"Journalism / Media / PR / News" Essays

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Tylenol Rides it Out and Gains Case Study

Case Study  |  3 pages (982 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 2


¶ … Tylenol Rides it Out and Gains a Legacy" is emblematic of how good public relations can turn a weakness or error into a boon for the company. In 1982 it was found that several individuals died because of cyanide detected within capsules of Tylenol, this led to a massive recall of all Tylenol products that eventually cost the company 50 million dollars. The same tragedy occurred two years later that resulted in a recall of 80 million dollars of damages. In both cases, Johnson and Johnson came out with a better reputation for integrity than before and their image in the public's eye improved as a result of the steps they took from both an operations perspective as well as a public relations perspective.

There were both internal and external audiences within this particular case study. The internal audience was the employees of the Johnson and Johnson Company as well as the Food and Drug Administration who closely worked with Johnson and Johnson to ensure that the problem could be adequately solved. The internal public were very important in this case because J&J and had to convince their employees that there products were safe and to somehow inform the individuals involved that their actions would not result in a substantial loss for the company. At the same time, the Food and Drug administration played a crucial role because they were convinced by J&J that they would take all steps to prevent damages to the consumer. This was evidenced by the FDA's continued notifications to the public that J&J were doing all necessary steps to prevent any more damages to partners. The external audience were the consumers themselves, they had to be convinced to trust that J&J took all necessary steps to prevent their products from being contaminated and to continue using Tylenol in the future.

Communications from J&J took the shape of many different media outlets. They communicated through internal newsletters to their staff updating them on what was happening with the product line and how this problem impacts their company. This decreased the feeling of panic among employees of the nature of the crime committed. They also used press conferences, commercials and news outlets to communicate with the public to assure them that all steps were being taken to prevent the problems associated with contamination. Furthermore, they communicated effectively with the FDA so that a third party would be involved in helping them calm public sentiments. The impact of their communication is that consumers trusted the fact that J&J were not responsible for the actions that occurred and moreover that they were doing everything possible to prevent this crisis from happening again. This implicit understanding dramatically helped the case of J&J and allowed them to gain significant consumer trust and loyalty. This message could not have been communicated any more efficiently. They not only communicated to calm internal audiences, but also solved their external PR issue by relying…… [read more]

Public Relations - Crisis Management Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (2,533 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 15


Public Relations - Crisis Management



The objective of this work is to identify an issue or theory in relation to public relations and specifically crisis management and to examine the literature relating to that issue or theory and conduct a synthesis of the previous work in this area.

The work of… [read more]

Media and United States Foreign Policy Accounts Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (2,319 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 6


Media and United States Foreign Policy

Accounts of Involvement

The initial role of media was limited to the deliverance of news report, but with the passage of time and introduction of technologies, the media under went restructuring and a change in its policies and objectives were observed. The media has associated itself with its foremost task of covering the news… [read more]

Johnson, T.J. and Kaye, B.K. ) Annotated Bibliography

Annotated Bibliography  |  2 pages (820 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


Johnson, T.J. And Kaye, B.K. (2004). Wag the Blog: How Reliance on Traditional Media and the Internet Influence Credibility Perceptions of Weblogs Among Blog Users. Journalism and Mass Communication Quarterly, Vol. 81, No. 3. Retrieved from: http://www.glog.nl/wiki/upload/docs/thomas%20j%20johnson.pdf

The article considers the relative credibility of "Weblogs" as opposed to traditional news sources. The authors argue that, although this sources of media information has largely been ignored by the scholarship, it deserves recognition for a number of reasons, including its growing prevalence in the media. Before examining Weblogs specifically, the article focuses on past studies of non-traditional media and their credibility. Four research questions are posed, after which the methodology is described in depth. Ultimately, the research finds that there is a correlation between talk radio use and the perception of Weblog credibility. In other words, listeners to talk radio tend to regard Weblogs as more credible than those who do not.

Reese, S.D. Rutigliano, L., Hyun, K., and Jeong, J. (2005, Apr. 1). Zapping the blogosphere: Citizen-based media in the global news arena. University of Texas, School of Journalism

The research is based upon the assumption that globalization has brought a greater sense of connectedness among media users than ever before. The use of Weblogs is one manifestation of this, where Internet users connect by means of contributing news by means of online media. To create a platform for study, the authors examine different sources of news media, including the traditional, online citizen media, and blogging. Each receives great attention as the underlying concerns are being mapped and discussed. This study found that there is a greater correlation between online media and the perceived credibility of traditional news sources than might initially be assumed.

Paulussen, S., Heinonen, A., Domingo, D. And Quandt, T. (2007). Doing it Together: Citizen Participation in the Professional News Making Process. Observatorio Journal, Vol. 3. Retrieved from: http://biblio.ugent.be/input/download?func=downloadFile&fileOId=731819

The study uses data from four countries to determine the factors that influence participatory journalism. These include Belgium, Finland, Germany and Spain. The authors note that the growth of the Internet has enabled a democratic type of participation in a greater sense than has ever been the case before. This sense of demogracy has become the heart of participatory communication, rather than any perceived credibility, it appears. Some of the concepts considered include public journalism, interactive journalism, participatory journalism, and citizen journalism. Ultimately, the study found that there is still significant barriers to true democratic participation in the online…… [read more]

Problems With Newspapers Today Research Paper

Research Paper  |  6 pages (1,609 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


¶ … Letter of transmittal

Newspapers are connected to society as a result of the several centuries during which they dominated the news transfer environment. However, the recent decades have demonstrated that matters are critical for the newspaper industry as a result of the more effective devices that emerged along with the evolution of technology. This paper is meant to… [read more]

Mice Marketing Proposal Business Proposal

Business Proposal  |  7 pages (2,336 words)
Style: Harvard  |  Bibliography Sources: 7


Mice Marketing Proposal

The acronym MICE refers to "meetings, incentives, conferences and exhibitions" and the city of Zurich is interested in promoting itself more aggressively as a center for MICE events in Europe. This proposal will outline some of the external market characteristics of the Zurich area to narrow down a target market. A promotions strategy will be drawn up… [read more]

Media I Saw Two Ads Discussion and Results Chapter

Discussion and Results Chapter  |  2 pages (806 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2



I saw two ads for the Toyota Yaris, one from YouTube and the other as part of a viral campaign to create a Yaris Internet meme. The YouTube ad has an insect made out of gas pumps walking. The Yaris comes along and squishes it, then sucks up the little bit of gas inside and drives off. A caption says "40 mpg rated." The viral campaign plays on the public's desire to contribute content, and willingness to be part of a promotion. It highlights the popularity of participatory advertising campaigns.

Media concentration would be an issue if it were anything close to reality. Media is more diffused and differentiated at this point in time than ever before, and this allows messages to be tailored to narrower audiences and exposed to the world for a low cost. There is ownership concentration and corporate influence among the largest media providers, and this seems to orient those providers to agenda-driven programming that can be detrimental to critical thinking skills.

c. I did the survey "The Color of Network TV" and found that almost every show has Caucasian leads. In addition, few shows have more than one or two minority characters at all. Two that did -- Dexter and Hawaii Five-O -- are set in locations that have a high proportion of minorities, so the casting does reflect the demographics of the setting. For some other shows, set in major cities, there is little reason for the overwhelmingly white nature of the casts.

d. Dominant ideology refers to the fact that the views of the majority will tend to dominate society. All members of society will come to view certain aspects of the dominant ideology as reality, such that those who are dominant can shape the way that everybody views the world and views themselves. The Yaris ads display this. The desire for higher gas prices is also something that is becoming a dominant ideology, and advertisers are also playing up that theme, the idea being to reinforce that sentiment among consumers so that they will be more likely to buy a Yaris. The Internet meme promotion is rather shameless and exploitative, and is not something that has become widespread in society. If more advertisers were to push this method of promotion on the public, it is possible that society could eventually come to ignore the shamelessness of that type of promotion and accept it as…… [read more]

Media Influence and Its Effects on Society Research Paper

Research Paper  |  5 pages (1,628 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10


Media Influence on Society

In a matter of a few centuries, the availability of information to the average person in society has grown exponentially. Until the advent of the telegraph in the middle of the 19th century, even the most significant world events typically took weeks or more to become known outside their immediate region. Printing presses were tremendously expensive,… [read more]

Internet Has Revolutionized the Methods Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (809 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


This often gave rise to unrest, class warfare, resentment and other forms of violence by the masses (Borden, 2010).

However, in this age of information, literally anyone can access anything on record. This allows individuals to become educated on subjects before they pass judgment on others. This lack of judgment diminishes the prevalence of violence as individuals think before they act in an abrupt manner. In addition, 24/7 news allows individuals to take a more diplomatic approach to conflict than those in the past. Everyone has access to the same information. Therefore, it is harder to deceive, or otherwise trick people into conducting themselves in an irrational manner. This reduces resentment as those who are deceived are diminished through their own increased capacity to obtain information.

Finally, the 24/7 news media is making the world a safer place in all aspects of life. In business, international competitors can view and research the American standards and methods of conducting business. These methods are often of higher standards of safety within the work environment. This information can then be used by international competitors to better improve employee relations and retention and thus improving profits. People can also become aware of potential threats much faster than previous technology allowed. If a tsunami hits Japan, almost immediate the United States and the rest of the world are aware of its implications. In fact president Obama issued a statement (on the internet, by the way) only 5 hours after the earthquake and tsunami struck Japan (Cross, 2011). These nations can subsequently rally together to send aid to an otherwise defeated nation. Numerous examples of these exist throughout the world. All of which create an environment of safety and security for those who use the mass media effectively.

In conclusion, it is my belief that the mass media does indeed make the world safer on a global scale. The speed in which individuals can receive and update information is unpatrolled. Society can those use this information to make better informed decisions regarding problems with profound implications for the world economy. This decreases violence and creates a safer environment in which society can operate in.


1) Borden, David. "Editorial: Ignorance Leading to Suffering, Injustice and Death." Raising Awareness of the Consequences of Prohibition. Web. 10 Mar. 2012. .

2) Cross, the Red. "How to Help Japan: Earthquake Relief Options." The Huffington Post. TheHuffingtonPost.com, 21 Mar. 2011. Web. 10 Mar.…… [read more]

Mass Media Intro to Sociology Professor Stephanie Research Paper

Research Paper  |  8 pages (2,337 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Mass Media

Intro to Sociology

Professor Stephanie DeNapoli-Sencil

Mass Media

Mass media is communication that targets a large market. It is a social force that contributes to the beliefs, norms and values that constitute contemporary culture. Whether it is broadcasted, written or spoken, it has the power to shape the perspective of the general public. Therefore, media is considered to… [read more]

Breaking the News" by James Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (632 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


The anecdote illustrates the conflict that happens between two journalists, and, eventually, between the journalists and the public (with the inclusion of the military), when confronted to choose between covering a newsworthy footage or saving the lives of people under the danger of death. The journalists' decision to become objective and cover the event instead of saving the lives of those in danger illustrates the lack of consideration that the mass media has on the reality that surrounds them. That is, they choose to objectify every reality that they encounter everyday, and assess their judgment and behavior based on the newsworthiness of an event as it is presented to them. In this example, Fallows shows how the mass media have become an autonomous institution that cares only for itself and not the public and its welfare, the very people whom they should serve, first and foremost.

"Breaking the News" have effectively reflected what Fallows have asserted to be the current preoccupation of the mass media at present: that is, 'charming' and 'winning the acceptance of the crowd' (public). Ultimately, the mass media's preoccupation in influencing the public is based not so much on the concern that it has for the American public's welfare, but on the potential profits that media conglomerates can make when they are able to capture their audience, the public, in every news or entertainment piece that they offer. Sadly, the book has also opened the people's eyes to the hard reality that the mass media is firstly, an economic institution before becoming a social institution. Fallows' experiences and observations as a media practitioner over the years serves proof that the mass media has become an autonomous body that is detached from the public and the realities of the society, and, unfortunately, operating under its own agenda and purposes.

Work cited

Fallows, J. (1996). Breaking…… [read more]

Chinese Media Industry Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,606 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Chinese Media Industry

The purpose of this work is to document the shifts and changes that have shaped the media industry as to those societal, political, organizational, national, or as to any other possible influences in the formation governance and processes within the media industry in China. Further this work will focus on elements both in the historical sense as… [read more]

Media Presentation Analyzation: Design Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (2,028 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Material which does not appear to be continually revised and checked becomes suspect for no other reason than that the environment around it has been changing. Users expect a degree of ongoing novelty and innovation even just at the level of design or mode of representation, as an indication marker that the providers of information have been scrutinizing their content with a "freshness date" in mind. Even if the article was dated in 2004, I probably would have rejected its "updatedness" without a listing of the exact month of 2004.

Another dimension of credibility is comprehensiveness. The very volume and diversity of the Internet creates a an additional credibility problem. The global scope of the Web can create the illusion that whatever cannot be found must not be very important. We want others to make decisions about priority and relevance without having to research the "full story." This would be too tedious and distracting. But as soon as such selections are made, the problem increases that something crucial may have been overlooked. And without substantial independent knowledge of a subject area, it is impossible to find out what has been overlooked. The only reason why I did not believe that something was overlokked was that on the front page of the article, it stated, "2 hours, 25 minutes ago," so I assumed that nothing drastic had occurred or been reported since then.

