Study "Journalism / Media / PR / News" Essays 331-384

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Crisis Communication Is the Official Term Paper

… Creating a crisis communication plan is essential in managing any crisis, and not having a plan can be extremely dangerous for any company or organization. With the Internet, social networking, mobile phones, and other communication devices, communication happens faster than ever, and a crisis can become big news in a mere second. Being aware of these communication implications and being able to react to them is now the job of PR professionals everywhere, and they must be able to see a crisis developing and react to it at a moment's notice today.


Coombs, W.T. (2007). Crisis management and communications. Retrieved 15 July 2009 from the Institute for Public Relations Web site:

Coombs, W.T. (2004). Impact of past crises on current crisis communication: Insights from situational crisis communication theory. The Journal of Business Communication, 41(3), 265+.

Jarret, J. (2007, April). Maintaining credibility during a crisis: Challenges for the manager. Public Management, 89, 14+.

Probst, M.R. (2009). Amazon follies. Retrieved 15 July 2009 from the Live Journal Web site:

Smith, R.D. (2005). Strategic planning for public relations. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Vielhaber, M.E., & Waltman, J.L. (2008). Changing uses of technology: Crisis communication…… [read more]

Issues of Ethnicities and Nationalisms Thesis

… Anthropology - Ethnicities / Nationalisms

In today's TV cable news programs the lives and activities of people and groups whose ethnicities are different from the mainstream Caucasian culture receive inconsistent and not always accurate coverage. This is an important issue… [read more]

Mergers There Are Several Legal and Ethical Research Proposal

… Mergers

There are several legal and ethical implications to consider when weighing the issue of further media consolidation. Media companies are generally in favor of lobbying the FCC to allow more consolidation. This applies to large firms such as AOL/Time Warner and Viacom as well as smaller companies such as Sinclair Broadcasting and the Tribune Group.

Our firm, DWI, opposes consolidation but is under pressure to change that position.

Legally, media industry consolidation falls under the auspices of two primary bodies. One is the FCC, which has placed limits on media ownership in any given market. The other is the antitrust unit of the Department of Justice, which would weigh any mega-merger against the provisions of the Sherman and Hart-Scott-Rodino Acts.

At present, the FCC is being asked to loosen ownership restrictions, but any merger would still be subject to approval from the FTC and the Department of Justice.

There are several ethical considerations as well. Most Americans oppose further mergers in the media business. These mergers are considered by many to be against the public interest. Several interest groups have emerged to stand against media consolidation, due to fears about such matters as the erosion of news coverage quality and media independence. There are presently barriers to horizontal mergers, prohibiting ownership of both print and television media in a given market, guaranteeing different voices in news. The Senate this past year nullified an FCC attempt to remove this barrier.

The issue is considered by to central to the state of democracy, for two reasons. One is the freedom of the press. Media concentration reduces press freedom and reduces the quality of discourse. Media outlets can promote their own political agendas without competition, shaping opinions of the nation's citizens. The second reason is that the United States was founded in part to curtail the powers of corporations over the people. The separation of government and business was an essential component of our democratic system.

For DWI and other media companies, however, there is another ethical consideration relating to the freedom to conduct business in the best manner possible. Government interference is our operations is an impediment to business,…… [read more]

Douglas Nickel American Photographs Revisited Thesis

… American Photographs Revisited, Douglas R. Nickel explores the impact of Walker Evans and the Museum of Modern Art (MoMA) publication. The book deserves accolades as a true "masterpiece," notes Nickel, because of the groundbreaking layout and publishing techniques used to present Evans' images. However, Nickel claims that American Photographs is important as a historiography too because of the social and political commentary that is naturally and purposefully embedded in the Walker Evans collection. Introducing the book, Nickel claims that it was heralded as "the prototypical sequential photographic layout," a type of "concerned documentary," and "the culmination of an American aesthetic tradition," (p. 79). Nickel deftly articulates the political content etched into Evans' work, showing how photography became an essential part of the journalistic media. Photojournalism remains central to a free press, and is not merely a means to enhance written content.

The bulk of "American Photographs Revisited" focuses on the fusion of photography and politics in Walker Evans' work. Evans' photographs captured scenes of American life during the Great Depression and therefore unearthed hidden social and political ills that threatened the American Dream. By capturing life during the Depression, Evans was able to make strong political statements about proposals for change without stating his views overtly in words. In fact, Evans distanced himself from politics and avoided political alliances, notes Nickel. Nickel also states that Evans was mainly concerned with aesthetic photo documentation. The prose content of American Photographs was provided by Lincoln Kirstein had definite political overtones, though. Moreover, the New Deal sponsorship of the arts made Evans' work possible and therefore hinted at a possible political motive to the collection. Their upper class background and higher education helped both Kirstein and Evans elevate photography to a level the media had not previously achieved. Kirstein also created an image for Evans that was far more political than the photographer himself envisioned. The result was a commingling of scholarship, journalism, art, and activism.

Nickel's assessment proves the validity of photojournalism as a timeless art and science. Evans' work documented with stunning visual accuracy the extent of the great Depression as well as the result of rapid industrialization on the United States. Nickel's analysis can be applied to any collection of photojournalism. Moreover, Nickel elucidates the relationship between photographer and editors and publishers. Photographers like Evans are often crafted or molded by an editorial vision. Staff and freelance photographers working for large print media have full reign over their art, but the editorial staff ultimately decides what content to publish. When textual evidence supports the photographic material, the possibility for political bias becomes strong. As ideally objective as journalism is, the human factor is always a part of the editorial decision-making process. When Evans worked with Kirstein on the MoMA project, politics was far from the photographer's artistic objectives. Yet both Evans and Kirstein embraced the photo documentation as a means to disseminate information about the state of the union. Modern photojournalism, combined with amateur photo and video footage made more… [read more]

Investor Relations Term Paper

… Investor Relations

Public Relations: Investor relations

Whether officers and CEOs like to admit it or not a corporation's reputation often rests in its perceived reputation, residing in the heads of investors rather than in its "tangible assets" (Dowling & Weeks 2008, p.28). In other words, emotional as well as purely financial and logical concerns can often color an investor's perception of his or decision to continue to include company within his or her financial profile. The need for a public relations department to maintain strong, positive investor relations is becoming an increasingly critical focus of major organizations, particularly given the recent spate of scandals and an increased interest on the part of shareholders regarding the moral polices of companies. Public relations specialists in investor relations must work to monitor the company's reputation amongst investors, work to enhance the company's image in the financial community and media (including on the Internet) and convey a reputation of stability and trust to investors.

One of the most important considerations for any individual involved in corporate public communications designed to improve investor relations is dealing with the mass media, which is often a critical building block in the decision of an investor to invest in, remain with, or sell shares in a company. "The ideal self-image of the company...can inform a useful debate about what [it] needs to change" (Dowling & Weeks 2008, p.30). Executives can explore contradictions between what the company says about itself in external communications (the "we say" or "ad speak" of the company) and what is being reported to various stakeholders (what the media says or "street speak" about the company) (Dowling & Weeks 2008, p.29). A good example of this is the scorecards produced by the financial media in many articles, like the 'best and worst' companies to invest in 2008, for example. The rationale behind these lists is often fairly vague, and a PR specialist must often devote his or her time to bolstering how the company's brand name is perceived in terms of, for example its "taint-free reputation," its products and advertisements as "instantly recognizable," as a company that "cares about its reputation and customers" and provides "satisfactory experience reinforced by advertising" (Dowling & Weeks 2008, p.29). The company must produce a good product, be perceived as producing a good product by customers, and convey this to investors.

Unfortunately company's poor performance in one area -- its reputation, product, ethics, or advertising -- can completely overshadow excellence in other areas, thus a specialist in PR investor relations may spend a great deal of his or her time combing over press coverage and analyzing how the pubic and the media's created perception is translating into the investor's perception of the company, and any disconnect between the company's image in the projected literature and media coverage (Dowling & Weeks 2008, p.29). "One way to accomplish this is to show how the good themes complement other important messages within the context of the company's overall reputation story," another is to… [read more]

Gender Race and Media Term Paper

… ¶ … Imus' Racist / Sexist Comments

Is Don Imus a racist? Does he exhibit a consistently sexist attitude toward women? No one really can answer that but Imus himself - or those very close to him. But his very… [read more]

Ethical Healthcare Term Paper

… Business - Ethical Medicine


Public Relations in Corporate Branding:

In the last half of the 20th century, commercial advertising made the transition from one dimensional advertising to comprehensive corporate branding comprising advertising functions as part of a fully integrated effort (Belch & Belch 1998). The integration of computerized internal communications in the 1990s and shortly thereafter, widespread Internet connectivity, both facilitated the complete internalization of corporate public relations functions.

The full spectrum of public relations functions is crucially important in corporate branding, and its internalization enabled more efficient message standardization in addition to substantially reducing fixed costs. Integrated corporate branding through multiple media is far more effective than isolated media advertising, having been demonstrated as early as the 1960s by Coca Cola and Pepsi, in particular (Ogilvy 1983).

Traditionally, essential public relations functions such as corporate communications, media advertising, and marketing campaigns were outsourced to publicity and advertising specialist with no other relation to corporate clients apart from their accounts. Corporate giants such as those that dominated the tobacco, food, and automotive industries had already internalized public relations to a large degree several decades earlier, but before computers became ubiquitous in the workplace, doing so was cost prohibitive for all but the corporate giants (Belch & Belch). By the turn of the 21st century, most large and medium-sized business entities had already completed the transition to fully-integrated public relations functions.

