Study "Journalism / Media / PR / News" Essays 56-110

1234. . .Last ›
X Filters 

Functional Analysis on Daily Media Term Paper

… VI. Summary and Conclusion

The writer of this work, just as the entire population of modernized and technologically advanced countries uses media not only on a daily but as well, on an hourly basis as the day progresses. Media is used for gaining information and news, for keeping up with community and sports events and for interacting on a social and business level with others via the mobile phone internet and computer accessed internet. Media is utilized for entertainment and to escape from one's life as well as to relax.

Contemplation of going through the day without the use of media would result in many changes in the life of the writer of this work and the American society-at-large. For example, without the morning alarm clock radio the writer of this work would have to use a regular alarm clock, which while waking the writer of this work would not bring the writer into an immediate stance of the daily agenda, which was planned.

Without radio on the way to school, the writer of this work would not receive the motivation that the writer's favorite music provides. Without interaction socially and in a business sense through use of the internet and mobile phone internet, the writer would be thrown back to a time when the only source of contact with the telephone. Without newspapers and magazines, the writer of this work would have no idea what the television programming schedule was for the evening or when the writer's favorite shows would be aired. There are so many functional uses and gratification uses of media in the life of the writer that it can be said that without the media to which the writer has become so accustomed, that the writer of this work would be lost and would be very disoriented in many…… [read more]

Media Audiences Marxist Media Theorists Essay

… However no little has been done to actually understand the notion of Mediatization but some media researchers have come up with some terms concerning Mediatization and ways of developing a concept that is more coherent to understand the term Mediatization as being social and culture.

The term Mediatization is used in describing the media's influence over research. Some people argue that media is not analytic concept however it is an ambiguous term that is used to refer to an increasing cultural as well as, the social significance of mass media plus other forms of communications which are technically mediated. From this perspective, it is clear that media plays a significant role in production and circulation of interpretations of the science Lundby, K. (2009).

The term Mediatization is used by the media people to bring an impact on the political communication. Mediatization encourages one to look for common patters which are across the disparate areas. It also describes transformation of disparate social as well as cultural processes for the media representations. One example can be in state areas or a religious ritual or imitating the features found in television versions of some events which were carried out some days ago.

Mediatization is a term which has been used in casting light on growing roles which are played marketing and the consumer cultures. Mediatization can be described as the process that is reinforcing and expanding the media culture realm. This means that, culture at once was imbued with that tastes of the hierarchy which prevailed in institutional culture. Today, media has occupied a dominant position as the providers of the cultural products and beliefs. The above terms used to define what Mediatization is all about points a number of the aspects of interaction that exist between media and society (Shaun Moores, 2005).

Mediatization is of importance since it attempts concentrating on the focus of a particular logic which is transformative or to mechanisms which is understood in doing something distinctive to certain processes and objects. This seems to be important generally since it involves a specific claim that several cultural and social processes are constrained in taking on the forms which are so suitable for representation of the media as based on the transformation which are undeniable. A good example is when there are no questions to be asked if any politicians practicing politics without them appearing on media just like there could be no social campaigns when media is absent. The concept of Mediatization normally starts from the replication notion; therefore the spread of media normally forms spaces to contemporary life which are required to be always re-presented by means of media forms (Shaun Moores, 2005).


Shaun Moores, (2005). Media/Thery: Thinking About Media and Communications. Pg 35.

Retrieved July 17, 2012 from,+K.+%282003%29.+Understanding+media+theory&source=bl&ots=BWE_LcXXAF&sig=opuUoqiVYOSCYvdU9vKJufkOIcA&hl=sw&sa=X&ei=WX8GUOngN-7R4QS77On9CA&ved=0CFYQ6AEwBQ#v=onepage&q=Williams%2C%20K.%20%282003%29.%20Understanding%20media%20theory&f=false

Daniel Chandler, (2012). Marxist Media Theory. Retrieved July 18, 2012, from

Artz, L., Macek, S., & Cloud, D.L. (2006). Marxism and communication studies: the point is to change it. New York: P. Lang.

Couldry, N. (2012).… [read more]

Multisource Comparison: British vs. American Research Paper

… We have stricter ethical standards. We're stodgier. Competition is tough, but it's much less fierce" (Chittum 2011). By virtue of the newspapers playing a less central role than television in American media culture, newspapers have been able to uphold higher… [read more]

Cross-Media Response to Digital Manipulation Term Paper

… Furthermore, the implicit boast that Gladney "has won numerous awards for his newspaper writing and reporting" while serving "on the editorial board of Mass Communication and Society, the official journal of the Mass Communication and Society Division of the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication" suggests a lasting loyalty to the medium of print media which should be noted when considering any findings derived from his comparison of the respective ethics of newspaper photo editors and television news directors. Indeed, Gladney and Ehrlich's unfounded assertion that "TV newspeople may view questions related to it differently than print people, who are more accustomed to its usage and have had more time to address the ethical implications and form appropriate responses" (Gladney and Ehrlich 500) contains assumptions formed seemingly on the basis of the author's perceived sense of superior status within the industry of news dissemination.

By providing readers with a detailed statistical analysis of the raw data collected through the distribution and collection of targeted surveys, the authors employ logos efficiently but effectively, presenting over 10 pages of intricate tables and cogent extrapolations derived from the numerical data. The transparency of revealing the entirety of the surveys used to gather data is notable, as is the thorough nature with which the questionnaires were constructed, in that this access to the underlying process of the study serves to disarm the skeptical critic. However, the authors are quick to make highly suspect esoteric connections between abstractions such as personal motivation and industry-wide philosophy, boldly alleging that "the charge of audience incomprehension would seem to be anathema to TV newspeople" because "TV more so than print values telling a story in the simplest, briefest terms as it aims its messages to the broadest possible audience" (Gladney and Ehrlich 506). Noticeably straining to impugn the ethics of television news producers and "the occupational ideology that goes with them," by wondering aloud if "TV may have a more natural affinity with digital manipulation technology" because of "television's heavy dependence on visual content and its close association with the production modes and mindset of the entertainment industry, where contrivance comes second nature" (Gladney and Ehrlich 507), the authors effectively forfeit the accrued trust engendered to them by the powerful logos of their statistical evidence. Perhaps by employing the alternative viewpoint of a researcher previously versed in the field of professional television journalism, the authors could have avoided this perceived instance of personal bias, but without the presence of a more objective voice in the presentation of such negative findings the author's conclusions must be considered with proper hesitation.

Works Cited

Gladney, G.A., and M.C. Ehrlich. "Cross-Media Response to Digital Manipulation of Still and Moving Images." Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media. 40.4 (1996): 496-508. Print.
Gladney, G.A.. "Professors Communication & Journalism Department." University of Wyoming Faculty .

University of Wyoming, n.d. Web. 17 Mar 2012. .… [read more]

PR Class Tweeet Pie Essay

… There are restrictions to the training of the Pit bull terriers and there are very strong barriers to the licensing of the dogs from this breed. This is no suspicion a big blow to the affectionate pit bull terrier lovers. There is a very strong need of the rehabilitation of these dogs in order to make them pet dogs again.

The rehabilitation can be started off with the animal rights associations (David Von Drehle, 2009).

They should take up the responsibility to locates and capture theses dogs when they are caught being performing criminal activities. Special dog trainers should be hired to re-train these dogs. Since this species of the dogs is becoming suspicious, these dogs should be sold on high security basis. There should be a record of the people who are the owners of these dogs and their activities with the dogs should be timely monitored.

The licensing of these dogs has been made very strict. This licensing should be made easier for the homes and domestic owners so that the image of using the pit bull terriers can be restored by training them to be the typical family dogs. There should be adoptions given to the people willing to keep pit bulls at a very less rate if they are engrossed in keeping the dogs as a family dog but do not have enough money for licensing. By this we should keep in mind that we are giving these creatures a second chance to live a happy and normal life (itsthepitsrescue, 2009).

I believe that rehabilitation in opposition to euthanasia is a lot improved option. But, in some instances, dogs may not be competent to be rehabilitated. These dogs, if enforced to live in family or pet conditions, would live discontented lives. This is not reasonable either. There is no sagacity in forcing a dog to live a dejected life just to not have to lay him down. I believe the dogs that productively pass all the tests, should be trained and endure broad instruction. The training would be to make certain that the dogs never demonstrate signs of violence and hostility again. The dogs would then be prepared to be family pets to incident pet parents merely.

Pit bull terrier is a breed that is highly sensible. A little is needed to train the fog to bring out the viciousness inherent in the dog. But the use of these dogs for the purposes of criminal activities is dishonesty with a pet. Dogs demand love and care. When they are in a home environment, they are getting their due rights of survival. Therefore, the government should undertake that the activities of some of the people are making the innocent dogs deprive of their due rights. Therefore, they should be given only to the owners who can keep them in a healthy and loveable condition.


