"Journalism / Media / PR / News" Essays 141-210

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Media World and Culture Essay

… As a result, the media adopted discriminatory and discretionary tendencies that have led to unstable and unpredictable political and economical environments (Christensen, 2007). For example, in Turkey, a culture of "authoritarian political culture; a delayed development of democratic and civil society institutions; and a breakdown in the 'horizontal solidarity' of journalists…" (Christensen, 2007), has developed. This has created bias journalism.

Weddings in the U.S. are a large industry spending $50 to $70 billion every year. The media in the U.S. has not been blind to this fact. The numerous bridal magazines on the stands evidence this. Wedding galas are common especially in the film industry in Hollywood and features in many reality TV programs such the 'A Wedding Story' show that depicts the perfect wedding theory. This trend, however, has painted the wedding as an expensive affair and created the impression that an expensive wedding is the only way for any single woman to experience romance and eternal bliss in marriage. Therefore, it is apparent that the media are purveyors of attitudes, ideals and concepts in many aspects of human culture including marriage. Moreover, the media give informal instructions to society regarding conduct and etiquette especially concerning weddings. It is also a political and economic tool, and act as a bridge between information dissemination and merchandising for business advantage (Engstrom, 2008).

The propaganda model gives an in depth analysis of the effects of power and wealth on the choices made by the media. As such, it reflects how money and influence can determine the new and information that is broadcasted on the media. This model examines the filters, which are generally categorized; firstly, the ownership, profit interest and wealth of the owner of the mass media channel. Secondly, the dependence of the media fraternity to the state as a source of information, and therefore can be provided with skewed information. Thirdly, advertising deals, which generally provide media houses with the much needed income. The fourth category uses "flak" as disciplinary measure for media houses seen to be deviating from control measures put in place. Finally, developing anticommunism campaigns to control the media is also a strategy used by those with power. All these elements work in conduit with each other to enable filtering and as spread propaganda specially designed to fool the public or pursue other political and…… [read more]

Media Worlds These Four Readings Essay

… The interconnection of personal communication ultimately rises up, on the societal level, to vast new amounts of information. But the Internet does not help in terms of correlation or transmission of information. In some sense, the democratizing function of the Internet makes it harder to correlate valuable information with nonsense -- to take one example that fits with Lasswell's function of communication as "correlation" between different components of society, we might point to the phenomenon of "Morgellons." This demonstrates the power of ordinary people (laymen) to organize socially around a perceived epidemic disease, which professional people (medical doctors) have declared is a fictional and hysterical epidemic -- an epidemic of people who read too much on the Internet and allow their imaginations to run away with them. The greater ease of communication -- even between these two sectors of society (laymen and medical doctors) -- does not resolve the question. And finally, the Internet is in its infancy so it is hard to see in what way it can allow for the transmission of social inheritance -- instead it seems to allow for the widespread communication of misinformation, and does not seem to have given anyone the notion that things of permanent value will come from it, which will be necessary to communicate to future generations. Nonetheless, the Internet is changing things rapidly -- and has a tremendous influence that could hardly have been guessed at by Lasswell, or the other writers under consideration in this week's readings.

For example, Lazarsfeld Berelson and Gaudet (1944) examine the effects of the most obviously available mass media in the U.S. Presidential election campaign of 1940 -- radio and the printed… [read more]

GOP Primary Republican Primary Video Research Paper

… Anna Maria Island: Winning News Media, Inc.). Two such scholarly sources have been provided (0214_campaign_tech_west-(approved_scholarly-resource).pdf, and 0313_youtube_salmond-(approved_scholarly-resource).pdf) for use.

- Researcher/writer will need to include peer reviewed journal articles as well.


- Researcher/writer will need to use APA style in text citations and bibliography.


Researcher/writer must cite all of your sources -- " newspapers, YouTube videos, journal articles, books, TV programs, etc.

An in text citation does not carry through several paragraphs or an entire page.

- The paper must include graphs and tables.

- The paper must include the following:

Title Page with Picture/Graphic

Introduction and Conclusion

Headings (throughout paper)

• Some examples of headings for this assignment would be: Ads, Interviews, Polling Data, etc.

Proper Grammar and Spelling

• Papers with misspellings and poor grammar will not be accepted o Graphs, Tables, Graphics, Etc.

• Must be numbered, titled, and sourced o APA Style Bibliography and In Text Citations

Page numbers o Paragraphs -- " This means use proper paragraph form. Indent the first line of a paragraph, etc.

Times New Roman Font - 12pt

Double Space with all margins set at 1… [read more]

Mass Media Intro to Sociology Professor Stephanie Research Paper

… Mass Media

Intro to Sociology

Professor Stephanie DeNapoli-Sencil

Mass Media

Mass media is communication that targets a large market. It is a social force that contributes to the beliefs, norms and values that constitute contemporary culture. Whether it is broadcasted,… [read more]

Internet Has Revolutionized the Methods Essay

… This often gave rise to unrest, class warfare, resentment and other forms of violence by the masses (Borden, 2010).

However, in this age of information, literally anyone can access anything on record. This allows individuals to become educated on subjects before they pass judgment on others. This lack of judgment diminishes the prevalence of violence as individuals think before they act in an abrupt manner. In addition, 24/7 news allows individuals to take a more diplomatic approach to conflict than those in the past. Everyone has access to the same information. Therefore, it is harder to deceive, or otherwise trick people into conducting themselves in an irrational manner. This reduces resentment as those who are deceived are diminished through their own increased capacity to obtain information.

Finally, the 24/7 news media is making the world a safer place in all aspects of life. In business, international competitors can view and research the American standards and methods of conducting business. These methods are often of higher standards of safety within the work environment. This information can then be used by international competitors to better improve employee relations and retention and thus improving profits. People can also become aware of potential threats much faster than previous technology allowed. If a tsunami hits Japan, almost immediate the United States and the rest of the world are aware of its implications. In fact president Obama issued a statement (on the internet, by the way) only 5 hours after the earthquake and tsunami struck Japan (Cross, 2011). These nations can subsequently rally together to send aid to an otherwise defeated nation. Numerous examples of these exist throughout the world. All of which create an environment of safety and security for those who use the mass media effectively.

In conclusion, it is my belief that the mass media does indeed make the world safer on a global scale. The speed in which individuals can receive and update information is unpatrolled. Society can those use this information to make better informed decisions regarding problems with profound implications for the world economy. This decreases violence and creates a safer environment in which society can operate in.


1) Borden, David. "Editorial: Ignorance Leading to Suffering, Injustice and Death." Raising Awareness of the Consequences of Prohibition. Web. 10 Mar. 2012. .

2) Cross, the Red. "How to Help Japan: Earthquake Relief Options." The Huffington Post. TheHuffingtonPost.com, 21 Mar. 2011. Web. 10 Mar.…… [read more]

Media as the Linguistic Discourse Research Proposal

… There should also be brief mention/description of 21st century culture, the digital media revolution, and comparisons of current culture to the cultures of prior centuries, whether in a specific or general sense. This section of the research would introduce the topic and set the stage for the literature review and argumentation for the hypothesis.

Following this section(s) would be the literature review. The aim would be to be exhaustive, yet succinct and concise. The author is pleased with the quality and level of relevancy of the sources located; thus, a sincere effort would be made to reference each source in an effective manner. The literature review of the research will consist of summary, analysis, evidence of implementation in the real world (hopefully), and reference to the hypothesis. The literature reviews will also reference issues addressed or described in the opening sections regarding contemporary cultural context.

The latter portion of the research would be the proof in support of the hypothesis. This is where the highest concentration of original thought will be. There will be intentional use of the literature to support and demonstrate the validity of the hypothesis. The conclusion would suggest other areas of research, the limits of the present research, and the further advocacy for the endeavor of media discourse analysis on a grander scheme. Whether rebel or drone, whether liberal or conservative, regardless of class, gender, or sex, media literacy is necessary to function in the 21st century. Whether used for recreation, business, or academic reasons, media literacy is crucial to participate in the global community and technological society. The paper will conclude with reflections and predictions for possible future scenarios or future forms of media as well as reflect upon the influential relationship between media discourse analysis and media objects.


Chen, L. (2004) Evaluation in Media Texts: A Cross-Cultural Linguistic Investigation. Language in Society, 33(5), 673 -- 702.

Chigana, A., & Chigana, W. (2008) Mxit It Up in the Media: Media Discourse Analysis on a Mobile Instant Messaging System. The South African Journal of Information and Communication, 9, 42 -- 57.

Constantinou, O. (2005) Multimodal Discourse Analysis: Media, modes and technologies. Journal of Sociolinguistics, 9(4), 602 -- 618.

Gamson, W.A., Croteau, D., Hoynes, W., & Sasson, T. (1992) Media Images and the Social Construction of Reality. Annual Review of Sociology, 18, 373 -- 393.

Koller, V. (2005) Critical discourse analysis and social cognition: evidence from media discourse. Discourse Society, 16(2), 199 -- 224.

Maiorani, A. (2011) Reading movies as interactive messages: A proposal for a new method of analysis. Semiotica 187, 1(4), 167 -- 188.

Popp, R. (2006) Mass Media and the Linguistic Marketplace: Media, Language, and Distinction. Journal of Communication Inquiry, 30(1), 5 -- 20.

Quail, C., & Larabie, C. (2010) Net Neutrality: Media Discourses and Public Perception. Global Media Journal -- Canadian Edition, 3(1), 31 -- 50.

Scroder, K.C. (2007) Media Discourse Analysis:…… [read more]

Media Influence and Its Effects on Society Research Paper

… Media Influence on Society

In a matter of a few centuries, the availability of information to the average person in society has grown exponentially. Until the advent of the telegraph in the middle of the 19th century, even the most… [read more]

Media I Saw Two Ads Discussion and Results Chapter

… Media

I saw two ads for the Toyota Yaris, one from YouTube and the other as part of a viral campaign to create a Yaris Internet meme. The YouTube ad has an insect made out of gas pumps walking. The Yaris comes along and squishes it, then sucks up the little bit of gas inside and drives off. A caption says "40 mpg rated." The viral campaign plays on the public's desire to contribute content, and willingness to be part of a promotion. It highlights the popularity of participatory advertising campaigns.

