related to the media, stakeholders and investors often do not care what passes as…… [read more]

Global PR Trends? Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (969 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Stewart's use of her advocacy for prison reform is an excellent example of trying to turn a negative public event, such as company's chief executive doing jail time because of an insider trading conviction, into a potential PR plus.

Thus, proactive PR planning takes place when one seeks publicity and seeks to reach out to the media organizations and to the general public. In contrast, reactive PR is needed when an already established figure, more often than not, is suffering the effects of negative press and must turn his or her image around. PR personnel often accomplish this image rehabilitation by the crisis a different spin, or deflecting attention from the crisis onto another issue.

In addition, synthesize the course learning by describing the impact of positive and negative PR in your daily life and provide at least two examples of each in your paper.

Of course, one prefers to think one stands above the fray in terms of public relations -- when one studies its influence, and is so cognizant of its insidious uses and subtle effects, one would like to think PR has no impact upon one's own personal world view and behaviors. However, every time one picks up a flyer for a local band playing in a local bar or fraternity house, one is indirectly sampling positive PR for the band, and also the venue. This can be a good thing, as if one attends, one's own enjoyment is enhanced, as well as the band's reputation and the establishment that is hosting the band. If one returns to the venue to buy a drink (or decides to 'rush' the fraternity house) even when the band is not playing, however, the objective of the PR promotion for the bar has been achieved.

Even product placement PR can be informative in a positive fashion -- click onto a press release about a new healthy product. One may find a cheaper and better alternative to one's current choice for dinner, or a faster and better way to go about one's personal computing. Simply gaining information, even slanted information, provided one is a savvy consumer can be a boon.

The only time PR can be labeled bad in no uncertain terms is when it is unethically disseminated -- such as when one is subject to a press release about a new diet product or fitness aid that appears to be a scientific article rather than a promotional device. However, the most extreme examples of bad PR and its negative effects may be out-and-out slander, such as the distribution on the part of Michael Jackson's attorneys of negative information about his young accuser and the accuser's family, information to the mass media. In court, this is a part of the adversarial judicial process, but in the media PR war it seems to be merely a way of bolstering the singer's damaged…… [read more]

Media Criticism Killing the Messenger: 100 Years Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,177 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Media Criticism

Killing the Messenger: 100 Years of Media Criticism contains a collection of fifteen essays on media criticism. A UC Berkeley Graduate School Dean at the time of publication, Editor Tom Goldstein's selections span several centuries, focusing on the American press in particular. Goldstein is keenly aware of both the power of the press over a society and of the lack of adequate self-criticism among media professionals. Killing the Messenger was published in the 1980s, long before the first "Survivor" episode hit American airwaves to spark off a wave of reality television shows. Killing the Messenger also hit the presses decades before the 2000 presidential election or September 11 and therefore predates the current media crises facing the United States. Nevertheless, Goldstein's collection of articles remains relevant. Moreover, even in the 1980s, many of the authors included in the collection were already dead and gone. Included in the compilation are Louis Brandeis, Samuel Warren, William Allen White, George Seldes, Theodore Roosevelt, Spiro Agnew, Walter Lippmann and Charles Merz, Clifton Daniel, Will Irwin, Upton Sinclair, Carl Ackerman, Robert Maynard Hutchins, Joseph Pulitzer, Frederick Lewis Allen, and John Hersey, as well as one selection from the Commission on Civil Disorders. Many of these men wrote before television and even radio were daily realities. Goldstein brings them all under one collective cover, illustrating trends in journalism styles and changes in the ways media is perceived in the United States, as a force of social conscience and social control.

Each of Goldstein's selections is prefaced by the editor with a brief synopsis of the writer's contribution to modern journalism. Killing the Messenger is divided into five topical sections: reporting on public and private matters; journalists and their biases; the power and limitations of the press; making reporters better; and news and reality. Goldstein's election to subdivide his essay selection contributes to the collection's organizational appeal. Goldstein is, moreover, a frank and forthright journalist who is unafraid to critique the press or the popular culture that it both informs and reflects. For example, in his Preface, Goldstein states, "Contemporary journalists have not shown any great appetite for self-analysis, and they pretty much hunker down when others pick on them," (xi). His selection of essays is an attempt to awaken a slumbering media from its complacency and self-satisfaction.

If Killing the Messenger has any faults it is Goldstein's implicit idealism with which he views the press. Modern journalism is motivated more by a bottom line of profit than it is on the muckraker mentality. Unfortunately, corporate capitalist ideals sometimes run counter to what many journalists have in mind: the expression of the truth. Furthermore, what the muckrakers taught and what the blog writers have since picked up on is the necessity of infusing any subject with passion and even opinion. The term muckraker originated in the early American work by John Bunyan, Pilgrim's Progress and was later borrowed first by the New York Post and later made famous by President Theodore Roosevelt. Muckrakers were essentially… [read more]

Media Ownership Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,473 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


The journalists and station managers in the local Fox TV affiliate are producing less and less of the news segments seen in Madison's Fox channel. Instead, these news and commentary segments are produced in "NewsCentral," a centralized communications production station operated by Sinclair. The same news segments and commentaries are piped to all the local affiliates, from Madison, Wisconsin to… [read more]

Technology Such as the Internet Research Paper

Research Paper  |  6 pages (1,908 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 7



The use of modern technology such as the internet indeed has a negative impact on the news industry. This is however dependent on the active population within a given society. The modern technology has really affected effected the news industry by allowing for an easier and quicker access to news content as they come in. This is obvious from the way literature talks about this decline on the news by journalists, news companies by examining extant literature on journalists and how they are working with new technology, blogging, twitter and such kinds of technology. The paper also explored how the news industry makes money from technology (from advertisement) as well as how the technology might make them these companies bankrupt (from a drop in sales value and reduction in advertisement revenue). The statistics on the decline of the news industry which are presented allows us to make possible long-term effects of technology adoption on the news industry to be real.

Works Cited

Berte, Katrien, DeBens, Elsa, "Newspapers go for advertising: challenges and opportunities in a changing media environment," Journalism Studies, Vol. 9 No.5, pp.692-704.2008

Bird, S.Elizabeth "The future of journalism in the digital environment," Journalism, Vol. 10 No.3, pp.293-5.June 2009

Currah, Andrew "What's happening to our news. An investigation into the likely impact of the digital revolution on the economics of news publishing in the UK," RISJ/Joseph Rowntree Reform Trust Report, Reuters Institute of Journalism, University of Oxford, Oxford, 1 Jan 2009

Deuze, Mark and Bruns, Axel and Neuberger, Christoph "Preparing for an age of participatory news," Journalism Practice, Vol. 1 No.3, pp.322-38. 19 Sep 2007

Domingo, David Thorsten Quandt, Ari Heinonen, Steve Paulussen, Jane B. Singer, and Marina Vujnovic "Participatory journalism practices in the media and beyond: an international comparative study of initiatives in online newspapers," Journalism Practice, Vol. 2 No.3, pp.326-41.2008

Freer, Julie "UK regional and local newspapers," in Anderson, P., Wood, G. (Eds),The Future of Journalism in the Advanced Democracies, Ashgate, London, pp.89-103.2007

Graham, Garry, Alison Smart, "The regional-newspaper industry supply chain and the internet," Supply Chain Management: An International Journal, Vol. 15 Iss: 3, pp.196 -- 206, 15 March 2010

Mintel, Regional Newspapers, Mintel, London, 2007

Pincus, Walter "Newspaper narcissism: our pursuit of glory led us away from readers," Columbia Journalism Review, available at: www.cjr.org/archive, 1 June 2009)…… [read more]

Mass Media Affecting Degree of Acculturation for Taiwanese Adult ESL Learners Ages 18-25 Literature Review Chapter

Literature Review Chapter  |  10 pages (3,390 words)
Bibliography Sources: 20


Acculturation of ESL Learners in Taiwan

How impactful is the mass media in terms of the acculturation for Taiwanese adult English as a second language (ESL) learners (ages 18-25)? This issue has important implications for the ESL students both in terms of learning the English language, and in understanding the culture from which the English language is predominant. This paper… [read more]

ABC News Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,720 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … Coverage

Millions of Americans turn to the mainstream media for news about current events. Yet increasingly, the news they see may not be the objective coverage many expect. Contemporary television news has become a melange of enticing entertainment, disparate facts, and often forceful opinion. Anchors and reporters highlight those news items they and their networks deem important. Stories… [read more]

Media Bias and Public Opinion Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (3,160 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Such reporting is nothing more than propaganda." (POLLAGANDA - Manipulating Public Opinion, 1998.) This has, the authors suggest, produced a new term - Pollaganda - which is defined as follows:

Media polling is used to manipulate public opinion and advance a particular bias. This is primarily accomplished by television networks, on which most people rely for daily news. (Those who… [read more]

Media's Role in Time Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (1,825 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


The media has a role to play during times of national crisis because it is so strongly depended on by the public.

The media also has a responsibility to the public to protect it even if it means withholding information. The media can hurt national security by reporting everything that it finds out. In addition the public may have members who are intent on harming those who live here. If they can gather information through the media that would hurt national interests the media in essence will have had a hand in the destruction of national security. The media does have a role to play during national crisis. It has to be strong, and calm while at the same time providing necessary information to the public. It walks a fine line between freedom of speech and alarming the public to the point of being harmful. Its role as provider of information must be tempered with the common sense to not raise undue fear in those that depend on it for strength and guidance.


Anchoring the nation.(Peter Jennings)

American Journalism Review; November 1, 2001; Robertson, Lori

Newspaper editorials follow lead of Bush administration.

Newspaper Research Journal; January 1, 2003; Billeaudeaux, Andre Domke, David Hutcheson, John S. Garland, Philip

9/11 attack coverage reveals similarities, differences.

Newspaper Research Journal; January 1, 2003; Li, Xigen Izard, Ralph sy-Turvy: American universities are places of dizzying unreality -- and this does considerable harm.

National Review; October 13, 2003; HANSON, VICTOR DAVIS

Local, network TV news shows significant gains.

Newspaper Research Journal; January 1, 2003; Poindexter, Paula M. Conway, Mike

Exuberant Reporting.

