"Journalism / Media / PR / News" Essays

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History of Paparazzi and Tabloid Journalism Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (733 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


History Of Paparazzi and Tabloid Journalism

Paparazzi are photographers who make a living by taking photos of celebrities. They are paid up by their clients who include: gossip magazines, celebrity blogs and traditional news outlet.

Tabloid journalism is journalism that includes use of brief news content, an abundance of pictures, some fiction, and often they blatantly appealed to the human interest in crime, sex, and disaster this type of journalism employs sensationalism as a device to capture readers' attention. Sensationalism is the use of material intended to produce a startling or scandalous effect, especially one pertaining to the senses.

Tabloids attempt to captivate the masses with their colors and headlines about wonderful, amazing, and even shocking stories. Tabloid journalism tends to be aimed at a mass market and chooses colorful topics which are likely to be controversial. Tabloid journalism has existed since the last century when many abuses were uncovered. Tabloids helped exposed evils such as the lack of proper industrial safety and thus had a useful function in their defense. Power brings responsibility.

History of paparazzi and tabloid journalism

The origin of the word "paparazzi" is speculated to have come from Federico Fellini's 1960s film "La Dolce Vita." Fellini was inspired to make the movie after an At the most basic level, paparazzi hang out on the streets and in public places waiting for an opportunity to photograph a star. In public, the paparazzi can snap away unhindered by laws. But for a paparazzo who wants to make the big bucks, this method is far too inefficient. Paparazzi must make sure they are in the right place at the right time to get the shot.

Paparazzi work a lot like private detectives. Each paparazzo culls a network of informers to help keep tabs on celebrity targets. These informers can be people who work in businesses frequented by celebrities, such as restaurants, shops or salons. The paparazzo often pays for this information. In many cases, people who work for the star might be bribed to divulge the whereabouts of their employer (Kane, 2010).

The word "tabloid" comes from the name given by the London-based pharmaceutical company Burroughs Wellcome & Co. To the compressed tablets they marketed…… [read more]

Public Relations Has Successfully Distanced Itself Essay

Essay  |  6 pages (2,106 words)
Bibliography Sources: 8


¶ … public relations has successfully distanced itself from an era of deceit and manipulation to become a credible and ethical profession

The purpose of the present paper is to evaluate the following statement: Contemporary public relations has successfully distanced itself from an era of deceit ad manipulation to become a credible and ethical profession. Throughout the paper we will… [read more]

Sociological Perspectives on the Mass Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,566 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3


Indeed, it is the micro-sociological theory. Interactionists believe that the only accurate way to understand society is by looking at the thousands of interactions between and among people as individuals (Charon, 2009, p. 19). This is a bottom-up perspective: While functionalists essentially argue that we understand individuals by looking at the institutions that they comprise, interactionists argue that we can understand institutions by understanding the individuals who compose them.

The individuals who make up mass media organizations are not, in this theory, independent agents. Rather, they are influenced by everyone in their world. Liberal reporters are influenced by their conservative publishers, by their progressive spouses, by their liberal colleagues, by their conservative colleagues, by current events, by the families in which they grew up -- by the Framers of the Constitution, with whom they interact via the text of our founding document. Observers of the mass media are similarly influenced by a range of sources.

Interactionists can easily explain change: There is so much constant jostling in their version of society that change is inevitable. They also do a decent job of explaining stability, because in any social organization there will be individuals pushing to keep things the same -- and pushing back against those who want to change. For this reason, I believe that the interactionist theory is the most convincing and flexible.


Charon, J. (2009). Symbolic interactionism: An introduction, an interpretation, an integration

(10th ed.) New York: Prentice-Hall.

Holmwood, J. (2005). Functionalism and its Critics in Harrington, A. (Ed.) Modern social

theory: An introduction. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 87 -- 109.…… [read more]

Media Publicity Coverage of Violent Criminals Celebrities Essay

Essay  |  7 pages (2,292 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Media Obsession With Violence & Celebrity

Television news programs today are letting the public down by obsessing over violence, rape, kidnapping, and other seamy acts of inhumanity towards humans. Also, television news is preoccupied with celebrities -- sexual scandals, drug usage and drinking habits -- and any doubt about this assertion can be easily put to rest through a check… [read more]

PR Thesis

Thesis  |  10 pages (3,034 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10


¶ … History Of the American Public Realtions Field

History and Early Development of the Public Relations Field

In the most general sense, "public relations" has existed as long as human societies and verbal language. In principle, anytime one person or entity makes any attempt to influence what others think about him that is a form of "public relations." In… [read more]

Mass Media and Society Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  2 pages (704 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1


Canada's Mission In Afghanistan

The goal of Canada's mission in Afghanistan can be summed up in one word -- security. With turmoil in the Middle East, Canada, as well as the rest of the Western world, is in danger. The conditions in Afghanistan are the perfect breeding ground for terrorists who would like to see nothing more than for the Western world to be brought to its knees. Whether this would be a strike against Christianity, capitalism, or perhaps it is simply a hatred that has been so inbred that, like the Hatfields and the McCoys, they simply hate because that is what their father before them felt, is left to be seen. No matter what the motivation, one thing is certain, as it stands, Afghanistan is a breeding ground for those groups who wish to harm the Western world. For this reason, Canada, as well as the world in general, needs to see the country transformed into a nation that doesn't tolerate this type of activity. Determining success, however, will be difficult.

Simply eradicating current terrorist groups from the country could be one measure of success. However, if the Afghani government is still willing to allow this type of activity to go on within its borders, it will only be a matter of time before these groups reestablish themselves. If history has provided no other lessons, it at the very least shows how tenacious these groups can be. Like lichen clinging to a rock, one tiny piece left in place can once again spread to even greater proportions, if the conditions are correct. Therefore, an appropriate measure would be the tolerance level of the government in Afghanistan, in conjunction with the eradication of terrorist groups. A strong, self-sufficient Afghani government that will work to eliminate any terrorist organizations that re-emerge in the future, would be a success. The likelihood of this success is dependent on a variety of factors.

Global support for this mission is critical to its success. Without the world behind Canada and the rest of the coalition forces, it will make an already difficult situation nearly impossible. If…… [read more]

Blog Reaction: Alterman, Eric. "What Liberal Media? Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  1 pages (419 words)
Style: Harvard  |  Bibliography Sources: 1




Alterman, Eric. "What liberal media?" February 6, 2003. November 1, 2009

The cliche that the media has a liberal bias runs so deep that an entire, openly biased news network has used it as a clever marketing technique: Fox News has made its slogan "fair and balanced" despite the fact that it is entirely populated with right-wing pundits like Bill O'Reilly, with the only occasional token liberal to fan conservative flames of outrage on air. Even liberals often do not argue against this premise that the media has a liberal bias, despite the presence of such pundits as George Will, Pat Buchanan, Charles Krauthammer, and of course Bill O'Reilly in print and on air. The mere existence of a liberal is decried as "bias," as in the case of the presence of Nobel-prize winning economist Paul Krugman on the pages of the New York Times editorial pages, despite the counterweight of the equally conservative Wall Street Journal editorial page in the court of public opinion (Alterman 2003, p.2).

In his 2003 article, "What liberal media," Eric Alterman for the Nation suggests that in fact the media is quite balanced. However, an alternative perspective might be that the media is quite good at "selling its product." Fox's…… [read more]

Digest Strategic Management a Condensed Analysis Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,075 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … Digest

Strategic Management

A condensed analysis of the marketing situation at Reader's Digest

Once upon a time, Reader's Digest was one of the most widely read middlebrow publications in America. Subscriptions peaked in 1984, when more than seventeen million readers in the United States subscribed, and another eleven million worldwide (Historical Perspectives of the Reader's Digest, 2008, Focusing on the Words). The publication offered short human interest articles, some of which were excerpted from larger works, at relatively low subscription prices to consumers desiring to appear literate but who felt pressed for time. Reader's Digest today largely conforms to that format and the magazine's traditional subject areas continue to define its current offerings: the latest edition includes a list of tips about making a Halloween costume for a child, advice on how to talk to your child's teacher, some inspirational stories about kind deeds, and advice how to make healthy choices at a restaurant.

Macro Environment (PEST)


Reader's Digest is a relatively uncontroversial magazine in its subject matter, thus it is not threatened by laws governing free speech, although it was well-known for its anticommunist stance during the 1950s (Historical Perspectives of the Reader's Digest, 2008, Focusing on the Words).. However, laws that affect competing media might threaten its dominance. More and more works of literature, including the books that used to be available in condensed form on Reader's Digest can be accessed through Google Books, or through the public domain online.

A recent FTC (Federal Trade Commission) ruing requiring bloggers to publicize when they are releasing biased reviews of products, however, may signal that less legitimate sources of media may become more highly regulated in the future, which could be a plus for trusted sources of content such as Reader's Digest (McEntegart 2009). Bloggers seeking advertising will have to disclose their bias, which may turn loyal readers to traditional works of professional journalism. But greater regulation of online sources may make people trust online content more, and turn away from more established general publications.


Reader's Digest core audience tends to be older. However, Baby Boomers have seen reductions in their investment funds, due to the recent credit crisis. This leaves them with less disposable income. Baby Boomers often have more trouble getting new jobs, and thus they are more likely to trim costs such as magazine subscriptions to the home, rather than take on a new job to pay for extras, particularly if similar content is available online.

Social -- demographic -- cultural

While Reader's Digest pledges to support diversity, most of its news stories, recipes, and content tend to focus on issues relating to parenting, health, diet, and inspirational stories. Its subject matter is so broad-based, it does not have a clear, core audience other than the rapidly shrinking Boomer market. Niche publications have grown more popular, given the political and social fragmentation of America, a trend partially spawned by the Internet. One possible plus, however, is that people also have less time to… [read more]

Popular Media vs. Scientific Journal -- Multitasking Thesis

Thesis  |  4 pages (1,171 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+


Popular Media vs. Scientific Journal -- Multitasking research

Popular Media Account and Primary Source Account: A Comparison of Research Reporting

For any member of the academe, it is inevitable that we stumble upon sources that are in the realm of what we call popular media. Some of our research works, on the other hand, require us to use primary or first-hand accounts which can be found mostly in the form of journal articles published by institutionalized academic organization and prestigious bodies alike. In some (if not most) cases, findings from one source are corroborated by the findings of the other kind of media, but how were these findings presented? Are there similarities and/or differences by which results of studies were shown?

The main purpose of this article is to look into a popular account of a piece of psychological research and a primary source account of that research so as to be able to come up with a comparison of how research findings were presented in these two media. A brief discussion about research reporting shall first be presented in order to lay the fundamental framework by which this discussion shall revolve. On to the main objective, a short description of the method and sources used shall be presented to be followed by the observations gathered from the comparison of research reporting in the domain of popular media and primary source media.

I. Method

The topic area that I have chosen for this study is multitasking. For the primary source media, I examined the study published by the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences entitled "Cognitive control in media multitaskers." This article was authored by Eyal Ophir, Clifford Nass, and Anthony D. Wagner. It was published on July 20, 2009.

This same empirical study was reported in the Stanford University website entitled "Multitasking works? Not really, Stanford study show." The article was written by Adam Gorlick and Jack Hubbard dated August 24, 2009.

Basically, the results of this empirical study is that those who are engaged in media multitasking are more likely to be interfered by what is known as irrelevant information stimuli because the brains of multitaskers have reduced ability in filtering out these irrelevant stimuli (Ophir, Nass, and Wagner, 2009, p.15583).

II. Research Reporting

Before going any further, I believe it is fitting to first provide a description of what research reporting actually is. According to Nachmias & Nachmias (1996, p.556), "research reports aim at answering five basic questions, "who," "what," where," "when," and "how." Underlying these is the sixth question, "why." That is, the purpose of a research report is to relay findings that are empirically and logically related to some conception of causation, to a theory."

As such, we will be looking at how theses six basic questions being addressed by a research report are presented in both popular media and primary psychological research source. We also aim to look at the reports by the kind of language used as well as the structure it… [read more]

Kennedy Assassination Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (881 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Kennedy Assassination

Over the years there have been numerous major events that have influenced the technology and the presentation of the mass media. But there may not be a more significant event than the Kennedy assassination and the impact it made on changing the industry.

The Date That Changed Journalism Forever.

On that dreadful Friday morning, thousands of Americans and many members of the press stood in line just to see President Kennedy's motorcade drive slowly through Dealey Plaza in downtown Dallas.

Moments later, the President's assassination would change the country and the medium of television forever. After shots were fired, a stunned world would make television its primary source of breaking news, as Dallas journalists found themselves delivering a wrenching story to the American people (JFK: Breaking The News).

In the four days between Kennedy's assassination and his funeral, the foundation was laid for the all-encompassing, 24-hour coverage that is the norm today. Broadcast journalists broke new ground as they kept the nation up-to-date on the rapidly evolving story. The media's coverage of the event made television the nation's primary source of breaking news information (JFK: Breaking The News).