Media concentration would be an issue if it were anything close to reality. Media is more diffused and differentiated at this point in time than ever before, and this allows messages to be tailored to narrower audiences and exposed to the world for a low cost. There is ownership concentration and corporate influence among the largest media providers, and this seems to orient those providers to agenda-driven programming that can be detrimental to critical thinking skills.

c. I did the survey "The Color of Network TV" and found that almost every show has Caucasian leads. In addition, few shows have more than one or two minority characters at all. Two that did -- Dexter and Hawaii Five-O -- are set in locations that have a high proportion of minorities, so the casting does reflect the demographics of the setting. For some other shows, set in major cities, there is little reason for the overwhelmingly white nature of the casts.

d. Dominant ideology refers to the fact that the views of the majority will tend to dominate society. All members of society will come to view certain aspects of the dominant ideology as reality, such that those who are dominant can shape the way that everybody views the world and views themselves. The Yaris ads display this. The desire for higher gas prices is also something that is becoming a dominant ideology, and advertisers are also playing up that theme, the idea being to reinforce that sentiment among consumers so that they will be more likely to buy a Yaris. The Internet meme promotion is rather shameless and exploitative, and is not something that has become widespread in society. If more advertisers were to push this method of promotion on the public, it is possible that society could eventually come to ignore the shamelessness of that type of promotion and accept it as…… [read more]

Mice Marketing Proposal Business Proposal

… Mice Marketing Proposal

The acronym MICE refers to "meetings, incentives, conferences and exhibitions" and the city of Zurich is interested in promoting itself more aggressively as a center for MICE events in Europe. This proposal will outline some of the… [read more]

Problems With Newspapers Today Research Paper

… ¶ … Letter of transmittal

Newspapers are connected to society as a result of the several centuries during which they dominated the news transfer environment. However, the recent decades have demonstrated that matters are critical for the newspaper industry as… [read more]

Censorship and Freedom Essay

… Another current context in which media plays a role in conflict and mediation is that of the Israel/Palestine conflict. In this context, it is believed that media exacerbates socio-political divisions and fails to function as a positive influence on the larger society affected or interested in the ongoing events and perspectives (Evans, 2011). One problem, Evans (2011) suggests is the increasing variety of sources, which creates cultural fragmentation and discrepancies in discourse and understanding. In fact, Evans (2011) explores the major clash between fundamentalist and secular members of the same religion to show the drastic effect that media can have on people with highly similar ideologies. Whether in message or image, media is powerful and generally takes more time upholding the values of free press and expression than worrying about its effect on the larger context.


ABC News. (2009). Retrieved from http://abcnews.go.com/

Alley, R. (2010). Fiji Under Bainimarama. Journal of Pacific History, 45(1), 145-153. Retrieved from Academic Search Premier.

Dikotter, Frank. (1996, Winter). Culture, race, and nation: The formulation of national identity in 20th century China. International Affairs, 49(2), 592.

Evans, M. (2011). Exacerbating social cleavages: The media's role in Israel's religious-secular conflict. Middle East Journal, 65(2), 235-251.

Fahmy, S., & Emad, M. (2011). Al-Jazeera vs. Al-Jazeera: A comparison of the network's English and Arabic online coverage of the U.S./Al-Qaeda conflict. International Communication Gazette, 73(3), 216-232.

Frank Bainimarama. (2010). Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, 6th Edition, 1. Retrieved from Academic Search Premier.

Fiji's High Commission. (2011). Retrieved from http://www.fijihighcommission.org.uk/about_2.html

Field, Michael. (2009). Fiji censorship dangers revealed. Retrieved from http://www.stuff.co.nz/world/south-pacific/2396860/Fiji-censorship-dangers-revealed.

Hassid, Jonathan. (2008). China's contentious journalists: Reconceptualizing the media. Problems of post-Communism, 55(4), 52-61.

Hughes, C. (2011). Reclassifying Chinese Nationalism: The geopolitik turn. Journal of Contemporary China, 20(7), 601-620. Retrieve from Academic Search Premier.

Kymlicka, Will. (1995). Multicultural citizenship: A liberal theory of minority rights. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Perlez, Jane. (1997). Serbian media is one-man show. The New York Times. August 10.

Puppet show. (2009). Economist, 390(8627), 44. Retrieved from Academic Search Premier.

Samoa Observer. (2011). FIJI: Censors muzzle union voices over industries decree. Retrieved from http://www.pmc.aut.ac.nz/pacific-media-watch/fiji-censors-muzzle-union-voices-over-industries-decree-7617?ScoopSrc=pacific_media_watch.

Shuhua, Dai. (2010). A balancing act between…… [read more]

Johnson, T.J. and Kaye, B.K. ) Annotated Bibliography

… Johnson, T.J. And Kaye, B.K. (2004). Wag the Blog: How Reliance on Traditional Media and the Internet Influence Credibility Perceptions of Weblogs Among Blog Users. Journalism and Mass Communication Quarterly, Vol. 81, No. 3. Retrieved from: http://www.glog.nl/wiki/upload/docs/thomas%20j%20johnson.pdf

The article considers the relative credibility of "Weblogs" as opposed to traditional news sources. The authors argue that, although this sources of media information has largely been ignored by the scholarship, it deserves recognition for a number of reasons, including its growing prevalence in the media. Before examining Weblogs specifically, the article focuses on past studies of non-traditional media and their credibility. Four research questions are posed, after which the methodology is described in depth. Ultimately, the research finds that there is a correlation between talk radio use and the perception of Weblog credibility. In other words, listeners to talk radio tend to regard Weblogs as more credible than those who do not.

Reese, S.D. Rutigliano, L., Hyun, K., and Jeong, J. (2005, Apr. 1). Zapping the blogosphere: Citizen-based media in the global news arena. University of Texas, School of Journalism

The research is based upon the assumption that globalization has brought a greater sense of connectedness among media users than ever before. The use of Weblogs is one manifestation of this, where Internet users connect by means of contributing news by means of online media. To create a platform for study, the authors examine different sources of news media, including the traditional, online citizen media, and blogging. Each receives great attention as the underlying concerns are being mapped and discussed. This study found that there is a greater correlation between online media and the perceived credibility of traditional news sources than might initially be assumed.

Paulussen, S., Heinonen, A., Domingo, D. And Quandt, T. (2007). Doing it Together: Citizen Participation in the Professional News Making Process. Observatorio Journal, Vol. 3. Retrieved from: http://biblio.ugent.be/input/download?func=downloadFile&fileOId=731819

The study uses data from four countries to determine the factors that influence participatory journalism. These include Belgium, Finland, Germany and Spain. The authors note that the growth of the Internet has enabled a democratic type of participation in a greater sense than has ever been the case before. This sense of demogracy has become the heart of participatory communication, rather than any perceived credibility, it appears. Some of the concepts considered include public journalism, interactive journalism, participatory journalism, and citizen journalism. Ultimately, the study found that there is still significant barriers to true democratic participation in the online…… [read more]

American Political Parties Term Paper

… "

Additionally, viewers seek information that confirms what they already believe. Bernhardt et al. (2) quote Posner "… they want to be confirmed in their beliefs by seeing them echoed and elaborated by more articulate, authoritative and prestigious voices. So… [read more]

Brian Williams, a Network News Essay

… His attempt to tie democracy to limited media access is rather ironic, real democracy (according to America's Founding Fathers) includes the right to free speech, and to practice that speech wherever and whenever we feel like it.

That freedom of speech also applies to the ability to listen or not listen to network news anchors who think they have all the answers, and it includes those neighborhood social experts who wish to espouse the latest neighborhood happenings to friends and neighbors. The opportunity to click a switch and be rid of Brian Williams (or to not even have him on in the first place) is the true freedom of speech, and it is exercised every day by millions of people, not only in America, but around the world. Sadly, Brian denigrates the fact that there is a "treasure trove of video: adults juggling kittens, ill-fated dance moves at wedding receptions, political rants delivered to camera" that is causing a mass migration to the internet, and away from network television. If it were not so ironically sad, it would actually be quite humorous. Brian does get one thing straight and that is that online accessibility to those items mentioned above (and millions of other items as well) does exist to "fill a perceived need." One could question why that need is perceived in the first place; could it be because the networks and their high and mighty anchors failed to fill it?

Steve, on the other hand, does not think that it is all about him. He writes his article as if he is a journalist, oh yeah, he is. Perhaps that is the difference between writing articles that can be hacked to pieces by discerning editors, and reading 30-second soundbites into a camera. One reporter knows that the story is what is most important, while the other thinks that it is the reporter that is what should take precedence. Brian seems to believe the words that he wrote "we've raised a generation of Americans on a mantra of love and the importance of self as taught by brightly colored authority figures with names like Barney and Elmo" do not also pertain to him, when ironically enough, he is the perfect example of the problem he effaces.

Brian writes that "today everyone gets celebrated, in part to put an end to the common cruelties of life that so many of us grew up with" but his words belie his true feelings; he is not being celebrated, and that has got to be galling to a man of such noted importance.

Both men wrote of the open accessibility to the web and its meaning for future generations. Steve accepts the fact that individuals are going to be more concerned with what affects them the most, and what affects them the most is likely going to entail what takes place on a local front, rather than on the national front. Brian has yet to come to grips with the reality that he may… [read more]

Media Influence in the Bu Essay

… In another part of her article O'Brien presents the following statement about BSL-4 labs, "Furthermore, research sometimes focuses on engineering weaponized organisms, making them even more deadly. These facilities test diseases known to cause epidemics and kill thousands." Although it is true that during part of her article she does touch upon some of the safety procedures and regulations involved during testing, she fails to report on the very low level accidents that have actually occurred in BSL-4 during several decades of testing. Using phrases like the ones above tend to scare people, and when people are scared views and perceptions become skewed.

Reporters try to inform people on current events while at the same time providing a service that is invaluable to some. They must however, attempt to provide information that is more complete and that covers all aspects of an issue. Although it is understood, that it is sometimes impossible for them to cover all aspects, they should at least attempt not to cloud the judgment of readers with scare tactics. Many of these media reports don't actually cover the positives that relate to the creation of a BSL-4 facility. They do not address the benefits that can result from conducting this type of research and if they do, they overshadow them with phrases and words that have very negative connotations and associations. If our government were caught unprepared in the event of a Bioterrorist attack or widespread virus infection, these same media outlets would be outraged and they would be asking: why were we not prepared for these horrible events?

Works Cited

"Angles: A Biosafety Leven 4 Facility in Boston: A Threat of Epidemic or a Defense Against Bioterrosism? By Janice O'Brien." MIT. Web. 03 Mar. 2011. .

Hernandez, Gabrielle. "BU Biosafety Lab Ignites Critiques." Tufts Daily. Web. 03 Mar. 2011. .

