Study "Journalism / Media / PR / News" Essays 1-55

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Media Review News Story Essay

… Hence, propaganda model comes into play here.

Bloomberg Business Week

Bloomberg Business Week published a couple of abridged versions of the story on the issue, which also introduced the company by giving a short introduction. Look at the following short… [read more]

Parallels in Journalism Studies Culture Essay

… Sometimes though, in very heated and dangerous situation, journalists are one of the few groups of people who are allowed safe passage and access to dangerous or rare or amazing situations, places, people, and information. Journalism students and professionals should remember the history and the connection to democratic practices as part of their journalistic practice as well. Like other chapters discussed in the paper, McNair has a very strong sense and grasp of world history and how cultural shifts influence modes of expression and communication such as journalism and mass media.

In chapter 21, Ward writes upon a very closely related topic to journalism and democracy, which is ethics in journalism. This is very serious issue that can confuse journalists and can have serious consequences or affects upon audiences, as journalism students who are abreast of world press may well know. Journalism is a profession where ethics are often in questions and if journalists lack ethics, certainly it is their choice, but that choice will have repercussions. Not only does the chapter discuss the notion of ethics and ethics in journalism, the chapter additionally explains the five stages in the development of ethics in journalism as well as four approaches to the study of ethics in journalism today. Thus, even if one is a new journalism student, one understands that the issue of ethics is not one to be taken lightly, and that there is vigorous research and guidance toward a standard of ethics or ethical code by which journalism professionals are expected follow or at least of which they should be aware.

Finally, the focus of chapter 24 takes the themes and ideas expressed in the aforementioned chapters, and blows them up to the global scale as Cottle writes about journalism and globalization. Globalization is a movement that can be directly attributed to the advent of certain forms of digital technology including the Internet. There are very, very few industries and disciplines that have not been affected by either positively or negatively by processes of globalization. Now more than ever, journalism is an international field that garners a great deal more global exposure and attention than before things like the Internet. Cottle stresses the importance of cultural sensitivity and the roles of news media in the communication of culture and not just news. In many of the headings in this chapter, Cottle uses the word emissary to describe the function of media. Emissaries are like ambassadors or diplomats; they represent the culture and the country from which the media originates. This kind of perspective is interesting and potentially very positive. It will make journalists take their work seriously and take their professional seriously, hopefully working with humility, grace, and a sense of professional responsibility.


Coleman, R., McCombs, M. & Shaw, D & Weaver, D. (2009). Agenda Setting. In K. Wahl-Jorgensen & T. Hanitzsch (Eds.), The Handbook of Journalism. (pp. 147-160). New York, NY: Routledge. (chapter 11)

Cottle, S. (2009). Journalism and Globalization. In K. Wahl-Jorgensen & T. Hanitzsch… [read more]

Racism in Media Television News Term Paper

… Having watched the advertisement, it appears as though the only thing missing from this advertisement was blackface. A second advertisement from the company is equally racist and depicts two -- apparently well-off business executives -- conversing in ebonics and imitating black mannerism, that is, until a black co-worker walks up and they immediately stop their behavior as though such comportment is something to be ashamed of (Minato). While advertising executives should realize before they release advertising campaigns that certain approaches are blatantly racist, it is only after public outcry is heard that these campaigns are stopped. Given the countless number of racist advertisements in existence, it is a wonder how it is possible that these advertisements got beyond the brainstorming phase of creation.

As much as people may try to deny stereotypes in the media, the fact remains that Blacks are continuously negatively depicted in news broadcast reports and stories, as well as in the advertisements that fill the time between news reports. While there is no reason for such a divide between blacks and whites to exist in the media, given media history, the only time anything is ever done to stop discrimination in the media is when the public speaks out, however, it has also been demonstrated the public only speaks out when a matter concerns or impacts them personally.

Works Cited

Balkaran, Stephen. "Mass Media and Racism." The Yale Political Quarterly Vol. 21 No. 1

(October 1999). Web. 3 December 2012.

Brown, Michael K. Whitewashing Race: The Myth of a Color-Blind Society. Los Angeles:

University of California Press, 2003. GoogleBooks. 3 December 2012.

Entman, Robert M. And Andrew Rojecki. The Black Image in the White Mind: Media and Race

in America. Chicago: The University of Chicago… [read more]

Presence of Media Bias Essay

… To refer back to the first question asked, I would say that when considering and limiting the scope of the argument to local and national news in the United States broadcast on basic, non-cable channels, the answer is yes. These programs and stations are out of control with regard to displays and demonstrations of bias. I do not personally watch "regular" news that often because it is deeply depressing and staggering. Most of the stories are about horrific crimes and tragedies; often a series of these kinds of stories are shown in a row -- one after another of some terrible accident, horrendous crime, or lack of justice in the world. It is unbearable. Many stations cast white anchors as leads with limited ethnic cast members. Many stations give the male news casters the top stories or the most dangerous or cinematic stories. These are reflections of bias. Both the stories that are reported and the stories that go left unreported reflect bias as well. Any day of the week, an American can turn to their afternoon or evening local news and hear a report of a violent crime perpetrated by a minority. This does not mean only minorities commit violent crimes or that minorities comment a large quantity of violent crimes, but with the absence of counterstories or variations on that story, that is what the average, moderately literate viewer thinks. The bias of "regular" news sustains many kinds of stereotypes that have negative impacts on society.

The media is biased; it has always been biased. The largest, wealthiest, and most powerful companies or individuals that own biased news programs consist of affluent, conservative white men. When there is more diversity at the top, the removal of bias or at least diversity of bias will trickle down. Objectivity is a fairly impossible state to achieve in general. At least programs and stations could be more open about their biases and acknowledge them as well as the biases of others. Then consumers can make more informed decisions about what news media they consume as well as make more informed choices about perceptions of others and the world.


Giles, D. (2003) Media Psychology. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.: Mahway, NJ.

Wahl-Jorgensen, K. & Hanitzsch, T. (eds) (2009) The Handbook of Journalism… [read more]

Citizen Journalism, Tech, Advertising Term Paper

… Their conclusion is that the return falls short because there is too little in the outcome that is a promising and verifiable as expected (The Open Newsroom 6).

FINANCIAL UNCERTAINTY: If support means something, citizen journalism has a future. Several sites are offering technical, legal and even broadcast incentives to encourage more people to be involved as citizen reporters (The Open Newsroom 7). CNN is widely recognized for this as it seeks to capture videos of local news and events. The issue of money and advertising, however, is much less certain. Some writers are beginning to expect to be paid something on the belief that their visibility on the Internet has some value, even if they are not writing for profit. The balance of this with the different purposes of the genre is not well understood yet but there still seems to be many opportunities for all types of innovations that could well cash-in on a well-established pattern of possibilities.