The problems above, and the expereiences surrounding the article I chose, show how the standard criteria for judging credibility online is frustrated by the characteristic conditions of the Web. None of these elements is entirely unique to the online context, but the scope, self-referencing character, and rate of change of this medium raise these issues to a new importance. The Web is both an information archive and a social network; as people move within this space, their interaction with ideas and information is, at the same time, an interaction with other individuals or groups. Credibility is not just one thing, and judgments about it bring in considerations that are not only issues of assessing knowledge claims. At this point credibility in a media presentation can be seen to take on an ethical dimension.

The notions that credibility judgments can be made on objective criteria, that they only involve considerations impinging on the truth or falsity of information all neglect the underlying characteristic of the networked environment in which these judgments are being made. The social dimensions of this network always entail elements of judgment and value. Finally, the best safeguard is to check one's judgments against the judgments of a community with which one has confidence or choosing that reference on the basis of issues of respect and trust, as a matter of expertise. The numerous media presentations found in the form of television and the Web have many different concepts that can be analyzed in the form of their design and ethical relationships.


Bruce, B.C. (2000), "Credibility of the Web: Why we need dialectical reading," Journal… [read more]

Wall Street Journal News Establishing Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,160 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


(HAL) subsidiary and another man with defrauding the U.S. military on refueling tankers used at a Kuwait airport." On March 18, 2005, Russell Gold asserts, "A former Halliburton Co. procurement manager in Kuwait was arrested Wednesday and charged with defrauding the U.S. government of $3.5 million."

It is without a shadow of doubt that the media plays a huge role in a democracy because the people listen to what the media has to say. Therefore, corporations should engage with the media in a proactive manner so that it can counter any threat before it fetches trouble. It is indisputable that the power of money is an extremely effective weapon, which can turn the media's eyes blind and their ears deaf towards business ethics. However, this does not mean that Halliburton is engaged in unethical method, but it simply means that the company needs to use its resources to counter the negative propaganda against its interests and the interests of its shareholders.

Strategic Solution for dealing with this conflict

Before creating a strategy, it is important to note that Halliburton is fine financially, its profits have been in a strong position, and the corporation has done a splendidly in managing the dynamic market. "Halliburton Co. (HAL) said it expects capital spending for 2005 of $650 million, according to the company's annual report filed Tuesday with the Securities and Exchange Commission (Marc A. Wojno, March 1, 2005)."

Therefore, the problem that needs to be tackled in related to its public relations department. The company has to project itself in a way that tells the people that it believes in principals and not profits and at the same time counter the liberal media in an effective way.

Morton Winston (2002) asserts that globalization has not transformed the mannerism of broadcasting and printing news. Therefore, a deliberate divide-and-rule strategy can be adopted by Halliburton so as to weaken the argument of the liberal press. If Halliburton can productively divide the liberal media by promoting them as either "trustworthy" or "extremist" groups, the company can utilize the discrepancy as the foundation for public relations operations planned to sidetrack and redirect the condemnation and unnecessary exposure of their policies.

Simultaneously, the company should also look towards creating affiliations with Non-governmental-organizations (NGO's) because such affiliations can turn out to be a good strategy to further divide the movement against Halliburton as it will create a good image towards the American people.

Finally, Halliburton should also look to make profound efforts to show its business ethics and its resolve to stick to its principals by consistently instructing the company's workforce with new courses, by providing them with the latest equipment, recognizing and functionalizing accomplishment standards, conveying their values and principles to their dealers and business associates, and executing internal assessments on a consistent basis.

The fact that there is such a great range of procedures and strategies that can be creatively produced and productively executed to fit the nature of propaganda being carried out in the media, it… [read more]

How Newspapers Attract Readers Term Paper

Term Paper  |  9 pages (2,416 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … decline of newspaper readership. The author examines the statistics, the attempt by newspapers to attract readers by turning to sensationalism, and the opinions of experts in the field about how to increase readership. The author then proposes an ethical solution to the problem that avoids sensationalism but still provides the readers with what they want.

Across the nation,… [read more]

Media Conglomeration Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,115 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Media Conglomeration: A Monopoly

While it may seem that continuous government deregulation of the telecommunications industry would result in increased competition, the opposite is actually true. The telecommunications industry has instead seen an accelerating wave of corporate mergers and acquisitions that have created a small number of multi-billion-dollar media conglomerates (National Vanguard Books, 2004). The biggest media conglomerates are rapidly growing by consuming their competition, almost tripling in size during the 1990s. As a result, it is likely that one of these megamedia companies produces or distributes the majority of television shows, radio programs, movies and print publications.

The largest media conglomerate is AOL-Time Warner, which was formed when AOL acquired Time Warner for $160 billion in 2000 (National Vanguard Books, 2004). Prior to the merger, AOL was the largest Internet service provider in the United States, and it will now be used as an online platform for the content from Time Warner. Time Warner was the second largest of the international media companies when AOL bought it. The second-largest media conglomerate today is the Walt Disney Company, which includes several television production companies (Walt Disney Television, Touchstone Television, Buena Vista Television) and cable networks with more than 100 million subscribers in total.

The largest three companies in television network broadcasting used to be ABC, CBS, and NBC (National Vanguard Books, 2004). With the consolidation of the media empires, these three are no longer independent companies. Six mega-corporations (AOL Time Warner, Disney-ABC, GE-NBC, Viacom-CBS-Westinghouse, Bertelsman, and Murdoch's News Corp-Fox) control the majority of media outlets in television, cable, radio, newspapers, magazines, and the Internet (Kidd, 2001). As a result, they also control the majority of information, artistic and cultural expression, and public discussion in the United States.

According to Bagdikian (2000): "In 1983, fifty corporations dominated most of every mass medium and the biggest media merger in history was a $340 million deal.... [I]n 1987, the fifty companies had shrunk to twenty-nine.... [I]n 1990, the twenty-nine had shrunk to twenty three.... [I]n 1997, the biggest firms numbered ten and involved the $19 billion Disney-ABC deal, at the time the biggest media merger ever.... [in 2000] AOL Time Warner's $350 billion merged corporation [was] more than 1,000 times larger [than the biggest deal of 1983]."

The monopoly on today's media is controlled by these enormous conglomerates that have secured monopoly control of the majority of our media landscape (McChesney and Nichols, 2002). Because of the monopoly, the traditional idea of a free press, where anyone can launch a medium and participate in the industry, is shattered.

Many people mistakenly believe that the United States' media system developed naturally through "market forces (Free Press, 2005)." While market forces had a role to play in shaping today's media, these market forces only act within a set of "ground rules" that are constantly changing. Our media system is the direct result of government policy that determines how the media operates. The key players that make the rules include the following: "the Federal Communications Commission… [read more]

Media and Communication in Canada Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (3,166 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Media and Communication in Canada

Description of media system

In the history of mass media in Canada there has been a position that it has been susceptible to the dominance of American media. "Canadian mass media began from a need for national communication and yet now serves as a fragmenting, regionalizing entity." (the Bonding and Fragmenting of Canada - in… [read more]

Challenges Facing College Newspapers Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (2,627 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … status of a newspaper. The newspaper is an indispensable part of the media which is used by various people and organizations throughout the world to have links with the public to spread information and news. Other than the newspapers, we have radio, television and Internet for disseminating information to the world. Till the recent past printed newspapers were… [read more]

Media Violence Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,257 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Media Violence

The American Psychiatric Association exclaims, "The debate is over. Over the last three decades, the one overriding finding in research on the mass media is that exposure to media portrayals of violence increases aggressive behavior in children." In addition to the correlation between exposure to violent media and aggressive behavior, the APA asserts: "that exposure to depictions of violence causes desensitization and creates a climate of fear." However, causation is difficult to ascertain, as sociological and psychological studies in the area of media violence can generally only suggest correlation, not causation. Nevertheless, children are exposed to countless violent imagery, imagery that has become increasingly realistic over the past several years due to advancements in technology. Not only do movies and television shows glorify violence, but children's video games and even the music they listen to contribute to a culture of violence. There is no doubt that the United States does harbor a culture of violence. Incidents such as school shootings draw the public's attention increasingly to the role of violent media: its potential effects on developing minds and its potential effects on the society at large. If violence in media causes increased aggression, then some public policy changes are in order. Reputable studies do show that violence in the media can prompt aggressive behavior toward others or themselves, even when the portrayals of violence are fictional.

Fictional violence is in fact one of the primary ways young children and adolescents are exposed to violence in the media. Forty-six percent of all television violence may take place in children's cartoons, and children's programs are also highly unlikely to depict the long-term consequences of violence; rather, they portray violence in a humorous fashion most of the time ("Facts about Media Violence"). Cartoons are not the only culprit for promoting the notion that violent behavior has no consequences. The glamorization of violence by popular music stars also contributes to a growing sense among youth that violence is acceptable, even desirable behavior. Certainly such skewed and outright false ideas must have negative consequences on the individual psyche and the collective psyche of Americans.

Gerard Jones would probably disagree. In his book Killing Monsters, Jones describes how and why children might in fact need fantasy violence in order to develop constructive coping skills. Fantasy violence might help children master their psychological and social realities, make sense out of complicated emotions like anger and sadness, develop self-confidence, self-efficacy, and a sense of humor. Moreover, fantasy violence especially as its depictions have evolved over recent years, might be highly beneficial for young girls. One of the book chapters in Killing Monsters, "Girl Power," demonstrates the relevance of physically strong female action heroes, and how such female action heroes can tremendously boost the self-esteem of young girls. Female action heroes, even and perhaps especially when they use violence to accomplish their goals, can help girls overcome the otherwise gender-biased tendencies within traditional media and within the overall culture.

Still, in light of psychological and sociological evidence,… [read more]

Marshall Mcluhan Media and the Human Senses Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (2,254 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Marshall McLuhan

Media and the Human Senses

Marshall McLuhan contends that all media are extensions of the human senses. True to form, all media presented whether print, audio, visual, electronic or other are nothing more than expansions of our perceptions of the world in one form or another. Media provides the medium through which mankind can engage the senses, explore… [read more]

Media Manipulation Does the American Media Establishment Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (2,199 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Media Manipulation

Does the American media establishment consistently reflect and report the news fairly, objectively, factually, and in its entirety? The answer to that question, according to numerous sources, is "no" to fairness, "no" to objectivity, "no" to factuality, and "no" to the entirety. This paper will review and report the opinions of experts and journalists who have analyzed the… [read more]

Linguistics English Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,536 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … linguistics in American news. Specifically it will discuss the structure and function of headlines by examining their grammar and vocabulary. The paper will use headlines from Associated Press (AP) news content on a major Web site, compared with headlines from the news magazine Time. It will compare and contrast news headlines in two different formats and how they… [read more]

Mainstream Media vs. Ethnic Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (790 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Mainstream Media vs. Ethnic Media

On the front page of the New York Times online version, (Monday, June 12, 2006), the story receiving the most prominence was "Zarqawi Lived for 52 Minutes After Strike." The story was about the Iraqi al-Qaida terrorist who was killed last week by a bomb that was dropped from a U.S. fighter jet onto his hideout. "It was very evident he had extremely massive internal injuries," said Maj. Gen. William Caldwell, a U.S. military spokesperson in Baghdad. The Times is a hard-news, up-to-date internationally themed paper; and other front page stories were about a bomb that killed 13 members of a little Palestinian girl's family in the Gaza Strip; about the United Auto Workers having to give in on their demands to help "rescue" the auto industry

Another top story in the Times' explained that the 3 prisoners who committed suicide at the U.S. military prison in Cuba, "tried to conceal themselves in their cells" behind their washed laundry. The front page had a report on the Tony Awards (Broadway shows); the Arts on the front page featured the woman who wrote the book The Vagina Monologues. The Mets and Yankees, the World Cup, and the NBA Finals made up the sporting news on the front page.

On the front page of the New York Post (Monday, June 12, 2006), the top story is about a "Hell Ride" in a taxi; one girl was killed trying to jump out of a taxi that was driving out of control; three other girls in the cab were injured. The Post is a "tabloid" newspaper, using emotion and weirdness to get people to buy the paper. Also on the front page, under the "Gossip" section, readers learn that dolphins are "ultra-horny," and that Angelina Jolie had some sexy pictures taken when she was young. In order to read about the horny dolphins, an online reader has to register ("It's free!") as a member of the Post. The Post does have sports (the Mets' sweep of Arizona was on the front page), food, culture, and opinion, but the paper is mainly sold on big splashy headlines, provocative entertainment stories sort of like "National Inquirer" uses.