Le Duc, James W. "Framework for Leadership and Training of Biosafety Level 4 Laboratory Workers." Emerging Infectious Diseases 14.11 (2008): 1685-688.…… [read more]

Science and Media Essay

… Science and Media

Public policy in the U.S. is and will hopefully forever remain an evolving body. The concepts that are appropriate today and the policies that surround them may not have been important just a few years ago. With… [read more]

Technology and Its Effect on Communication Essay

… ¶ … Societal Impact of Modern Communication Technology

There is no denying that modern communication technology has revolutionized society. We have changed from a planet of isolated nations into a globally connected universe in which communications are synonymous with speed… [read more]

Mass Media on Modern American Society Essay

… ¶ … Mass Media on Modern American Society

In the immediate aftermath of the infamous trial of O.J. Simpson for the murder of his ex-wife Nicole Brown Simpson and her friend Ronald Goldman, several events unrelated to the actual murder… [read more]

Media Has Been Continually Evolving Term Paper

… ¶ … media has been continually evolving. Part of the reason for this is: technology has changed the way the people are entertained and informed. As a result, this has led to a dramatic shift in the models used, to… [read more]

Media Consolidation: Issues and Ethics the Market Essay

… ¶ … Media consolidation: Issues and ethics

"The market structures of commercial mass media in the first decade of the 21st century have moved far from atomistic competition in the direction of oligopoly and monopolistic competition" (Blosser 2010, p. 14). In the interests of freedom of speech, it might seem as if less regulation invariably promotes more free and open discourse. However, in the case of media consolidation, this is not the case. If only a few large media conglomerates dominate the airwaves because of their ability to purchase 'time' on most of the major channels, no matter how many channels consumers may have as listening options, they will invariably find themselves limited in their range of choices of differing points-of-view. Media consolidation means that only a few large corporations control what faces are seen reporting the news, whose voices get to be expressed and heard, and whose stories get to be told. Media consolidation results in the validation of what seems like a 'mainstream' voice, even though the true mainstream may simply not be seen on the airwaves: an anti-corporate, non-white, or critical vision seems less mainstream when it receives exposure only on 'niche' forms of media.

One positive act of legislation was to mandate equal time on the airwaves for all the major candidates, to ensure that the wealthiest candidate would not be the most listened-to candidate. "The Communications Act of 1934, as amended, called for stations to offer 'equal opportunity' to all legally qualified political candidates running for office," ("The Fairness Doctrine, 2003, PBS). However, the influence of the Act is dwarfed by the fact that major news outlets, such as Fox, often promote particular candidates, and dominate not simply one or two channels, but an empire of channels. Through careful placement of certain news stories, it is possible to promote a candidate without explicitly giving him or her official 'time.'

Regulating monopolies in a capitalist system is far from unprecedented -- for example, 'trust-busting' was and is a common consumer protection, to ensure that one industry does not becomes so dominant and consumers have little choice in terms of price leverage. And…… [read more]

History of Paparazzi and Tabloid Journalism Term Paper

… History Of Paparazzi and Tabloid Journalism

Paparazzi are photographers who make a living by taking photos of celebrities. They are paid up by their clients who include: gossip magazines, celebrity blogs and traditional news outlet.

Tabloid journalism is journalism that includes use of brief news content, an abundance of pictures, some fiction, and often they blatantly appealed to the human interest in crime, sex, and disaster this type of journalism employs sensationalism as a device to capture readers' attention. Sensationalism is the use of material intended to produce a startling or scandalous effect, especially one pertaining to the senses.

Tabloids attempt to captivate the masses with their colors and headlines about wonderful, amazing, and even shocking stories. Tabloid journalism tends to be aimed at a mass market and chooses colorful topics which are likely to be controversial. Tabloid journalism has existed since the last century when many abuses were uncovered. Tabloids helped exposed evils such as the lack of proper industrial safety and thus had a useful function in their defense. Power brings responsibility.

History of paparazzi and tabloid journalism

The origin of the word "paparazzi" is speculated to have come from Federico Fellini's 1960s film "La Dolce Vita." Fellini was inspired to make the movie after an At the most basic level, paparazzi hang out on the streets and in public places waiting for an opportunity to photograph a star. In public, the paparazzi can snap away unhindered by laws. But for a paparazzo who wants to make the big bucks, this method is far too inefficient. Paparazzi must make sure they are in the right place at the right time to get the shot.

Paparazzi work a lot like private detectives. Each paparazzo culls a network of informers to help keep tabs on celebrity targets. These informers can be people who work in businesses frequented by celebrities, such as restaurants, shops or salons. The paparazzo often pays for this information. In many cases, people who work for the star might be bribed to divulge the whereabouts of their employer (Kane, 2010).

The word "tabloid" comes from the name given by the London-based pharmaceutical company Burroughs Wellcome & Co. To the compressed tablets they marketed…… [read more]

Public Relations Has Successfully Distanced Itself Essay

… ¶ … public relations has successfully distanced itself from an era of deceit and manipulation to become a credible and ethical profession

The purpose of the present paper is to evaluate the following statement: Contemporary public relations has successfully distanced… [read more]

Sociological Perspectives on the Mass Term Paper

… Indeed, it is the micro-sociological theory. Interactionists believe that the only accurate way to understand society is by looking at the thousands of interactions between and among people as individuals (Charon, 2009, p. 19). This is a bottom-up perspective: While functionalists essentially argue that we understand individuals by looking at the institutions that they comprise, interactionists argue that we can understand institutions by understanding the individuals who compose them.

The individuals who make up mass media organizations are not, in this theory, independent agents. Rather, they are influenced by everyone in their world. Liberal reporters are influenced by their conservative publishers, by their progressive spouses, by their liberal colleagues, by their conservative colleagues, by current events, by the families in which they grew up -- by the Framers of the Constitution, with whom they interact via the text of our founding document. Observers of the mass media are similarly influenced by a range of sources.

Interactionists can easily explain change: There is so much constant jostling in their version of society that change is inevitable. They also do a decent job of explaining stability, because in any social organization there will be individuals pushing to keep things the same -- and pushing back against those who want to change. For this reason, I believe that the interactionist theory is the most convincing and flexible.


Charon, J. (2009). Symbolic interactionism: An introduction, an interpretation, an integration

(10th ed.) New York: Prentice-Hall.

Holmwood, J. (2005). Functionalism and its Critics in Harrington, A. (Ed.) Modern social

theory: An introduction. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 87 -- 109.…… [read more]

Media Publicity Coverage of Violent Criminals Celebrities Essay

… Media Obsession With Violence & Celebrity

Television news programs today are letting the public down by obsessing over violence, rape, kidnapping, and other seamy acts of inhumanity towards humans. Also, television news is preoccupied with celebrities -- sexual scandals, drug… [read more]

PR Thesis

… ¶ … History Of the American Public Realtions Field

History and Early Development of the Public Relations Field

In the most general sense, "public relations" has existed as long as human societies and verbal language. In principle, anytime one person… [read more]

Mass Media and Society Research Proposal

… Canada's Mission In Afghanistan

The goal of Canada's mission in Afghanistan can be summed up in one word -- security. With turmoil in the Middle East, Canada, as well as the rest of the Western world, is in danger. The conditions in Afghanistan are the perfect breeding ground for terrorists who would like to see nothing more than for the Western world to be brought to its knees. Whether this would be a strike against Christianity, capitalism, or perhaps it is simply a hatred that has been so inbred that, like the Hatfields and the McCoys, they simply hate because that is what their father before them felt, is left to be seen. No matter what the motivation, one thing is certain, as it stands, Afghanistan is a breeding ground for those groups who wish to harm the Western world. For this reason, Canada, as well as the world in general, needs to see the country transformed into a nation that doesn't tolerate this type of activity. Determining success, however, will be difficult.

Simply eradicating current terrorist groups from the country could be one measure of success. However, if the Afghani government is still willing to allow this type of activity to go on within its borders, it will only be a matter of time before these groups reestablish themselves. If history has provided no other lessons, it at the very least shows how tenacious these groups can be. Like lichen clinging to a rock, one tiny piece left in place can once again spread to even greater proportions, if the conditions are correct. Therefore, an appropriate measure would be the tolerance level of the government in Afghanistan, in conjunction with the eradication of terrorist groups. A strong, self-sufficient Afghani government that will work to eliminate any terrorist organizations that re-emerge in the future, would be a success. The likelihood of this success is dependent on a variety of factors.

Global support for this mission is critical to its success. Without the world behind Canada and the rest of the coalition forces, it will make an already difficult situation nearly impossible. If…… [read more]

Blog Reaction: Alterman, Eric. "What Liberal Media? Research Proposal

… Blog


Alterman, Eric. "What liberal media?" February 6, 2003. November 1, 2009

The cliche that the media has a liberal bias runs so deep that an entire, openly biased news network has used it as a clever marketing technique: Fox News has made its slogan "fair and balanced" despite the fact that it is entirely populated with right-wing pundits like Bill O'Reilly, with the only occasional token liberal to fan conservative flames of outrage on air. Even liberals often do not argue against this premise that the media has a liberal bias, despite the presence of such pundits as George Will, Pat Buchanan, Charles Krauthammer, and of course Bill O'Reilly in print and on air. The mere existence of a liberal is decried as "bias," as in the case of the presence of Nobel-prize winning economist Paul Krugman on the pages of the New York Times editorial pages, despite the counterweight of the equally conservative Wall Street Journal editorial page in the court of public opinion (Alterman 2003, p.2).

In his 2003 article, "What liberal media," Eric Alterman for the Nation suggests that in fact the media is quite balanced. However, an alternative perspective might be that the media is quite good at "selling its product." Fox's…… [read more]

Digest Strategic Management a Condensed Analysis Term Paper

… ¶ … Digest

Strategic Management

A condensed analysis of the marketing situation at Reader's Digest

Once upon a time, Reader's Digest was one of the most widely read middlebrow publications in America. Subscriptions peaked in 1984, when more than seventeen million readers in the United States subscribed, and another eleven million worldwide (Historical Perspectives of the Reader's Digest, 2008, Focusing on the Words). The publication offered short human interest articles, some of which were excerpted from larger works, at relatively low subscription prices to consumers desiring to appear literate but who felt pressed for time. Reader's Digest today largely conforms to that format and the magazine's traditional subject areas continue to define its current offerings: the latest edition includes a list of tips about making a Halloween costume for a child, advice on how to talk to your child's teacher, some inspirational stories about kind deeds, and advice how to make healthy choices at a restaurant.

Macro Environment (PEST)


Reader's Digest is a relatively uncontroversial magazine in its subject matter, thus it is not threatened by laws governing free speech, although it was well-known for its anticommunist stance during the 1950s (Historical Perspectives of the Reader's Digest, 2008, Focusing on the Words).. However, laws that affect competing media might threaten its dominance. More and more works of literature, including the books that used to be available in condensed form on Reader's Digest can be accessed through Google Books, or through the public domain online.

A recent FTC (Federal Trade Commission) ruing requiring bloggers to publicize when they are releasing biased reviews of products, however, may signal that less legitimate sources of media may become more highly regulated in the future, which could be a plus for trusted sources of content such as Reader's Digest (McEntegart 2009). Bloggers seeking advertising will have to disclose their bias, which may turn loyal readers to traditional works of professional journalism. But greater regulation of online sources may make people trust online content more, and turn away from more established general publications.