Bandon, F. Citizen Journalism & Democracy in Africa: An exploratory study. Open Society Foundation for Africa. 2010. Retrievable from

Bentley, C.H. Citizen Journalism: Back to the Future. Discussion Paper: Carnegie-Knight Conference on the Future of Journalism, Cambridge, MA. June 20-12, 2008. Retrievable from

Bruns, A. Citizen Journalism and Everyday Life: A case study of Germany's ARC Centre of Excellence for Creative Industries and Innovation Queensland University of Technology. 1-11. No date. Retrievable from

Hurst, N. Citizen Journalism vs. Legacy News: The battle for supremacy. Missouri School of Journalism. Columbia, MO. July 8, 2010. Web. Viewable at

The Open Newsroom. Citizen Journalism: A primer on the definition, risks and benefits and main debates in media communications research. 1-10. No date. Retrievable from

WAN-IFRA. Study says: citizen journalism not yet a threat. World Association of Newspapers and News Publishers. Editor's Weblog. May 8, 2010. Web. Viewable at [read more]

New Media Implications the Improvement Essay

… Others view them as heroes that are fettering out the facts and figures that the established news media does not want others to see. Whether one views them as legitimate news makers or just part of the audience that is… [read more]

Language of News Reporting Thesis

… Language of News Reporting

In the modern era most journalism analysts concentrate on the impact that the text and language used in an article has on overall results attained. For example, Blommeart in his study conducted in 1999 explains:

"Texts… [read more]

Partisanship of the News Media Research Paper

… Partisanship of the News Media and Its Effect on the Last 25 Years of United States History

Media Impact & Partisanship

In the 21st century, there has been a particular development on the media front, and which has completely changed… [read more]

Pulitzer Prize's Effect on Journalism Essay

… Pulitzer

Joseph Pulitzer and his Eponymous Prize: The Shaping and Stature of Modern American Journalism

Joseph Pulitzer is remembered variously as a pioneering voice and face in the newspaper industry and the field of journalism, and as a quasi-robber baron… [read more]

Growth of Mass Media in the United States Term Paper

… Growth of Mass Media in the United States

How does the history of New York City predict the history of the development and growth of most of the mass media in the United States?"

New York City is famously the city that never sleeps -- and its morning, afternoon, and evening newspapers were harbingers of the 24/7 connected media society we live in today. Early on in its history, due to the fact that so many immigrants chose to settle within its confines, every neighborhood of New York took on different character. Immigrants gravitated to areas where their native languages were spoken. These concentrated ethnic neighborhoods often produced community institutions such as newspapers written in the language of the neighborhood. This is reflected the segmentation of mass media today, where people who are conservative tune into Fox news, while liberal individuals read similarly-spirited blogs. Every ethnicity or nationality can find access to the media voices that speak the language of their culture on the World Wide Web.

New York City's rapid industrialization and high population density made it the ideal location to launch yellow journalism, or highly inflammatory, populist journalistic style characteristic of the New York World, run by Joseph Pulitzer and the New York Journal, run by William Randolph Hearst, both of which began in the 19th century ("Yellow Journalism, Think Quest, 2007). New York's relatively small environment also enabled an intimate relationship with politicians and celebrities alike. What the mayor of New York… [read more]

First Broadcast News Job After College at a TV Station in a Low Market Term Paper

… ¶ … Broadcast News Job

In today's world, media, through the broadcasters and/or journalists has been playing a detrimental part to the people's lives. Becoming a journalists and/or a broadcaster entails a lot of efforts already, and it presents a… [read more]

Ethnic/Race in the News Media Term Paper

… But all agree that there is room for improvement." (Rifkin) This is undoubtedly the case. The way in which ethnic and racial issues are covered by the media is skewed. The news media, as well as the entertainment aspects of the media, have an agenda to get ratings. This means that morality and social justice are often curbed in order to bring in the most money. "News gathering, to be sure, is a highly imperfect art, and problems with basic facts, not to mention nuances, are common. But when you are talking about conflicts that are at their root racial, ethnic or religious, the stakes are higher. This is the stuff riots, wars and deep-seated prejudices are made of, and the news media has an even greater responsibility than it normally does to get it right." (Rifkin) Since 9/11 and the introduction of the so-called War on Terror, it is even more dangerous that the media continues to fling racial and ethnic issues around carelessly.


AAR. "History of AAR." Artists Against Racism.

Creeley, Will and Rendall, Steve. "White Noise: Voices of Color Scarce on Public Radio." Extra! September/October 2002. Fairness & Accuracy in Reporting.

Douglas, Susan. Listening In: Radio and American Imagination. New York: Times Books, 1999.

Ely, Melvin Patrick. The Adventures of Amos 'N' Andy: A Social History of an American Phenomenon. New York: The Free Press, 1991.

Entman, Robert and Rojecki, Andrew. The Black Image in the White Mind: Media and Race in America. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2000.

Gilliam, Frank. "The Local Television News Media's Picture of Children - 2001." Study on Race, Ethnicity and the News. October 2001. Children Now. Complete Study Findings Available for Download at

Hangen, Tona. "The Adventures of Amos 'n' Andy: A Social History of an American Phenomenon. Melvin Pattrick Ely. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 2001." Journal of Popular Culture. August 2004 Vol. 38 Issue 1, p 214, 2p.

Nachman, Gerald. Raised on Radio. New York: Pantheon Books, 1998.

Rifkin, Ira. "Covering Conflict: How the News Media Handles Ethnic Controversy." Media & Values, Issue 43. Spring 1988. Print Journal Archived Online by the Center for Media Literacy.

Stark, Phyllis. "A History of Radio Broadcasting." Billboard. November 1, 1994.

Stockman, Robbie. "Amos 'n' Andy-ism: What it Was and What It Is." [read more]

Media: An Exercise in Sensationalism Term Paper

… This results in a narrow perspective and limits the information available to consumers about important issues in the world.

The pursuit of profits and increasing mergers between news companies has resulted in inadequate media coverage. According to Croteau and Hoynes (2001) increasingly news media agents are pursuing profits by working together, but the result is an edging out of ideas and discussion of topics and subjects that might be more valuable to the public than sensationalism. News divisions in recent years are merely the product of capitalist society, having become "just another profit center for conglomerate parents" that are required to yield profit ratios (Champlin & Knoedler, 2002). A trend toward media "concentration" is also occurring where most of the mass media in the country is dominated by a few large corporations including AOL-Time Warner, Disney (ABC), Viacom (CBS) and NewsCorp (Fox News Channel) (Champlin & Knoedler, 2002). Because the power of coverage is limited to a few big mega corporations, (such as AOL Time Warner which regulates CNN), the content more and more is becoming shaped by advertisers and other agents looking to boost profits rather than really offer the public a fair portrait of the news. News for profit requires that ratings be obtained (Champlin & Knoedler, 2002) thus the quality of news has decreased and the entertainment and sensationalist aspects of news coverage have increased significantly in recent years.