The New York Beacon is a more serious newspaper, geared toward stories and issues that relate to the African-American community, and the online version has daily news, but it…… [read more]

Media Corporations and Consumers Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (385 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Media conglomerates have resulted in monotony in news and in entertainment. When one corporation owns a series of seemingly independent news sources, editorial decisions start to reflect the political agenda of the CEOs. Self-censorship can result, keeping the public in the dark about key political issues or events. For example, one of the newspapers owned by a conglomerate might hire an upstart reporter who wishes to write a weekly piece about the abuses at Guantanamo Bay, but the corporate heads of the conglomerate, in collusion with the Bush administration, pressure the paper's editor to refuse the reporter's request. The editorial boards answerable to the media conglomerate corporation end up including and excluding the same information. As a result, all the news sources owned by a conglomerate will end up delivering the same basic information even though they may appear different. Political pressure is not the only reason media conglomerates inhibit freedom of expression and heterogeneity in the media. Advertisers also pressure the media to maintain content standards, under the threat of spending their advertising dollars elsewhere. If Ford or Budweiser don't want their ads placed during a documentary on Bin Laden, then…… [read more]

Communications in Spite of the Wide Range Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (392 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0



In spite of the wide range of news sources available on the Internet, I still get at least half of my current event information from television and occasionally from print media. I usually consult Internet news sources for more in-depth information or for immediately up-to-date headlines about an event unfolding at the moment. For entertainment I rely equally on Internet and television, because each offers a unique experience. The Internet permits live gaming, chatting with real people, and the chance to simply browse the Web for interesting sites or shopping. Television, on the other hand, offers full-length movies,-hour-long dramas, and half-hour shows that I like to watch for pure entertainment.

Although I have no one favorite broadcast media of mass communication, I often watch CNN. Their approach is what is increasingly commonly called "infotainment." Through sensational images, sounds, and graphics, CNN tries to make the news an entertainment product. Their anchors and prime time hosts are like celebrities: Larry King and Anderson Cooper. Points-of-view tend to be tame and mainstream: CNN dislikes controversy and plays it safe by not challenging viewers with alternative points-of-view on touchy subjects like the war in Iraq. As a result,…… [read more]

Learning Journal: Media Mistakes Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (354 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Learning Journal: Media Mistakes

Even though many people believe that the media can do no wrong, and that it reports everything objectively, this is actually not the case. Instead, the media is made up of people, and those people can do many different things wrong, either because they have misunderstood what they were told or because they chose to deliberately misrepresent the facts. I have personally noticed a media mistake that I felt affected me specifically when I saw an Internet news story, from a reputable source, dealing with a medical problem that I have. Based on what I know about this problem, I know that what was said in the story could be accurate in some cases, but was not necessarily accurate for all cases. Because of this, the information that I saw in that story upset me greatly, likely for no real reason other than the opinion of a researcher that was not even accurate.

A did not do anything to try to get the error changed, because I am not a licensed expert on…… [read more]

Mass Media Violence Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (508 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Mass Media Violence

The Impact of Mass Media Violence on U.S. Homicides by David Phillips (1983) describes how this author attempts to prove that mass media violence has an impact on aggressive behavior. To prove his point, Phillips chose to compare championship heavyweight prize fights for the period 1973-1978 with archived data of daily counts of U.S. homicides. His hypothesis was that these prize fights where violent behavior is rewarded had led to an increase in homicides.

Phillips performs a detailed time-series regression analysis on this data, correcting for secular trends, seasonality and various other extraneous variables. He found that immediately after the heavyweight championship prize fights homicides increased by 12.46% when there was widespread media coverage of the event. He found that the observed number of homicides rose by 11.127 after the average "publicized" fight, defined as discussed on the network evening news, and by only 2.8333 after the average unpublicized one. Further, Phillips found that there was a peak in homicides on the third-day after the boxing match.

More interestingly, murders of young white males increased after the defeat of a white boxer and murders of young black males increased after the defeat of a black boxer. This is what Phillips attributes to as victim modeling where imitation of behavior is taking place. Phillips suggests that seeing the behavior makes it more acceptable or at least introduces it as an option.

Phillips also discounted personal experience as being a factor in the increase in homicide by analyzing data on both domestic and…… [read more]

Keystone XL PR This Report Will Cover Book Report

Book Report  |  7 pages (2,919 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10


Keystone XL PR

This report will cover several different points of analysis and summary. First will be a summary of public relations and what those two words mean in a broad context. Second, the author will define and explain the different type of stakeholders as it pertains to an organization. Third, the author will explain the issue facing TransCanada as… [read more]

Canada Cultural Sovereignty the Weight Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (2,088 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 7


It is common that most people watch news to place themselves in the milieu of the current political interest. Having balanced news coverage is vital as it showed in 1995 elections. This balance keeps of any negativity within communities. In mass communication, symbolic elements during coverage are vital. Once icons reverberate differently in diverse cultures, it's likely to have key competing interpretations. The French speakers and English speakers are likely to have different interpretations especially in legitimate controversies, deviance, and shared values.

There have been cases where media has presented past issues and caused more damage to the people. An example of this case is during the wars. The attackers feel that those are bad memories whose intentions are to create hate among the people. Media should be able to give proper documentation, and explain every action that took place, and why it did. Germans have been held responsible for the Second World War despite the ancestors having been dead for many years. The present Germans feel the impact. The media should b clear on past events, and the current generation should not the sins of their ancestors. The media is hence a powerful tool that should calculate the impact of its news. In Canada, historical events are given importance in the French speaking schools.

For a better perceptive of media aspects, looking closely to the framing of key issues, persistent myths, icons, and symbols, and the history of both news and entertainment programs is vital. It is also important to accept the growing availability of cultural materials through globalization. The use of symbols and myths has changed over time and these analysis permits conclusion on the influence of modern media to the youth. A study agenda that comprises qualitative subject and reception analysis on a larger scale is vital.


Canada has two different language speakers who include the French and English speakers. This has brought about a split of cultural values with the French accepting the cultures more than the English speakers. Globalization is a requirement for each nation in order to allow transnational trades. Thnis has allowed Canada to operate with North American Free Trade agreement (NAFTA), World Trade Organization (WHO), and UNESCO. Media plays a big role in globalization, and as much as it has positive effects on the country's economy, it has a negative effect on cultural values, and religion. Media is a strong developmental tool, and if well applied, it has more good than evil. The government should however protect its cultural values by monitoring every event on media as well as training the youth on Information Technology and its impact on the society. The government should also re-package its culture while digitalizing it for better presentation. It should also revive the popular traditional methods of people's expression. All these are ways to protect the national culture with a legal protection on elosive or tangible cultures.

Works Cited

Balthazar, L. . Identity & Nationalism in Quebec. In James Littleton (Ed.), Clash of identities:

Essays… [read more]

Media Exposure in Body Image Research Paper

Research Paper  |  6 pages (1,740 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


When become part of the statistical analysis, the media exposure measures did not appear to have substantial connections to internalization of the thin suitable (projected idealized figures). Total TV exposure and dramatization exposure appeared to have considerable connections to internalization of the thin suitable however their effect appeared to be eclipsed by various other aspects. This outcome contributes to the concerns about the importance of total TV exposure vs. exposure to certain categories, and their association with girls' approval of slimness (projected idealized figures) as a social and cultural worth. Nonetheless, the absence of proof of a connection in between genre-based exposure and some thin-ideal truth shows needs to be seen thoroughly due to the manipulated nature of the exposure measures. The absence of a regular circulation for those seeing measures makes it tough to make conclusions about their relations with internalization of the thin suitable. Although general media exposure was not connected, a media connection appeared. Up contrast with media figures was the toughest media aspect connected to internalization of the thin perfect and its contribution to the model was equivalent to self-confidence. Nevertheless, generally talking, peer mindset towards slimness was the main aspect connected with internalization of the thin suitable.

This observation recommends the resonance could play a fundamental part in forming the mindsets that are associated…… [read more]

Hegemony in General Marxists Essay

Essay  |  10 pages (3,280 words)
Bibliography Sources: 8


1982). This notion assumes that ideological stances or positions are in effect a function of class positions such that the dominant class of the society also represents the dominant ideology of society. Marxists are in direct opposition to the idealist stance where consciousness itself is supreme and not dependent on class position. Marxists traditionally viewed ideology is a type of… [read more]

Fox News Research Paper

Research Paper  |  4 pages (1,160 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


25-26). While most of American political discourse is decidedly pro-war, conservatism throughout history tends to be more aggressively pro-war, and Fox News' content during the run-up to Iraq War reflected this fact.

Furthermore, Fox News was far less likely to challenge the untrue claim that Saddam Hussein was somehow tied to al-Qaeda, and was roughly tied with CNN in its "parroting" of phrases and concepts introduced by the Bush administration (Harmon and Muenchen, 2009, p. 25-26). An overarching deference to power is expected of most American media. Since CNN customarily reports with a more liberal bent, this study suggests that reporting bias may vulnerable to situational influence and temporal variance. The other findings in this study are in line with the perceived conservative bias of Fox News, as the successful selling of the Iraq War was a crucial goal of the Bush administration and the Republican Party. By not refuting the untrue assertion of a connection between Saddam Hussein and the terrorist attacks of September 11th, 2001, Fox News allowed one of the Bush administration's central justifications for the war go unchallenged.

A separate study comparing the reporting bias of CNN and The Fox News focused on the characterization and information reported about the Muslim Brotherhood, the leading political opposition group, during the Egyptian revolution and directly following Mubarak's resignation in January 2011 in Tahir Square (Glover, 2011). The research employed a content analysis of the television broadcast transcripts in order to understand the scope of the coverage and the discrepancies in reporting during the Egyptian crisis. (Glover, 2011) The analysis illuminated bias in both news channels, however, a higher frequency of exaggerated extremism was seen in reporting by the Fox News channel (Glover, 2011).

Research that analyzes the media coverage of the 2008 presidential primaries and election produced similar results, finding that Fox News appeared more willing "to cite outside polls [concerning a politician's approval rating] if they were damaging" to Democrats (Groeling, 2008, p. 655). This study was admittedly limited, as it only focused on each network's "flagship" show (which in the case of Fox News was determined to be Special Report), but it nevertheless bolsters the evidence of Fox News conservative bias, especially when taken in the context of other studies. Furthermore, this kind of content analysis is helpful when determining bias in the future, because it helps to demonstrate how bias can be revealed in more than just words; whereas the Iraq War study did find bias revealed through word choice, this later study found it the use of particular polls, demonstrating how media bias can course through nearly every facet of an organization without necessarily appearing blatant or intentional.

The studies mentioned above all looked to particular topics or issues in order to determine bias by looking for key words; thus, the Iraq War study examined words and phrases concerning the war, while the study of the presidential race examined the use of polls and how things were framed. Because this study is examining the… [read more]

Media World &amp Culture Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (780 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


As a result, the media adopted discriminatory and discretionary tendencies that have led to unstable and unpredictable political and economical environments (Christensen, 2007). For example, in Turkey, a culture of "authoritarian political culture; a delayed development of democratic and civil society institutions; and a breakdown in the 'horizontal solidarity' of journalists…" (Christensen, 2007), has developed. This has created bias journalism.

Weddings in the U.S. are a large industry spending $50 to $70 billion every year. The media in the U.S. has not been blind to this fact. The numerous bridal magazines on the stands evidence this. Wedding galas are common especially in the film industry in Hollywood and features in many reality TV programs such the 'A Wedding Story' show that depicts the perfect wedding theory. This trend, however, has painted the wedding as an expensive affair and created the impression that an expensive wedding is the only way for any single woman to experience romance and eternal bliss in marriage. Therefore, it is apparent that the media are purveyors of attitudes, ideals and concepts in many aspects of human culture including marriage. Moreover, the media give informal instructions to society regarding conduct and etiquette especially concerning weddings. It is also a political and economic tool, and act as a bridge between information dissemination and merchandising for business advantage (Engstrom, 2008).

The propaganda model gives an in depth analysis of the effects of power and wealth on the choices made by the media. As such, it reflects how money and influence can determine the new and information that is broadcasted on the media. This model examines the filters, which are generally categorized; firstly, the ownership, profit interest and wealth of the owner of the mass media channel. Secondly, the dependence of the media fraternity to the state as a source of information, and therefore can be provided with skewed information. Thirdly, advertising deals, which generally provide media houses with the much needed income. The fourth category uses "flak" as disciplinary measure for media houses seen to be deviating from control measures put in place. Finally, developing anticommunism campaigns to control the media is also a strategy used by those with power. All these elements work in conduit with each other to enable filtering and as spread propaganda specially designed to fool the public or pursue other political and…… [read more]

Media Worlds These Four Readings Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (580 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


The interconnection of personal communication ultimately rises up, on the societal level, to vast new amounts of information. But the Internet does not help in terms of correlation or transmission of information. In some sense, the democratizing function of the Internet makes it harder to correlate valuable information with nonsense -- to take one example that fits with Lasswell's function of communication as "correlation" between different components of society, we might point to the phenomenon of "Morgellons." This demonstrates the power of ordinary people (laymen) to organize socially around a perceived epidemic disease, which professional people (medical doctors) have declared is a fictional and hysterical epidemic -- an epidemic of people who read too much on the Internet and allow their imaginations to run away with them. The greater ease of communication -- even between these two sectors of society (laymen and medical doctors) -- does not resolve the question. And finally, the Internet is in its infancy so it is hard to see in what way it can allow for the transmission of social inheritance -- instead it seems to allow for the widespread communication of misinformation, and does not seem to have given anyone the notion that things of permanent value will come from it, which will be necessary to communicate to future generations. Nonetheless, the Internet is changing things rapidly -- and has a tremendous influence that could hardly have been guessed at by Lasswell, or the other writers under consideration in this week's readings.