Reader's Digest core audience tends to be older. However, Baby Boomers have seen reductions in their investment funds, due to the recent credit crisis. This leaves them with less disposable income. Baby Boomers often have more trouble getting new jobs, and thus they are more likely to trim costs such as magazine subscriptions to the home, rather than take on a new job to pay for extras, particularly if similar content is available online.

Social -- demographic -- cultural

While Reader's Digest pledges to support diversity, most of its news stories, recipes, and content tend to focus on issues relating to parenting, health, diet, and inspirational stories. Its subject matter is so broad-based, it does not have a clear, core audience other than the rapidly shrinking Boomer market. Niche publications have grown more popular, given the political and social fragmentation of America, a trend partially spawned by the Internet. One possible plus, however, is that people also have less time to… [read more]

Popular Media vs. Scientific Journal -- Multitasking Thesis

… Popular Media vs. Scientific Journal -- Multitasking research

Popular Media Account and Primary Source Account: A Comparison of Research Reporting

For any member of the academe, it is inevitable that we stumble upon sources that are in the realm of what we call popular media. Some of our research works, on the other hand, require us to use primary or first-hand accounts which can be found mostly in the form of journal articles published by institutionalized academic organization and prestigious bodies alike. In some (if not most) cases, findings from one source are corroborated by the findings of the other kind of media, but how were these findings presented? Are there similarities and/or differences by which results of studies were shown?

The main purpose of this article is to look into a popular account of a piece of psychological research and a primary source account of that research so as to be able to come up with a comparison of how research findings were presented in these two media. A brief discussion about research reporting shall first be presented in order to lay the fundamental framework by which this discussion shall revolve. On to the main objective, a short description of the method and sources used shall be presented to be followed by the observations gathered from the comparison of research reporting in the domain of popular media and primary source media.

I. Method

The topic area that I have chosen for this study is multitasking. For the primary source media, I examined the study published by the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences entitled "Cognitive control in media multitaskers." This article was authored by Eyal Ophir, Clifford Nass, and Anthony D. Wagner. It was published on July 20, 2009.

This same empirical study was reported in the Stanford University website entitled "Multitasking works? Not really, Stanford study show." The article was written by Adam Gorlick and Jack Hubbard dated August 24, 2009.

Basically, the results of this empirical study is that those who are engaged in media multitasking are more likely to be interfered by what is known as irrelevant information stimuli because the brains of multitaskers have reduced ability in filtering out these irrelevant stimuli (Ophir, Nass, and Wagner, 2009, p.15583).

II. Research Reporting

Before going any further, I believe it is fitting to first provide a description of what research reporting actually is. According to Nachmias & Nachmias (1996, p.556), "research reports aim at answering five basic questions, "who," "what," where," "when," and "how." Underlying these is the sixth question, "why." That is, the purpose of a research report is to relay findings that are empirically and logically related to some conception of causation, to a theory."

As such, we will be looking at how theses six basic questions being addressed by a research report are presented in both popular media and primary psychological research source. We also aim to look at the reports by the kind of language used as well as the structure it… [read more]

Kennedy Assassination Essay

… Kennedy Assassination

Over the years there have been numerous major events that have influenced the technology and the presentation of the mass media. But there may not be a more significant event than the Kennedy assassination and the impact it made on changing the industry.

The Date That Changed Journalism Forever.

On that dreadful Friday morning, thousands of Americans and many members of the press stood in line just to see President Kennedy's motorcade drive slowly through Dealey Plaza in downtown Dallas.

Moments later, the President's assassination would change the country and the medium of television forever. After shots were fired, a stunned world would make television its primary source of breaking news, as Dallas journalists found themselves delivering a wrenching story to the American people (JFK: Breaking The News).

In the four days between Kennedy's assassination and his funeral, the foundation was laid for the all-encompassing, 24-hour coverage that is the norm today. Broadcast journalists broke new ground as they kept the nation up-to-date on the rapidly evolving story. The media's coverage of the event made television the nation's primary source of breaking news information (JFK: Breaking The News).

"This was really the event that TV news journalists like to claim brought them to age," says Barbie Zelizer, author of Covering the Body: The Kennedy Assassination, the Media, and the Shaping of Collective Memory (1992). "In 1963 TV journalists were seen as the fluff journalists. Print journalists were the serious journalists. When the Kennedy assassination occurred, of course, TV cameras were able to roll 24/7, and so what you got was an ongoing attentiveness to the event that print could not provide.

"You have to remember that there were very few TV stations, and people had not yet had the kind of event that would cause them to corral around the TV. This was the very first time that TV brought the public together. The first relays of what had happened went out on radio then television media took over.

"Television did what was unthinkable back then -- it stopped all broadcasting and all commercials. It stayed with the story for four days. It did everything it could to provide people with ongoing information. From Friday to Monday it provided the American public with an ongoing visual screen of what was going on in the assassination story" (Zelizer).

Improvements in Media Technology

By the time Kennedy was assassinated the communications satellite Telstar I had just been put in space, followed by other satellites, news reports from around the world could be transmitted directly to a network broadcast center, giving television unprecedented power to communicate major world events in real-time…… [read more]

Kid Can Paint That Media and Perception Essay

… ¶ … Kid Can Paint That

Media and Perception: The Question of Authenticity in Bar-Lev's

My Kid Could Paint That

The role of the mass media in the creation of public perception is a matter of near constant controversy, and has been ever since the concept of mass media first came to be a part of civilization. The printing press was actually objected to by many specifically because it would allow for the dissemination of views that they did not approve of, with the belief (correctly held) that such dissemination would necessarily produce more like-minded thinkers. The technologies of the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have made mass media much more present in the daily workings of our lives, with the television, radio, and internet all providing access to the font of the world's information and events. What these outlets choose to tell us -- and not tell us -- can have a huge impact not only on what we know about the world we inhabit, but also on how we think about it and interact with it. Such issues are rarely as clear-cut as they might seem either, and the question of responsibility in journalism has never been more pressing.

One excellent case that represents the difficulties (though not the necessities, to any hugely practical degree) of navigating a compelling story through the narrow channels of journalistic integrity is the story of possible child-prodigy painter Marla as told in Amir Bar-Lev's documentary film My Kid Could Paint That. Though ostensibly about the controversy surrounding this little girl's painting abilities, or the authenticity of her works, the film is perhaps more easily read as a commentary on the effects of media. It is the various incarnations of the media that shape the real story of My Kid Could Paint That, and their irresponsibility is also the only reason that Marla and her paintings ever became any sort of story in the first place.

The first media figure to have exert influence over Marla's life and story was Elizabeth Cohen. Cohen was only writing a local human-interest piece and had no way to predict the size that the story would become, or the scandal that would ensue. Still, this shows the importance of responsibly checking the facts of every story, no matter how much of a fluff piece it might at first seem. Had Cohen not written her article, it is possible -- likely, even, unless Marla's parent were even more ambitious concerning their daughter than is currently thought -- that Marla's painting would never have gathered any real attention. Cohen needed to do a little digging and ascertain from the outset whether or not Marla was actually painting the works attributed to her, and the level of coaching and prompting she received if she was indeed the artist. Her failure to take…… [read more]

Media Stereotype Essay

… Photograph #

Hurricane Katrina (2005) looting found online at http://images.google.com/images?hl=en&q=looting%20hurricane%20katrina&um=1&ie=UTF-8&sa=N&tab=wi,retrieved1 March 2009.

Ambulance carrying Brittany Spears away from her home found online at http://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://judicial-inc.biz/81b.ri1.jpg&imgrefurl=http://thisiszionism.blogspot.com/2008/01/brittany-spears-rushed-to-hospital.html&usg=__uoZgO_FKCKQSYT3FQzen5-UUDYU=&h=317&w=405&sz=27&hl=en&start=1&um=1&tbnid=HnAWV16M6qW9DM:&tbnh=97&tbnw=124&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dbrittany%2Bspears%2Bhome%2Bchildren%26um%3D1%26hl%3Den%26sa%3DG,retrieved1 March 2009.

Photograph #3

George W. Bush, photo of Bush from a different date, different event,… [read more]

Class Status and Power Thesis

… ¶ … Status, and Power

Mass media is one of the most powerful forces shaping public consciousness. In the United States, people spend approximately 30 hours per week watching television (Mantsios 99), and a considerable amount of their time going… [read more]

Film Good Night and Good Luck Essay

… ¶ … Night and Good Luck (2005)

At heart, the film "Good Night and Good Luck" seems what might be called an old-fashioned message film. In other words, it is a film with a strong, ideological point-of-view regarding the broadcasting of journalist Edward R. Murrow during the McCarthy witch-hunts. However, "Good Night and Good Luck" does not merely portray a struggle of good vs. evil, in political terms but forces the viewer to question his or her own assumptions about modern political issues, such as what constitutes an appropriate balance between national security and freedom. The film raises an important question that is likely to be thought-provoking for those who are in accordance with the filmmaker's point-of-view -- how free is a free press when it is controlled more by corporate concerns than a desire to reveal the truth? True, some individuals watching the film might be angry at seeing hysterical anti-communists skewed by a director and scriptwriter who are largely viewed as liberal, and these viewers are unlikely to be converted by its style of presentation. But a film does not ultimately have to be 'all things to all people,' and simply because it does not produce a wholly balanced view of the past does not make it a bad film, so long as it has artistic integrity.

The film tells the story of Edward R. Murrow, one of the most respected foreign correspondents of World War II whose customary sign-off was "Good Night and Good Luck," hence the title of the film. The film purports to be a true-life tale of Murrow's postwar life as a journalist when he fell afoul of the House Un-American activities commission, headed by Joseph McCarthy. It chronicles a period of history that many Americans would like to forget, where paranoia about 'the Russians' caused many individuals to question the patriotism of anyone who criticized the government. Murrow was a highly respected journalist. To some degree, he had always been an advocate of interventionalist journalism -- he urged America to become more involved in World War II long before it was popular. Murrow said what he believed, not what was popular or even necessarily in conformation to standards of journalistic 'objectivity.' The film lionizes his courage, as he stands against his boss at CBS, the sponsors -- everyone who does not have the courage to speak aloud. The film explicitly challenges the conventional wisdom that there are two sides to every issue, as presented in the media. Murrow was right, that there was flimsy evidence against the people whose names McCarthy was smearing, and he was pressured to conform to popular, public opinion and say that communists were lurking behind every corner.

