Study "Journalism / Media / PR / News" Essays 111-165

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What Effect Does Online News Edition Have on Printed Newspaper Thesis

… ¶ … Online News Editions on Printed Newspapers

Is the printed newspaper dead? Over the course of the twentieth century, newspapers "exhibited profit margins higher than most industrial sectors" and enjoyed "the largest share of advertising expenditures of all media"… [read more]

IT's Not Just PR Research Paper

… ¶ … PR: Public Relations in Society is an enterprise authors Coombs and Holladay took as a consequence to the gap they felt it was created between various opinions expressed by those who attacked the field and its real meaning.… [read more]

Media Specialty Overview of Print Media Today Thesis

… ¶ … Media Specialty

Overview of print media today and its future

Is print media dying? Although the printed word in book, magazine, and newspaper form has not yet gone the way of the 8-track, there can be no doubt that today's print media faces cutthroat and devastating competition from the printed word on the Internet. E-zines, spanning everything from television and music fan E-zines to serious news publications such as Slate, "have virtually no traditional paper, printing, or distribution costs, and are better versed in new media interactivity" (Walsh 2008). In other words, not only do readers not have to pay for the content, but these Internet publications without real-world counterparts also cost less money to produce. Furthermore, Internet readers on all types of print media sites have the added excitement of being able to interact with other people on message boards, as well as look at related video content on the sites, luxuries they do not have when reading print. It is widely agreed, even by industry professionals, that the future of print must "include integrated and stand-alone rich media, primary source materials, and community participation," to remain viable (Greenspan et. al. 2008).

Even for long-standing print publications like the New York Times with online content that reprints or expands upon the traditional format of the printed, paper newspaper, it cannot be denied that print is experienced in a profoundly different format by online users. On the Internet readers are able to more carefully filter the content they desire -- they can search a publication for the specific articles they are interested in, rather than read it cover to cover. Advertising can be more specifically targeted to consumers who are interested in specific content, even on general interest publication websites. The content of future print media seems likely to exhibit a greater specialization of interests and more partisan ideological orientations.

The troubled state of the non-virtual printed media is evidenced in the age-related nature of print vs. solely online readers. According to a recent Reuter's survey, because of the greater specialization of content endemic to the Internet, nearly half of all Americans are turning to the Internet to exclusively to get their news, and a generational divide is emerging in terms of the type of news content accessed by readers. This figure has grown from 40% just a year ago. "Less than one third [of readers] use television to get their news, while 11% turn to radio and 10% to newspapers... More than half of those who grew up with the Internet, those 18 to 29, get most of their news and information online, compared to 35% of people 65 and older. Older adults are the only group that favors a primary news source other than the Internet, with 38% selecting television." But with this shift to the Internet comes dissatisfaction amongst all readers, regardless of age, about the quality of the journalism they are perusing. Reuters noted that 64% of respondents said they were dissatisfied with the… [read more]

How Have Publicly Owned Media Companies Shaped Mass Term Paper

… Mass Media

The American media has undergone many changes over the last decade or so; perhaps the most significant is the emergence of the publicly owned media outlet. In generations past, many media outlets were owned, and of course controlled, by individuals or management groups. Therefore, this change in the type of ownership of the media outlets has shaped the development of contemporary media in several key ways.

First, with media outlets being public in terms of ownership, they are managed day-to-day by paid employees, who ultimately are accountable to stockholders who of course are looking for return on investment, the emergence of competitors and the like. Therefore, the emphasis on attracting "paying customers" to a media resource, be it a newspaper, Website or television program, in some cases increases the quality of the information circulated, but in others causes news stories to be sensationalized to generate circulation dollars (Powers, 2005). This, therefore, has created a frenzy of information outlets, all of which are seeking to get the story out to the buying public first, making it more important than ever before for the consumer of the media products to intelligently assess the information for media bias, possible exaggerations, etc. These same consumers, however, also have a…… [read more]

Design Teaching Term Paper

… Media Framing

Interactive Teaching Plan for Media Framing: Identifying Current Trends in Chinese Culture

Keeping the curriculum relevant and timely are well established needs in today's classroom. Moreover, many students bring with them valuable computer skills that can be readily applied to the learning experience. These issues suggest that providing students with a variety of learning opportunities that use these skills represents a good use of resources which are by definition scarce. Furthermore, more and more classrooms are being equipped for computer-based learning, making such interactive learning initiatives all the more important. To this end, this project provides an overview of how students can learn about current issues that affect their everyday lives such as media framing through an interactive learning environment provided by a Webquest. The objectives of the exercise will include a description of what factors can be used to analyze media content. A description of how students can use interactive tools to investigate these issues and provide their own input as well. The materials and estimated time required for completion are also discussed. Finally, student assessment considerations and some suggested procedures for administering the lesson are followed by a discussion of how these techniques can be amplified and used for other teaching purposes.

Connections to the Curriculum.

Social studies, journalism, current events

Objectives of the Exercise:

After completing this exercise, students will be able to analyze print media content according to:

Contextual framing,

Visual framing, and Operational framing,

These terms are defined and described further below.

Analytic Skills.

Students will be required to analyze various popular print media content concerning Chinese cultural issues using the three media framing functions described further below:

Contextual Framing. For the purposes of this study, this term will follow the definition provided by Nelson (1996). In this regard, contextual framing describes how completely the background of an event is developed and through which interpretive lens this information is filtered; the term also refers to the use of techniques such as:

Equalizing. Nelson states this means, "How puffed up or deflated are the sides in terms of their implicit strength or importance, especially when contrasted with one another" (p. 170);

Excising. This term means what types of information are left in or taken out of news coverage and why;

Demonizing. This refers to the extent of the use of "good vs. evil" categorizing language and images that elevate or deflate particular individuals, organizations, movements, ideas, or nations);

Personalizing. This term refers to the extent to which the protagonists in an given event are developed and portrayed as being "others" or "like us";

Ordering. This term refers to how the narrative is organized in an effort to favor one side or the other;

Sanitizing. This term refers to the degree to which the event is censored to avoid reporting negative information concerning the actual costs in damaged lives and social devastation; and,

Timing. Finally, this term refers to the extent to which attention is given to a particular agenda, issue, or group compared to… [read more]

Career in Broadcast Journalism - News Anchor Term Paper

… Career in Broadcast Journalism - News Anchor

Description of the Career:

Skills Required:

Training and Education Required:

Tasks, Duties and Responsibilities:

Work Environment:

Future Job Outlook:

Related Occupations:

Career in Broadcast Journalism - News Anchor

Description of the Career:

news anchor is one type of several news presenters. News presenters, generally, present information on news shows broadcast via television, the radio, or the Internet.

A news anchor is specifically an individual who presents material over the television, radio and increasingly the Internet. This material is typically prepared for the news anchor; however, at times, the news anchor may be forced to improvise their commentary, especially during live presentations of the news. In addition, many news anchors go beyond simply reading prepare material on air, but also write and/or edit their news materials for their programs. News anchors may be called upon to interview guests or moderate panels or discussions. Providing commentary for the audience during parades and other events is also the job of news anchors ("News Presenter").

Skills Required:

There are a variety of skills required for those seeking to be a news anchor. First, and foremost, the individual must have outstanding reporting skills. In addition, they must have excellent on-air presentation skills. Live reporting skills are also typically essential to the job, as is excellent written and verbal communication skills. Because news anchors often report live, they must be able to think quickly and have strong problem solving abilities. In addition, the individual must be able to meet strict deadlines and be detail orientated. As in any career in journalism, a high-degree of ethics and standards is necessary to excel in the industry ("News Reporter").

Training and Education Required:

Traditionally, a bachelor's degree in Journalism or Broadcast Communications, from an accredited university, is necessary to be a news anchor. However, there are other educational facilities that offer "reporter training," for a fee. These organizations usually focus on the core basics of how to work with a videographer, how to conduct interviews, how to write copy to B. roll and sound bites, narrating or 'tracking' a script, producing a professional news package, and journalistic standards and ethics ("Reporter Training").

Although employers typically look for an individual with a bachelor's degree in journalism or mass communication, they do occasionally hire graduates with other majors. Experience is a key step in training to be a news anchor and can include school newspapers, school broadcasting stations, and internships with news organizations. In some instances, a degree in a specific subject matter such as: economics, political science, or business is required.

