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New York Times Case Case Study

Case Study  |  4 pages (1,112 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


New York Times Case

Case Synopsis

The case commences with the mentioning of the internal crises to which the New York Times has been subjected throughout its existence, and continues by arguing that challenges to organizational success were not only emerged from within the company's internal environment, but also from the external environment. Some issues which raised challenges include the changing political climate, the rapid advancements within the field of technology, the changing features of the competition or the changing structures of the media industry.

The case also focuses on the New York Times as a valuable social component, but also in its quality of family business. It details several aspects of the media industry, such as the changes which have occurred in structure, or the strategies which have been implemented by the players to maintain and improve their competitive levels. Of interesting note are the elements of Times' strategy, such as the expansion into various markets or its commitment to its long-term plan of quality journalism.

2. Case Analysis

2.1. Times' Product Markets

A product market is generically defined as "a broad group of products that satisfy a general, yet similar, need" (Cravens and Piercy). For Times, the product market was constituted by a series of journalism products, such as printed newspapers, articles within the online community or television programs. In the creation and sale of all its products, the company has maintained its integrity and its commitment to high quality journalism, even if this has at times brought them hardship.

2.2. Matching of Customer Value Requirements with Company Capabilities

The company has consistently fought to implement strategies which satisfied the customers. It has strived to make its product available on various media channels or it has fought to improve the quality of the journalism with which it presented the audience. Yet, in some cases, this commitment to high quality -- materialized for instance in the pouring of money into graphic designs and story verification -- has delayed in retrieving the desired results. In turn, the impact was that of registration of high costs, which has dissatisfied the Times shareholders.

Overall, the company has strived to satisfy the customer and has recognized that customer satisfaction is the key to organizational success. Yet, in achieving the desired levels of customer satisfaction, the managerial team has remained true to its initial plan and focus on high quality journalism and expansion of its reach.

2.3. The Competitive Arena

The changes which have impacted the media throughout the past decade have also taken a tool on the features of the competition within the media. In a more specific formulation, the competition from substitute products has significantly increased due to the advent of the internet and the propagation of television. These additional pressures led to a structural change in the printed media field. Orville Schell, dean of the journalism school at the University of California explains: "the Roman Empire that was media is breaking up, and we are entering an almost feudal period where… [read more]

United States Still the World's Dominant Media Essay

Essay  |  9 pages (3,011 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10


¶ … United States Still the World's Dominant Media Economy?

Is the U.S. still the world's most dominant media economy? One could probably make an argument either way on this question. Scholars, authors, and media pundits all have worthy theories and learned perspectives. And there is no editorial or socially constructed consensus as to the whether the media potency of… [read more]

Print Newspapers vs. Online Thesis

Thesis  |  8 pages (2,408 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 5



"With media coverage of newspaper company bankruptcy filings, threats to close papers, actual shut downs and continuing job cuts, the public is aware of the industry's financial problems."

USA TODAY printed its first newspaper in 1982 with a mission to serve as a medium to enhance understanding to help unify the United States of America… [read more]

Editor's Memo Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  4 pages (1,237 words)
Style: Harvard  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+


Editor's Memo

Recently, it has come to my attention that members of the news staff have entertained the idea of allowing sources to review potential news stories in which the individuals in question are intimately involved. While reporters have emphasized that this was in the case of purely factual data involving budgets, taxes, and business reports, I would like to stress that in the age of media unreliability, The Daily Drum's independence is worth its weight in gold. It is one matter to call and verify a quote, but to let a source see a draft of the final piece risks turning journalism into public relations. This line has already become blurry: there is a great deal of distrust of the media, given how non-legitimate sources of media masquerade as press releases for celebrities, even businesses. Engaging in this type of practice will raise the question of why we allow some sources to see material before publication, but not other sources. Our newspaper must eschew any appearance of favoritism.

You say perhaps: 'never say never' -- however, in the case of a source reviewing the potential news story 'never' seems to be the best policy. Thus, it is the Daily Drum's official policy that: "sources are not allowed to pre-screen news stories intended for publication." Regarding fact-checking for accuracy, verification should never be relegated to agency that submitted the original data. Instead an independent agency and the newspaper's own staff should double-check specific facts and figures.

Of course, in some cases it might seem more humane to allow individuals to review coverage, such as in the case of a story on a private citizen. But the personal interests of the individual, however notable and laudatory, will be in inevitable conflict with the newspaper's mission to publish the objective and unvarnished truth, rather than a sanitized version of that truth. If necessary, the citizen can be contacted regarding the release of his or her personal information, but no source should be allowed to have any editing jurisdiction over the final version of the story. If the source stipulates that he or she will not speak to the newspaper unless he or she has final review over the finished product, the reporter in question must refuse on behalf of the newspaper.

Section 2: Editor's memo

News organizations will delay the release of certain information. For example if an individual has been killed, until an effort has been made to find his or her family, the person's name will be withheld from the public until the victim's family is notified. The New York Times withheld the fact that one of their reporters had been kidnapped to facilitate negotiations for his release. The Times said that the value of the public knowing such a fact was less important than the potential good that could be accomplished by saving the reporter's life. However, the story was extensively reported upon after the fact (Wow, 2009).

Timeliness is to some degree subjective -- many government agencies, to… [read more]

Media Influence and Political World Thesis

Thesis  |  13 pages (3,626 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 10


Media Influence and the Political World

The work of Croteau and Hoynes (2003) entitled: "Media Society: Industries, Images and Audiences" states that if one is to better understand media then it is important to understand "the political environment in which they operate. This becomes obvious when we consider the drastic differences between media in a democratic society and those in… [read more]

Media Reaction the Process of Globalization Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (914 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3


Media Reaction

The process of Globalization has made it possible for people with all kinds of backgrounds to interact and socialize. The media is mainly responsible for the way that people are seen and for the way that differences between people are being perceived by a worldwide public. In the present day, it is only natural for the media to avoid having to create divergences by mentioning any kind of aspects that would generate disputes between them and a certain minority. However, according to Theodore Glasser, Isabel Awad, and John W. Kim, the media needs to look more into the problem and attempt to deal with diversity.

The Claims of Multiculturalism and Journalism's Promise of Diversity is a study intended to present the public with a closer look inside the various topics raised by the media in various recent articles. Apparently, writers, journalists, and mostly everyone working in the media generally prefer to pass up subjects involving differences between people. Moreover, people employed in the domain would rather support a certain group being segregated than try and analyze the causes for the respective group being discriminated. In order to solve a problem, one needs to pay attention to its causes first and only then would that respective person be able to successfully put an end to the situation.

Because of the fact that diversity is deeply engraved in the history of the U.S., its people are accustomed to being protective to all minorities. Most U.S. citizens generally believe that they would only suffer if they would not intervene and provide a privileged treatment to those apparently suffering from discrimination. Despite such a performance does not seem to be harmful, it can actually act as discrimination from behalf of the one wanting to provide assistance. People can actually be affected for receiving credit for their backgrounds instead of receiving it for their qualities.

The U.S. public is largely influenced by the media, with the masses usually guiding themselves according to what they find out about in the news, books, or cinemas. It is of no surprise that some often have false convictions relating to certain matters. What is disturbing is that a number of people involved in the media are not worthy of holding their present positions. The public needs to know that they have to consult several sources when attempting to make an opinion on something. Also, they need to learn how to differentiate a professional source from an amateurish one.

As presented in the Claims of Multiculturalism and Journalism's Promise of Diversity, the public forms an opinion about a certain matter depending on the source in which they look into. Journalists need to be impartial when writing on a specific subject, since it would only mean…… [read more]

Denver Media Market Place Thesis

Thesis  |  4 pages (1,141 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 2


Denver Newscasting

Denver Broadcasting/Newscasting

What new opportunities are there for Denver Newscasters?

The transition to digital broadcasting has created many new jobs on the technical side of news broadcasting, but the role of the journalists and newscasters has not really been affected. As in most industries, the recent economic downturn and current recession have led to some serious cutbacks in budget, and many news outlets have suffered more than other business due. Most of these losses have occurred with newspaper journalism, which tends to lose out to free media like radio and television during tough economic times, so most televisions broadcast jobs in the Denver area have been retained, but there is little to no growth. Though the news industry as a whole is undergoing a re-evaluation, television news media remains rather static.

That being said, a changing world always provides new opportunities for journalists and those that report the news. Internet news broadcasts are becoming popular with national networks, but have not caught on in many localities -- including Denver. This is one area in which the Denver media needs to catch up with larger cities. some of the local television stations do provide videos of their former television broadcasts, but there is no news feed or live Internet broadcasting in the area, and the complete lack of such broadcasting provides ample opportunity.

What reductions can be expected based on the changes in media?

The changes that are being brought about by the computer age -- and specifically the internet -- are already being seen. Several local newspapers in Denver and the surrounding area have already been closed, and television news stations are also cutting their budgets and increasingly shifting their focus to sensational and/or human-interest stories in an attempt to retain and attract viewers. The Internet has in some ways made this worse, by providing an abundance of other distractions and promising near instant gratification -- is a news item is boring, one can simply click elsewhere and move on. In short, there is already a noticeable lack of coverage regarding standard "boring" stories such as actions of the local government and other issues of concern to the Denver citizens community, and this can be largely put down to a combination of a reduction in financing for certain media outlets and the changes in the media itself -- i.e. The Internet.

This can also be seen as another opportunity for broadcast journalism, however, especially in a market as untapped as the Denver local Internet news. Providing frequent, short updates about local politics and other goings-on in real time could be a viable way not only of attracting viewers to a website, but even to a sponsoring television station or newspaper. The untapped potential of the Internet broadcasting scene in Denver is likely to be of increasing importance in the years to come, and will almost certainly reshape media worldwide.

How have the changes in media affected advertising?

The basic television advertising format (twenty-two minutes of programming and eight… [read more]

Look Into Christina Saralegui's Life as a Hispanic Journalist Thesis

Thesis  |  4 pages (1,363 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 6



Cristina Saralegui

Cristina Saralegui is a 30-year veteran journalist who is recognized as one of the most influential role models for today's Hispanic woman. She is determined, successful, savvy and committed to making a difference (Know Cristina, 2008). Cristina was born on January 29, 1948, in Havana, Cuba. She is the granddaughter of Don Francisco Saralegui, a Cuban magazine publisher. She came to the United States with her family in 1960, and arrived in Miami at the age of 12. She later attended the University of Miami and learned about the publishing business while working at Vanidades magazine. She eventually joined the staff of Cosmopolitan en Espanol in 1973 and became its editor in chief in 1979 (Cristina Saralegui Biography, 2006).

Since holding the top spot at Cosmopolitan she has become one of the most powerful Hispanic women in the United States today. Saralegui grew up in family that was enthralled in the media business. Her grandfather published several of Cuba's most important magazines. Her father was a classmate of Fidel Castro and participated in the movement against the Batista dictatorship before fleeing Fidel Castro's revolution in the1960s. While at the University of Miami, Saralegui got her start by working at Vanidades, a Spanish-language magazine her family once owned (Cristina Saralegui, n.d.).

Cristina was one of 5 children that were raised by very strict, traditional parents. She was taught that women should take a back seat to men. That lesson was made very clear to her when she was in college. With just nine credits to go before graduation Cristina's father told her that he was strapped for cash, and that he thought it was his duty to give her brother an education before he gave her one. It was at that point that Cristina decided to never depend on a man for her income. This independent streak is what prompted Cristina to seek out her own career. She became a writer and eventually worked her way to the top post at Latin Cosmopolitan magazine (Look out Oprah: Here Comes Cristina, 2001).

Cristina Saralegui is truly the definition of what it means to be an up and coming woman. Saralegui is the first and only Latin women to ever have a successful radio show, a widely circulated magazine, and a talk show, rated number one on Spanish-language television, all at the same time. Also as a respected journalist, Saralegui is on the board of director's of the National Association of Hispanic Journalists. She has received numerous awards for her achievements including the Outstanding Communicator of the Year Award from the NOWC (National Organization of Women in Communication) for her dedication to bringing the concerns and opinions of the Latin community to mainstream media. She has also received the Distinction for Leadership and in Communications and Broadcasting Award from AMFAR (American Foundation of AIDS Research) for her commitment to AIDS education in the Spanish-speaking world (Breaking the Glass Ceiling, n.d).