The film is highly atmospheric -- it does not even use an actor to depict Joseph McCarthy on screen, instead it uses footage from the era. Everything about the film is designed to create the appearance of being from 'another time and place.' The film looks like documentary or television footage… [read more]

Outfoxed Before Watching the Documentary About Fox Reaction Paper

… Outfoxed

Before watching the documentary about Fox News entitled "Outfoxed," I considered myself immune to the effects of the Fox network. I assumed that if I did not watch Fox News and did not rely upon it as a source of information, then I was not subject to its biases. However, I realized that Fox News has a profound effect in determining the level of discourse in the media as a whole, through a kind of spill-over effect. Even if a respectable news outlet condemns Fox for making an outrageous allegation, that news show is still giving coverage to Fox News, and sowing doubts in the viewer's mind that 'where there is smoke there must be fire.'

Fox News' tendency to attribute its own conservative, slanted views to the American public at large as a collective can be seen in its rumor-mongering statements that 'some people say' regarding the advocacy of a certain outrageous position, which creates the idea that the viewer should side with the 'common sense' of 'some people' -- i.e. The Fox news network. For an individual to have to respond 'no, I am not a terrorist, despite what some people say,' no matter how absurd the allegation raises the question in some minds: What if he is indeed a terrorist? With a similar persuasive technique, Fox uses "Ultra-liberal" as an insult, so it is assumed that the impressionable viewer 'must' understand that liberal is evil, or else he or she is foolish. Guests who disagree with the host like Bill O'Reilly are called stupid, or told to "shut up," again suggesting that intelligent people should agree with the host. When pressed by the makers of the documentary as to why he so often said 'shut up,' O'Reilly angrily replied that he had never told a guest, such as an 'out' gay high school, to shut up outright, merely shut up about his sexuality, as if this distinction was an important point and not just as silencing as saying 'shut up' to the young man.

Fox News has lowered the standards of general media journalism, which before had to show at least some veneer of objectivity to be considered respectable. The documentary depicted Fox employees talking about how they were forced to push a "right-wing" agenda or fear losing jobs. When headquarters sent a memo, suggesting that certain issues…… [read more]

Public Relations' Role in Launching Hybrid Automobiles Thesis

… Public Relations' Role in Launching Hybrid Automobiles at Toyota Motor Company

Public relations strategies must be tightly integrated to the core strategic planning, product development and Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) initiatives within any company if it is to succeed in… [read more]

Media Is Undeniable it Has the Power Term Paper

… ¶ … media is undeniable; it has the power to present to millions of viewers and listeners in the United States news and entertainment. The manner in which these are presented has often been criticized by experts and laymen alike. The influence of the media on public opinion can be both positive and negative. On the positive side, the media presents its audience with information regarding world events, and entertainment to fill their free time. The media's influence is not only to entertain, but also to inform regarding world events. Ethical and unbiased reporting provides the world with an accurate view of world events.

On the negative side, it has often been speculated that the media influences public opinion according to the wishes of the government. This could particularly be the case during war. The media's influence on public opinion is uncontested; and the fact is that people often take as true whatever the media presents. Some hold that such control is dangerous.

Communism in…… [read more]

Media and Society Term Paper

… Media/Society

Book Section Summary

Croteau, David R. & William Hoynes. Media / Society: Industries, Images, and Audiences. Pine Forge Press, 2002.

Media / Society

Although 'the media' has always existed, in terms of word-of-mouth and folklore, the advent of print created something new: a mass media that could extend far beyond the borders of the places that produced it. This fundamentally changed the nature of human social relations. The media is both produced by human social relations and is changed by shifts in human social relations (16-18). For example, the modern American Civil Rights movement sought to end segregation. Negative media images of African-Americans had reinforced the values of racist society. However the images of nonviolent civil disobedience on the nation's television screens created a groundswell of political support to change the laws at the federal level, and thus changed all American society. A social movement was produced in part by the media changed society through the media (27).

Part II: Media Industry & the Social World

We live in a society that seems increasingly diverse in its media composition, as there is a proliferation of new media, newspapers, special interest cable channels, and media venues on the Internet. But the actual ownership of media outlets lies in the hands of a few major corporations, not 'the people' (34). Economics and ownership of the media influences the content of the media and limits real content diversity. The impact of advertising also limits the truth-telling nature of media outlets. The more concentrated the ownership of the media, the less available voice for truly alternative and unbiased points-of-view. Profit comes ahead of political change and even the new media has been swiftly colonized by advertising (62).

In terms of the political influence upon the supposedly independent media, although the First Amendment prohibits the stifling of free speech in theory, in practice, the courts have just as often limited the ability of individuals to freely vocalize points-of-view in the marketplace of ideas. Some of this, it could be argued, is positive, such as the fairness or equal time doctrine in politics, which requires the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) to make sure that major candidates get equal or proportional time to advocate their views, as well as prohibiting advertisers from making false claims about products to consumers without the ability to verify those claims (99; 112). Regulating the media to preserve morality has proved a more dubious prospect. The guise of morality means that censorship can be used as a political weapon against unpopular points-of-view (101). There is also informal self-censorship of news organizations, as their tailor their content towards what their sponsor's target audience is likely to be, and often follow suit in what is deemed a hit story, at the expense of other noteworthy but underreported possible leads.

Part III: Media Representations of the Social…… [read more]

Commercialization of Journalism and the Inherent Ethical Term Paper

… Commercialization of Journalism and the Inherent Ethical Conflict
The concept of 'News' would appear on the surface to warrant the very
straightforward definition as being the reporting through mass media of
current events. In particular, news journalism will generally have… [read more]

Exposure to Violent Media Today's World Term Paper

… Exposure to Violent Media

Today's world appears to be increasingly violent, and it certainly offers a plethora of violent media: songs, movies, television shows, video games, and literature. Therefore, the temptation exists to suggest that the violent media has led to the increase in violence in society. However, while the two factors may be highly correlated, it is impossible to prove that violent media has caused violence in society. First, many societies without violent media are extremely violent. Second, mentally stable viewers of violent media are able to differentiate between fictional and real portrayals of violence. Finally, society has not actually gotten more violent. Therefore, it is safe to conclude that violent media does not cause an increase in violence in society.

While American society is derided as being extremely violent, it is actually less violent than many of the societies around the world. Countries in the Middle East and Africa, which have a smaller range of media offerings and less widespread media distribution, exhibit violence levels that are unparalleled by even the most violent areas of the United States. Therefore, it is clear that violence in society is not caused solely by mass media, but can exist independently.

Next, all but the youngest viewers of violent media…… [read more]

Mass Media as it Has Changed Through Three Sociological Eras Term Paper

… Mass Media as it Has Changed Through Three Sociological Eras

First of all, we need to point out from the very beginning that mass media will encompass here a broader term than the strict media idea we know today. Since we are going back to the times of the Agrarian Age, when the idea of 'mass media' was much different from what we know today, we need to be able to encompass in the notion the actual characteristics of mass media we might have seen at the time.

Basically, the first known dated printed book comes from China, from around 868 AD and was referred to as "Diamond Sutra," while printed books entered Europe only with the apparition of Guttenberg's printed press, in 1453. One can definitely not undermine the formidable significance of the printed press and what it meant for society at that point, as well as further along the historical timeline.

Indeed, the invention of the printed press marked an important change in the way ideas were disseminated, as well as in the way simple information was passed along from person to person. Up to that point this had been done primarily in oral form, by direct speech from individual to individual or groups of persons, or by handwriting. The problem with the latter was that this was generally a very lengthy process, it took a lot of time and, as such, could only reach a small number of recipients over a certain period of time.

Media during the period up to 800 AD and to 1453 in Europe was indeed a product of that respective era and the reasons for this come from the distinct characteristics of the respective eras. Indeed, if we are to refer to Europe and notice its characteristics at that point, we can only draw the conclusion that media could not have been different.

Up to the 15th century, but especially during the initial periods of the Middle Ages and during the Dark Ages, mass communication between individuals was unnecessary. First of all, there were very few individuals living in Europe during that time. The barbarian invasions generally marked a reduction in the population in Europe and people were not only few, but widely spread, with regions generally having a low territorial density. What this meant was basically that people did not communicate with one another and did not need to. Communities were scarce and geographically far away from one another. Life was simple and revolved around the cultivation of the ground, which knowledge was generally passed on from father to son on a verbal basis, from generation to generation. As such, during the Agrarian Age, mass media reflected…… [read more]

Communication and the Media Term Paper

… Communications and Media

Communication has vastly expanded as media forms have diversified in recent times. Through globalization and democratization, communication through the various media has been a blessing to the economy and culture of African countries. Online communication has transformed the mere information consumer of old into a content producer today. Media literacy has become a component and approach in the educational curriculum of all 50 States. But this immense and unprecedented expansion of communication has negative effects. Studies showed that prolonged exposure to violence in the media inclined male viewers to physical and verbal aggression. They also revealed that long-time exposure by vulnerable girls to sexually objectifying forms of media tended to decrease their global self-esteem. Likewise, communication through the various media is as essential to winning a war by the proper transmission of information as defeating the enemy in the battlefield. Communication through the media asserts both positive and negative influence on people. The purpose of this paper is to discover some of its positive and negative effects from authoritative sources with the end-view of contributing information to support the decision-making function of policymakers.


Globalization and democratization have been a blessing to sub-Saharan media (Kariithi 2007). The people's newfound freedom can be traced to the proliferation of the mass media, due in turn to the economic policies established and implemented by their new governments. The invigorated environment liberalized the air waves in African countries, leading to an explosion of the radio and TV broadcasting industry. Innovations included and culminated in the internet. Today, all African media organizations assert individual online presence. These websites have global content, which influences local media content. Records showed that advertising sales in these countries in the past five years approached $3 billion. All developments pointed to self-sufficiency and long-term sustainability. Joint ventures in publishing and broadcasting flourished. The cellular communication sector has been most successful. Statistics revealed that subscription went up from $1.2 million in 1996 to $51 million in 2005. $10 million was projected for 2010 (Kariithi).

Technology has become an integral component of modern communication (Holtz 2005). Communication is also moving more and more online as well. It is more than just substitution. It has also changed roles dramatically. The mere information recipient and consumer has now become a content producer. He wields influence like a public relations professional. Technology has increased the capability of communication so that audiences are now communicating by themselves online. This has allowed an exchange of information broadly and quickly. The current and continuously-evolving environment has been described as participatory. The audiences are themselves running their show. Critics warned communicators to learn how to deal with these empowered audiences in other to retrieve the influence they previously enjoyed over the audiences (Holtz).

One more miracle that has come out of new communication products, techniques and know-how is media literacy (Lundstrom 2004). This new and popular trend teaches children to think critically about media messages they receive on a daily basis. It trains them to assess,… [read more]

Public Relations Building Goodwill and Reputation Definitions Term Paper

… Public Relations


Definitions of Public Relations

Public relations refer to a set of planned activities, which help an entity establish identity, acquire business credibility and authority (Fey 2003). It makes the audience remember the entity through repetitiveness or a strong approach in delivering a message or information. It may seem cheap, at times, but unlike advertising, public relations are not free. Unlike advertising, public relations or PR cannot be bought. It must be established with effort, timeliness and the correct approach. It may not be well understood, but PR remains the most effective marketing tool of a small business (Fey).