Ethical Issues in Healthcare Product Initiatives:

Public relations initiatives in conjunction with healthcare-related product industries must pay closer attention to ethical distinctions than many non-healthcare- related industries. Precisely because of the…… [read more]

Communications Business Term Paper

… Communications Business

What are the differences between vertically and horizontally integrated media firms? Which represents a greater monopoly threat to a competitive market?

The greater overall consolidation of the media market is not simply a concern for competitors within the market; it is also of vital importance for every citizen of a free market. A vertically integrated firm dominates one segment of the media in a single market, for example, television, the Internet, or print. While it does have inroads in some other areas, Google is best classified a firm -- for example, there is no 'Google TV' or Google print books, merely Google e-books. Vertically integrated firms, depending on the industry they dominate, can be quite powerful. The profit of a vertically integrated firm is usually based upon an economy of scale, in other words, by having large production facilities to produce large amounts of a particular product, or by virtue of becoming a 'first mover' in a new industry, and claiming a large base of consumer loyalty that its competitors cannot overcome.

However, horizontally…… [read more]

Leading the First Technique That Tylenol Term Paper

… Leading

The first technique that Tylenol used to diffuse the crisis was communication related and was actually based on the attitude of the management. Instead of denying the crisis and taking steps to hide it, the management decided to immediately address the problem, accept responsibility and communicate this state of fact to its consumers. This meant that the customers immediately felt that they were not dealing with a rapacious company here, willing to go to all length for obtaining profit, but with an honest incident that could be worked out.

Further more, the company was keen to use all kinds of communication means, from media to PR and advertising companies to constantly let the audience know what Johnson & Johnson planned to do and what its strategy was. Besides pres conferences at the company's headquarters, communication included a 1-800 hot line for customers to call in and report any potential new victims or problems with Tylenol, a toll free line for the news agencies and media organizations to be able to call and receive…… [read more]

Sociology Book Review Postman Neil Amusing War Book Review

… Sociology book review Postman Neil "Amusing

War, murder, terrorism, random and premeditated violence, religion and in the more modern, as one small example of the evolution, even dangerous high speed police chases have become the stuff of entertainment. Our culture… [read more]

Impact of the Internet on Politics Term Paper

… Internet in Politics

The Impact of the Internet on Politics

One of the most talked-about developments in the campaign of 2004 was the appearance of bloggers on the convention floors and on the campaign trail. Rather than turn to the prefabricated messages of the news networks, the fragmented voices and opinions of ordinary people were proclaimed across computer screens around the globe. As a result of the power of the 2004 bloggers, "most political campaigns today have an 'Internet strategy' of one sort or another" (Palfry, 2004). "At the same time that blogs have moved away from the political center, they have become increasingly influential in the campaigns" (Klam 2004:1). James P. Rubin, John Kerry's foreign-policy adviser, told the New York Times during the 2004 campaign that blogs were "the first thing I read when I get up in the morning and the last thing I read at night" (Klam, 2004:1). The Democratic Party even created "terrific accommodations...for the bloggers [invited to the convention]: up in the nosebleed seats" of the convention hall (Klam, 2004:6).

But it is not only the bloggers themselves who have benefited from the Internet. Today, the stratospheric rise of the presidential campaign of the junior senator from Illinois, Barack Obama is testimony to the power of the Internet and its ability to rally young people who do not belong to the formal party structures, or to lobbying groups, or sit on the boards of powerful organizations. Despite his relatively short political career, through grassroots Internet exposure, Obama has generated a huge online following of fans and donors. Aware of the impact of the new media, Obama has even created his own MySpace page, where he can publicize his biography and have an uncritical space to air his points-of-view on various issue. Unlike a television advertisement, a website is always available to access for surfers and always changing, for people to see and read and evaluate, even though it is not subject to the media scrutiny of an objective or opposing gaze. In fact, many readers say that is exactly what they like about the Internet -- they do not trust the supposed objectivity of the mass media, and would prefer to review highly partisan points-of-view, and come to their own conclusion (Palfry, 2004).

On a very basic level, "the Internet can help campaign organizers do better some of the core tasks of campaigning, such as fundraising, communicating with supporters, coordinating events in the field, organizing crowds in fast-breaking situations, and reacting quickly to breaking news" (Palfry, 2004). Thus, some aspects of the Internet have clearly worked to the candidate's advantage. The Bush campaign used the Internet to enable local campaigners to "target relevant people in his immediate neighborhood, where he knows the area and potentially can build on personal relationships with his neighbors, instead of being sent across town to an area he may not know pre-Internet; and, he is given a clear sense of the time required for this task so he can build… [read more]

Hazard Awareness the Federal Government Term Paper

… Hazard Awareness

The Federal government recently made a report (Report by the Working Group on Natural Disaster Information Systems Subcommittee on Natural Disaster Reduction, National Science and Technology Council Committee on Environment and Natural Rresources) called Effective Disaster Warnings. Neal… [read more]

Media's Effect on Culture Annotated Bibliograhy Continued Term Paper



Factors Causing Ill-Health in our Culture: Normal Girls Pressed to be Abnormally Slim (2003) Web4Health Online available at

This work asks the question of "How does media affect body image of women and which risks are associated with these effects? What is the media effect on body image of women? Are Normal Teen Girls pressed to be abnormally slim? The questions are answered in the statement of a certified psychologist and certified psychotherapist Gunborg Palme who states: "The message society gives to those girls is full of contradictions. On one hand it emphasizes an abnormally slim female figure as ideal and on the other they are tempted to eat unhealthy fattening junk food. This media effect on the body image of women is dangerous. It is not surprising that some teenagers become ill when subjected to such contradictory propaganda." (Web4Health, 2003)

Davis, Aeron (2006) Media Effects and the Question of the Rational Audience: Lessons from the Financial Markets. Media,…… [read more]

David Ogilvy Term Paper

… In the 1950s -- in the Ogilvy era -- women's and fashion editors were "required to come up every month with articles whose total column inches reflected the relative advertising strength of every story," (Nan Robertson, a Pulitzer Prize-winning reporter at The New York Times, quoted by Fleetwood, 21999, p. 40). And good advertisers were also 'paid' with mention in desirable and well-read informational articles. In fact, this practice was so common, Robertson called it "the Times's dirty little secret" and it didn't even begin to change until Ralph Nader's raiders began to reveal the power of corporate interests to control what the average citizen read, and to make the link that what the citizen read was primarily a function of what some corporation wanted to sell (Fleetwood, 1999, p. 40).

Fleetwood explored the interface between journalism and advertising, something Ogilvy avoided. But it is there that the Cinderella-like quality of Ogilvy's concept of advertising is possibly best revealed. It was only after Nader began his quests in search of truth that "Journalists began to feel some shame about peddling the industry line, even in the soft sections, and grew bolder about reporting on corporate evildoers" (Fleetwood, 1999, p. 40), although, as he noted in the two vignettes, they are still often prevented from doing so boldly, in an attention-getting manner, but the commercial entities who are only too pleased to promote their own concepts in an attention-getting manner. It would seem, then, that getting attention is solely the province of advertising; when news wants to do the same, it had better be about an issue, person, organization or other entity that doesn't advertise. We can have Watergate investigations (which at least had the advantage of encouraging journalists to stop holding some institutions out a 'sacred cows') (Fleetwood, 1999), but we cannot have exposes of advertiser's excesses or downright deceptions or illegal acts.


"Breaking Up America: Advertisers and the new media world." (1997, June) The Atlantic Monthly, 279(6), pp. 113, 120. Retrieved 21 October 2005 from…… [read more]

Ethical Dilemma Involves a Major Advertiser Term Paper

… Ethical dilemma involves a major advertiser in a newspaper, the Weekly Herald. The newspaper was directly affected, while the television news medium was also involved. The company involved sells used cars, and has bought a large amount of advertising space under contract for one year. Furthermore the stated policy of the company is to remain non-partial in its hiring and termination of employees.

The ethical dilemma arose when an investigative reporter discovered a threat of legislation against the motor company for unfairly terminating an employee. The employee's claim is that he was mistreated and subsequently terminated because of his race and religion. The employee is Arabic, and his religion is Islam. He has been working for the company for ten years, and has thus started employment before the 9/11 attacks. His claim is that he began to be mistreated just after the attacks.

Upon investigation, the reporter was told that the employee was not fired for these reasons. He had been caught stealing money from the company's cash box, of which he had been in charge since the beginning of his employment with the company. The employers offered to provide proof of their own investigations regarding the matter.

The problem however arose as a result of the company's refusal to allow newspaper reporting regarding the matter. If the reporter were then to write about the matter regardless of this, it constitutes a conflict of interest with an advertiser. The company manager also threatened to withdraw all current and future advertising and claim refunds should the Weekly Herald not comply with its wishes.

The problem with this is however that public interest would not be served by the newspaper's silence. The former employee has threatened to go to the press. As the circumstances of his termination relate directly to a very current issue, there is no doubt that the story would reach television and other news media. The problem for the Weekly Herald is that its readership would lose the trust that has been cultivated over half a century of reporting.

The ethical dilemma then relates to the newspaper's obligation to its readership and its obligation to a regular and major advertiser. It has always been the policy of the Weekly Herald to report the news regardless of possible bad publicity. Also, suspicions have been aroused by the motor company's willingness to prove internal investigation and yet refusing permission to publish the story.

