"Journalism / Media / PR / News" Essays

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Product Contamination in October Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (473 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


It became the first company to comply with the Food and Drug Administration mandate of tamper-resistant packaging.

In order to motivate consumers to buy the product, they offered a $2.50 off coupon on the purchase of their product.

To recover loss stock from the crisis, Johnson & Johnson made a new pricing program that gave consumers up to 25% off the purchase of the product.

Over 2250 sales people made presentations for the medical community to restore confidence on the product.

The company's handling of the Tylenol tampering crisis is considered by public relations experts to be one of the best in the history of public relations (Kaplan). Within five months of the crisis, the company had recovered seventy percent of its market share for the drug - and the fact this went on to improve over time showed that the company had succeeded in maintaining the long-term value of the brand (Companies in crisis - What to do when it all goes wrong).


Companies in Crisis - What to do when it all goes wrong. Retrieved February 28, 2005 from Web site: http://www.mallenbaker.net/csr/CSRfiles/crisis02.html

Effective crisis management. Retrieved February 28, 2005 from Web site: http://iml.jou.ufl.edu/projects/Fall02/Susi/tylenol.htm

Kaplan, T. The Tylenol crisis: How effective public relations saved Johnson & Johnson. Retrieved February 28, 2005 from Web site: http://www.personal.psu.edu/users/w/x/wxk116/tylenol/crisis.html… [read more]

Communications Personal Statement for Graduate Study Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (398 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Communications Personal Statement for Graduate Study

As a Communications major as an undergraduate, I frequently found my major scoffed at by both friends and family. People seemed to assume that because they knew how to communicate in their daily lives that they were experts in understanding how the media had an impact upon their lives. They assumed because they know how to write and speak that they were experts in how to deploy the language effectively through verbal and nonverbal means.

However, almost at the end of my course of undergraduate study and hopefully poised upon embarking upon my graduate study, I must beg to differ. Although I was a consumer of various communications media before embarking upon my university career, only through academic study did I become conversant in the different social and linguistic nuances of various communication sources. I am a more critical consumer of the media and hope to help my future students to become one as well.

The multi-disciplinary nature of the communications field continues to intrigue me. I hope to become a 'total' teacher, as I was a 'total' student. I wish to deploy my own experiences, the study of English and sociology, as…… [read more]

Lessons Learned From Physical Exercise Chapter Writing

Chapter Writing  |  2 pages (601 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Societal Needs and Our Field

Three pressing societal needs/challenges that we face today are obesity, a stagnant economy, and environmental pollution. Each one needs to be overcome and the eight ESS core courses can help society to meet these challenges.

The Foundations of PE are important in these challenges in that they provide the framework for a healthy and active lifestyle. They can help young people to fight obesity by teaching how to exercise effectively. They can also provide the kind of self-discipline and desire to better oneself that is needed mentally in today's economy: instead of settling for a low-paying, waitressing job, a toughness of mind developed via these foundations can help a young person persevere and reach his or her goals. In terms of the environment, the self-awareness that these foundations can support can extend to not only how we treat our bodies but also how we treat the planet. When we have an active and healthy mindset, our entire worldview changes.

Kinesiology is the study of movement and it helps us to understand how things in and outside our body relate. By studying the movement of body and non-body parts, we can see the beauty of action and be readier to handle the immense hurdles that face us today. It gives a sense of relativity, of interaction and the importance of having a working relation of parts.

Exercise physiology is especially helpful when facing these challenges. It teaches the basics of what it means to be fit and healthy, which is a great first step to combating obesity. Likewise, it can when put into practice help to form self-reliant individuals with the confidence they need to face other challenges in life, such as the economy or the environment.