This definition sees public relations as largely dependent on the media. For a first step, it sets the target for its message (Fey 2003). The public relations person or agency determines if the message is best or optimally carried or endorsed by the local daily or weekly publication or the morning, afternoon or evening TV talk show. If it chooses the newspapers, the PR person or entity must make the news release really newsworthy. That news worthiness is something that the audience of the message decides. It also depends on the media's specific goals. If the chosen medium is television through a particular TV talk show, the message can be received by the show's regular viewers. But it will be carried or endorsed by a newspaper's editor or columnist on home trends, art events or business, the message can reach intended readers who regularly read these newspaper sections. PR requires a keen exposure to the different capabilities and reaches of the different media. A successful PR program also requires a regularly updated list of contacts, considering their high turnover (Fey)..

A second definition is an assessment of a set of activities in establishing the reputation of the entity (Cartledge 2003). It brings out the results of previous actions in the direction of building the reputation. It consists of the consequences of what the PR person or agent did and said and what others think about the entity being promoted. In a larger understanding, PR helps the entity and its audience of publics adapt to each other, according to the Institute of Public Relations and the Public Relations Society of America. The PR person or agency is responsible for placing the business entity before its publics in creating or increasing awareness of what the entity does and how it does it. It helps decision-makers see the entity or organization plays. It does not matter if it is a business organization, an academic institution or a government office. Senior managers are influenced both by the role of its PR or information professionals in the organization and by how the outside world views them. They must take appropriate care in providing objective information to the organization's audience while advocating for their profession. They both establish and take care of the reputation they establish. In…… [read more]

Public Relations Campaign Proposal Term Paper

… Public Relations Campaign Proposal

The following pages will focus on describing a Public relations campaign proposal for L'Oreal's summer products launch. The PR campaign proposed bellow is a variant considered to be best suitable for launching a new product line… [read more]

Communication and Broadcasting Term Paper

… Communications Markets and Media Broadcasting Technology

The research study I would like to perform for my independent study relates to both communications and television broadcasting. I plan to obtain this research through many of the network's websites and other websites… [read more]

Tylenol Rides it Out and Gains Case Study

… ¶ … Tylenol Rides it Out and Gains a Legacy" is emblematic of how good public relations can turn a weakness or error into a boon for the company. In 1982 it was found that several individuals died because of cyanide detected within capsules of Tylenol, this led to a massive recall of all Tylenol products that eventually cost the company 50 million dollars. The same tragedy occurred two years later that resulted in a recall of 80 million dollars of damages. In both cases, Johnson and Johnson came out with a better reputation for integrity than before and their image in the public's eye improved as a result of the steps they took from both an operations perspective as well as a public relations perspective.

There were both internal and external audiences within this particular case study. The internal audience was the employees of the Johnson and Johnson Company as well as the Food and Drug Administration who closely worked with Johnson and Johnson to ensure that the problem could be adequately solved. The internal public were very important in this case because J&J and had to convince their employees that there products were safe and to somehow inform the individuals involved that their actions would not result in a substantial loss for the company. At the same time, the Food and Drug administration played a crucial role because they were convinced by J&J that they would take all steps to prevent damages to the consumer. This was evidenced by the FDA's continued notifications to the public that J&J were doing all necessary steps to prevent any more damages to partners. The external audience were the consumers themselves, they had to be convinced to trust that J&J took all necessary steps to prevent their products from being contaminated and to continue using Tylenol in the future.

Communications from J&J took the shape of many different media outlets. They communicated through internal newsletters to their staff updating them on what was happening with the product line and how this problem impacts their company. This decreased the feeling of panic among employees of the nature of the crime committed. They also used press conferences, commercials and news outlets to communicate with the public to assure them that all steps were being taken to prevent the problems associated with contamination. Furthermore, they communicated effectively with the FDA so that a third party would be involved in helping them calm public sentiments. The impact of their communication is that consumers trusted the fact that J&J were not responsible for the actions that occurred and moreover that they were doing everything possible to prevent this crisis from happening again. This implicit understanding dramatically helped the case of J&J and allowed them to gain significant consumer trust and loyalty. This message could not have been communicated any more efficiently. They not only communicated to calm internal audiences, but also solved their external PR issue by relying…… [read more]

Mass Media Violence Term Paper

… Mass Media Violence

The Impact of Mass Media Violence on U.S. Homicides by David Phillips (1983) describes how this author attempts to prove that mass media violence has an impact on aggressive behavior. To prove his point, Phillips chose to compare championship heavyweight prize fights for the period 1973-1978 with archived data of daily counts of U.S. homicides. His hypothesis was that these prize fights where violent behavior is rewarded had led to an increase in homicides.

Phillips performs a detailed time-series regression analysis on this data, correcting for secular trends, seasonality and various other extraneous variables. He found that immediately after the heavyweight championship prize fights homicides increased by 12.46% when there was widespread media coverage of the event. He found that the observed number of homicides rose by 11.127 after the average "publicized" fight, defined as discussed on the network evening news, and by only 2.8333 after the average unpublicized one. Further, Phillips found that there was a peak in homicides on the third-day after the boxing match.

More interestingly, murders of young white males increased after the defeat of a white boxer and murders of young black males increased after the defeat of a black boxer. This is what Phillips attributes to as victim modeling where imitation of behavior is taking place. Phillips suggests that seeing the behavior makes it more acceptable or at least introduces it as an option.

Phillips also discounted personal experience as being a factor in the increase in homicide by analyzing data on both domestic and…… [read more]

Public Relations - Crisis Management Term Paper

… Public Relations - Crisis Management



The objective of this work is to identify an issue or theory in relation to public relations and specifically crisis management and to examine the literature… [read more]

Media and United States Foreign Policy Accounts Term Paper

… Media and United States Foreign Policy

Accounts of Involvement

The initial role of media was limited to the deliverance of news report, but with the passage of time and introduction of technologies, the media under went restructuring and a change… [read more]

Learning Journal: Media Mistakes Term Paper

… Learning Journal: Media Mistakes

Even though many people believe that the media can do no wrong, and that it reports everything objectively, this is actually not the case. Instead, the media is made up of people, and those people can do many different things wrong, either because they have misunderstood what they were told or because they chose to deliberately misrepresent the facts. I have personally noticed a media mistake that I felt affected me specifically when I saw an Internet news story, from a reputable source, dealing with a medical problem that I have. Based on what I know about this problem, I know that what was said in the story could be accurate in some cases, but was not necessarily accurate for all cases. Because of this, the information that I saw in that story upset me greatly, likely for no real reason other than the opinion of a researcher that was not even accurate.

A did not do anything to try to get the error changed, because I am not a licensed expert on…… [read more]

Media Corporations and Consumers Term Paper

… Media conglomerates have resulted in monotony in news and in entertainment. When one corporation owns a series of seemingly independent news sources, editorial decisions start to reflect the political agenda of the CEOs. Self-censorship can result, keeping the public in the dark about key political issues or events. For example, one of the newspapers owned by a conglomerate might hire an upstart reporter who wishes to write a weekly piece about the abuses at Guantanamo Bay, but the corporate heads of the conglomerate, in collusion with the Bush administration, pressure the paper's editor to refuse the reporter's request. The editorial boards answerable to the media conglomerate corporation end up including and excluding the same information. As a result, all the news sources owned by a conglomerate will end up delivering the same basic information even though they may appear different. Political pressure is not the only reason media conglomerates inhibit freedom of expression and heterogeneity in the media. Advertisers also pressure the media to maintain content standards, under the threat of spending their advertising dollars elsewhere. If Ford or Budweiser don't want their ads placed during a documentary on Bin Laden, then…… [read more]

Communications in Spite of the Wide Range Term Paper

… Communications

In spite of the wide range of news sources available on the Internet, I still get at least half of my current event information from television and occasionally from print media. I usually consult Internet news sources for more in-depth information or for immediately up-to-date headlines about an event unfolding at the moment. For entertainment I rely equally on Internet and television, because each offers a unique experience. The Internet permits live gaming, chatting with real people, and the chance to simply browse the Web for interesting sites or shopping. Television, on the other hand, offers full-length movies,-hour-long dramas, and half-hour shows that I like to watch for pure entertainment.

Although I have no one favorite broadcast media of mass communication, I often watch CNN. Their approach is what is increasingly commonly called "infotainment." Through sensational images, sounds, and graphics, CNN tries to make the news an entertainment product. Their anchors and prime time hosts are like celebrities: Larry King and Anderson Cooper. Points-of-view tend to be tame and mainstream: CNN dislikes controversy and plays it safe by not challenging viewers with alternative points-of-view on touchy subjects like the war in Iraq. As a result,…… [read more]

Mainstream Media vs. Ethnic Term Paper

… Mainstream Media vs. Ethnic Media

On the front page of the New York Times online version, (Monday, June 12, 2006), the story receiving the most prominence was "Zarqawi Lived for 52 Minutes After Strike." The story was about the Iraqi al-Qaida terrorist who was killed last week by a bomb that was dropped from a U.S. fighter jet onto his hideout. "It was very evident he had extremely massive internal injuries," said Maj. Gen. William Caldwell, a U.S. military spokesperson in Baghdad. The Times is a hard-news, up-to-date internationally themed paper; and other front page stories were about a bomb that killed 13 members of a little Palestinian girl's family in the Gaza Strip; about the United Auto Workers having to give in on their demands to help "rescue" the auto industry

Another top story in the Times' explained that the 3 prisoners who committed suicide at the U.S. military prison in Cuba, "tried to conceal themselves in their cells" behind their washed laundry. The front page had a report on the Tony Awards (Broadway shows); the Arts on the front page featured the woman who wrote the book The Vagina Monologues. The Mets and Yankees, the World Cup, and the NBA Finals made up the sporting news on the front page.

On the front page of the New York Post (Monday, June 12, 2006), the top story is about a "Hell Ride" in a taxi; one girl was killed trying to jump out of a taxi that was driving out of control; three other girls in the cab were injured. The Post is a "tabloid" newspaper, using emotion and weirdness to get people to buy the paper. Also on the front page, under the "Gossip" section, readers learn that dolphins are "ultra-horny," and that Angelina Jolie had some sexy pictures taken when she was young. In order to read about the horny dolphins, an online reader has to register ("It's free!") as a member of the Post. The Post does have sports (the Mets' sweep of Arizona was on the front page), food, culture, and opinion, but the paper is mainly sold on big splashy headlines, provocative entertainment stories sort of like "National Inquirer" uses.