Cooking up the twecipe book. 2011. Retrieved March 9, 2012, from Brand e-biz:

David Von Drehle. 2009. Can Attack Dogs Be… [read more]

Responsible Journalism How the Press Term Paper

… Though one may not think so, this can be the case in the United States as well, where the most important news are relegated to the big network, while the sensationalized news are usually found on local channels. Though this relationship is not always true, more will be discussed below. [2: "Journalists in northern Ghana condemn 'irresponsible journalism'." BBC Monitoring Africa. 28 Jan. 2011. Web. 25. Apr 2011. .]

Ghana is one nation in Africa that is much more open, especially politically than other nations. For example, in a neighboring country, Zimbabwe, media is ruled by the thumb of one man: Robert Mugabe. This individual is known to have a cult of personality around him and forbid any publication of an article that defames or criticizes him in any way. Journalists in this country must certainly find it hard to uphold responsible principles and evidence the crises the country is undergoing because they face horrendous punishments. Thus, it is important and in a way the responsibility of American or European journalists to publicize the problems in such countries, and thereby help change things in time to allow society to prosper freely.

News as Entertainment: Interactive yet Politicized

Often times, however, the U.S. media especially decides that the fate of the world does not rest in its hands and chooses, instead of news for informational purposes, news as entertainment (or irresponsible journalism), which can lead to many social harms, including blatant falsehoods or misinterpretations of world situations that can impact a society. Nobody can deny that news is entertainment when important world events are intermingled with local murders and dramatic or sensationalized events, and also with celebrity news. [3: Long, James. "Social Harm Caused by Irresponsible Journalism." James Long, Ph.D., P.E. Analog and RF Consulting Engineer. Web. 25 Apr. 2011. .]

A well-respected news outlet such as CNN should not focus its efforts wholeheartedly on a high speed chase, or a celebrity's arrest, but should rather update the society about what happens around the world and how international events can affect our society. However, seriousness without drama or debate is not considered good for the ratings, so many news outlet compromise their principles in order to offer politicized, interactive news, as entertainment, without much thought for anything other than ratings and profit. This kind of reporting and journalistic investigation is dangerous because it jeopardizes investigative journalism, according to a study. [4: Pyle, Christopher. "Irresponsible Journalists Are Jeopardizing Serious Investigations by the Press." The Chronicle of Higher Education. 7 Jan. 2010. Web. 25 Apr. 2011. <>. ]

Reflections on Journalism

From all the analysis presented above, it almost seems like the media is infatuated with itself and is in a constant competition to have 24/7 information for the simplest facts. This makes the news overbearing, and sometimes it really is hard to watch. News has certainly become entertainment and has been politicized, especially due to the short attention span of today's generations. However, there are still journalists out there who strive… [read more]

Agenda Setting Framing Fairness and Balance in Outfoxed Rupert Murdoch's War on Journalism Term Paper

… Outfoxed

Media Analysis of "Outfoxed"

Analysis Paper on Framing, Fairness and Balance in Outfoxed-Rupert Murdoch's War on Journalism

Few viewers of Outfoxed: Rupert Murdoch's War on Journalism would emerge having much faith in the validity of Fox News, a news channel owned by media mogul and billionaire Rupert Murdoch. Using interviews of former Fox News employees, media experts, studies of Fox News coverage, and frequent montages of Fox's sound and video bites, producers Laurel Busby, Jim Gilliam, Kate McArdle and Devin Smith show how Fox overtly and covertly indoctrinate its viewers to criticize liberals and Democrats and idolize conservatives and Republicans.

The documentary begins with footage of Rupert Murdoch and other Fox News executives discussing the changes that the channel will undergo under Murdoch's ownership. This footage is juxtaposed with former Fox News journalists talking about the hypocracy of Murdoch's claims of "fair and balanced" as his memos directing news aggressively guided the news channel to slant its coverage in favor of conservatives and the right wing of American politics. Examples given included orders to air unedited footage that weighed favorably toward newly elected President Ronald Reagan and other footage that weighed very unfavorably against Senator Edward Kennedy, focusing on his deadly car accident on Martha's Vineyard island many years previously.

The video continues showing how Fox overly coveys its views by allowing commentators like Bill O'Reilly to cut off critics and any comments he deems offensive by barking "Shut up" at the guest. More subtly, Fox News runs opinionated commentary that is supposed to be news in its graphics and in a running commentary that scrolls along the bottom of the page. Fox News denies all accusations that its coverage is slanted by claiming that it is "The fair and balanced news channel" and by claiming accusers of being from the "liberal media."

In the end the producers of Outfoxed urge viewers not to take Fox News' tricks lying down and to go to their congressional representatives and to the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) and protest the coverage on Fox News.

Agenda setting

Officials at Fox News defend their right-wing bias by calling it "fair and balanced" in comparison to the "liberal media," by which they mean the network news channels and major newspapers such as the New York Times and the Washington Post. Fox News displays its agenda in the stories it chooses to run, for example focusing on gay marriage during the height of the Iraq War. The news channel went so far as to actually choose to cover certain stories long after experts deemed them untrue. For example, Fox News continued to claim Saddam Hussein was responsible in part for the attacks on September 11, 2001. This choice to continue covering stories that had been deemed untrue was reflected of a study done by the University of Maryland's School of Public Affairs in 2003 (FNC Viewers, 2003). In that study they found that Fox News Channel viewers are as much as four times more likely as… [read more]

Public Relations and Public Affairs Term Paper

… Public Relations and Public Affairs

The Kelsey Unified School District (KUSD) has undergone a major public relations disaster. This would cause the district and the Board of Trustees, to see a loss of confidence. As the public and the media,… [read more]

Role of Investigative Journalism the Industrial Revolution Essay

… ¶ … Role of Investigative Journalism

The Industrial Revolution created urban poverty, bigger business and a financial system with control over a wide array of industries from railroads to oil. A greater divide developed between the rich and the poor which would result in the crusade against evil. (Mabry)

The rise of Progressivism can be traced from the 1890's. Middle class reformers, often spurred by personal goals and moral outrage, sought to address issues of corruption in politics by business, problems with dangerous goods and corporate evasion of taxes. These reformers became the Progressives with a goal of taking action to put an end to the various abuses. Hoping to eliminate corruption in politics, preserve the dream of the American future and find ways to control big business, Progressives stressed the concept of virtue and efficiency. (Mabry)

As these reformers prepared to move forward, President William Mckinley was assassinated in 1901 and Theodore Roosevelt became President. Roosevelt appeared to support many Progressive goals by signing the Pure Food and Drug Act and the Meat Inspection Act. Ultimately, it was upon the national government that Roosevelt wanted corporations to rely. (Mabry)

President Roosevelt's truer goals became clear to journalists when David Graham Phillips began a series of articles in Cosmopolitan entitled "The Treason in the Senate." These articles included an attack on some of Roosevelt's political allies and Roosevelt had a sharp response. In a speech, Roosevelt coined the term "muckraker" in reference to investigative journalists and journalist subsequently experienced a sense of betrayal. Following the speech, Mr. Phillips saw Roosevelt's name calling as marking the end of investigative journalism. Phillips said, "the greatest single definite force against muckrakin was President Roosevelt, who called these writers muckrakers. A tag like that running through the papers was an easy phrase of repeated attack upon what was in general a good journalistic movement. (Mabry)

Thankfully, Mr. Phillips was incorrect. Investigative journalism continues to live on, but there appears to be some explanations for the fits and spurts in such journalism. According to Mark Fieldstein, investigative journalism goes on the increase when the public becomes hungry for such articles and there is turmoil, be it political, social or cultural. (9) in addition, media supply, likely due to advancing technologies and journalistic competition along with fewer legal constraints are also required in order to experience investigative reporting at the levels seen during the Progressive Era. (12)

Another perspective on investigative journalism comes from Steve Weinberg and the proper formula needed to achieve results. Investigative journalism involves devoting time to the subject matter and the idea that editors and publishers give their journalists strong support if exhaustive efforts are to be pursued. Weinberg says that readers would appreciate in-depth reporting on the activities of powerful institutions. This is true today -- the contemporary issues are no less vital and in need of examination than they were during the Progressive Era. (Weinberg)

There are a wide range of situations that journalists addressed during the Progressive Era. It… [read more]

Media Bias in the International Media People Thesis

… Media Bias

Bias in the International Media

People all over the world depend on news agencies to find out what is happening in the world around them. Humans are curious by nature and like to know what others are doing.… [read more]

Credibility in Journalism Essay

… Credibility in Journalism

They say that the art of storytelling is dying, but apparently not if modern journalism has anything to say bout it. From Jayson Blair to Patricia Smith to Stephen Glass, the news has become less about what is and more about what one can make of it. These journalists have all been recently caught not merely stretching the truth or omitting the mention of a potential bias in their stories -- common though still unacceptable indiscretions in many newsrooms -- but of completely making things up, including entire stories. In Blair's case, the journalist "covered" entire stories without ever leaving Brooklyn, or even his apartment. Patricia Smith made up names of phantom interviewees, as well as what they said, just to make her stories more powerful. Glass did the same thing, but went even farther by imagining entire scenarios that he "witnessed" and used as the central points in his "news" stories.