More than 1,200 institutions offer programs in communications, journalism, and related programs. In 2004, 104 of these were accredited by the Accrediting Council on Education in Journalism and Mass Communications. About three-fourths of the courses in a typical curriculum are in liberal arts; the remaining courses are in journalism. Examples of journalism courses are introductory mass media, basic reporting and copy editing, history of journalism, and press law and ethics. Students planning… [read more]

Sound Bite" News, Americans Are Less Term Paper

… ¶ … sound bite" news, Americans are less well informed now than in previous decades.

As the technology continuously develops, people become more and more busy in adapting to the fast changing world where every second and minute of the day counts. Hence, it seems that in most things, having the quickest and shortest possible way is a need and a necessity because "time matters." However, when it comes to news in America, which is supposed to provide people with enough essential information on the current events, it is unfortunate that having shortcuts and quick-turnarounds are also being applied. Thus, reducing the real context and essence of the news, and making the Americans less informed in terms of deeper level of current events as to "how," "why," or "what" really happened.

Indeed, "sound bite" news make Americans less well informed as compared to the previous decades. The entire nation of the U.S. must be concerned about this and should fight for their right against "sound bite" news. If analyzed, "sound bite" news can cause a great concern to America's capability to fight problems such as terrorism. An immediate resolution to this is vital because the state of being less informed on the current events, especially these days that problems on terrorism take a serious toll on the Americans, endangers the American society into becoming weak and vulnerable to issues that risk the nation's safety, peace, and freedom.

One important factor to maintain a nation's good condition is the cooperation provided by every citizen. But in the case of "sound bite" news, how can the Americans do their part in helping the government if they are not aware of the current events around them? We should be reminded that the American society can also play a great role in maintaining America's freedom. Not everything can be solely relied on the government. For instance, after the 9/11 attack, news on terrorism is widely present in the media but the information given to the masses merely lacks deeper content…… [read more]

Ownership of the Media of Mass Communication Term Paper

… Ownership of the Media of Mass Communication

According to the Communication Act of 1934 the custom that was assigned or arranged for the media anchors was to satisfy "the public interest, convenience, and necessity." With the passage of time the FCC and regulators have established that this can only be achieved with an atmosphere of contest, variety and residency in the market (Ann, 2003).

The medium of Mass Communication that I have chosen is the medium of telecommunication. Since the alterations brought about to the outlook of media by the Telecommunications Act of 1996; telecommunication as a medium of Mass Communication was manifested to create a superior and mutual link between the rigid regulations and the current media drive, creating as a result, variety and residency in the market flow. Its documented function was "to promote competition and reduce regulation in order to secure lower prices and higher quality services for American telecommunications consumers and encourage the rapid deployment of new telecommunications technologies (as cited in Ann, 2003)."


To maintain the procedure of this "deregulation" in an efficient manner, the Act had to carry out an analysis every two years of the overall management laws (Ann, 2003).

The Commission shall review its rules adopted pursuant to this section and all of its ownership rules biennially as part of its regulatory reform review under section 11 of the Communications Act of 1934 and shall determine whether any of such rules are necessary in the public interest as a result of competition. The Commission shall repeal or modify any regulation it determines to be no longer in the public interest (as cited in Ann, 2003)."

The Notice of Inquiry was the medium that primarily printed the initial Biennial Regulatory Review [1998], which posted the element of Variety as the most important for the modeling of a functional framework by the Commission, which came up with three main categories of the element: (1) perspective: "helping to ensure that the material presented by the media reflect a wide range of diverse and antagonistic opinions and interpretations (as cited in Ann, 2003)," (2) channel: "a variety of delivery services (e.g., broadcast stations, newspapers, cable and DBS) that select and present programming directly to the public (as cited in Ann, 2003)," and (3) basis: "promoting a variety of program or information producers and owners (as cited in Ann, 2003)." However, it was plain to see that there a major gap in the viewpoints with the commission at that time as to the implication and significance of variety (Ann, 2003). On example could be in the viewpoint of Commissioner Susan Ness (Democrat) who concentrated on the Supreme Court expression: "diverse and antagonistic."

Antagonistic' sources can only be truly antagonistic (in the best sense of the word) if they are separately…… [read more]

Functions of Public Relations Term Paper

… PR Analysis

An Explanation of the Organizational and Societal Functions of Public Relations Today

The importance of effective public relations has been well documented (Cutlip, 1994). Most public relations companies engage in a wide range of functions to accomplish their… [read more]

Media Book Critique Tuned Out: Why Americans Term Paper

… Media Book Critique

Tuned Out: Why Americans under 40 don't follow the news. Simply reading the title of this book may causes a young reader's neck hairs to bristle with anger. 'I am under the age of forty! I am… [read more]

PR Communications Process Analysis Term Paper


A company always needs to be in touch with the general public in order to let them know about its current events. It is also a good way of letting them know about the recent… [read more]

Media Bias a Liberal Society Term Paper

… The findings has close association to the conclusions drawn by Lichter/Rothman analysis so as to prove that the media person are more significantly liberal and even more liberal than the general public. Ever since the conclusions several other findings were… [read more]

Media and Honesty Term Paper

… Her case has been written up in textbooks, magazines, and there are still numerous Internet sites about her. However, not everyone feels Cooke was entirely to blame. Some journalists feel her story illustrates the pressure most journalists are under to continually write compelling copy and find sensational stories. One journalist wrote of Cooke, "Her report was worse than inaccurate; it was simply untrue. But that alone is insufficient to explain the unique notoriety of the Cooke case or to distinguish it from the numerous other cases in which reporters have broken faith with their readers through false or distorted reporting" (Iggers 39). As the case grows older, and many other journalists have been caught doing the same thing or worse, it seems that Cooke's lack of ethics is just the tip of the iceberg in the journalistic community. The man who was once a colleague and boyfriend and wrote the screenplay of her life says, "Janet was a woman on the verge of a nervous breakdown -- raised by a father who tried to live a colorblind existence. Like him, she was tortured by it....It was never her intent to denigrate the First Amendment or win an award'" (Dutka). Janet Cooke's story is sad, but it also shows what can happen when journalists feel too much pressure to perform.

Unfortunately, there have been many cases such as Cooke's since her scandal became public, and some of them have been far worse than Cooke's. One notorious story is the case of Stephen Glass, the New Republic reporter that made up facts, people, quotes, and even entire articles during his career at the magazine. He even created false notes, phone messages, and faxes to back up his fraudulent stories. He was fired in disgrace, but actually made a "career" out of explaining himself, and even wrote a novel about his life called "The Fabulist." While he went back to school to study law, there are questions about his ethical ability to practice it. Many people feel his case is similar to Cooke's because he was "emotionally needy," (Kroft) just as Cooke was. However, he fabricated so many stories and background that his case is really much more shocking, because he lied, and continued to lie, but did not stop. At one point he told himself, "And I said to myself what I said every time these stories ran, 'You must stop. You must stop.' But I didn't'" (Kroft). Glass is not the only case like Cooke's there are many more, and so, what Cooke did really does not seem so terrible any more. Her story has been far outweighed by people like Stephen Glass, who truly give journalists and journalism a very bad name.


Dutka, Elaine. "Fall of Janet Cooke Whets Hollywood's Appetite." 5 June 1996. 11 Dec. 2004.


Editors. "Janet Cooke." 2 Dec. 2004. 11 Dec. 2004.


Iggers, Jeremy. Good News, Bad News: Journalism Ethics and the Public Interest. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1998.… [read more]

Media in America Term Paper

… Americans who want to shape their own values may attempt to limit their reliance on the mass media, and make up their own minds on the most important issues in their own lives.

In conclusion, it is clear the American mass media influences values in many ways. By choosing what Americans see, read, and hear, the media places constraints on information, and leads Americans down definite pathways. Americans are highly influenced by the media they choose, and do not choose, and so, American values are now dependent on information provided by others. As the media becomes more liberal, so does the information they produce, and public journalism will continue to attempt to influence how people behave and act.


Arant, M.D., & Meyer, P. (1998). Public journalism and traditional journalism: A shift in values? Journal of mass media ethics, 13(4), 205-218.