"This was really the event that TV news journalists like to claim brought them to age," says Barbie Zelizer, author of Covering the Body: The Kennedy Assassination, the Media, and the Shaping of Collective Memory (1992). "In 1963 TV journalists were seen as the fluff journalists. Print journalists were the serious journalists. When the Kennedy assassination occurred, of course, TV cameras were able to roll 24/7, and so what you got was an ongoing attentiveness to the event that print could not provide.

"You have to remember that there were very few TV stations, and people had not yet had the kind of event that would cause them to corral around the TV. This was the very first time that TV brought the public together. The first relays of what had happened went out on radio then television media took over.

"Television did what was unthinkable back then -- it stopped all broadcasting and all commercials. It stayed with the story for four days. It did everything it could to provide people with ongoing information. From Friday to Monday it provided the American public with an ongoing visual screen of what was going on in the assassination story" (Zelizer).

Improvements in Media Technology

By the time Kennedy was assassinated the communications satellite Telstar I had just been put in space, followed by other satellites, news reports from around the world could be transmitted directly to a network broadcast center, giving television unprecedented power to communicate major world events in real-time…… [read more]

Kid Can Paint That Media and Perception Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (942 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 2


¶ … Kid Can Paint That

Media and Perception: The Question of Authenticity in Bar-Lev's

My Kid Could Paint That

The role of the mass media in the creation of public perception is a matter of near constant controversy, and has been ever since the concept of mass media first came to be a part of civilization. The printing press was actually objected to by many specifically because it would allow for the dissemination of views that they did not approve of, with the belief (correctly held) that such dissemination would necessarily produce more like-minded thinkers. The technologies of the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have made mass media much more present in the daily workings of our lives, with the television, radio, and internet all providing access to the font of the world's information and events. What these outlets choose to tell us -- and not tell us -- can have a huge impact not only on what we know about the world we inhabit, but also on how we think about it and interact with it. Such issues are rarely as clear-cut as they might seem either, and the question of responsibility in journalism has never been more pressing.

One excellent case that represents the difficulties (though not the necessities, to any hugely practical degree) of navigating a compelling story through the narrow channels of journalistic integrity is the story of possible child-prodigy painter Marla as told in Amir Bar-Lev's documentary film My Kid Could Paint That. Though ostensibly about the controversy surrounding this little girl's painting abilities, or the authenticity of her works, the film is perhaps more easily read as a commentary on the effects of media. It is the various incarnations of the media that shape the real story of My Kid Could Paint That, and their irresponsibility is also the only reason that Marla and her paintings ever became any sort of story in the first place.

The first media figure to have exert influence over Marla's life and story was Elizabeth Cohen. Cohen was only writing a local human-interest piece and had no way to predict the size that the story would become, or the scandal that would ensue. Still, this shows the importance of responsibly checking the facts of every story, no matter how much of a fluff piece it might at first seem. Had Cohen not written her article, it is possible -- likely, even, unless Marla's parent were even more ambitious concerning their daughter than is currently thought -- that Marla's painting would never have gathered any real attention. Cohen needed to do a little digging and ascertain from the outset whether or not Marla was actually painting the works attributed to her, and the level of coaching and prompting she received if she was indeed the artist. Her failure to take…… [read more]

Media Stereotype Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,541 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3


Photograph #

Hurricane Katrina (2005) looting found online at http://images.google.com/images?hl=en&q=looting%20hurricane%20katrina&um=1&ie=UTF-8&sa=N&tab=wi,retrieved1 March 2009.

Ambulance carrying Brittany Spears away from her home found online at http://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://judicial-inc.biz/81b.ri1.jpg&imgrefurl=http://thisiszionism.blogspot.com/2008/01/brittany-spears-rushed-to-hospital.html&usg=__uoZgO_FKCKQSYT3FQzen5-UUDYU=&h=317&w=405&sz=27&hl=en&start=1&um=1&tbnid=HnAWV16M6qW9DM:&tbnh=97&tbnw=124&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dbrittany%2Bspears%2Bhome%2Bchildren%26um%3D1%26hl%3Den%26sa%3DG,retrieved1 March 2009.

Photograph #3

George W. Bush, photo of Bush from a different date, different event, superimposed over the 2001 disaster of the World Trade Center, found online at http://www.bloggerheads.com/images/bush_hero_flight_suit.jpg,retrieved1 March 2009.

Who is a Looter?… [read more]

Class Status and Power Thesis

Thesis  |  8 pages (2,561 words)
Style: Chicago  |  Bibliography Sources: 5


¶ … Status, and Power

Mass media is one of the most powerful forces shaping public consciousness. In the United States, people spend approximately 30 hours per week watching television (Mantsios 99), and a considerable amount of their time going to the movies, reading newspapers, or listening to the radio. There is a wide consensus on the influence that media… [read more]

Film Good Night and Good Luck Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,366 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1


¶ … Night and Good Luck (2005)

At heart, the film "Good Night and Good Luck" seems what might be called an old-fashioned message film. In other words, it is a film with a strong, ideological point-of-view regarding the broadcasting of journalist Edward R. Murrow during the McCarthy witch-hunts. However, "Good Night and Good Luck" does not merely portray a struggle of good vs. evil, in political terms but forces the viewer to question his or her own assumptions about modern political issues, such as what constitutes an appropriate balance between national security and freedom. The film raises an important question that is likely to be thought-provoking for those who are in accordance with the filmmaker's point-of-view -- how free is a free press when it is controlled more by corporate concerns than a desire to reveal the truth? True, some individuals watching the film might be angry at seeing hysterical anti-communists skewed by a director and scriptwriter who are largely viewed as liberal, and these viewers are unlikely to be converted by its style of presentation. But a film does not ultimately have to be 'all things to all people,' and simply because it does not produce a wholly balanced view of the past does not make it a bad film, so long as it has artistic integrity.

The film tells the story of Edward R. Murrow, one of the most respected foreign correspondents of World War II whose customary sign-off was "Good Night and Good Luck," hence the title of the film. The film purports to be a true-life tale of Murrow's postwar life as a journalist when he fell afoul of the House Un-American activities commission, headed by Joseph McCarthy. It chronicles a period of history that many Americans would like to forget, where paranoia about 'the Russians' caused many individuals to question the patriotism of anyone who criticized the government. Murrow was a highly respected journalist. To some degree, he had always been an advocate of interventionalist journalism -- he urged America to become more involved in World War II long before it was popular. Murrow said what he believed, not what was popular or even necessarily in conformation to standards of journalistic 'objectivity.' The film lionizes his courage, as he stands against his boss at CBS, the sponsors -- everyone who does not have the courage to speak aloud. The film explicitly challenges the conventional wisdom that there are two sides to every issue, as presented in the media. Murrow was right, that there was flimsy evidence against the people whose names McCarthy was smearing, and he was pressured to conform to popular, public opinion and say that communists were lurking behind every corner.

The film is highly atmospheric -- it does not even use an actor to depict Joseph McCarthy on screen, instead it uses footage from the era. Everything about the film is designed to create the appearance of being from 'another time and place.' The film looks like documentary or television footage… [read more]

Outfoxed Before Watching the Documentary About Fox Reaction Paper

Reaction Paper  |  2 pages (784 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0



Before watching the documentary about Fox News entitled "Outfoxed," I considered myself immune to the effects of the Fox network. I assumed that if I did not watch Fox News and did not rely upon it as a source of information, then I was not subject to its biases. However, I realized that Fox News has a profound effect in determining the level of discourse in the media as a whole, through a kind of spill-over effect. Even if a respectable news outlet condemns Fox for making an outrageous allegation, that news show is still giving coverage to Fox News, and sowing doubts in the viewer's mind that 'where there is smoke there must be fire.'

Fox News' tendency to attribute its own conservative, slanted views to the American public at large as a collective can be seen in its rumor-mongering statements that 'some people say' regarding the advocacy of a certain outrageous position, which creates the idea that the viewer should side with the 'common sense' of 'some people' -- i.e. The Fox news network. For an individual to have to respond 'no, I am not a terrorist, despite what some people say,' no matter how absurd the allegation raises the question in some minds: What if he is indeed a terrorist? With a similar persuasive technique, Fox uses "Ultra-liberal" as an insult, so it is assumed that the impressionable viewer 'must' understand that liberal is evil, or else he or she is foolish. Guests who disagree with the host like Bill O'Reilly are called stupid, or told to "shut up," again suggesting that intelligent people should agree with the host. When pressed by the makers of the documentary as to why he so often said 'shut up,' O'Reilly angrily replied that he had never told a guest, such as an 'out' gay high school, to shut up outright, merely shut up about his sexuality, as if this distinction was an important point and not just as silencing as saying 'shut up' to the young man.

Fox News has lowered the standards of general media journalism, which before had to show at least some veneer of objectivity to be considered respectable. The documentary depicted Fox employees talking about how they were forced to push a "right-wing" agenda or fear losing jobs. When headquarters sent a memo, suggesting that certain issues…… [read more]

Public Relations' Role in Launching Hybrid Automobiles Thesis

Thesis  |  8 pages (2,469 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 6


Public Relations' Role in Launching Hybrid Automobiles at Toyota Motor Company

Public relations strategies must be tightly integrated to the core strategic planning, product development and Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) initiatives within any company if it is to succeed in the 21st century. Given how transparent all forms of communication are becoming due to Web 2.0 and social networking (Bernoff,… [read more]

Media Is Undeniable it Has the Power Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (330 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 0


¶ … media is undeniable; it has the power to present to millions of viewers and listeners in the United States news and entertainment. The manner in which these are presented has often been criticized by experts and laymen alike. The influence of the media on public opinion can be both positive and negative. On the positive side, the media presents its audience with information regarding world events, and entertainment to fill their free time. The media's influence is not only to entertain, but also to inform regarding world events. Ethical and unbiased reporting provides the world with an accurate view of world events.

On the negative side, it has often been speculated that the media influences public opinion according to the wishes of the government. This could particularly be the case during war. The media's influence on public opinion is uncontested; and the fact is that people often take as true whatever the media presents. Some hold that such control is dangerous.

Communism in…… [read more]

Media and Society Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (947 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1



Book Section Summary

Croteau, David R. & William Hoynes. Media / Society: Industries, Images, and Audiences. Pine Forge Press, 2002.

Media / Society

Although 'the media' has always existed, in terms of word-of-mouth and folklore, the advent of print created something new: a mass media that could extend far beyond the borders of the places that produced it. This fundamentally changed the nature of human social relations. The media is both produced by human social relations and is changed by shifts in human social relations (16-18). For example, the modern American Civil Rights movement sought to end segregation. Negative media images of African-Americans had reinforced the values of racist society. However the images of nonviolent civil disobedience on the nation's television screens created a groundswell of political support to change the laws at the federal level, and thus changed all American society. A social movement was produced in part by the media changed society through the media (27).

Part II: Media Industry & the Social World

We live in a society that seems increasingly diverse in its media composition, as there is a proliferation of new media, newspapers, special interest cable channels, and media venues on the Internet. But the actual ownership of media outlets lies in the hands of a few major corporations, not 'the people' (34). Economics and ownership of the media influences the content of the media and limits real content diversity. The impact of advertising also limits the truth-telling nature of media outlets. The more concentrated the ownership of the media, the less available voice for truly alternative and unbiased points-of-view. Profit comes ahead of political change and even the new media has been swiftly colonized by advertising (62).

In terms of the political influence upon the supposedly independent media, although the First Amendment prohibits the stifling of free speech in theory, in practice, the courts have just as often limited the ability of individuals to freely vocalize points-of-view in the marketplace of ideas. Some of this, it could be argued, is positive, such as the fairness or equal time doctrine in politics, which requires the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) to make sure that major candidates get equal or proportional time to advocate their views, as well as prohibiting advertisers from making false claims about products to consumers without the ability to verify those claims (99; 112). Regulating the media to preserve morality has proved a more dubious prospect. The guise of morality means that censorship can be used as a political weapon against unpopular points-of-view (101). There is also informal self-censorship of news organizations, as their tailor their content towards what their sponsor's target audience is likely to be, and often follow suit in what is deemed a hit story, at the expense of other noteworthy but underreported possible leads.

Part III: Media Representations of the Social…… [read more]

Commercialization of Journalism and the Inherent Ethical Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,906 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 9


Commercialization of Journalism and the Inherent Ethical Conflict
The concept of 'News' would appear on the surface to warrant the very
straightforward definition as being the reporting through mass media of
current events. In particular, news journalism will generally have some
type of relationship to current events, whether to serve as a channel for
explaining events, a forum for discussion… [read more]

Exposure to Violent Media Today's World Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (416 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Exposure to Violent Media

Today's world appears to be increasingly violent, and it certainly offers a plethora of violent media: songs, movies, television shows, video games, and literature. Therefore, the temptation exists to suggest that the violent media has led to the increase in violence in society. However, while the two factors may be highly correlated, it is impossible to prove that violent media has caused violence in society. First, many societies without violent media are extremely violent. Second, mentally stable viewers of violent media are able to differentiate between fictional and real portrayals of violence. Finally, society has not actually gotten more violent. Therefore, it is safe to conclude that violent media does not cause an increase in violence in society.