The New York Beacon is a more serious newspaper, geared toward stories and issues that relate to the African-American community, and the online version has daily news, but it…… [read more]

Linguistics English Term Paper

… ¶ … linguistics in American news. Specifically it will discuss the structure and function of headlines by examining their grammar and vocabulary. The paper will use headlines from Associated Press (AP) news content on a major Web site, compared with… [read more]

Marshall Mcluhan Media and the Human Senses Term Paper

… Marshall McLuhan

Media and the Human Senses

Marshall McLuhan contends that all media are extensions of the human senses. True to form, all media presented whether print, audio, visual, electronic or other are nothing more than expansions of our perceptions… [read more]

Media Manipulation Does the American Media Establishment Term Paper

… Media Manipulation

Does the American media establishment consistently reflect and report the news fairly, objectively, factually, and in its entirety? The answer to that question, according to numerous sources, is "no" to fairness, "no" to objectivity, "no" to factuality, and… [read more]

Media and Communication in Canada Term Paper

… Media and Communication in Canada

Description of media system

In the history of mass media in Canada there has been a position that it has been susceptible to the dominance of American media. "Canadian mass media began from a need… [read more]

Media Violence Term Paper

… Media Violence

The American Psychiatric Association exclaims, "The debate is over. Over the last three decades, the one overriding finding in research on the mass media is that exposure to media portrayals of violence increases aggressive behavior in children." In addition to the correlation between exposure to violent media and aggressive behavior, the APA asserts: "that exposure to depictions of violence causes desensitization and creates a climate of fear." However, causation is difficult to ascertain, as sociological and psychological studies in the area of media violence can generally only suggest correlation, not causation. Nevertheless, children are exposed to countless violent imagery, imagery that has become increasingly realistic over the past several years due to advancements in technology. Not only do movies and television shows glorify violence, but children's video games and even the music they listen to contribute to a culture of violence. There is no doubt that the United States does harbor a culture of violence. Incidents such as school shootings draw the public's attention increasingly to the role of violent media: its potential effects on developing minds and its potential effects on the society at large. If violence in media causes increased aggression, then some public policy changes are in order. Reputable studies do show that violence in the media can prompt aggressive behavior toward others or themselves, even when the portrayals of violence are fictional.

Fictional violence is in fact one of the primary ways young children and adolescents are exposed to violence in the media. Forty-six percent of all television violence may take place in children's cartoons, and children's programs are also highly unlikely to depict the long-term consequences of violence; rather, they portray violence in a humorous fashion most of the time ("Facts about Media Violence"). Cartoons are not the only culprit for promoting the notion that violent behavior has no consequences. The glamorization of violence by popular music stars also contributes to a growing sense among youth that violence is acceptable, even desirable behavior. Certainly such skewed and outright false ideas must have negative consequences on the individual psyche and the collective psyche of Americans.

Gerard Jones would probably disagree. In his book Killing Monsters, Jones describes how and why children might in fact need fantasy violence in order to develop constructive coping skills. Fantasy violence might help children master their psychological and social realities, make sense out of complicated emotions like anger and sadness, develop self-confidence, self-efficacy, and a sense of humor. Moreover, fantasy violence especially as its depictions have evolved over recent years, might be highly beneficial for young girls. One of the book chapters in Killing Monsters, "Girl Power," demonstrates the relevance of physically strong female action heroes, and how such female action heroes can tremendously boost the self-esteem of young girls. Female action heroes, even and perhaps especially when they use violence to accomplish their goals, can help girls overcome the otherwise gender-biased tendencies within traditional media and within the overall culture.

Still, in light of psychological and sociological evidence,… [read more]

Challenges Facing College Newspapers Term Paper

… ¶ … status of a newspaper. The newspaper is an indispensable part of the media which is used by various people and organizations throughout the world to have links with the public to spread information and news. Other than the… [read more]

Media Conglomeration Term Paper

… Media Conglomeration: A Monopoly

While it may seem that continuous government deregulation of the telecommunications industry would result in increased competition, the opposite is actually true. The telecommunications industry has instead seen an accelerating wave of corporate mergers and acquisitions that have created a small number of multi-billion-dollar media conglomerates (National Vanguard Books, 2004). The biggest media conglomerates are rapidly growing by consuming their competition, almost tripling in size during the 1990s. As a result, it is likely that one of these megamedia companies produces or distributes the majority of television shows, radio programs, movies and print publications.

The largest media conglomerate is AOL-Time Warner, which was formed when AOL acquired Time Warner for $160 billion in 2000 (National Vanguard Books, 2004). Prior to the merger, AOL was the largest Internet service provider in the United States, and it will now be used as an online platform for the content from Time Warner. Time Warner was the second largest of the international media companies when AOL bought it. The second-largest media conglomerate today is the Walt Disney Company, which includes several television production companies (Walt Disney Television, Touchstone Television, Buena Vista Television) and cable networks with more than 100 million subscribers in total.

The largest three companies in television network broadcasting used to be ABC, CBS, and NBC (National Vanguard Books, 2004). With the consolidation of the media empires, these three are no longer independent companies. Six mega-corporations (AOL Time Warner, Disney-ABC, GE-NBC, Viacom-CBS-Westinghouse, Bertelsman, and Murdoch's News Corp-Fox) control the majority of media outlets in television, cable, radio, newspapers, magazines, and the Internet (Kidd, 2001). As a result, they also control the majority of information, artistic and cultural expression, and public discussion in the United States.

According to Bagdikian (2000): "In 1983, fifty corporations dominated most of every mass medium and the biggest media merger in history was a $340 million deal.... [I]n 1987, the fifty companies had shrunk to twenty-nine.... [I]n 1990, the twenty-nine had shrunk to twenty three.... [I]n 1997, the biggest firms numbered ten and involved the $19 billion Disney-ABC deal, at the time the biggest media merger ever.... [in 2000] AOL Time Warner's $350 billion merged corporation [was] more than 1,000 times larger [than the biggest deal of 1983]."

The monopoly on today's media is controlled by these enormous conglomerates that have secured monopoly control of the majority of our media landscape (McChesney and Nichols, 2002). Because of the monopoly, the traditional idea of a free press, where anyone can launch a medium and participate in the industry, is shattered.

Many people mistakenly believe that the United States' media system developed naturally through "market forces (Free Press, 2005)." While market forces had a role to play in shaping today's media, these market forces only act within a set of "ground rules" that are constantly changing. Our media system is the direct result of government policy that determines how the media operates. The key players that make the rules include the following: "the Federal Communications Commission… [read more]

How Newspapers Attract Readers Term Paper

… ¶ … decline of newspaper readership. The author examines the statistics, the attempt by newspapers to attract readers by turning to sensationalism, and the opinions of experts in the field about how to increase readership. The author then proposes an… [read more]

Wall Street Journal News Establishing Term Paper

… (HAL) subsidiary and another man with defrauding the U.S. military on refueling tankers used at a Kuwait airport." On March 18, 2005, Russell Gold asserts, "A former Halliburton Co. procurement manager in Kuwait was arrested Wednesday and charged with defrauding the U.S. government of $3.5 million."

It is without a shadow of doubt that the media plays a huge role in a democracy because the people listen to what the media has to say. Therefore, corporations should engage with the media in a proactive manner so that it can counter any threat before it fetches trouble. It is indisputable that the power of money is an extremely effective weapon, which can turn the media's eyes blind and their ears deaf towards business ethics. However, this does not mean that Halliburton is engaged in unethical method, but it simply means that the company needs to use its resources to counter the negative propaganda against its interests and the interests of its shareholders.

Strategic Solution for dealing with this conflict

Before creating a strategy, it is important to note that Halliburton is fine financially, its profits have been in a strong position, and the corporation has done a splendidly in managing the dynamic market. "Halliburton Co. (HAL) said it expects capital spending for 2005 of $650 million, according to the company's annual report filed Tuesday with the Securities and Exchange Commission (Marc A. Wojno, March 1, 2005)."

Therefore, the problem that needs to be tackled in related to its public relations department. The company has to project itself in a way that tells the people that it believes in principals and not profits and at the same time counter the liberal media in an effective way.

Morton Winston (2002) asserts that globalization has not transformed the mannerism of broadcasting and printing news. Therefore, a deliberate divide-and-rule strategy can be adopted by Halliburton so as to weaken the argument of the liberal press. If Halliburton can productively divide the liberal media by promoting them as either "trustworthy" or "extremist" groups, the company can utilize the discrepancy as the foundation for public relations operations planned to sidetrack and redirect the condemnation and unnecessary exposure of their policies.

Simultaneously, the company should also look towards creating affiliations with Non-governmental-organizations (NGO's) because such affiliations can turn out to be a good strategy to further divide the movement against Halliburton as it will create a good image towards the American people.

Finally, Halliburton should also look to make profound efforts to show its business ethics and its resolve to stick to its principals by consistently instructing the company's workforce with new courses, by providing them with the latest equipment, recognizing and functionalizing accomplishment standards, conveying their values and principles to their dealers and business associates, and executing internal assessments on a consistent basis.

The fact that there is such a great range of procedures and strategies that can be creatively produced and productively executed to fit the nature of propaganda being carried out in the media, it… [read more]

Chinese Media Industry Term Paper

… Chinese Media Industry

The purpose of this work is to document the shifts and changes that have shaped the media industry as to those societal, political, organizational, national, or as to any other possible influences in the formation governance and… [read more]

Media Presentation Analyzation: Design Term Paper

… Material which does not appear to be continually revised and checked becomes suspect for no other reason than that the environment around it has been changing. Users expect a degree of ongoing novelty and innovation even just at the level of design or mode of representation, as an indication marker that the providers of information have been scrutinizing their content with a "freshness date" in mind. Even if the article was dated in 2004, I probably would have rejected its "updatedness" without a listing of the exact month of 2004.

Another dimension of credibility is comprehensiveness. The very volume and diversity of the Internet creates a an additional credibility problem. The global scope of the Web can create the illusion that whatever cannot be found must not be very important. We want others to make decisions about priority and relevance without having to research the "full story." This would be too tedious and distracting. But as soon as such selections are made, the problem increases that something crucial may have been overlooked. And without substantial independent knowledge of a subject area, it is impossible to find out what has been overlooked. The only reason why I did not believe that something was overlokked was that on the front page of the article, it stated, "2 hours, 25 minutes ago," so I assumed that nothing drastic had occurred or been reported since then.

The problems above, and the expereiences surrounding the article I chose, show how the standard criteria for judging credibility online is frustrated by the characteristic conditions of the Web. None of these elements is entirely unique to the online context, but the scope, self-referencing character, and rate of change of this medium raise these issues to a new importance. The Web is both an information archive and a social network; as people move within this space, their interaction with ideas and information is, at the same time, an interaction with other individuals or groups. Credibility is not just one thing, and judgments about it bring in considerations that are not only issues of assessing knowledge claims. At this point credibility in a media presentation can be seen to take on an ethical dimension.