In the 2003 film Shattered Glass, the revelations of Stephen Glass's fabrications at the magazine the New Republic are reacted to as something that rocked the journalism world -- his editor Chuck Lane (played by Peter Sarsgaard in the movie) emphasizes to another reporter, "it's indefensible. Don't you know that?" (Ray 2003). But the question of whether or not this is really indefensible anymore is actually very much a matter of debate. Though he movie certainly condemns Glass, the character and the individual assert some supposedly mitigating explanations along with their apologies, as do both Blair and Smith. The commonality of the practice of making up news stories certainly doesn't excuse it, but the fact is that it is defensible -- or at least, it is defended.

Smith has said that when she was lying to people in her articles, she was doing so only in order to "create the desired impact or slam home a salient point" (Leo 1998). This asks the question of what truly credible journalism is -- does it merely report the facts, or does it make sure people are moved by -- or at the very least engaged in -- a story? After all, what good is the media if it isn't being read? As Glass' character in the movie says about one of the first of his made-up stories to be discovered, "I just wanted it to have an eyewitness feel...for color" (Ray 2003). Without this "color," both Glass and others at the magazine feared, readers would be yawning and tossing the magazine aside. So is it really so wrong to "color" a story in order to "create the desired impact" and make sure a story finds its intended mark on the reader> Are we really ready to start redefining journalism in this way, where Truth trumps simple truth?

Though Blair, Smith, and Glass might want the answer to be "yes," we must consider…… [read more]

Journalism Ethics There Were Several Errors Term Paper

… Journalism Ethics

There were several errors made in the coverage of the 2001-02 anthrax terrorism investigation, in particular with respect to Steven Hatfill. While it is reasonable that journalists observed Internet message boards for insight, it appears as though undue emphasis was placed on those boards. Such boards are entirely unreliable as sources of information for news stories. Any potentially valuable information gleaned from such research would need to be fully vetted with independent sources before being incorporated into a story.

The second error made during the coverage of this story was with respect to media covering information gleaned from other media sources. The Hatfill investigation gained traction in the media apparently because one media outlet deigned to give it substantial coverage, including the release of Hatfill's name. Other media outlets did not exercise journalistic responsibility in basing their decision to cover the story in such a manner on the unvetted coverage of another outlet.

More errors are found, when this story is measured against the Society of Professional Journalists' Code of Ethics. Hatfill was singled out for extensive coverage on the basis of an FBI tip. The motivations behind this tip -- why it was given for Hatfill but not the other scientists investigated -- were never given due consideration, contrary to the code of ethics. Another apparent violation of the code can be found in the lack of balance given to the story. That Hatfill was one of many subjects of investigation was not a major part of the story, which gave the appearance in the coverage that he was the sole or primary subject of the FBI investigations, which was false.

Several steps could have been taken to better vet this story. One is that the motives of the sources could have been called into question. There are many potential motives that could have resulted in Hatfill being singled out. The media that covered the story gave the impression that the motive was him being a prime suspect, an impression that distorts reality.

Another step that would have helped to vet the story would have been for the news outlets to conduct their own research into the matter. It appears as though news outlets were more focused on re-reporting news from other outlets, such that the same unbalanced and unvetted story received significant coverage at each outlet. Independent investigations are a component of the code of ethics, and do not appear to have been conducted for this story.

Lastly, this story could have been more adequately vetted if the subjects were given more say. Little content was directly provided by Hatfill or…… [read more]

Ethics in Journalism Thesis

… Ethics in Journalism: Case Study

Looking at the headlines of the various publications on the news stands today, and it quickly becomes clear that the place where journalism is coming from today is less one reflective of the ethics of… [read more]

Media's Role in the BTK Research Paper

… During the height of the murder spree, The Eagle was allowed by local law officials to publish the material sent to the paper supposedly by the killer himself. These publications which eventually reached the public eye were edited in order to keep out certain details of the case. The killer came to use the paper and the publications as his own speaking ground, toying with the magazine knowing that the eager journalists would bite, "Throughout the 1970's, the BTK killer sent letters to several media outlets as well as to police, apparently in an attempt to taunt the public and bait officials," (Maher, 2005). AT times during the investigation, the staff at The Eagle was brought into suspicion due to their heightened knowledge of the case and the letters being addressed to specific staff members. Although the local law officials allowed for the edited publication of the letters sent by the killer, they have recently been asked to completely refrain from further publication or news coverage of such material and this specific case, (Maher, 2005). Recently, The Eagle has received even more criticism based on an internet message board on their site. This message board is reportedly the last publicity stunt of the killer, and therefore received much backlash by law officials. The paper was actually asked to remove specific content and further criticized the staff when the broke a story in their defense. This just shows the need for their own publicity despite the needs and safety of the community. Due to the suspected murderer having been apprehended, officials in Kansas want The Eagle to stop all previously allowed publications regarding the murderer and all of the gruesome details which were produced within his letters and poetry. When the letters returned, staff writers ignored police advice and published a breaking story about the return of the dreaded murderer, (Maher, 2005). This blatant disrespect for the credibility of local law enforcement's investigation further jeopardizes the honesty of the publications on behalf of the paper. This could have had serious consequences, the killer could have been flattered enough to once again begin his quest for murder and fame.

In the field of journalism in general, there is a debate on what should be published for public knowledge and what should be kept out of the press in order to help law officials and to not worry the general public about what does not concern them. Many believe the role of the media is to "set an agenda for the nation," (Merritt, 41). In this objective, the media is responsible for placing thoughts and actions with the minds of the nation's citizens, "The media also influence the next step in the communication process; our understanding and perspective on the topics in the news," (Merritt, 44). By constantly perpetuating news of a gruesome serial killer, what message is that sending out? In addition to this questioning of ethics, the later actions of The Eagle prove that not all the motives were to catch… [read more]

Media Bias in America Term Paper

… Media Bias

Knowledge is rarely neutral, often consciously shaped by these special interests and then unconsciously imbibed from our earliest childhood experiences as cultural "normality." More ominously, manipulation, misinformation, and deception are inescapably entwined with one's belief in the "truth."… [read more]

Broadcast Journalism Term Paper

… Broadcast Journalism

One can hardly be a member of today's modern society, which is tremendously concerned about political freedom both at home and abroad, without wondering about the implications of a free press on a free society. From allegations that certain media outlets demonstrate political bias, to journalists being jailed for refusing to reveal sources, the message seems clear: stifle the press and freedom suffocates as well. While this connection seems very clear on a national level, I have found it be equally true on a local level, as well. When the press is unwilling to examine corruption and wrongdoings on a local level, it establishes precedence for accepting corruption, and makes people more willing to accept wrongdoing at higher levels. To me, that is one of the primary roles of the press; to reveal wrongdoings so that the public has awareness, and to inform the public about the possible remedies for those wrongdoings. In fact, some of the most powerful statements in past political movements, such as the 1960s Civil…… [read more]

Functions of PR Term Paper

… Functions of Public Relations (PR)

The importance of public relations and the public relations specialist in any organization is well-known.

Essentially, the PR specialist acts as a conduit between the organization and the outside world.

He or she has the task of communicating and promoting the aims and image of the organization to the public. "An organization's reputation, profitability, and even its continued existence can depend on the degree to which its targeted "publics" support its goals and policies. " (Public Relations Specialists) Public relations specialists are also known as communications and media specialists and as "... advocates for businesses, nonprofit associations, universities, hospitals, and other organizations..." who " and maintain positive relationships with the public." (Public Relations Specialists)

However within the framework of this central function of PR there are other functions and categories which constitute the special role that the public relations specialist plays in both society and the organization or company. On the one hand public relations have the primary task of establishing communication between the community and society and the organization. On the other hand and often in tandem with its social function, there are certain essential organizational functions that the public relations expert or specialist is responsible for; such as communicating and promoting policies and ideas within the organization itself.

2. Organizational functions

Under the rubric of the organizational functions of PR I have chosen the following two categories that best express this function: communications management and employee relations.

The public relations specialist is in the first instance a specialist in communications. In order to promote and market the products, policies and information related to the organization, the PR specialist must be able to communicate or transmit ideas and concepts correctly and understandably. This is often referred to as marketing communication. However the PR specialist is involved in a wider area of communication management, which also involves internal aspects and the presentation of the policies of the organization.