For example, Lazarsfeld Berelson and Gaudet (1944) examine the effects of the most obviously available mass media in the U.S. Presidential election campaign of 1940 -- radio and the printed… [read more]

GOP Primary Republican Primary Video Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (445 words)
Bibliography Sources: 8


Anna Maria Island: Winning News Media, Inc.). Two such scholarly sources have been provided (0214_campaign_tech_west-(approved_scholarly-resource).pdf, and 0313_youtube_salmond-(approved_scholarly-resource).pdf) for use.

- Researcher/writer will need to include peer reviewed journal articles as well.


- Researcher/writer will need to use APA style in text citations and bibliography.


Researcher/writer must cite all of your sources -- " newspapers, YouTube videos, journal articles, books, TV programs, etc.

An in text citation does not carry through several paragraphs or an entire page.

- The paper must include graphs and tables.

- The paper must include the following:

Title Page with Picture/Graphic

Introduction and Conclusion

Headings (throughout paper)

• Some examples of headings for this assignment would be: Ads, Interviews, Polling Data, etc.

Proper Grammar and Spelling

• Papers with misspellings and poor grammar will not be accepted o Graphs, Tables, Graphics, Etc.

• Must be numbered, titled, and sourced o APA Style Bibliography and In Text Citations

Page numbers o Paragraphs -- " This means use proper paragraph form. Indent the first line of a paragraph, etc.

Times New Roman Font - 12pt

Double Space with all margins set at 1… [read more]

Media as the Linguistic Discourse Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  3 pages (971 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10


There should also be brief mention/description of 21st century culture, the digital media revolution, and comparisons of current culture to the cultures of prior centuries, whether in a specific or general sense. This section of the research would introduce the topic and set the stage for the literature review and argumentation for the hypothesis.

Following this section(s) would be the literature review. The aim would be to be exhaustive, yet succinct and concise. The author is pleased with the quality and level of relevancy of the sources located; thus, a sincere effort would be made to reference each source in an effective manner. The literature review of the research will consist of summary, analysis, evidence of implementation in the real world (hopefully), and reference to the hypothesis. The literature reviews will also reference issues addressed or described in the opening sections regarding contemporary cultural context.

The latter portion of the research would be the proof in support of the hypothesis. This is where the highest concentration of original thought will be. There will be intentional use of the literature to support and demonstrate the validity of the hypothesis. The conclusion would suggest other areas of research, the limits of the present research, and the further advocacy for the endeavor of media discourse analysis on a grander scheme. Whether rebel or drone, whether liberal or conservative, regardless of class, gender, or sex, media literacy is necessary to function in the 21st century. Whether used for recreation, business, or academic reasons, media literacy is crucial to participate in the global community and technological society. The paper will conclude with reflections and predictions for possible future scenarios or future forms of media as well as reflect upon the influential relationship between media discourse analysis and media objects.


Chen, L. (2004) Evaluation in Media Texts: A Cross-Cultural Linguistic Investigation. Language in Society, 33(5), 673 -- 702.

Chigana, A., & Chigana, W. (2008) Mxit It Up in the Media: Media Discourse Analysis on a Mobile Instant Messaging System. The South African Journal of Information and Communication, 9, 42 -- 57.

Constantinou, O. (2005) Multimodal Discourse Analysis: Media, modes and technologies. Journal of Sociolinguistics, 9(4), 602 -- 618.

Gamson, W.A., Croteau, D., Hoynes, W., & Sasson, T. (1992) Media Images and the Social Construction of Reality. Annual Review of Sociology, 18, 373 -- 393.

Koller, V. (2005) Critical discourse analysis and social cognition: evidence from media discourse. Discourse Society, 16(2), 199 -- 224.

Maiorani, A. (2011) Reading movies as interactive messages: A proposal for a new method of analysis. Semiotica 187, 1(4), 167 -- 188.

Popp, R. (2006) Mass Media and the Linguistic Marketplace: Media, Language, and Distinction. Journal of Communication Inquiry, 30(1), 5 -- 20.

Quail, C., & Larabie, C. (2010) Net Neutrality: Media Discourses and Public Perception. Global Media Journal -- Canadian Edition, 3(1), 31 -- 50.

Scroder, K.C. (2007) Media Discourse Analysis:…… [read more]

Censorship and Freedom Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,874 words)
Style: Harvard  |  Bibliography Sources: 8


Another current context in which media plays a role in conflict and mediation is that of the Israel/Palestine conflict. In this context, it is believed that media exacerbates socio-political divisions and fails to function as a positive influence on the larger society affected or interested in the ongoing events and perspectives (Evans, 2011). One problem, Evans (2011) suggests is the increasing variety of sources, which creates cultural fragmentation and discrepancies in discourse and understanding. In fact, Evans (2011) explores the major clash between fundamentalist and secular members of the same religion to show the drastic effect that media can have on people with highly similar ideologies. Whether in message or image, media is powerful and generally takes more time upholding the values of free press and expression than worrying about its effect on the larger context.


ABC News. (2009). Retrieved from http://abcnews.go.com/

Alley, R. (2010). Fiji Under Bainimarama. Journal of Pacific History, 45(1), 145-153. Retrieved from Academic Search Premier.

Dikotter, Frank. (1996, Winter). Culture, race, and nation: The formulation of national identity in 20th century China. International Affairs, 49(2), 592.

Evans, M. (2011). Exacerbating social cleavages: The media's role in Israel's religious-secular conflict. Middle East Journal, 65(2), 235-251.

Fahmy, S., & Emad, M. (2011). Al-Jazeera vs. Al-Jazeera: A comparison of the network's English and Arabic online coverage of the U.S./Al-Qaeda conflict. International Communication Gazette, 73(3), 216-232.

Frank Bainimarama. (2010). Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, 6th Edition, 1. Retrieved from Academic Search Premier.

Fiji's High Commission. (2011). Retrieved from http://www.fijihighcommission.org.uk/about_2.html

Field, Michael. (2009). Fiji censorship dangers revealed. Retrieved from http://www.stuff.co.nz/world/south-pacific/2396860/Fiji-censorship-dangers-revealed.

Hassid, Jonathan. (2008). China's contentious journalists: Reconceptualizing the media. Problems of post-Communism, 55(4), 52-61.

Hughes, C. (2011). Reclassifying Chinese Nationalism: The geopolitik turn. Journal of Contemporary China, 20(7), 601-620. Retrieve from Academic Search Premier.

Kymlicka, Will. (1995). Multicultural citizenship: A liberal theory of minority rights. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Perlez, Jane. (1997). Serbian media is one-man show. The New York Times. August 10.

Puppet show. (2009). Economist, 390(8627), 44. Retrieved from Academic Search Premier.

Samoa Observer. (2011). FIJI: Censors muzzle union voices over industries decree. Retrieved from http://www.pmc.aut.ac.nz/pacific-media-watch/fiji-censors-muzzle-union-voices-over-industries-decree-7617?ScoopSrc=pacific_media_watch.

Shuhua, Dai. (2010). A balancing act between…… [read more]

American Political Parties Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (2,877 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10



Additionally, viewers seek information that confirms what they already believe. Bernhardt et al. (2) quote Posner "… they want to be confirmed in their beliefs by seeing them echoed and elaborated by more articulate, authoritative and prestigious voices. So they accept, and many relish, a partisan press." Bernstein adds that people hear what they want to hear. "No one… [read more]

Brian Williams, a Network News Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,158 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


His attempt to tie democracy to limited media access is rather ironic, real democracy (according to America's Founding Fathers) includes the right to free speech, and to practice that speech wherever and whenever we feel like it.

That freedom of speech also applies to the ability to listen or not listen to network news anchors who think they have all the answers, and it includes those neighborhood social experts who wish to espouse the latest neighborhood happenings to friends and neighbors. The opportunity to click a switch and be rid of Brian Williams (or to not even have him on in the first place) is the true freedom of speech, and it is exercised every day by millions of people, not only in America, but around the world. Sadly, Brian denigrates the fact that there is a "treasure trove of video: adults juggling kittens, ill-fated dance moves at wedding receptions, political rants delivered to camera" that is causing a mass migration to the internet, and away from network television. If it were not so ironically sad, it would actually be quite humorous. Brian does get one thing straight and that is that online accessibility to those items mentioned above (and millions of other items as well) does exist to "fill a perceived need." One could question why that need is perceived in the first place; could it be because the networks and their high and mighty anchors failed to fill it?

Steve, on the other hand, does not think that it is all about him. He writes his article as if he is a journalist, oh yeah, he is. Perhaps that is the difference between writing articles that can be hacked to pieces by discerning editors, and reading 30-second soundbites into a camera. One reporter knows that the story is what is most important, while the other thinks that it is the reporter that is what should take precedence. Brian seems to believe the words that he wrote "we've raised a generation of Americans on a mantra of love and the importance of self as taught by brightly colored authority figures with names like Barney and Elmo" do not also pertain to him, when ironically enough, he is the perfect example of the problem he effaces.

Brian writes that "today everyone gets celebrated, in part to put an end to the common cruelties of life that so many of us grew up with" but his words belie his true feelings; he is not being celebrated, and that has got to be galling to a man of such noted importance.

Both men wrote of the open accessibility to the web and its meaning for future generations. Steve accepts the fact that individuals are going to be more concerned with what affects them the most, and what affects them the most is likely going to entail what takes place on a local front, rather than on the national front. Brian has yet to come to grips with the reality that he may… [read more]

Media Influence in the Bu Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,641 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


In another part of her article O'Brien presents the following statement about BSL-4 labs, "Furthermore, research sometimes focuses on engineering weaponized organisms, making them even more deadly. These facilities test diseases known to cause epidemics and kill thousands." Although it is true that during part of her article she does touch upon some of the safety procedures and regulations involved during testing, she fails to report on the very low level accidents that have actually occurred in BSL-4 during several decades of testing. Using phrases like the ones above tend to scare people, and when people are scared views and perceptions become skewed.

Reporters try to inform people on current events while at the same time providing a service that is invaluable to some. They must however, attempt to provide information that is more complete and that covers all aspects of an issue. Although it is understood, that it is sometimes impossible for them to cover all aspects, they should at least attempt not to cloud the judgment of readers with scare tactics. Many of these media reports don't actually cover the positives that relate to the creation of a BSL-4 facility. They do not address the benefits that can result from conducting this type of research and if they do, they overshadow them with phrases and words that have very negative connotations and associations. If our government were caught unprepared in the event of a Bioterrorist attack or widespread virus infection, these same media outlets would be outraged and they would be asking: why were we not prepared for these horrible events?

Works Cited

"Angles: A Biosafety Leven 4 Facility in Boston: A Threat of Epidemic or a Defense Against Bioterrosism? By Janice O'Brien." MIT. Web. 03 Mar. 2011. .

Hernandez, Gabrielle. "BU Biosafety Lab Ignites Critiques." Tufts Daily. Web. 03 Mar. 2011. .

Le Duc, James W. "Framework for Leadership and Training of Biosafety Level 4 Laboratory Workers." Emerging Infectious Diseases 14.11 (2008): 1685-688.…… [read more]

Power of the Media Few Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (911 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


While the media serves to educate and inform the public, it also seeks to make a profit. In recent years, several of the most highly rated movies, television shows, and video games have been excessively violent, i.e. "Jackass," "WWF Smackdown," etc. By continuing to advertise and show these movies, television shows, and video games, the media arguably condones and promotes violence and sexual behavior, both explicitly (by showing the violent and sexually explicit shows) and implicitly (by continuing to air shows that are highly sexual and violent).

While the media arguably condones and promotes violence and sexual behavior, it also curbs (or attempts to) violence in many ways. First, the media has continued to issue and abide by "parental warnings" for movies, music, video games, and television shows. Shows that contain events that individuals are likely to simulate (i.e., "Jackass" and "WWF Smackdown") have warnings before they air stating that individuals should not attempt to duplicate these stunts at home as they are highly dangerous. Next, the media has aired and publicize numerous public service announcements regarding drugs, sexually transmitted diseases, and violence and ways individuals may act in order to prevent becoming a victim of violence. Likewise, the media has aired numerous specials regarding high-profile incidents of violence (i.e. school shootings, juvenile crime) as well as the debate over sexually explicit and violent rap lyrics and movies. In doing so, the media is balancing its role as an educator and informer with its role of entertainer.


The media, like most things in life, is a double-edged sword. On the one hand, the media seeks to educate and inform individuals and society, both about mundane topics (i.e., the day's news and weather) and more serious topics (i.e., crime rates, political woes, the stock market). In conjunction with its role as an educator and informer, the media also serves as an entertainer, informing the public about the latest celebrity news as well as producing movies, television shows, and video games that allow individuals to "escape" from the monotony and stress of their everyday work and interpersonal lives. There is no clear-cut, simple way for the media to refrain from promoting violence or to simply air shows that condemn violence. In order to find a balance, the media must retain its First Amendment rights while following rational ethical guidelines (i.e., not televising overtly sexual or violent acts such as live executions, sexual orgies, etc.). By doing so, the media will be acting responsible while earning a profit and individuals may be educated as well as entertained.