Brown, A. (1996). Economics, public service broadcasting, and social values. Journal of media economics, 9(1), 3-15.

Coleman, A.W. (2000). "Calvin and Hobbes": A critique of society's values. Journal of Mass Media Ethics, 15(1), 17-42.

Gomez, D.S. (2001, April). Sex, peers, media -- and family values: The NEA health information network's 'can we talk?' program helps thousands of parents talk with their kids, in English or Spanish. NEA today, 19, 29.

Goode, S. (1996, March 4). Character and values confuse the mass media. Insight on the News, 12, 18+.

(1992). The mass media in liberal democratic societies (S. Rothman, Ed.). New York: Paragon House.

(1994). News influence on our pictures of the world. In Media effects advances in theory and research, Bryant, J. & Zillmann, D. (Eds.) (pp. 1-15). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.…… [read more]

Global PR Trends? A Recent, November Term Paper

… ¶ … global PR trends?

A recent, November 3, 2004 article in the New York Times asked the Times' readership "Would You Like an Extra Shot of Music With That Macchiato?" The article chronicled a new global public relations effort of the Starbucks Company. Starbucks has begun employing its own retailer and label "Hear," a music label that Starbucks bought five years ago to engage in joint ventures with the independent label Concord Records to produce its own music line. In doing so, the behemoth coffee retailer has embodied an increasingly common global public relations trend -- the fusing of corporation image with a carefully targeted and segmented brand name, with a diffuse range of products but a highly specific target audience.

It is increasingly difficult to garner the so-called general public's attention with advertising. Perhaps there is no general public, either globally or in the United States. Consumers have developed more and more ways to screen crafted public relations efforts out of their consciousness through TiVo, HBO, and simple savvy and chagrin about being manipulated and aggressively marketed to, regarding advertising and public relations company messages. Instead, niche marketing and segmentation is at the forefront "Rather than lure customers from standard record shops," Starbucks hopes to generate more sales among "casual music fans disinclined to enter record stores, which they perceive as overwhelming. By giving space near the register to a few CD's, Starbucks essentially makes recommendations to a specific audience." Thus "it puts the music in front of the right customer and makes it convenient to get." The company "is well positioned to move beyond customized CD's, because more than 3,000 of its stores offer wireless Internet access, which could be used to download music files." As record labels are trying to prevent the availability of online free music from undermining the value of their CD's, they might take a cue from a retailer with a track record of providing a pricey alternative to a widely available product. "Starbucks is a branding machine" as "nobody in the world buys a 40-cent cup of coffee for $4 unless they're buying a brand." (Levine, 2004)

What are the differences in publicity and advertising in terms of their impact on publics?

Public relations, in contrast to advertising, attempts more to raise awareness in the public, rather then aggressively target a market. It seeks to change public opinion over time and shift attitudes, rather than immediately change behavior. It addresses the need for raising awareness or creating an atmosphere or buzz about a service, person, product, etc., than realizing the goal of suddenly changing the minds and lifestyles of consumers of particular media. Thus, in such a psychologically oriented field, an added sensitivity to segmentation and cultural differences are critical, particularly cultural sensitivity in the variety of ethnic markets in the United States as well as the world. For instance, in achieving positive public relations in a new global market, even "ingrained mannerisms that no one would pay attention to at home… [read more]

Media Censorship the Maneuver Term Paper

… S. And UK have appreciated the significance of awareness of the media and provided several monetary and organizational backup instead of media control. A fastidious thought process is an important aptitude for every citizen in a democratic setup, in case… [read more]

Journalism? James W. Carey Term Paper

… The commentators are right. Journalism is not "Communications." Communications is public relations, sometimes mistaken for journalism by readers when newspapers reprint press releases without changing a single word, giving it an undeserved patina of news. Corporations within publishing have had a profound effect on how newspapers are presented to readers: journalists writing for USA TODAY are taught to write in pyramid form, so that each paragraph can be the last paragraph. The first paragraph is the tip of the pyramid, and technically, the paste up editor can just snip off the rest of the article after that first paragraph, and it would stand alone and seem complete. Each following paragraph would have that quality, so that the paste up editor can simply shorten any article with impunity to suit page layout.

The chilling part of that description is that it would seem complete. It might be argued that the best journalism digs below the surface, and perhaps what is found could not be presented in any kind of balanced or accurate way in paragraph/soundbites. Writing under such rules of constraint might arguably be viewed more as the domain of Communications than Journalism. It is Communications that addresses functional writing for a purpose-- not only public relations, but speeches and advertising.

Marshall McCluhan said back in the 1960's that "the media is the message." We see in 2004 that this is true. On television we hear sound bites, and it seems possible that one sound bite of Howard Dean, picked up by a highly directional microphone that exaggerated its impact, may have ruined his chances of a run for the Democratic nomination for pregnancy. That incident was communication, but not…… [read more]

Media and Military Operations Term Paper

… This was a small victory for the media but it was not any greater of a fight then the one that the general public had in wanting to attend criminal trials. The need for open trials was recognized, however, and… [read more]

Media and Monopoly in 1983 Term Paper

… "Mass Media and Society." 25 Aug. 2000. Virginia Commonwealth University 31 Oct. 2003.

Marin, Brian, "Environment and Public Health." 2001. University of Wollongong. 31 Oct. 2003.

Media Reform Information Center. 31 Oct. 2003.

Miller, Mark Crispin. "What's Wrong With This Picture?." The Nation. 20 Dec. 2001. 31 Oct. 2003.

Moore, Wes. "Television: Opiate of the Masses." 31 Oct. 2003.

Parenti, Michael, "Methods of Media Manipulation." Third World Traveler. 31 Oct. 2003.

The Media Monopoly by Ben H. Bagdikian." EServer. 31 Oct. 2003.

Media Reform Information Center. 31 Oct. 2003.

Miller, Mark Crispin. "What's Wrong With This Picture?." The Nation. 20 Dec. 2001. 31 Oct. 2003.

Croteau, David and Hoynes, William. "Mass Media and Society." 25 Aug. 2000. Virginia Commonwealth University 31 Oct. 2003.

Marin, Brian, "Environment and Public Health." 2001. University of Wollongong. 31 Oct. 2003.

The Media Monopoly by Ben H. Bagdikian." EServer. 31 Oct. 2003.

Parenti, Michael, "Methods of Media Manipulation." Third World Traveler. 31 Oct. 2003.

Moore, Wes. "Television: Opiate of the Masses." 31 Oct. 2003.

The Media Monopoly by Ben H. Bagdikian." EServer. 31 Oct. 2003.… [read more]

Media in America Term Paper

… But that will not solve their problem, because it has been the so-called fourth estate, the news media, that has collaborated with Congress in preventing the Executive Branch from operating in secrecy. The news media, as Woodward makes clear, are… [read more]

Wag the Dog: How Accurate Was Its Depiction of American Political Life? Essay

… A story gains in sexiness and appeal simply by virtue of its simplicity and the overwhelming nature of the media's or a PR firm's coverage.

Another good example of this in recent history was the coverage of the ACA (Affordable Care Act) debate. Regardless of one's position on this issue, healthcare reform is a serious matter deserving of reasoned debate. But instead of covering the possible impact of the law or why it was passed, the news media focused on the political 'football' the law generated between the administration and the Republican-dominated Congress. The story became focused on who would 'win' this struggle vs. whether the law was valid or not or would really accomplish the goals it was supposed to accomplish. Instead, it was simply easier to focus on who won politically, versus a very complex law.

Even if the media has never been manipulated into covering a false war, the media is ultimately in the business of selling journalism, not disseminating facts. This means that breaking issues down into very simple terms and focusing on sexy rather than boring issues are in the media's interest and politicians are all too happy to go along with this. Ultimately, there is a mutually beneficial 'dance:' politicians focus on partisan talking points (like freedom or class warfare, depending on their political parties) and the media portrays debates in similarly black-and-white terms. No one's points-of-view are changed by this: they are merely solidified.

Q1. Name and describe 5 propaganda devices used in the movie (devices from "Propaganda -- all devices, 2014)

"Appeal to emotion:" To rally support for the war, the PR operative creates a scene in which a young, Albanian refugee girl rescues a beloved kitten from the rubble. Not only is the scene false, but even were it real, there is no inherent reason that the U.S. should intervene in Albania simply because a girl's little kitten was hurt. The image tugs on the heartstrings, little else.