PR specialists are often responsible for setting up meetings and developing programs that are aimed at sustaining the interaction between the representatives of the organization and the public. For example, "...they set up speaking engagements and often prepare speeches for company officials." (Public Relations Specialists)

This also applies to internal presentations and meetings within the organization. The public relations specialist is also responsible for activities such as preparing film and slide shows and annual reports and writing proposals for various projects within the organization. (Public Relations Specialists)

Communication is also an important element in ensuring the smooth running of the organization and the interaction between the different structures or elements of the organization. The PR specialist must also be able to communicate important directives and policy to the employees. This leads to various functions that can be categorized under the term employee relations. The PR officer in a large organization also plays a vital role in establishing communication between the different areas of the organization and also in updating and making management aware of possible problem areas… [read more]

Balanced and Accurate News Term Paper

… Balanced and Accurate News: Media Responsibility

The media in this country should be responsible enough to ensure that what they tell society is accurate and impartial. However, oftentimes this is not the case. There have been many accusations lately of the media providing information that is not fair and balanced, and due to this more and more people in today's society are choosing not to trust much of what the media is telling them. This is good, because society often simply seems to follow blindly based on what one person or one group says, and when this happens many people can be harmed by it. The fewer people that follow blindly along, the fewer people will be harmed in the long run, and the safer overall that society will be.

Because of the problems that society is seeing where the media is concerned, more individuals are choosing to determine whether what the media is telling them is actually accurate or not. Now that there is so much…… [read more]

Media Ethics Term Paper

… FOX News

In today's world of media information, there are constant concerns of bias and unfair reporting. While some conservatives believe the media to be liberal, other liberals see the media as conservative. This paper will discuss one news station,… [read more]

Communication and News Framing Research Paper

… ... The problem of conventionalism arises when the press reports what people are interested in, rather than relying on reporters' judgments of what should be covered. The more the press engages in public listening, the less willing it will be to report or discuss issues the public is uncomfortable with. (Dzur, 2002)

The differences in reporting in the two countries can therefore be traced as much to the "public mood" as to government attempts at self-presentation. In fact, one could easily assume that, were the two points-of-view on this event reversed, one could expect the public in each case to react as had its counterpart had reacted to the actual reporting of the incident.



In order to test our hypothesis that the switching around of the players in this incident would have produced opposite effects on the reading public, the researcher proposes a study in which we do just that - replace The New York Times' references to the People's Republic of China with references to the United States, and substitute its references to the United States with references to the People's Republic of China. By so doing, this should create the impression that it was a Chinese craft that "violated" American airspace, and that it was the crew of Chinese spy plane that was taken into custody by the United States government.

Definition of Terms:

News Framing:

The manner in which a news story is presented: the text of an article, the pictures accompanying an article, the article's placement in the paper i.e. On the front page, etc.


Dzur, A.W. (2002). Public Journalism and Deliberative Democracy. Polity, 34(3), 313+.

FM Spokesman Gives Full Account of Air Collision." (4 April 2001). The People's Daily. URL:

Rosenthal, Elisabeth; and Sanger, David E. (2 April 2001).

U.S. Plane in China after it Collides with Chinese Jet." The New York Times.


Graber, D.A. (1993). 5 Failures in News Transmission: Reasons and Remedies. In Beyond Agendas: New Directions in Communication Research, Gaunt, P. & Dennis, E.E. (Eds.) (pp. 75-87). Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.

News Framing… [read more]

Women in Mexican Media Term Paper

… Muzquiz's radio show is just one example of a country twitching as it witnesses a shift - some say the "Americanization" - of its family values (

This backlash against women's increasing independence manifests itself across the airwaves, not just… [read more]

Yellow Journalism Term Paper

… Yellow journalism can turn the girl next door into a top news story in the blink of an eye. Media outlets clamor over news stories that exemplify crime, violence and sex. In analyzing yellow journalism as it is used today we can consider a notable example. Would the Chandra Levy case been a national headline if she had not been a congressman's mistress? Or would she have just been another nameless missing person that received little, if any attention from the press? While the Chandra Levy issue was a legitimate case of a missing person, the media acted as hungry vultures seeking to pick apart the intimate details of Gary Condits life, reporting any story that had a twinge of drama or scandal. While this is not yellow journalism in its purest form, the media did go above and beyond the call of duty to unearth any information that could be sensationalized. The Chandra Levy case is by no means an isolated incident.

The horrible events of September 11th showed America for the first time in years "real" news. The coverage of the events of September 11th revealed that prior news coverage was not news coverage at all, but doctored up gossip. Have we not been conditioned to accept reports of OJ Simpson's new girlfriend, Michael Jackson's new nose job or the break up of Brittany Spears and Justin Timberlake as news, to some extent? The ethnical practices of most media outlets today provide as a gatekeeper so that true yellow journalism remains at bay.

However, there are those who believe that yellow journalism has a place in media today. An article from EPN contends that "what drives today's 'yellow' journalists, however, isn't profit, or greedy publishers, or even career advancement, but outrage." A new form of journalism, called activist journalism allows activists and journalists alike to report on their view of current events. Such reporting puts a spin on traditional yellow journalism while retaining some of the most fundamental aspects.


Yellow journalism, which made its debut over one hundred years ago, still impacts the media and the way in which news is reported today. Most media outlets are guilty of putting a yellow spin on the news at one time or another. As American's, the news in which we know it is extremely sensationalized simply because that is what we prefer, as demonstrated in our demand for news with scandalous headlines. As James Creelman, who worked for both the Journal and the World in the late 1800's reportedly wrote of yellow journalism in his memoirs, "how little they know of "yellow journalism" who denounce it! How swift they are to condemn its shrieking headlines, its exaggerated pictures, its coarse buffoonery, its intrusions upon private life, and its occasional inaccuracies! But how slow they are to see the steadfast guardianship of public interests which it maintains!" Yellow journalists of yesterday have shaped the face of journalism today. The media today is a pale yellow, as it exhibits some… [read more]

Media in "The Cultural Logic Term Paper

… Media

In "The Cultural Logic of Media Convergence," Jenkins describes the two "seemingly contradictory" trends in American media (33). Those two trends include new media democratization and consumer empowerment on the one hand, and corporate conglomeration of mainstream media on… [read more]

Marketing Mix for Panera Bread Company Essay

… The products have had to be publicized more than the company name. For Panera, the products have sold the company and not the other way round. The PR function that the company has been utilizing is the use of lobbying for the public image of the products through the media. Several tools have been used to achieve the public relations objective. includes the use of the social networking platform and other platforms on the internet that includes blogs. The media news briefings and the hijacking of special events to sell the name of the company have been the main tools used. The image created by combining all these strategies has seen a higher approval rating of the company as well (Shapiro, 1984).

Personal selling

This refers to a personalized way of making sales by meeting the clients where they are providing all the information they need to know about the products. The role achieved the company's salespeople. Panera Company has managed to employ a strong workforce of salespeople who go round streets informing the members of the public about its products. Most of the sales made with this strategy are normally achieved at the residential places and institutions. The sales workforce of Panera has capitalized on this realization. These sales people get to find the customers through referrals from those customers who have already been served mostly. They also get to make their way into the customers' places by using leads they make from their study of the market (Scott 2007).

Qualifying the customers' ability to buy is the first task that the salespersons engage in. This will be done by first engaging the clients in order to assess their financial capacity and the degree of need that they have for the products. Combining these two aspects of the customers will suffice the cause for assessing the likelihood of making a sale. Sales promotion during personal selling will also involve the use of samples and coupons. The samples are used for demonstration. Whenever they go for promotional tours in institutions such as schools, these salespersons usually carry with them samples of the baked products to be given out free to the people who will attend (Peter and Donnelly 2013). The aim is to have the people have a taste of the baked products of the company. This way, the salespersons frequently make instant customers from those who get to like the bread upon tasting-something that often happens.

Work Cited

Peter, J. Paul and Donnelly James H. Marketing management: Knowledge and skills. 11. ed. New York: McGraw-Hill Higher Education, 2013. Print.

Scott, David Meerman. The new rules of marketing and PR: how to use news releases, blogs, podcasting, viral marketing, & online media to reach buyers directly. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, 2007. Print.

Shapiro, Benson P. The marketing…… [read more]

Media Asia Essay

… Reading this article, I learned a lot about the multiple facets of media, and how they manifest throughout any society. For example, there are the ways media impacts the viewer or consumer, and the way the disseminators of media capitalize on consumer demands. The article also raises interesting questions related to the directionality of media. For example, do consumers play an active role in determining content, or are consumers passive? Do factors like these change from place to place? Finally, the author does a good job using examples from Chinese television and cinema to make his case. These examples show how globalization has become a far more complex and organic process than what has been previously assumed by postmodern scholars, who presume Western cultural imperialism. The new model proposed by Keane is not as arrogant or presumptuous in its approach.

Keane's article is poignant, but its language is difficult to understand. The argument is bogged down. The author would do well to simplify his discourse so that more people can understand what he is saying. The structure of the argument is sound, but the diction and tone are both cumbersome. Instead of burdening his readers with jargon and obtuse sentences, Keane should write with livelier language and a more familiar tone. In terms of content, the author covers many areas of media criticism. Furthermore, it is difficult to understand the point of the argument. If Keane is only asking for a new academic approach or new paradigm, then that would be sufficient. However, the author does not clarify whether the article offers a grander proposal that would transform the nature of media studies in a more profound way. In the end, Keane's conclusions are too nebulous to be of any lasting value.