The reporter in question brought the matter to the attention of the editor, who contacted the human resources manager to discuss the matter. It was decided that it was in the paper's best interest to pursue the story. The policy of the Weekly Herald is clearly that reporting should be honest, current and impartial. If any place of business is guilty of misconduct with regard to its employees, readers have the right to know about it. Furthermore, in the intensely competitive world of reporting, it would serve the paper well to bring fully investigated, truthful and timely material… [read more]

Responsive Structure Term Paper

… National Public Radio is the noncommercial news, talk, and entertainment programming producer known both nationally and internationally for its strength and profusion. It is a not-for-profit, membership organization that operates on massive private support, local fund drives, and federal assistance. It supports an audience of over 26 contributing Americans, though it estimates that not even half of its listeners are either able to or do financially assist the organization. A national organization, it is structured like an umbrella, with over 280 independently operated public radio stations as well as a producing headquarters in D.C. It also maintains an operable affiliation with other public broadcasting associations, like the Corporation for Public Broadcasting, American Public Media, The BBC, and Public Radio International. Every member station delivers to its local base a collection of national and local programming, weekly hourly newscasts, and a verity of unique shows, from the popular social-farce and upcoming movie Prairie Home Companion to the much acclaimed All Things Considered news show.

According to NPR, its organization's mission statement is to "work in partnership with member stations to create a more informed public - one challenged and invigorated by a deeper understanding and appreciation of events, ideas, and cultures." Its organization is specifically designed to serve that purpose; because each demographic brings a new set of interests to the table, all of which, for the purpose of maintaining a well-served public, need to be sufficiently individually addressed, the national headquarters maintains a balanced relationship with its local offices. Like other major non-cable news sources, it reaches its audience through both national shows, with All Things Considered parallel to CBS's World News Tonight, and local news supporting, but instead of segmenting the two world into separate time frames, NPR operates on a more inclusive clock that, in the thirty-minute drive home from work or while doing the dishes, can provide its listener with a two-hour news clock that incorporates both local, national, international, business, and entertainment news sewn together with new music, book readings, and philosophical debate. Its unique organization propels its listeners to maintain faithful support despite the rise of the major cable news networks, relying not on action shots and expressive pictures, but instead thick stories rich with important news that spurs thought and keeps the listener returning.

Despite its dedication to producing and acquiring journalism and creative expression of the highest standards, National Public Radio is an organization at risk. It is renown for its excellent production and coverage, yet its financial set up is not nearly as well-coordinated and powerful in the…… [read more]

Freedom of the Press Term Paper

… .." They subsequently wrote about actions of the governor and faced strong attempts to try to curb their right to print uncensored news (Spigelman, 2003). A more recent incident took place in the Commonwealth when a High Court judge in Belfast upheld the right of a publication called The News Letter to report news without revealing their sources. In that case, private citizens demanded the information (Editors, 2001), demonstrating that challenges to freedom of the press may not always come from the government

Other issues regarding freedom of the press may not be quite as obvious. Pillai (1999) notes that four western news organizations provide 90% of the news printed today. Those organizations are Associated Press, United Press International, Reuters and Agence France-Presse (4). This raises the question about whether freedom of the press guarantees full coverage of issues that might be newsworthy. Another issue is that sometimes the media commits what most people would view as excesses. Padman (2000) reports of an incident where a child had been trapped in rubble after an earthquake in Taiwan. Television news "swarmed" the child as he was pulled out, intruding on the rescuers' ability to get the child to medical attention and possibly adding to the child's trauma over the ordeal. This might be an example of the idea that the right to free speech stops at the point where it might genuinely harm another person. A scenario offered for this rationale is that while people are free to express their personal opinions, shouting "Fire!" In a crowded theatre when no fire was present would not be considered a fair exercise of free speech, as people could be harmed as the theatre unnecessarily emptied.

The above example demonstrates that even in countries fully in favor of freedom of the press, some restrictions must apply. People cannot use language to put people in unnecessary danger. In the case of Judith Miller's confinement in the United States, a similar issue exists. The newspaper put the life of a Central Intelligence Agency operative in danger when it published her name, and the government believed they had a right to know who within the government had provided that information to the newspaper (Staff writers, 1999). Demonstrating that differences of opinion exist on this point, Freedom House downgraded their opinion of freedom of the press in the United States based on this incident (Goldfarb, 2005).


Editors. 2001. "The News Letter has won an important victory for the freedom of the Press." News Letter, May.

Fink, Herschel P. 2002. "Freedom of the press becomes a river without water': an attorney describes the fight for access to news in a post-September 11 world." (INS Coverage). Nieman Reports, Dec. 22.

Gessen, Masha. 2000. "Moscow Dispatch: Beat the Press (freedom of the press seems increasingly endangered under the leadership of President Vladimir Putin). The New Republic, June 5.

Goldfarb, Michael. 2005. "Study Finds Decline in Global Press Freedom." Freedom House, April 27. Accessed via the Internet 8/30/05.

Padman, Padmaja.… [read more]

Exxon Valdez Term Paper

… ¶ … Channel: The Exxon Valdez Oil Spill in Prince William Sound by John Keeble. Specifically, it will emphasize the public relations aspect of the disaster and a critique of how Exxon handled the public relations dimension of the incident. The 1989 oil spill in Prince William Sound was a national tragedy and the effects of it may linger for eons. Even more tragic is how the Exxon Company dealt with the spill. A public relations nightmare, the company tried to clean up the Sound and create goodwill among the residents of the area. However, as one resident said, "Spiritual cleanup is what we needed. Physical cleanup would not address the underlying problems'" (Keeble 157). This book looks at the emotional costs of the oil spill, something Exxon could not, or would not acknowledge or address.

It is quite clear from reading this book that most of the residents of the area affected by the oil spill did not like Exxon or they way they "managed" the oil spill. One resident said, "The basic problem [...] started with Exxon's inability to see the world. They're concerned with PR, not cleanup. The little people getting screwed over by these companies have to start thinking big'" (Keeble 185). The entire management of cleanup seemed confused, mismanaged, and inefficient, and meanwhile, the oil was contaminating more shoreline, more fishing waters, and killing more animals. Exxon may have been concerned with global PR, but in the area most affected by the spill, Prince William Sound and the many small communities around the area, they did not seem concerned at all. In fact, to many people they seemed adversarial and difficult to deal with. The author calls their attitude one of "colonialism" and that many of their managers had little or no experience with oil spills and the affected areas. It sounds like a public relations nightmare, but it also sounds like a tragically mismanaged set of events that continued to snowball long after the ship ran aground.

Exxon spent millions of dollars in media advertising and other costs to make it look good during and after the cleanup effort. It sent four million…… [read more]

Functions of Public Relations Term Paper

… To be socially responsible, a company must adhere to an organizational structure and policies that promotes responsible decision making and behavior.

Community relations also falls into the societal functional group. As the case with social responsibility, the organization turns its attention outward, in a way that does not directly contribute to a company's profitability. A company is a vital part of a community and as such has obligations to that community through various kinds of support such as encouraging employees to do volunteer work, providing a grant to the local orchestra or art museum, lending executives to a fund raising effort and donating needed equipment to local schools or hospitals (Public relations FAQ).

To be obsessed only about making more profits could be lethal for a company unless it focuses on ethics, transparency and the welfare of society. For example, a company that promotes a product that it knows is bad for society (think cigarettes) will eventually pay a high price for doing so. And, a company that gains employee productivity by sacrificing safe working conditions will soon discover that it has a public relations crisis on its hands. In both these instances short-term gain is achieved, but in the long-term society responds to bad behavior in a way that diminishes these achievements.

Corporate social responsibility is a business vision that integrates in a harmonic fashion the respect for ethical values, the company's internal (employee oriented) and external (consumers, shareholders, communities and the environment) aspects (Global Alliance For Public Relations And Communications Management). CSR is a combination of legal, ethical, moral and environmental features, and is a voluntary decision. With CSR companies integrate the societal and organizational aspects of public relations in a way that maximizes profit and public well being. As this happens, the lines drawn between societal and organizational functions of public relations become less relevant.


Global Alliance For Public Relations And Communications Management. Retrieved August 13, 2005 from Web site:

Pantelleva, M. Public relations and public responsibility. Retrieved August, 13, 2005 from Web site: hl=en

Public relations FAQ. Retrieved August 13, 2005 from Web site:

Riesterer, T. Accountability marketing. Retrieved August 13, 2005 from Web site:… [read more]

Historical Beginnings of the First Ethnic Newspapers in the United States Term Paper

… ¶ … ethnic newspapers in the United States

The first ethnic newspaper in the American colonies was Philadelphische Zeitung meaning the Philadelphian Newspaper, a German language paper published in Germantown, Pa, started in 1732 published by the legendry Benjamin Franklin. It stopped publication soon after, however, ethnic papers have contributed significantly in aiding immigrants adapt to the United States. According to Barbara Straus Reed, professor of Journalism at Rutgers University who is also the author of a book on ethnic press felt that several matters of genuine concern to immigrants either do not find place in the mainstream English dailies or are given less attention. Ethnic newspapers help the immigrants to find the local institutions within their communities which will render the transition simpler. (as Mainstream Papers Cut Back, the Ethnic Press Expands)

It might be unbelievable that apart from seven mainline English newspapers published from New York, there are 198 ethnic newspapers published in 4 other boroughs which is thrice the number compared to what was a decade back. Ethnic newspapers, publishing a range of linguistic and cultural point-of-view, inclusive of Chinese, Hispanic, Arabic, Caribbean, Russian, Korean and more others are burgeoning throughout U.S. In Chicago for instance there are in excess of 80 publications; in Los Angeles 60 local ethnic papers get published, La Opinion is presently the largest Spanish daily circulated throughout the nation. New California Media, which is a statewide network of ethnic news group, contains more than 200 publications among its members. Nevertheless, whereas ethnic newspapers gain ardent support from their loyal readers, marketers do not reckon ethnic newspapers to be having potential which the mainstream newspapers do. Some of this neglect might be reasonable since advertisers have experienced crucial drawbacks in addressing the ethnic press. (News, Noticias, Nouvelles-non-English newspapers)

Several smaller papers function like new business. The owners who are settlers most of the times do not have knowledge regarding the manner, in which newspaper business operates in U.S., circulation audits, distribution in the newsstand and operation of advertisement sales. Majority are…… [read more]

Amusing Ourselves to Death Term Paper

… In the ticker, viewers can read about everything from world events to sports in far less than forty-five seconds each headline. CNN also runs a second channel called CNN Headline News, which is the epitome of the "now ... this" mentality.