"Astroturf:" This common technique is used in politics to lure people to support a program: advertising the program's popular support which is actually manufactured by corporate interests (Propaganda -- all devices, 2014). In this instance, the evils of the war in Albania are used to garner the public's support for the president and an image of popular support is created for the war that is actually generated by PR staff not 'the people.'

"Bandwagon:" The PR operatives create a fake war hero and stage a fake rally in his support. Bolstered by false images of support for the hero, real people fall in with the campaign because they do not want to be left out of displays of patriotism.

"The Big Lie:" The idea that the government would manufacture a war is so absurd to most members of the public they never question the reality of the conflict and the images they are seeing. The fact that it takes place in Albania, a land 'far, far away,' in the eyes of most Americans… [read more]

Media and the Role it Plays in Shaping Society Term Paper

… Young people are most vulnerable to ideas that the media presents, as they are less experienced in filtering information and are thus more likely to be influenced as a consequence of being bombarded with certain concepts.

It is difficult to predict how things will be in the future when concerning the media and the way it will influence the general public. Even with the fact that media devices have progressed in accordance with latest technologies, people now seem to have more power over information they acquire as a result of the internet. Devices such as TV, newspapers, and radio are somewhat limited in the information they provide, but the internet provides users with the ability to only become acquainted with information they want to learn. While also having power over advertisements and news online, the media is also controlled by direct user involvement. Ideas like commentary sections on news providers play an important role in shaping the public's thinking, as the media now provides users with the ability to get actively engaged in reviewing news.

It is probable that the masses are going to continue to be influenced by the media in future decades, as people cannot avoid coming across ideas that have somewhat of an effect on their understanding of the world. While the media can also have a positive effect on the public as a result of presenting it with positive information and with news, it can also seriously undermine people's perception of society by having them put across deviant behaviors that are apparently beneficial for them.

Works cited:

Barker, M., & Petley, J. (2013). "Ill Effects: The Media Violence Debate." Routledge

Fourie, P. (2008). "Media Studies: Media history, media and society." Juta…… [read more]

Media Violence and Youth Article Critique

… Still, former violent beliefs and previous violence of students (followed by parents' physical violence) were also important factors that did not confirm part of this hypothesis. The researchers did well to confirm these facts by utilizing regression analysis for each of the dependent variables during the time the second assessment was administered. The results also showed that a dearth of warmth and well-being in school also contributed to violent media exposure (Hopf et al., 2008, p. 85).

The results of hypothesis two indicate that horror and violent films are the strongest contributor to violent behavior, but that electronic video games are the strongest contributor to delinquency. These results were predicated upon a composite score of early media violence as relating to the aforementioned two sources in addition to television violence. The researchers used path models to calculate these scores involving various goal variable delinquencies in which these three media were direct factors. What was effective about this process is that the researchers used multiple correlations that referred to the hierarchical stratum from the AU-TO-PFAD algorithm (Hopf et al., 2008, p. 87). The results confirmed hypothesis three and indicated that the strongest effect for the total of experiencing media violence after two years is delinquency, while violent beliefs and students' violence is affected as well. To determine this result the researchers aggregated the data for the three types of media violence into one, which seems logical considering the data available.


Given the statistical modeling that the researchers employed in this study, the results seem to have a fair amount of efficacy. Therefore, there were a couple of different strengths associated with this study. Although original research is always desirable, the fact that the study used previously attained research assisted with conducting a longitudinal study over a period of two years. This interval helped to ensure that there was little influence between the initial assessment and the second one. Additionally, the researchers isolated a number of variables and were able to combine them (when needed) effectively. Limitations included the fact that respondents had to essentially estimate how much television they had watched in the two weeks prior to filling out the assessment (which left room for ambiguity) and that the predictor variables -- age, parent's violence, gender, students' violence, media violence exposure -- were not completely independent of each other. Future research could investigate the correlation between delinquency and violent proclivities in juveniles. Because doing so would likely involve one or more dependent variables, a multiple linear regression model (either SAS or Stata) could be helpful determining the results.


Hopf, W.H., Huber, G.L.,…… [read more]

Editing Environment Media Computer Essay

… Basic Audio Mixing

a. Audio may be more important than video editing because of psychological impact on audience

b. Need to balance left and right channels

c. You can change audio levels in timeline in Media Player 7

d. Fix level and pan in bin, also adjust EQ and remove background noise.

7. Basic Effects

a. Quick transition tool allows for quick manipulation and positioning

b. Nesting: applies more than 1 effect at a time

c. Most powerful ways to use effects is to create a composite

d. Motion Effect editor lets you speed up/slow down clips

8. Basic Rendering and System Performance

a. Rendering effects means you are creating video files of the effects results

9. Basic Color Correction

a. Important to set luma since human eye is sensitive to accurate black & white

b. Switch to RGB cast to correct colors

c. Use Vectorscope to correct flesh tones

d. You can also set auto-color correct

10. Creating Titles with Avid Marquee

a. Marquee is application within Media Composer

b. Safe Title, Safe Action lines help ensure titles will fit on standard TV screen

c. Edit tool lets you reposition and resize

d. Save titles to bins to use in Media Composer

i. Put titles into their own track and patch source video to timeline vid.

e. To create roll/craw, click R. Or C

f. Auto-Titler lets you create multiple titles with the same template.

11. Capturing and Importing

a. You need to open bin to import

b. Under video mapping, choose 601SD or 709HD

c. You can link Avid Media Access (AMA) files without importing, transcoding, or copying

d. Keep files in native resolution by using Avid pan and zoom plugins

e. Frame Flex lets you work natively with hi res files


12. Managing Media

a. You can delete media clip, file, or both.

b. Media tool lets you delete across multiple bins/projects/drives

13. Outputting Media

a. Select project type

b. Select video quality full quality

c. Transcode options check resolution

d. Select Target bin/drives/resolution. Click…… [read more]

Media Capital: Towards the Study Essay

… Despite they myriad of developments which have come from Asian countries, there is still an underlying notion in the western world that many of the nations are underdeveloped in comparison to the west. This association leads to an undermining of the importance of the contributions from these places to the international culture. Films coming out of India's movie production center or those made in China for example are often considered lesser works compared to those produced in the United States or England. Their content is completely unrelated to the actual quality of these works, but the notion of Bollywood film or other Asian media as lesser is still subconsciously ingrained in the average person. People of the western former power majority, as a whole, need to overcome these antiquarian ideas or risk obsolescence from the world stage.

The weakness that I found in this piece was the sheer denseness and a propensity to deviate from a topic in a less than logical fashion. For example, instead of focusing on media and spatial flow, he enters into territory which has a decided political connotation which could be off-putting. An example of this is the section on outsourcing, which is a hot-button topic in many western countries out of the concern for job opportunities and putting funds back into national coffers. I was also confused when so much of Curtin's argument is, in his own words, removing the concept of binary in understanding media capitals yet he himself delineates specific locations which should be identified for promotion to this title. Is he, in a way, himself guilty of using a set criteria by which to indentify so-called worthy locations or should something quantitative determine which cities should be considered media capitals?

Works Cited

Curtin, Michael. "Media Capital: Towards the Study of Spatial Flows." International Journal of Cultural Studies,…… [read more]

Media Exposure in Body Image Research Paper

… When become part of the statistical analysis, the media exposure measures did not appear to have substantial connections to internalization of the thin suitable (projected idealized figures). Total TV exposure and dramatization exposure appeared to have considerable connections to internalization of the thin suitable however their effect appeared to be eclipsed by various other aspects. This outcome contributes to the concerns about the importance of total TV exposure vs. exposure to certain categories, and their association with girls' approval of slimness (projected idealized figures) as a social and cultural worth. Nonetheless, the absence of proof of a connection in between genre-based exposure and some thin-ideal truth shows needs to be seen thoroughly due to the manipulated nature of the exposure measures. The absence of a regular circulation for those seeing measures makes it tough to make conclusions about their relations with internalization of the thin suitable. Although general media exposure was not connected, a media connection appeared. Up contrast with media figures was the toughest media aspect connected to internalization of the thin perfect and its contribution to the model was equivalent to self-confidence. Nevertheless, generally talking, peer mindset towards slimness was the main aspect connected with internalization of the thin suitable.