Like Oprah Winfrey, to whom she is often compared, has… [read more]

Women in Media Thesis

Thesis  |  10 pages (3,223 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Women in Media A) Barbara Walters and Her Accomplishments:

Barbara Walters is among the most thriving women in the legacy of TV journalism. Becoming the first woman co-anchor of American Broadcasting Corporation's -- ABC evening news program by accepting an unprecedented $1 million annual salary and bagging almost every award that the media world has to offer, Barbara Walters is… [read more]

Theory and Practice Thesis

Thesis  |  5 pages (1,752 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 8


¶ … business becomes increasingly competitive and global across a "flat" world, the role of the public relations (PR) specialist grows in value to the organization. It is important to have someone closely connected to both the customer needs and to the media to communicate that those needs are being met. PR specialists do 'ore than 'tell the organization's story.'… [read more]

Existing PR Campaign Essay

Essay  |  7 pages (2,041 words)
Style: Harvard  |  Bibliography Sources: 3


¶ … PR Campaign

Boone Pickens Energy Plan is one of the largest non-partisan public relations campaigns of the current election. The Plan extols the use of natural gas, and the development of alternative energy resources, to help wean America from its dependence on foreign oil (Pickens, 2008). The plan's architect and spearhead, Mr. Pickens, is not a celebrity outside… [read more]

Media Literacy Essay

Essay  |  6 pages (2,186 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 2


Media Literacy

Thinking about Media Literacy

Media literacy- it hardly seems like a person in this day and age would need to take a course in media literacy. After all, the average person is inundated by almost all types of media. People use the internet, cell phones, text messages, television, radio, and print media to stay in constant communication with… [read more]

What Effect Does Online News Edition Have on Printed Newspaper Thesis

Thesis  |  4 pages (1,582 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 5


¶ … Online News Editions on Printed Newspapers

Is the printed newspaper dead? Over the course of the twentieth century, newspapers "exhibited profit margins higher than most industrial sectors" and enjoyed "the largest share of advertising expenditures of all media" (Boczkowski 3). Having a page-length advertisement in the New York Times was considered the best way to reach a mass… [read more]

IT's Not Just PR Research Paper

Research Paper  |  7 pages (2,114 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1


¶ … PR: Public Relations in Society is an enterprise authors Coombs and Holladay took as a consequence to the gap they felt it was created between various opinions expressed by those who attacked the field and its real meaning. The tone they set is objective and free of any partisanship.

The introductory chapter of the book reveals the authors'… [read more]

Media Specialty Overview of Print Media Today Thesis

Thesis  |  3 pages (1,262 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 4


¶ … Media Specialty

Overview of print media today and its future

Is print media dying? Although the printed word in book, magazine, and newspaper form has not yet gone the way of the 8-track, there can be no doubt that today's print media faces cutthroat and devastating competition from the printed word on the Internet. E-zines, spanning everything from television and music fan E-zines to serious news publications such as Slate, "have virtually no traditional paper, printing, or distribution costs, and are better versed in new media interactivity" (Walsh 2008). In other words, not only do readers not have to pay for the content, but these Internet publications without real-world counterparts also cost less money to produce. Furthermore, Internet readers on all types of print media sites have the added excitement of being able to interact with other people on message boards, as well as look at related video content on the sites, luxuries they do not have when reading print. It is widely agreed, even by industry professionals, that the future of print must "include integrated and stand-alone rich media, primary source materials, and community participation," to remain viable (Greenspan et. al. 2008).

Even for long-standing print publications like the New York Times with online content that reprints or expands upon the traditional format of the printed, paper newspaper, it cannot be denied that print is experienced in a profoundly different format by online users. On the Internet readers are able to more carefully filter the content they desire -- they can search a publication for the specific articles they are interested in, rather than read it cover to cover. Advertising can be more specifically targeted to consumers who are interested in specific content, even on general interest publication websites. The content of future print media seems likely to exhibit a greater specialization of interests and more partisan ideological orientations.

The troubled state of the non-virtual printed media is evidenced in the age-related nature of print vs. solely online readers. According to a recent Reuter's survey, because of the greater specialization of content endemic to the Internet, nearly half of all Americans are turning to the Internet to exclusively to get their news, and a generational divide is emerging in terms of the type of news content accessed by readers. This figure has grown from 40% just a year ago. "Less than one third [of readers] use television to get their news, while 11% turn to radio and 10% to newspapers... More than half of those who grew up with the Internet, those 18 to 29, get most of their news and information online, compared to 35% of people 65 and older. Older adults are the only group that favors a primary news source other than the Internet, with 38% selecting television." But with this shift to the Internet comes dissatisfaction amongst all readers, regardless of age, about the quality of the journalism they are perusing. Reuters noted that 64% of respondents said they were dissatisfied with the… [read more]

How Have Publicly Owned Media Companies Shaped Mass Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (415 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Mass Media

The American media has undergone many changes over the last decade or so; perhaps the most significant is the emergence of the publicly owned media outlet. In generations past, many media outlets were owned, and of course controlled, by individuals or management groups. Therefore, this change in the type of ownership of the media outlets has shaped the development of contemporary media in several key ways.

First, with media outlets being public in terms of ownership, they are managed day-to-day by paid employees, who ultimately are accountable to stockholders who of course are looking for return on investment, the emergence of competitors and the like. Therefore, the emphasis on attracting "paying customers" to a media resource, be it a newspaper, Website or television program, in some cases increases the quality of the information circulated, but in others causes news stories to be sensationalized to generate circulation dollars (Powers, 2005). This, therefore, has created a frenzy of information outlets, all of which are seeking to get the story out to the buying public first, making it more important than ever before for the consumer of the media products to intelligently assess the information for media bias, possible exaggerations, etc. These same consumers, however, also have a…… [read more]

Design Teaching Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,244 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Media Framing

Interactive Teaching Plan for Media Framing: Identifying Current Trends in Chinese Culture

Keeping the curriculum relevant and timely are well established needs in today's classroom. Moreover, many students bring with them valuable computer skills that can be readily applied to the learning experience. These issues suggest that providing students with a variety of learning opportunities that use these skills represents a good use of resources which are by definition scarce. Furthermore, more and more classrooms are being equipped for computer-based learning, making such interactive learning initiatives all the more important. To this end, this project provides an overview of how students can learn about current issues that affect their everyday lives such as media framing through an interactive learning environment provided by a Webquest. The objectives of the exercise will include a description of what factors can be used to analyze media content. A description of how students can use interactive tools to investigate these issues and provide their own input as well. The materials and estimated time required for completion are also discussed. Finally, student assessment considerations and some suggested procedures for administering the lesson are followed by a discussion of how these techniques can be amplified and used for other teaching purposes.

Connections to the Curriculum.

Social studies, journalism, current events

Objectives of the Exercise:

After completing this exercise, students will be able to analyze print media content according to:

Contextual framing,

Visual framing, and Operational framing,

These terms are defined and described further below.

Analytic Skills.

Students will be required to analyze various popular print media content concerning Chinese cultural issues using the three media framing functions described further below:

Contextual Framing. For the purposes of this study, this term will follow the definition provided by Nelson (1996). In this regard, contextual framing describes how completely the background of an event is developed and through which interpretive lens this information is filtered; the term also refers to the use of techniques such as:

Equalizing. Nelson states this means, "How puffed up or deflated are the sides in terms of their implicit strength or importance, especially when contrasted with one another" (p. 170);

Excising. This term means what types of information are left in or taken out of news coverage and why;

Demonizing. This refers to the extent of the use of "good vs. evil" categorizing language and images that elevate or deflate particular individuals, organizations, movements, ideas, or nations);

Personalizing. This term refers to the extent to which the protagonists in an given event are developed and portrayed as being "others" or "like us";

Ordering. This term refers to how the narrative is organized in an effort to favor one side or the other;

Sanitizing. This term refers to the degree to which the event is censored to avoid reporting negative information concerning the actual costs in damaged lives and social devastation; and,

Timing. Finally, this term refers to the extent to which attention is given to a particular agenda, issue, or group compared to… [read more]

Career in Broadcast Journalism - News Anchor Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,011 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 5


Career in Broadcast Journalism - News Anchor

Description of the Career:

Skills Required:

Training and Education Required:

Tasks, Duties and Responsibilities:

Work Environment:

Future Job Outlook:

Related Occupations:

Career in Broadcast Journalism - News Anchor

Description of the Career:

news anchor is one type of several news presenters. News presenters, generally, present information on news shows broadcast via television, the radio, or the Internet.

A news anchor is specifically an individual who presents material over the television, radio and increasingly the Internet. This material is typically prepared for the news anchor; however, at times, the news anchor may be forced to improvise their commentary, especially during live presentations of the news. In addition, many news anchors go beyond simply reading prepare material on air, but also write and/or edit their news materials for their programs. News anchors may be called upon to interview guests or moderate panels or discussions. Providing commentary for the audience during parades and other events is also the job of news anchors ("News Presenter").

Skills Required:

There are a variety of skills required for those seeking to be a news anchor. First, and foremost, the individual must have outstanding reporting skills. In addition, they must have excellent on-air presentation skills. Live reporting skills are also typically essential to the job, as is excellent written and verbal communication skills. Because news anchors often report live, they must be able to think quickly and have strong problem solving abilities. In addition, the individual must be able to meet strict deadlines and be detail orientated. As in any career in journalism, a high-degree of ethics and standards is necessary to excel in the industry ("News Reporter").

Training and Education Required:

Traditionally, a bachelor's degree in Journalism or Broadcast Communications, from an accredited university, is necessary to be a news anchor. However, there are other educational facilities that offer "reporter training," for a fee. These organizations usually focus on the core basics of how to work with a videographer, how to conduct interviews, how to write copy to B. roll and sound bites, narrating or 'tracking' a script, producing a professional news package, and journalistic standards and ethics ("Reporter Training").

Although employers typically look for an individual with a bachelor's degree in journalism or mass communication, they do occasionally hire graduates with other majors. Experience is a key step in training to be a news anchor and can include school newspapers, school broadcasting stations, and internships with news organizations. In some instances, a degree in a specific subject matter such as: economics, political science, or business is required.

More than 1,200 institutions offer programs in communications, journalism, and related programs. In 2004, 104 of these were accredited by the Accrediting Council on Education in Journalism and Mass Communications. About three-fourths of the courses in a typical curriculum are in liberal arts; the remaining courses are in journalism. Examples of journalism courses are introductory mass media, basic reporting and copy editing, history of journalism, and press law and ethics. Students planning… [read more]

American Corporations and the Media Research Paper

Research Paper  |  5 pages (1,850 words)
Bibliography Sources: 7


Ford said this about his thoughts of getting into aeronautics: "The airplane motor is still unreliable -- a delicate, quivering mechanism. Its vibration is so intense that there is little guaranty under such strain that it will remain intact over considerable distances" (Time, 2). On the minimum wage Ford said: "…The $1.00 minimum wage, even with the large crews which we carry [in shipping cars overseas], leaves us a substantial profit, and all talk that this is a blow to the American merchant marine or other shippers is bunk" (Time, 2). Moreover, Ford asserted: "The English language is the world's tool of industry, colonization and the bringing of prosperity to every kind and degree of man. It is the world's language" (Time, 3).


Clearly from the literature presented in this paper, the history of U.S. corporations' use of media for the purposes of promotion, marketing, and profit, reveals a lusting for power and influence. Today, corporations use media in even more powerful ways, which should come as no surprise since corporate PR people have learned well from their predecessors. And in addition, there are so many more weapons PR professionals have at their disposal in a digitally empowered global world of highly competitive businesses vying for profit and power.

Works Cited

Belrose, John S. (1994). Fessenden and the Early History of Radio Science. The Radioscientist,

5(3), 1-19.

Forrest, Wilbur. (1925). Political Notes: Ford Speaks. Time Magazine. Retrieved June 17,

2011, from http://www.time.com/time/printout/0,8816,720534,00.html.

Grady College of Journalism and Mass Communications. (2009). U.S. Public Relations History:

Knowledge and Limitations. Retrieved June 17, 2011, from http://www.grady.uga.edu/reports/PRHistory.CommYrbk.pdf.

Gordonskene (2010). Weekend Gallimaufry -- An Interview with Upton Sinclair -- 1962.

Newstalgia / Crooks & Liars. Retrieved June 18, 2011, from http://newstalgia.crooksandliars.com/taxonomy/term/3604,13792,4644.

Peterson, Laura. (2004). The Moguls are the Medium. Media, Culture & Society, 26(5).

Retrieved June 17, 2011, from EBSCO.

Reddi. (2010). Effective Public Relations And Media Strategy. PHI Learning Pvt. Ltd. New

Delhi, India.