Keane, M.A. (2006). Once were peripheral. Retrieved online:… [read more]

Power of Media in American Research Paper

… In other words, the agenda of the media is giving information to the public, but in the process of trying to achieve this agenda they end up, maybe inadvertently, directing the public on what to think. Maxwell McCombs and Donald Shaw (1972) in their Agenda setting theory indicate that the public opinion is influenced by the news media in a cause and effect chain. To elaborate this further, Seasons (2005; 29) in her thesis gives an example of an experiment that was carried out in Yale by some researchers, this experiment involved three groups of people. These three groups followed news broadcasts from three different news programs focusing on issues including economic inflation, national defense, and the environment respectively for four consecutive days. Each individual was then provided with a questionnaire trying to find out their own opinions and were asked to fill them out. In the resulting analysis it was realized that the concerns expressed by each group tallied with the issues addressed by the programs that they had been following. This is a clear indication that the public is much concerned with the issues that they see or read more often. Whenever such issues that are received through media touch on values then the direct effect is seen on the opinions held by individuals exposed to such information (Bennet, 1994;14). Another significant and perfect example is the period preceding the 2004 election in the United States. During this period, there was wide and in-depth discussion of moral values and discussions touching on United States moral values soared up in all media platforms (DeBeer, 2004). This made Americans to think of moral values as a very important aspect of the society since they heard more about it. The coverage of the exit polls also reinforced this agenda.

With such magnitude of influence, media should be careful in choosing what content of information is relayed to the public and most of the times this leads to limiting information. Media has been given this ability of limiting news stories and controlling information by the Americans even though most of the time it works against the citizens. It is the view of a number of experts that it is not good to give so much information to the public. Allowing Americans to access unlimited information will occupy them in getting what may not stick in their memory, such excess information creates anxiety among the public (Taylor, 1991). In trying to avoid this scenario, a… [read more]

Media Injustice Essay

… " (Chiyamwaka, p. 1) Economic interests play a big part in the allegiance of these and all media outlets.

These economic interests also play into a sort of sensationalism that glorifies violence and atrocity. For instance, the media's proclivity in the event of tragedies such as the Boston Marathon bombing has been to extend the fame and visibility of the perpetrator while paying precious little attention to the victim's story. According to Glazer (2013), "it is the media's responsibility to report on stories in a manner that reminds us that the victim really matters, and the accused should be forgotten." (Glazer, p. 1)

As a counterpoint, there are grass-roots efforts at bringing media into a more democratic space through the use of independent social media. As to its benefits in protecting the public from injustice, "platforms like Twitter, Facebook, Instagram, et al. could easily integrate systems like these to spread public service messages. These social platforms could become the next milk cartons or digital billboards." (Boettger, p. 1)

This positive opportunity though remains clouded by a context saturated with misinformation, bias, opinion and hoax. Indeed, these independent outlets are often as biased and flawed as those found through major media conglomerate sources, but they lack the same pressure to produce accountable and reliable information. The result is both a mass and independent media atmosphere where misinformation and bias abound.

Works Cited:

Boettger, B. (2012). The Social Responsibility of Social Media. Media Post.

Chiyamwaka, B. (2008). Media Ethics: A Call To Responsible Journalism. Hippo Lodge Liwonde.

Christians, C.G. (2007). Utilitarianism in Media Ethics and Its Discontents. Journal of Mass Media Ethics, 22(2-3), 113-131.

Daily Graphic. (2009). Ethical, Responsible Journalism Essential for Media's Success. Modern Ghana.

Glazer, I. (2013). Does The Media…… [read more]

Ed Gold Scholarship Essay

… After working as a contributor to Applause Africa Magazine, I feel ready to begin a new career in journalism with a focus on bringing about change in the developing world.

Walter H. Diamond and Dorothy B. Diamond International Business Journalism Fellowship

My interest in journalism stems from my desire to share the rich cultural experiences I have had in Africa. After my appearance on The Apprentice: Africa, I met entrepreneurs, designers, writers, and politicians while on my tour across Sub-Saharan and South Africa. Their stories inspired me to create a venue to share their tales. I launched O&M Media and produced a new Pan-African television series, called Africa's Top 100 Entrepreneurs. In preparation for the show, I co-wrote the treatment and production bible, conducted detailed interviews, and contributed stories about the entrepreneurs to the local media to attract sponsors. Despite the grueling work of launching a company and starting a show from scratch, it was immensely gratifying to bring previously unrecognized experiences to the public's attention.

Upon returning to New York City, I found myself yearning to share more of the remarkable stories I had gathered while living in Nigeria. By cultivating my writing skills, I realized I might be able to once again establish a platform for the many inspiring stories. I began contributing to Applause Africa magazine in New York, composing pieces on topics such as the success of African fashion designers.

My experience with O&M Media and Applause Africa magazine has not only reinforced my interest in journalism, but also made me aware of the higher purpose of my writing. Through my reporting, I want to teach readers about today's Africa, cultivate positive opinion and ultimately benefit its hard-working, inspiring entrepreneurs. Becoming a journalist means accepting the privilege and responsibility of presenting the truth about Africa to the public.… [read more]

Media Film and Essay

… Through the magic of sampling (the process of choosing discrete parts to represent a continuous whole), almost anything -- text, sound, speech, film, graphics, animations, music -- can be digitized, and whatever can be digitized can be presented on a… [read more]

English Literature Thin-Is-In Culture Research Paper

… Knowing that people look up to the mass media and enjoy it so much, helps with this pressure. As time as gone on, the importance of mass media, visual media especially, has grown in western cultures and other cultures where… [read more]

Media Essay

… Hoynes, Crouteau, and Milan (2011) report that the pervasiveness of the media in the lives of individuals today and the significance of those media results in it being "surprising to realize that the mass media are relatively a new phenomena. Most forms of mass media are still in their infancy.' (p.7) The media product is stated to be such that different readers or viewers have differentiated interpretations. The active creation of meaning is referred to by sociologist as the "social construction of reality" which means, "while realities exist, we must negotiate the meaning of that reality." (Hoynes, Crouteau, and Milan, 2011, p.8)

The social process or the process of socialization teaches the individual to perform their "social roles as friend, student, worker, citizen…" and in this process the dominant values, beliefs and norms or society are reported to become our personal values and norms and "we learn to hold 'appropriate' values and beliefs. We learn to behave in socially acceptable ways." (Hoynes, Crouteau, and Milan, 2011, p.8) However, the individual also becomes aware of the "learned nature of our beliefs" and this happens through exposure to other cultures and societies. This enables the individual to think objectively about his or her own personally held beliefs and the beliefs of the society in which they are situated.

In years past, media projected information outward however, all of that has changed. One of the biggest changes in recent years is that audiences as users of medium "contribute content to the platforms created by media companies." (Hoynes, Crouteau, and Milan, 2011, p.11) The example stated is such as Amazon product reviews, Facebook updates, and a YouTube video as well as blog entries on Flicker. Mass media reaches a large audience and many of these are anonymous users and readers. The difference that exists between mass media and other types of communication are according to Crouteau "not always simple or clear-cut…the distinctions have become blurred with the introduction of new technologies." (Hoynes, Crouteau, and Milan, 2011, p.11)

Media and particularly in today's society, social media, saturates the lives of individuals as they interact and communicate on a daily basis with friends and family both near and far. Social media has furthered socialization between cultures that would never have in years past been able to communicate in such a familiar manner. This has opened the world up and allowed individuals to experience other cultures and belief systems and likely has changed the world society in ways that are yet unknown.


Croteau, David, and William Hoynes. Media Society: Industries, Images, and Audiences. 4th ed. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications, 2011. Print.

Postman, Neil. Amusing Ourselves to Death Public Discourse in the Age of Show Business. New York, NY: Penguin, 2005. Print.

McLuhan, Marshall. Understanding…… [read more]

Internet Has Changed the Practice Essay

… " (Malikpr, nd)

Universal Accreditation Board of Professional Public Relations Personnel Survey Report

The Universal Accreditation Board in its report entitled "The Practice of Analysis of the Public Relations Profession" states that in terms of the impact of technology "To… [read more]

PR Web Essay

… For example, Facebook pages can help fans stay connected to the brand. The use of social media is especially important for products that consumers tend to purchase regularly, such as food and drink. Companies taking advantage of the Web's wealth of public relations tools can take control of their image and reputation. Consumers may also be more likely to believe a blog or a product placement magazine article than a simple advertisement, because such sources are authored and opinionated and may therefore have greater credibility.