This observation recommends the resonance could play a fundamental part in forming the mindsets that are associated…… [read more]

Canada Cultural Sovereignty the Weight Term Paper

… It is common that most people watch news to place themselves in the milieu of the current political interest. Having balanced news coverage is vital as it showed in 1995 elections. This balance keeps of any negativity within communities. In mass communication, symbolic elements during coverage are vital. Once icons reverberate differently in diverse cultures, it's likely to have key competing interpretations. The French speakers and English speakers are likely to have different interpretations especially in legitimate controversies, deviance, and shared values.

There have been cases where media has presented past issues and caused more damage to the people. An example of this case is during the wars. The attackers feel that those are bad memories whose intentions are to create hate among the people. Media should be able to give proper documentation, and explain every action that took place, and why it did. Germans have been held responsible for the Second World War despite the ancestors having been dead for many years. The present Germans feel the impact. The media should b clear on past events, and the current generation should not the sins of their ancestors. The media is hence a powerful tool that should calculate the impact of its news. In Canada, historical events are given importance in the French speaking schools.

For a better perceptive of media aspects, looking closely to the framing of key issues, persistent myths, icons, and symbols, and the history of both news and entertainment programs is vital. It is also important to accept the growing availability of cultural materials through globalization. The use of symbols and myths has changed over time and these analysis permits conclusion on the influence of modern media to the youth. A study agenda that comprises qualitative subject and reception analysis on a larger scale is vital.


Canada has two different language speakers who include the French and English speakers. This has brought about a split of cultural values with the French accepting the cultures more than the English speakers. Globalization is a requirement for each nation in order to allow transnational trades. Thnis has allowed Canada to operate with North American Free Trade agreement (NAFTA), World Trade Organization (WHO), and UNESCO. Media plays a big role in globalization, and as much as it has positive effects on the country's economy, it has a negative effect on cultural values, and religion. Media is a strong developmental tool, and if well applied, it has more good than evil. The government should however protect its cultural values by monitoring every event on media as well as training the youth on Information Technology and its impact on the society. The government should also re-package its culture while digitalizing it for better presentation. It should also revive the popular traditional methods of people's expression. All these are ways to protect the national culture with a legal protection on elosive or tangible cultures.

Works Cited

Balthazar, L. . Identity & Nationalism in Quebec. In James Littleton (Ed.), Clash of identities:

Essays… [read more]

Keystone XL PR This Report Will Cover Book Report

… Keystone XL PR

This report will cover several different points of analysis and summary. First will be a summary of public relations and what those two words mean in a broad context. Second, the author will define and explain the… [read more]

Hegemony in General Marxists Essay

… 1982). This notion assumes that ideological stances or positions are in effect a function of class positions such that the dominant class of the society also represents the dominant ideology of society. Marxists are in direct opposition to the idealist… [read more]

Fox News Research Paper

… 25-26). While most of American political discourse is decidedly pro-war, conservatism throughout history tends to be more aggressively pro-war, and Fox News' content during the run-up to Iraq War reflected this fact.

Furthermore, Fox News was far less likely to challenge the untrue claim that Saddam Hussein was somehow tied to al-Qaeda, and was roughly tied with CNN in its "parroting" of phrases and concepts introduced by the Bush administration (Harmon and Muenchen, 2009, p. 25-26). An overarching deference to power is expected of most American media. Since CNN customarily reports with a more liberal bent, this study suggests that reporting bias may vulnerable to situational influence and temporal variance. The other findings in this study are in line with the perceived conservative bias of Fox News, as the successful selling of the Iraq War was a crucial goal of the Bush administration and the Republican Party. By not refuting the untrue assertion of a connection between Saddam Hussein and the terrorist attacks of September 11th, 2001, Fox News allowed one of the Bush administration's central justifications for the war go unchallenged.

A separate study comparing the reporting bias of CNN and The Fox News focused on the characterization and information reported about the Muslim Brotherhood, the leading political opposition group, during the Egyptian revolution and directly following Mubarak's resignation in January 2011 in Tahir Square (Glover, 2011). The research employed a content analysis of the television broadcast transcripts in order to understand the scope of the coverage and the discrepancies in reporting during the Egyptian crisis. (Glover, 2011) The analysis illuminated bias in both news channels, however, a higher frequency of exaggerated extremism was seen in reporting by the Fox News channel (Glover, 2011).

Research that analyzes the media coverage of the 2008 presidential primaries and election produced similar results, finding that Fox News appeared more willing "to cite outside polls [concerning a politician's approval rating] if they were damaging" to Democrats (Groeling, 2008, p. 655). This study was admittedly limited, as it only focused on each network's "flagship" show (which in the case of Fox News was determined to be Special Report), but it nevertheless bolsters the evidence of Fox News conservative bias, especially when taken in the context of other studies. Furthermore, this kind of content analysis is helpful when determining bias in the future, because it helps to demonstrate how bias can be revealed in more than just words; whereas the Iraq War study did find bias revealed through word choice, this later study found it the use of particular polls, demonstrating how media bias can course through nearly every facet of an organization without necessarily appearing blatant or intentional.

The studies mentioned above all looked to particular topics or issues in order to determine bias by looking for key words; thus, the Iraq War study examined words and phrases concerning the war, while the study of the presidential race examined the use of polls and how things were framed. Because this study is examining the… [read more]

Media World and Culture Essay

… As a result, the media adopted discriminatory and discretionary tendencies that have led to unstable and unpredictable political and economical environments (Christensen, 2007). For example, in Turkey, a culture of "authoritarian political culture; a delayed development of democratic and civil society institutions; and a breakdown in the 'horizontal solidarity' of journalists…" (Christensen, 2007), has developed. This has created bias journalism.

Weddings in the U.S. are a large industry spending $50 to $70 billion every year. The media in the U.S. has not been blind to this fact. The numerous bridal magazines on the stands evidence this. Wedding galas are common especially in the film industry in Hollywood and features in many reality TV programs such the 'A Wedding Story' show that depicts the perfect wedding theory. This trend, however, has painted the wedding as an expensive affair and created the impression that an expensive wedding is the only way for any single woman to experience romance and eternal bliss in marriage. Therefore, it is apparent that the media are purveyors of attitudes, ideals and concepts in many aspects of human culture including marriage. Moreover, the media give informal instructions to society regarding conduct and etiquette especially concerning weddings. It is also a political and economic tool, and act as a bridge between information dissemination and merchandising for business advantage (Engstrom, 2008).

The propaganda model gives an in depth analysis of the effects of power and wealth on the choices made by the media. As such, it reflects how money and influence can determine the new and information that is broadcasted on the media. This model examines the filters, which are generally categorized; firstly, the ownership, profit interest and wealth of the owner of the mass media channel. Secondly, the dependence of the media fraternity to the state as a source of information, and therefore can be provided with skewed information. Thirdly, advertising deals, which generally provide media houses with the much needed income. The fourth category uses "flak" as disciplinary measure for media houses seen to be deviating from control measures put in place. Finally, developing anticommunism campaigns to control the media is also a strategy used by those with power. All these elements work in conduit with each other to enable filtering and as spread propaganda specially designed to fool the public or pursue other political and…… [read more]

Media Worlds These Four Readings Essay

… The interconnection of personal communication ultimately rises up, on the societal level, to vast new amounts of information. But the Internet does not help in terms of correlation or transmission of information. In some sense, the democratizing function of the Internet makes it harder to correlate valuable information with nonsense -- to take one example that fits with Lasswell's function of communication as "correlation" between different components of society, we might point to the phenomenon of "Morgellons." This demonstrates the power of ordinary people (laymen) to organize socially around a perceived epidemic disease, which professional people (medical doctors) have declared is a fictional and hysterical epidemic -- an epidemic of people who read too much on the Internet and allow their imaginations to run away with them. The greater ease of communication -- even between these two sectors of society (laymen and medical doctors) -- does not resolve the question. And finally, the Internet is in its infancy so it is hard to see in what way it can allow for the transmission of social inheritance -- instead it seems to allow for the widespread communication of misinformation, and does not seem to have given anyone the notion that things of permanent value will come from it, which will be necessary to communicate to future generations. Nonetheless, the Internet is changing things rapidly -- and has a tremendous influence that could hardly have been guessed at by Lasswell, or the other writers under consideration in this week's readings.