According to Neil Postman, "Americans are the best entertained and quite likely the least well-informed people in the Western world," (106). On CNN Headline News, as much treatment is offered to a "save our shows" campaign as to the nuclear threat in North Korea. The "save the shows" campaign refers to television shows that might be taken off the air. Apparently Americans feel more threatened by losing "Joan of Arcadia" than by losing their lives. Other headlines include celebrity marriages gone wrong. Everyone has a right to listen to entertainment headlines but when they become the main event of television news, Americans do become "the best entertained and quite likely the least well-informed people in the Western world." Postman does refrain from critiquing the underlying causes for the confluence of news and entertainment. The corporate-controlled media means not only that CNN and Time magazine are owned by the same company but also that that company controls what Americans watch, and for how long. Shows that offer a refreshing break…… [read more]

Television News Program Term Paper

… Mass Communications

Mrs. Bush Steals Show

An analysis of the ABC Nightly News - May 1, 2005. The story is "Mrs. Bush Steals Show at Reporter's Dinner." This was a humorous piece that showed Laura Bush speaking at the 91st annual White House Correspondents' Association dinner. The piece used several news packaging techniques to persuade the viewer that Bush's speech was unusual, funny, and out of character for her. The length of the story was about two minutes long, and it showed Mrs. Bush first interrupting the President as he began and "old joke," and then talking about him as if it were some kind of roast. The piece used several sound bites of jokes and quips that the First Lady said about the President, and then the camera would show reaction from the crown, including Condoleezza Rice and Vice-President Chaney. Laughter and applause from the audience were quite important to the overall effect of the story, and the editing was quite tight and used mostly close-up shots for the reactions, mixed with some general long shots that gave an overall picture of the size of the audience. Mrs. Bush's segments were shot from a bit below the podium where she spoke,…… [read more]

Photojournalism and the Tabloid Press Term Paper

… This made the competitive marketplace that the photographs journalists operated in far wider and open to greater remuneration. As both print and television expanded in its venues, photojournalists had an opportunity to make greater profits, to earn greater respect, and they also had more digital tools at their hands to manipulate their images and to make the images tell a tale. The presence of the paparazzi, or ordinary people who sold pictures for profits to the tabloids changed the marketplace as well. As the tabloid venues grew, and television shaped the desires of the reading public, mainstream media was invariably affected by becoming more visual, and even legitimate photojournalists resorted to more attention seeking pictures and measures to garner respect.

Thus, on one hand, in the popular press, photographs have become increasingly mistrusted, as they are more obviously manipulated and subject to technological whims and cuts. (Becker, 1992) Yet photography has also increased in prestige and importance in selling newspapers, tabloid and non-tabloid, as the tendency to visualize an article's storyline is more and more important in the mainstream media of television.

Televisions' accordance to the importance of image over text, as once was purely characteristic of the tabloid press, is also becoming increasingly true of mainstream television and mainstream print storytelling. Ultimately, Becker argues, all media and thus, all news has experienced a revolution towards adopting the tabloid format of photojournalistic supremacy of image over textually expressed idea. On one hand, this does not necessarily have to be negative, but Becker concludes that because the supremacy of the image is connected to an inherently unreliable medium with questionable, albeit popularly serving journalistic standards, the value of this cultural shift has disturbing implications for truth-telling in media.

Work Cited

Becker, Karin E." "Photojournalism and the tabloid press." In P. Dahlgren & C. Sparks, Editors. Journalism and Popular…… [read more]

Activity or Accomplishment Term Paper

… ¶ … activity or accomplishment that is the most important to you and discuss what you have learned from this experience.

Few people have the opportunity or inclination to dedicate three years to working with an entirely student-run television station. However, having strong aspirations toward broadcast journalism and having some high school broadcasting experience, I immediately gravitated toward student-run HillTV at Syracuse University. I learned a lot about news production at HillTV, but the most challenging lessons I learned there had more to do with interpersonal relationships and teamwork than with camera angles, makeup, writing, or editing. In my freshman year, my producer and I clashed in our approaches to news stories. Jessica critiqued and criticized my work and news packages, but I realized it would be people like her that we meet in the real world media industry. Initially I went through a period in which I doubted my capabilities and willingness to be a reporter. Overcoming those hurdles took enormous perseverance, commitment and sacrifice of time and energy. In retrospect I realize that the work and effort that I channeled into HillTV might not have always been recognized. Nevertheless, when our shows went on the air, the "behind the scenes" things I produced for the team showed my dedication. Throughout my three years with Hill TV, I learned to fully grasp and understand the concept of teamwork. Also, because of my producer, I have become even stronger in my motivation to succeed in what can be a cutthroat industry, determined to not let people walk all over me.

2. Describe your academic interests and how you plan to pursue them at USC.

As I have indicated throughout my application, media studies and communications are my primary areas of interest and I am unusually focused and dedicated to these areas of academic study. I knew from a young age that I wanted to make a difference and impact the world; the best way I could do so is to demonstrate my…… [read more]

Effective Communication for Improving Public Term Paper

… If Tylenol had been a corporate entity by itself it would have reached the top half of the Fortune 500 on the virtue of its profit generating capacity. In the fall of 1982 some persons with malevolent intentions exchanged the… [read more]

Company Problem Introduction Have Been Working Term Paper

… Company Problem

Introduction have been working for a Public Relations Firm. And it would be an understatement to say that the arrival of the Internet and its additional mechanisms might be altering the meaning, implication, perceptive and application of PR since cyberspace is not bodily, numerical or physical. Time and space no longer bound the quantity of information and listeners volume. PR addressees are turning out to be more different in an increasingly incorporated international financial system, with the assistant social hurdles.

Amid others, Internet has been augmenting interaction, PR response and assessment, and virtual story narration. It is increasing PR outreach agendas, although in a more de-modified and short-lived atmosphere. The novel means is giving superior information distribution methods, which had not been offered a few years back.

A novel public interaction culture has materialized since the latest information technology is offering all with the straightforward access to means of mass communication, which traditionally had been managed by very few organizations. This modern societal realism disheartens PR practitioners to assume the one-way communication replica.

The requirement for superior business standing and trust-oriented affiliation turns out to be more vital in an atmosphere of less customary relationship alliance and interpersonal interaction. The new means is nurturing intermediary relationship, and uncomplicated contact to information and opportunity to review, condemn or denounce an organization. The custom of concealing nothing is favored since there is no place to conceal the information.

As the traditions of the PR addressees and information technology are altering, there is a requirement to assess the customary PR and communication replicas. Like other features of the American life, there is a considerable delay amid latest information technology conception and assumptions and models that counterpart the quickly developing social and communication background. Communication techniques and paradigms which beforehand succeeded might be unrelated in today's worldwide marketplace realism.

This is seen as a huge test for all organizations which have to sufficiently and successfully interact with and transmit to the people on which their triumph or malfunction relies. In an extremely competitive market, more so in an atmosphere of descending financial inclination, weak PR practice could be extremely damaging.

The new media atmosphere requires imaginative new methods to achieving corporate communication aims and objectives. The creation of the mass media for example radio, the printing press, as well as, television had constantly fundamentally transformed public culture. They have all improved information and given power to the inferior section of the social order. Computer technology might be performing a comparable ground-breaking function but with unusual communication and affiliation results. The subsequent are some of the methods that business communication might be diametrically influenced by the latest information technology.

Addressees Classification and Meaning

So as to communicate efficiently, a business has to rectify its pertinent publics. It had been much easier for businesses to evidently recognize, describe and fragment their memo receivers through the channels of print, radio, as well as, television. Commercials could be positioned in the defined media monitored by an… [read more]

Public Relations Effect on Society Term Paper

… Public Relations Effect on Society

Public relations can be defined as many things, none the least of which is relationship management. In fact, Bruning (2000) describes public relations as a field "more often characterized by what is does than what… [read more]

Managers Do? Discovering the Answer Term Paper

… Garth also gave it a three for both time and importance, indicating that he did have to transmit policy letters to his subordinates every now and then and that printing up production reports was an important part of his job.… [read more]

Communication Strategies Used in Crisis Management Term Paper

… Communication Strategies Used in Crisis Management

To operate successfully, sports marketing relies on a variety of processes and functions, including product, price, promotion, place, market segmentation and services marketing (O'Bierne and Ries, 2002). However, one management process that is often… [read more]

International Broadcasting -In the U.S Term Paper

… That number topped out at 748 during the years spanning 1923 to 1926 however, by 1927 only 72 were left remaining and a mere 18 left in existence by the year of 1934. (Eyang, 1936)

It wasn't until the end… [read more]

Radio Sawa Term Paper

… In this sense, a solution would be to combine the news bulletin with news from BBC, France Press or other European news agencies would have a greater chance of being better received by the Arab teenagers, because they will regard… [read more]

Familiar With the Term Global Term Paper

… For example when prisoners were originally kept behind bars, the real idea was to isolate them from the world outside. But with access to television and telephone for example, prisoners are no longer separated from the outside world since they too can transcend geographical reality in their moments of electronic encounters. Mey thus argues that 'meaning of a "prison" ... has been changed as a result of electronic media of communication', as 'those prisoners with access to electronic media are no longer completely segregated from society'.