Another advantage of using the Web environment to accomplish public relations goals is that the endeavor effectively serves multiple purposes, which advertising alone cannot do. An advertisement is effective when it comes to stimulating brand awareness in quick ways. Companies should not entirely abandon their advertising strategies in the Web environment, because of the need to incorporate brief reminders or plugs for a brand. However, public relations strategies serve a multitude of functions that can be better for the long run. A PR campaign doubles as advertising, too, as the exposure itself is beneficial. With public relations, the company will be able to increase customer service by reaching out directly to the consumer. The company can address consumer concerns, such as environmental sensitivity or social justice issues. Public relations also increase the organization's ability to network with suppliers, vendors, and other business-to-business needs. Although both advertising and public relations should be parts of an organization's overall marketing strategy, resources should be directed to PR needs in the Web environment. Public relations can increase brand awareness, brand loyalty, and brand equity.


Odden, L. (n.d.). Tips for online PR. Retrieved online:

"PR Advertising," (2012). Retrieved online:… [read more]

AOL Huffington Post Merger Tragedy or Triumph for Mass Media Essay

… Huff Post

Huffington/AOL Merger

On its surface, the merger in 2011 between popular newsblog site Huffington Post and one time dial-up web access pioneer America Online would seem an unnatural pairing. The former is among the most popularly visited daily-content sites on the web whereas AOL is a name more laregely associated with the internet's early history of commercial penetration. One might perceive the latter -- a media empire now including Time-Warner among its considerable assets -- as nonetheless a lesser partner than perhaps a media group with more current cache. However, as the discussion here shows, the partnership between the two entities may well represent a perfect pairing, given their mutual interest in finding ways to present news as an entertainment commodity. As a result, we would argue here that there is a certain triumph in this merger for the field of mass communications, which sees Huffington gaining the backing and resources of a company philosophically familiar -- through such broadcast ventures as CNN -- with the proliferation of news as a brand of profitable programming content. The result is a new prototype in the context of mass communications, a site simultaneously driven by news content and community responsiveness.

In a certain respect, this has helped to reduce the force of gatekeeping in the news dimension of mass communications and has, consequently, ignited hostility from more traditional mass media outlets. Indeed, even as Huffington Post has gained considerable reputation in this area, it garners a certain degree of criticism for its orientation. For instance, Snow (2011) points out that Huffington is often skewered for its presentation of content largely borrowed from other sources as being wholly original. In this way, the site postures as a legitimate source of journalistic reporting while in actuality, its prioritization of content drives a different strategic orientation. According to the Snow text, critics such as the far more traditional journalistic institution the New York Times have characterized Huffington not as news but as "aggregation." The text indicates that "aggregation' . . . too often . . . amounts to taking words written by other people, packaging them on your own Web site and harvesting revenue that might otherwise be directed to the originators of the material. In Somalia this would be called piracy. In the mediasphere, it is a respected business model." (Snow, p. 9)

Indeed, the model would be sufficiently respected to make Huffington a commodity of tremendous value from a media perspective. Ultimately, while it could not be argued that Huffington was the reliable news outlet that it presented itself to be for its readers, it could be said that its model had succeeded in siphoning off a tremendous amount of traffic, repeat visitation and site usage. Its greatest point of virtue is the ever-expanding community of users and commenters, which helped to Huffington not just to attract the merger with AOL but ultimately to maintain strategic control over its content approach as well. Indeed, where the Huffington Post distinguishes itself from… [read more]

Diversity and the Media Essay

… Diversity and the Media

Since the era of Civil Rights Movements, the United States has made great strides in improving civil rights for women and racial and ethnic minorities. Greater awareness of the diversity of the American society has become the subject of public education, media campaigns, and advocacy groups. However, it is far too early to suggest that the battles for civil rights are over. For example, diversity of America is not reflected properly in the media yet. Women and ethnic/racial minorities are often underrepresented, misrepresented, or stereotyped in the media. Challenging these underrepresentations and misrepresentations is crucial for improving the overall diversity of life in America.

The problems in the media today are legion. As a report by the group Ethnic Majority state, the stereotypical way African-American, Hispanic, and Asian-Americans are portrayed today in the media reinforces negative perceptions of these racial and ethnic groups. The report also notes that underrepresenting racial and ethnic minorities in TV programs sends a wrong message about the ethnic reality in the country. When children watch programs that rarely present a mixed cast, they get wrong impressions of how the American society looks like (Diversity in the media and entertainment industries).

There is a similar problem with regard to representations of women in the media. Here are some of the facts collected by National Organization for Women: only six percent of the commercial broadcast TV stations in the U.S. are owned by women; of the communications and media jobs created in 1990-2005, only one of four was filled by women; in the media/communications sector, men earn 29% more than white women and 46% more than women of color. The way gender diversity is misrepresented in the media is even worse. Consider this: "on primetime cable news programs, more than three-quarters of the hosts are white men and less than a quarter are white women. None of the hosts are people of color. The typical guest on these shows is white and male; overall, 67% of the guests are men and 84% are white" (Media activism).

Fortunately, not all news is bad news. As Woods (2001) notes, some print media…… [read more]

Media and Vietnam War Essay

… From time to time, he ordered certain American journalists expelled from the country because of their unfavorable coverage, particularly stories about the ineffectiveness of the Army of Vietnam (ARVN), corruption and drug dealing in high places, or the inability of the government to win over the peasants. In 1962-63, the Kennedy administration became highly critical of Halberstam and other print journalists, and tried to have them removed from Vietnam, even as it gradually turned against Diem as well.

During the phase of escalation and Americanization in 1965-68, the media generally continued to report the official military and administration line that Westmoreland's strategy was winning the war, up to the Tet Offensive in 1968. In 1965, Lyndon Johnson became enraged at CBS News for showing American soldiers burning down a Vietnamese village, and personally called the head of CBS News Frank Stanton early in the morning -- a call reported laced with great profanity (Halin 6). This type of story was not typical of the 1965-68 period, though, perhaps because of Johnson's success in selling the war and declaring that it would be won in two or three years. Only after the Tet Offensive, when Walter Cronkite appeared on CBS News and called the war a "bloody stalemate" did Johnson really believe that he had lost the support of Middle America (Halin 6). Nor did the media generally grant the antiwar and anti-draft movement very favorable coverage in 1965-68, but often reported government sources as attacking it for undermining the war effort, giving aid and comfort to the enemy, and also being infiltrated by Communists. During this time, "reporters still began their inquiries with the World War II premise that draft resistance was outrageous" and that the domino theory and Cold War consensus were correct (Gitlin 101). Public opinion polls, including those conducted after the protests in Chicago in 1968 and the shootings at Kent State in 1970 that left four students dead, were generally hostile to the demonstrators rather than the authorities (Gitlin 244).

After Tet and the de facto resignation of Lyndon Johnson, the media coverage became far more negative and critical of the official line on the war, and this is reflected in the severe decline in public support in 1968-72. This was the era Richard Nixon was thinking of when he blamed the media for causing "serious demoralization on the home front," which mostly occurred during his administration (Halin 3). Nixon had always hated the 'liberal' media in any case, and once he was president placed many journalists on his Enemy's List, and bugged and wiretapped others. In 1971, for example, the New York Times published the Pentagon Papers, which had been leaked by Daniel Ellsberg. Although the Nixon administration had gone to federal court to block newspapers from publishing these, and launched a campaign of intimidation and harassment against Ellsberg, the Supreme Court ruled unanimously that the media could publish them (Halin 8). Conservative political scientists like Samuel Huntington blamed the mass media for "unfavorable attitudes… [read more]

Mice Marketing Proposal Business Proposal

… MICE Marketing Proposal

The International Association of Professional Congress Organizers defines MICE as meeting, incentive, conference and exhibition. Meetings are any coming together of people in one place. They can be of a set frequency or not, and can comprise… [read more]

American Corporations and the Media Research Paper

… Ford said this about his thoughts of getting into aeronautics: "The airplane motor is still unreliable -- a delicate, quivering mechanism. Its vibration is so intense that there is little guaranty under such strain that it will remain intact over considerable distances" (Time, 2). On the minimum wage Ford said: "…The $1.00 minimum wage, even with the large crews which we carry [in shipping cars overseas], leaves us a substantial profit, and all talk that this is a blow to the American merchant marine or other shippers is bunk" (Time, 2). Moreover, Ford asserted: "The English language is the world's tool of industry, colonization and the bringing of prosperity to every kind and degree of man. It is the world's language" (Time, 3).


Clearly from the literature presented in this paper, the history of U.S. corporations' use of media for the purposes of promotion, marketing, and profit, reveals a lusting for power and influence. Today, corporations use media in even more powerful ways, which should come as no surprise since corporate PR people have learned well from their predecessors. And in addition, there are so many more weapons PR professionals have at their disposal in a digitally empowered global world of highly competitive businesses vying for profit and power.

Works Cited

Belrose, John S. (1994). Fessenden and the Early History of Radio Science. The Radioscientist,

5(3), 1-19.

Forrest, Wilbur. (1925). Political Notes: Ford Speaks. Time Magazine. Retrieved June 17,

2011, from,8816,720534,00.html.