While American society is derided as being extremely violent, it is actually less violent than many of the societies around the world. Countries in the Middle East and Africa, which have a smaller range of media offerings and less widespread media distribution, exhibit violence levels that are unparalleled by even the most violent areas of the United States. Therefore, it is clear that violence in society is not caused solely by mass media, but can exist independently.

Next, all but the youngest viewers of violent media…… [read more]

Mass Media as it Has Changed Through Three Sociological Eras Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (893 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 0


Mass Media as it Has Changed Through Three Sociological Eras

First of all, we need to point out from the very beginning that mass media will encompass here a broader term than the strict media idea we know today. Since we are going back to the times of the Agrarian Age, when the idea of 'mass media' was much different from what we know today, we need to be able to encompass in the notion the actual characteristics of mass media we might have seen at the time.

Basically, the first known dated printed book comes from China, from around 868 AD and was referred to as "Diamond Sutra," while printed books entered Europe only with the apparition of Guttenberg's printed press, in 1453. One can definitely not undermine the formidable significance of the printed press and what it meant for society at that point, as well as further along the historical timeline.

Indeed, the invention of the printed press marked an important change in the way ideas were disseminated, as well as in the way simple information was passed along from person to person. Up to that point this had been done primarily in oral form, by direct speech from individual to individual or groups of persons, or by handwriting. The problem with the latter was that this was generally a very lengthy process, it took a lot of time and, as such, could only reach a small number of recipients over a certain period of time.

Media during the period up to 800 AD and to 1453 in Europe was indeed a product of that respective era and the reasons for this come from the distinct characteristics of the respective eras. Indeed, if we are to refer to Europe and notice its characteristics at that point, we can only draw the conclusion that media could not have been different.

Up to the 15th century, but especially during the initial periods of the Middle Ages and during the Dark Ages, mass communication between individuals was unnecessary. First of all, there were very few individuals living in Europe during that time. The barbarian invasions generally marked a reduction in the population in Europe and people were not only few, but widely spread, with regions generally having a low territorial density. What this meant was basically that people did not communicate with one another and did not need to. Communities were scarce and geographically far away from one another. Life was simple and revolved around the cultivation of the ground, which knowledge was generally passed on from father to son on a verbal basis, from generation to generation. As such, during the Agrarian Age, mass media reflected…… [read more]

Communication and the Media Term Paper

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Communications and Media

Communication has vastly expanded as media forms have diversified in recent times. Through globalization and democratization, communication through the various media has been a blessing to the economy and culture of African countries. Online communication has transformed the mere information consumer of old into a content producer today. Media literacy has become a component and approach in the educational curriculum of all 50 States. But this immense and unprecedented expansion of communication has negative effects. Studies showed that prolonged exposure to violence in the media inclined male viewers to physical and verbal aggression. They also revealed that long-time exposure by vulnerable girls to sexually objectifying forms of media tended to decrease their global self-esteem. Likewise, communication through the various media is as essential to winning a war by the proper transmission of information as defeating the enemy in the battlefield. Communication through the media asserts both positive and negative influence on people. The purpose of this paper is to discover some of its positive and negative effects from authoritative sources with the end-view of contributing information to support the decision-making function of policymakers.


Globalization and democratization have been a blessing to sub-Saharan media (Kariithi 2007). The people's newfound freedom can be traced to the proliferation of the mass media, due in turn to the economic policies established and implemented by their new governments. The invigorated environment liberalized the air waves in African countries, leading to an explosion of the radio and TV broadcasting industry. Innovations included and culminated in the internet. Today, all African media organizations assert individual online presence. These websites have global content, which influences local media content. Records showed that advertising sales in these countries in the past five years approached $3 billion. All developments pointed to self-sufficiency and long-term sustainability. Joint ventures in publishing and broadcasting flourished. The cellular communication sector has been most successful. Statistics revealed that subscription went up from $1.2 million in 1996 to $51 million in 2005. $10 million was projected for 2010 (Kariithi).

Technology has become an integral component of modern communication (Holtz 2005). Communication is also moving more and more online as well. It is more than just substitution. It has also changed roles dramatically. The mere information recipient and consumer has now become a content producer. He wields influence like a public relations professional. Technology has increased the capability of communication so that audiences are now communicating by themselves online. This has allowed an exchange of information broadly and quickly. The current and continuously-evolving environment has been described as participatory. The audiences are themselves running their show. Critics warned communicators to learn how to deal with these empowered audiences in other to retrieve the influence they previously enjoyed over the audiences (Holtz).

One more miracle that has come out of new communication products, techniques and know-how is media literacy (Lundstrom 2004). This new and popular trend teaches children to think critically about media messages they receive on a daily basis. It trains them to assess,… [read more]

Public Relations Building Goodwill and Reputation Definitions Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (970 words)
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Public Relations


Definitions of Public Relations

Public relations refer to a set of planned activities, which help an entity establish identity, acquire business credibility and authority (Fey 2003). It makes the audience remember the entity through repetitiveness or a strong approach in delivering a message or information. It may seem cheap, at times, but unlike advertising, public relations are not free. Unlike advertising, public relations or PR cannot be bought. It must be established with effort, timeliness and the correct approach. It may not be well understood, but PR remains the most effective marketing tool of a small business (Fey).

This definition sees public relations as largely dependent on the media. For a first step, it sets the target for its message (Fey 2003). The public relations person or agency determines if the message is best or optimally carried or endorsed by the local daily or weekly publication or the morning, afternoon or evening TV talk show. If it chooses the newspapers, the PR person or entity must make the news release really newsworthy. That news worthiness is something that the audience of the message decides. It also depends on the media's specific goals. If the chosen medium is television through a particular TV talk show, the message can be received by the show's regular viewers. But it will be carried or endorsed by a newspaper's editor or columnist on home trends, art events or business, the message can reach intended readers who regularly read these newspaper sections. PR requires a keen exposure to the different capabilities and reaches of the different media. A successful PR program also requires a regularly updated list of contacts, considering their high turnover (Fey)..

A second definition is an assessment of a set of activities in establishing the reputation of the entity (Cartledge 2003). It brings out the results of previous actions in the direction of building the reputation. It consists of the consequences of what the PR person or agent did and said and what others think about the entity being promoted. In a larger understanding, PR helps the entity and its audience of publics adapt to each other, according to the Institute of Public Relations and the Public Relations Society of America. The PR person or agency is responsible for placing the business entity before its publics in creating or increasing awareness of what the entity does and how it does it. It helps decision-makers see the entity or organization plays. It does not matter if it is a business organization, an academic institution or a government office. Senior managers are influenced both by the role of its PR or information professionals in the organization and by how the outside world views them. They must take appropriate care in providing objective information to the organization's audience while advocating for their profession. They both establish and take care of the reputation they establish. In…… [read more]

Public Relations Campaign Proposal Term Paper

Term Paper  |  9 pages (2,403 words)
Style: Harvard  |  Bibliography Sources: 2


Public Relations Campaign Proposal

The following pages will focus on describing a Public relations campaign proposal for L'Oreal's summer products launch. The PR campaign proposed bellow is a variant considered to be best suitable for launching a new product line for such a great player on the cosmetic products market. The following PR campaign focuses on carrying on the relationship… [read more]

Communication and Broadcasting Term Paper

Term Paper  |  16 pages (5,070 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10


Communications Markets and Media Broadcasting Technology

The research study I would like to perform for my independent study relates to both communications and television broadcasting. I plan to obtain this research through many of the network's websites and other websites that are related to news programs and that disclose television ratings and number of viewers watching particular news programs.]

What… [read more]

Tylenol Rides it Out and Gains Case Study

Case Study  |  3 pages (982 words)
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¶ … Tylenol Rides it Out and Gains a Legacy" is emblematic of how good public relations can turn a weakness or error into a boon for the company. In 1982 it was found that several individuals died because of cyanide detected within capsules of Tylenol, this led to a massive recall of all Tylenol products that eventually cost the company 50 million dollars. The same tragedy occurred two years later that resulted in a recall of 80 million dollars of damages. In both cases, Johnson and Johnson came out with a better reputation for integrity than before and their image in the public's eye improved as a result of the steps they took from both an operations perspective as well as a public relations perspective.

There were both internal and external audiences within this particular case study. The internal audience was the employees of the Johnson and Johnson Company as well as the Food and Drug Administration who closely worked with Johnson and Johnson to ensure that the problem could be adequately solved. The internal public were very important in this case because J&J and had to convince their employees that there products were safe and to somehow inform the individuals involved that their actions would not result in a substantial loss for the company. At the same time, the Food and Drug administration played a crucial role because they were convinced by J&J that they would take all steps to prevent damages to the consumer. This was evidenced by the FDA's continued notifications to the public that J&J were doing all necessary steps to prevent any more damages to partners. The external audience were the consumers themselves, they had to be convinced to trust that J&J took all necessary steps to prevent their products from being contaminated and to continue using Tylenol in the future.

Communications from J&J took the shape of many different media outlets. They communicated through internal newsletters to their staff updating them on what was happening with the product line and how this problem impacts their company. This decreased the feeling of panic among employees of the nature of the crime committed. They also used press conferences, commercials and news outlets to communicate with the public to assure them that all steps were being taken to prevent the problems associated with contamination. Furthermore, they communicated effectively with the FDA so that a third party would be involved in helping them calm public sentiments. The impact of their communication is that consumers trusted the fact that J&J were not responsible for the actions that occurred and moreover that they were doing everything possible to prevent this crisis from happening again. This implicit understanding dramatically helped the case of J&J and allowed them to gain significant consumer trust and loyalty. This message could not have been communicated any more efficiently. They not only communicated to calm internal audiences, but also solved their external PR issue by relying…… [read more]

Mass Media Violence Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (508 words)
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Mass Media Violence

The Impact of Mass Media Violence on U.S. Homicides by David Phillips (1983) describes how this author attempts to prove that mass media violence has an impact on aggressive behavior. To prove his point, Phillips chose to compare championship heavyweight prize fights for the period 1973-1978 with archived data of daily counts of U.S. homicides. His hypothesis was that these prize fights where violent behavior is rewarded had led to an increase in homicides.

Phillips performs a detailed time-series regression analysis on this data, correcting for secular trends, seasonality and various other extraneous variables. He found that immediately after the heavyweight championship prize fights homicides increased by 12.46% when there was widespread media coverage of the event. He found that the observed number of homicides rose by 11.127 after the average "publicized" fight, defined as discussed on the network evening news, and by only 2.8333 after the average unpublicized one. Further, Phillips found that there was a peak in homicides on the third-day after the boxing match.

More interestingly, murders of young white males increased after the defeat of a white boxer and murders of young black males increased after the defeat of a black boxer. This is what Phillips attributes to as victim modeling where imitation of behavior is taking place. Phillips suggests that seeing the behavior makes it more acceptable or at least introduces it as an option.

Phillips also discounted personal experience as being a factor in the increase in homicide by analyzing data on both domestic and…… [read more]

Public Relations - Crisis Management Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (2,533 words)
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Public Relations - Crisis Management



The objective of this work is to identify an issue or theory in relation to public relations and specifically crisis management and to examine the literature relating to that issue or theory and conduct a synthesis of the previous work in this area.

The work of… [read more]

Media and United States Foreign Policy Accounts Term Paper

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Media and United States Foreign Policy

Accounts of Involvement

The initial role of media was limited to the deliverance of news report, but with the passage of time and introduction of technologies, the media under went restructuring and a change in its policies and objectives were observed. The media has associated itself with its foremost task of covering the news… [read more]

Learning Journal: Media Mistakes Term Paper

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Learning Journal: Media Mistakes

Even though many people believe that the media can do no wrong, and that it reports everything objectively, this is actually not the case. Instead, the media is made up of people, and those people can do many different things wrong, either because they have misunderstood what they were told or because they chose to deliberately misrepresent the facts. I have personally noticed a media mistake that I felt affected me specifically when I saw an Internet news story, from a reputable source, dealing with a medical problem that I have. Based on what I know about this problem, I know that what was said in the story could be accurate in some cases, but was not necessarily accurate for all cases. Because of this, the information that I saw in that story upset me greatly, likely for no real reason other than the opinion of a researcher that was not even accurate.