Lifespan motor development is also important because it provides…… [read more]

Public Policy Evaluation Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (830 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Policy Formulation

Policy matters arise from the interaction between daily occurrences in human life and the social, natural and economic challenges thereof. In the course of daily lives, individuals face up and are affected directly or indirectly, by an extensive array of issues obviously or subtly. These interactions necessitate the creation of ideas with those concerned with attending to the society's welfare. Most of the policies arrived at aim at resolving an existing situation that appears to relate to the welfare of a society.

The rational involved in making the choice relating to the public matter is guided also by laid down policies. This directs and guides the acting public officer towards formulation of public policies concerning the public and the laid down guidelines. Considering the increases in public concerns, and expansion in population, there is bound to occur conflict in the formulation of public policy. The formulation of public policy to safeguard populations' interest is seen sometime as conferring advantage to some while it takes away pleasure from others. This aspect of formation of public policy makes it appealing to assess the measures and rational involving the creation of a public policy.

Rationality of Decisions

If policies are made as the result of presence of conflict, then there is a chance that rationality is left out in coming up with the policy. One can easily see that the policy will likely tackle the immediate need, as opposed to tackling a more sustainable coexistence in the end. At the time of need for policy formulation, an individual is not capable of coming up with an all-inclusive policy decision. The decisions taken are highly based on satisfaction of the immediate needs and not optimal intervention.

The decision-making process and formulation of policy based on the presence of a need invokes among the policy maker a sense of agency. This sense of agency inhibits satisfactory collection of information that can be used to lead formulation of policy. By taking the present satisfactory measure, man is considered to have paid a higher price of sacrifice a greater good that flows from optimality. This force the society and the policy makers to sacrifice comprehensively rational for satisfying minimal needs

Policy makers will make incremental alteration on policy if its formulation is a measure to resolve a looming or already prevailing undesirable situation. Policy decisions based on the previous existing policy to resolve current problems are irrational. This is because they evade the necessary measures for collection of total information…… [read more]

Policy Changes Eight Models Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (580 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


This can be done through boundary analysis, which aims to understand the boundaries of the problem itself. Boundary analysis helps break down a system of problems into "individual problem formations" so that these metaproblems can be most effectively solved (Chapter, 3-95). Therefore, these individual chunks of the metaproblem is best paired with Second-Best Rationality.

Disjointed Instrumentalism and Classificational Analysis

Here, "policy changes occur at the margin with the status quo, so that behavior at time t is marginally different from behavior at time t _ 1" (Chapter 2, 51)

The only alternatives to be considered are those that are slightly different than the status quo.

Such a style of policy change requires shared responsibilities.

The City Council may want to begin a grass roots publicity campaign to inform the city's citizens that a change has taken place.

It is crucial that the right structure of the problem is adapted here in order to avoid risks of committing money and efforts to combating the wrong part of the actual problem. This is done through classificational analysis, where all concepts of the problem are classified for review and discussion. They must be in accordance with the status quo so that the City Council does not waste time on implementing a policy that is too distant from the needs of the community.

Bounded Rationality and Hierarchy Analysis

According to the text, "although choices are rational, they are bounded by the practical circumstances in which the policy makers work" (Chapter 2, 51-52).

This… [read more]

Operation Fast and Furious: The United States Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (703 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


¶ … Operation Fast and Furious:

The United States Bureau of Alcohol Tobacco and Firearms started Operation Fast and Furious as a gun running initiative that involved the sale of 1,026 weapons to members of the Mexican Sinaloa drug cartel. The Mexican drug cartels were provided with weapons worth over $650,000 such as caliber revolvers, AK-47's, pistols and Barrett. This initiative was geared towards tracking the movement of these guns and weapons from the Mexican drug cartel organizations. While the motive of Operation Fast and Furious was to help the U.S. law enforcement to examine the movement of guns into America through the Mexican drug cartels, the initiative had serious unintended consequences. These severe consequences emerged due to lack of sufficient mechanisms to track the weapons and prevent their use for illegal and violent reasons. As a result, the major unintended consequence of Operation Fast and Furious is that it resulted in the spread of violent crimes in the United States.