Harvard International Review; March 22, 2001; SHILLER, ROBERT J.

The local roots of federal policy change: transportation in the 1990s.(Statistical Data Included)

Polity; December 22, 2001; Lewis, Paul G. McGhee, Eric

Post, Times highlight government's war efforts.

Newspaper Research Journal; January 1, 2003; Lee, Changho

Anchoring the nation.(Peter Jennings)

American Journalism Review; 11/1/2001;…… [read more]

Mass Communication: Examination Annotated Bibliography

Annotated Bibliography  |  4 pages (1,160 words)
Bibliography Sources: 14


One focus that this textbook is able to provide that others can't is how mass communication relies on women in advertising and how that powerful role can be adapted.

Harris, R.J., & Sanborn, S.W. (2013). A cognitive psychology of mass communication. New York: Routledge.

This book very aptly examines the way in which basic psychology figures into mass communication and how these fundamental pillars of psychology can be used to sway opinion. The authors look at the distortion present in social mirrors and how emotion can effectively be harnessed to influence public opinion. This book offers a strong foundation of the psychology and psychological strategies that ultimately underscore the bulk of all media tactics. For instance, the book discusses the use of fear in the media and how the media has long-harnessed the technique of fear-mongering as a means of gaining public attention. Finally, the book devotes a chapter to the influence of sexuality and sensuality in the media and how that can be a powerful tool. The book touches upon some of the major arenas of influence in mass communication.

Hardt, H. (2008). Critical Communication Studies. New York: Routledge.

This book is able to offer more theory and background on the entire field and backdrop of critical communication, while examining the history and theory which have guided it as it continues to evolve. It discusses the pragmatism and the pursuit of social criticism which is an aspect of mass communication as a whole. There's a very thorough discussion of communication studies and the aspects of communication research which influence critical theory of communication and communication itself. Shortcomings, along with common media miscommunications, are discussed, along with a look at how they occur in the first place. Moreover, there's an element of communication research which needs to occur. Finally, this book was ultimately overly based in theory and did not provide enough examples from real life to support its point.

Hardt, H. (2008). Myths for the Masses. San Francisco: John Wiley and Sons

In this short essay, Hardt essentially describes the process of how our perception has long been distorted via the media. Hardt explains how and why he does not believe that mass communication actually contributes to the promise of democracy or the meaning of self in society. To a certain extent, it appears as though Hardt is making the argument that the media depends on a certain amount of social distortion in order to thrive. This allows it to not just sell to a wider consumer base, but to be able to control that consumer base for the most part. Thus, Hardt makes a strong case for the fact that the media distorts as a means of transferring information to the public, because it is in the best interest of the media to do so. However, as the reader is able to aptly realize, this is not always the case.

Hirst, M. (2007). Communication and New Media. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

This book functions primarily to offer up… [read more]

Tylenol Cyanide Case Study

Case Study  |  4 pages (1,160 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


Tylenol Case Analysis: Johnson and Johnson

In the contemporary world, taking responsibility and immediate action in the face of a huge crisis is a requirement for any U.S. corporation if they are to survive and maintain their market position and reputation. These types of organizations are expected to be socially responsible to their employees and the public not only if they are directly involved in a crisis involving their products or services, but also if there is an indirect association. In 1982 Johnson and Johnson was faced with this challenge. They were indirectly involved in a catastrophe which killed seven people because their leading pain killer Tylenol was tampered with and unassuming consumers became the victim of such an atrocity. The way in which Johnson and Jonson dealt with the situation is the basis or our case study. In fact, their response was remarkable and commendable. The outcome of this catastrophe created a new standard in "crisis management." The company was applauded for how they responded while prioritizing the consumer over their monetary losses. As a result, Johnson and Johnson recovered and within months after the crisis their markets share exceeded all expectations.

This paper discusses the entire case; dissect the elements of the case, symptoms, goals of the organization, management theory, diagnosis the barriers Johnson and Johnson, the media and the public viewed during the crisis, solutions proposed, action plans they used to overcome barriers, consequences to the plan, action plan to the larger context, external forces, implications for two directions of corporate integrity, and it will interpret the original case elements in light of the larger horizons of the era. Johnson and Johnson was seriously affected by the chain of events caused by this crisis, but how they handle this challenge, and how they moved through the process is the very reason they not only survived but are thriving today.

Elements of the Case - Company Facts- Johnson and Johnson firm incorporated in 1887. The firm provided sealed surgical dressing which was germ-free, wrapped and ready to be used. In the late 1880's this was considered modern medicine and for antiseptic treatment of wounds. Johnson and Johnson had subsidiaries in more than fifty countries worldwide. McNeil Consumer Products is a subsidiary of Johnson & Johnson developed the painkiller called Tylenol. As an oath to the public, Johnson and Johnson created a Credo statement, written in Robert Johnson in 1943, conveying and prioritizing their responsibility to their consumers. This statement is posted on their website today as "Our Credo Value" and demonstrates the emphasis on being socially responsible to everyone who uses their products.

Actual Crisis- on September 30, 1982 CEO, James Burke of McNeil was notified that seven people died from the Chicago area from cyanide laced Tylenol after ingesting the capsules. People died within minutes of taking the capsules. The perpetrator placed deadly cyanide into the Tylenol bottles. The nation was warned that there might be a connection between the deaths and Tylenol. Suddenly Johnson and Johnson… [read more]

Effects of Media on Culture Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,068 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


¶ … Media on Culture

The objective of this work is to write a research proposal relating to the effects of media on culture.

The effect of media on culture is well documented in the literature reviewed in this research proposal. Media in advertising affects purchases, choices of styles in clothing, choices in music and in fact affects a plethora of areas within a culture including the commission of violent crimes.

Questions that this research intends to seek the answer to are the questions as follows:

Do you allow violence in the video-games or television viewing of your household?

Have you or any family member committed a violent crime?

Who makes the media viewing decisions in your household?

Are you swayed by the wishes of other household members and if so what are their ages?


The proposed methodology of this study is one of a qualitative nature through use of the research instruments a pre-formed survey/questionnaire to be given in a semi-structured interview.


The proposed timeline for this survey is a period of six weeks during which randomly selected households will be interviewed.


After having reviewed the literature in the following Annotated Bibliography it is the opinion of this researcher that a better understanding of the influence of media on the culture can be understood through the proposed research as stated. Further this brief study concludes that media affects on culture are both positive and negative.

Annotated Bibliography

1. Pope, V. (2002) What Do We Mean by 'Mass Media' and 'Modern Culture' Online available at http://www.litnotes.co.uk/mass_media.htm.

Stated in this work is that in the study of media also studied is "how we define out own sense of who and what we are..." Stated as well is that "Since the mid 19th century, we have come to live not only in a situated culture, but in a culture of mediation. The press, film and cinema, television and radio and more recently the Internet, have developed to supply larger scale means of public communication." This work states that there are there major areas of concern which are those of: (1) Mass media has a political and a persuasive power over us. Radio, TV, the press and film can manipulate whole societies. Political propaganda, advertising and the so-called 'mind-bending' power of the media are long-standing causes of debate and concern; (2) Since the 19th century there has been a mistrust of so-called 'popular culture', which is thought to debase or degrade cultural traditions and standards. The ongoing debate about the future of public service broadcasting in Britain in the 1990's is an example of this. What exactly is 'quality' and cultural value in broadcast output? (3) The most contentious issue concerns the effects of the mass media on social behavior, in particular violence and delinquency. The media have regularly been accused of 'causing' outbreaks of unrest in society."

2. Computer Games - Violence - Media Effects Theory (2006) Encyclopedia of New Media Online available at http://wiki.media-culture.org.au/index.php/Computer_Games_-_Violence_-_Media_Effects_Theory.

The study of… [read more]

Staten Island Ferry Accident Case Study

Case Study  |  5 pages (1,516 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … Island Ferry accident from the standpoint of public relations. The writer explores the way the information was disseminated and given to the public by various agencies. The writer then examines and outlines a model public relations plan that the NYDOT should have adopted.

The Staten Island Ferry accident was one of the more shocking tragedies the nation has… [read more]

Framing: A Comparison of the New York Term Paper

Term Paper  |  27 pages (7,306 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … Framing: A Comparison of the New York Times and the People's Daily Coverage of Sino-U.S. Spy Plane Collision of April 1, 2001

It was April 1st, 2001 in the South China Sea. The unprecedented collision between a Chinese fighter jet and a U.S. spy plane triggered a month-long political and diplomatic standoff between two countries. Both parties paid… [read more]

Wealth of Networks Communication Research Paper

Research Paper  |  14 pages (4,609 words)
Bibliography Sources: 12


Up until now, access to the informational network -- the internet -- has been near neutral with respect to both the person using it and the data that the person is passing back and forth (Hindman 327-348). The internet operates much like a public highway, in that it is indifferent to the person and his or her destination, as well… [read more]

Online Multitasking Term Paper

Term Paper  |  40 pages (11,474 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 30


Change Management

Online Multitasking

Perhaps the very best question that you can memorize and repeat, over and over, is, what is the most valuable use of my time right now?'" - Brian Tracy, Motivational Coach and Author (Tracy, N.d.)

Eons of Multitasking

College students, as well as, businessmen/women, and parents, particularly moms, practiced multitasking eons before the Internet came into… [read more]

Inductive Reasoning and Fallacies Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (611 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


By using respectable individuals in the society (preacher, attorney, White House personnel, and feminist), Kearns tries to increase the truthfulness of his report. Furthermore, the author uses testimonials, inappropriate use of statistics, and biased statements to generalize about the truth and harmful effects of ass milk to women. Testimonials are in the form of statements from the authorities he cited (mentioned earlier), inappropriate use of statistics are used to prove scientifically the truth of the story, and bias (specifically, appeal to prejudice through personal attacks) when it becomes evident that Kearns is against this ass's milk effect issue, as he labels the producer of this product, Ali Ben Hassan, as a "shadowy and wily businessman," and the 'anti-ass milk' sentiments of the White House (purported to be Pres. Bush's statement) and the Church's (Rev. Wilson).