Schwoch, James. (1990). The American Radio Industry and its…… [read more]

Mice Marketing Proposal Business Proposal

Business Proposal  |  7 pages (2,173 words)
Style: Harvard  |  Bibliography Sources: 7


MICE Marketing Proposal

The International Association of Professional Congress Organizers defines MICE as meeting, incentive, conference and exhibition. Meetings are any coming together of people in one place. They can be of a set frequency or not, and can comprise an internal audience (to the host company) or an external audience. Incentives are meetings that are offered as a reward… [read more]

Diversity and the Media Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (714 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Diversity and the Media

Since the era of Civil Rights Movements, the United States has made great strides in improving civil rights for women and racial and ethnic minorities. Greater awareness of the diversity of the American society has become the subject of public education, media campaigns, and advocacy groups. However, it is far too early to suggest that the battles for civil rights are over. For example, diversity of America is not reflected properly in the media yet. Women and ethnic/racial minorities are often underrepresented, misrepresented, or stereotyped in the media. Challenging these underrepresentations and misrepresentations is crucial for improving the overall diversity of life in America.

The problems in the media today are legion. As a report by the group Ethnic Majority state, the stereotypical way African-American, Hispanic, and Asian-Americans are portrayed today in the media reinforces negative perceptions of these racial and ethnic groups. The report also notes that underrepresenting racial and ethnic minorities in TV programs sends a wrong message about the ethnic reality in the country. When children watch programs that rarely present a mixed cast, they get wrong impressions of how the American society looks like (Diversity in the media and entertainment industries).

There is a similar problem with regard to representations of women in the media. Here are some of the facts collected by National Organization for Women: only six percent of the commercial broadcast TV stations in the U.S. are owned by women; of the communications and media jobs created in 1990-2005, only one of four was filled by women; in the media/communications sector, men earn 29% more than white women and 46% more than women of color. The way gender diversity is misrepresented in the media is even worse. Consider this: "on primetime cable news programs, more than three-quarters of the hosts are white men and less than a quarter are white women. None of the hosts are people of color. The typical guest on these shows is white and male; overall, 67% of the guests are men and 84% are white" (Media activism).

Fortunately, not all news is bad news. As Woods (2001) notes, some print media…… [read more]

Global PR Trends? A Recent, November Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,057 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … global PR trends?

A recent, November 3, 2004 article in the New York Times asked the Times' readership "Would You Like an Extra Shot of Music With That Macchiato?" The article chronicled a new global public relations effort of the Starbucks Company. Starbucks has begun employing its own retailer and label "Hear," a music label that Starbucks bought five years ago to engage in joint ventures with the independent label Concord Records to produce its own music line. In doing so, the behemoth coffee retailer has embodied an increasingly common global public relations trend -- the fusing of corporation image with a carefully targeted and segmented brand name, with a diffuse range of products but a highly specific target audience.

It is increasingly difficult to garner the so-called general public's attention with advertising. Perhaps there is no general public, either globally or in the United States. Consumers have developed more and more ways to screen crafted public relations efforts out of their consciousness through TiVo, HBO, and simple savvy and chagrin about being manipulated and aggressively marketed to, regarding advertising and public relations company messages. Instead, niche marketing and segmentation is at the forefront "Rather than lure customers from standard record shops," Starbucks hopes to generate more sales among "casual music fans disinclined to enter record stores, which they perceive as overwhelming. By giving space near the register to a few CD's, Starbucks essentially makes recommendations to a specific audience." Thus "it puts the music in front of the right customer and makes it convenient to get." The company "is well positioned to move beyond customized CD's, because more than 3,000 of its stores offer wireless Internet access, which could be used to download music files." As record labels are trying to prevent the availability of online free music from undermining the value of their CD's, they might take a cue from a retailer with a track record of providing a pricey alternative to a widely available product. "Starbucks is a branding machine" as "nobody in the world buys a 40-cent cup of coffee for $4 unless they're buying a brand." (Levine, 2004)

What are the differences in publicity and advertising in terms of their impact on publics?

Public relations, in contrast to advertising, attempts more to raise awareness in the public, rather then aggressively target a market. It seeks to change public opinion over time and shift attitudes, rather than immediately change behavior. It addresses the need for raising awareness or creating an atmosphere or buzz about a service, person, product, etc., than realizing the goal of suddenly changing the minds and lifestyles of consumers of particular media. Thus, in such a psychologically oriented field, an added sensitivity to segmentation and cultural differences are critical, particularly cultural sensitivity in the variety of ethnic markets in the United States as well as the world. For instance, in achieving positive public relations in a new global market, even "ingrained mannerisms that no one would pay attention to at home… [read more]

AOL Huffington Post Merger Tragedy or Triumph for Mass Media Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (1,068 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Huff Post

Huffington/AOL Merger

On its surface, the merger in 2011 between popular newsblog site Huffington Post and one time dial-up web access pioneer America Online would seem an unnatural pairing. The former is among the most popularly visited daily-content sites on the web whereas AOL is a name more laregely associated with the internet's early history of commercial penetration. One might perceive the latter -- a media empire now including Time-Warner among its considerable assets -- as nonetheless a lesser partner than perhaps a media group with more current cache. However, as the discussion here shows, the partnership between the two entities may well represent a perfect pairing, given their mutual interest in finding ways to present news as an entertainment commodity. As a result, we would argue here that there is a certain triumph in this merger for the field of mass communications, which sees Huffington gaining the backing and resources of a company philosophically familiar -- through such broadcast ventures as CNN -- with the proliferation of news as a brand of profitable programming content. The result is a new prototype in the context of mass communications, a site simultaneously driven by news content and community responsiveness.

In a certain respect, this has helped to reduce the force of gatekeeping in the news dimension of mass communications and has, consequently, ignited hostility from more traditional mass media outlets. Indeed, even as Huffington Post has gained considerable reputation in this area, it garners a certain degree of criticism for its orientation. For instance, Snow (2011) points out that Huffington is often skewered for its presentation of content largely borrowed from other sources as being wholly original. In this way, the site postures as a legitimate source of journalistic reporting while in actuality, its prioritization of content drives a different strategic orientation. According to the Snow text, critics such as the far more traditional journalistic institution the New York Times have characterized Huffington not as news but as "aggregation." The text indicates that "aggregation' . . . too often . . . amounts to taking words written by other people, packaging them on your own Web site and harvesting revenue that might otherwise be directed to the originators of the material. In Somalia this would be called piracy. In the mediasphere, it is a respected business model." (Snow, p. 9)

Indeed, the model would be sufficiently respected to make Huffington a commodity of tremendous value from a media perspective. Ultimately, while it could not be argued that Huffington was the reliable news outlet that it presented itself to be for its readers, it could be said that its model had succeeded in siphoning off a tremendous amount of traffic, repeat visitation and site usage. Its greatest point of virtue is the ever-expanding community of users and commenters, which helped to Huffington not just to attract the merger with AOL but ultimately to maintain strategic control over its content approach as well. Indeed, where the Huffington Post distinguishes itself from… [read more]

Media Censorship the Maneuver Term Paper

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Bibliography Sources: 1+


S. And UK have appreciated the significance of awareness of the media and provided several monetary and organizational backup instead of media control. A fastidious thought process is an important aptitude for every citizen in a democratic setup, in case they are assessing an advertisement on TV, an action picture, or a news report based on a politician's address to… [read more]

Media in America Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,607 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Americans who want to shape their own values may attempt to limit their reliance on the mass media, and make up their own minds on the most important issues in their own lives.

In conclusion, it is clear the American mass media influences values in many ways. By choosing what Americans see, read, and hear, the media places constraints on information, and leads Americans down definite pathways. Americans are highly influenced by the media they choose, and do not choose, and so, American values are now dependent on information provided by others. As the media becomes more liberal, so does the information they produce, and public journalism will continue to attempt to influence how people behave and act.


Arant, M.D., & Meyer, P. (1998). Public journalism and traditional journalism: A shift in values? Journal of mass media ethics, 13(4), 205-218.

Brown, A. (1996). Economics, public service broadcasting, and social values. Journal of media economics, 9(1), 3-15.

Coleman, A.W. (2000). "Calvin and Hobbes": A critique of society's values. Journal of Mass Media Ethics, 15(1), 17-42.

Gomez, D.S. (2001, April). Sex, peers, media -- and family values: The NEA health information network's 'can we talk?' program helps thousands of parents talk with their kids, in English or Spanish. NEA today, 19, 29.

Goode, S. (1996, March 4). Character and values confuse the mass media. Insight on the News, 12, 18+.

(1992). The mass media in liberal democratic societies (S. Rothman, Ed.). New York: Paragon House.

(1994). News influence on our pictures of the world. In Media effects advances in theory and research, Bryant, J. & Zillmann, D. (Eds.) (pp. 1-15). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.…… [read more]

Media and Honesty Term Paper

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Bibliography Sources: 1+


Her case has been written up in textbooks, magazines, and there are still numerous Internet sites about her. However, not everyone feels Cooke was entirely to blame. Some journalists feel her story illustrates the pressure most journalists are under to continually write compelling copy and find sensational stories. One journalist wrote of Cooke, "Her report was worse than inaccurate; it was simply untrue. But that alone is insufficient to explain the unique notoriety of the Cooke case or to distinguish it from the numerous other cases in which reporters have broken faith with their readers through false or distorted reporting" (Iggers 39). As the case grows older, and many other journalists have been caught doing the same thing or worse, it seems that Cooke's lack of ethics is just the tip of the iceberg in the journalistic community. The man who was once a colleague and boyfriend and wrote the screenplay of her life says, "Janet was a woman on the verge of a nervous breakdown -- raised by a father who tried to live a colorblind existence. Like him, she was tortured by it....It was never her intent to denigrate the First Amendment or win an award'" (Dutka). Janet Cooke's story is sad, but it also shows what can happen when journalists feel too much pressure to perform.

Unfortunately, there have been many cases such as Cooke's since her scandal became public, and some of them have been far worse than Cooke's. One notorious story is the case of Stephen Glass, the New Republic reporter that made up facts, people, quotes, and even entire articles during his career at the magazine. He even created false notes, phone messages, and faxes to back up his fraudulent stories. He was fired in disgrace, but actually made a "career" out of explaining himself, and even wrote a novel about his life called "The Fabulist." While he went back to school to study law, there are questions about his ethical ability to practice it. Many people feel his case is similar to Cooke's because he was "emotionally needy," (Kroft) just as Cooke was. However, he fabricated so many stories and background that his case is really much more shocking, because he lied, and continued to lie, but did not stop. At one point he told himself, "And I said to myself what I said every time these stories ran, 'You must stop. You must stop.' But I didn't'" (Kroft). Glass is not the only case like Cooke's there are many more, and so, what Cooke did really does not seem so terrible any more. Her story has been far outweighed by people like Stephen Glass, who truly give journalists and journalism a very bad name.


Dutka, Elaine. "Fall of Janet Cooke Whets Hollywood's Appetite." NewStandard.com. 5 June 1996. 11 Dec. 2004.


Editors. "Janet Cooke." Wikipedia.org. 2 Dec. 2004. 11 Dec. 2004.

< http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Janet_Cooke

Iggers, Jeremy. Good News, Bad News: Journalism Ethics and the Public Interest. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1998.… [read more]

Media Bias a Liberal Society Term Paper

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Bibliography Sources: 1+


The findings has close association to the conclusions drawn by Lichter/Rothman analysis so as to prove that the media person are more significantly liberal and even more liberal than the general public. Ever since the conclusions several other findings were also made to confirm that the journals are more liberal than the common man. (The Media Elite) In 1996, a… [read more]

PR Communications Process Analysis Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,756 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+



A company always needs to be in touch with the general public in order to let them know about its current events. It is also a good way of letting them know about the recent progress and major newsworthy events. They constantly need to be in the public eye. In order to do that they… [read more]

Media Book Critique Tuned Out: Why Americans Term Paper

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Bibliography Sources: 1


Media Book Critique

Tuned Out: Why Americans under 40 don't follow the news. Simply reading the title of this book may causes a young reader's neck hairs to bristle with anger. 'I am under the age of forty! I am an American! I follow the news,' he or she is apt to cry, and fling the book across the room… [read more]

Functions of Public Relations Term Paper

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Bibliography Sources: 1+


PR Analysis

An Explanation of the Organizational and Societal Functions of Public Relations Today

The importance of effective public relations has been well documented (Cutlip, 1994). Most public relations companies engage in a wide range of functions to accomplish their goals, and these can be characterized as being either societal or organizational functions. To this end, this paper provides an… [read more]

Ownership of the Media of Mass Communication Term Paper

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Ownership of the Media of Mass Communication

According to the Communication Act of 1934 the custom that was assigned or arranged for the media anchors was to satisfy "the public interest, convenience, and necessity." With the passage of time the FCC and regulators have established that this can only be achieved with an atmosphere of contest, variety and residency in the market (Ann, 2003).