The author explains that the word 'place' in the title is implied as a 'serious pun' that signifies 'both social position and physical location' (Meyrowitz, 1985: 308). Extending this theory of space and geography in the electronic world a little further, Mey states that, 'A telephone or computer in a ghetto tenement or in a suburban teenager's bedroom is potentially as effective as a telephone or computer in a corporate suite' (Meyrowitz, 1985: 169-70).

What I really liked about the book was its effective use of Goffman's work and McLuhan's theory. The author has incorporated the two to develop a new, not necessarily better, theory of spatial reality. Mey's use of examples in the book is another feature you admire about his research because it helps in more thorough and clearer illustration of his theoretical ideas. His criticism of Goffman's spatial restriction is also a main highlight of this book. The author argues that while Goffman's theory of role-playing is invaluable, his use of physical settings no longer applies to the modern technologically advanced world.

What appears problematic is his oversimplification of electronic communication's impact and is rather optimistic evaluation of the impact media has on the world. I found Marshall McLuhan's work on media and its impact more effective and valid than Mey's theory. For example Mey's assessment of media's impact on sociological realities is anything but realistic. It is true that a person living in ghettos can do whatever a corporate executive could with a telephone but he never mentions the differences in access to facilities the two would enjoy and the treatment meted out to them from the same people. Andrew Leyshon (1995: 33), questions if technology "really as effective in the way that Meyrowitz suggests" for though "the inner-city resident, the suburban teenager and the corporate executive may all be able to telephone a bank they would not all necessarily enjoy the privilege of being granted an audience with the bank manager." 'No sense of Place' is definitely a groundbreaking book but it has its share of flaws.


1) Meyrowitz, J. (1985) No Sense of Place: The Impact of Electronic Media on Social Behavior. New York: Oxford University Press.

2) Leyshon, A. (1995) 'Annihilating Space? The Speed-Up of Communications',…… [read more]

Public Relations -- When Film Meets Term Paper

… ¶ … Public Relations -- When Film meets the Food industry

Public relations in today's hectic media climate must deal not only with the need to get the message of a particular organization or individual 'out there,' into the public's eye and notice, but also must deal with the increasing cynicism of the public, regarding the uses of public relations upon the American population's psychology and collective psyches. In other words, although the common trope is that all publicity is good publicity, when one is encouraging individuals to do something, whether to see a film or actively reject or accept a particular lifestyle regarding food choices, public relations must be especially effective. Giving an example of physical 'reality' in the form of a spokesperson is one way to convey a sense of lived reality to a particular lifestyle or film. In other words, when the public sees something 'in the flesh,' they are more inclined to believe it -- especially, if it is the cholesterol-ridden flesh of the documentary director and author Morgan Spurlock of "Supersize Me." (2004)

It is especially interesting to compare Spurlock's effective use of public relations for his film, whereby he used his own body as a test subject to demonstrate the unhealthy nature of fast food, rather than merely interviewing industry proponents and critics, with the recent poor public relations performances of McDonald's. One recent poor example of the use public relations can be found in McDonald's deployment adult "Go Active," happy meals, whereby adults were encouraged to purchase overpriced bottled water and fruit, along with a plastic pedometer (and a tiny token example of the famous hamburger franchise's not-so famous salads). The meals came out just at the same time as "Supersize Me," creating free publicity for the film, a great tie-in (for Spurlock) for the local health news media, and the impression that the chain was intending to circumvent the negative public relations garnered by the publicity for the independent film "Supersize Me."

Also, the adult meal, priced at $5.99 a box, includes a choice of McDonald's four premium salads, a stepometer that clips on a belt and counts the number of steps you take in a day, and a "Step With it!" booklet with tips for walking and working out, seemed a bit like a beer company promoting 'responsible' drinking. (, 2004) Worse yet, the company even eliminated its super sized meal options right after the film "Super size Me" opened, and then immediately denied that the documentary's release had nothing to do with its decision to exorcise this option from the menu. The hamburger chain had been a recent target of obesity lawsuits and had been increasingly been criticized for promoting unhealthy eating habits among both children and adults. Although "McDonald's over the past year took steps to improve its image by launching premium salads, eliminating its Super Size menu options and touting other diet-conscious options at its outlets," the public relations of Spurlock's guerrilla techniques seemed honest and unforced and… [read more]

Presidential Debate Between George W. Bush Term Paper

… ¶ … Presidential Debate between George W. Bush and John Kerry

With the Presidential race between George Bush (Republican candidate) and John Kerry (Democrat candidate) nearing next month, the first presidential debate has spurred numerous media coverage. The first debate is the American public's first chance to get a glimpse of the platforms and agenda of each candidate once one of them becomes the 44th President of the United States of America.

The heavy media coverage given to the presidential debate shows the powerful role of the mass media in shaping, even altering, public opinion. News coverage over the week about the debate illustrates how the mass media acts as a surveillance agent for the public in determining what candidate to choose and who is most suitable to become the next President of the country. In this paper, the researcher discusses and analyzes three news coverage for the week, gathered from electronic sources of television and print news agencies such as CNN, ABC, and New York Times. The researcher posits that analyses of these three news coverage show that the media delivers the news objectively, letting statistics and statements, and ultimately, the public, to decide whether Bush or Kerry should be deserving of America's vote for 2004.

ABC News' coverage of the preparations for the presidential debate details the issues that are most likely to be tackled and discussed in the debate (Associated Press, 2004). The news piece discussed what national issues each candidate can draw strength to, where the report goes on to say that both Kerry and Bush's weakest issue is the Iraq war. This is because Kerry's argument states that Bush has not been very effective in ensuring that the Iraq-U.S. war was a just war after all. Bush, meanwhile, argues that Kerry is not strong and 'tough' enough to decide on international issues such as the Iraq war. Bush's mistakes and Kerry's irresoluteness on the issue of the Iraq war are both issues in…… [read more]

Public Relations Is an Integral Term Paper

… Bernays, Sigmund Freud's nephew, was a theorist and drew heavily from Freud's theories about irrational human motivation. To Bernays, PR was an applied social science relating to psychology and sociology. The tobacco industry was one of his earliest clients, and in 1929 he arranged a publicity stunt including females smoking cigarettes in the New York City East Parade to help encourage women to equate smoking with women's rights and therefore buy cigarettes. This is a perfect example of Public Relations.

Today, the public relations industry has attempted to redefine itself as a management function. "The earliest definitions emphasized the roles of press agentry and publicity since these were major elements from which modern public relations grew," (PRSA 2003) but today definitions are far more varied. Modern PR includes the necessary research, planning, and evaluation involved before taking business actions, as well as measuring the results of such actions. Rarely is PR a one-time activity, but rather an ongoing and systematic process which may include multiple audiences. Public participation and mediation are today important tools in PR, and long-term commitment is essential to good PR. The definition of PR today is most clearly defined as this: "Public relations helps an organization and its publics adapt mutually to each other." (PRSA 2003)

Publicity and promotion are what actually pave the way for sales or services, benefiting the company that is selling a product as well as the consumer who needs useful things. Public relations helps people and organizations to be well prepared for changes that may arise, and can help keep the most qualified personnel employed in vital positions of businesses, political offices, and other organizations. PR representatives can identify new markets that may benefit from a company's work, or identify new products that might benefit the public. Public relations keeps communication open between organizations and the public, and can help keep misunderstandings or misinformation from spiraling out of control into a serious problem. Keeping the head of an organization in touch with the rest of the members and with the public is also an important task for PR specialists, and it falls onto public relations to keep any organization in touch with its social responsibilities.

I believe that public relations can be used towards an incredible amount of good, helping individuals and organizations express themselves through promotions and education. Public relations representatives are responsible for such wonderful things as "publicizing scientific research, promoting charities, raising awareness of public health concerns and other issues in civil society." (Maurreen 2004) While some public relations practices have tainted the image of the profession through misleading techniques like front groups or the third party technique, where the public is mislead, this does not make legitimate PR practices any less important or beneficial. Also, groups such as PR Watch have been established to help monitor and control unethical public relations, so it is not something the general public needs to be worried about; self-regulation is a tried and true method.

Works Cited

Maurreen et al. (2004)… [read more]

Mccourt" Is in Session Term Paper

… From a completely unbiased point-of-view, it does appear that McDonald's motivation is to avoid the accusations of the past recurring again in with accusations of exploitation of their employees.

Although it is true that parents must make responsible choices for their children's health and well-being, it is conceivable that there must be some control through regulations as to what advertisements are allowed during the hours that children typically view television. If Hitler's statement, "Give me a child until the age of six and he is mine!" is as poignantly true as has been declared, then the suggestion that too many fast food advertisements affect the way a child wants to eat is completely plausible and within the limits of believability.