The news media has failed consumers in many ways, primarily by focusing on sensationalist tactics geared toward increasing profits rather than providing objective and well rounded coverage of important world events. The power of news media is controlled by a few large corporations that are concerned with making profits and improving ratings rather than supplying the public with the best possible coverage. A majority of news coverage is either very limited in nature or biased. News reporters aren't focused on reporting and analyzing from many different perspectives. Rather, only the most dramatic tales are offered in the media, and when they are concentrated on to improve ratings rather than inform and educate the public. Much of the news can be considered simply an agent for entertainment rather than a journalistic venue. The duty of the news media is to report on an event and subsequently analyze it from many different perspectives. Unfortunately this is not happening and consumers are suffering as a result.


Baker, William F., and George Dessart. Down the tube: An inside account of the failure of American television. New York: Basic Books, 1998

Champlin, D. & Knoedler, J. (2002). "Operating in the public interest or in the pursuit of private profits? News in the age of media consolidation." Journal of Economic Issues, 36(2) 459.

Croteau, David, and William Hoynes. (2001). The business of media: Corporate media and the public interest. Thousand Oaks,… [read more]

War Coverage-Media Obsession to Argue Term Paper

… However, intending no disrespect to her, Pfc. Lynch is not a heroine - which she herself recently acknowledged to Diane Sawyer in her first TV interview - but merely the victim of an unfortunate wrong turn."

The media mood swings have actually created a great deal of confusion as public feels betrayed and misled after the media realized its own errors in reporting and the hype that it creates about a certain event. The war is a crucial time for any nation and this is when the public expects to be told the truth. However what we receive from newspapers and television is half-baked stories with candy-colored icing. For example during the U.S.-Iraq war, the media presented distorted picture of war and its purpose. The truth was told later but by then, it was already too late. The difference with the Internet is that news comes in from various quarters and we get to read news from other channels as well. This helps us in developing a more balanced view of war and other events. This is the reason why some Internet users even prefer online newspapers to print newspapers as the study revealed: "Online is preferred over print, in some cases by considerable margins, for respondents' ability to find the information they need, the time they save finding the right information, entertainment, enjoyability, how the information is organized, how detailed it is and how useful the information is." (5) For this reason we can conclude that while print newspapers will always be our main source of authentic information, online newspapers are rapidly catching up and may pose a threat to regular newspapers soon.


Stuart Allan, News Culture. Open University Press: Buckingham 1999

William V. Kennedy, The Military and the Media: Why the Press Cannot Be Trusted to Cover a War.: Praeger Publishers. Westport, CT. 1993.

The Washington Times. Lynch, West and Common Sense. November 23, 2003. B05.

Christopher Hanson, American Idol: The Press Finds the War's True Meaning. Columbia Journalism Review. Volume: 42. Issue: 2. July-August 2003, 58+.

By NAA Market and Business Analysis Staff Print and Online Components Bring Strength to Newspapers

Rusty Coats Online newspapers: are they helping or killing their print parents? -… [read more]

Mass Media and Politics Term Paper

… The Commission also referred to the three major and crucial responsibilities of the press that are central to its political role-- to provide true and undistorted information, educate the public to make them capable of self-government, and to serve as… [read more]

Social Media's Massive Influence Essay

… Everyone should understand that what they watch on TV or in the films are there to help them alter their mindsets regarding given viewpoints or opinions. This is a matter of social control since the society in the contemporary era has most of its affairs implicated upon by the media. In the current epoch of globalization, everyone must be conscious of the diverse features that apply in the production of TV programs and films and their connotation on the diverse ethnicities and divisions of the society. The media civilization of current times incline to promote numerous entrepreneurial principles, by damaging the marginal interests, and depicts a profound effort that exists among diverse races, social classes, sex, and societal groups. People should appreciate and understand the character and effect of the production maneuvers of the media relics and their implication on individuals in a given society. It is pertinent to look deeper and comprehend the media society as to its functioning, and how it serves to alter our mindsets, inclinations, and viewpoints, resulting in a social control all at the media's discretion.


Biagi, S. 2011. Media Impact: An Introduction to Mass Media: An Introduction to Mass Media, Toebben: Cengage Learning.

Conrad, R. 2002. How, if at all, have the mass media reinforced social inequalities? Munich: GRIN Verlag.

Dill, K. 2009. How Fantasy Becomes Reality: Seeing Through Media Influence, New… [read more]

Children and Media Technology Surrounds Essay

… This creates a sense of protection that they are able to feel. By being immediately informed about the occurrence of any eminent danger, these media sources are in fact protecting the children that they at times could harm developmentally.

In all, the dire effects that the media has on children are undeniable. The mainstream and social media create false expectations about image, societal values, and privacy. Today's children are affected developmentally by all of these occurrences, as their world is surrounded by these technological advances. However, despite the negativity that is at times associated with the development of mainstream and social media, they have also had positive effects on the lives of today's children. The youth of today are exposed to numerous cultures around the world and are able to better learn from personal interactions with them. The mainstream media has also assisted in keeping children up-to-date with current events and has also served as a medium through which to deliver emergency news if necessary. Mainstream and social media will only continue to develop and its effects on the lives of today's children need to be continuously monitored.


Anderson, D.R. & Hanson, K.G. (2009). Children, media, and methodology. American Behavioral Science. 52(8), 1204-1219.

Bargh, J.A. & McKenna, K.Y.A. (2003). The internet and social life. Annual Review of Psychology. 55, 573-590.

Chau, C. (2010). YouTube as a participatory culture. New Directions for Youth Development. 2010(128), 65-74.

Christakis, D.A. & Zimmerman, F.J. (2009). Young Children and media: Limitations of current knowledge and future directions for research. American Behavioral Science. 52(8), 1177-1185.

Livingstone, S. & Helsper, E.J. (2006). Does Advertising Literacy Mediate the Effects of Advertising on Children? A Critical Examination of Two Linked Research Literatures in Relation to Obesity and Food Choice. Journal of Communication. 56(3), 560-584.

Mangold, W.G., & Faulds, D.J. (2009). Social media: The new hybrid element of the promotion mix. Business horizons, 52(4), 357-365.

Oakes, J.M. (2009). The Effect of media on children: A methodological assessment from a social epidemiologist. American Behavioral Science. 52(8), 1136-1151.