A did not do anything to try to get the error changed, because I am not a licensed expert on…… [read more]

Media Corporations and Consumers Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (385 words)
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Media conglomerates have resulted in monotony in news and in entertainment. When one corporation owns a series of seemingly independent news sources, editorial decisions start to reflect the political agenda of the CEOs. Self-censorship can result, keeping the public in the dark about key political issues or events. For example, one of the newspapers owned by a conglomerate might hire an upstart reporter who wishes to write a weekly piece about the abuses at Guantanamo Bay, but the corporate heads of the conglomerate, in collusion with the Bush administration, pressure the paper's editor to refuse the reporter's request. The editorial boards answerable to the media conglomerate corporation end up including and excluding the same information. As a result, all the news sources owned by a conglomerate will end up delivering the same basic information even though they may appear different. Political pressure is not the only reason media conglomerates inhibit freedom of expression and heterogeneity in the media. Advertisers also pressure the media to maintain content standards, under the threat of spending their advertising dollars elsewhere. If Ford or Budweiser don't want their ads placed during a documentary on Bin Laden, then…… [read more]

Communications in Spite of the Wide Range Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (392 words)
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In spite of the wide range of news sources available on the Internet, I still get at least half of my current event information from television and occasionally from print media. I usually consult Internet news sources for more in-depth information or for immediately up-to-date headlines about an event unfolding at the moment. For entertainment I rely equally on Internet and television, because each offers a unique experience. The Internet permits live gaming, chatting with real people, and the chance to simply browse the Web for interesting sites or shopping. Television, on the other hand, offers full-length movies,-hour-long dramas, and half-hour shows that I like to watch for pure entertainment.

Although I have no one favorite broadcast media of mass communication, I often watch CNN. Their approach is what is increasingly commonly called "infotainment." Through sensational images, sounds, and graphics, CNN tries to make the news an entertainment product. Their anchors and prime time hosts are like celebrities: Larry King and Anderson Cooper. Points-of-view tend to be tame and mainstream: CNN dislikes controversy and plays it safe by not challenging viewers with alternative points-of-view on touchy subjects like the war in Iraq. As a result,…… [read more]

Mainstream Media vs. Ethnic Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (790 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Mainstream Media vs. Ethnic Media

On the front page of the New York Times online version, (Monday, June 12, 2006), the story receiving the most prominence was "Zarqawi Lived for 52 Minutes After Strike." The story was about the Iraqi al-Qaida terrorist who was killed last week by a bomb that was dropped from a U.S. fighter jet onto his hideout. "It was very evident he had extremely massive internal injuries," said Maj. Gen. William Caldwell, a U.S. military spokesperson in Baghdad. The Times is a hard-news, up-to-date internationally themed paper; and other front page stories were about a bomb that killed 13 members of a little Palestinian girl's family in the Gaza Strip; about the United Auto Workers having to give in on their demands to help "rescue" the auto industry

Another top story in the Times' explained that the 3 prisoners who committed suicide at the U.S. military prison in Cuba, "tried to conceal themselves in their cells" behind their washed laundry. The front page had a report on the Tony Awards (Broadway shows); the Arts on the front page featured the woman who wrote the book The Vagina Monologues. The Mets and Yankees, the World Cup, and the NBA Finals made up the sporting news on the front page.

On the front page of the New York Post (Monday, June 12, 2006), the top story is about a "Hell Ride" in a taxi; one girl was killed trying to jump out of a taxi that was driving out of control; three other girls in the cab were injured. The Post is a "tabloid" newspaper, using emotion and weirdness to get people to buy the paper. Also on the front page, under the "Gossip" section, readers learn that dolphins are "ultra-horny," and that Angelina Jolie had some sexy pictures taken when she was young. In order to read about the horny dolphins, an online reader has to register ("It's free!") as a member of the Post. The Post does have sports (the Mets' sweep of Arizona was on the front page), food, culture, and opinion, but the paper is mainly sold on big splashy headlines, provocative entertainment stories sort of like "National Inquirer" uses.

The New York Beacon is a more serious newspaper, geared toward stories and issues that relate to the African-American community, and the online version has daily news, but it…… [read more]

Linguistics English Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,536 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … linguistics in American news. Specifically it will discuss the structure and function of headlines by examining their grammar and vocabulary. The paper will use headlines from Associated Press (AP) news content on a major Web site, compared with headlines from the news magazine Time. It will compare and contrast news headlines in two different formats and how they… [read more]

Marshall Mcluhan Media and the Human Senses Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (2,254 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Marshall McLuhan

Media and the Human Senses

Marshall McLuhan contends that all media are extensions of the human senses. True to form, all media presented whether print, audio, visual, electronic or other are nothing more than expansions of our perceptions of the world in one form or another. Media provides the medium through which mankind can engage the senses, explore… [read more]

Media Manipulation Does the American Media Establishment Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (2,199 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Media Manipulation

Does the American media establishment consistently reflect and report the news fairly, objectively, factually, and in its entirety? The answer to that question, according to numerous sources, is "no" to fairness, "no" to objectivity, "no" to factuality, and "no" to the entirety. This paper will review and report the opinions of experts and journalists who have analyzed the… [read more]

Media and Communication in Canada Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (3,166 words)
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Media and Communication in Canada

Description of media system

In the history of mass media in Canada there has been a position that it has been susceptible to the dominance of American media. "Canadian mass media began from a need for national communication and yet now serves as a fragmenting, regionalizing entity." (the Bonding and Fragmenting of Canada - in… [read more]

Media Violence Term Paper

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Media Violence

The American Psychiatric Association exclaims, "The debate is over. Over the last three decades, the one overriding finding in research on the mass media is that exposure to media portrayals of violence increases aggressive behavior in children." In addition to the correlation between exposure to violent media and aggressive behavior, the APA asserts: "that exposure to depictions of violence causes desensitization and creates a climate of fear." However, causation is difficult to ascertain, as sociological and psychological studies in the area of media violence can generally only suggest correlation, not causation. Nevertheless, children are exposed to countless violent imagery, imagery that has become increasingly realistic over the past several years due to advancements in technology. Not only do movies and television shows glorify violence, but children's video games and even the music they listen to contribute to a culture of violence. There is no doubt that the United States does harbor a culture of violence. Incidents such as school shootings draw the public's attention increasingly to the role of violent media: its potential effects on developing minds and its potential effects on the society at large. If violence in media causes increased aggression, then some public policy changes are in order. Reputable studies do show that violence in the media can prompt aggressive behavior toward others or themselves, even when the portrayals of violence are fictional.

Fictional violence is in fact one of the primary ways young children and adolescents are exposed to violence in the media. Forty-six percent of all television violence may take place in children's cartoons, and children's programs are also highly unlikely to depict the long-term consequences of violence; rather, they portray violence in a humorous fashion most of the time ("Facts about Media Violence"). Cartoons are not the only culprit for promoting the notion that violent behavior has no consequences. The glamorization of violence by popular music stars also contributes to a growing sense among youth that violence is acceptable, even desirable behavior. Certainly such skewed and outright false ideas must have negative consequences on the individual psyche and the collective psyche of Americans.

Gerard Jones would probably disagree. In his book Killing Monsters, Jones describes how and why children might in fact need fantasy violence in order to develop constructive coping skills. Fantasy violence might help children master their psychological and social realities, make sense out of complicated emotions like anger and sadness, develop self-confidence, self-efficacy, and a sense of humor. Moreover, fantasy violence especially as its depictions have evolved over recent years, might be highly beneficial for young girls. One of the book chapters in Killing Monsters, "Girl Power," demonstrates the relevance of physically strong female action heroes, and how such female action heroes can tremendously boost the self-esteem of young girls. Female action heroes, even and perhaps especially when they use violence to accomplish their goals, can help girls overcome the otherwise gender-biased tendencies within traditional media and within the overall culture.

Still, in light of psychological and sociological evidence,… [read more]

Challenges Facing College Newspapers Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (2,627 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … status of a newspaper. The newspaper is an indispensable part of the media which is used by various people and organizations throughout the world to have links with the public to spread information and news. Other than the newspapers, we have radio, television and Internet for disseminating information to the world. Till the recent past printed newspapers were… [read more]

Media Conglomeration Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,115 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Media Conglomeration: A Monopoly

While it may seem that continuous government deregulation of the telecommunications industry would result in increased competition, the opposite is actually true. The telecommunications industry has instead seen an accelerating wave of corporate mergers and acquisitions that have created a small number of multi-billion-dollar media conglomerates (National Vanguard Books, 2004). The biggest media conglomerates are rapidly growing by consuming their competition, almost tripling in size during the 1990s. As a result, it is likely that one of these megamedia companies produces or distributes the majority of television shows, radio programs, movies and print publications.

The largest media conglomerate is AOL-Time Warner, which was formed when AOL acquired Time Warner for $160 billion in 2000 (National Vanguard Books, 2004). Prior to the merger, AOL was the largest Internet service provider in the United States, and it will now be used as an online platform for the content from Time Warner. Time Warner was the second largest of the international media companies when AOL bought it. The second-largest media conglomerate today is the Walt Disney Company, which includes several television production companies (Walt Disney Television, Touchstone Television, Buena Vista Television) and cable networks with more than 100 million subscribers in total.

The largest three companies in television network broadcasting used to be ABC, CBS, and NBC (National Vanguard Books, 2004). With the consolidation of the media empires, these three are no longer independent companies. Six mega-corporations (AOL Time Warner, Disney-ABC, GE-NBC, Viacom-CBS-Westinghouse, Bertelsman, and Murdoch's News Corp-Fox) control the majority of media outlets in television, cable, radio, newspapers, magazines, and the Internet (Kidd, 2001). As a result, they also control the majority of information, artistic and cultural expression, and public discussion in the United States.

According to Bagdikian (2000): "In 1983, fifty corporations dominated most of every mass medium and the biggest media merger in history was a $340 million deal.... [I]n 1987, the fifty companies had shrunk to twenty-nine.... [I]n 1990, the twenty-nine had shrunk to twenty three.... [I]n 1997, the biggest firms numbered ten and involved the $19 billion Disney-ABC deal, at the time the biggest media merger ever.... [in 2000] AOL Time Warner's $350 billion merged corporation [was] more than 1,000 times larger [than the biggest deal of 1983]."

The monopoly on today's media is controlled by these enormous conglomerates that have secured monopoly control of the majority of our media landscape (McChesney and Nichols, 2002). Because of the monopoly, the traditional idea of a free press, where anyone can launch a medium and participate in the industry, is shattered.

Many people mistakenly believe that the United States' media system developed naturally through "market forces (Free Press, 2005)." While market forces had a role to play in shaping today's media, these market forces only act within a set of "ground rules" that are constantly changing. Our media system is the direct result of government policy that determines how the media operates. The key players that make the rules include the following: "the Federal Communications Commission… [read more]

How Newspapers Attract Readers Term Paper

Term Paper  |  9 pages (2,416 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … decline of newspaper readership. The author examines the statistics, the attempt by newspapers to attract readers by turning to sensationalism, and the opinions of experts in the field about how to increase readership. The author then proposes an ethical solution to the problem that avoids sensationalism but still provides the readers with what they want.

Across the nation,… [read more]

Wall Street Journal News Establishing Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,160 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


(HAL) subsidiary and another man with defrauding the U.S. military on refueling tankers used at a Kuwait airport." On March 18, 2005, Russell Gold asserts, "A former Halliburton Co. procurement manager in Kuwait was arrested Wednesday and charged with defrauding the U.S. government of $3.5 million."

It is without a shadow of doubt that the media plays a huge role in a democracy because the people listen to what the media has to say. Therefore, corporations should engage with the media in a proactive manner so that it can counter any threat before it fetches trouble. It is indisputable that the power of money is an extremely effective weapon, which can turn the media's eyes blind and their ears deaf towards business ethics. However, this does not mean that Halliburton is engaged in unethical method, but it simply means that the company needs to use its resources to counter the negative propaganda against its interests and the interests of its shareholders.

Strategic Solution for dealing with this conflict

Before creating a strategy, it is important to note that Halliburton is fine financially, its profits have been in a strong position, and the corporation has done a splendidly in managing the dynamic market. "Halliburton Co. (HAL) said it expects capital spending for 2005 of $650 million, according to the company's annual report filed Tuesday with the Securities and Exchange Commission (Marc A. Wojno, March 1, 2005)."

Therefore, the problem that needs to be tackled in related to its public relations department. The company has to project itself in a way that tells the people that it believes in principals and not profits and at the same time counter the liberal media in an effective way.

Morton Winston (2002) asserts that globalization has not transformed the mannerism of broadcasting and printing news. Therefore, a deliberate divide-and-rule strategy can be adopted by Halliburton so as to weaken the argument of the liberal press. If Halliburton can productively divide the liberal media by promoting them as either "trustworthy" or "extremist" groups, the company can utilize the discrepancy as the foundation for public relations operations planned to sidetrack and redirect the condemnation and unnecessary exposure of their policies.

Simultaneously, the company should also look towards creating affiliations with Non-governmental-organizations (NGO's) because such affiliations can turn out to be a good strategy to further divide the movement against Halliburton as it will create a good image towards the American people.