Grady College of Journalism and Mass Communications. (2009). U.S. Public Relations History:

Knowledge and Limitations. Retrieved June 17, 2011, from

Gordonskene (2010). Weekend Gallimaufry -- An Interview with Upton Sinclair -- 1962.

Newstalgia / Crooks & Liars. Retrieved June 18, 2011, from,13792,4644.

Peterson, Laura. (2004). The Moguls are the Medium. Media, Culture & Society, 26(5).

Retrieved June 17, 2011, from EBSCO.

Reddi. (2010). Effective Public Relations And Media Strategy. PHI Learning Pvt. Ltd. New

Delhi, India.

Schwoch, James. (1990). The American Radio Industry and its…… [read more]

Media, Even Today Term Paper

… Creating idealized notions of beauty, of wealth and power, of fame and fortune are key in advertising media. We read of the importance of buying the latest clothes, the most current perfume or cologne, and of the absolute necessity of consuming to "fit in." This message affects the young in particularly pernicious ways. Children are witness to repeated pleas to buy the new Power Ranger with the kung fu grip, or the latest iPod so that they can continue tuning in to the great slogans and metaphors in advertising circles.

The Consumers Union (2005) notes that there are in excess of 160 magazines directly targeted to children and, disturbingly, children under the age of 18 are 45% more likely to see advertisements on beer and 27% more likely to view ads for distilled spirits than adults are subjected to in non-child-based magazines. The effects of viewing such advertising in children's magazines tend to create a sense of acceptance in children. Such a trend in print media, of course, is not isolated; many trends such as physical stereotypes and food consumption preferences permeate print media such that people are lead to believe that only the most beautiful, the most physically fit, the wealthiest, are truly the chosen ones. The rest of us are left wanting to be someone else, even if only in our own minds. Print media provides templates for people to fix themselves, to buy more and we are convinced of the need to do so, less we choose poorly, and suffer the consequences of social exclusion.

I find that my own consumption of products is dictated not by the influence of media messages, but by personal preference and trial and error. However, I am told not to work too hard and to enjoy life, perhaps even have a few drinks, to ease the burden of work. But I'm also told to be responsible and attendant to the needs and desires of others; to fit in and obey the law, to conform to social dictates and obey the demands of government; to be green, to not litter, to drink responsibly so that I can truly achieve happiness. That is the message, isn't it? I'm told to work hard to consume and purchase more than the Joneses, so that I'll be happier, and, as all happy people tend to do, share in the social responsibility of maintaining the goals and objectives first advocated in the print media.


PEDIATRICS (2006). Committee on Communications. 118, 6, pp. 2563-2569. Retrieved from:

Consumers Union (2005). Selling America's kids: commercial pressures on kids of the 90's. Retrieved from:… [read more]

Media Framing Mosque at Ground Zero Research Paper

… ¶ … media framing in relation to the construction of a mosque at ground zero. We identify the various frames used by various media houses in America and compare and contrast them. We analyze the related literature and the basic… [read more]

United States Still the World's Dominant Media Essay

… ¶ … United States Still the World's Dominant Media Economy?

Is the U.S. still the world's most dominant media economy? One could probably make an argument either way on this question. Scholars, authors, and media pundits all have worthy theories… [read more]

Summary of Merrill's Arguments in the Professionalization of Journalism Against Professionalizing Term Paper

… ¶ … Merrill's Arguments

In journalism, the term professionalism has often been considered to be a standard that everyone in the media will follow. As they share a common set of goals and values about their passion for communicating different events that are occurring. This has often led to the assumption that journalists have a unique place in society. Where, many people will assume that they follow a professional set of standards and guidelines. In Merrill's Arguments, he claims that the idea of professional standards is nothing more than a myth. This is because there are no, clearly defined standards or examinations that someone will be required to meet, in order to enter this career field. Instead, all they need is the ability and intellect to write effectively. This is significant, because it is the heart of Merrill's claim, that professional standards for journalism are doing more harm than good. (Merrill, n.d.)

As a result, Merrill considers two different possibilities that could be occurring in the career field: the standardization of journalistic styles and the possibility of former editors / writers working at journalism schools. The standardization of journalistic styles; is where various educators (who have worked mainly in academia) are creating new standards in the field. As they tend to focus on the traditional forms of journalism education such as: proof reading and following the proper format. This is problematic, because it is punishing individuals for having any kind of creativity. In the field of journalism, this one of the core principles that helps: a writer and editor be able to adapt to the news environment. When you reduce the overall amounts of creatively, you are allowing the media to play a passive role in reporting the news. Where, many individuals will follow the standard formats for reporting and story ideas. At which point, the more provocative stories will often be ignored. (Merrill, n.d.)

A second possibility that Merrill examines is: former…… [read more]

Overcoming the BP Crisis Research Proposal

… ¶ … BP Crisis

The recent explosion and spill involving the Deep Water Horizon well that is owned by BP in the Gulf of Mexico; has created heated debate about how the company is handling the situation. What happened was… [read more]

New York Times Case Case Study

… New York Times Case

Case Synopsis

The case commences with the mentioning of the internal crises to which the New York Times has been subjected throughout its existence, and continues by arguing that challenges to organizational success were not only emerged from within the company's internal environment, but also from the external environment. Some issues which raised challenges include the changing political climate, the rapid advancements within the field of technology, the changing features of the competition or the changing structures of the media industry.

The case also focuses on the New York Times as a valuable social component, but also in its quality of family business. It details several aspects of the media industry, such as the changes which have occurred in structure, or the strategies which have been implemented by the players to maintain and improve their competitive levels. Of interesting note are the elements of Times' strategy, such as the expansion into various markets or its commitment to its long-term plan of quality journalism.

2. Case Analysis

2.1. Times' Product Markets

A product market is generically defined as "a broad group of products that satisfy a general, yet similar, need" (Cravens and Piercy). For Times, the product market was constituted by a series of journalism products, such as printed newspapers, articles within the online community or television programs. In the creation and sale of all its products, the company has maintained its integrity and its commitment to high quality journalism, even if this has at times brought them hardship.

2.2. Matching of Customer Value Requirements with Company Capabilities

The company has consistently fought to implement strategies which satisfied the customers. It has strived to make its product available on various media channels or it has fought to improve the quality of the journalism with which it presented the audience. Yet, in some cases, this commitment to high quality -- materialized for instance in the pouring of money into graphic designs and story verification -- has delayed in retrieving the desired results. In turn, the impact was that of registration of high costs, which has dissatisfied the Times shareholders.

Overall, the company has strived to satisfy the customer and has recognized that customer satisfaction is the key to organizational success. Yet, in achieving the desired levels of customer satisfaction, the managerial team has remained true to its initial plan and focus on high quality journalism and expansion of its reach.

2.3. The Competitive Arena

The changes which have impacted the media throughout the past decade have also taken a tool on the features of the competition within the media. In a more specific formulation, the competition from substitute products has significantly increased due to the advent of the internet and the propagation of television. These additional pressures led to a structural change in the printed media field. Orville Schell, dean of the journalism school at the University of California explains: "the Roman Empire that was media is breaking up, and we are entering an almost feudal period where… [read more]

Television News Agencies Select Their Stories Essay

… ¶ … Television News Agencies Select Their Stories and What Determines News Value

The selection of news stories in the television media is relatively simple. Depending on the motivation of the news agency or news channel, the media will report… [read more]

Print Newspapers vs. Online Thesis


"With media coverage of newspaper company bankruptcy filings, threats to close papers, actual shut downs and continuing job cuts, the public is aware of the industry's financial problems."

USA TODAY printed its first newspaper in… [read more]

Editor's Memo Research Proposal

… Editor's Memo

Recently, it has come to my attention that members of the news staff have entertained the idea of allowing sources to review potential news stories in which the individuals in question are intimately involved. While reporters have emphasized that this was in the case of purely factual data involving budgets, taxes, and business reports, I would like to stress that in the age of media unreliability, The Daily Drum's independence is worth its weight in gold. It is one matter to call and verify a quote, but to let a source see a draft of the final piece risks turning journalism into public relations. This line has already become blurry: there is a great deal of distrust of the media, given how non-legitimate sources of media masquerade as press releases for celebrities, even businesses. Engaging in this type of practice will raise the question of why we allow some sources to see material before publication, but not other sources. Our newspaper must eschew any appearance of favoritism.

You say perhaps: 'never say never' -- however, in the case of a source reviewing the potential news story 'never' seems to be the best policy. Thus, it is the Daily Drum's official policy that: "sources are not allowed to pre-screen news stories intended for publication." Regarding fact-checking for accuracy, verification should never be relegated to agency that submitted the original data. Instead an independent agency and the newspaper's own staff should double-check specific facts and figures.