Ponte, C. (2007). Mapping news on children in the mainstream press. European Societies. 9(5), 735-754.

Stice, E., Maxfield, J., & Wells, T. (2003). Adverse Effects of social pressure to be thin on young women: An experimental investigation of the effects of "fat talk." International Journal of Eating Disorders. 34(1), 108-117.

Von Feilitzen, C. (2012). Children's media use in… [read more]

Embedded Weapons of Mass Deception How the Media Failed to Cover War in Iraq Book Report

… Embedded: The Relationship Between Form and Theoretical Assumption in an Account of the Iraq War

Danny Schechter's book Embedded: Weapons of Mass Deception looks at the media coverage surrounding the Iraq war and attempts to argue that the American news… [read more]

Media Culture Essay

… Media Culture

My opinion of traditional news has definitely changed. I am more critical of the news now that I understand theories of framing and agenda setting. For the most part, news outlets play to their target audience, the audience that they intend to deliver to their advertisers. This definitely helps to frame the way that they present the news and present their arguments. By framing issues the way that they do, news agencies can impact on how people think about the facts that are being presented. This can affect the way that people think about certain issues.

News organizations can definitely influence our political decisions. When people vote, they do so on the basis of their understanding of the issues and where the different candidates stand on those issues. Much of this information is disseminated through the news media. The news media therefore plays an important role in educating the public prior to voting. When the news media shows bias in its framing of issues or positions, it impacts on that thought process. For example, when a politician makes proposals to solve the budget problem, but those proposals are useless from an economic perspective, but the media frames the proposal as being serious, that makes people think that there is a serious proposal. The media needs to educate people better, for example pointing out the flaws in such a proposal so that the people are voting based on good knowledge and not knowledge that has been randomly selected and presented in an uncritical way. If the media chooses only to present facts, it should help to educate voters on how to interpret those facts so that issues are more properly understood. Right now, the way that media frames issues, it seems that the media does a poor job of helping voters to understand issues and positions properly. This results in some low-quality people being elected, which ultimately harms our nation.

2. Media literacy helps us to be critical of the messages that media sends and the way that those messages are framed. However, media literacy messages can be disrupted by a number of means. The first is that media literacy messages are sometimes suppressed, so that the intended audience does not receive the message. This can lower the degree of media literacy, so that people are generally less critical about what they see and hear. People therefore become more trusting of the media, and this reduces the effectiveness, for example, of public service messages or even of the news. If we consider the relatively low number of people who study media literacy and communications,… [read more]

Privatization of U.S. Media Term Paper

… Media Privatization U.S.

Privatization of the media in the United States has promoted growth in new media technologies and helped the country reach its current position as a global leader in communications. However, a privatized media restricts access to communications resources, limiting editorial voices to the for-profit sector. Corporate-run media means more potential for economic growth but stifles diversity of opinion. Moreover, media privatization has enabled the current conglomeracy situation in which a relatively few number of major corporations own and operate almost all the media outlets in the United States. If the media is essential to a democracy in disseminating information and permitting a plurality of voices, then media conglomeracy may in itself be undemocratic. By definition, privatized media restricts access to resources. The general public does not read, listen to, or see that which has not cleared the editorial offices of the major media outlets. Those outlets are headed by profit-hungry corporations that pander to investors at the expense of the truth. Biases in reporting and coverage is also a by-product of media privatization and especially of media conglomeracy.

Public influence on traditional media content is negligible. Letters to the editor are often the only opportunities an average citizen, one who is not associated with the media, can voice an opinion and reach a wide audience. New media offers a wealth of venues for voices alternative to the mainstream: blogs and other personal Web sites allow individuals to express themselves freely. With regards to the content contained in reputable media outlets online, though, private companies still control what and how topics are covered. What passes as newsworthy differs from source to source but generally an editorial staff selects content that best suits its bottom line. Because media conglomerates are composed of companies with interests other than those related to the media, stakeholders and investors often do not care what passes as… [read more]

Global PR Trends? Term Paper

… Stewart's use of her advocacy for prison reform is an excellent example of trying to turn a negative public event, such as company's chief executive doing jail time because of an insider trading conviction, into a potential PR plus.

Thus, proactive PR planning takes place when one seeks publicity and seeks to reach out to the media organizations and to the general public. In contrast, reactive PR is needed when an already established figure, more often than not, is suffering the effects of negative press and must turn his or her image around. PR personnel often accomplish this image rehabilitation by the crisis a different spin, or deflecting attention from the crisis onto another issue.

In addition, synthesize the course learning by describing the impact of positive and negative PR in your daily life and provide at least two examples of each in your paper.

Of course, one prefers to think one stands above the fray in terms of public relations -- when one studies its influence, and is so cognizant of its insidious uses and subtle effects, one would like to think PR has no impact upon one's own personal world view and behaviors. However, every time one picks up a flyer for a local band playing in a local bar or fraternity house, one is indirectly sampling positive PR for the band, and also the venue. This can be a good thing, as if one attends, one's own enjoyment is enhanced, as well as the band's reputation and the establishment that is hosting the band. If one returns to the venue to buy a drink (or decides to 'rush' the fraternity house) even when the band is not playing, however, the objective of the PR promotion for the bar has been achieved.

Even product placement PR can be informative in a positive fashion -- click onto a press release about a new healthy product. One may find a cheaper and better alternative to one's current choice for dinner, or a faster and better way to go about one's personal computing. Simply gaining information, even slanted information, provided one is a savvy consumer can be a boon.

The only time PR can be labeled bad in no uncertain terms is when it is unethically disseminated -- such as when one is subject to a press release about a new diet product or fitness aid that appears to be a scientific article rather than a promotional device. However, the most extreme examples of bad PR and its negative effects may be out-and-out slander, such as the distribution on the part of Michael Jackson's attorneys of negative information about his young accuser and the accuser's family, information to the mass media. In court, this is a part of the adversarial judicial process, but in the media PR war it seems to be merely a way of bolstering the singer's damaged… [read more]

Media Criticism Killing the Messenger: 100 Years Term Paper

… Media Criticism

Killing the Messenger: 100 Years of Media Criticism contains a collection of fifteen essays on media criticism. A UC Berkeley Graduate School Dean at the time of publication, Editor Tom Goldstein's selections span several centuries, focusing on the… [read more]

Media Ownership Term Paper

… The journalists and station managers in the local Fox TV affiliate are producing less and less of the news segments seen in Madison's Fox channel. Instead, these news and commentary segments are produced in "NewsCentral," a centralized communications production station… [read more]

Technology Such as the Internet Research Paper

… Conclusion

The use of modern technology such as the internet indeed has a negative impact on the news industry. This is however dependent on the active population within a given society. The modern technology has really affected effected the news industry by allowing for an easier and quicker access to news content as they come in. This is obvious from the way literature talks about this decline on the news by journalists, news companies by examining extant literature on journalists and how they are working with new technology, blogging, twitter and such kinds of technology. The paper also explored how the news industry makes money from technology (from advertisement) as well as how the technology might make them these companies bankrupt (from a drop in sales value and reduction in advertisement revenue). The statistics on the decline of the news industry which are presented allows us to make possible long-term effects of technology adoption on the news industry to be real.