For example, Lazarsfeld Berelson and Gaudet (1944) examine the effects of the most obviously available mass media in the U.S. Presidential election campaign of 1940 -- radio and the printed… [read more]

GOP Primary Republican Primary Video Research Paper

… Anna Maria Island: Winning News Media, Inc.). Two such scholarly sources have been provided (0214_campaign_tech_west-(approved_scholarly-resource).pdf, and 0313_youtube_salmond-(approved_scholarly-resource).pdf) for use.

- Researcher/writer will need to include peer reviewed journal articles as well.


- Researcher/writer will need to use APA style in text citations and bibliography.


Researcher/writer must cite all of your sources -- " newspapers, YouTube videos, journal articles, books, TV programs, etc.

An in text citation does not carry through several paragraphs or an entire page.

- The paper must include graphs and tables.

- The paper must include the following:

Title Page with Picture/Graphic

Introduction and Conclusion

Headings (throughout paper)

• Some examples of headings for this assignment would be: Ads, Interviews, Polling Data, etc.

Proper Grammar and Spelling

• Papers with misspellings and poor grammar will not be accepted o Graphs, Tables, Graphics, Etc.

• Must be numbered, titled, and sourced o APA Style Bibliography and In Text Citations

Page numbers o Paragraphs -- " This means use proper paragraph form. Indent the first line of a paragraph, etc.

Times New Roman Font - 12pt

Double Space with all margins set at 1… [read more]

Mass Media Intro to Sociology Professor Stephanie Research Paper

… Mass Media

Intro to Sociology

Professor Stephanie DeNapoli-Sencil

Mass Media

Mass media is communication that targets a large market. It is a social force that contributes to the beliefs, norms and values that constitute contemporary culture. Whether it is broadcasted,… [read more]

Internet Has Revolutionized the Methods Essay

… This often gave rise to unrest, class warfare, resentment and other forms of violence by the masses (Borden, 2010).

However, in this age of information, literally anyone can access anything on record. This allows individuals to become educated on subjects before they pass judgment on others. This lack of judgment diminishes the prevalence of violence as individuals think before they act in an abrupt manner. In addition, 24/7 news allows individuals to take a more diplomatic approach to conflict than those in the past. Everyone has access to the same information. Therefore, it is harder to deceive, or otherwise trick people into conducting themselves in an irrational manner. This reduces resentment as those who are deceived are diminished through their own increased capacity to obtain information.

Finally, the 24/7 news media is making the world a safer place in all aspects of life. In business, international competitors can view and research the American standards and methods of conducting business. These methods are often of higher standards of safety within the work environment. This information can then be used by international competitors to better improve employee relations and retention and thus improving profits. People can also become aware of potential threats much faster than previous technology allowed. If a tsunami hits Japan, almost immediate the United States and the rest of the world are aware of its implications. In fact president Obama issued a statement (on the internet, by the way) only 5 hours after the earthquake and tsunami struck Japan (Cross, 2011). These nations can subsequently rally together to send aid to an otherwise defeated nation. Numerous examples of these exist throughout the world. All of which create an environment of safety and security for those who use the mass media effectively.

In conclusion, it is my belief that the mass media does indeed make the world safer on a global scale. The speed in which individuals can receive and update information is unpatrolled. Society can those use this information to make better informed decisions regarding problems with profound implications for the world economy. This decreases violence and creates a safer environment in which society can operate in.


1) Borden, David. "Editorial: Ignorance Leading to Suffering, Injustice and Death." Raising Awareness of the Consequences of Prohibition. Web. 10 Mar. 2012. .

2) Cross, the Red. "How to Help Japan: Earthquake Relief Options." The Huffington Post., 21 Mar. 2011. Web. 10 Mar.…… [read more]

Media as the Linguistic Discourse Research Proposal

… There should also be brief mention/description of 21st century culture, the digital media revolution, and comparisons of current culture to the cultures of prior centuries, whether in a specific or general sense. This section of the research would introduce the topic and set the stage for the literature review and argumentation for the hypothesis.

Following this section(s) would be the literature review. The aim would be to be exhaustive, yet succinct and concise. The author is pleased with the quality and level of relevancy of the sources located; thus, a sincere effort would be made to reference each source in an effective manner. The literature review of the research will consist of summary, analysis, evidence of implementation in the real world (hopefully), and reference to the hypothesis. The literature reviews will also reference issues addressed or described in the opening sections regarding contemporary cultural context.

The latter portion of the research would be the proof in support of the hypothesis. This is where the highest concentration of original thought will be. There will be intentional use of the literature to support and demonstrate the validity of the hypothesis. The conclusion would suggest other areas of research, the limits of the present research, and the further advocacy for the endeavor of media discourse analysis on a grander scheme. Whether rebel or drone, whether liberal or conservative, regardless of class, gender, or sex, media literacy is necessary to function in the 21st century. Whether used for recreation, business, or academic reasons, media literacy is crucial to participate in the global community and technological society. The paper will conclude with reflections and predictions for possible future scenarios or future forms of media as well as reflect upon the influential relationship between media discourse analysis and media objects.


Chen, L. (2004) Evaluation in Media Texts: A Cross-Cultural Linguistic Investigation. Language in Society, 33(5), 673 -- 702.

Chigana, A., & Chigana, W. (2008) Mxit It Up in the Media: Media Discourse Analysis on a Mobile Instant Messaging System. The South African Journal of Information and Communication, 9, 42 -- 57.

Constantinou, O. (2005) Multimodal Discourse Analysis: Media, modes and technologies. Journal of Sociolinguistics, 9(4), 602 -- 618.

Gamson, W.A., Croteau, D., Hoynes, W., & Sasson, T. (1992) Media Images and the Social Construction of Reality. Annual Review of Sociology, 18, 373 -- 393.

Koller, V. (2005) Critical discourse analysis and social cognition: evidence from media discourse. Discourse Society, 16(2), 199 -- 224.

Maiorani, A. (2011) Reading movies as interactive messages: A proposal for a new method of analysis. Semiotica 187, 1(4), 167 -- 188.

Popp, R. (2006) Mass Media and the Linguistic Marketplace: Media, Language, and Distinction. Journal of Communication Inquiry, 30(1), 5 -- 20.

Quail, C., & Larabie, C. (2010) Net Neutrality: Media Discourses and Public Perception. Global Media Journal -- Canadian Edition, 3(1), 31 -- 50.

Scroder, K.C. (2007) Media Discourse Analysis:…… [read more]

Media Influence and Its Effects on Society Research Paper

… Media Influence on Society

In a matter of a few centuries, the availability of information to the average person in society has grown exponentially. Until the advent of the telegraph in the middle of the 19th century, even the most… [read more]

Media I Saw Two Ads Discussion Chapter

… Media

I saw two ads for the Toyota Yaris, one from YouTube and the other as part of a viral campaign to create a Yaris Internet meme. The YouTube ad has an insect made out of gas pumps walking. The Yaris comes along and squishes it, then sucks up the little bit of gas inside and drives off. A caption says "40 mpg rated." The viral campaign plays on the public's desire to contribute content, and willingness to be part of a promotion. It highlights the popularity of participatory advertising campaigns.