The medium of Mass Communication that I have chosen is the medium of telecommunication. Since the alterations brought about to the outlook of media by the Telecommunications Act of 1996; telecommunication as a medium of Mass Communication was manifested to create a superior and mutual link between the rigid regulations and the current media drive, creating as a result, variety and residency in the market flow. Its documented function was "to promote competition and reduce regulation in order to secure lower prices and higher quality services for American telecommunications consumers and encourage the rapid deployment of new telecommunications technologies (as cited in Ann, 2003)."


To maintain the procedure of this "deregulation" in an efficient manner, the Act had to carry out an analysis every two years of the overall management laws (Ann, 2003).

The Commission shall review its rules adopted pursuant to this section and all of its ownership rules biennially as part of its regulatory reform review under section 11 of the Communications Act of 1934 and shall determine whether any of such rules are necessary in the public interest as a result of competition. The Commission shall repeal or modify any regulation it determines to be no longer in the public interest (as cited in Ann, 2003)."

The Notice of Inquiry was the medium that primarily printed the initial Biennial Regulatory Review [1998], which posted the element of Variety as the most important for the modeling of a functional framework by the Commission, which came up with three main categories of the element: (1) perspective: "helping to ensure that the material presented by the media reflect a wide range of diverse and antagonistic opinions and interpretations (as cited in Ann, 2003)," (2) channel: "a variety of delivery services (e.g., broadcast stations, newspapers, cable and DBS) that select and present programming directly to the public (as cited in Ann, 2003)," and (3) basis: "promoting a variety of program or information producers and owners (as cited in Ann, 2003)." However, it was plain to see that there a major gap in the viewpoints with the commission at that time as to the implication and significance of variety (Ann, 2003). On example could be in the viewpoint of Commissioner Susan Ness (Democrat) who concentrated on the Supreme Court expression: "diverse and antagonistic."

Antagonistic' sources can only be truly antagonistic (in the best sense of the word) if they are separately…… [read more]

Sound Bite" News, Americans Are Less Term Paper

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Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … sound bite" news, Americans are less well informed now than in previous decades.

As the technology continuously develops, people become more and more busy in adapting to the fast changing world where every second and minute of the day counts. Hence, it seems that in most things, having the quickest and shortest possible way is a need and a necessity because "time matters." However, when it comes to news in America, which is supposed to provide people with enough essential information on the current events, it is unfortunate that having shortcuts and quick-turnarounds are also being applied. Thus, reducing the real context and essence of the news, and making the Americans less informed in terms of deeper level of current events as to "how," "why," or "what" really happened.

Indeed, "sound bite" news make Americans less well informed as compared to the previous decades. The entire nation of the U.S. must be concerned about this and should fight for their right against "sound bite" news. If analyzed, "sound bite" news can cause a great concern to America's capability to fight problems such as terrorism. An immediate resolution to this is vital because the state of being less informed on the current events, especially these days that problems on terrorism take a serious toll on the Americans, endangers the American society into becoming weak and vulnerable to issues that risk the nation's safety, peace, and freedom.

One important factor to maintain a nation's good condition is the cooperation provided by every citizen. But in the case of "sound bite" news, how can the Americans do their part in helping the government if they are not aware of the current events around them? We should be reminded that the American society can also play a great role in maintaining America's freedom. Not everything can be solely relied on the government. For instance, after the 9/11 attack, news on terrorism is widely present in the media but the information given to the masses merely lacks deeper content…… [read more]

Media Injustice Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (672 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 5


" (Chiyamwaka, p. 1) Economic interests play a big part in the allegiance of these and all media outlets.

These economic interests also play into a sort of sensationalism that glorifies violence and atrocity. For instance, the media's proclivity in the event of tragedies such as the Boston Marathon bombing has been to extend the fame and visibility of the perpetrator while paying precious little attention to the victim's story. According to Glazer (2013), "it is the media's responsibility to report on stories in a manner that reminds us that the victim really matters, and the accused should be forgotten." (Glazer, p. 1)

As a counterpoint, there are grass-roots efforts at bringing media into a more democratic space through the use of independent social media. As to its benefits in protecting the public from injustice, "platforms like Twitter, Facebook, Instagram, et al. could easily integrate systems like these to spread public service messages. These social platforms could become the next milk cartons or digital billboards." (Boettger, p. 1)

This positive opportunity though remains clouded by a context saturated with misinformation, bias, opinion and hoax. Indeed, these independent outlets are often as biased and flawed as those found through major media conglomerate sources, but they lack the same pressure to produce accountable and reliable information. The result is both a mass and independent media atmosphere where misinformation and bias abound.

Works Cited:

Boettger, B. (2012). The Social Responsibility of Social Media. Media Post.

Chiyamwaka, B. (2008). Media Ethics: A Call To Responsible Journalism. Hippo Lodge Liwonde.

Christians, C.G. (2007). Utilitarianism in Media Ethics and Its Discontents. Journal of Mass Media Ethics, 22(2-3), 113-131.

Daily Graphic. (2009). Ethical, Responsible Journalism Essential for Media's Success. Modern Ghana.

Glazer, I. (2013). Does The Media…… [read more]

Ed Gold Scholarship Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (611 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


After working as a contributor to Applause Africa Magazine, I feel ready to begin a new career in journalism with a focus on bringing about change in the developing world.

Walter H. Diamond and Dorothy B. Diamond International Business Journalism Fellowship

My interest in journalism stems from my desire to share the rich cultural experiences I have had in Africa. After my appearance on The Apprentice: Africa, I met entrepreneurs, designers, writers, and politicians while on my tour across Sub-Saharan and South Africa. Their stories inspired me to create a venue to share their tales. I launched O&M Media and produced a new Pan-African television series, called Africa's Top 100 Entrepreneurs. In preparation for the show, I co-wrote the treatment and production bible, conducted detailed interviews, and contributed stories about the entrepreneurs to the local media to attract sponsors. Despite the grueling work of launching a company and starting a show from scratch, it was immensely gratifying to bring previously unrecognized experiences to the public's attention.

Upon returning to New York City, I found myself yearning to share more of the remarkable stories I had gathered while living in Nigeria. By cultivating my writing skills, I realized I might be able to once again establish a platform for the many inspiring stories. I began contributing to Applause Africa magazine in New York, composing pieces on topics such as the success of African fashion designers.

My experience with O&M Media and Applause Africa magazine has not only reinforced my interest in journalism, but also made me aware of the higher purpose of my writing. Through my reporting, I want to teach readers about today's Africa, cultivate positive opinion and ultimately benefit its hard-working, inspiring entrepreneurs. Becoming a journalist means accepting the privilege and responsibility of presenting the truth about Africa to the public.… [read more]

Media Film &amp Essay

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Bibliography Sources: 5


Through the magic of sampling (the process of choosing discrete parts to represent a continuous whole), almost anything -- text, sound, speech, film, graphics, animations, music -- can be digitized, and whatever can be digitized can be presented on a computer and transmitted over a network. (EMCPP "Digital Convergence" 2012)

Digitization allows for many processes and changes to the original… [read more]

English Literature Thin-Is-In Culture Research Paper

Research Paper  |  8 pages (2,649 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+


Knowing that people look up to the mass media and enjoy it so much, helps with this pressure. As time as gone on, the importance of mass media, visual media especially, has grown in western cultures and other cultures where the ideal is very thin. Goodman (2002) asserts that the media forms are the main sources for information about the… [read more]

Media Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (941 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Hoynes, Crouteau, and Milan (2011) report that the pervasiveness of the media in the lives of individuals today and the significance of those media results in it being "surprising to realize that the mass media are relatively a new phenomena. Most forms of mass media are still in their infancy.' (p.7) The media product is stated to be such that different readers or viewers have differentiated interpretations. The active creation of meaning is referred to by sociologist as the "social construction of reality" which means, "while realities exist, we must negotiate the meaning of that reality." (Hoynes, Crouteau, and Milan, 2011, p.8)

The social process or the process of socialization teaches the individual to perform their "social roles as friend, student, worker, citizen…" and in this process the dominant values, beliefs and norms or society are reported to become our personal values and norms and "we learn to hold 'appropriate' values and beliefs. We learn to behave in socially acceptable ways." (Hoynes, Crouteau, and Milan, 2011, p.8) However, the individual also becomes aware of the "learned nature of our beliefs" and this happens through exposure to other cultures and societies. This enables the individual to think objectively about his or her own personally held beliefs and the beliefs of the society in which they are situated.

In years past, media projected information outward however, all of that has changed. One of the biggest changes in recent years is that audiences as users of medium "contribute content to the platforms created by media companies." (Hoynes, Crouteau, and Milan, 2011, p.11) The example stated is such as Amazon product reviews, Facebook updates, and a YouTube video as well as blog entries on Flicker. Mass media reaches a large audience and many of these are anonymous users and readers. The difference that exists between mass media and other types of communication are according to Crouteau "not always simple or clear-cut…the distinctions have become blurred with the introduction of new technologies." (Hoynes, Crouteau, and Milan, 2011, p.11)

Media and particularly in today's society, social media, saturates the lives of individuals as they interact and communicate on a daily basis with friends and family both near and far. Social media has furthered socialization between cultures that would never have in years past been able to communicate in such a familiar manner. This has opened the world up and allowed individuals to experience other cultures and belief systems and likely has changed the world society in ways that are yet unknown.


Croteau, David, and William Hoynes. Media Society: Industries, Images, and Audiences. 4th ed. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications, 2011. Print.

Postman, Neil. Amusing Ourselves to Death Public Discourse in the Age of Show Business. New York, NY: Penguin, 2005. Print.

McLuhan, Marshall. Understanding…… [read more]

Internet Has Changed the Practice Essay

Essay  |  8 pages (2,360 words)
Bibliography Sources: 16


" (Malikpr, nd)

Universal Accreditation Board of Professional Public Relations Personnel Survey Report

The Universal Accreditation Board in its report entitled "The Practice of Analysis of the Public Relations Profession" states that in terms of the impact of technology "To put current work in perspective, respondents were asked to describe how public relations work has changed over the past three… [read more]

PR Web Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (614 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


For example, Facebook pages can help fans stay connected to the brand. The use of social media is especially important for products that consumers tend to purchase regularly, such as food and drink. Companies taking advantage of the Web's wealth of public relations tools can take control of their image and reputation. Consumers may also be more likely to believe a blog or a product placement magazine article than a simple advertisement, because such sources are authored and opinionated and may therefore have greater credibility.

Another advantage of using the Web environment to accomplish public relations goals is that the endeavor effectively serves multiple purposes, which advertising alone cannot do. An advertisement is effective when it comes to stimulating brand awareness in quick ways. Companies should not entirely abandon their advertising strategies in the Web environment, because of the need to incorporate brief reminders or plugs for a brand. However, public relations strategies serve a multitude of functions that can be better for the long run. A PR campaign doubles as advertising, too, as the exposure itself is beneficial. With public relations, the company will be able to increase customer service by reaching out directly to the consumer. The company can address consumer concerns, such as environmental sensitivity or social justice issues. Public relations also increase the organization's ability to network with suppliers, vendors, and other business-to-business needs. Although both advertising and public relations should be parts of an organization's overall marketing strategy, resources should be directed to PR needs in the Web environment. Public relations can increase brand awareness, brand loyalty, and brand equity.


Odden, L. (n.d.). Tips for online PR. Retrieved online: http://www.toprankblog.com/2006/04/tips-for-online-pr/

"PR Advertising," (2012). Retrieved online: http://www.alphatrade.com/pr-advertising-public-relations-service.php… [read more]

Media and Vietnam War Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,225 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


From time to time, he ordered certain American journalists expelled from the country because of their unfavorable coverage, particularly stories about the ineffectiveness of the Army of Vietnam (ARVN), corruption and drug dealing in high places, or the inability of the government to win over the peasants. In 1962-63, the Kennedy administration became highly critical of Halberstam and other print journalists, and tried to have them removed from Vietnam, even as it gradually turned against Diem as well.

During the phase of escalation and Americanization in 1965-68, the media generally continued to report the official military and administration line that Westmoreland's strategy was winning the war, up to the Tet Offensive in 1968. In 1965, Lyndon Johnson became enraged at CBS News for showing American soldiers burning down a Vietnamese village, and personally called the head of CBS News Frank Stanton early in the morning -- a call reported laced with great profanity (Halin 6). This type of story was not typical of the 1965-68 period, though, perhaps because of Johnson's success in selling the war and declaring that it would be won in two or three years. Only after the Tet Offensive, when Walter Cronkite appeared on CBS News and called the war a "bloody stalemate" did Johnson really believe that he had lost the support of Middle America (Halin 6). Nor did the media generally grant the antiwar and anti-draft movement very favorable coverage in 1965-68, but often reported government sources as attacking it for undermining the war effort, giving aid and comfort to the enemy, and also being infiltrated by Communists. During this time, "reporters still began their inquiries with the World War II premise that draft resistance was outrageous" and that the domino theory and Cold War consensus were correct (Gitlin 101). Public opinion polls, including those conducted after the protests in Chicago in 1968 and the shootings at Kent State in 1970 that left four students dead, were generally hostile to the demonstrators rather than the authorities (Gitlin 244).