Works Cited

Berte, Katrien, DeBens, Elsa, "Newspapers go for advertising: challenges and opportunities in a changing media environment," Journalism Studies, Vol. 9 No.5, pp.692-704.2008

Bird, S.Elizabeth "The future of journalism in the digital environment," Journalism, Vol. 10 No.3, pp.293-5.June 2009

Currah, Andrew "What's happening to our news. An investigation into the likely impact of the digital revolution on the economics of news publishing in the UK," RISJ/Joseph Rowntree Reform Trust Report, Reuters Institute of Journalism, University of Oxford, Oxford, 1 Jan 2009

Deuze, Mark and Bruns, Axel and Neuberger, Christoph "Preparing for an age of participatory news," Journalism Practice, Vol. 1 No.3, pp.322-38. 19 Sep 2007

Domingo, David Thorsten Quandt, Ari Heinonen, Steve Paulussen, Jane B. Singer, and Marina Vujnovic "Participatory journalism practices in the media and beyond: an international comparative study of initiatives in online newspapers," Journalism Practice, Vol. 2 No.3, pp.326-41.2008

Freer, Julie "UK regional and local newspapers," in Anderson, P., Wood, G. (Eds),The Future of Journalism in the Advanced Democracies, Ashgate, London, pp.89-103.2007

Graham, Garry, Alison Smart, "The regional-newspaper industry supply chain and the internet," Supply Chain Management: An International Journal, Vol. 15 Iss: 3, pp.196 -- 206, 15 March 2010

Mintel, Regional Newspapers, Mintel, London, 2007

Pincus, Walter "Newspaper narcissism: our pursuit of glory led us away from readers," Columbia Journalism Review, available at:, 1 June 2009)… [read more]

Mass Media Affecting Degree of Acculturation for Taiwanese Adult ESL Learners Ages 18-25 Literature Review

… Acculturation of ESL Learners in Taiwan

How impactful is the mass media in terms of the acculturation for Taiwanese adult English as a second language (ESL) learners (ages 18-25)? This issue has important implications for the ESL students both in… [read more]

ABC News Essay

… ¶ … Coverage

Millions of Americans turn to the mainstream media for news about current events. Yet increasingly, the news they see may not be the objective coverage many expect. Contemporary television news has become a melange of enticing entertainment,… [read more]

Media Bias and Public Opinion Term Paper

… Such reporting is nothing more than propaganda." (POLLAGANDA - Manipulating Public Opinion, 1998.) This has, the authors suggest, produced a new term - Pollaganda - which is defined as follows:

Media polling is used to manipulate public opinion and advance… [read more]

Media's Role in Time Term Paper

… The media has a role to play during times of national crisis because it is so strongly depended on by the public.

The media also has a responsibility to the public to protect it even if it means withholding information. The media can hurt national security by reporting everything that it finds out. In addition the public may have members who are intent on harming those who live here. If they can gather information through the media that would hurt national interests the media in essence will have had a hand in the destruction of national security. The media does have a role to play during national crisis. It has to be strong, and calm while at the same time providing necessary information to the public. It walks a fine line between freedom of speech and alarming the public to the point of being harmful. Its role as provider of information must be tempered with the common sense to not raise undue fear in those that depend on it for strength and guidance.


Anchoring the nation.(Peter Jennings)

American Journalism Review; November 1, 2001; Robertson, Lori

Newspaper editorials follow lead of Bush administration.

Newspaper Research Journal; January 1, 2003; Billeaudeaux, Andre Domke, David Hutcheson, John S. Garland, Philip

9/11 attack coverage reveals similarities, differences.

Newspaper Research Journal; January 1, 2003; Li, Xigen Izard, Ralph sy-Turvy: American universities are places of dizzying unreality -- and this does considerable harm.

National Review; October 13, 2003; HANSON, VICTOR DAVIS

Local, network TV news shows significant gains.

Newspaper Research Journal; January 1, 2003; Poindexter, Paula M. Conway, Mike

Exuberant Reporting.

Harvard International Review; March 22, 2001; SHILLER, ROBERT J.

The local roots of federal policy change: transportation in the 1990s.(Statistical Data Included)

Polity; December 22, 2001; Lewis, Paul G. McGhee, Eric

Post, Times highlight government's war efforts.

Newspaper Research Journal; January 1, 2003; Lee, Changho

Anchoring the nation.(Peter Jennings)

American Journalism Review; 11/1/2001;… [read more]

Mass Communication: Examination Annotated Bibliography

… One focus that this textbook is able to provide that others can't is how mass communication relies on women in advertising and how that powerful role can be adapted.

Harris, R.J., & Sanborn, S.W. (2013). A cognitive psychology of mass communication. New York: Routledge.

This book very aptly examines the way in which basic psychology figures into mass communication and how these fundamental pillars of psychology can be used to sway opinion. The authors look at the distortion present in social mirrors and how emotion can effectively be harnessed to influence public opinion. This book offers a strong foundation of the psychology and psychological strategies that ultimately underscore the bulk of all media tactics. For instance, the book discusses the use of fear in the media and how the media has long-harnessed the technique of fear-mongering as a means of gaining public attention. Finally, the book devotes a chapter to the influence of sexuality and sensuality in the media and how that can be a powerful tool. The book touches upon some of the major arenas of influence in mass communication.

Hardt, H. (2008). Critical Communication Studies. New York: Routledge.

This book is able to offer more theory and background on the entire field and backdrop of critical communication, while examining the history and theory which have guided it as it continues to evolve. It discusses the pragmatism and the pursuit of social criticism which is an aspect of mass communication as a whole. There's a very thorough discussion of communication studies and the aspects of communication research which influence critical theory of communication and communication itself. Shortcomings, along with common media miscommunications, are discussed, along with a look at how they occur in the first place. Moreover, there's an element of communication research which needs to occur. Finally, this book was ultimately overly based in theory and did not provide enough examples from real life to support its point.