In advertising, the common fallacy committed used is trickery with language, specifically, the use of weasel words and euphemisms. Examples of these weasel words in advertisements are the following: the slogan of Oil of Olay's UV Protectant Lotion: "Proof we can help you feel younger" and "If you'd like Lancome's Vitabolic, you'll love Beautician's Secret." Euphemisms, on the other hand, are mild or vague expressions used in replacement of a harsher or blunter one. Examples of euphemisms include words such as "vertically-challenged" (short), financially able (wealthy), and lovemaking (sex). These examples are substitutes for words that may sound offensive to the receiver of the message. However, one disadvantage of using euphemisms is that it "hides" the real underlying message in the statement. In sum, these fallacies and their examples from popular media information illustrate that, indeed, misleading and false information are proliferated in exchange for profit and patronage and loyalty of the audience (at the expense of truthful reporting of facts and information).… [read more]

Magic Bullet Theory Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (3,545 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


'Mass media can be defined as avenues for messages that are created for consumption by large numbers of people. These 'message consumers' are physically separated from one another (to distinguish a mass medium audience from, for example, attendees at a pro-football game). They are also diverse in terms of their interests, values, and other demographical characteristics."

Each time a new… [read more]

Hero? Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (2,822 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


For example, Wayne's movies encourage us to think of soldiers as heroic rather than to consider heroic and manly the diplomats and politicians and ordinary people who try to stop war.

In trying to understand how mass media like Wayne's movies affect our idea of the heroic (or of anything else), part of what we are asking falls under the… [read more]

Media the Two Media News Outlets Research Paper

Research Paper  |  5 pages (1,502 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6



The two media news outlets that I am going to evaluate are the Onion News Network, which a cable television program based on the Onion website, and WikiLeaks. The Onion is a satire-based program, so the stories covered are fictional, but serve the purpose of shedding light on issues in American city. WikiLeaks is a website that serves as… [read more]

Media Technology A-Level Coursework

A-Level Coursework  |  4 pages (1,067 words)
Bibliography Sources: 9


Media Technology

Explain the concepts of agenda-setting and framing. In your explanation, identify a specific example of each from the news site I've reproduced on the last page of this exam, and explain how it is an example of the concept in question. (If you feel you cannot find an example for one of them, explain clearly what might count as an example.)

Framing presents a meaningful but fractured paradigm for communication scholars (Papacharissi & Oliveira, 2008). Framing has direct implications for how people perceive news stories and other items that they do not encounter directly. Furthermore, framing can also sets the agenda that the news is trying to portray. In the sample front page provided in The New York Times, there are several examples of framing. One example would be the prominence of items such as the police information, terrorism, the economy, alcoholism, and other such matters. Other than some beneficial news about the economy, virtually everything on the front page is negative dealing with crime, death, or destruction of one form or another. Although fear can obviously be used to engage readers and sell papers, this paints an unrealistic picture of the world that is skewed towards negative focal points.

4. Define the concept of the "pseudo-environment" described by Lippmann. Does Lippmann think that the distorted pictures in our heads of the world around us are caused by bad journalism (and therefore could be fixed), by the technological limits of journalism as it was in his day (and therefore could be improved with technical innovations), or are they endemic to how we encounter the world?

The pseudo-environment deals with how we make sense of events that we cannot directly observe. In these cases, we must rely on our experience to try to understand these events. Stories can be framed in various ways and thus the pseudo-environments have different dispositions based on this. One study found that stories about terrorism tended to be more episodic in the U.S. And thematic in the U.K. (Papacharissi & Oliveira, 2008). Therefore the pseudo-environment that people use to interpret these events is a malleable and dynamic in nature.

5. In class, I proposed that the representation of terrorists across many media texts (e.g. all TV crime dramas) might be of greater consequence than any single episode. Why? Identify two theories in Chapter 10 of Littlejohn & Foss that support this claim, and explain specifically how they approach understanding the effect of media in aggregate terms.

The aggregate of the division of media channels is certainly more important than any individual message. The aggregate frames the limits of the debate and if these limits do not offer a healthy range of views, then democracy can be stifled in general. For example, if one media channel showed a crime show but others showed a more positive message, then the one channel might appear out of place. However, if every single media channel shows similar crime drama things, then the aggregate effect of this strengthens the… [read more]

Journalism and Press Freedom Changes Research Paper

Research Paper  |  9 pages (2,447 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Journalism and Press Freedom

Changes in technology and other influences; have shaped the way of media communication. The freedom of the press relates to the freedom of expression and communication through various mediums. These mediums include publications, radio, or electronic media. However, there have been advancements in technology over the last decade, meaning that press freedom takes paradigm shift. These… [read more]

Treyvon Martin Media Has Shifted Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,311 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


Thus the media hopes to cover a story first to make an impact on the society. In this way it is negatively influencing the society against African-Americans and in favor of Hispanics.

If the above two points are looked into detail, then it could be said that stereotyping is still present in the media. The urge to deliver a story first in a certain way could be to toggle the minds of the people to one way. Writing subtle statements like white Latino or hints that push the case towards one direction could be a way of stereotyping. Seeing the voices raised against the media reporting are in this case, it was clear that the media sources were against Martins in this scenario.

Diversity is taken as a positive thing in journalism because it goes on to show more fairness and accuracy in the news reports. (Deggans, 2012) The more a newspaper or news channel is diverse when it comes to gender and culture, the less stereotypical the news reports will be. It is said that back in the 60s when the news reports only had the perspectives and view points of white men, it went to mistakes and chaos in the community. Not only did it hurt the feelings of the diverse people present in the newsroom it also give a reason for the population to not find the sources credible. (Deggans, 2012) Now when the society has gotten more aware of their rights, they are not scared to analyze the terms and the remarks used by the mass media. There has to be a good balance of ethical fairness and accuracy when it comes to news reporting. (Deggans, 2012)

As mentioned earlier, a certain group of people will be more interested in not only reporting the story but following it if their own interest lies in it. The Pew Research Center reported that one fourth of all the Americans are closely looking into the story. It was revealed that African-American respondents are more likely to have this issue as their top story (Beaujon, 2012) Another survey showed that 35% of the people were very interested in this story. Out of the aforementioned number, it was seen that out of the 35%, 75% of the people were actually African-American. (Beaujon, 2012) This clearly shows that the issue was a concern for this group of people because it affected them. For them, it was important to see how the media portrayed and what the actual outcome of the investigation was.

Multiculturalism is not positively portrayed when it comes to something like shootings in teenagers. Thus, the media's opinions and portrayal of diversity varies with what news they are reporting. Media always goes on to tell about how the institutions or the governments are not providing justice. Where some minorities are not being treated equally, such as the case of this shooting, media tries its best to show how there is still social in justice. (Deggans, 2012) Thus, in this instance… [read more]

Technological Effects on Journalism Through the Internet Essay

Essay  |  7 pages (2,380 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


Technological Effects on Journalism Through the Internet

The traditional processes and roles of journalism are going through disruptive economic, social, and political change as a result of the pervasive influence of the Internet and social media. The nature of journalism itself is changing fast as the accumulated effects of the Internet reorder the economics of this industry (Thiel, 2005). With… [read more]

Twitter on Sports Journalism Thesis

Thesis  |  10 pages (3,209 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 10


He uses the example of a blogger named Nate Dunlevy, who runs an Indianapolis Colts site, and wrote a story about NFL writer Len Pasquarelli's claim that Colts' defensive end Robert Mathis was planning to hold out of training camp once the NFL labor situation was settled (Seth). Pasquerelli had quoted anonymous sources in support of his story, did not… [read more]

Journalism's First Obligation Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (2,003 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3


Journalism's First Obligation Is To The Truth

Journalism is charged with the responsibility to be make practical sense in all that they report to the general public. This does not mean that they have to make philosophical or absolute sense but in one way or another, it must meet the principle of journalistic truth. This is defined as the process… [read more]

Media Archaelogy and Videogames Essay

Essay  |  12 pages (3,097 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 12


The author lists a variety of other women who have played an important role in media archaeology. The point is that there is no person whose work is negligible or indeed of more vital importance simply because of their gender.

Like the changes we experience in technology and communications today, there is also a change in our view of society… [read more]

Media Ownership Concentration Thesis

Thesis  |  5 pages (1,700 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


The AT&T Wireless acquisition of T-Mobile was shot down because of the power the new company would have wielded and similar action must be taken in the entertainment and fashion publication industries.


Lee, S. (2013, August 15). 'Duck Dynasty' premiere recap: Wait, did I just cry? | PopWatch | EW.com. Entertainment Weekly's PopWatch Blog | PopWatch | EW.com. Retrieved October 5, 2013, from http://popwatch.ew.com/2013/08/15/duck-dynasty-season-4-premiere-phil-kay-wedding/

Mongretta, E. (2013, September 25). Miley Cyrus Disses Taylor Swift In 'Rolling Stone' -- " Calls Her Vanna White - Hollywood Life. Hollywood Life - Latest Hollywood Gossip, News & Celeb Pics. Retrieved October 5, 2013, from http://hollywoodlife.com/2013/09/25/miley-cyrus-disses-taylor-swift-rolling-stone-interview/

Pearson, C. (2013, October 5). Fashion And Eating Disorders: How Much Responsibility Does Industry Have?. Breaking News and Opinion on The Huffington Post. Retrieved October 5, 2013, from http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2011/09/13/fashion-eating-disorders-industry-responsibility_n_955497.html

Sorkin, A.R. (2005, December 7). Lazard director resigns over potential Time Warner conflict - The New York Times. The New York Times - Breaking News, World News & Multimedia. Retrieved October 5, 2013, from http://www.nytimes.com/2005/12/07/business/worldbusiness/07iht-warner.html?_r=0

Time. (2013, October 5). Timeinc.com Official Website: Home Page. Timeinc.com Official Website: Home Page. Retrieved October 5, 2013, from http://www.timeinc.com/home/… [read more]

New Media and Politics Digital Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (793 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+


Contemporary technologies enable the reporting of governmental crimes in real-time and this, according to Cagaptay (2012) is "akin to a social revolution: citizens of authoritarian regimes and their oppressors are now on more level footing for the first time ever." (2012, p.1) Clay Shiry reports in the work entitled "The Political Power of Social Media: Technology, the Public Sphere and Political Change" that modern technology has enabled the public in their ability to "coordinate such a massive and rapid response" as occurred during the impeachment trial of Philippine President Joseph Estrada when the loyalists voted to set aside key evidence against Estrada. It is reported that in two short hours after this decision was announced text messages were sent and the crowd swelled from thousands to over a million in Manila. Shirky states as follows:

"As the communications landscape gets denser, more complex, and more participatory, the networked population is gaining greater access to information, more opportunities to engage in public speech, and an enhanced ability to undertake collective action." (2012, p.1)

Indeed this is evidenced in an article in The New York Times in which Preston (2011) reports that social media has enabled a global reach in the Wall Street Protests." (p.1)

Summary and Conclusion

Technological instruments such as the simple cell phone with an inbuilt camera or video recorder are changing the entire landscape of political movements, most particularly in terms of protests, as the average citizen is able to record abuses inflicted upon the crowd, and instantly publish the information on an international level. This results in the previously guarded authoritative regimes being exposed to the world and ultimately shifts the balance of power toward the average citizen.