While the full extent of the unintended consequences of Operation Fast and Furious is unknown, the failure of the initiative to accomplish its intended purpose presents several lessons to policymakers in the U.S. First, the operation shows the need to ensure suitable coordination between law enforcement agencies on important policies and procedures in law enforcement agencies. Secondly, the most essential risk management principles must be established when developing policies and procedures in this field. Third, Operation Fast and Furious demonstrates the need to examine the intended and unintended consequences in policy making decisions.

The consequences of this operation can be prevented in the future through increased collaboration between law enforcement agencies and policy makers (Kimery, 2012). Lack of coordination is likely to contribute to severe impacts of a policy as evident in the fact that federal officials ignored several warnings from other agencies and officials that the initiative would fail.

Public Policy:

Before taking the course, I considered public policy as a concept that is similar to the process of making a bill into law. This implies that public policy involved the development and enactment of a bill into law…… [read more]

1_Policy Analyzing Public Policy Reaction Paper

Reaction Paper  |  2 pages (667 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


¶ … 1_Policy

Analyzing Public Policy

Essentially, the first two chapters of this book provide a comprehensive overview of the various applications of public policy in relation to governments. The first chapter details the various uses for and practical purposes regarding policy and its analysis, while the second chapter outlines a number of specific models that assist in policy analysis. Included within these pages, of course, is an overview of what policy itself is -- particularly public policy as mandated and tended to by governmental entities. In many ways, this definition may be considered rather broad since it encompasses virtually anything that governments do from regulating various aspects of society to starting or ending conflicts. Actually, in today's society the majority of citizens depend upon public policy -- as administered by the government -- to assist in virtually all aspects of their lives, from economic to social needs. To that end, the government has grown substantially in the role it plays within the lives of ordinary citizens, due to the fact that the diversity of realms which it encompasses and administers has expanded as well. This fact may be best revealed through a look at the amount of money that governments spend, which is commonly referred to as the gross national product of a particular country and is measured by the sum of its services and goods that are produced. When the economy is struggling, as it currently is, more government is needed to assist in various aspects of life.

Therefore, the study of public policy allows individuals to ascertain key aspects of the political system that is setting and regulating policy, in order to determine who is benefitting from it and in what sorts of ways. There are a number of things that can be learned from public policy, such as what exactly the government is doing (which is a description of its policy), why it is taking whatever action it is or is not (the causes), as well as what the…… [read more]

Rules Was the Research Conducted by Segal A2 Coursework

A2 Coursework  |  2 pages (521 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


¶ … rules was the research conducted by Segal and Cover to determine the extent to which Supreme Court justices were influenced by their own political views when casting votes on important issues. The three theories to apply to this study include:

Building theories that are internally consistent,

Selecting dependent variables carefully, and Maximizing concreteness.

Building theories that are internally consistent

One of the ways to ensure that theories are internally consistent is by means of ensuring their validity. This concerns the closeness of the measure to the underlying phenomenon being studied. Some measures could yield a high degree of reliability, but not of validity, as the idea, process, or concept of representation is not accurately reflected. In the study in by Segal and Cover, there were two levels of measurement. One concerned measuring the justices' votes on the cases decided by the Supreme Court, while the other was concerned with measuring their political attitudes. The first was not problem in terms of validity, as they were publicly available for scrutiny. The second, however, presented several problems in terms of validity. One of the main problems was the challenge of obtaining Supreme justices' political viewpoints via measurements such as interviews and questionnaires. Not all of them would be willing to reveal such information. Many of the justices of interest have also died, making their opinions in accessible to the researchers. There was therefore little possibility of internal consistency, because of the nature and subject of study.

Selecting dependent variables carefully

Dependent variables differ from independent variables in that they are…… [read more]

Decisions Below Are Six Questions Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (590 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


¶ … Decisions

Below are six questions that might be found on questionnaires. Comment on each as to whether or not it is a good question. If it is not, explain why. (Assume that no lead- in or screening questions are required. Judge each question on its own merits.)