After Tet and the de facto resignation of Lyndon Johnson, the media coverage became far more negative and critical of the official line on the war, and this is reflected in the severe decline in public support in 1968-72. This was the era Richard Nixon was thinking of when he blamed the media for causing "serious demoralization on the home front," which mostly occurred during his administration (Halin 3). Nixon had always hated the 'liberal' media in any case, and once he was president placed many journalists on his Enemy's List, and bugged and wiretapped others. In 1971, for example, the New York Times published the Pentagon Papers, which had been leaked by Daniel Ellsberg. Although the Nixon administration had gone to federal court to block newspapers from publishing these, and launched a campaign of intimidation and harassment against Ellsberg, the Supreme Court ruled unanimously that the media could publish them (Halin 8). Conservative political scientists like Samuel Huntington blamed the mass media for "unfavorable attitudes… [read more]

Media, Even Today Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (881 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Creating idealized notions of beauty, of wealth and power, of fame and fortune are key in advertising media. We read of the importance of buying the latest clothes, the most current perfume or cologne, and of the absolute necessity of consuming to "fit in." This message affects the young in particularly pernicious ways. Children are witness to repeated pleas to buy the new Power Ranger with the kung fu grip, or the latest iPod so that they can continue tuning in to the great slogans and metaphors in advertising circles.

The Consumers Union (2005) notes that there are in excess of 160 magazines directly targeted to children and, disturbingly, children under the age of 18 are 45% more likely to see advertisements on beer and 27% more likely to view ads for distilled spirits than adults are subjected to in non-child-based magazines. The effects of viewing such advertising in children's magazines tend to create a sense of acceptance in children. Such a trend in print media, of course, is not isolated; many trends such as physical stereotypes and food consumption preferences permeate print media such that people are lead to believe that only the most beautiful, the most physically fit, the wealthiest, are truly the chosen ones. The rest of us are left wanting to be someone else, even if only in our own minds. Print media provides templates for people to fix themselves, to buy more and we are convinced of the need to do so, less we choose poorly, and suffer the consequences of social exclusion.

I find that my own consumption of products is dictated not by the influence of media messages, but by personal preference and trial and error. However, I am told not to work too hard and to enjoy life, perhaps even have a few drinks, to ease the burden of work. But I'm also told to be responsible and attendant to the needs and desires of others; to fit in and obey the law, to conform to social dictates and obey the demands of government; to be green, to not litter, to drink responsibly so that I can truly achieve happiness. That is the message, isn't it? I'm told to work hard to consume and purchase more than the Joneses, so that I'll be happier, and, as all happy people tend to do, share in the social responsibility of maintaining the goals and objectives first advocated in the print media.


PEDIATRICS (2006). Committee on Communications. 118, 6, pp. 2563-2569. Retrieved from: http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/cgi/reprint/118/6/2563

Consumers Union (2005). Selling America's kids: commercial pressures on kids of the 90's. Retrieved from: www.consumersunion.org/other/sellingkids/index.htm.… [read more]

Power of Media in American Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (870 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


In other words, the agenda of the media is giving information to the public, but in the process of trying to achieve this agenda they end up, maybe inadvertently, directing the public on what to think. Maxwell McCombs and Donald Shaw (1972) in their Agenda setting theory indicate that the public opinion is influenced by the news media in a cause and effect chain. To elaborate this further, Seasons (2005; 29) in her thesis gives an example of an experiment that was carried out in Yale by some researchers, this experiment involved three groups of people. These three groups followed news broadcasts from three different news programs focusing on issues including economic inflation, national defense, and the environment respectively for four consecutive days. Each individual was then provided with a questionnaire trying to find out their own opinions and were asked to fill them out. In the resulting analysis it was realized that the concerns expressed by each group tallied with the issues addressed by the programs that they had been following. This is a clear indication that the public is much concerned with the issues that they see or read more often. Whenever such issues that are received through media touch on values then the direct effect is seen on the opinions held by individuals exposed to such information (Bennet, 1994;14). Another significant and perfect example is the period preceding the 2004 election in the United States. During this period, there was wide and in-depth discussion of moral values and discussions touching on United States moral values soared up in all media platforms (DeBeer, 2004). This made Americans to think of moral values as a very important aspect of the society since they heard more about it. The coverage of the exit polls also reinforced this agenda.

With such magnitude of influence, media should be careful in choosing what content of information is relayed to the public and most of the times this leads to limiting information. Media has been given this ability of limiting news stories and controlling information by the Americans even though most of the time it works against the citizens. It is the view of a number of experts that it is not good to give so much information to the public. Allowing Americans to access unlimited information will occupy them in getting what may not stick in their memory, such excess information creates anxiety among the public (Taylor, 1991). In trying to avoid this scenario, a… [read more]

Media in America Term Paper

Term Paper  |  20 pages (4,981 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


But that will not solve their problem, because it has been the so-called fourth estate, the news media, that has collaborated with Congress in preventing the Executive Branch from operating in secrecy. The news media, as Woodward makes clear, are never going to return to the pre-Watergate days when a president's actions were not questioned. Nor should they, even in… [read more]

Media and Monopoly in 1983 Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,758 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


"Mass Media and Society." 25 Aug. 2000. Virginia Commonwealth University 31 Oct. 2003. http://www.people.vcu.edu/~dcroteau/370%20Media/business_ch_5.htm

Marin, Brian, "Environment and Public Health." 2001. University of Wollongong. 31 Oct. 2003. http://www.uow.edu.au/arts/sts/bmartin/pubs/01ceenv.html

Media Reform Information Center. 31 Oct. 2003. http://www.corporations.org/media/

Miller, Mark Crispin. "What's Wrong With This Picture?." The Nation. 20 Dec. 2001. 31 Oct. 2003. http://www.thenation.com/doc.mhtml?i=20020107&s=miller

Moore, Wes. "Television: Opiate of the Masses." FamilyResource.com. 31 Oct. 2003. http://www.familyresource.com/lifestyles/10/166/

Parenti, Michael, "Methods of Media Manipulation." Third World Traveler. 31 Oct. 2003. http://www.thirdworldtraveler.com/Media/MediaManip_Parenti.html

The Media Monopoly by Ben H. Bagdikian." EServer. 31 Oct. 2003. http://eserver.org/filmtv/media-monopoly.txt

Media Reform Information Center. 31 Oct. 2003. http://www.corporations.org/media/

Miller, Mark Crispin. "What's Wrong With This Picture?." The Nation. 20 Dec. 2001. 31 Oct. 2003. http://www.thenation.com/doc.mhtml?i=20020107&s=miller

Croteau, David and Hoynes, William. "Mass Media and Society." 25 Aug. 2000. Virginia Commonwealth University 31 Oct. 2003. http://www.people.vcu.edu/~dcroteau/370%20Media/business_ch_5.htm

Marin, Brian, "Environment and Public Health." 2001. University of Wollongong. 31 Oct. 2003. http://www.uow.edu.au/arts/sts/bmartin/pubs/01ceenv.html

The Media Monopoly by Ben H. Bagdikian." EServer. 31 Oct. 2003. http://eserver.org/filmtv/media-monopoly.txt

Parenti, Michael, "Methods of Media Manipulation." Third World Traveler. 31 Oct. 2003. http://www.thirdworldtraveler.com/Media/MediaManip_Parenti.html

Moore, Wes. "Television: Opiate of the Masses." FamilyResource.com. 31 Oct. 2003. http://www.familyresource.com/lifestyles/10/166/

The Media Monopoly by Ben H. Bagdikian." EServer. 31 Oct. 2003. http://eserver.org/filmtv/media-monopoly.txt… [read more]

Media and Military Operations Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (3,602 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


This was a small victory for the media but it was not any greater of a fight then the one that the general public had in wanting to attend criminal trials. The need for open trials was recognized, however, and closing trials off to the media was considered to violate the rights of the media and the rights of the… [read more]

Journalism? James W. Carey Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (602 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


The commentators are right. Journalism is not "Communications." Communications is public relations, sometimes mistaken for journalism by readers when newspapers reprint press releases without changing a single word, giving it an undeserved patina of news. Corporations within publishing have had a profound effect on how newspapers are presented to readers: journalists writing for USA TODAY are taught to write in pyramid form, so that each paragraph can be the last paragraph. The first paragraph is the tip of the pyramid, and technically, the paste up editor can just snip off the rest of the article after that first paragraph, and it would stand alone and seem complete. Each following paragraph would have that quality, so that the paste up editor can simply shorten any article with impunity to suit page layout.

The chilling part of that description is that it would seem complete. It might be argued that the best journalism digs below the surface, and perhaps what is found could not be presented in any kind of balanced or accurate way in paragraph/soundbites. Writing under such rules of constraint might arguably be viewed more as the domain of Communications than Journalism. It is Communications that addresses functional writing for a purpose-- not only public relations, but speeches and advertising.

Marshall McCluhan said back in the 1960's that "the media is the message." We see in 2004 that this is true. On television we hear sound bites, and it seems possible that one sound bite of Howard Dean, picked up by a highly directional microphone that exaggerated its impact, may have ruined his chances of a run for the Democratic nomination for pregnancy. That incident was communication, but not…… [read more]

Media Asia Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (664 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Reading this article, I learned a lot about the multiple facets of media, and how they manifest throughout any society. For example, there are the ways media impacts the viewer or consumer, and the way the disseminators of media capitalize on consumer demands. The article also raises interesting questions related to the directionality of media. For example, do consumers play an active role in determining content, or are consumers passive? Do factors like these change from place to place? Finally, the author does a good job using examples from Chinese television and cinema to make his case. These examples show how globalization has become a far more complex and organic process than what has been previously assumed by postmodern scholars, who presume Western cultural imperialism. The new model proposed by Keane is not as arrogant or presumptuous in its approach.

Keane's article is poignant, but its language is difficult to understand. The argument is bogged down. The author would do well to simplify his discourse so that more people can understand what he is saying. The structure of the argument is sound, but the diction and tone are both cumbersome. Instead of burdening his readers with jargon and obtuse sentences, Keane should write with livelier language and a more familiar tone. In terms of content, the author covers many areas of media criticism. Furthermore, it is difficult to understand the point of the argument. If Keane is only asking for a new academic approach or new paradigm, then that would be sufficient. However, the author does not clarify whether the article offers a grander proposal that would transform the nature of media studies in a more profound way. In the end, Keane's conclusions are too nebulous to be of any lasting value.


Keane, M.A. (2006). Once were peripheral. Retrieved online: http://eprints.qut.edu.au/2426/1/2426.pdf… [read more]

Marketing Mix for Panera Bread Company Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (945 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


The products have had to be publicized more than the company name. For Panera, the products have sold the company and not the other way round. The PR function that the company has been utilizing is the use of lobbying for the public image of the products through the media. Several tools have been used to achieve the public relations objective. includes the use of the social networking platform and other platforms on the internet that includes blogs. The media news briefings and the hijacking of special events to sell the name of the company have been the main tools used. The image created by combining all these strategies has seen a higher approval rating of the company as well (Shapiro, 1984).

Personal selling

This refers to a personalized way of making sales by meeting the clients where they are providing all the information they need to know about the products. The role achieved the company's salespeople. Panera Company has managed to employ a strong workforce of salespeople who go round streets informing the members of the public about its products. Most of the sales made with this strategy are normally achieved at the residential places and institutions. The sales workforce of Panera has capitalized on this realization. These sales people get to find the customers through referrals from those customers who have already been served mostly. They also get to make their way into the customers' places by using leads they make from their study of the market (Scott 2007).

Qualifying the customers' ability to buy is the first task that the salespersons engage in. This will be done by first engaging the clients in order to assess their financial capacity and the degree of need that they have for the products. Combining these two aspects of the customers will suffice the cause for assessing the likelihood of making a sale. Sales promotion during personal selling will also involve the use of samples and coupons. The samples are used for demonstration. Whenever they go for promotional tours in institutions such as schools, these salespersons usually carry with them samples of the baked products to be given out free to the people who will attend (Peter and Donnelly 2013). The aim is to have the people have a taste of the baked products of the company. This way, the salespersons frequently make instant customers from those who get to like the bread upon tasting-something that often happens.