Hardt, H. (2008). Myths for the Masses. San Francisco: John Wiley and Sons

In this short essay, Hardt essentially describes the process of how our perception has long been distorted via the media. Hardt explains how and why he does not believe that mass communication actually contributes to the promise of democracy or the meaning of self in society. To a certain extent, it appears as though Hardt is making the argument that the media depends on a certain amount of social distortion in order to thrive. This allows it to not just sell to a wider consumer base, but to be able to control that consumer base for the most part. Thus, Hardt makes a strong case for the fact that the media distorts as a means of transferring information to the public, because it is in the best interest of the media to do so. However, as the reader is able to aptly realize, this is not always the case.

Hirst, M. (2007). Communication and New Media. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

This book functions primarily to offer up… [read more]

Tylenol Cyanide Case Study

… Tylenol Case Analysis: Johnson and Johnson

In the contemporary world, taking responsibility and immediate action in the face of a huge crisis is a requirement for any U.S. corporation if they are to survive and maintain their market position and… [read more]

Effects of Media on Culture Term Paper

… ¶ … Media on Culture

The objective of this work is to write a research proposal relating to the effects of media on culture.

The effect of media on culture is well documented in the literature reviewed in this research… [read more]

Staten Island Ferry Accident Case Study

… ¶ … Island Ferry accident from the standpoint of public relations. The writer explores the way the information was disseminated and given to the public by various agencies. The writer then examines and outlines a model public relations plan that… [read more]

Framing: A Comparison of the New York Term Paper

… ¶ … Framing: A Comparison of the New York Times and the People's Daily Coverage of Sino-U.S. Spy Plane Collision of April 1, 2001

It was April 1st, 2001 in the South China Sea. The unprecedented collision between a Chinese… [read more]

Wealth of Networks Communication Research Paper

… Up until now, access to the informational network -- the internet -- has been near neutral with respect to both the person using it and the data that the person is passing back and forth (Hindman 327-348). The internet operates… [read more]

Online Multitasking Term Paper

… Change Management

Online Multitasking

Perhaps the very best question that you can memorize and repeat, over and over, is, what is the most valuable use of my time right now?'" - Brian Tracy, Motivational Coach and Author (Tracy, N.d.)

Eons… [read more]

Inductive Reasoning and Fallacies Term Paper

… By using respectable individuals in the society (preacher, attorney, White House personnel, and feminist), Kearns tries to increase the truthfulness of his report. Furthermore, the author uses testimonials, inappropriate use of statistics, and biased statements to generalize about the truth and harmful effects of ass milk to women. Testimonials are in the form of statements from the authorities he cited (mentioned earlier), inappropriate use of statistics are used to prove scientifically the truth of the story, and bias (specifically, appeal to prejudice through personal attacks) when it becomes evident that Kearns is against this ass's milk effect issue, as he labels the producer of this product, Ali Ben Hassan, as a "shadowy and wily businessman," and the 'anti-ass milk' sentiments of the White House (purported to be Pres. Bush's statement) and the Church's (Rev. Wilson).

In advertising, the common fallacy committed used is trickery with language, specifically, the use of weasel words and euphemisms. Examples of these weasel words in advertisements are the following: the slogan of Oil of Olay's UV Protectant Lotion: "Proof we can help you feel younger" and "If you'd like Lancome's Vitabolic, you'll love Beautician's Secret." Euphemisms, on the other hand, are mild or vague expressions used in replacement of a harsher or blunter one. Examples of euphemisms include words such as "vertically-challenged" (short), financially able (wealthy), and lovemaking (sex). These examples are substitutes for words that may sound offensive to the receiver of the message. However, one disadvantage of using euphemisms is that it "hides" the real underlying message in the statement. In sum, these fallacies and their examples from popular media information illustrate that, indeed, misleading and false information are proliferated in exchange for profit and patronage and loyalty of the audience (at the expense of truthful reporting of facts and information). [read more]

Magic Bullet Theory Term Paper

… 'Mass media can be defined as avenues for messages that are created for consumption by large numbers of people. These 'message consumers' are physically separated from one another (to distinguish a mass medium audience from, for example, attendees at a… [read more]

Hero? Term Paper

… For example, Wayne's movies encourage us to think of soldiers as heroic rather than to consider heroic and manly the diplomats and politicians and ordinary people who try to stop war.

In trying to understand how mass media like Wayne's… [read more]

Media the Two Media News Outlets Research Paper

… Media

The two media news outlets that I am going to evaluate are the Onion News Network, which a cable television program based on the Onion website, and WikiLeaks. The Onion is a satire-based program, so the stories covered are… [read more]

Media Technology A-Level Coursework

… Media Technology

Explain the concepts of agenda-setting and framing. In your explanation, identify a specific example of each from the news site I've reproduced on the last page of this exam, and explain how it is an example of the… [read more]

Journalism and Press Freedom Changes Research Paper

… Journalism and Press Freedom

Changes in technology and other influences; have shaped the way of media communication. The freedom of the press relates to the freedom of expression and communication through various mediums. These mediums include publications, radio, or electronic… [read more]

Treyvon Martin Media Has Shifted Essay

… Thus the media hopes to cover a story first to make an impact on the society. In this way it is negatively influencing the society against African-Americans and in favor of Hispanics.

If the above two points are looked into detail, then it could be said that stereotyping is still present in the media. The urge to deliver a story first in a certain way could be to toggle the minds of the people to one way. Writing subtle statements like white Latino or hints that push the case towards one direction could be a way of stereotyping. Seeing the voices raised against the media reporting are in this case, it was clear that the media sources were against Martins in this scenario.

Diversity is taken as a positive thing in journalism because it goes on to show more fairness and accuracy in the news reports. (Deggans, 2012) The more a newspaper or news channel is diverse when it comes to gender and culture, the less stereotypical the news reports will be. It is said that back in the 60s when the news reports only had the perspectives and view points of white men, it went to mistakes and chaos in the community. Not only did it hurt the feelings of the diverse people present in the newsroom it also give a reason for the population to not find the sources credible. (Deggans, 2012) Now when the society has gotten more aware of their rights, they are not scared to analyze the terms and the remarks used by the mass media. There has to be a good balance of ethical fairness and accuracy when it comes to news reporting. (Deggans, 2012)

As mentioned earlier, a certain group of people will be more interested in not only reporting the story but following it if their own interest lies in it. The Pew Research Center reported that one fourth of all the Americans are closely looking into the story. It was revealed that African-American respondents are more likely to have this issue as their top story (Beaujon, 2012) Another survey showed that 35% of the people were very interested in this story. Out of the aforementioned number, it was seen that out of the 35%, 75% of the people were actually African-American. (Beaujon, 2012) This clearly shows that the issue was a concern for this group of people because it affected them. For them, it was important to see how the media portrayed and what the actual outcome of the investigation was.