Do you read National Geographic magazine regularly?

This question is too general in the information is asks for. First, we need to assume that the people answering the question read National Geographic at all. If they answer "no" does that mean that they never read the magazine or that they do not read it "regularly." The other problem with the question is that "regularly" is completely undefined. For some people, reading a magazine regularly is reading every single issue; for others it may be reading it six times a year or even less often. To gather useful data, the question needs to be rewritten into a two-part question. First, do you read National Geographic (yes or no) and second, how often do you read the magazine (multiple answers available.)

b. What percentage of your time is spent asking for information from others in your organization?

This question may be easily misunderstood by survey-takers because "percentage of your time" is not easy to quantify and people may use different methods of calculation to come up with their answers. One employee may figure the percentage based on his entire eight-hour day while another may base hers just on the time she actually works at her desk. It is also unclear what "asking for information" means. Do phone calls count? E-mails? Text messages? How does one quantify the time it takes to send an instant message to a colleague. A better form for the question would be to list…… [read more]

John Berger Ways of Seeing Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (548 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


¶ … Seeing" by John Berger

In a similar vein as argued in Jacques Ellul's discourse on advertising and the "mass man," John Berger in "Ways of Seeing" provided a critical analysis of how publicity helped promote the idea of freedom and democratization through the act of consumption. In his book, Berger identified publicity (synonymous to the idea of advertising) as the main politico-economic force that shaped the nature of human society during the period of modernism and capitalism. Publicity, according to him, had been the primary cause of today's consumption- and materialistically-motivated society. Using this general objective as the foundation of his arguments, Berger set out to argue against the political propaganda embedded in publicity.

One of the important insights that the author expressed as an effect of publicity was its inherent capability to create an alternative reality, a reality that centers on possibilities or what Berger identified as the future. In this alternative reality, the consumer, also the receiver of this publicity messages, become fixated in the eventualities enumerated by forms of publicity, which leads to the development of the psyche that one lives not for the present and future, but for the future alone.

Centering one's attention towards the future is not altogether detrimental to the individual, but it can lead to an unhealthy self-development. Publicity makes the individual feel inadequate and dissatisfied with the kind of life s/he has -- these feelings of dissatisfaction leads to the 'imprisonment' of one's freedom. Thus, the individual becomes susceptible to believing suggestions and ideas promoted through publicity. Beliefs and opinions are no longer formed from the self, but from the publicity instead. The…… [read more]

Stage Play the Meeting Dramaticwriter Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (389 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


TOM: Wasn't it.

JENNY: I came in here and TOM: And?

JENNY: You're a pig.

TOM: Whatever.

JENNY: You weren't looking at me?

TOM: Why would you want a pig looking at you?

JENNY: I'm sorry.

TOM: That's okay.

JENNY: You waiting for the bus?

TOM: I'm sitting at a bus stop. What do you think?

JENNY: You are a pig.

TOM: And you're kinda' cute.

JENNY: What?

TOM: Nothing.

JENNY: You said I was cute.

TOM: Why would I say that?

JENNY: 'Cause

TOM: 'Cause why?

JENNY: Okay the relationship wasn't that serious.

TOM: It wasn't?


TOM: So you don't have a lot of baggage?


TOM: You gotta' go somewhere on this bus today?

JENNY: I should.

TOM: But?

JENNY: I don't have too.

TOM: Good.


TOM: Why?

JENNY: Yeah why?

TOM: Alright.

JENNY: Alright what?

TOM: You wanna' go get some coffee or something?

JENNY: Yeah. Yeah I do.

TOM: Good.

Tom stands. He puts his hand out. Jenny takes it and stands. They smile at one another. Tom drops his newspaper on the park bench. They exit right. The lights fade to black.)

The Play…… [read more]