Cagaptay, Soner (2012) Can Dictators Survive New Media. CNN Special Report. Retrieved from: http://globalpublicsquare.blogs.cnn.com/2012/02/10/can-dictators-survive-new-media/

Cottle, Simon (2011) Cell Phones, Camels, and the Global Call for Democracy (2011) Open Democracy. 27 Sept. 2011. Retrieved from: http://www.opendemocracy.net/simon-cottle/cell-phones-camels-and-global-call-for-democracy

New Media and Development Communication (2005) Columbia University, ITU Report, 2005.Retrieved from: http://www.columbia.edu/itc/sipa/nelson/newmediadev/Citizen%20journalism.html

Preston, Jennifer (2011) Social Media Gives Wall Street Protests a Global Reach. The New York Times. 15 Oct 2011. Retrieved from: http://mediadecoder.blogs.nytimes.com/2011/10/15/social-media-gives-wall-street-protests-a-global-reach/

Shirky, Clay (2011) The Political Power of Social Media. Foreign Affairs. Council on Foreign Relations. Jan/Feb 2011. Retrieved from: http://www.gpia.info/files/u1392/Shirky_Political_Poewr_of_Social_Media.pdf… [read more]

Impression: New Media in the 2008 Presidential Article Critique

Article Critique  |  2 pages (614 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


¶ … Impression: New Media in the 2008 Presidential Nomination Campaigns," the authors Haynes and Pitts open by indicating the main premise of the article: that the phenomena known as the "new media" are making a significant contribution to political campaigns today, in the same way that radio and television did so during their first years of existence. The main research question the authors addressed within this topic is whether the new media are effective tools to enhance the impact of campaigns for politicians, their parties, and their purposes.

The authors do not seem to have a particular model or theory to apply to the research question, or indeed any specific hypotheses as such. Instead, the research seems to focus upon observations of existing phenomena and drawing conclusions regarding the research questions from these observations.

The research design then involved a survey of the existing literature as well as the new media to determine the nature of political Web sites, how politicians used them, and what their effect was on the public. To determine the latter, a number of Website evaluation tools were used, including Alexa, Compete, and Quantcast. These are tools that analyze the reach and rank of Websites, thus indicating their actual ability to reach the public they were intended for. Rankings were also examined by Hubspot's Website Grader.

These are extremely effective tools, as shown in the various graphic representations of information the authors provide. In this way, a comparison could be made among the Website used by candidates, and how effective these were in terms of their campaigns.

The authors found that Websites could be extremely effective in terms of providing information about a candidate, as well as raising money for campaigns. Because of the ease of contribution to an online environment, money raising sites were able to reach more potential contributors than…… [read more]

PR in Sports Bengals Attack! Public Relations Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (634 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


PR in Sports


Public Relations Plan for the Cincinnati Bengals

The Cincinnati Bengals have the most explosive and exciting receiver corps in the NFL, and one of the most improved defenses in their conference. The PR Plan concentrates on the agility, speed and lights-out play of the Bengals offense. Both Terrell Owens and Chad Ocho Cinco have exceptional skills on the field and off and are two of the most entertaining payers in the NFL. The Bengals team also has many fascinating players, all of which have worked incredibly hard to get to the NFL. Combined with their natural talents and work ethic, the team personifies excellence.

PR Messaging & Strategy

This PR strategy needs to convey aggressive quickness, intelligence and smart play in the NFL, and the lightning quick receivers and exceptional work of the entire team needs to come out. Fans need to see and feel the passion players have for agility and for always being a step ahead of their defenders. "Bengal Attack!' could potentially be one theme that conveys the quickness and lethal nature of the Bengal team. Because of this intensity-based message, the channels and communication will need to also be very focused on speed, agility and aggressiveness.

The intended audience of the messaging is defined in the following figure, Estimated Cincinnati Bengals Fan Base. The majority of fans are male with the dominant segment being males in the 18- to 45-year-old segment (47%) followed by males below 18 years of age.

Estimated Cincinnati Bengals Fan Base

Market Segment


Males 18-45 Income $50K+


Females 18-45 Income $50K+


Males <18n

Females <18n

Males >45 Income $100K+


Females >45 Income $100K+


Source: http://www.bengals.com/media-lounge/index.html

Media Strategy

Bengals Attack! needs to communicate agility, quickness and hard-hitting insights and inside-the-locker room insights that fans are interested in. The Bengal Attack PR campaign also includes an extensive amount of…… [read more]

Manipulation of Media Coverage Research Paper

Research Paper  |  10 pages (3,487 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10


The fact of matter is that the image of the destruction of the statue of a man who was believed to be an oppressive ruler was portrayed as the most appropriate indication of the end of the war and the start of the liberation process in the region. Most of the presenters on these news channels widely and strongly claimed… [read more]

News Media Bias Research Paper

Research Paper  |  4 pages (1,306 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


¶ … Bias

Whether or not news media bias exists, Americans believe it does and those perceptions undoubtedly influence the relationship between the populace and the press. Mistrust of the media has the potential to harm the democracy, for the Fourth and now the Fifth estates are central for providing access to information. The credibility of that information is at stake if news media are biased. News media has been steadily shifting from a model based on unilateral delivery of heavily editorialized print and television resources toward a model that is more multilateral in nature as it relies on the interactive nature of the Internet.

Research on media bias reveals that the public does perceive bias, whether or not it is there, and that the perceptions of the public influence attitudes toward the media and its news-related content (Zimmerman). Perceptions of a liberal media bias are often false and outlandish and rooted in perceptual biases about the social composition of the United States (Gross, Shazili and Gelman). Research also shows that methods like natural language processing (NLP) and Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA) can be used to reveal concordances between memes in digital content and their corresponding verbal or textual manifestations in the same brand's television or print outlet (Doumit and Minai). Chiang found that voters do rely on the media for information related to political campaigns, but that the relationship between media and campaign endorsement is a complicated one. Basically, when a news media endorses a candidate in the opposite political party than expected, that endorsement can be "more influential" than a more predictable endorsement (Chiang). In other words, a paper perceived to be liberal endorsing a Republican candidate has a stronger influence on voter behavior than a conservative paper endorsing the same candidate. Like Chiang, Anderson and McLaren note that all media companies have political as well as profit motives. Using their media outlets to promote political values and influence voter behavior is understandable and expected. The problem is that consumers are unaware of when, how, why, and by whom such political messages are being propagated. "The public do not know how much information the news organizations have and so do not know when news is being withheld," (Anderson and McLaren 831). Because the public is not privy to the press, mistrust of the media abounds.

Media conglomeration reduces competition and homogenizes media voices. This enhances media bias in a real and perceived way. Anderson and McLaren find that media are "insufficiently competitive, and the consequences of merger are more severe than in other markets," (831). The annotation that media conglomeration leads to "severe" consequences implies that a media constrained by corporate interests impedes the right to information and the freedom of the press. Such constraints have become theoretically mitigated by digital media, but establishing credibility online often depends, ironically, on trusting brand name media outlets rather than individual bloggers or social media aggregators. What digital media allows is for potentially unbridled access to a diversity of media sources,… [read more]

Portrayal of Class by Media Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,323 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


Others still point to the newer media sources, commonly referred to as the "new media" and they bemoan the appearance of new media sources and forms in that it has further polarized and flared up the media sphere and made the medium all that more untrustworthy and problematic as compared to the way it was before. (Baum & Groeling, 2008). The media, however, is certainly paying attention to income inequality and class and they are reacting negatively to the newer media voices that have come to emerge from the proverbial ether.

However, a lot of those new media sources are coming about due to the paltry job that the existing media is doing and the very duplicitous nature of that media coverage. For example, there is perhaps something very wrong with a medium that talks about income inequality and then five seconds later is airing an ad for Cadillac, a favorite car for the rich and the faux rich. In addition, there is a common practice of looking to or even urging governmental officials to solve the income inequality but those same media sources sort of skip over what is truly leading to those people being poor and undereducated and simply throwing a few bucks at the problem really is not going to change the underpinning facts as they exist, then and now.

The idea that the existing media is remotely impartial and independent is a joke. They follow the same patterns of keeping costs down and ratings up and neither of those is truly relatable and applicable to offering the most accurate and complete news perspectives while not also allowing bias and marketing spiels to be intermixed in the words being spoken. However, having the government being the housing for the media is also something that would not work as the powers that be, whether it be dictator or actually elected official, would almost certainly try to wield the media for their own purposes and to help their allies at the expense if not direct detriment of those that they disagree with or despise. Wealth is certainly seen as a mark of success in this country and the media seems to have a dichotomous personality whereby they bemoan this happenstance in one breath and then perpetuate the same in the next or at least in their commercials, which is a huge part of what they use to make money or at least break even. However, even public broadcasting outfits have befallen the bias bug with NPR and PBS being examples where either the news itself or the personalities behind clearly have axes to grind and it stands to reason that it will pervade and influence their actual "news" coverage.


The only real solution to the news media problem is to have a media that is funded from the public goods but only with the dollars necessary to make the reporting top-notch. Influence from politicians and/or any threat of cutting funding would be illegal and there would be no… [read more]

Affect in Content of News by Selection of Sources by Reporters Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (649 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Reporting the News

There is so much confusion in today's media environment. The way media outlets manipulate sources can greatly impact their message and effectiveness at convincing audiences. Thus, sources are often manipulated in order to serve an elitist or government agenda, branching off what so called "authority" figures may offer in way of research material for continuing news coverage of America's political environment.