Only history can reveal exactly what the decision of the Australian School board and citizens shall be as to McDonald's commercial foray into education. However, one certainty is that the public has most likely not heard the last in the McSaga.


Agnew, Margaret (2004) Movie Review: Super Size Me [Online] available at:,1478,3028230a187000.html

Alarcon, Camille (2004) "Is TV Fattening Kids?" [Online] available at

Bradshaw, Peter (2004 Sept 10) "Super Size Me" The Guardian News [Online] available at:,3858,5011723-3718,00.html

Borchert, Scott "McDonald's Counters Controversial "Super Size Me Documentary with In-House Salad Without Dressing Me" [Online] available at:

Cass, Daniel (1997) "McSchools in Australia" [Online] available at:

Ebert, Roger (2004) "Super Size Me" Chicago Sun Times [Online] available at:

Genessy, Jody (2004) "Fast-food Flick is a Supersize Hit" Deseret Morning News 21 Jan 2004 [Online] available at:,1442,590037522,00.html

Kirk, Alexandria (2004) "Labor Promises Junk Food Advertising Ban during Kid's TV Programs" ABC News Report [Online] available at: http:/

"McLibel: Factsheet" 1995 Albion Monitor [Online] available at:

"Obesity Becomes Political Issue in Australia; McDonald's Strikes Back" CNS News Report [Online] available at: http://townhall.come/news/politics/200406/FOR200401617b.shtml

Snider, Eric D. (2004) "Super Size Me" Documentary Review [Online] available at:

Stossel, John (2004) "More Fries, Please...." ABC News Report 18 June 2004 [Online] available at:

Bibliography Continued:

"Super Size Me: Eating McDonald's, Making Millions" (2004) CNN News Report [Online] available at: http://cnn.entertainment.printthis action=cpt& expire=06%2F23%2F2004& urlID=10707525& fb=Y& url=http

Ffilm.spurlock.reut%2F& partnerID=2010

Tober, Bruce (2004) "McDonalds Breaks Agreement in McLibel Suit" Albion Monitor [Online] available online at:

ABC News Report Online (2004)

ABC News Report Online (2004) paraphrased*


CNS News Online 2004'Obesity Becomes Political Issue in Australia: McDonald's Strikes Back"






Albion Monitor (2 Sept 1995)


* paraphrased… [read more]

Michael Moore so Controversial? Term Paper

… But, does this mean that his films are altogether false -- are they not real documentaries?

To consider this accusation let is use an example. FOX News -- a clear right-wing mouthpiece -- every hour of every day claims to… [read more]

Shane Sits on His Sofa Essay

… Unfortunately, many Americans actually enjoy watching daytime talk shows and believe everything they hear on the nightly news. The problem lies largely with America's poor educational system and a generally ignorant viewing public. However, the networks, producers, and writers are also partly to blame. Although they deserve to earn money, the producers should also realize that they are entrusted with a huge responsibility. Because so many people receive their cultural programming, their news information, and their worldviews from the tube, producers should select truthful, quality content to deliver. I believe that the public will watch whatever is on the air because people like watching TV. Therefore, improving television's content could have a positive impact on society.

A viewer who watches with a discriminating and educated eye realizes that Jerry Springer is only trying to earn a living and the people who go on his show are not representative of American society as a whole. Similarly, the women on Sex and the City do not represent all female Americans. Yet no one would argue that Sex and the City is a quality piece of creative entertainment, while Jerry Springer is little more than sordid trash. Still, watching Jerry Springer's show does not necessarily cause social problems; poor habits, a lack of education, and a lack of awareness do. I know people who watch Jerry Springer periodically for a laugh but who see through the facade of the show. Unfortunately, many Americans don't. I don't blame the tube; I blame parents and educators.

Many Americans do truly enjoy trash. No one wants to watch PBS or the Discovery Channel all day. We all need some time out from heavy thinking. What viewers need is a combination of better programming and a more discriminating mind. People with a higher education probably do not choose to watch daytime talk shows and probably critique what they hear on the nightly news. Education, not throwing away the television, is the answer.… [read more]

Nineteenth Century, Benjamin Henry Day Term Paper

… Benjamin Day's newspaper aimed at the following,

Common man should have a realistic view of the contemporary scene.

Abuses in churches, courts banks, stock markets, etc. should be exposed.

Newspaper's 1st duty is to give readers the news, not support a party or class.

Local and human interest news of primary importance (Penny Press).

The New York Sun with its good qualities also had some bad qualities, such as bad taste, denseness sometimes moving towards indecency, overemphasis on crime, violence and sex and contemptible advertising. Ever since Benjamin Day modulated the U.S. newspaper industry in 1833 by essentially innovating the widely popular penny press in the form of The New York Sun, covering not only the classes but the masses as well at a charge which almost everyone could afford, the stellar furnace where the Sun was tamped has been the most intensely antagonistic media market in the country. "When Benjamin Day founded the New York Sun in 1831 he declared his independence from any political party and vowed that "whenever the villainous conduct of a man, or a body of men... may deserve exposure - so sure will we lash the rascals naked through the world. Some of the press has followed this policy ever since" (The Day Family In The New World).

Another great personality that added a new name to the business of newspaper and media was James Gordon Bennett, the founder of New York Herald. Before, influential newspapers including the New York Sun refused to hire him. With $500, he began the New York Morning Herald. Compared to Benjamin Day, James Gordon Bennett also took his job very seriously. He not only studied but also lectured and taught economics. He not only added spice but also venture and aggression to the field. He was basically a reporter and a publisher for his newspaper not a printer. "Bennett's New York Herald, begun in 1835, had sales of 77,000 on the eve of the Civil War, the largest daily circulation in the world. Bennett, a cantankerous Democrat, published news for every taste" (Magazines And Newspapers). The New York Herald like the New York Sun gained a lot of popularity and a lot of repute. The Herald added, "excellent crime coverage, special edition, best financial page, more serious material, letters columns, sports news, in depth religious reporting, a society" (Penny Press).

The New York Sun with all its news responded well to the darkest year in the history of New York City. It also wrote about the worst publishing economy in decades by launching a paper that would come out on a daily basis i.e. five days a week. It is greatly believed that Benjamin Day had made a very big gamble in the launching of The New York Sun. The paper was introduced during the time when the economy was going through a deplorable state but due to great marketing strategies, Benjamin won the biggest gamble of his life by giving way to what is known as the… [read more]

Online Newspapers for Your Information-Table Term Paper

… As per a study conducted by the Newspaper Association of America (NAA), print and online newspapers are the two leading sources of local advertising information for online newspaper users, often beating out the television, radio, shoppers and Yellow Pages. [Source:… [read more]

FCC's Recent Rule Changes Term Paper

… As the Congress and the FCC hash out the issues, there is certain to be more controversy and change surrounding the issue of ownership of broadcast media. One expert wonders if ownership really matters, after all.

In the end, of course, one must ask whether this concern about who owns the media really matters. To what extent, if any, do changing patterns of ownership have an effect on media content, economic functions, or audience impact? Surprisingly little research has been done on these topics -- only marginally more than we could draw on two decades ago. Too much is assumed or anecdotal, merely suggesting results from ownership changes. Many are the unsubstantiated complaints concerning monopoly control's presumed negative impacts. [...] In other words, having diversified or consolidated ownership appears to have little impact on the content provided. Indeed, more than a half century ago, economist Peter Steiner demonstrated in his Harvard dissertation that oligopolistic or even monopoly ownership of multiple radio stations in a given market might actually provide more diversified programming to listeners (Compaine and Gomery xviii).

In conclusion, the flap over media ownership is far from over. The House must still vote on the measure, and whatever the result, President Bush has been quite vocal in his intent to veto any bill Congress might pass. The controversy over the FCC's new rules is far from over, and it remains to be seen what effect these new rules will have on media ownership and the public's need for balanced news coverage from a variety of sources.


Ahrens, Frank. "Senate Approves Measure to Undo FCC Rules." 16 Sept. 2003. 3 Nov. 2003.

Author not Available. "Fcc Sets Limits on Media Concentration." 2 June 2003. 3 Nov. 2003.

Broadcast Deregulation Needed." The Washington Times 16 Apr. 2003: A18.

Compaine, Benjamin M., and Douglas Gomery. Who Owns the Media? Competition and Concentration in the Mass Media Industry. 3rd ed. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 2000.

White, Charlie. "FCC and McBroadcasting: Take the Road Not Taken." June 2003. 3 Nov. 2003.… [read more]

Ethical Communication the Definition Term Paper

… A formidable proportion of the published studies (and presumably and even higher proportion of the unpublished studies) have failed to show overall effects sizable enough to reach the conventionally accepted.05 level of statistical significance. Some respectable studies in several of the dozen impact areas do have impacts significant at the.05 level, but even these tend to have very small effect sizes, accounting for no more than 2 or 3% of the variance in the dependent variables such as consumer purchases, voting behavior, and viewer aggression." (p. 177)

Such over-bending, grand models as the hypodermic-needle theory, as well as limited-effects are of diminutive worth to pragmatic researchers involved in crafting precise studies. The 1960 to 1980 era shaped a mixture of small-scale models, which identified sub-procedures of social influences inside mass communication (Arnett, 1992). The small-scale models considered small slices of mass communication procedures that led researchers to welcome both the power and limitations of the mass media. If there is any leading grand model at present, nevertheless, it is a model of reasonable and moderate media effects.