Work Cited

Peter, J. Paul and Donnelly James H. Marketing management: Knowledge and skills. 11. ed. New York: McGraw-Hill Higher Education, 2013. Print.

Scott, David Meerman. The new rules of marketing and PR: how to use news releases, blogs, podcasting, viral marketing, & online media to reach buyers directly. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, 2007. Print.

Shapiro, Benson P. The marketing…… [read more]

Media Framing Mosque at Ground Zero Research Paper

Research Paper  |  8 pages (3,388 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


¶ … media framing in relation to the construction of a mosque at ground zero. We identify the various frames used by various media houses in America and compare and contrast them. We analyze the related literature and the basic concepts involved in media framing. A general overview of the concept of media framing is also provided.

Entman (1993) describes… [read more]

Media in "The Cultural Logic Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,535 words)
Style: Harvard  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+



In "The Cultural Logic of Media Convergence," Jenkins describes the two "seemingly contradictory" trends in American media (33). Those two trends include new media democratization and consumer empowerment on the one hand, and corporate conglomeration of mainstream media on the other. Another way of framing the dichotomous trend is in reference to excess fragmentation vs. excess homogenization. Jenkins also… [read more]

Public Relations Has Successfully Distanced Itself Essay

Essay  |  6 pages (2,106 words)
Bibliography Sources: 8


¶ … public relations has successfully distanced itself from an era of deceit and manipulation to become a credible and ethical profession

The purpose of the present paper is to evaluate the following statement: Contemporary public relations has successfully distanced itself from an era of deceit ad manipulation to become a credible and ethical profession. Throughout the paper we will… [read more]

History of Paparazzi and Tabloid Journalism Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (733 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


History Of Paparazzi and Tabloid Journalism

Paparazzi are photographers who make a living by taking photos of celebrities. They are paid up by their clients who include: gossip magazines, celebrity blogs and traditional news outlet.

Tabloid journalism is journalism that includes use of brief news content, an abundance of pictures, some fiction, and often they blatantly appealed to the human interest in crime, sex, and disaster this type of journalism employs sensationalism as a device to capture readers' attention. Sensationalism is the use of material intended to produce a startling or scandalous effect, especially one pertaining to the senses.

Tabloids attempt to captivate the masses with their colors and headlines about wonderful, amazing, and even shocking stories. Tabloid journalism tends to be aimed at a mass market and chooses colorful topics which are likely to be controversial. Tabloid journalism has existed since the last century when many abuses were uncovered. Tabloids helped exposed evils such as the lack of proper industrial safety and thus had a useful function in their defense. Power brings responsibility.

History of paparazzi and tabloid journalism

The origin of the word "paparazzi" is speculated to have come from Federico Fellini's 1960s film "La Dolce Vita." Fellini was inspired to make the movie after an At the most basic level, paparazzi hang out on the streets and in public places waiting for an opportunity to photograph a star. In public, the paparazzi can snap away unhindered by laws. But for a paparazzo who wants to make the big bucks, this method is far too inefficient. Paparazzi must make sure they are in the right place at the right time to get the shot.

Paparazzi work a lot like private detectives. Each paparazzo culls a network of informers to help keep tabs on celebrity targets. These informers can be people who work in businesses frequented by celebrities, such as restaurants, shops or salons. The paparazzo often pays for this information. In many cases, people who work for the star might be bribed to divulge the whereabouts of their employer (Kane, 2010).

The word "tabloid" comes from the name given by the London-based pharmaceutical company Burroughs Wellcome & Co. To the compressed tablets they marketed…… [read more]

Science and Media Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,472 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Science and Media

Public policy in the U.S. is and will hopefully forever remain an evolving body. The concepts that are appropriate today and the policies that surround them may not have been important just a few years ago. With regard to how the media and science impact public policy there is no real question. The question is what role… [read more]

Media Has Been Continually Evolving Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (2,052 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


¶ … media has been continually evolving. Part of the reason for this is: technology has changed the way the people are entertained and informed. As a result, this has led to a dramatic shift in the models used, to deliver the various forms of content to viewers and readers. In the book Media Making: Mass Media in Popular Culture,… [read more]

Technology and Its Effect on Communication Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,558 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


¶ … Societal Impact of Modern Communication Technology

There is no denying that modern communication technology has revolutionized society. We have changed from a planet of isolated nations into a globally connected universe in which communications are synonymous with speed and convenience. Part of this transformation has been an expanded focus on visual images. People watch television more than they… [read more]

Mass Media on Modern American Society Essay

Essay  |  7 pages (2,087 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


¶ … Mass Media on Modern American Society

In the immediate aftermath of the infamous trial of O.J. Simpson for the murder of his ex-wife Nicole Brown Simpson and her friend Ronald Goldman, several events unrelated to the actual murder provided startling evidence of the extent to which mass media influences contemporary American society. Namely, the slow-speed highway chase of… [read more]

Media Consolidation: Issues and Ethics the Market Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (713 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … Media consolidation: Issues and ethics

"The market structures of commercial mass media in the first decade of the 21st century have moved far from atomistic competition in the direction of oligopoly and monopolistic competition" (Blosser 2010, p. 14). In the interests of freedom of speech, it might seem as if less regulation invariably promotes more free and open discourse. However, in the case of media consolidation, this is not the case. If only a few large media conglomerates dominate the airwaves because of their ability to purchase 'time' on most of the major channels, no matter how many channels consumers may have as listening options, they will invariably find themselves limited in their range of choices of differing points-of-view. Media consolidation means that only a few large corporations control what faces are seen reporting the news, whose voices get to be expressed and heard, and whose stories get to be told. Media consolidation results in the validation of what seems like a 'mainstream' voice, even though the true mainstream may simply not be seen on the airwaves: an anti-corporate, non-white, or critical vision seems less mainstream when it receives exposure only on 'niche' forms of media.

One positive act of legislation was to mandate equal time on the airwaves for all the major candidates, to ensure that the wealthiest candidate would not be the most listened-to candidate. "The Communications Act of 1934, as amended, called for stations to offer 'equal opportunity' to all legally qualified political candidates running for office," ("The Fairness Doctrine, 2003, PBS). However, the influence of the Act is dwarfed by the fact that major news outlets, such as Fox, often promote particular candidates, and dominate not simply one or two channels, but an empire of channels. Through careful placement of certain news stories, it is possible to promote a candidate without explicitly giving him or her official 'time.'

Regulating monopolies in a capitalist system is far from unprecedented -- for example, 'trust-busting' was and is a common consumer protection, to ensure that one industry does not becomes so dominant and consumers have little choice in terms of price leverage. And…… [read more]

Sociological Perspectives on the Mass Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,566 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3


Indeed, it is the micro-sociological theory. Interactionists believe that the only accurate way to understand society is by looking at the thousands of interactions between and among people as individuals (Charon, 2009, p. 19). This is a bottom-up perspective: While functionalists essentially argue that we understand individuals by looking at the institutions that they comprise, interactionists argue that we can understand institutions by understanding the individuals who compose them.

The individuals who make up mass media organizations are not, in this theory, independent agents. Rather, they are influenced by everyone in their world. Liberal reporters are influenced by their conservative publishers, by their progressive spouses, by their liberal colleagues, by their conservative colleagues, by current events, by the families in which they grew up -- by the Framers of the Constitution, with whom they interact via the text of our founding document. Observers of the mass media are similarly influenced by a range of sources.

Interactionists can easily explain change: There is so much constant jostling in their version of society that change is inevitable. They also do a decent job of explaining stability, because in any social organization there will be individuals pushing to keep things the same -- and pushing back against those who want to change. For this reason, I believe that the interactionist theory is the most convincing and flexible.


Charon, J. (2009). Symbolic interactionism: An introduction, an interpretation, an integration

(10th ed.) New York: Prentice-Hall.

Holmwood, J. (2005). Functionalism and its Critics in Harrington, A. (Ed.) Modern social

theory: An introduction. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 87 -- 109.…… [read more]

Media Publicity Coverage of Violent Criminals Celebrities Essay

Essay  |  7 pages (2,292 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Media Obsession With Violence & Celebrity

Television news programs today are letting the public down by obsessing over violence, rape, kidnapping, and other seamy acts of inhumanity towards humans. Also, television news is preoccupied with celebrities -- sexual scandals, drug usage and drinking habits -- and any doubt about this assertion can be easily put to rest through a check… [read more]

PR Thesis

Thesis  |  10 pages (3,034 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10


¶ … History Of the American Public Realtions Field

History and Early Development of the Public Relations Field

In the most general sense, "public relations" has existed as long as human societies and verbal language. In principle, anytime one person or entity makes any attempt to influence what others think about him that is a form of "public relations." In… [read more]

Mass Media and Society Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  2 pages (704 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1


Canada's Mission In Afghanistan

The goal of Canada's mission in Afghanistan can be summed up in one word -- security. With turmoil in the Middle East, Canada, as well as the rest of the Western world, is in danger. The conditions in Afghanistan are the perfect breeding ground for terrorists who would like to see nothing more than for the Western world to be brought to its knees. Whether this would be a strike against Christianity, capitalism, or perhaps it is simply a hatred that has been so inbred that, like the Hatfields and the McCoys, they simply hate because that is what their father before them felt, is left to be seen. No matter what the motivation, one thing is certain, as it stands, Afghanistan is a breeding ground for those groups who wish to harm the Western world. For this reason, Canada, as well as the world in general, needs to see the country transformed into a nation that doesn't tolerate this type of activity. Determining success, however, will be difficult.

Simply eradicating current terrorist groups from the country could be one measure of success. However, if the Afghani government is still willing to allow this type of activity to go on within its borders, it will only be a matter of time before these groups reestablish themselves. If history has provided no other lessons, it at the very least shows how tenacious these groups can be. Like lichen clinging to a rock, one tiny piece left in place can once again spread to even greater proportions, if the conditions are correct. Therefore, an appropriate measure would be the tolerance level of the government in Afghanistan, in conjunction with the eradication of terrorist groups. A strong, self-sufficient Afghani government that will work to eliminate any terrorist organizations that re-emerge in the future, would be a success. The likelihood of this success is dependent on a variety of factors.

Global support for this mission is critical to its success. Without the world behind Canada and the rest of the coalition forces, it will make an already difficult situation nearly impossible. If…… [read more]

Blog Reaction: Alterman, Eric. "What Liberal Media? Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  1 pages (419 words)
Style: Harvard  |  Bibliography Sources: 1




Alterman, Eric. "What liberal media?" February 6, 2003. November 1, 2009

The cliche that the media has a liberal bias runs so deep that an entire, openly biased news network has used it as a clever marketing technique: Fox News has made its slogan "fair and balanced" despite the fact that it is entirely populated with right-wing pundits like Bill O'Reilly, with the only occasional token liberal to fan conservative flames of outrage on air. Even liberals often do not argue against this premise that the media has a liberal bias, despite the presence of such pundits as George Will, Pat Buchanan, Charles Krauthammer, and of course Bill O'Reilly in print and on air. The mere existence of a liberal is decried as "bias," as in the case of the presence of Nobel-prize winning economist Paul Krugman on the pages of the New York Times editorial pages, despite the counterweight of the equally conservative Wall Street Journal editorial page in the court of public opinion (Alterman 2003, p.2).

In his 2003 article, "What liberal media," Eric Alterman for the Nation suggests that in fact the media is quite balanced. However, an alternative perspective might be that the media is quite good at "selling its product." Fox's…… [read more]

Digest Strategic Management a Condensed Analysis Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,075 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … Digest

Strategic Management

A condensed analysis of the marketing situation at Reader's Digest

Once upon a time, Reader's Digest was one of the most widely read middlebrow publications in America. Subscriptions peaked in 1984, when more than seventeen million readers in the United States subscribed, and another eleven million worldwide (Historical Perspectives of the Reader's Digest, 2008, Focusing on the Words). The publication offered short human interest articles, some of which were excerpted from larger works, at relatively low subscription prices to consumers desiring to appear literate but who felt pressed for time. Reader's Digest today largely conforms to that format and the magazine's traditional subject areas continue to define its current offerings: the latest edition includes a list of tips about making a Halloween costume for a child, advice on how to talk to your child's teacher, some inspirational stories about kind deeds, and advice how to make healthy choices at a restaurant.

Macro Environment (PEST)


Reader's Digest is a relatively uncontroversial magazine in its subject matter, thus it is not threatened by laws governing free speech, although it was well-known for its anticommunist stance during the 1950s (Historical Perspectives of the Reader's Digest, 2008, Focusing on the Words).. However, laws that affect competing media might threaten its dominance. More and more works of literature, including the books that used to be available in condensed form on Reader's Digest can be accessed through Google Books, or through the public domain online.