There are a number of ways that the selection of sources by reporters affects the content of news. The news has been used by politicians and government forces for decades. Government officials do tend to go to the press, often "not always to advance a unified government interest," but rather to expose opponents' embarrassing information (Schudson, 140). In this, some government sources may tend to manipulate media outlets, efficiently making the media a pawn in the political game. Not all government sources can be counted as some gracious truth. Too much concentration on government sources can prove biased. When a journalist fails to have a more balanced opposing resource, it could be assumed that journalist does not want to introduce any other messages into the dialogue. Domhoff shows how reporters in the mainstream media tend to spin elements of stories by manipulating sources to serve elitist interests. Domhoff discusses the prevalence of the elite upper class population to be favored in how government or other authority figures are used as the only sources, pushing only an agenda in favor of these affluent interests (Domhoff, 10).

One recent example of the political bias that is found in mainstream media is a recent February 28, 2013 article written by Cyber News Service, also known as CSN News. The article, written by Elizabeth Harrington, highlights a recent interview of Senate Majority Leader Harry Reid and his frustration with the hostility of the Republican Party in terms of cooperation to get real solutions passed. Harrington reports Reid as saying that "Republicans are unwilling to…… [read more]

Media Communications Representation of Characters Research Paper

Research Paper  |  5 pages (1,791 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


However, the image is not sustained much and Charlotte tried to convince Samantha that Charlotte loves the man and that marriage is their ultimate destination to be happy. Such representation of image and women's role indicates towards 'patriarchic' symbolism.

Findings and Conclusion

Ideals of image vary from time to time and place to place, this is supported by theory of social constructivism that revolves around social groups giving meaning to words, symbols, and mutual interaction. Modern industrial society has been consumed by 'wave of media advertising' whereby images of 'lifestyle' and 'feminist' women are represented. In case of Sex and the City, New York was represented as a place where women came to seek their ideal life-partners. All characters heavily indulged in beautifying their bodies and their self-identity was made to be perceived as acceptable only if they were beautiful and sexy as all characters were skinny. Before the wave of feminism, image of noble women was associated to a submissive self who that is loyal to her husband. After feminism, women's image was represented to be assertive.


Brooks, DE & Hebert, LP 2006. 'Gender, race and media representation'. Handbook of gender and communication, Vol. 16, pp. 297-317.

Ewen, S 2001. 'Captains of Consciousness Advertising andthe Social Roots ofthe Consumer Culture'. Basic Books.

Featherstone, M 2007. 'Consumer culture and postmodernism'. Sage Publications Limited.

Littlejohn, SW & Foss, KA2009. 'Encyclopedia of Communication Theory' (Vol. 1). Cal: SAGE.

Russell, CA 2002. 'Investigating the effectiveness of product placements in television shows: The role of modality and plot connection congruence on brand memory and attitude'. Journal of Consumer Research, Vol. 29, no. 3, pp. 306-319.

Thompson, J 1995. 'The media and modernity:…… [read more]

Functional Analysis on Daily Media Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,608 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


VI. Summary and Conclusion

The writer of this work, just as the entire population of modernized and technologically advanced countries uses media not only on a daily but as well, on an hourly basis as the day progresses. Media is used for gaining information and news, for keeping up with community and sports events and for interacting on a social and business level with others via the mobile phone internet and computer accessed internet. Media is utilized for entertainment and to escape from one's life as well as to relax.

Contemplation of going through the day without the use of media would result in many changes in the life of the writer of this work and the American society-at-large. For example, without the morning alarm clock radio the writer of this work would have to use a regular alarm clock, which while waking the writer of this work would not bring the writer into an immediate stance of the daily agenda, which was planned.

Without radio on the way to school, the writer of this work would not receive the motivation that the writer's favorite music provides. Without interaction socially and in a business sense through use of the internet and mobile phone internet, the writer would be thrown back to a time when the only source of contact with the telephone. Without newspapers and magazines, the writer of this work would have no idea what the television programming schedule was for the evening or when the writer's favorite shows would be aired. There are so many functional uses and gratification uses of media in the life of the writer that it can be said that without the media to which the writer has become so accustomed, that the writer of this work would be lost and would be very disoriented in many…… [read more]

Media Audiences Marxist Media Theorists Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,397 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10


However no little has been done to actually understand the notion of Mediatization but some media researchers have come up with some terms concerning Mediatization and ways of developing a concept that is more coherent to understand the term Mediatization as being social and culture.

The term Mediatization is used in describing the media's influence over research. Some people argue that media is not analytic concept however it is an ambiguous term that is used to refer to an increasing cultural as well as, the social significance of mass media plus other forms of communications which are technically mediated. From this perspective, it is clear that media plays a significant role in production and circulation of interpretations of the science Lundby, K. (2009).

The term Mediatization is used by the media people to bring an impact on the political communication. Mediatization encourages one to look for common patters which are across the disparate areas. It also describes transformation of disparate social as well as cultural processes for the media representations. One example can be in state areas or a religious ritual or imitating the features found in television versions of some events which were carried out some days ago.

Mediatization is a term which has been used in casting light on growing roles which are played marketing and the consumer cultures. Mediatization can be described as the process that is reinforcing and expanding the media culture realm. This means that, culture at once was imbued with that tastes of the hierarchy which prevailed in institutional culture. Today, media has occupied a dominant position as the providers of the cultural products and beliefs. The above terms used to define what Mediatization is all about points a number of the aspects of interaction that exist between media and society (Shaun Moores, 2005).

Mediatization is of importance since it attempts concentrating on the focus of a particular logic which is transformative or to mechanisms which is understood in doing something distinctive to certain processes and objects. This seems to be important generally since it involves a specific claim that several cultural and social processes are constrained in taking on the forms which are so suitable for representation of the media as based on the transformation which are undeniable. A good example is when there are no questions to be asked if any politicians practicing politics without them appearing on media just like there could be no social campaigns when media is absent. The concept of Mediatization normally starts from the replication notion; therefore the spread of media normally forms spaces to contemporary life which are required to be always re-presented by means of media forms (Shaun Moores, 2005).


Shaun Moores, (2005). Media/Thery: Thinking About Media and Communications. Pg 35.

Retrieved July 17, 2012 from http://books.google.co.ke/books?id=4jHnl8C5g-cC&pg=PA197&lpg=PA197&dq=Williams,+K.+%282003%29.+Understanding+media+theory&source=bl&ots=BWE_LcXXAF&sig=opuUoqiVYOSCYvdU9vKJufkOIcA&hl=sw&sa=X&ei=WX8GUOngN-7R4QS77On9CA&ved=0CFYQ6AEwBQ#v=onepage&q=Williams%2C%20K.%20%282003%29.%20Understanding%20media%20theory&f=false

Daniel Chandler, (2012). Marxist Media Theory. Retrieved July 18, 2012, from http://www.aber.ac.uk/media/Documents/marxism/marxism03.html

Artz, L., Macek, S., & Cloud, D.L. (2006). Marxism and communication studies: the point is to change it. New York: P. Lang.

Couldry, N. (2012).… [read more]

Multisource Comparison: British vs. American Research Paper

Research Paper  |  6 pages (2,247 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


We have stricter ethical standards. We're stodgier. Competition is tough, but it's much less fierce" (Chittum 2011). By virtue of the newspapers playing a less central role than television in American media culture, newspapers have been able to uphold higher ethical standards.

Recently, in the UK, there has been a call for more rigorous standards of truth, regarding how issues… [read more]

Cross-Media Response to Digital Manipulation Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (975 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Furthermore, the implicit boast that Gladney "has won numerous awards for his newspaper writing and reporting" while serving "on the editorial board of Mass Communication and Society, the official journal of the Mass Communication and Society Division of the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication" suggests a lasting loyalty to the medium of print media which should be noted when considering any findings derived from his comparison of the respective ethics of newspaper photo editors and television news directors. Indeed, Gladney and Ehrlich's unfounded assertion that "TV newspeople may view questions related to it differently than print people, who are more accustomed to its usage and have had more time to address the ethical implications and form appropriate responses" (Gladney and Ehrlich 500) contains assumptions formed seemingly on the basis of the author's perceived sense of superior status within the industry of news dissemination.

By providing readers with a detailed statistical analysis of the raw data collected through the distribution and collection of targeted surveys, the authors employ logos efficiently but effectively, presenting over 10 pages of intricate tables and cogent extrapolations derived from the numerical data. The transparency of revealing the entirety of the surveys used to gather data is notable, as is the thorough nature with which the questionnaires were constructed, in that this access to the underlying process of the study serves to disarm the skeptical critic. However, the authors are quick to make highly suspect esoteric connections between abstractions such as personal motivation and industry-wide philosophy, boldly alleging that "the charge of audience incomprehension would seem to be anathema to TV newspeople" because "TV more so than print values telling a story in the simplest, briefest terms as it aims its messages to the broadest possible audience" (Gladney and Ehrlich 506). Noticeably straining to impugn the ethics of television news producers and "the occupational ideology that goes with them," by wondering aloud if "TV may have a more natural affinity with digital manipulation technology" because of "television's heavy dependence on visual content and its close association with the production modes and mindset of the entertainment industry, where contrivance comes second nature" (Gladney and Ehrlich 507), the authors effectively forfeit the accrued trust engendered to them by the powerful logos of their statistical evidence. Perhaps by employing the alternative viewpoint of a researcher previously versed in the field of professional television journalism, the authors could have avoided this perceived instance of personal bias, but without the presence of a more objective voice in the presentation of such negative findings the author's conclusions must be considered with proper hesitation.

Works Cited

Gladney, G.A., and M.C. Ehrlich. "Cross-Media Response to Digital Manipulation of Still and Moving Images." Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media. 40.4 (1996): 496-508. Print.
Gladney, G.A.. "Professors Communication & Journalism Department." University of Wyoming Faculty .