Works Cited

Morgan, Joan. "From Fly-Girls to *****es and Hos."… [read more]

Students Come and Go Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (846 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


I also took advantage of other valuable resources in the College of Communication as an on-air reporter for WVUA for more than eight months. In addition, I worked as an assistant producer for the Center for Public Television. I've spent so many hours at Reese Phifer it seems like my second home. I have learned that versatility is also an essential aspect of a career in this field. I was a radio anchor/reporter by day, a TV reporter by night, and I managed to fit in 20 hours a week working for CPT. To me, the ability to have a first-class education and relevant work experience are the keys to success, along with the personality traits associated with anybody who deals with the public.

After Graduate School, I would like to use my Masters Degree in Advertising and Public Relations to work in Public Relation or Media Relations at a college or university. Among my strengths are that I am goal oriented, ambitious, organized, and self-motivated. In working so prominently with people during my tenure here, I realized that I work extremely well with all types of people and personalities. I feel confident that I possess the necessary tools and work ethic to represent a college or university to its utmost standards.

The only detriment on my candidacy for the APR Masters Program is my GRE score. However, my score does not reflect my capabilities of doing well in the program. Throughout college I have never earned a grade below a "B." I feel that this serves as a better barometer for the type of student who will be working in such a demanding field. I feel that my grade point average better reflects my work ethic and organizational skills than a test which is taken over just a few hours.

My reasons for choosing the University of Alabama's APR Masters Program are simple. The APR program is one of the best in the state and it is something that I am quite familiar with. I feel that by going out into the workforce with a Masters Degree from this program would show that I am capable of working through an arduous program to achieve a well-respected degree. The communication department offers a vast amount of resources for students to gain an abundance of experience and knowledge. I feel that my overall attitude towards life, my dedication to education, and my past academic success makes me an extremely viable candidate for your program. I sincerely look forward to…… [read more]

Race in Today's Mass Media Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (715 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Other shows have failed miserably - like All American Girl- Margaret Cho's short-lived sitcom. Asian and Latino roles have been even fewer with only a few shows entertaining them into the permanent line-up. Suddenly Susan, had the wise-cracking suave magazine photographer, Luis (comedian Nestor Carbonell), while Will & Grace have Rosario, Karen's housekeeper, an occasion supporting role played by Shelley Morrison. While both Luis and Rosario are far from 'ignorant', there is a hint of stereotyping in their roles through the seasons.

Arguably, some of the racism in mass media, doesn't just fall onto television shows. Modern cinema has been guilty of perpetuating the social stereotypes and views of society regarding ethnicity and different cultures. In many cases, "mass media do not just shape whites' minds and imaginations. They socialize black and other non-white minds as well" (Hook, 1995). It has only been recently with directors like, Spike Lee, Ang Lee, and actor/director Denzel Washington have we seen a change in stereotyping and roles made available to 'non-whites'. In many cases, storylines and writers could be put to the test, in creating stories and characters that challenge our society's mode of thinking. This kind of commentary, as difficult as it is to see it unchanged by big studios, has fallen into the laps of the independent filmmakers who are choosing 'realism' over 'idealism'.

Mass media has a far more important role in society than it did 30, even 20 years ago. Today, television is in every household, and role-models are being showcased on the 'boob tube' every day. The greatest influence is not only on children and youth, but on the ongoing perceptions adults make regarding their own roles and abilities in our society. Television, especially, has a duty to portray equality as it should be, and not as we determine it to be. Racism is a vicious circle, and our minds have never be able to entirely assimilate the truth: that mass media mirrors society.


Hooks, B. Teaching Resistance: The Racial Politics of Mass Media

Killing Rage…… [read more]

Beauty Shaping Up to Fit Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,220 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


[Author not available, 2003(b)] A psychological study in 1995 found that three minutes spent looking at models in a fashion magazine caused 70% of women to feel depressed, guilt and shameful. These statistics support his argument and mine. Eric Stice at the University of Texas, Austin argues that due to the media "Most of us...think dieting is going to keep us thin, but there's never been a single study to date that has found that dieting as commonly practiced in the real world leads to weight loss."[Author not available, 2003(b)] Not only are the myths cultivated by the media exposed but the author gives innovative ideas on how to counter their effects practically through reassurance of the natural diversity in body shapes and sizes and awareness of differences between media image and reality.[Author not available, 2003(b)].

Media may feed weight problems of teen-aged girls" by Dr. Steve Salvatore is a small but explicit article that describes how very real the danger posed by media images is when imposed on young and malleable minds. Eating disorders were best tackled by raising self-esteem he agreed.

Girls like Marne Greenberg were interviewed as were experts such as Dr. Stanley Hertz of Long Island Jewish Hospital, who admit how frequent the use of vomiting or laxatives to control weight really is.[Salvatore, S, 1999] This article too, through description and examples derided the role of the media in proliferating false ideals and prioritizing physical attributes in its bid for higher ratings and more consumers. The author encourages young girls to evaluate themselves in ways other than weight. [Salvatore, S, 1999]The author has a tendency to quote expert opinions rather analyze the data himself but his message is clearly towards producing a more media savvy consumer as bulimia due to low self-image is a very real issue.


Women have been manipulating their body for centuries to fit a required and idealized image of feminine grace and beauty. The methods used have often been painful, uncomfortable and harmful. From body shaping clothes, to metal neck rings, foot binding, cosmetic surgery and dieting, females have been told by society how to improve their many 'imperfections.' Eating disorders have become a real menace amongst our young women,13% are diagnosed with anorexia, bulimia or some other form of binge eating every year.[Author not available, 2003(b)] Like Marne Greenberg, these women have a desire to be thin because the media has been telling them insistently, and continuously through psychological machinations that it is the sexier, more powerful and profitable way to be. Raising awareness of this issue and taking practical steps through support and education are ways needed to prevent this onslaught. That the media will have to adapt to growing public outcry is shown by the fact that many advertisers are already using women to monitor ads and give their feed-back [Author not available, 2003(a)]and slowly images of the real American women who is not flat as a board but is beautiful anyways, are making their presence felt.

References:… [read more]

Conglomerates / Media Ownership Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (723 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


For example, Jeff Chester of the Center for Digital Democracy says, "I'm not saying that everything is a horrible paranoid fantasy, but my sense is there's an implicit quid pro quo here." (Quoted by Roberts) These suspicions are further fueled by the readiness of these big media players to accept "government advice" on killing stories it does not like, and the fact that all of them have pivotal business pending in Washington.

These big media conglomerates have acquired enormous political power, as reflected in the Telecommunications Act of 1996 that was purported to be an attempt to spur competition, but resulted in exactly the opposite -- the trend of media mergers actually accelerating after 1996. What is more, with this Act, the Congress gave the digital spectrum ($40 billion to $100 billion worthy of public assets) to commercial broadcasters free of charge, which Senator John McCain referred to as "one of the greatest scams in American history." (Quoted by Duemler)

There is little doubt that the increasing dominance of the global media by a handful of large, influential conglomerates is a dangerous trend. It smothers the independent voice, undermines the quality of news, compromises informed choice and makes it easy for the government to manipulate and control the sources of information. The trend can only be reversed through greater public awareness of its negative consequences.

Works Cited

Bagdikian. Ben H. "Democracy and the Media." Extract from the book, "The Media Monopoly."

Beacon Press, 1997. April 7, 2003. [available at]


Duemler, David. "The Right to be Heard: Creating A Social Movement for the 21st Century" Social Policy Magazine, 2001. April 7, 2003. http://www.socialpolicy.org/recent_issues/WI00/duemler.html

Roberts, Johnnie L. "Big Media and the Big Story." Big Media and the Big Story. October 13, 2001. April 7, 2003. http://www.msnbc.com/news/642434.asp

The "story" here refers to the coverage of the 9/11 events and its aftermath

President's security adviser, advised the major networks to refrain from showing Osama bin Laden's unedited taped messages -- they duly obliged without a whimper

Media Ownership… [read more]

Discovery That a New York Reaction Paper

Reaction Paper  |  2 pages (647 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


After all, it is most notably the reputation of media sources that earn them their popularity. The New York Times is the best-selling newspaper in the country, not necessarily because they break the stories first, but because their reputation for accuracy is so well regarded. The Jayson Blair scandal completely contradicts everything the newspaper has worked for -- it strikes at the heart of the New York Times, which is its reputation.

The resignation by Blair and the two top editors is a step in the right direction. It marks the acknowledgment of fault by those running the newspaper, rather than blaming it simply on the rogue reporter. However, I still believe that the reputation of the New York Times is questionable, or at least not what it was prior to the Blair incident. This is not to say that more resignations are needed, or new policies need to be implemented. I am not sure what, if anything, can serve to immediately reverse the reputation of the paper. I suppose that if I had the responsibility for dealing with the incident, I would have been overly aggressive. I would have harped on the issue, day in and day out, and made sure the public was aware that all precautions were being taken to prevent a similar incident in the future.

There will definitely be some long-term ramifications, the degree of which I do not know. I think the Times will be a lot more stringent in their overview of writers. As to whether they will fully recover from the harm done to their reputation anytime soon -- I doubt it. I also think ramifications will go beyond just the New York Time's office. If this kind of incident could happen at such a prestigious newspaper, it could happen anywhere, and other media outlets will most likely follow similar preventative measures.

Works Cited

Kurtz, Howard. "More Reporting By Times Writer Called Suspect." Washington

Post.…… [read more]

Boys on the Bus Media Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,507 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


The Boys on the Bus reveals the sad truth about the media in the Kennedy, Nixon and McGovern years. It is a truth that evolves with the mores of our society. One cannot believe that it has changed significantly - except to become less herd- driven and more star- created.

If we accept the spin as fact and fail to inject a dose of humanity into the mix we will, indeed "get the leaders we deserve" and they will be as Kamber describes (6).

The media designs photo ops, stages appropriate crisis and reveals the tragic pain of life with the appropriate spin. It has become more important to film the scene that to tackle the shooter. Timothy Crouse should write a sequel and entitle it Popcorn at Five PM. This because the news is becoming just another television drama. Dan Rather looks real against the bombs blasting in the night sky of Iraq. If the take is not perfect, will they re-bomb the city to get the shot? I am sure one could devise the appropriate political argument to justify it.

Works Cited

American Heritage Dictionary Palm SII.…… [read more]

Media Violence Blaming Social Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (704 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Also, famed criminologist James Q. Wilson responds to the issue by commenting, "No doubt violence on television and in the movies heightens aggression among some people some of the time, but we have virtually no evidence that it affects the serious crime rate.'" Thus, crime rates incorporate other factors, especially economic conditions, which have a significant and nearly wholly accountable effect on violence in society.

Richard B. Felson's paper on "Mass Media Effects on Violent Behavior" outlines three points. He first states that media violence, in laboratory conditions, has an equal effect on antisocial behavior as it does on aggressive behavior. Second, contrary to general view regarding punishment in the media, he determines that the media is the most likely avenue to display punishment following violence. His final point is that criminals have a versatile tendency toward violent as well as non-violent acts. He concludes that, "exposure to television violence probably does have a small effect on violent behavior for some viewers," as a result of the media exposing them to forms of violent behavior they might not have already been considered. Thus, the multiple factors influencing criminal activity make it difficult to accurately determine the impact of the media as a mode for propagating crime.

The debate over violence in the media will continue, but considerations should be made to the legitimacy of the claims that the media influences the demonstration of violent acts in society. Felson's sound observation that some criminal acts might be stimulated by exposure to violent ideas portrayed in the media is consistent with generally observed evidence that the media influences violence, but at a lesser degree than often presented as economic influences are the primary factor influencing societal violence.


Felson, Richard B. (1996) "Mass Media Effects on Violent Behavior." Annual Review of Sociology, 22, 103-128.

Levine, Judith (2000). Shooting The Messenger: Why Censorship Won't Stop Violence. New York, NY: The Media Coalition, Inc.

Potter, W. James (2002). The 11 Myths of Media Violence. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage

Publications, Inc.

Rhodes, Richard (2000). "The Media Violence Myth." American Booksellers Foundation for Free Expression. Retrieved 25…… [read more]

Media Capital: Towards the Study Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (613 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Despite they myriad of developments which have come from Asian countries, there is still an underlying notion in the western world that many of the nations are underdeveloped in comparison to the west. This association leads to an undermining of the importance of the contributions from these places to the international culture. Films coming out of India's movie production center or those made in China for example are often considered lesser works compared to those produced in the United States or England. Their content is completely unrelated to the actual quality of these works, but the notion of Bollywood film or other Asian media as lesser is still subconsciously ingrained in the average person. People of the western former power majority, as a whole, need to overcome these antiquarian ideas or risk obsolescence from the world stage.

The weakness that I found in this piece was the sheer denseness and a propensity to deviate from a topic in a less than logical fashion. For example, instead of focusing on media and spatial flow, he enters into territory which has a decided political connotation which could be off-putting. An example of this is the section on outsourcing, which is a hot-button topic in many western countries out of the concern for job opportunities and putting funds back into national coffers. I was also confused when so much of Curtin's argument is, in his own words, removing the concept of binary in understanding media capitals yet he himself delineates specific locations which should be identified for promotion to this title. Is he, in a way, himself guilty of using a set criteria by which to indentify so-called worthy locations or should something quantitative determine which cities should be considered media capitals?

Works Cited

Curtin, Michael. "Media Capital: Towards the Study of Spatial Flows." International Journal of Cultural Studies,…… [read more]

Editing Environment Media Computer Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (695 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Basic Audio Mixing

a. Audio may be more important than video editing because of psychological impact on audience

b. Need to balance left and right channels

c. You can change audio levels in timeline in Media Player 7

d. Fix level and pan in bin, also adjust EQ and remove background noise.