Media concentration would be an issue if it were anything close to reality. Media is more diffused and differentiated at this point in time than ever before, and this allows messages to be tailored to narrower audiences and exposed to the world for a low cost. There is ownership concentration and corporate influence among the largest media providers, and this seems to orient those providers to agenda-driven programming that can be detrimental to critical thinking skills.

c. I did the survey "The Color of Network TV" and found that almost every show has Caucasian leads. In addition, few shows have more than one or two minority characters at all. Two that did -- Dexter and Hawaii Five-O -- are set in locations that have a high proportion of minorities, so the casting does reflect the demographics of the setting. For some other shows, set in major cities, there is little reason for the overwhelmingly white nature of the casts.

d. Dominant ideology refers to the fact that the views of the majority will tend to dominate society. All members of society will come to view certain aspects of the dominant ideology as reality, such that those who are dominant can shape the way that everybody views the world and views themselves. The Yaris ads display this. The desire for higher gas prices is also something that is becoming a dominant ideology, and advertisers are also playing up that theme, the idea being to reinforce that sentiment among consumers so that they will be more likely to buy a Yaris. The Internet meme promotion is rather shameless and exploitative, and is not something that has become widespread in society. If more advertisers were to push this method of promotion on the public, it is possible that society could eventually come to ignore the shamelessness of that type of promotion and accept it as…… [read more]

Mice Marketing Proposal Business Proposal

… Mice Marketing Proposal

The acronym MICE refers to "meetings, incentives, conferences and exhibitions" and the city of Zurich is interested in promoting itself more aggressively as a center for MICE events in Europe. This proposal will outline some of the… [read more]

Problems With Newspapers Today Research Paper

… ¶ … Letter of transmittal

Newspapers are connected to society as a result of the several centuries during which they dominated the news transfer environment. However, the recent decades have demonstrated that matters are critical for the newspaper industry as… [read more]

Censorship and Freedom Essay

… Another current context in which media plays a role in conflict and mediation is that of the Israel/Palestine conflict. In this context, it is believed that media exacerbates socio-political divisions and fails to function as a positive influence on the larger society affected or interested in the ongoing events and perspectives (Evans, 2011). One problem, Evans (2011) suggests is the increasing variety of sources, which creates cultural fragmentation and discrepancies in discourse and understanding. In fact, Evans (2011) explores the major clash between fundamentalist and secular members of the same religion to show the drastic effect that media can have on people with highly similar ideologies. Whether in message or image, media is powerful and generally takes more time upholding the values of free press and expression than worrying about its effect on the larger context.


ABC News. (2009). Retrieved from

Alley, R. (2010). Fiji Under Bainimarama. Journal of Pacific History, 45(1), 145-153. Retrieved from Academic Search Premier.

Dikotter, Frank. (1996, Winter). Culture, race, and nation: The formulation of national identity in 20th century China. International Affairs, 49(2), 592.

Evans, M. (2011). Exacerbating social cleavages: The media's role in Israel's religious-secular conflict. Middle East Journal, 65(2), 235-251.

Fahmy, S., & Emad, M. (2011). Al-Jazeera vs. Al-Jazeera: A comparison of the network's English and Arabic online coverage of the U.S./Al-Qaeda conflict. International Communication Gazette, 73(3), 216-232.

Frank Bainimarama. (2010). Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, 6th Edition, 1. Retrieved from Academic Search Premier.

Fiji's High Commission. (2011). Retrieved from

Field, Michael. (2009). Fiji censorship dangers revealed. Retrieved from

Hassid, Jonathan. (2008). China's contentious journalists: Reconceptualizing the media. Problems of post-Communism, 55(4), 52-61.

Hughes, C. (2011). Reclassifying Chinese Nationalism: The geopolitik turn. Journal of Contemporary China, 20(7), 601-620. Retrieve from Academic Search Premier.

Kymlicka, Will. (1995). Multicultural citizenship: A liberal theory of minority rights. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Perlez, Jane. (1997). Serbian media is one-man show. The New York Times. August 10.

Puppet show. (2009). Economist, 390(8627), 44. Retrieved from Academic Search Premier.

Samoa Observer. (2011). FIJI: Censors muzzle union voices over industries decree. Retrieved from

Shuhua, Dai. (2010). A balancing act between…… [read more]

Johnson, T.J. and Kaye, B.K. ) Annotated Bibliography

… Johnson, T.J. And Kaye, B.K. (2004). Wag the Blog: How Reliance on Traditional Media and the Internet Influence Credibility Perceptions of Weblogs Among Blog Users. Journalism and Mass Communication Quarterly, Vol. 81, No. 3. Retrieved from:

The article considers the relative credibility of "Weblogs" as opposed to traditional news sources. The authors argue that, although this sources of media information has largely been ignored by the scholarship, it deserves recognition for a number of reasons, including its growing prevalence in the media. Before examining Weblogs specifically, the article focuses on past studies of non-traditional media and their credibility. Four research questions are posed, after which the methodology is described in depth. Ultimately, the research finds that there is a correlation between talk radio use and the perception of Weblog credibility. In other words, listeners to talk radio tend to regard Weblogs as more credible than those who do not.

Reese, S.D. Rutigliano, L., Hyun, K., and Jeong, J. (2005, Apr. 1). Zapping the blogosphere: Citizen-based media in the global news arena. University of Texas, School of Journalism

The research is based upon the assumption that globalization has brought a greater sense of connectedness among media users than ever before. The use of Weblogs is one manifestation of this, where Internet users connect by means of contributing news by means of online media. To create a platform for study, the authors examine different sources of news media, including the traditional, online citizen media, and blogging. Each receives great attention as the underlying concerns are being mapped and discussed. This study found that there is a greater correlation between online media and the perceived credibility of traditional news sources than might initially be assumed.

Paulussen, S., Heinonen, A., Domingo, D. And Quandt, T. (2007). Doing it Together: Citizen Participation in the Professional News Making Process. Observatorio Journal, Vol. 3. Retrieved from:

The study uses data from four countries to determine the factors that influence participatory journalism. These include Belgium, Finland, Germany and Spain. The authors note that the growth of the Internet has enabled a democratic type of participation in a greater sense than has ever been the case before. This sense of demogracy has become the heart of participatory communication, rather than any perceived credibility, it appears. Some of the concepts considered include public journalism, interactive journalism, participatory journalism, and citizen journalism. Ultimately, the study found that there is still significant barriers to true democratic participation in the online…… [read more]

American Political Parties Term Paper

… "

Additionally, viewers seek information that confirms what they already believe. Bernhardt et al. (2) quote Posner "… they want to be confirmed in their beliefs by seeing them echoed and elaborated by more articulate, authoritative and prestigious voices. So… [read more]

Brian Williams, a Network News Essay

… His attempt to tie democracy to limited media access is rather ironic, real democracy (according to America's Founding Fathers) includes the right to free speech, and to practice that speech wherever and whenever we feel like it.

That freedom of speech also applies to the ability to listen or not listen to network news anchors who think they have all the answers, and it includes those neighborhood social experts who wish to espouse the latest neighborhood happenings to friends and neighbors. The opportunity to click a switch and be rid of Brian Williams (or to not even have him on in the first place) is the true freedom of speech, and it is exercised every day by millions of people, not only in America, but around the world. Sadly, Brian denigrates the fact that there is a "treasure trove of video: adults juggling kittens, ill-fated dance moves at wedding receptions, political rants delivered to camera" that is causing a mass migration to the internet, and away from network television. If it were not so ironically sad, it would actually be quite humorous. Brian does get one thing straight and that is that online accessibility to those items mentioned above (and millions of other items as well) does exist to "fill a perceived need." One could question why that need is perceived in the first place; could it be because the networks and their high and mighty anchors failed to fill it?

Steve, on the other hand, does not think that it is all about him. He writes his article as if he is a journalist, oh yeah, he is. Perhaps that is the difference between writing articles that can be hacked to pieces by discerning editors, and reading 30-second soundbites into a camera. One reporter knows that the story is what is most important, while the other thinks that it is the reporter that is what should take precedence. Brian seems to believe the words that he wrote "we've raised a generation of Americans on a mantra of love and the importance of self as taught by brightly colored authority figures with names like Barney and Elmo" do not also pertain to him, when ironically enough, he is the perfect example of the problem he effaces.

Brian writes that "today everyone gets celebrated, in part to put an end to the common cruelties of life that so many of us grew up with" but his words belie his true feelings; he is not being celebrated, and that has got to be galling to a man of such noted importance.

Both men wrote of the open accessibility to the web and its meaning for future generations. Steve accepts the fact that individuals are going to be more concerned with what affects them the most, and what affects them the most is likely going to entail what takes place on a local front, rather than on the national front. Brian has yet to come to grips with the reality that he may… [read more]

Media Influence in the Bu Essay

… In another part of her article O'Brien presents the following statement about BSL-4 labs, "Furthermore, research sometimes focuses on engineering weaponized organisms, making them even more deadly. These facilities test diseases known to cause epidemics and kill thousands." Although it is true that during part of her article she does touch upon some of the safety procedures and regulations involved during testing, she fails to report on the very low level accidents that have actually occurred in BSL-4 during several decades of testing. Using phrases like the ones above tend to scare people, and when people are scared views and perceptions become skewed.