University of Wyoming, n.d. Web. 17 Mar 2012. .… [read more]

PR Class Tweeet Pie Essay

Essay  |  7 pages (2,118 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


There are restrictions to the training of the Pit bull terriers and there are very strong barriers to the licensing of the dogs from this breed. This is no suspicion a big blow to the affectionate pit bull terrier lovers. There is a very strong need of the rehabilitation of these dogs in order to make them pet dogs again.

The rehabilitation can be started off with the animal rights associations (David Von Drehle, 2009).

They should take up the responsibility to locates and capture theses dogs when they are caught being performing criminal activities. Special dog trainers should be hired to re-train these dogs. Since this species of the dogs is becoming suspicious, these dogs should be sold on high security basis. There should be a record of the people who are the owners of these dogs and their activities with the dogs should be timely monitored.

The licensing of these dogs has been made very strict. This licensing should be made easier for the homes and domestic owners so that the image of using the pit bull terriers can be restored by training them to be the typical family dogs. There should be adoptions given to the people willing to keep pit bulls at a very less rate if they are engrossed in keeping the dogs as a family dog but do not have enough money for licensing. By this we should keep in mind that we are giving these creatures a second chance to live a happy and normal life (itsthepitsrescue, 2009).

I believe that rehabilitation in opposition to euthanasia is a lot improved option. But, in some instances, dogs may not be competent to be rehabilitated. These dogs, if enforced to live in family or pet conditions, would live discontented lives. This is not reasonable either. There is no sagacity in forcing a dog to live a dejected life just to not have to lay him down. I believe the dogs that productively pass all the tests, should be trained and endure broad instruction. The training would be to make certain that the dogs never demonstrate signs of violence and hostility again. The dogs would then be prepared to be family pets to incident pet parents merely.

Pit bull terrier is a breed that is highly sensible. A little is needed to train the fog to bring out the viciousness inherent in the dog. But the use of these dogs for the purposes of criminal activities is dishonesty with a pet. Dogs demand love and care. When they are in a home environment, they are getting their due rights of survival. Therefore, the government should undertake that the activities of some of the people are making the innocent dogs deprive of their due rights. Therefore, they should be given only to the owners who can keep them in a healthy and loveable condition.


Cooking up the twecipe book. 2011. Retrieved March 9, 2012, from Brand e-biz: http://brand-e.biz/cooking-up-the-twecipe-book_14254.html

David Von Drehle. 2009. Can Attack Dogs Be… [read more]

Responsible Journalism How the Press Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,205 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


Though one may not think so, this can be the case in the United States as well, where the most important news are relegated to the big network, while the sensationalized news are usually found on local channels. Though this relationship is not always true, more will be discussed below. [2: "Journalists in northern Ghana condemn 'irresponsible journalism'." BBC Monitoring Africa. 28 Jan. 2011. Web. 25. Apr 2011. .]

Ghana is one nation in Africa that is much more open, especially politically than other nations. For example, in a neighboring country, Zimbabwe, media is ruled by the thumb of one man: Robert Mugabe. This individual is known to have a cult of personality around him and forbid any publication of an article that defames or criticizes him in any way. Journalists in this country must certainly find it hard to uphold responsible principles and evidence the crises the country is undergoing because they face horrendous punishments. Thus, it is important and in a way the responsibility of American or European journalists to publicize the problems in such countries, and thereby help change things in time to allow society to prosper freely.

News as Entertainment: Interactive yet Politicized

Often times, however, the U.S. media especially decides that the fate of the world does not rest in its hands and chooses, instead of news for informational purposes, news as entertainment (or irresponsible journalism), which can lead to many social harms, including blatant falsehoods or misinterpretations of world situations that can impact a society. Nobody can deny that news is entertainment when important world events are intermingled with local murders and dramatic or sensationalized events, and also with celebrity news. [3: Long, James. "Social Harm Caused by Irresponsible Journalism." James Long, Ph.D., P.E. Analog and RF Consulting Engineer. Web. 25 Apr. 2011. .]

A well-respected news outlet such as CNN should not focus its efforts wholeheartedly on a high speed chase, or a celebrity's arrest, but should rather update the society about what happens around the world and how international events can affect our society. However, seriousness without drama or debate is not considered good for the ratings, so many news outlet compromise their principles in order to offer politicized, interactive news, as entertainment, without much thought for anything other than ratings and profit. This kind of reporting and journalistic investigation is dangerous because it jeopardizes investigative journalism, according to a study. [4: Pyle, Christopher. "Irresponsible Journalists Are Jeopardizing Serious Investigations by the Press." The Chronicle of Higher Education. 7 Jan. 2010. Web. 25 Apr. 2011. < https://arch.library.nyu.edu/metasearch/record?group=003426&resultSet=019089&startRecord=3>. ]

Reflections on Journalism

From all the analysis presented above, it almost seems like the media is infatuated with itself and is in a constant competition to have 24/7 information for the simplest facts. This makes the news overbearing, and sometimes it really is hard to watch. News has certainly become entertainment and has been politicized, especially due to the short attention span of today's generations. However, there are still journalists out there who strive… [read more]

Agenda Setting Framing Fairness and Balance in Outfoxed Rupert Murdoch's War on Journalism Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,269 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4



Media Analysis of "Outfoxed"

Analysis Paper on Framing, Fairness and Balance in Outfoxed-Rupert Murdoch's War on Journalism

Few viewers of Outfoxed: Rupert Murdoch's War on Journalism would emerge having much faith in the validity of Fox News, a news channel owned by media mogul and billionaire Rupert Murdoch. Using interviews of former Fox News employees, media experts, studies of Fox News coverage, and frequent montages of Fox's sound and video bites, producers Laurel Busby, Jim Gilliam, Kate McArdle and Devin Smith show how Fox overtly and covertly indoctrinate its viewers to criticize liberals and Democrats and idolize conservatives and Republicans.

The documentary begins with footage of Rupert Murdoch and other Fox News executives discussing the changes that the channel will undergo under Murdoch's ownership. This footage is juxtaposed with former Fox News journalists talking about the hypocracy of Murdoch's claims of "fair and balanced" as his memos directing news aggressively guided the news channel to slant its coverage in favor of conservatives and the right wing of American politics. Examples given included orders to air unedited footage that weighed favorably toward newly elected President Ronald Reagan and other footage that weighed very unfavorably against Senator Edward Kennedy, focusing on his deadly car accident on Martha's Vineyard island many years previously.

The video continues showing how Fox overly coveys its views by allowing commentators like Bill O'Reilly to cut off critics and any comments he deems offensive by barking "Shut up" at the guest. More subtly, Fox News runs opinionated commentary that is supposed to be news in its graphics and in a running commentary that scrolls along the bottom of the page. Fox News denies all accusations that its coverage is slanted by claiming that it is "The fair and balanced news channel" and by claiming accusers of being from the "liberal media."

In the end the producers of Outfoxed urge viewers not to take Fox News' tricks lying down and to go to their congressional representatives and to the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) and protest the coverage on Fox News.

Agenda setting

Officials at Fox News defend their right-wing bias by calling it "fair and balanced" in comparison to the "liberal media," by which they mean the network news channels and major newspapers such as the New York Times and the Washington Post. Fox News displays its agenda in the stories it chooses to run, for example focusing on gay marriage during the height of the Iraq War. The news channel went so far as to actually choose to cover certain stories long after experts deemed them untrue. For example, Fox News continued to claim Saddam Hussein was responsible in part for the attacks on September 11, 2001. This choice to continue covering stories that had been deemed untrue was reflected of a study done by the University of Maryland's School of Public Affairs in 2003 (FNC Viewers, 2003). In that study they found that Fox News Channel viewers are as much as four times more likely as… [read more]

Public Relations and Public Affairs Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,673 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Public Relations and Public Affairs

The Kelsey Unified School District (KUSD) has undergone a major public relations disaster. This would cause the district and the Board of Trustees, to see a loss of confidence. As the public and the media, would highlight the obvious differences resulting: the sudden termination of the Superintendant for ethical issues. At which point, the dispute… [read more]

Role of Investigative Journalism the Industrial Revolution Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,227 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


¶ … Role of Investigative Journalism

The Industrial Revolution created urban poverty, bigger business and a financial system with control over a wide array of industries from railroads to oil. A greater divide developed between the rich and the poor which would result in the crusade against evil. (Mabry)

The rise of Progressivism can be traced from the 1890's. Middle class reformers, often spurred by personal goals and moral outrage, sought to address issues of corruption in politics by business, problems with dangerous goods and corporate evasion of taxes. These reformers became the Progressives with a goal of taking action to put an end to the various abuses. Hoping to eliminate corruption in politics, preserve the dream of the American future and find ways to control big business, Progressives stressed the concept of virtue and efficiency. (Mabry)

As these reformers prepared to move forward, President William Mckinley was assassinated in 1901 and Theodore Roosevelt became President. Roosevelt appeared to support many Progressive goals by signing the Pure Food and Drug Act and the Meat Inspection Act. Ultimately, it was upon the national government that Roosevelt wanted corporations to rely. (Mabry)

President Roosevelt's truer goals became clear to journalists when David Graham Phillips began a series of articles in Cosmopolitan entitled "The Treason in the Senate." These articles included an attack on some of Roosevelt's political allies and Roosevelt had a sharp response. In a speech, Roosevelt coined the term "muckraker" in reference to investigative journalists and journalist subsequently experienced a sense of betrayal. Following the speech, Mr. Phillips saw Roosevelt's name calling as marking the end of investigative journalism. Phillips said, "the greatest single definite force against muckrakin was President Roosevelt, who called these writers muckrakers. A tag like that running through the papers was an easy phrase of repeated attack upon what was in general a good journalistic movement. (Mabry)

Thankfully, Mr. Phillips was incorrect. Investigative journalism continues to live on, but there appears to be some explanations for the fits and spurts in such journalism. According to Mark Fieldstein, investigative journalism goes on the increase when the public becomes hungry for such articles and there is turmoil, be it political, social or cultural. (9) in addition, media supply, likely due to advancing technologies and journalistic competition along with fewer legal constraints are also required in order to experience investigative reporting at the levels seen during the Progressive Era. (12)

Another perspective on investigative journalism comes from Steve Weinberg and the proper formula needed to achieve results. Investigative journalism involves devoting time to the subject matter and the idea that editors and publishers give their journalists strong support if exhaustive efforts are to be pursued. Weinberg says that readers would appreciate in-depth reporting on the activities of powerful institutions. This is true today -- the contemporary issues are no less vital and in need of examination than they were during the Progressive Era. (Weinberg)

There are a wide range of situations that journalists addressed during the Progressive Era. It… [read more]

Media Bias in the International Media People Thesis

Thesis  |  8 pages (2,603 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 4


Media Bias

Bias in the International Media

People all over the world depend on news agencies to find out what is happening in the world around them. Humans are curious by nature and like to know what others are doing. They depend on news agencies to provide them with the information that they seek. They expect that information to be… [read more]

Credibility in Journalism Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (951 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 7


Credibility in Journalism

They say that the art of storytelling is dying, but apparently not if modern journalism has anything to say bout it. From Jayson Blair to Patricia Smith to Stephen Glass, the news has become less about what is and more about what one can make of it. These journalists have all been recently caught not merely stretching the truth or omitting the mention of a potential bias in their stories -- common though still unacceptable indiscretions in many newsrooms -- but of completely making things up, including entire stories. In Blair's case, the journalist "covered" entire stories without ever leaving Brooklyn, or even his apartment. Patricia Smith made up names of phantom interviewees, as well as what they said, just to make her stories more powerful. Glass did the same thing, but went even farther by imagining entire scenarios that he "witnessed" and used as the central points in his "news" stories.