7. Basic Effects

a. Quick transition tool allows for quick manipulation and positioning

b. Nesting: applies more than 1 effect at a time

c. Most powerful ways to use effects is to create a composite

d. Motion Effect editor lets you speed up/slow down clips

8. Basic Rendering and System Performance

a. Rendering effects means you are creating video files of the effects results

9. Basic Color Correction

a. Important to set luma since human eye is sensitive to accurate black & white

b. Switch to RGB cast to correct colors

c. Use Vectorscope to correct flesh tones

d. You can also set auto-color correct

10. Creating Titles with Avid Marquee

a. Marquee is application within Media Composer

b. Safe Title, Safe Action lines help ensure titles will fit on standard TV screen

c. Edit tool lets you reposition and resize

d. Save titles to bins to use in Media Composer

i. Put titles into their own track and patch source video to timeline vid.

e. To create roll/craw, click R. Or C

f. Auto-Titler lets you create multiple titles with the same template.

11. Capturing and Importing

a. You need to open bin to import

b. Under video mapping, choose 601SD or 709HD

c. You can link Avid Media Access (AMA) files without importing, transcoding, or copying

d. Keep files in native resolution by using Avid pan and zoom plugins

e. Frame Flex lets you work natively with hi res files


12. Managing Media

a. You can delete media clip, file, or both.

b. Media tool lets you delete across multiple bins/projects/drives

13. Outputting Media

a. Select project type

b. Select video quality full quality

c. Transcode options check resolution

d. Select Target bin/drives/resolution. Click…… [read more]

Media Violence and Youth Article Critique

Article Critique  |  3 pages (883 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1


Still, former violent beliefs and previous violence of students (followed by parents' physical violence) were also important factors that did not confirm part of this hypothesis. The researchers did well to confirm these facts by utilizing regression analysis for each of the dependent variables during the time the second assessment was administered. The results also showed that a dearth of warmth and well-being in school also contributed to violent media exposure (Hopf et al., 2008, p. 85).

The results of hypothesis two indicate that horror and violent films are the strongest contributor to violent behavior, but that electronic video games are the strongest contributor to delinquency. These results were predicated upon a composite score of early media violence as relating to the aforementioned two sources in addition to television violence. The researchers used path models to calculate these scores involving various goal variable delinquencies in which these three media were direct factors. What was effective about this process is that the researchers used multiple correlations that referred to the hierarchical stratum from the AU-TO-PFAD algorithm (Hopf et al., 2008, p. 87). The results confirmed hypothesis three and indicated that the strongest effect for the total of experiencing media violence after two years is delinquency, while violent beliefs and students' violence is affected as well. To determine this result the researchers aggregated the data for the three types of media violence into one, which seems logical considering the data available.


Given the statistical modeling that the researchers employed in this study, the results seem to have a fair amount of efficacy. Therefore, there were a couple of different strengths associated with this study. Although original research is always desirable, the fact that the study used previously attained research assisted with conducting a longitudinal study over a period of two years. This interval helped to ensure that there was little influence between the initial assessment and the second one. Additionally, the researchers isolated a number of variables and were able to combine them (when needed) effectively. Limitations included the fact that respondents had to essentially estimate how much television they had watched in the two weeks prior to filling out the assessment (which left room for ambiguity) and that the predictor variables -- age, parent's violence, gender, students' violence, media violence exposure -- were not completely independent of each other. Future research could investigate the correlation between delinquency and violent proclivities in juveniles. Because doing so would likely involve one or more dependent variables, a multiple linear regression model (either SAS or Stata) could be helpful determining the results.


Hopf, W.H., Huber, G.L.,…… [read more]

Media and the Role it Plays in Shaping Society Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (574 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Young people are most vulnerable to ideas that the media presents, as they are less experienced in filtering information and are thus more likely to be influenced as a consequence of being bombarded with certain concepts.

It is difficult to predict how things will be in the future when concerning the media and the way it will influence the general public. Even with the fact that media devices have progressed in accordance with latest technologies, people now seem to have more power over information they acquire as a result of the internet. Devices such as TV, newspapers, and radio are somewhat limited in the information they provide, but the internet provides users with the ability to only become acquainted with information they want to learn. While also having power over advertisements and news online, the media is also controlled by direct user involvement. Ideas like commentary sections on news providers play an important role in shaping the public's thinking, as the media now provides users with the ability to get actively engaged in reviewing news.

It is probable that the masses are going to continue to be influenced by the media in future decades, as people cannot avoid coming across ideas that have somewhat of an effect on their understanding of the world. While the media can also have a positive effect on the public as a result of presenting it with positive information and with news, it can also seriously undermine people's perception of society by having them put across deviant behaviors that are apparently beneficial for them.

Works cited:

Barker, M., & Petley, J. (2013). "Ill Effects: The Media Violence Debate." Routledge

Fourie, P. (2008). "Media Studies: Media history, media and society." Juta…… [read more]

Wag the Dog: How Accurate Was Its Depiction of American Political Life? Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,272 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


A story gains in sexiness and appeal simply by virtue of its simplicity and the overwhelming nature of the media's or a PR firm's coverage.

Another good example of this in recent history was the coverage of the ACA (Affordable Care Act) debate. Regardless of one's position on this issue, healthcare reform is a serious matter deserving of reasoned debate. But instead of covering the possible impact of the law or why it was passed, the news media focused on the political 'football' the law generated between the administration and the Republican-dominated Congress. The story became focused on who would 'win' this struggle vs. whether the law was valid or not or would really accomplish the goals it was supposed to accomplish. Instead, it was simply easier to focus on who won politically, versus a very complex law.

Even if the media has never been manipulated into covering a false war, the media is ultimately in the business of selling journalism, not disseminating facts. This means that breaking issues down into very simple terms and focusing on sexy rather than boring issues are in the media's interest and politicians are all too happy to go along with this. Ultimately, there is a mutually beneficial 'dance:' politicians focus on partisan talking points (like freedom or class warfare, depending on their political parties) and the media portrays debates in similarly black-and-white terms. No one's points-of-view are changed by this: they are merely solidified.

Q1. Name and describe 5 propaganda devices used in the movie (devices from "Propaganda -- all devices, 2014)

"Appeal to emotion:" To rally support for the war, the PR operative creates a scene in which a young, Albanian refugee girl rescues a beloved kitten from the rubble. Not only is the scene false, but even were it real, there is no inherent reason that the U.S. should intervene in Albania simply because a girl's little kitten was hurt. The image tugs on the heartstrings, little else.

"Astroturf:" This common technique is used in politics to lure people to support a program: advertising the program's popular support which is actually manufactured by corporate interests (Propaganda -- all devices, 2014). In this instance, the evils of the war in Albania are used to garner the public's support for the president and an image of popular support is created for the war that is actually generated by PR staff not 'the people.'

"Bandwagon:" The PR operatives create a fake war hero and stage a fake rally in his support. Bolstered by false images of support for the hero, real people fall in with the campaign because they do not want to be left out of displays of patriotism.

"The Big Lie:" The idea that the government would manufacture a war is so absurd to most members of the public they never question the reality of the conflict and the images they are seeing. The fact that it takes place in Albania, a land 'far, far away,' in the eyes of most Americans… [read more]

Public Relations Strategy Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,929 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


Public Relations Strategy

Public relations can be defined as a premeditated and continued effort to institute and maintain benevolence and mutual understanding between an organization and its audiences. This is a discipline which takes care of reputation, aspiring to earn understanding and support and influencing judgment and habit (Applegate, 2006). The most important element of public relations is communication thus… [read more]

Media Culture Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (798 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


¶ … Television and Cybergs to Morphing and Meaning

Media theorist Marshall McLuhan provides the genre with the famous statement "The medium is the message," from which other theorists have since commented upon based upon his or her own view of the media culture. Specifically, this paper shall examine two theorists: Roland Barthes of France and Donna Haraway of the United States. While each of these theorists have a unique perspective with regard to the effect of media and mediums in modern society, they do share a commonality in thought. In examining the role of television in the modern age, Roland Barthes sees the medium as "the metaphor" in that the medium by which a message is shared defines the meaning of the message itself. Donna Haraway seems to take this perspective a step further into the era of the computer. To Haraway, the medium is not only a "metaphor," the receiver of the media actually morphs into the medium itself. At first the two theorists seem incompatible, Barthes did not talk of cyborgs or Haraway describes media and its connection to feminist thought. However, the two are similar in that each finds the medium by which the message is sent to be powerful in and of itself. Powerful enough for Barthes for the medium to have an effect on the media's meaning; powerful enough for Haraway for the medium to become a part of the media's meaning and the recipient's identity.

According to Barthes, his theories seem to support the initial contention that "the medium is the message" because to him, the medium shapes and controls the scale and form of human association with a particular sign (Barthes). For example, in the process of reading, the medium requires the receiver of the message to interpret and to analyze. As a result of the didactic and interactive thought process required in the action of reading or by which the message is conveyed, the media itself takes on a greater, more poignant meaning with the meaning being enhanced by the actual mode of its delivery. In contrast, Barthes explained that the television is a merely passive activity by which the recipient of the message does not interact; instead, the recipient is a passive observer. The role of the recipient as a passive observer limits the impact that the media and, hence, the media can actually have. In such a sense,…… [read more]

User-Generated Content: We Are All Fans Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (620 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


¶ … User-generated content: we are all fans now." The article notes that the growth of social media sites like Facebook and Twitter has led to an unprecedented leap in user-generated content, and that is testing traditional media channels.

One of the author's key claims is that these social media sites are changing the way people think about media. The author writes, "The growth of the blogosphere, the impact of peer-to-peer music distribution and the explosion of YouTube in 2006 have all challenged the foundations of mass media industries" (Author, date, 221). They cite numerous studies and examples of media leaders changing their content to be more user friendly and to appeal to a wider audience because of this worldwide shift in society. They believe that everyone that uses the Internet now not only has the chance to interact with millions of others on a daily basis, they all have the ability to become "producers" and create their own content on the Web, both professionally and personally.

The author notes that much of the interaction online is devoted to "fan sites," that cater to the fan mentality of many users, and that Web sites are catering to these fans with more ways for them to interact with each other. They cite the example of a reality show where so many fans deluged the Web site after each show, that computer servers were unable to keep up with the demand. The author notes, "The desire to 'be part of it,' to continue the moment of the text through its constant reiteration and circulation has a great deal in common with a tradition of work in media and cultural studies around fan cultures" (Author, date, 222). The author feels that new media is breaking down barriers to media content and control, it will change the face of media, and in fact, they…… [read more]

Communication in the Case of ABC Online Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (609 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2



In the case of ABC Online Books, they have a good business model that will increase with popularity (due to the free shipping within 24 hours). However, in order for the site to be successful requires creating a media plan that will effectively promote it. To achieve this objective entails: examining the target audience and if there should be a focus on advertising vs. public relations opportunities. Once this takes place, it will provide the greatest insights as to how the company can be able to effectively promote itself.

Who is the Target Audience?

To determine the target audience requires asking a number of different questions to include:

Who are we trying to reach?

Where is the customer located?

What type of message is being communicated? (Trehan 140)

The people that are being targeted are those individuals and organizations that are interested in reading books. This will involve a large age demographic, by targeting individual / groups that range from children to senior citizens. At the same time, you would want to reach out to well educated individuals and low income families. The customers will be located all over the world (which means that a standard message will be created). When you put these different elements together, they are highlighting how there is a broad demographic that will serve as the target audience. As a result, all advertising and public relations efforts must focus on reaching out to each of the different groups in a variety of ways.

Should you spend more advertising dollars or focus more on public relations opportunities (which are free)?

ABC Online Books should use a strategy that will test the effects of: advertising and public relations. Where, they would place select ads and conduct various public relations activities, targeted towards the intended audience. You would then, monitor the…… [read more]

Apple the Advertising Plan for the Ivision Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (503 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2



The advertising plan for the iVision will be media-heavy and emphasize creativity. The iVision represents a new definition of what a media center can be -- CPU monitor, Internet browser, and manager of all household electronics -- and this is what we want to reflect in the advertising campaign. The campaign will feature the signature Apple visuals of the white backdrop and the Apple logo, and will emphasize the product's features and its innovation. Because the iVision will be linked to the iMac or MacBook, the actors used in the commercials for those products will be involved in phase one of the marketing, to introduce the new product. From there, however, the advertising will take on its own distinctive feel, with a focus on bringing together multiple media forms into a single unit.

The advertising will use media traditional to Apple -- print and television. The bulk of the money will be spent on the television spots, with the spots being featured on programs that appeal to the core demographic. The print spots will be well-placed in both mainstream newspapers and magazines as well as computer-focused print media as well. The online component of the advertising will also be heavy, focused on Apple-themed blogs and a number of other outlets, including outlets that focus on viral campaigns such as YouTube.