The notions that credibility judgments can be made on objective criteria, that they only involve considerations impinging on the truth or falsity of information all neglect the underlying characteristic of the networked environment in which these judgments are being made. The social dimensions of this network always entail elements of judgment and value. Finally, the best safeguard is to check one's judgments against the judgments of a community with which one has confidence or choosing that reference on the basis of issues of respect and trust, as a matter of expertise. The numerous media presentations found in the form of television and the Web have many different concepts that can be analyzed in the form of their design and ethical relationships.


Bruce, B.C. (2000), "Credibility of the Web: Why we need dialectical reading," Journal… [read more]

Breaking the News" by James Term Paper

… The anecdote illustrates the conflict that happens between two journalists, and, eventually, between the journalists and the public (with the inclusion of the military), when confronted to choose between covering a newsworthy footage or saving the lives of people under the danger of death. The journalists' decision to become objective and cover the event instead of saving the lives of those in danger illustrates the lack of consideration that the mass media has on the reality that surrounds them. That is, they choose to objectify every reality that they encounter everyday, and assess their judgment and behavior based on the newsworthiness of an event as it is presented to them. In this example, Fallows shows how the mass media have become an autonomous institution that cares only for itself and not the public and its welfare, the very people whom they should serve, first and foremost.

"Breaking the News" have effectively reflected what Fallows have asserted to be the current preoccupation of the mass media at present: that is, 'charming' and 'winning the acceptance of the crowd' (public). Ultimately, the mass media's preoccupation in influencing the public is based not so much on the concern that it has for the American public's welfare, but on the potential profits that media conglomerates can make when they are able to capture their audience, the public, in every news or entertainment piece that they offer. Sadly, the book has also opened the people's eyes to the hard reality that the mass media is firstly, an economic institution before becoming a social institution. Fallows' experiences and observations as a media practitioner over the years serves proof that the mass media has become an autonomous body that is detached from the public and the realities of the society, and, unfortunately, operating under its own agenda and purposes.

Work cited

Fallows, J. (1996). Breaking…… [read more]

Media Violence Blaming Social Term Paper

… Also, famed criminologist James Q. Wilson responds to the issue by commenting, "No doubt violence on television and in the movies heightens aggression among some people some of the time, but we have virtually no evidence that it affects the serious crime rate.'" Thus, crime rates incorporate other factors, especially economic conditions, which have a significant and nearly wholly accountable effect on violence in society.

Richard B. Felson's paper on "Mass Media Effects on Violent Behavior" outlines three points. He first states that media violence, in laboratory conditions, has an equal effect on antisocial behavior as it does on aggressive behavior. Second, contrary to general view regarding punishment in the media, he determines that the media is the most likely avenue to display punishment following violence. His final point is that criminals have a versatile tendency toward violent as well as non-violent acts. He concludes that, "exposure to television violence probably does have a small effect on violent behavior for some viewers," as a result of the media exposing them to forms of violent behavior they might not have already been considered. Thus, the multiple factors influencing criminal activity make it difficult to accurately determine the impact of the media as a mode for propagating crime.

The debate over violence in the media will continue, but considerations should be made to the legitimacy of the claims that the media influences the demonstration of violent acts in society. Felson's sound observation that some criminal acts might be stimulated by exposure to violent ideas portrayed in the media is consistent with generally observed evidence that the media influences violence, but at a lesser degree than often presented as economic influences are the primary factor influencing societal violence.


Felson, Richard B. (1996) "Mass Media Effects on Violent Behavior." Annual Review of Sociology, 22, 103-128.

Levine, Judith (2000). Shooting The Messenger: Why Censorship Won't Stop Violence. New York, NY: The Media Coalition, Inc.

Potter, W. James (2002). The 11 Myths of Media Violence. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage

Publications, Inc.

Rhodes, Richard (2000). "The Media Violence Myth." American Booksellers Foundation for Free Expression. Retrieved 25…… [read more]

Boys on the Bus Media Term Paper

… The Boys on the Bus reveals the sad truth about the media in the Kennedy, Nixon and McGovern years. It is a truth that evolves with the mores of our society. One cannot believe that it has changed significantly - except to become less herd- driven and more star- created.

If we accept the spin as fact and fail to inject a dose of humanity into the mix we will, indeed "get the leaders we deserve" and they will be as Kamber describes (6).

The media designs photo ops, stages appropriate crisis and reveals the tragic pain of life with the appropriate spin. It has become more important to film the scene that to tackle the shooter. Timothy Crouse should write a sequel and entitle it Popcorn at Five PM. This because the news is becoming just another television drama. Dan Rather looks real against the bombs blasting in the night sky of Iraq. If the take is not perfect, will they re-bomb the city to get the shot? I am sure one could devise the appropriate political argument to justify it.

Works Cited

American Heritage Dictionary Palm SII.…… [read more]

Discovery That a New York Reaction Paper

… After all, it is most notably the reputation of media sources that earn them their popularity. The New York Times is the best-selling newspaper in the country, not necessarily because they break the stories first, but because their reputation for accuracy is so well regarded. The Jayson Blair scandal completely contradicts everything the newspaper has worked for -- it strikes at the heart of the New York Times, which is its reputation.

The resignation by Blair and the two top editors is a step in the right direction. It marks the acknowledgment of fault by those running the newspaper, rather than blaming it simply on the rogue reporter. However, I still believe that the reputation of the New York Times is questionable, or at least not what it was prior to the Blair incident. This is not to say that more resignations are needed, or new policies need to be implemented. I am not sure what, if anything, can serve to immediately reverse the reputation of the paper. I suppose that if I had the responsibility for dealing with the incident, I would have been overly aggressive. I would have harped on the issue, day in and day out, and made sure the public was aware that all precautions were being taken to prevent a similar incident in the future.

There will definitely be some long-term ramifications, the degree of which I do not know. I think the Times will be a lot more stringent in their overview of writers. As to whether they will fully recover from the harm done to their reputation anytime soon -- I doubt it. I also think ramifications will go beyond just the New York Time's office. If this kind of incident could happen at such a prestigious newspaper, it could happen anywhere, and other media outlets will most likely follow similar preventative measures.

Works Cited

Kurtz, Howard. "More Reporting By Times Writer Called Suspect." Washington

Post.…… [read more]

Conglomerates / Media Ownership Term Paper

… For example, Jeff Chester of the Center for Digital Democracy says, "I'm not saying that everything is a horrible paranoid fantasy, but my sense is there's an implicit quid pro quo here." (Quoted by Roberts) These suspicions are further fueled by the readiness of these big media players to accept "government advice" on killing stories it does not like, and the fact that all of them have pivotal business pending in Washington.

These big media conglomerates have acquired enormous political power, as reflected in the Telecommunications Act of 1996 that was purported to be an attempt to spur competition, but resulted in exactly the opposite -- the trend of media mergers actually accelerating after 1996. What is more, with this Act, the Congress gave the digital spectrum ($40 billion to $100 billion worthy of public assets) to commercial broadcasters free of charge, which Senator John McCain referred to as "one of the greatest scams in American history." (Quoted by Duemler)

There is little doubt that the increasing dominance of the global media by a handful of large, influential conglomerates is a dangerous trend. It smothers the independent voice, undermines the quality of news, compromises informed choice and makes it easy for the government to manipulate and control the sources of information. The trend can only be reversed through greater public awareness of its negative consequences.

Works Cited

Bagdikian. Ben H. "Democracy and the Media." Extract from the book, "The Media Monopoly."

Beacon Press, 1997. April 7, 2003. [available at]


Duemler, David. "The Right to be Heard: Creating A Social Movement for the 21st Century" Social Policy Magazine, 2001. April 7, 2003. http://www.socialpolicy.org/recent_issues/WI00/duemler.html

Roberts, Johnnie L. "Big Media and the Big Story." Big Media and the Big Story. October 13, 2001. April 7, 2003. http://www.msnbc.com/news/642434.asp

The "story" here refers to the coverage of the 9/11 events and its aftermath

President's security adviser, advised the major networks to refrain from showing Osama bin Laden's unedited taped messages -- they duly obliged without a whimper

Media Ownership… [read more]

Beauty Shaping Up to Fit Term Paper

… [Author not available, 2003(b)] A psychological study in 1995 found that three minutes spent looking at models in a fashion magazine caused 70% of women to feel depressed, guilt and shameful. These statistics support his argument and mine. Eric Stice at the University of Texas, Austin argues that due to the media "Most of us...think dieting is going to keep us thin, but there's never been a single study to date that has found that dieting as commonly practiced in the real world leads to weight loss."[Author not available, 2003(b)] Not only are the myths cultivated by the media exposed but the author gives innovative ideas on how to counter their effects practically through reassurance of the natural diversity in body shapes and sizes and awareness of differences between media image and reality.[Author not available, 2003(b)].

Media may feed weight problems of teen-aged girls" by Dr. Steve Salvatore is a small but explicit article that describes how very real the danger posed by media images is when imposed on young and malleable minds. Eating disorders were best tackled by raising self-esteem he agreed.

Girls like Marne Greenberg were interviewed as were experts such as Dr. Stanley Hertz of Long Island Jewish Hospital, who admit how frequent the use of vomiting or laxatives to control weight really is.[Salvatore, S, 1999] This article too, through description and examples derided the role of the media in proliferating false ideals and prioritizing physical attributes in its bid for higher ratings and more consumers. The author encourages young girls to evaluate themselves in ways other than weight. [Salvatore, S, 1999]The author has a tendency to quote expert opinions rather analyze the data himself but his message is clearly towards producing a more media savvy consumer as bulimia due to low self-image is a very real issue.


Women have been manipulating their body for centuries to fit a required and idealized image of feminine grace and beauty. The methods used have often been painful, uncomfortable and harmful. From body shaping clothes, to metal neck rings, foot binding, cosmetic surgery and dieting, females have been told by society how to improve their many 'imperfections.' Eating disorders have become a real menace amongst our young women,13% are diagnosed with anorexia, bulimia or some other form of binge eating every year.[Author not available, 2003(b)] Like Marne Greenberg, these women have a desire to be thin because the media has been telling them insistently, and continuously through psychological machinations that it is the sexier, more powerful and profitable way to be. Raising awareness of this issue and taking practical steps through support and education are ways needed to prevent this onslaught. That the media will have to adapt to growing public outcry is shown by the fact that many advertisers are already using women to monitor ads and give their feed-back [Author not available, 2003(a)]and slowly images of the real American women who is not flat as a board but is beautiful anyways, are making their presence felt.

References:… [read more]

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