In the 2003 film Shattered Glass, the revelations of Stephen Glass's fabrications at the magazine the New Republic are reacted to as something that rocked the journalism world -- his editor Chuck Lane (played by Peter Sarsgaard in the movie) emphasizes to another reporter, "it's indefensible. Don't you know that?" (Ray 2003). But the question of whether or not this is really indefensible anymore is actually very much a matter of debate. Though he movie certainly condemns Glass, the character and the individual assert some supposedly mitigating explanations along with their apologies, as do both Blair and Smith. The commonality of the practice of making up news stories certainly doesn't excuse it, but the fact is that it is defensible -- or at least, it is defended.

Smith has said that when she was lying to people in her articles, she was doing so only in order to "create the desired impact or slam home a salient point" (Leo 1998). This asks the question of what truly credible journalism is -- does it merely report the facts, or does it make sure people are moved by -- or at the very least engaged in -- a story? After all, what good is the media if it isn't being read? As Glass' character in the movie says about one of the first of his made-up stories to be discovered, "I just wanted it to have an eyewitness feel...for color" (Ray 2003). Without this "color," both Glass and others at the magazine feared, readers would be yawning and tossing the magazine aside. So is it really so wrong to "color" a story in order to "create the desired impact" and make sure a story finds its intended mark on the reader> Are we really ready to start redefining journalism in this way, where Truth trumps simple truth?

Though Blair, Smith, and Glass might want the answer to be "yes," we must consider…… [read more]

Journalism Ethics There Were Several Errors Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (870 words)
Style: Harvard  |  Bibliography Sources: 1


Journalism Ethics

There were several errors made in the coverage of the 2001-02 anthrax terrorism investigation, in particular with respect to Steven Hatfill. While it is reasonable that journalists observed Internet message boards for insight, it appears as though undue emphasis was placed on those boards. Such boards are entirely unreliable as sources of information for news stories. Any potentially valuable information gleaned from such research would need to be fully vetted with independent sources before being incorporated into a story.

The second error made during the coverage of this story was with respect to media covering information gleaned from other media sources. The Hatfill investigation gained traction in the media apparently because one media outlet deigned to give it substantial coverage, including the release of Hatfill's name. Other media outlets did not exercise journalistic responsibility in basing their decision to cover the story in such a manner on the unvetted coverage of another outlet.

More errors are found, when this story is measured against the Society of Professional Journalists' Code of Ethics. Hatfill was singled out for extensive coverage on the basis of an FBI tip. The motivations behind this tip -- why it was given for Hatfill but not the other scientists investigated -- were never given due consideration, contrary to the code of ethics. Another apparent violation of the code can be found in the lack of balance given to the story. That Hatfill was one of many subjects of investigation was not a major part of the story, which gave the appearance in the coverage that he was the sole or primary subject of the FBI investigations, which was false.

Several steps could have been taken to better vet this story. One is that the motives of the sources could have been called into question. There are many potential motives that could have resulted in Hatfill being singled out. The media that covered the story gave the impression that the motive was him being a prime suspect, an impression that distorts reality.

Another step that would have helped to vet the story would have been for the news outlets to conduct their own research into the matter. It appears as though news outlets were more focused on re-reporting news from other outlets, such that the same unbalanced and unvetted story received significant coverage at each outlet. Independent investigations are a component of the code of ethics, and do not appear to have been conducted for this story.

Lastly, this story could have been more adequately vetted if the subjects were given more say. Little content was directly provided by Hatfill or…… [read more]

Ethics in Journalism Thesis

Thesis  |  5 pages (1,427 words)
Style: Chicago  |  Bibliography Sources: 0


Ethics in Journalism: Case Study

Looking at the headlines of the various publications on the news stands today, and it quickly becomes clear that the place where journalism is coming from today is less one reflective of the ethics of journalism as is depicted in the Society of Professional Journalists' Code of Ethics, and more reflective of a tabloidism, for… [read more]

Media's Role in the BTK Research Paper

Research Paper  |  4 pages (1,330 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 2


During the height of the murder spree, The Eagle was allowed by local law officials to publish the material sent to the paper supposedly by the killer himself. These publications which eventually reached the public eye were edited in order to keep out certain details of the case. The killer came to use the paper and the publications as his own speaking ground, toying with the magazine knowing that the eager journalists would bite, "Throughout the 1970's, the BTK killer sent letters to several media outlets as well as to police, apparently in an attempt to taunt the public and bait officials," (Maher, 2005). AT times during the investigation, the staff at The Eagle was brought into suspicion due to their heightened knowledge of the case and the letters being addressed to specific staff members. Although the local law officials allowed for the edited publication of the letters sent by the killer, they have recently been asked to completely refrain from further publication or news coverage of such material and this specific case, (Maher, 2005). Recently, The Eagle has received even more criticism based on an internet message board on their site. This message board is reportedly the last publicity stunt of the killer, and therefore received much backlash by law officials. The paper was actually asked to remove specific content and further criticized the staff when the broke a story in their defense. This just shows the need for their own publicity despite the needs and safety of the community. Due to the suspected murderer having been apprehended, officials in Kansas want The Eagle to stop all previously allowed publications regarding the murderer and all of the gruesome details which were produced within his letters and poetry. When the letters returned, staff writers ignored police advice and published a breaking story about the return of the dreaded murderer, (Maher, 2005). This blatant disrespect for the credibility of local law enforcement's investigation further jeopardizes the honesty of the publications on behalf of the paper. This could have had serious consequences, the killer could have been flattered enough to once again begin his quest for murder and fame.

In the field of journalism in general, there is a debate on what should be published for public knowledge and what should be kept out of the press in order to help law officials and to not worry the general public about what does not concern them. Many believe the role of the media is to "set an agenda for the nation," (Merritt, 41). In this objective, the media is responsible for placing thoughts and actions with the minds of the nation's citizens, "The media also influence the next step in the communication process; our understanding and perspective on the topics in the news," (Merritt, 44). By constantly perpetuating news of a gruesome serial killer, what message is that sending out? In addition to this questioning of ethics, the later actions of The Eagle prove that not all the motives were to catch… [read more]

Media Bias in America Term Paper

Term Paper  |  20 pages (7,231 words)
Bibliography Sources: 40


Media Bias

Knowledge is rarely neutral, often consciously shaped by these special interests and then unconsciously imbibed from our earliest childhood experiences as cultural "normality." More ominously, manipulation, misinformation, and deception are inescapably entwined with one's belief in the "truth." Propaganda also impacts on the level of public discourse by positively as well as negatively influencing the democratic process. Propaganda… [read more]

Broadcast Journalism Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (342 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Broadcast Journalism

One can hardly be a member of today's modern society, which is tremendously concerned about political freedom both at home and abroad, without wondering about the implications of a free press on a free society. From allegations that certain media outlets demonstrate political bias, to journalists being jailed for refusing to reveal sources, the message seems clear: stifle the press and freedom suffocates as well. While this connection seems very clear on a national level, I have found it be equally true on a local level, as well. When the press is unwilling to examine corruption and wrongdoings on a local level, it establishes precedence for accepting corruption, and makes people more willing to accept wrongdoing at higher levels. To me, that is one of the primary roles of the press; to reveal wrongdoings so that the public has awareness, and to inform the public about the possible remedies for those wrongdoings. In fact, some of the most powerful statements in past political movements, such as the 1960s Civil…… [read more]

Functions of PR Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,191 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 2


Functions of Public Relations (PR)

The importance of public relations and the public relations specialist in any organization is well-known.

Essentially, the PR specialist acts as a conduit between the organization and the outside world.

He or she has the task of communicating and promoting the aims and image of the organization to the public. "An organization's reputation, profitability, and even its continued existence can depend on the degree to which its targeted "publics" support its goals and policies. " (Public Relations Specialists) Public relations specialists are also known as communications and media specialists and as "... advocates for businesses, nonprofit associations, universities, hospitals, and other organizations..." who "...build and maintain positive relationships with the public." (Public Relations Specialists)

However within the framework of this central function of PR there are other functions and categories which constitute the special role that the public relations specialist plays in both society and the organization or company. On the one hand public relations have the primary task of establishing communication between the community and society and the organization. On the other hand and often in tandem with its social function, there are certain essential organizational functions that the public relations expert or specialist is responsible for; such as communicating and promoting policies and ideas within the organization itself.

2. Organizational functions

Under the rubric of the organizational functions of PR I have chosen the following two categories that best express this function: communications management and employee relations.

The public relations specialist is in the first instance a specialist in communications. In order to promote and market the products, policies and information related to the organization, the PR specialist must be able to communicate or transmit ideas and concepts correctly and understandably. This is often referred to as marketing communication. However the PR specialist is involved in a wider area of communication management, which also involves internal aspects and the presentation of the policies of the organization.