Multiculturalism is not positively portrayed when it comes to something like shootings in teenagers. Thus, the media's opinions and portrayal of diversity varies with what news they are reporting. Media always goes on to tell about how the institutions or the governments are not providing justice. Where some minorities are not being treated equally, such as the case of this shooting, media tries its best to show how there is still social in justice. (Deggans, 2012) Thus, in this instance… [read more]

Technological Effects on Journalism Through the Internet Essay

… Technological Effects on Journalism Through the Internet

The traditional processes and roles of journalism are going through disruptive economic, social, and political change as a result of the pervasive influence of the Internet and social media. The nature of journalism… [read more]

Twitter on Sports Journalism Thesis

… He uses the example of a blogger named Nate Dunlevy, who runs an Indianapolis Colts site, and wrote a story about NFL writer Len Pasquarelli's claim that Colts' defensive end Robert Mathis was planning to hold out of training camp… [read more]

Journalism's First Obligation Term Paper

… Journalism's First Obligation Is To The Truth

Journalism is charged with the responsibility to be make practical sense in all that they report to the general public. This does not mean that they have to make philosophical or absolute sense… [read more]

Media Archaelogy and Videogames Essay

… The author lists a variety of other women who have played an important role in media archaeology. The point is that there is no person whose work is negligible or indeed of more vital importance simply because of their gender.… [read more]

Media Ownership Concentration Thesis

… The AT&T Wireless acquisition of T-Mobile was shot down because of the power the new company would have wielded and similar action must be taken in the entertainment and fashion publication industries.


Lee, S. (2013, August 15). 'Duck Dynasty' premiere recap: Wait, did I just cry? | PopWatch | Entertainment Weekly's PopWatch Blog | PopWatch | Retrieved October 5, 2013, from

Mongretta, E. (2013, September 25). Miley Cyrus Disses Taylor Swift In 'Rolling Stone' -- " Calls Her Vanna White - Hollywood Life. Hollywood Life - Latest Hollywood Gossip, News & Celeb Pics. Retrieved October 5, 2013, from

Pearson, C. (2013, October 5). Fashion And Eating Disorders: How Much Responsibility Does Industry Have?. Breaking News and Opinion on The Huffington Post. Retrieved October 5, 2013, from

Sorkin, A.R. (2005, December 7). Lazard director resigns over potential Time Warner conflict - The New York Times. The New York Times - Breaking News, World News & Multimedia. Retrieved October 5, 2013, from

Time. (2013, October 5). Official Website: Home Page. Official Website: Home Page. Retrieved October 5, 2013, from [read more]

New Media and Politics Digital Essay

… Contemporary technologies enable the reporting of governmental crimes in real-time and this, according to Cagaptay (2012) is "akin to a social revolution: citizens of authoritarian regimes and their oppressors are now on more level footing for the first time ever." (2012, p.1) Clay Shiry reports in the work entitled "The Political Power of Social Media: Technology, the Public Sphere and Political Change" that modern technology has enabled the public in their ability to "coordinate such a massive and rapid response" as occurred during the impeachment trial of Philippine President Joseph Estrada when the loyalists voted to set aside key evidence against Estrada. It is reported that in two short hours after this decision was announced text messages were sent and the crowd swelled from thousands to over a million in Manila. Shirky states as follows:

"As the communications landscape gets denser, more complex, and more participatory, the networked population is gaining greater access to information, more opportunities to engage in public speech, and an enhanced ability to undertake collective action." (2012, p.1)

Indeed this is evidenced in an article in The New York Times in which Preston (2011) reports that social media has enabled a global reach in the Wall Street Protests." (p.1)

Summary and Conclusion

Technological instruments such as the simple cell phone with an inbuilt camera or video recorder are changing the entire landscape of political movements, most particularly in terms of protests, as the average citizen is able to record abuses inflicted upon the crowd, and instantly publish the information on an international level. This results in the previously guarded authoritative regimes being exposed to the world and ultimately shifts the balance of power toward the average citizen.


Cagaptay, Soner (2012) Can Dictators Survive New Media. CNN Special Report. Retrieved from:

Cottle, Simon (2011) Cell Phones, Camels, and the Global Call for Democracy (2011) Open Democracy. 27 Sept. 2011. Retrieved from:

New Media and Development Communication (2005) Columbia University, ITU Report, 2005.Retrieved from:

Preston, Jennifer (2011) Social Media Gives Wall Street Protests a Global Reach. The New York Times. 15 Oct 2011. Retrieved from:

Shirky, Clay (2011) The Political Power of Social Media. Foreign Affairs. Council on Foreign Relations. Jan/Feb 2011. Retrieved from: [read more]

Impression: New Media in the 2008 Presidential Article Critique

… ¶ … Impression: New Media in the 2008 Presidential Nomination Campaigns," the authors Haynes and Pitts open by indicating the main premise of the article: that the phenomena known as the "new media" are making a significant contribution to political campaigns today, in the same way that radio and television did so during their first years of existence. The main research question the authors addressed within this topic is whether the new media are effective tools to enhance the impact of campaigns for politicians, their parties, and their purposes.

The authors do not seem to have a particular model or theory to apply to the research question, or indeed any specific hypotheses as such. Instead, the research seems to focus upon observations of existing phenomena and drawing conclusions regarding the research questions from these observations.

The research design then involved a survey of the existing literature as well as the new media to determine the nature of political Web sites, how politicians used them, and what their effect was on the public. To determine the latter, a number of Website evaluation tools were used, including Alexa, Compete, and Quantcast. These are tools that analyze the reach and rank of Websites, thus indicating their actual ability to reach the public they were intended for. Rankings were also examined by Hubspot's Website Grader.

These are extremely effective tools, as shown in the various graphic representations of information the authors provide. In this way, a comparison could be made among the Website used by candidates, and how effective these were in terms of their campaigns.

The authors found that Websites could be extremely effective in terms of providing information about a candidate, as well as raising money for campaigns. Because of the ease of contribution to an online environment, money raising sites were able to reach more potential contributors than… [read more]

PR in Sports Bengals Attack! Public Relations Essay

… PR in Sports


Public Relations Plan for the Cincinnati Bengals

The Cincinnati Bengals have the most explosive and exciting receiver corps in the NFL, and one of the most improved defenses in their conference. The PR Plan concentrates on the agility, speed and lights-out play of the Bengals offense. Both Terrell Owens and Chad Ocho Cinco have exceptional skills on the field and off and are two of the most entertaining payers in the NFL. The Bengals team also has many fascinating players, all of which have worked incredibly hard to get to the NFL. Combined with their natural talents and work ethic, the team personifies excellence.