Finally, Halliburton should also look to make profound efforts to show its business ethics and its resolve to stick to its principals by consistently instructing the company's workforce with new courses, by providing them with the latest equipment, recognizing and functionalizing accomplishment standards, conveying their values and principles to their dealers and business associates, and executing internal assessments on a consistent basis.

The fact that there is such a great range of procedures and strategies that can be creatively produced and productively executed to fit the nature of propaganda being carried out in the media, it… [read more]

Chinese Media Industry Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,606 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Chinese Media Industry

The purpose of this work is to document the shifts and changes that have shaped the media industry as to those societal, political, organizational, national, or as to any other possible influences in the formation governance and processes within the media industry in China. Further this work will focus on elements both in the historical sense as… [read more]

Media Presentation Analyzation: Design Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (2,028 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Material which does not appear to be continually revised and checked becomes suspect for no other reason than that the environment around it has been changing. Users expect a degree of ongoing novelty and innovation even just at the level of design or mode of representation, as an indication marker that the providers of information have been scrutinizing their content with a "freshness date" in mind. Even if the article was dated in 2004, I probably would have rejected its "updatedness" without a listing of the exact month of 2004.

Another dimension of credibility is comprehensiveness. The very volume and diversity of the Internet creates a an additional credibility problem. The global scope of the Web can create the illusion that whatever cannot be found must not be very important. We want others to make decisions about priority and relevance without having to research the "full story." This would be too tedious and distracting. But as soon as such selections are made, the problem increases that something crucial may have been overlooked. And without substantial independent knowledge of a subject area, it is impossible to find out what has been overlooked. The only reason why I did not believe that something was overlokked was that on the front page of the article, it stated, "2 hours, 25 minutes ago," so I assumed that nothing drastic had occurred or been reported since then.

The problems above, and the expereiences surrounding the article I chose, show how the standard criteria for judging credibility online is frustrated by the characteristic conditions of the Web. None of these elements is entirely unique to the online context, but the scope, self-referencing character, and rate of change of this medium raise these issues to a new importance. The Web is both an information archive and a social network; as people move within this space, their interaction with ideas and information is, at the same time, an interaction with other individuals or groups. Credibility is not just one thing, and judgments about it bring in considerations that are not only issues of assessing knowledge claims. At this point credibility in a media presentation can be seen to take on an ethical dimension.

The notions that credibility judgments can be made on objective criteria, that they only involve considerations impinging on the truth or falsity of information all neglect the underlying characteristic of the networked environment in which these judgments are being made. The social dimensions of this network always entail elements of judgment and value. Finally, the best safeguard is to check one's judgments against the judgments of a community with which one has confidence or choosing that reference on the basis of issues of respect and trust, as a matter of expertise. The numerous media presentations found in the form of television and the Web have many different concepts that can be analyzed in the form of their design and ethical relationships.


Bruce, B.C. (2000), "Credibility of the Web: Why we need dialectical reading," Journal… [read more]

Breaking the News" by James Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (632 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


The anecdote illustrates the conflict that happens between two journalists, and, eventually, between the journalists and the public (with the inclusion of the military), when confronted to choose between covering a newsworthy footage or saving the lives of people under the danger of death. The journalists' decision to become objective and cover the event instead of saving the lives of those in danger illustrates the lack of consideration that the mass media has on the reality that surrounds them. That is, they choose to objectify every reality that they encounter everyday, and assess their judgment and behavior based on the newsworthiness of an event as it is presented to them. In this example, Fallows shows how the mass media have become an autonomous institution that cares only for itself and not the public and its welfare, the very people whom they should serve, first and foremost.

"Breaking the News" have effectively reflected what Fallows have asserted to be the current preoccupation of the mass media at present: that is, 'charming' and 'winning the acceptance of the crowd' (public). Ultimately, the mass media's preoccupation in influencing the public is based not so much on the concern that it has for the American public's welfare, but on the potential profits that media conglomerates can make when they are able to capture their audience, the public, in every news or entertainment piece that they offer. Sadly, the book has also opened the people's eyes to the hard reality that the mass media is firstly, an economic institution before becoming a social institution. Fallows' experiences and observations as a media practitioner over the years serves proof that the mass media has become an autonomous body that is detached from the public and the realities of the society, and, unfortunately, operating under its own agenda and purposes.

Work cited

Fallows, J. (1996). Breaking…… [read more]

Media Violence Blaming Social Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (704 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Also, famed criminologist James Q. Wilson responds to the issue by commenting, "No doubt violence on television and in the movies heightens aggression among some people some of the time, but we have virtually no evidence that it affects the serious crime rate.'" Thus, crime rates incorporate other factors, especially economic conditions, which have a significant and nearly wholly accountable effect on violence in society.

Richard B. Felson's paper on "Mass Media Effects on Violent Behavior" outlines three points. He first states that media violence, in laboratory conditions, has an equal effect on antisocial behavior as it does on aggressive behavior. Second, contrary to general view regarding punishment in the media, he determines that the media is the most likely avenue to display punishment following violence. His final point is that criminals have a versatile tendency toward violent as well as non-violent acts. He concludes that, "exposure to television violence probably does have a small effect on violent behavior for some viewers," as a result of the media exposing them to forms of violent behavior they might not have already been considered. Thus, the multiple factors influencing criminal activity make it difficult to accurately determine the impact of the media as a mode for propagating crime.

The debate over violence in the media will continue, but considerations should be made to the legitimacy of the claims that the media influences the demonstration of violent acts in society. Felson's sound observation that some criminal acts might be stimulated by exposure to violent ideas portrayed in the media is consistent with generally observed evidence that the media influences violence, but at a lesser degree than often presented as economic influences are the primary factor influencing societal violence.


Felson, Richard B. (1996) "Mass Media Effects on Violent Behavior." Annual Review of Sociology, 22, 103-128.

Levine, Judith (2000). Shooting The Messenger: Why Censorship Won't Stop Violence. New York, NY: The Media Coalition, Inc.

Potter, W. James (2002). The 11 Myths of Media Violence. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage

Publications, Inc.

Rhodes, Richard (2000). "The Media Violence Myth." American Booksellers Foundation for Free Expression. Retrieved 25…… [read more]

Boys on the Bus Media Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,507 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


The Boys on the Bus reveals the sad truth about the media in the Kennedy, Nixon and McGovern years. It is a truth that evolves with the mores of our society. One cannot believe that it has changed significantly - except to become less herd- driven and more star- created.

If we accept the spin as fact and fail to inject a dose of humanity into the mix we will, indeed "get the leaders we deserve" and they will be as Kamber describes (6).

The media designs photo ops, stages appropriate crisis and reveals the tragic pain of life with the appropriate spin. It has become more important to film the scene that to tackle the shooter. Timothy Crouse should write a sequel and entitle it Popcorn at Five PM. This because the news is becoming just another television drama. Dan Rather looks real against the bombs blasting in the night sky of Iraq. If the take is not perfect, will they re-bomb the city to get the shot? I am sure one could devise the appropriate political argument to justify it.

Works Cited

American Heritage Dictionary Palm SII.…… [read more]

Discovery That a New York Reaction Paper

Reaction Paper  |  2 pages (647 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


After all, it is most notably the reputation of media sources that earn them their popularity. The New York Times is the best-selling newspaper in the country, not necessarily because they break the stories first, but because their reputation for accuracy is so well regarded. The Jayson Blair scandal completely contradicts everything the newspaper has worked for -- it strikes at the heart of the New York Times, which is its reputation.

The resignation by Blair and the two top editors is a step in the right direction. It marks the acknowledgment of fault by those running the newspaper, rather than blaming it simply on the rogue reporter. However, I still believe that the reputation of the New York Times is questionable, or at least not what it was prior to the Blair incident. This is not to say that more resignations are needed, or new policies need to be implemented. I am not sure what, if anything, can serve to immediately reverse the reputation of the paper. I suppose that if I had the responsibility for dealing with the incident, I would have been overly aggressive. I would have harped on the issue, day in and day out, and made sure the public was aware that all precautions were being taken to prevent a similar incident in the future.

There will definitely be some long-term ramifications, the degree of which I do not know. I think the Times will be a lot more stringent in their overview of writers. As to whether they will fully recover from the harm done to their reputation anytime soon -- I doubt it. I also think ramifications will go beyond just the New York Time's office. If this kind of incident could happen at such a prestigious newspaper, it could happen anywhere, and other media outlets will most likely follow similar preventative measures.

Works Cited

Kurtz, Howard. "More Reporting By Times Writer Called Suspect." Washington

Post.…… [read more]

Conglomerates / Media Ownership Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (723 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


For example, Jeff Chester of the Center for Digital Democracy says, "I'm not saying that everything is a horrible paranoid fantasy, but my sense is there's an implicit quid pro quo here." (Quoted by Roberts) These suspicions are further fueled by the readiness of these big media players to accept "government advice" on killing stories it does not like, and the fact that all of them have pivotal business pending in Washington.

These big media conglomerates have acquired enormous political power, as reflected in the Telecommunications Act of 1996 that was purported to be an attempt to spur competition, but resulted in exactly the opposite -- the trend of media mergers actually accelerating after 1996. What is more, with this Act, the Congress gave the digital spectrum ($40 billion to $100 billion worthy of public assets) to commercial broadcasters free of charge, which Senator John McCain referred to as "one of the greatest scams in American history." (Quoted by Duemler)

There is little doubt that the increasing dominance of the global media by a handful of large, influential conglomerates is a dangerous trend. It smothers the independent voice, undermines the quality of news, compromises informed choice and makes it easy for the government to manipulate and control the sources of information. The trend can only be reversed through greater public awareness of its negative consequences.

Works Cited

Bagdikian. Ben H. "Democracy and the Media." Extract from the book, "The Media Monopoly."

Beacon Press, 1997. April 7, 2003. [available at]


Duemler, David. "The Right to be Heard: Creating A Social Movement for the 21st Century" Social Policy Magazine, 2001. April 7, 2003. http://www.socialpolicy.org/recent_issues/WI00/duemler.html

Roberts, Johnnie L. "Big Media and the Big Story." Big Media and the Big Story. October 13, 2001. April 7, 2003. http://www.msnbc.com/news/642434.asp

The "story" here refers to the coverage of the 9/11 events and its aftermath

President's security adviser, advised the major networks to refrain from showing Osama bin Laden's unedited taped messages -- they duly obliged without a whimper

Media Ownership… [read more]

Beauty Shaping Up to Fit Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,220 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


[Author not available, 2003(b)] A psychological study in 1995 found that three minutes spent looking at models in a fashion magazine caused 70% of women to feel depressed, guilt and shameful. These statistics support his argument and mine. Eric Stice at the University of Texas, Austin argues that due to the media "Most of us...think dieting is going to keep us thin, but there's never been a single study to date that has found that dieting as commonly practiced in the real world leads to weight loss."[Author not available, 2003(b)] Not only are the myths cultivated by the media exposed but the author gives innovative ideas on how to counter their effects practically through reassurance of the natural diversity in body shapes and sizes and awareness of differences between media image and reality.[Author not available, 2003(b)].

Media may feed weight problems of teen-aged girls" by Dr. Steve Salvatore is a small but explicit article that describes how very real the danger posed by media images is when imposed on young and malleable minds. Eating disorders were best tackled by raising self-esteem he agreed.

Girls like Marne Greenberg were interviewed as were experts such as Dr. Stanley Hertz of Long Island Jewish Hospital, who admit how frequent the use of vomiting or laxatives to control weight really is.[Salvatore, S, 1999] This article too, through description and examples derided the role of the media in proliferating false ideals and prioritizing physical attributes in its bid for higher ratings and more consumers. The author encourages young girls to evaluate themselves in ways other than weight. [Salvatore, S, 1999]The author has a tendency to quote expert opinions rather analyze the data himself but his message is clearly towards producing a more media savvy consumer as bulimia due to low self-image is a very real issue.


Women have been manipulating their body for centuries to fit a required and idealized image of feminine grace and beauty. The methods used have often been painful, uncomfortable and harmful. From body shaping clothes, to metal neck rings, foot binding, cosmetic surgery and dieting, females have been told by society how to improve their many 'imperfections.' Eating disorders have become a real menace amongst our young women,13% are diagnosed with anorexia, bulimia or some other form of binge eating every year.[Author not available, 2003(b)] Like Marne Greenberg, these women have a desire to be thin because the media has been telling them insistently, and continuously through psychological machinations that it is the sexier, more powerful and profitable way to be. Raising awareness of this issue and taking practical steps through support and education are ways needed to prevent this onslaught. That the media will have to adapt to growing public outcry is shown by the fact that many advertisers are already using women to monitor ads and give their feed-back [Author not available, 2003(a)]and slowly images of the real American women who is not flat as a board but is beautiful anyways, are making their presence felt.