PR specialists are often responsible for setting up meetings and developing programs that are aimed at sustaining the interaction between the representatives of the organization and the public. For example, "...they set up speaking engagements and often prepare speeches for company officials." (Public Relations Specialists)

This also applies to internal presentations and meetings within the organization. The public relations specialist is also responsible for activities such as preparing film and slide shows and annual reports and writing proposals for various projects within the organization. (Public Relations Specialists)

Communication is also an important element in ensuring the smooth running of the organization and the interaction between the different structures or elements of the organization. The PR specialist must also be able to communicate important directives and policy to the employees. This leads to various functions that can be categorized under the term employee relations. The PR officer in a large organization also plays a vital role in establishing communication between the different areas of the organization and also in updating and making management aware of possible problem areas… [read more]

Balanced and Accurate News Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (335 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Balanced and Accurate News: Media Responsibility

The media in this country should be responsible enough to ensure that what they tell society is accurate and impartial. However, oftentimes this is not the case. There have been many accusations lately of the media providing information that is not fair and balanced, and due to this more and more people in today's society are choosing not to trust much of what the media is telling them. This is good, because society often simply seems to follow blindly based on what one person or one group says, and when this happens many people can be harmed by it. The fewer people that follow blindly along, the fewer people will be harmed in the long run, and the safer overall that society will be.

Because of the problems that society is seeing where the media is concerned, more individuals are choosing to determine whether what the media is telling them is actually accurate or not. Now that there is so much…… [read more]

Media Ethics Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,754 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


FOX News

In today's world of media information, there are constant concerns of bias and unfair reporting. While some conservatives believe the media to be liberal, other liberals see the media as conservative. This paper will discuss one news station, that of the Fox News Network, and will discuss whether or not this station uses censorship to present an unfair,… [read more]

Communication &amp News Framing Research Paper

Research Paper  |  7 pages (1,885 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


... The problem of conventionalism arises when the press reports what people are interested in, rather than relying on reporters' judgments of what should be covered. The more the press engages in public listening, the less willing it will be to report or discuss issues the public is uncomfortable with. (Dzur, 2002)

The differences in reporting in the two countries can therefore be traced as much to the "public mood" as to government attempts at self-presentation. In fact, one could easily assume that, were the two points-of-view on this event reversed, one could expect the public in each case to react as had its counterpart had reacted to the actual reporting of the incident.



In order to test our hypothesis that the switching around of the players in this incident would have produced opposite effects on the reading public, the researcher proposes a study in which we do just that - replace The New York Times' references to the People's Republic of China with references to the United States, and substitute its references to the United States with references to the People's Republic of China. By so doing, this should create the impression that it was a Chinese craft that "violated" American airspace, and that it was the crew of Chinese spy plane that was taken into custody by the United States government.

Definition of Terms:

News Framing:

The manner in which a news story is presented: the text of an article, the pictures accompanying an article, the article's placement in the paper i.e. On the front page, etc.



Dzur, A.W. (2002). Public Journalism and Deliberative Democracy. Polity, 34(3), 313+.

FM Spokesman Gives Full Account of Air Collision." (4 April 2001). The People's Daily. URL: http://english.peopledaily.com.cn/home.html.

Rosenthal, Elisabeth; and Sanger, David E. (2 April 2001).

U.S. Plane in China after it Collides with Chinese Jet." The New York Times.

A www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=23409735

Graber, D.A. (1993). 5 Failures in News Transmission: Reasons and Remedies. In Beyond Agendas: New Directions in Communication Research, Gaunt, P. & Dennis, E.E. (Eds.) (pp. 75-87). Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.

News Framing… [read more]

Women in Mexican Media Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,464 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Muzquiz's radio show is just one example of a country twitching as it witnesses a shift - some say the "Americanization" - of its family values (http://www.csmonitor.com/2003/0218/p01s03-woam.html).

This backlash against women's increasing independence manifests itself across the airwaves, not just during news programs. Not only is there rampant sexism in ads and in newscasts, but also in magazines and newspapers.… [read more]

Yellow Journalism Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,245 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Yellow journalism can turn the girl next door into a top news story in the blink of an eye. Media outlets clamor over news stories that exemplify crime, violence and sex. In analyzing yellow journalism as it is used today we can consider a notable example. Would the Chandra Levy case been a national headline if she had not been a congressman's mistress? Or would she have just been another nameless missing person that received little, if any attention from the press? While the Chandra Levy issue was a legitimate case of a missing person, the media acted as hungry vultures seeking to pick apart the intimate details of Gary Condits life, reporting any story that had a twinge of drama or scandal. While this is not yellow journalism in its purest form, the media did go above and beyond the call of duty to unearth any information that could be sensationalized. The Chandra Levy case is by no means an isolated incident.

The horrible events of September 11th showed America for the first time in years "real" news. The coverage of the events of September 11th revealed that prior news coverage was not news coverage at all, but doctored up gossip. Have we not been conditioned to accept reports of OJ Simpson's new girlfriend, Michael Jackson's new nose job or the break up of Brittany Spears and Justin Timberlake as news, to some extent? The ethnical practices of most media outlets today provide as a gatekeeper so that true yellow journalism remains at bay.

However, there are those who believe that yellow journalism has a place in media today. An article from EPN worldreporter.com contends that "what drives today's 'yellow' journalists, however, isn't profit, or greedy publishers, or even career advancement, but outrage." A new form of journalism, called activist journalism allows activists and journalists alike to report on their view of current events. Such reporting puts a spin on traditional yellow journalism while retaining some of the most fundamental aspects.


Yellow journalism, which made its debut over one hundred years ago, still impacts the media and the way in which news is reported today. Most media outlets are guilty of putting a yellow spin on the news at one time or another. As American's, the news in which we know it is extremely sensationalized simply because that is what we prefer, as demonstrated in our demand for news with scandalous headlines. As James Creelman, who worked for both the Journal and the World in the late 1800's reportedly wrote of yellow journalism in his memoirs, "how little they know of "yellow journalism" who denounce it! How swift they are to condemn its shrieking headlines, its exaggerated pictures, its coarse buffoonery, its intrusions upon private life, and its occasional inaccuracies! But how slow they are to see the steadfast guardianship of public interests which it maintains!" Yellow journalists of yesterday have shaped the face of journalism today. The media today is a pale yellow, as it exhibits some… [read more]

Media in "The Cultural Logic Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,535 words)
Style: Harvard  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+



In "The Cultural Logic of Media Convergence," Jenkins describes the two "seemingly contradictory" trends in American media (33). Those two trends include new media democratization and consumer empowerment on the one hand, and corporate conglomeration of mainstream media on the other. Another way of framing the dichotomous trend is in reference to excess fragmentation vs. excess homogenization. Jenkins also… [read more]

Marketing Mix for Panera Bread Company Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (945 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


The products have had to be publicized more than the company name. For Panera, the products have sold the company and not the other way round. The PR function that the company has been utilizing is the use of lobbying for the public image of the products through the media. Several tools have been used to achieve the public relations objective. includes the use of the social networking platform and other platforms on the internet that includes blogs. The media news briefings and the hijacking of special events to sell the name of the company have been the main tools used. The image created by combining all these strategies has seen a higher approval rating of the company as well (Shapiro, 1984).

Personal selling

This refers to a personalized way of making sales by meeting the clients where they are providing all the information they need to know about the products. The role achieved the company's salespeople. Panera Company has managed to employ a strong workforce of salespeople who go round streets informing the members of the public about its products. Most of the sales made with this strategy are normally achieved at the residential places and institutions. The sales workforce of Panera has capitalized on this realization. These sales people get to find the customers through referrals from those customers who have already been served mostly. They also get to make their way into the customers' places by using leads they make from their study of the market (Scott 2007).

Qualifying the customers' ability to buy is the first task that the salespersons engage in. This will be done by first engaging the clients in order to assess their financial capacity and the degree of need that they have for the products. Combining these two aspects of the customers will suffice the cause for assessing the likelihood of making a sale. Sales promotion during personal selling will also involve the use of samples and coupons. The samples are used for demonstration. Whenever they go for promotional tours in institutions such as schools, these salespersons usually carry with them samples of the baked products to be given out free to the people who will attend (Peter and Donnelly 2013). The aim is to have the people have a taste of the baked products of the company. This way, the salespersons frequently make instant customers from those who get to like the bread upon tasting-something that often happens.

Work Cited

Peter, J. Paul and Donnelly James H. Marketing management: Knowledge and skills. 11. ed. New York: McGraw-Hill Higher Education, 2013. Print.

Scott, David Meerman. The new rules of marketing and PR: how to use news releases, blogs, podcasting, viral marketing, & online media to reach buyers directly. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, 2007. Print.

Shapiro, Benson P. The marketing…… [read more]

Media Asia Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (664 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Reading this article, I learned a lot about the multiple facets of media, and how they manifest throughout any society. For example, there are the ways media impacts the viewer or consumer, and the way the disseminators of media capitalize on consumer demands. The article also raises interesting questions related to the directionality of media. For example, do consumers play an active role in determining content, or are consumers passive? Do factors like these change from place to place? Finally, the author does a good job using examples from Chinese television and cinema to make his case. These examples show how globalization has become a far more complex and organic process than what has been previously assumed by postmodern scholars, who presume Western cultural imperialism. The new model proposed by Keane is not as arrogant or presumptuous in its approach.

Keane's article is poignant, but its language is difficult to understand. The argument is bogged down. The author would do well to simplify his discourse so that more people can understand what he is saying. The structure of the argument is sound, but the diction and tone are both cumbersome. Instead of burdening his readers with jargon and obtuse sentences, Keane should write with livelier language and a more familiar tone. In terms of content, the author covers many areas of media criticism. Furthermore, it is difficult to understand the point of the argument. If Keane is only asking for a new academic approach or new paradigm, then that would be sufficient. However, the author does not clarify whether the article offers a grander proposal that would transform the nature of media studies in a more profound way. In the end, Keane's conclusions are too nebulous to be of any lasting value.


Keane, M.A. (2006). Once were peripheral. Retrieved online: http://eprints.qut.edu.au/2426/1/2426.pdf… [read more]

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