The budget for the advertising plan will run into the tens of millions. As with any major new product launch from Apple, saturation advertising will be key to introducing the…… [read more]

Separation of Transportation and Communication Understanding the Wired World That Emerges After the Telegraph Research Paper

Research Paper  |  4 pages (1,110 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2



The telegraph marked the first time that communication was separated from transportation. Prior to that point, the most significant long-distance communication relied on signals (fire, and later a form of semaphore) broadcast over long distances (Carey, 2010). These forms, however, were limited and thus the bulk of communication relied on transportation of messages. By removing the link between transportation and communication, the telegraph set in motion a new pattern for communication that remains in force today. Communication in our world -- and by extension the way that we view our world -- reflects a direct evolution of the concept of the telegraph.

Technological Evolution

The physical means of communication underwent a strong paradigm shift with the invention of the telegraph. In the early 20th century, two events occurred that provided the impetus for technological evolution. Bell invented the telephone in 1876 but it was only the early 1900s that it became a popular technology as consumers began to see the value in the device. The Titanic disaster in 1912 became the first major media event, and this brought to the public's attention the value of rapid communication. Had the boat that sunk not been the Titanic, a highly publicized vessel, the event may not have resulted in such a profound shift in the public's consciousness (Carey, 2010). By this point, the telephone was becoming more popular among consumers and soon superseded the telegraph as the primary means of distance communication. This is a critical shift, because the emergence of the telephone as a consumer item marked a shift from distance communication as a niche market product to a mass market one.

The next phase of technological evolution was the emergence of radio, which allowed for mass broadcast of ideas. A more rapid form of mass media than newspapers, the radio soon began to serve as a means of entertainment, which to that point had remained connected tightly to transportation. The War of the Worlds broadcast was instrumental in highlighting the power that radio had over the public, illustrating that a convergence between media and reality had begun (Carey, 2010).

Television represented the next phase of technological evolution, being a form of radio with pictures. Visual images are processed more quickly than words (Carey, 2010), so this new medium became even more powerful than the previous ones. Media events became more frequent and over time television would increasingly blend reality and media, to the point where today many take what they see on television as reality even when it is not (Carey, 2010).

The Internet began as an extension of the telephone, but has quickly become merged with both television and radio as a multimedia platform. The speed at which information is transmitted is equally fast, the world of the Internet even more real, and the volume of information and the pace at which new information is even greater. This latter point is due to the fact that for the first time since the invention of the telephone, a new… [read more]

Media Violence and Children's Aggressive Behavior Annotated Bibliography

Annotated Bibliography  |  2 pages (712 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Media Violence and Childrens Aggressive Behavior

Escobar-Chaves, S. L . & Anderson, C.A. (2008). Media and Risky Behaviors. The Future of Children 18.1.

Because contemporary children have access to electronic media on a daily basis, it is virtually impossible for them not to risk being negatively influenced as a result. This certainly takes its toll from society, considering that young people engage in a series of harmful activities trying to replicate what they see in the media. The effects are not expected to emerge for a number of years, as "media violence causes an increase in the likelihood of future aggressive and violent behavior" (Escobar-Chaves & Anderson 2008). This article presents violence as being only one of the many damaging effects of the media, given that it also relates to obesity, smoking, and sexual activity among young people as being consequence of the media.

Jipguep, M. & Sanders-Phillips, K. (2003). The Context of Violence for Children of Color: Violence in the Community and in the Media. The Journal of Negro Education 72.4.

This article associates children's exposure to violence in the media and claims that children who are part of low-income families are even more susceptible to be influenced by the media. The thesis in the article states that while everyone is likely to be affected by violence in the media, minorities are affected by the issue to a larger degree. Apparently, "children's exposure to media violence is related to increased aggression" (Jipguep & Sanders-Phillips, 2003), as children are psychologically traumatized consequent to being exposed to violence. This article is also important because it addresses minorities and the fact that children in them are more vulnerable than children who are part of majorities.

Potter, W.J. & Smith, S. (2000). The Context of Graphic Portrayals of Television Violence. Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media. 44.2: 301.

Because violence is typically displayed in the media in particular contexts, it is difficult for viewers to filter the information they are offered and they are predisposed to interpret it incorrectly. This article attempts to identify ways of filtering information in order to determine the exact effects media has on people.…… [read more]

Mass Media Affecting Acculturation Level for Taiwanese Methodology Chapter

Methodology Chapter  |  5 pages (1,745 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Mass Media Affecting Acculturation Level for Taiwanese College English as Second Langugae Learners Aged 18-25

To conduct this relational study a descriptive research method adapting self-report survey instruments will be utilized. This will include an online survey as well as a snowballing questionnaire.

This particular method of data collection has been chosen for a number of reasons. In general, self… [read more]

Journalism -- the Revolving Door Policy Article Review

Article Review  |  2 pages (714 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


¶ … journalism -- the revolving door policy that allows politicians to walk into the field as journalists and journalists to leave their profession, become politicians and then return once again to the journalism industry. Shepherd notes that "decades ago, the line of demarcation between journalists and politicians was as sharply defined as the one between cops and robbers, cowboys and Indians" (p. 19). However, the revolving door policy that allows individuals to transverse into either field and back again may be blurring these once distinct lines.

Shepherd's (1997) position is quite clear on this matter. Her thoughts echo that of journalism professional Penny Crone who provides a sidebar interview to the article. Shepherd clearly believes that the welcoming of former politicians and those who have worked on political campaigns or in branches of government do not have the ability to provide unbiased opinions on news matters and therefore do a disservice to journalism profession. She talks of a forum she attended in Washington D.C. In the 1970s and the words of a Washington Post reporter who she cited as saying, "Once you go over to the other side, you can never come back" (p. 21). Shepherd further cites David Broder's comments at a National Press Club dinner as saying, "Once the press 'loses its distinctive identity (…) it will not be long before we lose our freedom" (p. 21). Shepherd continues to overview the numerous people who have been through the revolving door.

From Clinton's senior presidential adviser, George Stephanopoulos, who is not on ABC's roster of journalists to Pat Buchanan's back-and-forth dance with politics and journalism over the last four decades, Shepherd (1997) is fairly heavy-handed in dealing with the issue of whether or not this revolving door policy has any benefits. Only briefly (in the form of a single paragraph) in the article does she give any mention to the potential value of a reporter having experience in the political field. One could consider this a bit hypocritical, that as Shepherd argues the need for unbiased reporting and how a foray into the political arena negates this ability, she herself seems unable to provide…… [read more]

Public Opinion How Is Public Opinion Formed Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (702 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Public Opinion

How is public opinion formed and what are some of the influences that go into public opinion? According to a scholarly sociological study in the journal Political Behavior, there are four central concepts related to the forming of public opinion. The first is heuristics: they are "common judgmental shortcuts that people use to draw complicated inferences" and hence, make decisions; typically, those shortcuts are endorsements, affiliation with a certain party, polls, and the demographics the candidate reflects (Druckman, et al., 2009, p. 491). The second concept is media priming: a person is environmentally active, and by seeing the president on television promoting environmental causes primes that person to vote for the president; in other words, the media presents candidates' positions and voters form opinions based on those media images.

The third concept is online processing: a voter hears from "raw data" that a candidate is pro-choice, for example, and the voter makes an "evaluation" based on that data; and when election day comes the voter has an opinion but no recollection of why that opinion was formed, but they remember the moment and the raw data and their opinion holds fast. The fourth concept, motivated reasoning, is a bit more complicated; the authors call it the "systematic biasing of judgments in favor of one's immediately accessible beliefs and feelings," and for example a voter likes "Candidate X" and then only seeks out information regarding that one candidate.

What communication channels exist as influences into public opinion? Certainly the media (television, movies, radio, print and digital media) have a huge influence on voters. In the first year of George W. Bush's presidency, especially following the terrorists attacks on 9/11, which were broadcast over and over on television, the public opinion on Bush's handling of his job was sky high, with 90% approval; however, by February, 2007, as the unpopular Iraq war dragged on, and a majority of Americans opposed it, Bush's approval ratings dropped to 32%. The channels that brought a change in public opinion were mainly television (Bardes, et al., 2008, p. 192). Also, Bardes explains, the family is…… [read more]

Ethics of Publishing Disturbing Photographs Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,532 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


¶ … Ethics of Publishing Disturbing Photographs

Looting the truth: Post-Katrina photography in New Orleans

Hurricane Katrina was one of the worst natural disasters to impact the United States in recent memory. The photojournalists present in New Orleans at the time found a rich source of narrative images as residents attempted to cope with the crisis. However, no image can… [read more]

Race the Company Has Been Developing, Manufacturing Research Paper

Research Paper  |  4 pages (1,175 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1



The Company has been developing, manufacturing, and distributing quality pharmaceuticals for over twenty years. With a solid reputation for product safety, the company can rest assured that a proactive public relations campaign can alleviate any potential problems. Recently, one of the company's cutting-edge pain killers was discovered to have caused heart disease in some consumers. The research is preliminary and therefore, the company does not necessarily need to react by withdrawing the product from the market entirely. With more thorough research, the company can determine whether a warning label or a reformulation may be necessary.

Research will consist of a review of available literature and empirical studies related to the current problem. As of now, the available literature is sparse. Therefore, further research requires interviews with the company's research and development department. This will illuminate any possible ethical violations that may have occurred, such as fast-tracking the product while knowing that it might cause heart disease. Any ethical violations that are discovered will be reported to the proper manager. The company's own research and development department may be asked to conduct in-house studies on the drug to determine if any issue had been overlooked.

Interviews with external laboratories conducting research on the pain killer will also help solve this problem. Interviews will focus on specific research questions related to the case. For example, what specific population(s) have been affected by the pain killer? Age, gender, and ethnicity are a few of the variables that will help determine what target groups have been affected. If necessary, the research and development department will be requested to conduct more thorough empirical research so that an unequivocal decision regarding the drug can be made.

Interviews with the company's marketing department can also help answer some of the research questions related to this case. Research gathered via interviews with the marketing department will allow the company to decide whether or not the pain killer can continue to be marketed to unaffected populations. Are there any pre-existing conditions that make some consumers more susceptible to the heart disease caused by the pain killer? Does stopping the pain killer cease these heart-related symptoms?

Finally, interviews with senior management will best determine the company's course of action. The interviews will be based on ultimate goals, possible ethical violations, and legal ramifications. Interviews with company attorneys may also be in order.


If it has been determined that the pain killer does indeed cause heart disease and among random samples, the company must consider an aggressive public relations campaign. This campaign will help to salvage the company's reputation even before it has been sullied. In this case, action will consist of several simple steps. First, the company will need to begin recalling the drug entirely. To do so, the company will need to systematically contact all suppliers of the pain killer. All suppliers must be alerted to the problem. The company must then print and distribute a simple warning notice to all distributors.

However, if research reveals that… [read more]

Ethics Blogs Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  1 pages (335 words)
Style: Harvard  |  Bibliography Sources: 0


Ethics Blogs

The Information age has brought with it both advantages and disadvantages. Many critics believe that the disadvantages far outweigh the advantages in terms of the stress created by the sheer volume of information, much of which cannot be verified. However, there are also marked advantages for the world and time in which we live today. One phenomenon that is for example changing the face of journalism is known as citizen journalism in the form of online media outlets.

Increasingly, both professionals and amateurs in any field can use the Internet as an outlet for their products and ideas. This has resulted in a remarkable change in journalism, which spurred the debate over whether blogging can truly be seen on the same level as professional journalism. Even the debate is changing, as it is becoming clear that the Internet is increasingly integrated in all areas of life. Instead of debating the merits of journalism vs. blogging, researchers are now considering the integration between the two forms…… [read more]

Mass Media and the Law Thesis

Thesis  |  5 pages (1,665 words)
Style: Chicago  |  Bibliography Sources: 10


The Internal Contradiction of the FCC's Current Indecency Standards

FCC indecency enforcement proceedings and the First Amendment:
The programmers of television content have become increasingly
comfortable with a certain degree of explicitness not formerly considered
acceptable on the airwaves. But as cultural shifts occur with the passing
of generations out of and into the focus of popular media's marketing
targets,… [read more]

Art in the Age of Mechanical Reproduction Essay

Essay  |  6 pages (2,001 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 5


¶ … Art in the Age of Mechanical Reproduction," addresses the nature and evolution of art from unique object to mechanically reproducible. Specifically Benjamin addresses the manifestations of art in the media of painting, and the evolution of visual media to technology such as photography and film. A painting or sculpture, according to the author, has a singular "aura;" derived… [read more]

Media During Wartime Thesis

Thesis  |  6 pages (2,326 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 8


Media During Wartime

The media plays an important role in our lives. The news cycle has evolved from the once a day evening news or the twice a day local news or from the newspapers to an on-demand 24-hour news cycle. On cable, in addition to the Networks, there are at least five additional channels where the news might be… [read more]

Violence in the Media Promotes Aggressive Behavior Thesis

Thesis  |  1 pages (444 words)
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Violence in the media promotes aggressive behavior.

How would you go about testing this hypothesis?

Testing the hypothesis that media violence promotes aggressive behavior would ideally take place in a closed clinical environment to isolate any other causal variables and to control what content participants viewed. I would need to define and quantify what constitutes violence in the media, and I would likewise need to define and quantify what characterizes aggressive behavior. The population sample would need to be controlled for age and possibly gender as well as by other factors such as hours spent watching television or prior displays of aggression.

How would you determine that individuals acted in an aggressive manner after exposure to media violence? In other words, what is your operational definition of aggressive behavior? What is your operational definition of media violence?