Popular ethical models of reasonable and moderate effects -- for example knowledge gap, agenda setting, and gate keeping -- indicated reliabilities in mass communication effects and procedures. Supporters of moderate effects models recognize the universal procedures of empirically supported mass communication models, however, they also recognize that they are by no means worldwide. They call for researchers to define the dependent conditions, place the superseding variables, and identifying the social backgrounds.


Personally, I define ethics as the moral conscientiousness to decide, deliberately and willingly, oughtness in principles like goodness, rightness, justice, truthfulness, and virtue, which might, in an outgoing transaction, considerably have an effect on others and ourselves. Ethics refers to theory, to summarize worldwide principles and their sources, while morals entail practicing those values of applied ethics, our culture-bound modes of behavior.

The ethical measurement has an effect on decision-making when two or more alternatives are feasible and can be liberally chosen. Pike (1966) put it well: "There is no point in analyzing what men [sic] ought to do if they are powerless to choose what they will do" (p. 1). Furthermore, I also believe that in communication, choice has got to be deliberate and voluntary: The communicator can then be assessed by pertinent principles. Unpremeditated perversion of specifics marks an intellectual, not an ethical, weakening. When choice is by chance unpremeditated, a communicator's ethical decision is worthless. A communicator's purpose is a major consideration in ethical decision. When a communicator is forced to employ in a spontaneous communicative deal, usual ethical principles hardly relate. In addition, we ought to "view intentionality as existing in varying degrees and, as we interact, we may engage in multiple intentions" (Sharkey, 1992, p. 271).


Arnett R.C. (1992). Dialogic education: Conversation about ideas and between persons. Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University Press.

Berlo D.K. (1960). Dimensions for evaluating the acceptability of message sources. Public Opinion Quarterly, 33, 563-576.

Bauer R.A. (1964). The obstinate audience:… [read more]

Sociology of Mass Communication Term Paper

… " Furthermore, aside from the theme of environmental exploitation, the theme of false American ideology is prevalent, as is evidenced in one passage about the author's account on a particular TV program: "Richard Nixon tells... that while it's true his resignation from the presidency may continue to cloud his record, "the main point is to live life to the hilt... And to continue to give it your best shot to the end." Lastly, American consumerism is advocated through mass media, just like Parenti's claim: (from a Dove soap commercial) "I had this revelation. It's about time for me to start paying more attention to my skin, my face, because you just don't realize how fast time passes."

The final critical analysis is based on Ben Bagdikian's "Democracy and the Media," wherein his thesis is similar to that of Parenti and McKibben's theses. For Bagdikian, the mass media are controlled by media conglomerates wherein people are denied access to right and true information because of pre-selection and filtering of true, raw data and information that is transmitted from mass media to the audiences (the society). Ultimately, Bagdikian shows how media democracy is a fallacy in a free, democratic nation like the United States. In expressing his analysis of economic- and political-domination in mass media, he provides a comparative analysis of the Communist and Democratic forms of government, wherein mass media organization is restricted and free, respectively. The author described mass media in Communist nations as "moving away from centralized control of information, though the change is slow and tentative," while the Democratic nations are moving "towards a centralized control of... mass media... not by government but by a few private corporations." At first analysis, it seems that democratic nations are in a favorable position because of the freedom of the press and mass media, while Communist nations are given restricted and limited information. However, the governance of mass media organizations by an oligopoly, that is, few private media corporations, is more unfortunate because despite the increasing influx of free information, the society are given false and 'orchestrated' information. This defeats the purpose of mass media, which is an open system that offers free and factual information. Thus, Bagdikian proves how a democratic mass media is affected by political restraints and economic interests of several organizations that inevitably controls and dictates the mass media institution. Thus, the cultural (Parenti), environmental (McKibben), and political (Bagdikian) perspectives of the critical analyses of the sociology of mass communication illustrates how mass media as an institution becomes dysfunctional and detrimental to the growth and development of the American society despite its freedom and privileged rights of the mass media organizations.


Bagdikian, B. (1992). The Media Monopoly. Boston: Beacon Press.

McKibben, B. (1993). The Age of Missing Information. New York: Plume.

Parenti, M. (1992). Make-Believe Media:…… [read more]

Americans, Then You Certainly Love Term Paper

… Have you ever wondered why news program are interrupted by some many commercials. This question is likely to open a Pandora's box as various studies has proved that the only reason local news bulletin are so full of crime and violence stories is because it is the adherence to the adage 'if it bleeds it leads' that helps them attract advertisers. Advertisements are their main source of revenues and to maximize revenues, they need to have a higher viewer-ship rating. For higher ratings however, they cannot afford to follow content-restriction policies of national news networks and thus sensationalize every piece of information they receive. According to the documentary, "Documentary blisters film and television news," by Boedeker (1997): "the boom in repetitive, crime-ridden reports results because almost half the money a local station makes comes from news." (quoted in reference 1)

News programs do not only use violence and sex to capture your attention, there are usually one or two good looking anchorpersons to lend a helping hand to the 'cause'. The women are mostly model look-alikes with perfect bodies and smooth smiles while male figures are men with photogenic faces and plenty of hair on their heads. Newscasters and reporters are frequently switched for fear you might get bored with one face on the screen. Reporters are presented as heroes who are willing to risk their life to get the inside scoop of various stories.

Local news programs are thus more interested in emphasizing crime, weather and sensational rather violent pictures than they are in providing you with good quality news that might actually affect your reality and the world you dwell in. Ever wonder why all local news programs are similar in content and why do they air the same type of news everyday without fail. Kerbel, author of '"If It Bleeds, It Leads: An Anatomy of Television News" offers an answer, "Even though news events are a variable entity, television news requires consistency to build and hold your loyalty. If you know what to expect from a newscast, you'll become comfortable with it. Producers hope you'll even become a bit dependent on it. They try to achieve that objective by delivering the same type of news stories in the same format with the same personalities every day." (130)

In short local news programs fill our screen with images of everything negative that is happening in our world including murders, rapes, domestic violence etc. This crime hype is created to capture our interest long enough to feed us endless series of meaningless commercials, one powerful strategy that keeps these news channels running successfully despite all the junk they throw our way.


Local TV News and Violence," Issue Brief Series. (1998). Studio City, CA: Mediascope Press.

Hal Boedeker, "Documentary blisters film and television news," Daily News, March 9. 1997.

Richard Zoglin, "The News Wars," TIME, October 21,…… [read more]

Internet Both Big and Small Term Paper

… This shows that the online newspaper readers are definitely an audience worth going after, especially for newspapers.

The Internet has given newspapers an innovative and unique opportunity to leverage the news and information, and the interested audience, into a new medium (Coats, 2002).

However, the Internet does not appear to be stealing away print subscribers, says the study. Three-quarters of online newspaper readers revealed that they read a print newspaper during the past week. Among all adults, 74.5% have read a print newspaper paper in the last week.

Print newspapers have remained the primary source of local advertising, even for online readers (Coats, 2002). However, while they prefer print editions for local ads, online newspaper readers say they prefer online newspapers as a source of local advertising to television, radio or even the Yellow Pages. This opens up a whole new market for newspapers.

In major markets across America, online newspapers are some of the most frequently visited Web sites on the Internet. According to recent marketing surveys from more than ten million online consumers in 17 major markets from January to June 2000 (Beard, 2002), 66% of all online consumers were aware of online newspapers. Almost half had visited their local newspaper site, and more than 22% had visited in the past month.

Online newspapers have been proven to drive a higher volume of more valuable traffic for potential advertisers and their efforts to attract shoppers. As a result of visiting the newspaper Web sites in the research, nearly 1.4 million online consumers report contacting a business in the previous 30 days and more than half of those 750,000 made either online or offline purchases.

Each of the 17 markets in the study had local competition from America Online's Digital City service, Lycos Cityguide, and Ticketmaster/CitySearch. In addition, NFO also assessed the performance of online newspapers against Yahoo's local city guide equivalent, Yahoo Local, in seven major markets.

The results showed that online newspapers had an average awareness of 74% among online users compared to 34% for Yahoo Local. In addition, 56% of online users visited newspaper sites, on average, compared to 16% for Yahoo Local; and 28% indicated visiting newspapers' sites in the past month compared to Yahoo Local's 4%.

This study shows that major newspapers can effectively leverage their existing print newspapers to drive significant online traffic volume. Online newspapers are in a strong position to develop significant user traffic that is not only interested in gathering news and local market information, but it is also interested in shopping. For newspaper publishers, the multifaceted revenue potential could be great.


Bogart, L. Press and public: Who reads what, when, where, and why in American newspapers. Laurence Erlbaum Associates, 1989.

Erlindson, M. Online newspapers: The newspaper industry's dive into cyberspace. NewsHound, April 1995.

Beard, Marty. Meet the web's power users'. Media Life. April 30, 2002.