Reporters try to inform people on current events while at the same time providing a service that is invaluable to some. They must however, attempt to provide information that is more complete and that covers all aspects of an issue. Although it is understood, that it is sometimes impossible for them to cover all aspects, they should at least attempt not to cloud the judgment of readers with scare tactics. Many of these media reports don't actually cover the positives that relate to the creation of a BSL-4 facility. They do not address the benefits that can result from conducting this type of research and if they do, they overshadow them with phrases and words that have very negative connotations and associations. If our government were caught unprepared in the event of a Bioterrorist attack or widespread virus infection, these same media outlets would be outraged and they would be asking: why were we not prepared for these horrible events?

Works Cited

"Angles: A Biosafety Leven 4 Facility in Boston: A Threat of Epidemic or a Defense Against Bioterrosism? By Janice O'Brien." MIT. Web. 03 Mar. 2011. .

Hernandez, Gabrielle. "BU Biosafety Lab Ignites Critiques." Tufts Daily. Web. 03 Mar. 2011. .

Le Duc, James W. "Framework for Leadership and Training of Biosafety Level 4 Laboratory Workers." Emerging Infectious Diseases 14.11 (2008): 1685-688.…… [read more]

Science and Media Essay

… Science and Media

Public policy in the U.S. is and will hopefully forever remain an evolving body. The concepts that are appropriate today and the policies that surround them may not have been important just a few years ago. With… [read more]

Technology and Its Effect on Communication Essay

… ¶ … Societal Impact of Modern Communication Technology

There is no denying that modern communication technology has revolutionized society. We have changed from a planet of isolated nations into a globally connected universe in which communications are synonymous with speed… [read more]

Mass Media on Modern American Society Essay

… ¶ … Mass Media on Modern American Society

In the immediate aftermath of the infamous trial of O.J. Simpson for the murder of his ex-wife Nicole Brown Simpson and her friend Ronald Goldman, several events unrelated to the actual murder… [read more]

Media Has Been Continually Evolving Term Paper

… ¶ … media has been continually evolving. Part of the reason for this is: technology has changed the way the people are entertained and informed. As a result, this has led to a dramatic shift in the models used, to… [read more]

Media Consolidation: Issues and Ethics the Market Essay

… ¶ … Media consolidation: Issues and ethics

"The market structures of commercial mass media in the first decade of the 21st century have moved far from atomistic competition in the direction of oligopoly and monopolistic competition" (Blosser 2010, p. 14). In the interests of freedom of speech, it might seem as if less regulation invariably promotes more free and open discourse. However, in the case of media consolidation, this is not the case. If only a few large media conglomerates dominate the airwaves because of their ability to purchase 'time' on most of the major channels, no matter how many channels consumers may have as listening options, they will invariably find themselves limited in their range of choices of differing points-of-view. Media consolidation means that only a few large corporations control what faces are seen reporting the news, whose voices get to be expressed and heard, and whose stories get to be told. Media consolidation results in the validation of what seems like a 'mainstream' voice, even though the true mainstream may simply not be seen on the airwaves: an anti-corporate, non-white, or critical vision seems less mainstream when it receives exposure only on 'niche' forms of media.

One positive act of legislation was to mandate equal time on the airwaves for all the major candidates, to ensure that the wealthiest candidate would not be the most listened-to candidate. "The Communications Act of 1934, as amended, called for stations to offer 'equal opportunity' to all legally qualified political candidates running for office," ("The Fairness Doctrine, 2003, PBS). However, the influence of the Act is dwarfed by the fact that major news outlets, such as Fox, often promote particular candidates, and dominate not simply one or two channels, but an empire of channels. Through careful placement of certain news stories, it is possible to promote a candidate without explicitly giving him or her official 'time.'

Regulating monopolies in a capitalist system is far from unprecedented -- for example, 'trust-busting' was and is a common consumer protection, to ensure that one industry does not becomes so dominant and consumers have little choice in terms of price leverage. And…… [read more]

History of Paparazzi and Tabloid Journalism Term Paper

… History Of Paparazzi and Tabloid Journalism

Paparazzi are photographers who make a living by taking photos of celebrities. They are paid up by their clients who include: gossip magazines, celebrity blogs and traditional news outlet.

Tabloid journalism is journalism that includes use of brief news content, an abundance of pictures, some fiction, and often they blatantly appealed to the human interest in crime, sex, and disaster this type of journalism employs sensationalism as a device to capture readers' attention. Sensationalism is the use of material intended to produce a startling or scandalous effect, especially one pertaining to the senses.

Tabloids attempt to captivate the masses with their colors and headlines about wonderful, amazing, and even shocking stories. Tabloid journalism tends to be aimed at a mass market and chooses colorful topics which are likely to be controversial. Tabloid journalism has existed since the last century when many abuses were uncovered. Tabloids helped exposed evils such as the lack of proper industrial safety and thus had a useful function in their defense. Power brings responsibility.

History of paparazzi and tabloid journalism

The origin of the word "paparazzi" is speculated to have come from Federico Fellini's 1960s film "La Dolce Vita." Fellini was inspired to make the movie after an At the most basic level, paparazzi hang out on the streets and in public places waiting for an opportunity to photograph a star. In public, the paparazzi can snap away unhindered by laws. But for a paparazzo who wants to make the big bucks, this method is far too inefficient. Paparazzi must make sure they are in the right place at the right time to get the shot.

Paparazzi work a lot like private detectives. Each paparazzo culls a network of informers to help keep tabs on celebrity targets. These informers can be people who work in businesses frequented by celebrities, such as restaurants, shops or salons. The paparazzo often pays for this information. In many cases, people who work for the star might be bribed to divulge the whereabouts of their employer (Kane, 2010).

The word "tabloid" comes from the name given by the London-based pharmaceutical company Burroughs Wellcome & Co. To the compressed tablets they marketed…… [read more]

Public Relations Has Successfully Distanced Itself Essay

… ¶ … public relations has successfully distanced itself from an era of deceit and manipulation to become a credible and ethical profession

The purpose of the present paper is to evaluate the following statement: Contemporary public relations has successfully distanced… [read more]

Sociological Perspectives on the Mass Term Paper

… Indeed, it is the micro-sociological theory. Interactionists believe that the only accurate way to understand society is by looking at the thousands of interactions between and among people as individuals (Charon, 2009, p. 19). This is a bottom-up perspective: While functionalists essentially argue that we understand individuals by looking at the institutions that they comprise, interactionists argue that we can understand institutions by understanding the individuals who compose them.

The individuals who make up mass media organizations are not, in this theory, independent agents. Rather, they are influenced by everyone in their world. Liberal reporters are influenced by their conservative publishers, by their progressive spouses, by their liberal colleagues, by their conservative colleagues, by current events, by the families in which they grew up -- by the Framers of the Constitution, with whom they interact via the text of our founding document. Observers of the mass media are similarly influenced by a range of sources.

Interactionists can easily explain change: There is so much constant jostling in their version of society that change is inevitable. They also do a decent job of explaining stability, because in any social organization there will be individuals pushing to keep things the same -- and pushing back against those who want to change. For this reason, I believe that the interactionist theory is the most convincing and flexible.


Charon, J. (2009). Symbolic interactionism: An introduction, an interpretation, an integration

(10th ed.) New York: Prentice-Hall.

Holmwood, J. (2005). Functionalism and its Critics in Harrington, A. (Ed.) Modern social

theory: An introduction. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 87 -- 109.…… [read more]

Media Publicity Coverage of Violent Criminals Celebrities Essay

… Media Obsession With Violence & Celebrity

Television news programs today are letting the public down by obsessing over violence, rape, kidnapping, and other seamy acts of inhumanity towards humans. Also, television news is preoccupied with celebrities -- sexual scandals, drug… [read more]

PR Thesis

… ¶ … History Of the American Public Realtions Field

History and Early Development of the Public Relations Field

In the most general sense, "public relations" has existed as long as human societies and verbal language. In principle, anytime one person… [read more]

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