An operational definition of aggressive behavior should ideally include aggressive threats and verbal aggression as well as physical aggression. Physical aggression can be measured by any hitting or assault that took place in a non-sports or non-comedic context. Verbal aggression, bullying, and threats can be measured by having clinical psychologists observe behaviors and classify them according to their perception of what constitutes aggression. An operational definition of media violence might include tabulations of events such as assault, throwing objects, arson or property violence, and nonconsensual…… [read more]

Video Production Thesis

Thesis  |  3 pages (965 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 5


Careers in Video Production

From journalism to the Internet to Hollywood movies, careers for the video producer are modern, varied, and exciting. Schools offering degrees in video production also usually offer courses in acting and animation, for those who are interested in a multi-disciplinary approach to the career. Others may choose to pair the video production skills with newspaper reporting of photography. The following review of job opportunities and careers in video production will allow the video producer-to-be to obtain an accurate view of the industry.

Entry-Level Positions

Those with degrees of experience in video production need not have a great deal of experience in order to obtain a job. Throughout the United States, a variety of opportunities for video producers in entry-level positions are available. These jobs span from small firms that are not very well-known to large conglomerates like CNN. In fact, CNN hires entry-level video journalists, seeking people who do not necessarily have formal education, but have a passion for and a desire to learn the work ("CNN Job Openings").

Projected Salaries

According to the U.S. Department of Labor, salaries for video producers vary widely. Salaries can be different for different producers based on a variety of factors, including education, experience, and type of employment. Producers in Hollywood typically do not have a set salary. Instead, they earn a percentage of the finances for the motion pictures they produce. The U.S. Department of Labor ranks those in the motion picture and video industry as bringing in a median weekly salary of $593. This is slightly larger than the overall median weekly salary of all workers, which is $568 per week. The median hourly earnings of producers and directors in 2006 were $34.01. Once again this number was higher than the median number for all industries. Those in the motion picture industry, however, may actually earn less than these projected amounts because of inconsistent work ("Career Guide to Industries").

The Job Market, Employment Outlook

According to Shonan, specialty programming and cable TV has largely enhanced the job market for the video production professional. Specialized channels like Disney and Discovery require their own video producers. Instead of years ago, when TV viewers would concentrate on simply a local station, the increase in these channels has largely increased the job market. The Internet has also increased the need for video producers. Internet videos by both amateurs and professionals are gaining interest, and companies now often employ video producers to sell their product. Furthermore, the use of video at theme parks and other venues has required an increase in the number of video production professionals available. The pre-high school, high school, college, and specialty sports world is also in need of professional video producers. Finally, the increased use of video in weddings and at other special events has increased the need for capable producers (Shonan xiii-xiv). Even some churches have professional video producers…… [read more]

Government Fostered Ownership Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (631 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 2


Government-Fostered Ownership

The media in the United States have always been subject to Government regulation. This is also true of radio since its inception during the World Wars. At the heart of such regulation is probably primarily the drive towards U.S. dominance and security during the World Wars. The changing economic and political climate has however perpetuated this paradigm throughout the media, and also for radio.

According to Eli M. Noam, the initial reasons for Government regulations on the radio broadcast industry was to limit the market power of the players involved. The companies controlling the industry were few, and Government officials felt that their power should be limited. Limits were therefore placed upon ownership and rates. Once these limits were lifted in order to allow for multi-channel broadcast, oligopolies began to arise, with existing companies increasing in size via mergers, acquisitions or growth, making it even more difficult for smaller companies to enter the market.

According to Noam, regulatory ownership limits on radio stations were increasingly lifted from the 1940s onward. Initially only allowing ownership of 7 AM and 7 FM stations during the 1940s, 12 AM and 12 FM stations were allowed in 1985, 18 of both in 1992, and 20 in 1994. Nationwide ownership limits were entirely eliminated by the year 1996. According to the author, the likelihood of this trend is, as mentioned above, not more owners, but a growth in already existing companies, and hence greater concentration.

Competition in the public radio network sector was however stimulated by a government funding policy change during 1985 (Noam).

Competitive public radio networks emerged as a result of this, of which an example is American Public Radio (APR). This competition has become extremely effective, according to the author, with APR surpassing the existing PR in hours and affiliated stations by 1993.

The paradigms of the government-fostered paradigms of the oligopoly and the monopoly…… [read more]

Effect of RSS Feeds on Businesses and Its Consumers Regarding PR Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,449 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 4


¶ … RSS Feeds in Customer and Public Relations

The collection of technologies referred to as Web 2.0 (Bernoff, Li, 2008) share the common goals of ensuring a higher level of communication, collaboration, information-sharing and responsiveness between individuals and groups. Web 2.0 is a commonly used term to define the second generation of services available over the Internet that are… [read more]

Crisis Management Successfully Resolved Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (685 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3


Crisis Management

Successfully resolved crisis with the help of PR

The following examples proved to be good learning examples for the proposed study.

Diet Pepsi (Wilcox, 2006, pg. 262-263; Hubbard, 2006)

In 1993, Pepsi-Cola had to confront a crisis situation, when a client claimed to have found a syringe inside a Diet Pepsi can. After the story appeared in the media, various claims appeared all over the country, referring to objects such as bullets or even crack cocaine vials to have been found in Diet Pepsi cans.

Pepsi-Cola knew that the objects could not have entered the cans during bottling process and thus decided on a defensive strategy, by claiming "innocent" in the matter. It knew also that proving its innocence would be essential in protecting the brand from further damage.

The strategies used by Pepsi-Cola included:

Attacking the accuser by claiming that the objects were inserted after the cans had been opened with the intention of gaining money from a settlement. The company also declared that would legally accuse those making false claims.

Denying the existence of a crisis - the Pepsi-Cola President, Craig Weatherup, appeared on television and radio interviews as well as in newspaper articles declaring the safety of Pepsi's bottling line, by bringing even video cameras into their factories to publicly show the bottling process and thus insuring consumers that it was practically impossible to insert foreign objects into the cans before they were sealed.

The crisis turned out to be a hoax and the initial accusers were brought to court. Pepsi recovered from the crisis due to an effective crisis PR campaign that insured a successful communication with the public across all types of media, openness to investigations.

Even if in reality there has been no real crisis, it can be seen that even the perception of a crisis can bring significant negative reaction from the public to seriously damage the image of a company.

2) My Space (Sterling, 2006)

My Space, with its over 11.6 bn page views in October 2005, seemed to have been used…… [read more]

Effects of Media to Children Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,578 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 6


TV Violence

Violence on TV has become very common. The news is filled with crimes in the United States and about the Iraq war. The news programs show how a crime was done and actual pictures of murdered bodies. Other shows have live videotapes of police officers chasing criminals. A lot of these shows are shown when young children are… [read more]

Corporate Communication Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (1,923 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 5


Corporate Communication

It has been said that the product of the 21st century will be knowledge. With so much information being disseminated each day through print and electronic vehicles, it is very difficult to keep abreast of what is new and the most effective way to disseminate and take advantage of the knowledge gained. Organizations, in order to remain successful… [read more]

How Digitalization Has Reshaped the Mass Media Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (370 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


¶ … Digitalization has reshaped the mass media

The advent of digitalization has brought with it many changes to the face of mass media, as society has traditionally known it. More than just advancement in available communications technology, digitalization and the subsequent utilization of digital technologies have induced changes in the way media content is produced and the way content is received, manipulated, and consumed.

Digitalization has exerted enormous pressure on the producers of media to shift and grow with the changing demands of digital communication. As the number of homes with computers and Internet access has increased nationally and globally, consumers have come to expect that media be available when and where it is convenient for them to access said media (Olson & Pollard, 2004). The newsroom or studio workflow becomes such that the priority is getting content broadcasted or posted on the Internet in real-time. To meet these demands, producers and journalists must become multi-skilled, or able to create, adapt, and amalgamate different types of content (Ashton & Cottle, 1999). As a result, the producer is necessarily a jack-of-all-trades and cannot devote time…… [read more]

Public Relations A. What Does Proactive Planning Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (546 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Public Relations a. What does proactive planning mean?

Proactive planning means planning ahead in case of an incident so that a company is better prepared to survive a crisis. Planning helps companies have the necessary strategies and procedures in place so that they can provide the immediate response required when dealing with a crisis. Thus, with proactive planning, companies can more readily identify and prioritize communications with internal and external stakeholders and have a thorough understand of the PR tools needed to reach these audiences.

What feedback mechanism would you develop in this situation?

To gauge public opinion, the company should create a blog on its Web site. Although blogs can provide negative feedback, it's important to discover if there's anything wrong. For employees, the company can use the hotline as an opportunity for the employees to provide feedback and can implement anonymous opinion surveys and open door policies so they can express their concern. The company should begin to closely monitor all media channels for positive and negative coverage, monitor the stock market for investor sentiment and sales for consumer reaction. The company should consider face-to-face meetings with all agencies, special interest groups and the community and allow opportunity for them to express their concerns on how the event has been handled.

c. What is an ineffectual way of deploying this plan? Give some examples of what not to do in this situation.

The worse thing Greenergy could have done was to have chosen a message option other than being completely honest. For example, a lie would soon be discovered in today's information age. This type of dishonestly would have destroyed the…… [read more]

Functions of Public Relations Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (870 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 0


Functions of Public Relations

Public relations' (PR) many initiatives, strategies, and programs are invaluable for accomplishing both organizational and societal communication goals. The intent of this paper is to use four different public relations functions, two illustrating the organizational aspect of PR, and the other two showing the societal aspect. PR is a critical part of any communications and marketing mix, and is often used to inform and persuade.

Organizational Functions of PR

Any for-profit organization to survive needs to have a continual stream of information going to all its significant stakeholders. These stakeholders include industry and financial analysts, journalists, customers, suppliers, shareholders, employees, and prospects for the company's products and services. Public relations strategies vary by each of these stakeholder groups. All strategies however share a common goal of informing, persuading and ultimately increasing the credibility and position of a company in an industry within each of these key stakeholder groups. Industry analysts get the majority of their information from public relations professionals and this has a direct bearing on the reviews products and services get in reports, articles and interviews, Columbus (2005).

Two PR functions that illustrate the organizational functions of PR include investor relations and marketing communications. These are two very critical functions in any organization, especially if the company is publicly traded on any of the U.S. stock exchanges. Investor relations is a comprehensive series of strategies used by companies to educate, inform, and persuade industry and financial analysts regarding the organizations' health, direction, and future. For companies who are publicly traded on U.S. stock exchanges, investor relations became much more challenging with the passing of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (2002) which details financial reporting requirements and the need to report significant financial events within 72 hours of their occurrence. Investor relations senior managers work closely with the CEO, CFO, and COO to clarify and present financial performance figures to both the Securities and Exchange Commission and financial analysts, many of which work for Wall Street brokerage companies who advise institutional investors what companies to invest in. The bottom line is that investor relations is the most critical link any company has to its present and future opportunities for investment by both Wall Street brokerage companies and the institutional investors they represent.

Marketing Communications is a second function that illustrates PR's organizational role. For any company regardless of size, this is a key strategy to staying connected with their many types of stakeholders. Marketing communications spans the tasks of keeping the company's latest news in front of journalists and the general public, working with key suppliers on promotional programs and strategies to…… [read more]

Public Relations in the Dictionary of Word Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (773 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 2


Public Relations

In the Dictionary of Word Origins, John Ayto describes the words public relations as follows:

Public means, etymologically, 'of the people.' It comes via Old French public from Latin publicus, an alteration apparently inspired by puber 'adult' source of English puberty) of policus "of the people" which was derived from populous "people" (source of English people, popular, etc.) Publicity was borrowed from the French derivative publicite.

Relation, is a derivative of Relate, and means something that is 'carried back to it.' The word is based on 'relates', the past participle of Latin referre "carry back, refer to."

PR is a function of relating to a company's specific relevant public sector in order to create a certain image or feeling which generates or encourages support from that sector. The website investorwords.com defines public relations as, "Efforts to establish and maintain a company's image with the public." The website bitpipe.com defines PR as simply, "The creation and maintenance of a public image or identity."

These are austere explanations in comparison to the elaborate definitions that have been developed for this wide-ranging function in our capitalistic, materialistic corporate society.

Reaching the consuming public with a company image or product message can no longer be achieved easily or inexpensively, for the most part (Switzer pg. 8).

The consumer is heavily bombarded with marketing influences through the media, including television, radio, internet, newspapers, cereal boxes, magazines, and even the cinema. Public relations experts at times have only a short few seconds to relate an image, feeling or suggestion to their audience. Not only does the company need to try to sell a product during those few seconds, but also tries to convey a company attitude or posture that creates confidence and enthusiasm in the customer. Thus, more complex definitions of public relations have taken form, such as the laborious one contained in the PRSA site:

Lest we think that we are only sold large-ticket attitudes and items through public relations efforts, I have copied and pasted the PR campaign for the new tapered, brightly colored Scotch brand tape dispensers:

Scotch Contour Dispenser: "A New Shape for Tape"

To generate high-impact media coverage for the new Scotch Contour Dispenser, Hunter Public Relations (HPR) designed, wrote and produced a creative mailer introducing the new Scotch Contour dispenser to media in conjunction…… [read more]

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