Coats,…… [read more]

Human Cloning Term Paper

… The early experiments with animal cloning suggest that human clones would be born with physical defects or mental maladies. This is cruel enough and painful enough to witness in our animal friends. To create a physical, sentient being knowingly prone to illness or defect would be inhumane and destructive. It is also a highly selfish endeavor. Many scientists seem to covet cloning for personal gain. Others seem to desire to create a stash of human clones in a futile search for immortality. Instead of creating clones, scientists should spend more time and research on curing AIDS and cancer. The government, too, can devote money to much greater causes. You as a major media source should take a definite and fearless stand on this controversial issue.… [read more]

Kimo Basha Term Paper

… Evolution of Culture Industry

As Jenkins points out, new media reveals paradoxical trends in the culture industry. On the one hand, both artist and consumer have the potential to be self-empowered and bypass corporate domains of media production, distribution, and… [read more]

Objectivity Essay

… Ethical objectivism aims to find truth in the world that is removed from ethical and moral bias. Ultimately, this is a branch of utilitarianism, because it aims to remove bias in order to find a more pure truth that works for the broader group of society. There is also objectivity within legal practice as well. Objectivity in law is necessary at all times within a democratic society. Especially here in the United States, when one is innocent until proven guilty, it is crucial that legal procedures remain objective and do not fall into the trap of personal bias or opinion. All defendants in a court of law deserve a fair trial, which depends on legal objectivity. Also, there needs to be scientific objectivity as well. Ultimately, scientists and other academic researchers must remain objective during their academic endeavors. This is essentially taking a true to nature approach, where the researchers remove any potential bias in order to objectively present data as it was observed. Truth to nature helps provide scientists with a strong connection to the natural world as it is in general. This ultimately leads to more reliable conclusions about the natural world around us. In order to represent objectivity in science, one must remain true to mechanical objectivity and have trained judgment. Mechanical objectivity ensures that human interruption of findings and results is minimized to as little as possible. This combined with a trained judgment helps present the most reliable findings within a scientific context. Trained judgment allows the scientists to make adjustments as needed when there is a gap in the data, but does so without the addition of personal bias or motives. Instead, this addition remains as true to the natural world as possible.… [read more]

Way of Preventing Article

… This is because he is actively campaigning for a specific side and is using his celebrity to influence the outcome. In these kinds of situations, a new category should be created that is looking at if the individual is utilizing their fame to engage in political related activities.

In Rosenbloom v. Metromedia, the Supreme Court upheld the case precedent from New York Times v. Sullivan. They determined that the standard of liable must be maintained for anyone who is in the public eye. This is irresponsible, as the news outlet made false claims about a celebrity. Once they were acquitted, they sued the organization, claiming how it not checking its facts and made statements they knew was not true. The court determined; that news organizations are entitled to higher standards in order to protect free speech. This creates a sense of irresponsibility by enabling the press to say anything and hide behind the First Amendment.

As a result, the decision does not make any sense. Instead, it enables the news media to engage in slanderous behavior by not having any kind of proof to backup their claims. This is in spite of the fact that the person may not have anything to do with politics or related events. Instead, they are someone who is famous and subject to these kinds of false accusations. In the future, this will lead to even more aggressive behavior by news organizations who are seeking out the next big story. Their objectives are to be the first to report sensationalism, versus ensuring that everything is factually accurate. These actions are becoming more brazen with them using the paparazzi and other tactics to achieve these objectives. If the new standards were utilized, it will hold them responsible and ensure that they are making statements which are true.

Clearly, liability laws are designed to favor private citizens. This is because they are not influencing the public debate. The result is that those who are famous will face the possibility of having slanderous statements made about them which may or may not be true. Instead, the news media is interested in creating a sensational story to have more people following them on Facebook, Twitter and increase their profits in the process. This is troubling, as it makes it difficult for these individuals to live private lives. In these situations, the laws should be changed and focus on if the person is engaging in any kind of political activities. This is when the higher standards of liability must be applied. If this were to occur, there would be greater amounts due diligence and responsibility on the news media's part. This forces them to check the accuracy of the information they are reporting.


Harris, R. (2002). Citizenship and Participation in the Information Age. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.… [read more]

Lee Deforest and Development of Radio Term Paper

… Lee De Forest and His Contribution to the World of Radio

Lee de Forest was one of the most important people in the 19 Century for about 20 years. His fame ranged from two-way wireless telegraphy as a commercial business… [read more]

Cardinal Health Case Study

… Leadership

Cardinal Leadership Questions

Leadership is critical to defining a company's success, both internally and in its specific marketplace. Without question, leadership is a key determination of the reputation a company carries forward in its interactions with customers, investors and its community. In particular, leadership sets the ethical tone and the internal culture of an organization. Therefore, leadership that is ethically oriented and driven by a commitment to a core set of positive values will tend to proliferate these attitudes throughout. This means that members of the organization are likely to feel positive about their roles and stake in the company.

From my experience, this translates into higher morale and a sense of commitment to the company's overarching goals. This sense follows employees into their interactions with customers. The contrary, unfortunately, may also be true. I can recall working for an organization whose internal leadership was both prone to dishonest dealings with customers and unfair treatment of employees. The result was a low company-wide morale and, consequently, shabby treatment of customers. The company developed a reputation among its core target demographics for late delivery times, shoddy products and general incompetence. This reputation amply demonstrated how the core traits of leadership ultimately became the core traits defining the public impression of the company itself.


Often, a change in company culture will only come about after a major period of growth or in the wake of a significant crisis. In the case of the latter, an organization may be faced with massive scandal, leadership upheaval or economic instability. When this occurs, it is sometimes incumbent upon the organization to look within to determine the causes of its…… [read more]

How American Advertising Causes Anorexia in Women and Female Teenagers Essay

… Advertising and Anorexia

American Media Images Influence Unhealthy Eating Habits in Order to Stay Skinny

Everyone has a little obsession with beauty. It is natural for human beings to want to look and feel attracted, because society often rewards those that fit its concept of what is attractive. Yet, sometimes, images can take it too far and subliminally portray a message that demands young American to fall in line with that ideal. One of these concepts is the issue of being skinny, which is glamorized consistently in media images. Covert and overt messages are tied to images glamorizing skinny, which is then often internalized by young teens that will turn to unhealthy habits, like eating disorders like anorexia, in order to reach that ideal weight look. The images of skinny connected with fashionable and in style are blasted all over American advertising, and influence readers to work hard to strive and reach this exaggerated concept of perfection in regards to their weight.

Visual references to being skinny become influences of anorexia in teens and young adults, and they are everywhere. The October 2012 issue of Teen Vogue is not exactly the most blatantly obvious in regards to how the visual images on its cover contribute to underlying trends of rising anorexia levels. In fact, the image presents a picture of a face, Victoria Justice to be exact. As a Nickelodeon actress and singer, she is very connected to a younger fan demographic. Thus, her essential fan base is one of the most vulnerable groups of women in terms of how visual reinforces and influences anorexia levels nationwide. The magazine is catering to a young and incredibly vulnerable demographic. Thus, it is incredibly damaging when the primary message presented in the text of the magazine cover are so geared towards showing women how they are not good enough or need to improve themselves in order to be acceptable in mainstream society. The dominant message the image is sending to the readers is that they are nowhere near perfect, yet society expects this perfection of each individual. Just as the text reads, there is an enormous "pressure to look perfect." Women must strive for this sense of perfection, which is often unattainable. Although the image is largely of Justice's head and upper torso, there is still a clear trend that she is following, the skinny trend. Justice is featured in a beautiful gold top, showing off her "major style." The reader can just barely see the shape of Justice's waits, and it is definitely much smaller than the size of an average American woman. This makes many young female teens associate the concept of being skinny with being stylish, another potentially dangerous combination in regards to how images can influence anorexia in the American population of young adults. When teens are growing up, they want to follow what's in style, the latest fads and trends. When looking at women, "the vast majority of females wish to weight less and have a smaller… [read more]

Political Cartoon Recently Released Essay

… In this comic strip, the creator is taking a clear stance against lawmaker's desire to rid the United States of everything relating to firearms. This illustration is equivalent on the subject as s suggesting that lawmakers have done everything to get rid of real firearms and must now move to the ridiculous. This teaches us as people the importance of considering one's actions and the overall implications on society. When a law is seeking to ban something, it should first consider the overall outcome and effect on citizens as well as the overall Constitutionality of the law. Just as it is unconstitutional to ban a state from the United States of America, it is unconstitutional to ban guns from private use.

The colors used for this comic strip were those of a typical newsroom. There is no particular symbolism in that. The news anchor, however, does provide some symbolism. The news anchor is wearing a fancy pinstriped suit with a long collar, making him appear to be very proper. He has a big tooth and big head, causing him to clearly be a caricature. This in and of itself is a clear sign to the reader that the comic was meant to make fun not only of the current legal trends, but news anchors and the media as well, who are constantly making a caricature of themselves through their crazy opinions. The language of the piece is simple and straight forward. It is the type of language one would expect to directly hear from any news story.… [read more]

Bedford Anthology American Literature Susan Essay

… They will contact the local publisher of that edition. The publisher will give any advice about the client or the direction of the article. The writer will then set up a phone interview with the client. It usually takes 30-60 minutes.

Afterward, the writer will draft the article and turn it into the client for review and approval. The deadline given on the work order is for the submission of the first draft to the client. At that point, the client is prompted to make any technical changes or note any errors. The client will respond with their notes, the writer will make those changes and send a PDF to the client. The client will sign, scan and e-mail the PDF to the writer. The writer will then e-mail the final word document, the signed PDF and their invoice to the Associate Editor.

Writers will be paid as Independent Contractors (1099) with no Taxes withheld from their checks. Writers will not be guaranteed articles. Features are given to the writer based on their ability and efficiency.

If you are interested in pursuing this opportunity please respond to this e-mail and we will schedule a time to speak further about this position. To view examples of the type of stories we are looking for please look at the digital editions on our website…… [read more]

NOTE:  We can write a brand new paper on your exact topic!  More info.