PR Messaging & Strategy

This PR strategy needs to convey aggressive quickness, intelligence and smart play in the NFL, and the lightning quick receivers and exceptional work of the entire team needs to come out. Fans need to see and feel the passion players have for agility and for always being a step ahead of their defenders. "Bengal Attack!' could potentially be one theme that conveys the quickness and lethal nature of the Bengal team. Because of this intensity-based message, the channels and communication will need to also be very focused on speed, agility and aggressiveness.

The intended audience of the messaging is defined in the following figure, Estimated Cincinnati Bengals Fan Base. The majority of fans are male with the dominant segment being males in the 18- to 45-year-old segment (47%) followed by males below 18 years of age.

Estimated Cincinnati Bengals Fan Base

Market Segment


Males 18-45 Income $50K+


Females 18-45 Income $50K+


Males <18n

Females <18n

Males >45 Income $100K+


Females >45 Income $100K+



Media Strategy

Bengals Attack! needs to communicate agility, quickness and hard-hitting insights and inside-the-locker room insights that fans are interested in. The Bengal Attack PR campaign also includes an extensive amount of… [read more]

Manipulation of Media Coverage Research Paper

… The fact of matter is that the image of the destruction of the statue of a man who was believed to be an oppressive ruler was portrayed as the most appropriate indication of the end of the war and the… [read more]

News Media Bias Research Paper

… ¶ … Bias

Whether or not news media bias exists, Americans believe it does and those perceptions undoubtedly influence the relationship between the populace and the press. Mistrust of the media has the potential to harm the democracy, for the… [read more]

Portrayal of Class by Media Essay

… Others still point to the newer media sources, commonly referred to as the "new media" and they bemoan the appearance of new media sources and forms in that it has further polarized and flared up the media sphere and made the medium all that more untrustworthy and problematic as compared to the way it was before. (Baum & Groeling, 2008). The media, however, is certainly paying attention to income inequality and class and they are reacting negatively to the newer media voices that have come to emerge from the proverbial ether.

However, a lot of those new media sources are coming about due to the paltry job that the existing media is doing and the very duplicitous nature of that media coverage. For example, there is perhaps something very wrong with a medium that talks about income inequality and then five seconds later is airing an ad for Cadillac, a favorite car for the rich and the faux rich. In addition, there is a common practice of looking to or even urging governmental officials to solve the income inequality but those same media sources sort of skip over what is truly leading to those people being poor and undereducated and simply throwing a few bucks at the problem really is not going to change the underpinning facts as they exist, then and now.

The idea that the existing media is remotely impartial and independent is a joke. They follow the same patterns of keeping costs down and ratings up and neither of those is truly relatable and applicable to offering the most accurate and complete news perspectives while not also allowing bias and marketing spiels to be intermixed in the words being spoken. However, having the government being the housing for the media is also something that would not work as the powers that be, whether it be dictator or actually elected official, would almost certainly try to wield the media for their own purposes and to help their allies at the expense if not direct detriment of those that they disagree with or despise. Wealth is certainly seen as a mark of success in this country and the media seems to have a dichotomous personality whereby they bemoan this happenstance in one breath and then perpetuate the same in the next or at least in their commercials, which is a huge part of what they use to make money or at least break even. However, even public broadcasting outfits have befallen the bias bug with NPR and PBS being examples where either the news itself or the personalities behind clearly have axes to grind and it stands to reason that it will pervade and influence their actual "news" coverage.


The only real solution to the news media problem is to have a media that is funded from the public goods but only with the dollars necessary to make the reporting top-notch. Influence from politicians and/or any threat of cutting funding would be illegal and there would be no… [read more]

Affect in Content of News by Selection of Sources by Reporters Essay

… Reporting the News

There is so much confusion in today's media environment. The way media outlets manipulate sources can greatly impact their message and effectiveness at convincing audiences. Thus, sources are often manipulated in order to serve an elitist or government agenda, branching off what so called "authority" figures may offer in way of research material for continuing news coverage of America's political environment.

There are a number of ways that the selection of sources by reporters affects the content of news. The news has been used by politicians and government forces for decades. Government officials do tend to go to the press, often "not always to advance a unified government interest," but rather to expose opponents' embarrassing information (Schudson, 140). In this, some government sources may tend to manipulate media outlets, efficiently making the media a pawn in the political game. Not all government sources can be counted as some gracious truth. Too much concentration on government sources can prove biased. When a journalist fails to have a more balanced opposing resource, it could be assumed that journalist does not want to introduce any other messages into the dialogue. Domhoff shows how reporters in the mainstream media tend to spin elements of stories by manipulating sources to serve elitist interests. Domhoff discusses the prevalence of the elite upper class population to be favored in how government or other authority figures are used as the only sources, pushing only an agenda in favor of these affluent interests (Domhoff, 10).

One recent example of the political bias that is found in mainstream media is a recent February 28, 2013 article written by Cyber News Service, also known as CSN News. The article, written by Elizabeth Harrington, highlights a recent interview of Senate Majority Leader Harry Reid and his frustration with the hostility of the Republican Party in terms of cooperation to get real solutions passed. Harrington reports Reid as saying that "Republicans are unwilling to… [read more]

Media Communications Representation of Characters Research Paper

… However, the image is not sustained much and Charlotte tried to convince Samantha that Charlotte loves the man and that marriage is their ultimate destination to be happy. Such representation of image and women's role indicates towards 'patriarchic' symbolism.

Findings and Conclusion

Ideals of image vary from time to time and place to place, this is supported by theory of social constructivism that revolves around social groups giving meaning to words, symbols, and mutual interaction. Modern industrial society has been consumed by 'wave of media advertising' whereby images of 'lifestyle' and 'feminist' women are represented. In case of Sex and the City, New York was represented as a place where women came to seek their ideal life-partners. All characters heavily indulged in beautifying their bodies and their self-identity was made to be perceived as acceptable only if they were beautiful and sexy as all characters were skinny. Before the wave of feminism, image of noble women was associated to a submissive self who that is loyal to her husband. After feminism, women's image was represented to be assertive.


Brooks, DE & Hebert, LP 2006. 'Gender, race and media representation'. Handbook of gender and communication, Vol. 16, pp. 297-317.

Ewen, S 2001. 'Captains of Consciousness Advertising andthe Social Roots ofthe Consumer Culture'. Basic Books.

Featherstone, M 2007. 'Consumer culture and postmodernism'. Sage Publications Limited.

Littlejohn, SW & Foss, KA2009. 'Encyclopedia of Communication Theory' (Vol. 1). Cal: SAGE.

Russell, CA 2002. 'Investigating the effectiveness of product placements in television shows: The role of modality and plot connection congruence on brand memory and attitude'. Journal of Consumer Research, Vol. 29, no. 3, pp. 306-319.

Thompson, J 1995. 'The media and modernity:… [read more]

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