References:… [read more]

Race in Today's Mass Media Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (715 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Other shows have failed miserably - like All American Girl- Margaret Cho's short-lived sitcom. Asian and Latino roles have been even fewer with only a few shows entertaining them into the permanent line-up. Suddenly Susan, had the wise-cracking suave magazine photographer, Luis (comedian Nestor Carbonell), while Will & Grace have Rosario, Karen's housekeeper, an occasion supporting role played by Shelley Morrison. While both Luis and Rosario are far from 'ignorant', there is a hint of stereotyping in their roles through the seasons.

Arguably, some of the racism in mass media, doesn't just fall onto television shows. Modern cinema has been guilty of perpetuating the social stereotypes and views of society regarding ethnicity and different cultures. In many cases, "mass media do not just shape whites' minds and imaginations. They socialize black and other non-white minds as well" (Hook, 1995). It has only been recently with directors like, Spike Lee, Ang Lee, and actor/director Denzel Washington have we seen a change in stereotyping and roles made available to 'non-whites'. In many cases, storylines and writers could be put to the test, in creating stories and characters that challenge our society's mode of thinking. This kind of commentary, as difficult as it is to see it unchanged by big studios, has fallen into the laps of the independent filmmakers who are choosing 'realism' over 'idealism'.

Mass media has a far more important role in society than it did 30, even 20 years ago. Today, television is in every household, and role-models are being showcased on the 'boob tube' every day. The greatest influence is not only on children and youth, but on the ongoing perceptions adults make regarding their own roles and abilities in our society. Television, especially, has a duty to portray equality as it should be, and not as we determine it to be. Racism is a vicious circle, and our minds have never be able to entirely assimilate the truth: that mass media mirrors society.


Hooks, B. Teaching Resistance: The Racial Politics of Mass Media

Killing Rage…… [read more]

Students Come and Go Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (846 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


I also took advantage of other valuable resources in the College of Communication as an on-air reporter for WVUA for more than eight months. In addition, I worked as an assistant producer for the Center for Public Television. I've spent so many hours at Reese Phifer it seems like my second home. I have learned that versatility is also an essential aspect of a career in this field. I was a radio anchor/reporter by day, a TV reporter by night, and I managed to fit in 20 hours a week working for CPT. To me, the ability to have a first-class education and relevant work experience are the keys to success, along with the personality traits associated with anybody who deals with the public.

After Graduate School, I would like to use my Masters Degree in Advertising and Public Relations to work in Public Relation or Media Relations at a college or university. Among my strengths are that I am goal oriented, ambitious, organized, and self-motivated. In working so prominently with people during my tenure here, I realized that I work extremely well with all types of people and personalities. I feel confident that I possess the necessary tools and work ethic to represent a college or university to its utmost standards.

The only detriment on my candidacy for the APR Masters Program is my GRE score. However, my score does not reflect my capabilities of doing well in the program. Throughout college I have never earned a grade below a "B." I feel that this serves as a better barometer for the type of student who will be working in such a demanding field. I feel that my grade point average better reflects my work ethic and organizational skills than a test which is taken over just a few hours.

My reasons for choosing the University of Alabama's APR Masters Program are simple. The APR program is one of the best in the state and it is something that I am quite familiar with. I feel that by going out into the workforce with a Masters Degree from this program would show that I am capable of working through an arduous program to achieve a well-respected degree. The communication department offers a vast amount of resources for students to gain an abundance of experience and knowledge. I feel that my overall attitude towards life, my dedication to education, and my past academic success makes me an extremely viable candidate for your program. I sincerely look forward to…… [read more]

Power of the Media Few Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (911 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


While the media serves to educate and inform the public, it also seeks to make a profit. In recent years, several of the most highly rated movies, television shows, and video games have been excessively violent, i.e. "Jackass," "WWF Smackdown," etc. By continuing to advertise and show these movies, television shows, and video games, the media arguably condones and promotes violence and sexual behavior, both explicitly (by showing the violent and sexually explicit shows) and implicitly (by continuing to air shows that are highly sexual and violent).

While the media arguably condones and promotes violence and sexual behavior, it also curbs (or attempts to) violence in many ways. First, the media has continued to issue and abide by "parental warnings" for movies, music, video games, and television shows. Shows that contain events that individuals are likely to simulate (i.e., "Jackass" and "WWF Smackdown") have warnings before they air stating that individuals should not attempt to duplicate these stunts at home as they are highly dangerous. Next, the media has aired and publicize numerous public service announcements regarding drugs, sexually transmitted diseases, and violence and ways individuals may act in order to prevent becoming a victim of violence. Likewise, the media has aired numerous specials regarding high-profile incidents of violence (i.e. school shootings, juvenile crime) as well as the debate over sexually explicit and violent rap lyrics and movies. In doing so, the media is balancing its role as an educator and informer with its role of entertainer.


The media, like most things in life, is a double-edged sword. On the one hand, the media seeks to educate and inform individuals and society, both about mundane topics (i.e., the day's news and weather) and more serious topics (i.e., crime rates, political woes, the stock market). In conjunction with its role as an educator and informer, the media also serves as an entertainer, informing the public about the latest celebrity news as well as producing movies, television shows, and video games that allow individuals to "escape" from the monotony and stress of their everyday work and interpersonal lives. There is no clear-cut, simple way for the media to refrain from promoting violence or to simply air shows that condemn violence. In order to find a balance, the media must retain its First Amendment rights while following rational ethical guidelines (i.e., not televising overtly sexual or violent acts such as live executions, sexual orgies, etc.). By doing so, the media will be acting responsible while earning a profit and individuals may be educated as well as entertained.

Works Cited

Morgan, Joan. "From Fly-Girls to *****es and Hos."… [read more]

Profile Story Pitch to an Editor Article

Article  |  2 pages (668 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+



In our search for poignant stories in the "journalists under siege" series, we have uncovered incredible stories of men and women risking their lives to promote freedom of information. I have recently been following T.P. Mishra (Thakur Prasad Sharma), a Bhutanese journalist who was evicted from his hometown at six years of age. Mishra maintains a blog and since his move to the United States, has been published in The Wall Street Journal. I would like to cover T.P. Mishra to discuss the peculiar issues of Bhutanese and Nepali refugees, their liminal status, and especially the state of journalism in Bhutan.

Mishra describes his work as a form of "exiled journalism," in which the journalist writes from outside their country of origin but directly about the political issues that led to their exile. Issues related to justice and human rights are central to Mishra's work as an exiled journalist in touch with the exiled Bhutanese community in the United States. Mishra is currently based in Charlotte, North Carolina and pursues a degree in International Studies concentrating on Human Rights and Conflict, according to his LinkedIn page. This profile will be based on direct interviews with Mishra.

Another reason why I believe our readers will appreciate a profile on T.P. Mishra is that the complex issues surrounding Bhutanese refugees is poorly understood or unknown entirely. Mishra has dedicated his life to helping this underserved community, working on a volunteer basis for organizations like the Bhutan News Service (BNS), which is a media outlet for the Bhutanese community in the United States. Likewise, while living in Nepal as an exile, Mishra also worked as a journalist for the Bhutan Reporter (TBR), which also served the Bhutanese exile community there. Both of these publications were the first of their kind. Mishra has written a book called Becoming a Journalist in Exile, which he describes as a "handbook for journalists practicing journalism in refugee camps" on his LinkedIn page. He is emerging as one of the most…… [read more]

Publish or Not to Publish? Article

Article  |  3 pages (733 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


James Foley's beheading may not provide the same amount of information to the public as Bernard's death footage does, since reports of his beheading could convey the fact of his death, but that does not mean that they should not be distributed. The fact that Isis filmed Foley's murder is a critical part of the story. Moreover, there may be information available in the film that is not available in a simple description of the film. At the very least, the film conveys some of the emotion, or lack thereof, by the executioners, providing insight into the attitudes of some members of Isis.

The concern that distribution of these images will somehow give power to enemies of the United States is understandable, but misplaced. The reality is that the majority of Americans are not in danger of being killed by Isis or in combat. The threat is sufficiently removed from the public to ensure that displaying those images will not promote any type of hysteria. Moreover, while they may result in fear, that fear may be a rational response to the depicted events.

The reality is that modern entertainment-news has made many people uncertain about the real role of journalists in society. The press has a single job: report the news. It cannot be argued that either of those events are not news. The fact that news is unpleasant or uncomfortable does not mean it is irrelevant. On the contrary, news that is unpleasant or uncomfortable may be the most critical type of news for journalists to distribute, because it may be unlikely to receive distribution through other venues.

Furthermore, today's opinion-dominated news has mixed in the notion of moral judgment with the idea of news distribution. The reality is that journalists are supposed to present facts to the public, giving people the ability to draw their own conclusions from those facts. Instead, modern journalists have placed themselves in the roles of moralists, dictating norms to their audience. This is a diversion from the true role of journalists; it is the job of the press to bring news to people without passing moral judgments or censoring that…… [read more]

Ethical Practices in Print Media Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (640 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


While this is a significant compliment of print media, it is a major challenge for individuals who prepare, write, and edit publications. The challenge for these individuals is to maintain the high standard through ethical practices in journalistic practice. Some of these standards include maintaining integrity and honesty, avoiding conflicts of interest, maintaining suitable professional distance, and assuming personal responsibility for their choice of editorial content depending on the interests and needs of their readers.

The major focus of ethics in print media is credibility, which is the key to success of print publications and digital media offerings ("Ethics in Media Reporting," n.d.). The significance of credibility is attributed to the need for readers to trust the information and/or advice presented. The maintenance of credibility requires differentiating between autonomous editorial content and paid advertising information. This implies that the publications should not in any way suggest editorial approval of an advertiser.

The other important elements of ethics in print media include accuracy, reciprocity, and diversity that are used to define what is newsworthy. Accuracy refers to combining correct facts with precise words while reciprocity is the golden rule and diversity involves covering every facet of the society or population fairly. These elements are combined with the other familiar components i.e. uniqueness, timeliness, significance, and proximity to provide truthful, well-rounded, and reliable information.

Based on this analysis, ethics in print media has numerous benefits and advantages that are visible for the world. When professionals adhere to the code of ethics in preparation of their publications, they not only produce truthful and reliable work but they also obtain the trust of their readers.


"Ethics in Media Reporting." (n.d.). Ishan Family. Retrieved September 27, 2014, from http://www.ishanfamily.com/cms/pdf/2.pdf

Richardson, I. (n.d.). Ethics of Print Media. Retrieved September 27, 2014, from http://www.ehow.com/about_6239171_ethics-print-media.html… [read more]

Theoretical Treatments of Symbolic Interactionism Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,405 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3



This story featured investigative reporter Ana Garcia, a young Latina women who is known from the NBC affiliate's expose series "Get Garcia," reviewing the trade in illegally trafficked animals which continues to plague the city. An attractive White women, Jill Bandemer, is presented with the subheading "Fashion District Shopper," and she goes on to describe her experience shopping on… [read more]

Statistical Analysis of American Electorate Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (581 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Statistical Analysis of American Electorate

The process of designing an empirical research project that examines the relationship between party identification and the effect of news media on vote choice should begin with an assessment of the variables to be tested. In light of the information provided in the monograph, which observes that "the stronger a person's party identification, the less effect that news media has on the person's vote choice," it would seem that the asserted negative correlation between strength of party affiliation and the effect of news media requires further confirmative testing. The increased polarization of the American electorate must be accounted for, because as the recently concluded presidential election of 2012 and the political gridlock to follow has surely demonstrated, the lack of impact from news media on voter choice may simply be the result of preexisting reinforcement. Simply put, as the rise of ideologically inclined "news" networks like FOX News and MSNBC has come to dominate the distribution of political media, voters may no longer view the news as a source of information in deciding the party with which they choose to identify, but as a means of validating a choice that has already been made. This purpose of this research project is to examine the link between long-term viewership of news media through either FOX News, which typically espouses a conservative slant in its political coverage, and MSNBC, which pursues a liberal agenda in its programming, and the documented lack of influence from news media on voter choice.

In this case, the independent variable of party identification will be tested against dual dependent variables; the relative consumption of political content from ideological media outlets, and the lack of impact that this consumption exerts on voter impact.…… [read more]

Strategic Planning at the Chronicle Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (3,055 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Moreover, women are also no longer interested in reading newspaper which has been a major setback for the newspaper industry as women make a large part of the population.

Technological Factors

With the emergence of new media technologies such as mobile phones and internet devices, the trend of reading newspapers has long gone. The internet websites like Twitter, Facebook, YouTube… [read more]

Outfoxed: Rupert Murdoch's War Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (639 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


In my opinion, such actions effectively threaten objective reporting. In a way, Bill O'Reilly became a pivotal player at the News Channel for his promotion of Fox's core political agenda. In my view, should other journalists seek to pursue the same path to recognition, the foundation on which balanced news coverage is built would collapse. If the evidence presented in the documentary is anything to go by, we are fast moving into an era of "managed news." Such blatant distortion of facts must not be allowed to prevail in a modern society that regards itself just.