A recent FTC (Federal Trade Commission) ruing requiring bloggers to publicize when they are releasing biased reviews of products, however, may signal that less legitimate sources of media may become more highly regulated in the future, which could be a plus for trusted sources of content such as Reader's Digest (McEntegart 2009). Bloggers seeking advertising will have to disclose their bias, which may turn loyal readers to traditional works of professional journalism. But greater regulation of online sources may make people trust online content more, and turn away from more established general publications.


Reader's Digest core audience tends to be older. However, Baby Boomers have seen reductions in their investment funds, due to the recent credit crisis. This leaves them with less disposable income. Baby Boomers often have more trouble getting new jobs, and thus they are more likely to trim costs such as magazine subscriptions to the home, rather than take on a new job to pay for extras, particularly if similar content is available online.

Social -- demographic -- cultural

While Reader's Digest pledges to support diversity, most of its news stories, recipes, and content tend to focus on issues relating to parenting, health, diet, and inspirational stories. Its subject matter is so broad-based, it does not have a clear, core audience other than the rapidly shrinking Boomer market. Niche publications have grown more popular, given the political and social fragmentation of America, a trend partially spawned by the Internet. One possible plus, however, is that people also have less time to… [read more]

Popular Media vs. Scientific Journal -- Multitasking Thesis

Thesis  |  4 pages (1,171 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+


Popular Media vs. Scientific Journal -- Multitasking research

Popular Media Account and Primary Source Account: A Comparison of Research Reporting

For any member of the academe, it is inevitable that we stumble upon sources that are in the realm of what we call popular media. Some of our research works, on the other hand, require us to use primary or first-hand accounts which can be found mostly in the form of journal articles published by institutionalized academic organization and prestigious bodies alike. In some (if not most) cases, findings from one source are corroborated by the findings of the other kind of media, but how were these findings presented? Are there similarities and/or differences by which results of studies were shown?

The main purpose of this article is to look into a popular account of a piece of psychological research and a primary source account of that research so as to be able to come up with a comparison of how research findings were presented in these two media. A brief discussion about research reporting shall first be presented in order to lay the fundamental framework by which this discussion shall revolve. On to the main objective, a short description of the method and sources used shall be presented to be followed by the observations gathered from the comparison of research reporting in the domain of popular media and primary source media.

I. Method

The topic area that I have chosen for this study is multitasking. For the primary source media, I examined the study published by the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences entitled "Cognitive control in media multitaskers." This article was authored by Eyal Ophir, Clifford Nass, and Anthony D. Wagner. It was published on July 20, 2009.

This same empirical study was reported in the Stanford University website entitled "Multitasking works? Not really, Stanford study show." The article was written by Adam Gorlick and Jack Hubbard dated August 24, 2009.

Basically, the results of this empirical study is that those who are engaged in media multitasking are more likely to be interfered by what is known as irrelevant information stimuli because the brains of multitaskers have reduced ability in filtering out these irrelevant stimuli (Ophir, Nass, and Wagner, 2009, p.15583).

II. Research Reporting

Before going any further, I believe it is fitting to first provide a description of what research reporting actually is. According to Nachmias & Nachmias (1996, p.556), "research reports aim at answering five basic questions, "who," "what," where," "when," and "how." Underlying these is the sixth question, "why." That is, the purpose of a research report is to relay findings that are empirically and logically related to some conception of causation, to a theory."

As such, we will be looking at how theses six basic questions being addressed by a research report are presented in both popular media and primary psychological research source. We also aim to look at the reports by the kind of language used as well as the structure it… [read more]

Kennedy Assassination Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (881 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Kennedy Assassination

Over the years there have been numerous major events that have influenced the technology and the presentation of the mass media. But there may not be a more significant event than the Kennedy assassination and the impact it made on changing the industry.

The Date That Changed Journalism Forever.

On that dreadful Friday morning, thousands of Americans and many members of the press stood in line just to see President Kennedy's motorcade drive slowly through Dealey Plaza in downtown Dallas.

Moments later, the President's assassination would change the country and the medium of television forever. After shots were fired, a stunned world would make television its primary source of breaking news, as Dallas journalists found themselves delivering a wrenching story to the American people (JFK: Breaking The News).

In the four days between Kennedy's assassination and his funeral, the foundation was laid for the all-encompassing, 24-hour coverage that is the norm today. Broadcast journalists broke new ground as they kept the nation up-to-date on the rapidly evolving story. The media's coverage of the event made television the nation's primary source of breaking news information (JFK: Breaking The News).

"This was really the event that TV news journalists like to claim brought them to age," says Barbie Zelizer, author of Covering the Body: The Kennedy Assassination, the Media, and the Shaping of Collective Memory (1992). "In 1963 TV journalists were seen as the fluff journalists. Print journalists were the serious journalists. When the Kennedy assassination occurred, of course, TV cameras were able to roll 24/7, and so what you got was an ongoing attentiveness to the event that print could not provide.

"You have to remember that there were very few TV stations, and people had not yet had the kind of event that would cause them to corral around the TV. This was the very first time that TV brought the public together. The first relays of what had happened went out on radio then television media took over.

"Television did what was unthinkable back then -- it stopped all broadcasting and all commercials. It stayed with the story for four days. It did everything it could to provide people with ongoing information. From Friday to Monday it provided the American public with an ongoing visual screen of what was going on in the assassination story" (Zelizer).

Improvements in Media Technology

By the time Kennedy was assassinated the communications satellite Telstar I had just been put in space, followed by other satellites, news reports from around the world could be transmitted directly to a network broadcast center, giving television unprecedented power to communicate major world events in real-time…… [read more]

Kid Can Paint That Media and Perception Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (942 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 2


¶ … Kid Can Paint That

Media and Perception: The Question of Authenticity in Bar-Lev's

My Kid Could Paint That

The role of the mass media in the creation of public perception is a matter of near constant controversy, and has been ever since the concept of mass media first came to be a part of civilization. The printing press was actually objected to by many specifically because it would allow for the dissemination of views that they did not approve of, with the belief (correctly held) that such dissemination would necessarily produce more like-minded thinkers. The technologies of the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have made mass media much more present in the daily workings of our lives, with the television, radio, and internet all providing access to the font of the world's information and events. What these outlets choose to tell us -- and not tell us -- can have a huge impact not only on what we know about the world we inhabit, but also on how we think about it and interact with it. Such issues are rarely as clear-cut as they might seem either, and the question of responsibility in journalism has never been more pressing.

One excellent case that represents the difficulties (though not the necessities, to any hugely practical degree) of navigating a compelling story through the narrow channels of journalistic integrity is the story of possible child-prodigy painter Marla as told in Amir Bar-Lev's documentary film My Kid Could Paint That. Though ostensibly about the controversy surrounding this little girl's painting abilities, or the authenticity of her works, the film is perhaps more easily read as a commentary on the effects of media. It is the various incarnations of the media that shape the real story of My Kid Could Paint That, and their irresponsibility is also the only reason that Marla and her paintings ever became any sort of story in the first place.

The first media figure to have exert influence over Marla's life and story was Elizabeth Cohen. Cohen was only writing a local human-interest piece and had no way to predict the size that the story would become, or the scandal that would ensue. Still, this shows the importance of responsibly checking the facts of every story, no matter how much of a fluff piece it might at first seem. Had Cohen not written her article, it is possible -- likely, even, unless Marla's parent were even more ambitious concerning their daughter than is currently thought -- that Marla's painting would never have gathered any real attention. Cohen needed to do a little digging and ascertain from the outset whether or not Marla was actually painting the works attributed to her, and the level of coaching and prompting she received if she was indeed the artist. Her failure to take…… [read more]

Media Stereotype Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,541 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3


Photograph #

Hurricane Katrina (2005) looting found online at http://images.google.com/images?hl=en&q=looting%20hurricane%20katrina&um=1&ie=UTF-8&sa=N&tab=wi,retrieved1 March 2009.

Ambulance carrying Brittany Spears away from her home found online at http://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://judicial-inc.biz/81b.ri1.jpg&imgrefurl=http://thisiszionism.blogspot.com/2008/01/brittany-spears-rushed-to-hospital.html&usg=__uoZgO_FKCKQSYT3FQzen5-UUDYU=&h=317&w=405&sz=27&hl=en&start=1&um=1&tbnid=HnAWV16M6qW9DM:&tbnh=97&tbnw=124&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dbrittany%2Bspears%2Bhome%2Bchildren%26um%3D1%26hl%3Den%26sa%3DG,retrieved1 March 2009.

Photograph #3

George W. Bush, photo of Bush from a different date, different event, superimposed over the 2001 disaster of the World Trade Center, found online at http://www.bloggerheads.com/images/bush_hero_flight_suit.jpg,retrieved1 March 2009.

Who is a Looter?… [read more]

Class Status and Power Thesis

Thesis  |  8 pages (2,561 words)
Style: Chicago  |  Bibliography Sources: 5


¶ … Status, and Power

Mass media is one of the most powerful forces shaping public consciousness. In the United States, people spend approximately 30 hours per week watching television (Mantsios 99), and a considerable amount of their time going to the movies, reading newspapers, or listening to the radio. There is a wide consensus on the influence that media… [read more]

Film Good Night and Good Luck Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,366 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1


¶ … Night and Good Luck (2005)

At heart, the film "Good Night and Good Luck" seems what might be called an old-fashioned message film. In other words, it is a film with a strong, ideological point-of-view regarding the broadcasting of journalist Edward R. Murrow during the McCarthy witch-hunts. However, "Good Night and Good Luck" does not merely portray a struggle of good vs. evil, in political terms but forces the viewer to question his or her own assumptions about modern political issues, such as what constitutes an appropriate balance between national security and freedom. The film raises an important question that is likely to be thought-provoking for those who are in accordance with the filmmaker's point-of-view -- how free is a free press when it is controlled more by corporate concerns than a desire to reveal the truth? True, some individuals watching the film might be angry at seeing hysterical anti-communists skewed by a director and scriptwriter who are largely viewed as liberal, and these viewers are unlikely to be converted by its style of presentation. But a film does not ultimately have to be 'all things to all people,' and simply because it does not produce a wholly balanced view of the past does not make it a bad film, so long as it has artistic integrity.

The film tells the story of Edward R. Murrow, one of the most respected foreign correspondents of World War II whose customary sign-off was "Good Night and Good Luck," hence the title of the film. The film purports to be a true-life tale of Murrow's postwar life as a journalist when he fell afoul of the House Un-American activities commission, headed by Joseph McCarthy. It chronicles a period of history that many Americans would like to forget, where paranoia about 'the Russians' caused many individuals to question the patriotism of anyone who criticized the government. Murrow was a highly respected journalist. To some degree, he had always been an advocate of interventionalist journalism -- he urged America to become more involved in World War II long before it was popular. Murrow said what he believed, not what was popular or even necessarily in conformation to standards of journalistic 'objectivity.' The film lionizes his courage, as he stands against his boss at CBS, the sponsors -- everyone who does not have the courage to speak aloud. The film explicitly challenges the conventional wisdom that there are two sides to every issue, as presented in the media. Murrow was right, that there was flimsy evidence against the people whose names McCarthy was smearing, and he was pressured to conform to popular, public opinion and say that communists were lurking behind every corner.

The film is highly atmospheric -- it does not even use an actor to depict Joseph McCarthy on screen, instead it uses footage from the era. Everything about the film is designed to create the appearance of being from 'another time and place.' The film looks like documentary or television footage… [read more]

Outfoxed Before Watching the Documentary About Fox Reaction Paper

Reaction Paper  |  2 pages (784 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0



Before watching the documentary about Fox News entitled "Outfoxed," I considered myself immune to the effects of the Fox network. I assumed that if I did not watch Fox News and did not rely upon it as a source of information, then I was not subject to its biases. However, I realized that Fox News has a profound effect in determining the level of discourse in the media as a whole, through a kind of spill-over effect. Even if a respectable news outlet condemns Fox for making an outrageous allegation, that news show is still giving coverage to Fox News, and sowing doubts in the viewer's mind that 'where there is smoke there must be fire.'