Of course, in some cases it might seem more humane to allow individuals to review coverage, such as in the case of a story on a private citizen. But the personal interests of the individual, however notable and laudatory, will be in inevitable conflict with the newspaper's mission to publish the objective and unvarnished truth, rather than a sanitized version of that truth. If necessary, the citizen can be contacted regarding the release of his or her personal information, but no source should be allowed to have any editing jurisdiction over the final version of the story. If the source stipulates that he or she will not speak to the newspaper unless he or she has final review over the finished product, the reporter in question must refuse on behalf of the newspaper.

Section 2: Editor's memo

News organizations will delay the release of certain information. For example if an individual has been killed, until an effort has been made to find his or her family, the person's name will be withheld from the public until the victim's family is notified. The New York Times withheld the fact that one of their reporters had been kidnapped to facilitate negotiations for his release. The Times said that the value of the public knowing such a fact was less important than the potential good that could be accomplished by saving the reporter's life. However, the story was extensively reported upon after the fact (Wow, 2009).

Timeliness is to some degree subjective -- many government agencies, to… [read more]

Media Influence and Political World Thesis

… Media Influence and the Political World

The work of Croteau and Hoynes (2003) entitled: "Media Society: Industries, Images and Audiences" states that if one is to better understand media then it is important to understand "the political environment in which… [read more]

Media Reaction the Process of Globalization Essay

… Media Reaction

The process of Globalization has made it possible for people with all kinds of backgrounds to interact and socialize. The media is mainly responsible for the way that people are seen and for the way that differences between people are being perceived by a worldwide public. In the present day, it is only natural for the media to avoid having to create divergences by mentioning any kind of aspects that would generate disputes between them and a certain minority. However, according to Theodore Glasser, Isabel Awad, and John W. Kim, the media needs to look more into the problem and attempt to deal with diversity.

The Claims of Multiculturalism and Journalism's Promise of Diversity is a study intended to present the public with a closer look inside the various topics raised by the media in various recent articles. Apparently, writers, journalists, and mostly everyone working in the media generally prefer to pass up subjects involving differences between people. Moreover, people employed in the domain would rather support a certain group being segregated than try and analyze the causes for the respective group being discriminated. In order to solve a problem, one needs to pay attention to its causes first and only then would that respective person be able to successfully put an end to the situation.

Because of the fact that diversity is deeply engraved in the history of the U.S., its people are accustomed to being protective to all minorities. Most U.S. citizens generally believe that they would only suffer if they would not intervene and provide a privileged treatment to those apparently suffering from discrimination. Despite such a performance does not seem to be harmful, it can actually act as discrimination from behalf of the one wanting to provide assistance. People can actually be affected for receiving credit for their backgrounds instead of receiving it for their qualities.

The U.S. public is largely influenced by the media, with the masses usually guiding themselves according to what they find out about in the news, books, or cinemas. It is of no surprise that some often have false convictions relating to certain matters. What is disturbing is that a number of people involved in the media are not worthy of holding their present positions. The public needs to know that they have to consult several sources when attempting to make an opinion on something. Also, they need to learn how to differentiate a professional source from an amateurish one.

As presented in the Claims of Multiculturalism and Journalism's Promise of Diversity, the public forms an opinion about a certain matter depending on the source in which they look into. Journalists need to be impartial when writing on a specific subject, since it would only mean…… [read more]

Denver Media Market Place Thesis

… Denver Newscasting

Denver Broadcasting/Newscasting

What new opportunities are there for Denver Newscasters?

The transition to digital broadcasting has created many new jobs on the technical side of news broadcasting, but the role of the journalists and newscasters has not really been affected. As in most industries, the recent economic downturn and current recession have led to some serious cutbacks in budget, and many news outlets have suffered more than other business due. Most of these losses have occurred with newspaper journalism, which tends to lose out to free media like radio and television during tough economic times, so most televisions broadcast jobs in the Denver area have been retained, but there is little to no growth. Though the news industry as a whole is undergoing a re-evaluation, television news media remains rather static.

That being said, a changing world always provides new opportunities for journalists and those that report the news. Internet news broadcasts are becoming popular with national networks, but have not caught on in many localities -- including Denver. This is one area in which the Denver media needs to catch up with larger cities. some of the local television stations do provide videos of their former television broadcasts, but there is no news feed or live Internet broadcasting in the area, and the complete lack of such broadcasting provides ample opportunity.

What reductions can be expected based on the changes in media?

The changes that are being brought about by the computer age -- and specifically the internet -- are already being seen. Several local newspapers in Denver and the surrounding area have already been closed, and television news stations are also cutting their budgets and increasingly shifting their focus to sensational and/or human-interest stories in an attempt to retain and attract viewers. The Internet has in some ways made this worse, by providing an abundance of other distractions and promising near instant gratification -- is a news item is boring, one can simply click elsewhere and move on. In short, there is already a noticeable lack of coverage regarding standard "boring" stories such as actions of the local government and other issues of concern to the Denver citizens community, and this can be largely put down to a combination of a reduction in financing for certain media outlets and the changes in the media itself -- i.e. The Internet.

This can also be seen as another opportunity for broadcast journalism, however, especially in a market as untapped as the Denver local Internet news. Providing frequent, short updates about local politics and other goings-on in real time could be a viable way not only of attracting viewers to a website, but even to a sponsoring television station or newspaper. The untapped potential of the Internet broadcasting scene in Denver is likely to be of increasing importance in the years to come, and will almost certainly reshape media worldwide.

How have the changes in media affected advertising?

The basic television advertising format (twenty-two minutes of programming and eight… [read more]

Look Into Christina Saralegui's Life as a Hispanic Journalist Thesis

… Communication-Journalism

Cristina Saralegui

Cristina Saralegui is a 30-year veteran journalist who is recognized as one of the most influential role models for today's Hispanic woman. She is determined, successful, savvy and committed to making a difference (Know Cristina, 2008). Cristina was born on January 29, 1948, in Havana, Cuba. She is the granddaughter of Don Francisco Saralegui, a Cuban magazine publisher. She came to the United States with her family in 1960, and arrived in Miami at the age of 12. She later attended the University of Miami and learned about the publishing business while working at Vanidades magazine. She eventually joined the staff of Cosmopolitan en Espanol in 1973 and became its editor in chief in 1979 (Cristina Saralegui Biography, 2006).

Since holding the top spot at Cosmopolitan she has become one of the most powerful Hispanic women in the United States today. Saralegui grew up in family that was enthralled in the media business. Her grandfather published several of Cuba's most important magazines. Her father was a classmate of Fidel Castro and participated in the movement against the Batista dictatorship before fleeing Fidel Castro's revolution in the1960s. While at the University of Miami, Saralegui got her start by working at Vanidades, a Spanish-language magazine her family once owned (Cristina Saralegui, n.d.).

Cristina was one of 5 children that were raised by very strict, traditional parents. She was taught that women should take a back seat to men. That lesson was made very clear to her when she was in college. With just nine credits to go before graduation Cristina's father told her that he was strapped for cash, and that he thought it was his duty to give her brother an education before he gave her one. It was at that point that Cristina decided to never depend on a man for her income. This independent streak is what prompted Cristina to seek out her own career. She became a writer and eventually worked her way to the top post at Latin Cosmopolitan magazine (Look out Oprah: Here Comes Cristina, 2001).

Cristina Saralegui is truly the definition of what it means to be an up and coming woman. Saralegui is the first and only Latin women to ever have a successful radio show, a widely circulated magazine, and a talk show, rated number one on Spanish-language television, all at the same time. Also as a respected journalist, Saralegui is on the board of director's of the National Association of Hispanic Journalists. She has received numerous awards for her achievements including the Outstanding Communicator of the Year Award from the NOWC (National Organization of Women in Communication) for her dedication to bringing the concerns and opinions of the Latin community to mainstream media. She has also received the Distinction for Leadership and in Communications and Broadcasting Award from AMFAR (American Foundation of AIDS Research) for her commitment to AIDS education in the Spanish-speaking world (Breaking the Glass Ceiling, n.d).

Like Oprah Winfrey, to whom she is often compared, has… [read more]

Women in Media Thesis

… Women in Media A) Barbara Walters and Her Accomplishments:

Barbara Walters is among the most thriving women in the legacy of TV journalism. Becoming the first woman co-anchor of American Broadcasting Corporation's -- ABC evening news program by accepting an… [read more]

Theory and Practice Thesis

… ¶ … business becomes increasingly competitive and global across a "flat" world, the role of the public relations (PR) specialist grows in value to the organization. It is important to have someone closely connected to both the customer needs and… [read more]

Existing PR Campaign Essay

… ¶ … PR Campaign

Boone Pickens Energy Plan is one of the largest non-partisan public relations campaigns of the current election. The Plan extols the use of natural gas, and the development of alternative energy resources, to help wean America… [read more]

Media Literacy Essay

… Media Literacy

Thinking about Media Literacy

Media literacy- it hardly seems like a person in this day and age would need to take a course in media literacy. After all, the average person is inundated by almost all types of… [read more]

1234. . .Last ›
NOTE:  We can write a brand new paper on your exact topic!  More info.