After watching the documentary, I also became convinced (sadly) that journalism is fast loosing its professional touch. Taking Bill O'Reilly as an example, his tendency to lose his temper in my opinion shows lack of control on his part. If nothing is done to rein in such irresponsible and unprofessional conduct, news reporting and televised debate will soon be devoid of both objectivity and fact.

The influence media has in electoral politics should also be checked. This in my opinion can be done by discouraging the monopolization of the media and by embracing sound rules and policies that seek to enhance discipline and professionalism in the industry.

In some quarters, this particular documentary could be accused of outright propaganda especially given its resolve to focus on media outlets regarded pro-conservative. I am in agreement that the documentary has its flaws. However, the evidence presented in regard to biased reporting is both sufficient and convincing. In addition to interviewing former employees of Fox News, the creators of this documentary also availed footage that clearly demonstrates how skewed reporting has been at Fox News. After watching the documentary, I am now more convinced than ever that there is an urgent need to take decisive steps in an attempt to enhance the objectivity of journalism.… [read more]

Freedom of Speech There Was Much Debate Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (1,025 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Freedom of Speech

There was much debate during the Constitutional Convention about which rights should be given to the new Republic. Many were fearful of "mobocracy" with too many freedoms, but it was James Madison who pushed for Freedom of Speech and the Press, noting that the idea of expression in writing, speaking and publishing was one of the seminal rights of liberty. Many have taken this to mean that freedom of speech means that one can say anything in the press that tests the legal limits of libel or injustice. Judith Lichtenberg, however, has a different definition and notes that "Freedom of the press…. Is an instrumental good: it is good if it does certain things and not especially good…. Otherwise" (Lichtenberg, 332).

Thus, there is a difference between Freedom of the Press and Freedom of Speech. If the press were to support principles that are antithetical to the core beliefs of the nation, then it would be detrimental to the overall health of the country to support Freedom of the Press. Unlike the press of the late 1700s, which was primarily run as a source for information, the modern press is almost entirely focused upon using news to capture a large audience so that it can sell advertising space. Rather than being information driven, it is economically driven through large corporations who have investors and need to ensure profit. Media reports on controversial and sensational "news," thus altering the message and for politicians and governmental officials, and "be a virtually unfiltered mouthpiece" (Lichtenberg, 330).

If we think about media stories, rather than objective reporting with a focus on analysis, we often get sound or video "bits and bites" that, by their framing and nature, distort the reality of the event. This makes sense in one way -- there must be a background and if sensationalism sells, then it is to the reporters advantage to frame their work accordingly. If there is a story about an inner city blight, for instance, and it is framed outside a dilapidated building with obvious signs of crime, and clips are shown of ethnic minorities, etc., then the overall perception is one that may or may not be accurate for that event. What is left out of the story may then be just as vital to the overall message as what is in the story. Further, backdrops can be manipulated through computer software to the point that a reporter can be standing in front of a blue screen in battle fatigues, reporting on a Middle Eastern conflict, and the audience is led to believe the reporter is in the midst of combat. This, Lichtenberg calls, "The Politics of Theater" (Lichtenberg, 331).

The broadcast media has an implied doctrine of fairness that requires them to give a more balanced portion of airtime to the "other" side of the story, or to present an overall viewpoint that is more representative of a broader approach to information; but the print media has no such doctrine. Instead,… [read more]

Social Science Is Composed of Many Topics Essay

Essay  |  7 pages (2,271 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Social science is composed of many topics and varied fields. Semiotics is the study of meaning. With the advent of emerging technology, social science plays a new role in human interaction. Media, a field of study apart of social science, enables people to utilize technology to interact in ways unseen before in the past. The combination of media and technology… [read more]

Grant Grant Proposal

Grant Proposal  |  5 pages (1,549 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


The grant money we receive will be channeled into helping one of the most important industries thrive. We believe that the psychological, legal, ethical, and financial issues this workshop will address will make a big difference on the world of journalism, and thank you for your support.


Cinders. (2008). Kevin Carter: The consequences of photojournalism. FanPop. Retrieved from http://www.fanpop.com/spots/photography/articles/2845/title/kevin-carter-consequences-photojournalism

Hallowell, Billy. (2012).Should This Photojournalist Have Intervened Sooner to Save the Life of a Dying Snake-Handling Pastor? The Blaze. Retrieved from http://www.theblaze.com/stories/should-this-photojournalist-have-intervened-sooner-to-save-the-life-of-a-dying-snake-handling-pastor/#

Henningham, J. (1996). Australian journalists' professional and ethical values. Journalism and Mass Communication Quarterly, 73(1): 206-218.

Rogers, T. (2012). When should journalists help those in need at disaster scenes? About.com. Retrieved from http://journalism.about.com/od/ethicsprofessionalism/a/journalistsdoctors.htm

Smolkin, R. (2006). Off the sidelines. American Journalism Review. Retrieved from http://www.ajr.org/article.asp?id=3999

The Bridge. (2004). Top Documentary Films. Retrieved from http://topdocumentaryfilms.com/the-bridge/

The Guardian (2012). 'I was gutted that I'd been such a coward': photographers who didn't step in to help. The Guardian. Retrieved from http://www.guardian.co.uk/media/2012/jul/28/gutted-photographers-who-didnt-help

Ward, S.J.A. (2009). Covering suicide: Do journalists exploit tragedy? School of Journalism and Mass Communication, University of Wisconsin-Madison. Retrieved from http://www.journalismethics.info/ethics_in_news/suicide.html… [read more]

Communications Trace the History Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (623 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Following its invention in the late 19th century, radio was used for communication, and over time it became used for entertainment as well (Regal). This paper charts the progression from the discovery of the electromagnetic spectrum to radio broadcasting and the creation of news networks.

The electromagnetic spectrum was first invented by James Clark Maxwell, who discovered a connection between electricity and magneticism. Heinrich Rudolf Hertz then established electric circuits producing electromagnetic radiation that were identified by circuits at a great distance. Gugliems Marcini created long-distance radio transmission. This transmitted messages without needing to connect any wires, enabling one to send signals across the Atlantic; the foundation was also established for modern radio, and radio broadcasting companies were created. William S. Paley built CBS to prominence; he understood the importance of advertising and transformed radio into an entertainment medium. Another influential figure was Lee deforest, who invented the Audion, a vacuum that strengthened weak electromagnetic signals. Additional developments in radio broadcasting included the contribution of Edwin Howard Armstrong; he invented fm radio, which varied radio wave frequency, assisting in the transmission and reception of audio range frequency. The contributions of David Sarnoff were also crucial; he was head of radio broadcasting at RCA, and established AM radio. He was also a pioneer in the shift from transmission of information to establishing radio as entertainment. He understood that the value of a broadcast network depends on the number of its viewers. Thus, there is a clear and direct lineage from the early discovery of the electromagnetic spectrum to the more news and entertainment-centric forms of radio broadcasting that developed over time.

Works Cited

Regal, Brian. Radio: The Life Story of a Technology. Westport: Greenwood Press, 2001. Print.

Schudson, Michael. "The Objectivity Norm in American Journalism." Journalism 2.2 (Aug.…… [read more]

Reithian Tradition Challenges Face Director Essay

Essay  |  10 pages (2,956 words)
Style: Harvard  |  Bibliography Sources: 3


At the same time embedding the values of education, information and entertainment all into the programming at the BBC has been a challenge for script writers who have to struggle with a wealth of information to be organized in a way that is useful for the end user who is the BBC's target audience.

At the same time, if the… [read more]

Occupy the Media Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (694 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


¶ … Elite Media Strategies Marginalize the Occupy Movement," Jackie Smith discusses one of the most pertinent and overpowering movements of today's generation. The Occupy Wall Street movement has taken not just New York, but the whole country by storm, and has continued to affect many people worldwide. Because of its extent, celebrities have also become involved, and thus, the media's attention has gravitated heavily towards this particular cultural phenomenon. This short paper will discuss Ms. Smith's article, as well as two additional points-of-view on the movement, as well as examine how the media is portrayed by these authors.

How Elite Media Strategies Marginalize the Occupy Movement by Jackie Smith

In Jackie Smith's piece, the journalist argues that the Occupy Movement has been wrongly portrayed by the media, and has been presented "with a highly misleading image of OWS [Occupy Wall Street] protests that reinforces the mainstream media representation of most left-wing political protests as disorganized, violence-prone mobs." (Smith, 2012) Smith further argues that the Occupy Movement is, like other historic movements, such as the Civil Rights Movement, non-violent and instead seeks to demonstrate the inequalities engendered by various segments of society.

Occupy and the Hostile Media by Boots Riley

The two other articles are also focusing on how the media portrays the movement and seem to, in part, offer a similar position to that of Smith, leading one to believe that, indeed, the media has only seen 'one side of the coin,' in this instance. In the first of these articles, entitled "Occupy and the Hostile Media," the author discusses the negative portrayal, by the media, of every progressive movement in U.S. history, with Occupy being no exception. The instances given on this point are as follows,

"[…] During the rest of the civil rights movement, protesters who were fire-hosed and otherwise brutalized were called "violent protesters" in the mainstream media […]" and "[…] During the Anti-Vietnam War movement, the mainstream media portrayed protesters as out of touch, violent, and dirty." (Riley, 2012)

From these two quotations alone one can see that the media cannot, often,…… [read more]

Asses Two Cases Related Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,271 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


"Public Relations can also be used to give a negative perception regarding anything and tactics regarding these are often used against competitors in a tough business environment" (Zawawi 2009).

"The common activities regarding public relations includes hosting public events such as photo ops, publicity stunts or pseudo events" (Desanto 2002). Blogs can serve as a great source for online publicity for any event, place or item. There are many famous bloggers which tend to attract different sponsors since they have a large subscriber base.

Social media such as social networking sites are also known to be great in the PR reference, websites such as Facebook tends to earn billions of dollars in revenues just through advertising. Talk shows can also be a very important tool regarding any PR campaign, here the general public can come to know about the many different positive perspectives regarding any individual, place or organization. For a small organization which can not afford to invest millions in PR campaign such as Tehran restaurant, it can hold seminars, personal appearances or other related activities in order to bring a more positive name for them.

On our case, the best way to see if the PR effort is successful is by measuring the consumer demand. If the restaurant is successful in making profits and even to increase them through new and satisfied consumers then it would be the best indication that the PR tactics have been effective. The margin of profits can be determined by different things such as the current consumers being able to buy more items or additional consumers buying the regular amount of items. On the later stages of the business when the consumer demand is high, the business can also choose to increment its prices of the items being offered since the consumers would be willing to pay.

Case II (Bull Terriers)

In order to rehabilitate the reputation of Bull Terriers (pit bulls) we first must take note of the positive aspects regarding having any pit bulls. A dog is known to be man's best friend and pit bull is no exception, with some proper training this dog could very well behave just like a poodle and this is the main point that we need to take note of and to spread out if we want to give this dog a better and more friendlier reputation.

The first thing we can do is to relate it to other dog species which are known to be more friendlier to humans as well as other animals. This relation can be done in many aspects regarding what it needs, what makes it happy, what makes it angry and then compare all of these traits with the common dog species. Surprisingly, it would be easier to find out that this dog is no different than all of the rest.

On a Public Relation campaign regarding pit bull's reputation, we can show many true life examples where this dog has been a true friend for its owner as well… [read more]

Criminal Justice Crime Victims Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (725 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


These people generally have ulterior motives such as using it as a stage to advocate for social change or justice reforms by talking. Sometimes the only way to get the word out about something that needs to be done is to utilize the media to disseminate information across a broad range of people. In these cases there is a fine line that must be drawn between advocating for public policy reform and people using the media for their own benefit.

My feeling is that most victims of crime do not want to be highlighted by the media. They want to be left along in order to deal with what has happened to them. Thus I don't feel that the majority of crime victims are using the media in order to highlight their cases. I do feel though that many victims are exploited by the media in order to enhance ratings. There are many times that victims are highlighted on the evening news day after day. I have even seen cases where cases will be talked about years later when it just happens to vaguely relate to something current. Victims are often not allowed to recover from their incidents because the crime is constantly brought up over and over again.

There is an underlying importance for crimes to be reported by the media. The general public has the right to know what criminal activity is taking place in the community, but this should not be done at the expense of the victims of this crime. Victims should be allowed to deal with what has happened to them in private without the incident being continually talked about in the media. If there is a need for policy reform to take place then that action should be focused on by the media and not the individuals who have been victims of crime.