Fox News' tendency to attribute its own conservative, slanted views to the American public at large as a collective can be seen in its rumor-mongering statements that 'some people say' regarding the advocacy of a certain outrageous position, which creates the idea that the viewer should side with the 'common sense' of 'some people' -- i.e. The Fox news network. For an individual to have to respond 'no, I am not a terrorist, despite what some people say,' no matter how absurd the allegation raises the question in some minds: What if he is indeed a terrorist? With a similar persuasive technique, Fox uses "Ultra-liberal" as an insult, so it is assumed that the impressionable viewer 'must' understand that liberal is evil, or else he or she is foolish. Guests who disagree with the host like Bill O'Reilly are called stupid, or told to "shut up," again suggesting that intelligent people should agree with the host. When pressed by the makers of the documentary as to why he so often said 'shut up,' O'Reilly angrily replied that he had never told a guest, such as an 'out' gay high school, to shut up outright, merely shut up about his sexuality, as if this distinction was an important point and not just as silencing as saying 'shut up' to the young man.

Fox News has lowered the standards of general media journalism, which before had to show at least some veneer of objectivity to be considered respectable. The documentary depicted Fox employees talking about how they were forced to push a "right-wing" agenda or fear losing jobs. When headquarters sent a memo, suggesting that certain issues…… [read more]

Public Relations' Role in Launching Hybrid Automobiles Thesis

Thesis  |  8 pages (2,469 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 6


Public Relations' Role in Launching Hybrid Automobiles at Toyota Motor Company

Public relations strategies must be tightly integrated to the core strategic planning, product development and Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) initiatives within any company if it is to succeed in the 21st century. Given how transparent all forms of communication are becoming due to Web 2.0 and social networking (Bernoff,… [read more]

Media Is Undeniable it Has the Power Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (330 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 0


¶ … media is undeniable; it has the power to present to millions of viewers and listeners in the United States news and entertainment. The manner in which these are presented has often been criticized by experts and laymen alike. The influence of the media on public opinion can be both positive and negative. On the positive side, the media presents its audience with information regarding world events, and entertainment to fill their free time. The media's influence is not only to entertain, but also to inform regarding world events. Ethical and unbiased reporting provides the world with an accurate view of world events.

On the negative side, it has often been speculated that the media influences public opinion according to the wishes of the government. This could particularly be the case during war. The media's influence on public opinion is uncontested; and the fact is that people often take as true whatever the media presents. Some hold that such control is dangerous.

Communism in…… [read more]

Media and Society Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (947 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1



Book Section Summary

Croteau, David R. & William Hoynes. Media / Society: Industries, Images, and Audiences. Pine Forge Press, 2002.

Media / Society

Although 'the media' has always existed, in terms of word-of-mouth and folklore, the advent of print created something new: a mass media that could extend far beyond the borders of the places that produced it. This fundamentally changed the nature of human social relations. The media is both produced by human social relations and is changed by shifts in human social relations (16-18). For example, the modern American Civil Rights movement sought to end segregation. Negative media images of African-Americans had reinforced the values of racist society. However the images of nonviolent civil disobedience on the nation's television screens created a groundswell of political support to change the laws at the federal level, and thus changed all American society. A social movement was produced in part by the media changed society through the media (27).

Part II: Media Industry & the Social World

We live in a society that seems increasingly diverse in its media composition, as there is a proliferation of new media, newspapers, special interest cable channels, and media venues on the Internet. But the actual ownership of media outlets lies in the hands of a few major corporations, not 'the people' (34). Economics and ownership of the media influences the content of the media and limits real content diversity. The impact of advertising also limits the truth-telling nature of media outlets. The more concentrated the ownership of the media, the less available voice for truly alternative and unbiased points-of-view. Profit comes ahead of political change and even the new media has been swiftly colonized by advertising (62).

In terms of the political influence upon the supposedly independent media, although the First Amendment prohibits the stifling of free speech in theory, in practice, the courts have just as often limited the ability of individuals to freely vocalize points-of-view in the marketplace of ideas. Some of this, it could be argued, is positive, such as the fairness or equal time doctrine in politics, which requires the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) to make sure that major candidates get equal or proportional time to advocate their views, as well as prohibiting advertisers from making false claims about products to consumers without the ability to verify those claims (99; 112). Regulating the media to preserve morality has proved a more dubious prospect. The guise of morality means that censorship can be used as a political weapon against unpopular points-of-view (101). There is also informal self-censorship of news organizations, as their tailor their content towards what their sponsor's target audience is likely to be, and often follow suit in what is deemed a hit story, at the expense of other noteworthy but underreported possible leads.

Part III: Media Representations of the Social…… [read more]

Commercialization of Journalism and the Inherent Ethical Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,906 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 9


Commercialization of Journalism and the Inherent Ethical Conflict
The concept of 'News' would appear on the surface to warrant the very
straightforward definition as being the reporting through mass media of
current events. In particular, news journalism will generally have some
type of relationship to current events, whether to serve as a channel for
explaining events, a forum for discussion… [read more]

Exposure to Violent Media Today's World Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (416 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Exposure to Violent Media

Today's world appears to be increasingly violent, and it certainly offers a plethora of violent media: songs, movies, television shows, video games, and literature. Therefore, the temptation exists to suggest that the violent media has led to the increase in violence in society. However, while the two factors may be highly correlated, it is impossible to prove that violent media has caused violence in society. First, many societies without violent media are extremely violent. Second, mentally stable viewers of violent media are able to differentiate between fictional and real portrayals of violence. Finally, society has not actually gotten more violent. Therefore, it is safe to conclude that violent media does not cause an increase in violence in society.

While American society is derided as being extremely violent, it is actually less violent than many of the societies around the world. Countries in the Middle East and Africa, which have a smaller range of media offerings and less widespread media distribution, exhibit violence levels that are unparalleled by even the most violent areas of the United States. Therefore, it is clear that violence in society is not caused solely by mass media, but can exist independently.

Next, all but the youngest viewers of violent media…… [read more]

Mass Media as it Has Changed Through Three Sociological Eras Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (893 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 0


Mass Media as it Has Changed Through Three Sociological Eras

First of all, we need to point out from the very beginning that mass media will encompass here a broader term than the strict media idea we know today. Since we are going back to the times of the Agrarian Age, when the idea of 'mass media' was much different from what we know today, we need to be able to encompass in the notion the actual characteristics of mass media we might have seen at the time.

Basically, the first known dated printed book comes from China, from around 868 AD and was referred to as "Diamond Sutra," while printed books entered Europe only with the apparition of Guttenberg's printed press, in 1453. One can definitely not undermine the formidable significance of the printed press and what it meant for society at that point, as well as further along the historical timeline.

Indeed, the invention of the printed press marked an important change in the way ideas were disseminated, as well as in the way simple information was passed along from person to person. Up to that point this had been done primarily in oral form, by direct speech from individual to individual or groups of persons, or by handwriting. The problem with the latter was that this was generally a very lengthy process, it took a lot of time and, as such, could only reach a small number of recipients over a certain period of time.

Media during the period up to 800 AD and to 1453 in Europe was indeed a product of that respective era and the reasons for this come from the distinct characteristics of the respective eras. Indeed, if we are to refer to Europe and notice its characteristics at that point, we can only draw the conclusion that media could not have been different.

Up to the 15th century, but especially during the initial periods of the Middle Ages and during the Dark Ages, mass communication between individuals was unnecessary. First of all, there were very few individuals living in Europe during that time. The barbarian invasions generally marked a reduction in the population in Europe and people were not only few, but widely spread, with regions generally having a low territorial density. What this meant was basically that people did not communicate with one another and did not need to. Communities were scarce and geographically far away from one another. Life was simple and revolved around the cultivation of the ground, which knowledge was generally passed on from father to son on a verbal basis, from generation to generation. As such, during the Agrarian Age, mass media reflected…… [read more]

Communication and the Media Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,245 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 6


Communications and Media

Communication has vastly expanded as media forms have diversified in recent times. Through globalization and democratization, communication through the various media has been a blessing to the economy and culture of African countries. Online communication has transformed the mere information consumer of old into a content producer today. Media literacy has become a component and approach in the educational curriculum of all 50 States. But this immense and unprecedented expansion of communication has negative effects. Studies showed that prolonged exposure to violence in the media inclined male viewers to physical and verbal aggression. They also revealed that long-time exposure by vulnerable girls to sexually objectifying forms of media tended to decrease their global self-esteem. Likewise, communication through the various media is as essential to winning a war by the proper transmission of information as defeating the enemy in the battlefield. Communication through the media asserts both positive and negative influence on people. The purpose of this paper is to discover some of its positive and negative effects from authoritative sources with the end-view of contributing information to support the decision-making function of policymakers.


Globalization and democratization have been a blessing to sub-Saharan media (Kariithi 2007). The people's newfound freedom can be traced to the proliferation of the mass media, due in turn to the economic policies established and implemented by their new governments. The invigorated environment liberalized the air waves in African countries, leading to an explosion of the radio and TV broadcasting industry. Innovations included and culminated in the internet. Today, all African media organizations assert individual online presence. These websites have global content, which influences local media content. Records showed that advertising sales in these countries in the past five years approached $3 billion. All developments pointed to self-sufficiency and long-term sustainability. Joint ventures in publishing and broadcasting flourished. The cellular communication sector has been most successful. Statistics revealed that subscription went up from $1.2 million in 1996 to $51 million in 2005. $10 million was projected for 2010 (Kariithi).

Technology has become an integral component of modern communication (Holtz 2005). Communication is also moving more and more online as well. It is more than just substitution. It has also changed roles dramatically. The mere information recipient and consumer has now become a content producer. He wields influence like a public relations professional. Technology has increased the capability of communication so that audiences are now communicating by themselves online. This has allowed an exchange of information broadly and quickly. The current and continuously-evolving environment has been described as participatory. The audiences are themselves running their show. Critics warned communicators to learn how to deal with these empowered audiences in other to retrieve the influence they previously enjoyed over the audiences (Holtz).

One more miracle that has come out of new communication products, techniques and know-how is media literacy (Lundstrom 2004). This new and popular trend teaches children to think critically about media messages they receive on a daily basis. It trains them to assess,… [read more]

Public Relations Building Goodwill and Reputation Definitions Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (970 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3


Public Relations


Definitions of Public Relations

Public relations refer to a set of planned activities, which help an entity establish identity, acquire business credibility and authority (Fey 2003). It makes the audience remember the entity through repetitiveness or a strong approach in delivering a message or information. It may seem cheap, at times, but unlike advertising, public relations are not free. Unlike advertising, public relations or PR cannot be bought. It must be established with effort, timeliness and the correct approach. It may not be well understood, but PR remains the most effective marketing tool of a small business (Fey).

This definition sees public relations as largely dependent on the media. For a first step, it sets the target for its message (Fey 2003). The public relations person or agency determines if the message is best or optimally carried or endorsed by the local daily or weekly publication or the morning, afternoon or evening TV talk show. If it chooses the newspapers, the PR person or entity must make the news release really newsworthy. That news worthiness is something that the audience of the message decides. It also depends on the media's specific goals. If the chosen medium is television through a particular TV talk show, the message can be received by the show's regular viewers. But it will be carried or endorsed by a newspaper's editor or columnist on home trends, art events or business, the message can reach intended readers who regularly read these newspaper sections. PR requires a keen exposure to the different capabilities and reaches of the different media. A successful PR program also requires a regularly updated list of contacts, considering their high turnover (Fey)..

A second definition is an assessment of a set of activities in establishing the reputation of the entity (Cartledge 2003). It brings out the results of previous actions in the direction of building the reputation. It consists of the consequences of what the PR person or agent did and said and what others think about the entity being promoted. In a larger understanding, PR helps the entity and its audience of publics adapt to each other, according to the Institute of Public Relations and the Public Relations Society of America. The PR person or agency is responsible for placing the business entity before its publics in creating or increasing awareness of what the entity does and how it does it. It helps decision-makers see the entity or organization plays. It does not matter if it is a business organization, an academic institution or a government office. Senior managers are influenced both by the role of its PR or information professionals in the organization and by how the outside world views them. They must take appropriate care in providing objective information to the organization's audience while advocating for their profession. They both establish and take care of the reputation they establish. In…… [read more]

Public Relations Campaign Proposal Term Paper

Term Paper  |  9 pages (2,403 words)
Style: Harvard  |  Bibliography Sources: 2


Public Relations Campaign Proposal

The following pages will focus on describing a Public relations campaign proposal for L'Oreal's summer products launch. The PR campaign proposed bellow is a variant considered to be best suitable for launching a new product line for such a great player on the cosmetic products market. The following PR campaign focuses on carrying on the relationship… [read more]

Communication and Broadcasting Term Paper

Term Paper  |  16 pages (5,070 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10


Communications Markets and Media Broadcasting Technology

The research study I would like to perform for my independent study relates to both communications and television broadcasting. I plan to obtain this research through many of the network's websites and other websites that are related to news programs and that disclose television ratings and number of viewers watching particular news programs.]

What… [read more]

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