Greer, C. (n.d.). News Media, Victims and Crime. Retrieved from http://www.uk.sagepub.com/stout/greer_news_media%20-%20vic_crime_soc.pdf

Privacy and the Media. (2011). Retrieved from http://www.ncvc.org/ncvc/main.aspx?dbName=DocumentViewer&DocumentID=323… [read more]

Media Violence on Children's Social Article Review

Article Review  |  7 pages (2,022 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


In this regard, Garbardino et al. report that, "Children exposed to gun violence may experience negative short- and long-term psychological effects, including anger, withdrawal, posttraumatic stress, and desensitization to violence. All of these outcomes can feed into a continuing cycle of violence" (2002, p. 73).

As with other types of violence in the media, there are some groups of young people who are at distinctly higher risk of experiencing these adverse outcomes, including (a) young people who have already been injured by gunfire, (b) young people who witness gunplay first-hand as well as (c) young people who are exposed to violence in the media (Garbardino et al., 2002). Depending on the level and type of such exposures, Garbardino and his associates conclude that young people can be traumatized physically as well as emotionally and many go on to develop posttraumatic stress disorder as a result that will have a harmful effect on the development of their brains (Garbardino et al., 2002).


The research to date is consistent in showing that violence in the media is a source of aggression and violent behaviors among young people. For example, "Television and movie violence are the most extensively researched forms of media violence. Studies using all three major research designs have all reached the same conclusion-exposure to television and movie violence increases aggression and violence" (Escobar-Chavez & Anderson, 2009, p. 149). Moreover, exposure to violence in the media can also cause significant emotional and developmental problems for young people, including PTSD and its associated symptoms (Garbardino et al., 2002).

While less is known about the effect of violence in the media and its potential to contribute to violent crimes, the studies thus far have found that there is a relationship between violence in the media and violent crime (Escobar-Chaves & Anderson, 2008). In these studies, Escobar-Chavez and Anderson report that, "The size of the media violence effect is as large as or larger than that of many factors commonly accepted by public policymakers and the general public as valid risk factors for violent behavior" (p. 148). These findings indicate that violence in the media represents a significant public health threat on the level with tobacco and alcohol that is being perpetuated by an uncaring entertainment industry that is interested only in the almighty dollar rather than what effects violent content will have on young people today. For example, Levin and Carlsson-Paige make the point that, "This marketing of violence to children, and especially children of color, has far-reaching implications for society. By reflecting the racism, violence, and the system of power that already exist in society, the messages embedded in the media images children see socialize them into a world that will perpetuate racism and inequality" (p. 429). Taken together, there appears to be sufficient evidence to support the conclusion that increased exposure to violence in the media can seriously affect the emotional and social development of young people today.


Escobar-Chaves, S.L. & Anderson, C.A. (2008). Media and risky behaviors. The… [read more]

Social Science Theory &amp Methods Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,830 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


In order to compensate for this, demographic protections and probability formulas can be used to try to wash away some of this bias. Large numbers of participants helps ensure greater reliability since it can be assumed that patterns can be detected (Loftus, G. 1991).

With the evolution of computer technologies, it may be possible for the social sciences to move closer to the hard sciences in their scientific validity. The massive numbers of people who can be tested and the degrees to which their answers are consistent with other known results can add more confidence to our understanding of what people say and do. When we design monitors for the way people use their IP addresses, for example, we can tell with more objective certainty what levels of engagement people use, just as we can test their exposure to digitally deceptive information. The answers are still subject to perceptional bias but numbers of such large scale have importance and may become even more important as more and more people are online and sharing the patterns of their behaviors. The fact that sites like Facebook have hundreds of millions of people may mean direct registers of behaviors can be seen even more directly than with probability or other mathematical adjustments.

James, K. (2011). Digital Deception. Simple Lies that manage our social interactions. Viewable within JayPlay at http://media.features.kansan.com/issues/jayplay/2011-11-03.pdf.

Johnston, C. (2003). Digital Deception. American Journalism Review. Viewable at http://www.ajr.org/article.asp?id=2975.

Loftus, G. (1991). On the tyranny of hypothesis testing in the social sciences. Book review of The Empire of Chance: How probability changed science and everyday life by Gerd Gigerenzer, Zeno Swijink, Theodore Porter, Lorraine Daston, John Beatty, and Lorenz Kruger, Cambridge University Press, 1989.

MailOnline (2009). Ban airbrushing in magazines and posters that ruins teen self-esteem, says Liberal Democrats. Viewable at http://www.dailymail.co.uk/femail/article-1204002/Ban-airbrushing-magazines-posters-ruins-teen-self-esteem-say-Liberal-Democrats.html.… [read more]

Airbrushing John Rawls' Philosophical Theme Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,903 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Of course, one of the other most significant arguments being made about this issue is that we just have to live with it because no one can monitor airbrushing anyway. The Advertising Standards Authority of Britain raised this as a critical concern to them. But the fact is that it could well be the digital universe who can actually address this concern the best, possibly even rendering other issues unimportant. Video game makers have created a universal rating score to share whether games are appropriate for children, or what degrees of violence, swearing, etc. show up in the stories. These self-regulating mechanisms are showing promise. News, entertainment and even corporate sites have conversational portals where users link their reviews to Facebook and other sites where various claims of honesty can be judged by very large groups and sometimes by systems inside the Internet that have the ability to judge the authenticity of virtually all content. If this is true, it could arguably be confirmed that we as a universe have begun preparing yet another kind of veil of ignorance, since most people have little idea what rights or expectations are being hidden from us in this fight against digital deception.


Birnholtz, J., Guillory, J., Hancock, J., and Bazarova, N. (2010) "on my way": Deceptive Texting and Interpersonal Awareness Narratives. Cornel University. Downloadable at http://research.microsoft.com/en-us/um/redmond/groups/connect/cscw_10/docs/p1.pdf.

Freeman, S. (2009). "Original Position," The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Spring Edition), Edward N. Zalta (ed.). Viewable at http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/spr2009/entries/original-position/.

Hutchinson, W. (2006). Information Warfare & Deception. Informing Science. Vol. 9.

James, K. (2011). Digital Deception. Simple Lies that manage our social interactions. Viewable within JayPlay at http://media.features.kansan.com/issues/jayplay/2011-11-03.pdf.

Johnston, C. (2003). Digital Deception. American Journalism Review. Viewable at http://www.ajr.org/article.asp?id=2975.

MailOnline (2009). Ban airbrushing in magazines and posters that ruins teen self-esteem, says Liberal Democrats. Viewable at http://www.dailymail.co.uk/femail/article-1204002/Ban-airbrushing-magazines-posters-ruins-teen-self-esteem-say-Liberal-Democrats.html.

Warren and Brandeis (1890). The Right to Privacy. Harvard Law Review. Vol. IV. No. 5. Viewable at http://groups.csail.mit.edu/mac/classes/6.805/articles/privacy/Privacy_brand_warr2.html.

Weisberg, T. (2011). Digital Deception in Media. Posted on Comm34blog: Tim Weisberg at http://blogs.cornell.edu/comm3400fa11tmw64/2011/11/05/digital-deception-in-media/.… [read more]

Media Claim Analysis Research Paper

Research Paper  |  7 pages (2,137 words)
Bibliography Sources: 7


Media Analysis: Obama's Jobs Bill

Unemployment is a huge problem in the United States. The recent economic recession has left a lot of people in the nation without work for long periods of time. Unemployment in a nation usually leads to an increase in crime, mental health issues, and other social ills for the population.

Politicians have taken many steps… [read more]

How Popular Culture Influence Me Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (686 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Popular Culture and Media Influence

History of my awareness of news media after September 11, 2001

Initial unawareness of biased media perspectives

Gradual awareness

Apparent bias in connection with the 2008 election campaigns

Retrospective awareness of bias in 2004 regarding John Kerry

Retrospective awareness of bias in connection with Bush administration since then

Significance of the reports over the 2009 healthcare debates

Significance of the reports over the 2011 Bush tax cuts expiration schedule

Significance of the reports over the 2011 debt ceiling fiasco

Obvious significance of the revelations about FOX practices in Britain

Permanent loss of respect and confidence in the objectivity of news media

Commitment to collecting information from varied sources


Prior to the tragic and historic events of September 11, 2001, I was not in the habit of following 24-hour news coverage. At that time, the only networks that provided 'round-the-clock coverage were MSNBC and the FOX News networks. From late 2001 until late 2008, I watched MSNBC and FOX more or less interchangeably and I understood that they both appealed to different audiences: MSNBC was a so-called "liberal

-leaning" organization while FOX was a so-called "conservative-leaning" organization. However, their respective coverage of several pivotal news events beginning in 2008 permanently changed the way I consume mass media news reports.

Almost immediately after the election of Barack Obama to the office of the United States Presidency, I noticed an obvious bias on the part of FOX News reports that seemed to ignore all evidence supporting the new president's decisions. I was particularly disappointed to watch the way FOX gave credence to the ridiculous "death panel" arguments advanced by Sarah Palin in connection with the debates over healthcare reform. On many occasions, FOX News parroted the GOP phrase "job killing healthcare reform package" in its editorial function.

In retrospect, I realized that the network had been equally biased in its reporting about the campaign of Massachusetts Senator John Kerry in 2004 and even more so in connection with various bad policies of the Bush administration and…… [read more]

Outfoxed Directed by Robert Greenwald, "Outfoxed: Rupert Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (675 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0



Directed by Robert Greenwald, "Outfoxed: Rupert Murdoch's War on Journalism" is a piece of video material that suggests a flaw in the journalistic system created by Fox News. There are two things that struck me as an audience immediately when watching the footage. The first is the relatively low level of technology and budget that has been used in creating the material. The clip consists of talking footage, intermingled with selected clips from Fox News. These clips are sculpted in such a way as to create a sense of relative bias in the piece, which is the second notable thing about the film. There is a clear bias against the way in which Fox News uses journalism. The suggestion is that Fox News uses journalism selectively to create a propaganda-like platform for the benefit of certain political viewpoints.

Despite the fact of the bias, I never felt that the film created a deliberate or hysterical claim that Fox News created bias with its brand of journalism. Instead, there is a distinct sense of rationality behind the claims. While one cannot overlooked that all the interviewees are former employees with at least a sense of disgruntlement against the Fox News Network or media professionals who were never positive about the Network. Still, rationality prevails in the points that are made. For most of the claims made in the film, footage is provided to back it up.

Additionally, negative claims are made about both the on-air personalities at Fox News, as well as the general tactics the Network uses to slant reports in favor of its political position. Bill O'Reilly is a specific example of the former, where he is portrayed as hypocritical and malicious in his reporting tactics.

One of the underhanded tactics the network uses to slant the news is the way in which network-approved opinions are inserted into its reports. Newscasters use the preface "some people say…" when slipping these into their reports. Despite the clear bias, the film provides enough valid information to back…… [read more]

Strategic Planning at the Chronicle Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (2,969 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10


It is really important for the organization to ensure that the future needs of the organization will be catered by the available workforce. In case of The Chronicle Gazette the consultants need to come up with the new job analysis and job roles for the people that can fulfill the technological requirements of The Chronicle Gazette to sustain the competition… [read more]

Should Entertainment Be Part of the News Broadcast Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (665 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Entertainment and the News

Every time a celebrity dies, the media engages in a retrospective of his or her life. Every time there is a major natural disaster, the media shows footage of the preparation before the storm, the extremities of the event, and its tragic aftermath -- along with the obligatory interviews of locals. The reporter always asks seemingly foolish questions like: "Why are you outside during this blizzard?" There is also the familiar reporting of health and beauty trends: "Is Botox right for you -- and your teenager?" This causes many observers to cry out in protest, asking why the news is reporting such 'info-tainment' when there are so many serious issues pertaining to the suffering of people at home and abroad. There are too many complicated issues worthy of serious discussion and debate that people do not understand, such as healthcare. However, while it is true that the news has a responsibility to report upon newsworthy issues, it is unreasonable to ask news broadcasters not to use entertaining and persuasive techniques to communicate their messages to draw a wide and loyal audience.

A factual newscast that had a tiny audience would do little good to educate the public. Even National Public Radio (NPR), one of the most respected and objective sources of news in the nation still showcases humorous stories, including baking recipes for Mother's Day, and extended 'magazine-length' feature stories upon aspects of human life spanning from the arts to trends in marriage. Are these the most serious issues in America today? Probably not. However, viewers demand to hear stories that are relevant to their lives -- and when they do, they are more willing to stay tuned into the station when reporters begin to talk about Afghanistan or Iraq. Furthermore, despite protests that the news has degenerated in recent years, it is worth noting that great reporters have always engaged in entertaining 'stunts' to gain the attention of readers. Even Nellie Bly, long before television, pretended to…… [read more]

United Kingdom and Chinese Newspaper Essay

Essay  |  11 pages (3,586 words)
Bibliography Sources: 18


The choice of words thus decreased the impact on damage for the readers while Chinese readers would get a more accurate picture of the consequences.

UK was slightly biased towards its coverage of BP oil spill for reasons mentioned above. China was more objective but still presented a clouded picture because of its own prejudices against the west and its… [read more]

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