Study "Journalism / Media / PR / News" Essays 441-490

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Muckrakers as a Profession Term Paper

… John Steinbeck's Cannery Row highlighted the miserable conditions of working class laborers in California. Rachel Carlson's Silent Spring raised public concern over how unrestrained pollution is destroying the environment. The efforts of these writers to "dig" into the conditions they were investigating have yielded much positive social change (Kiee 2001).

More modern examples of muckrakers include Barbara Ehrenreich. In her book Nickel and Dimed: On (Not) Getting By in America, Ehrenreich exposed many of the myths that prevail over the conditions of the poor. In her book, Ehrenreich (2001) shows how many laborers in occupations classified as "non-skilled" cannot make ends meet on minimum wage, despite working two or more jobs.

The cause of spurring social change is not limited to the written word. In 1911, for example, Lewis Hine took photographs chronicling the abuse of children who were working in Pennsylvania coal mines. In 1963, Charles Moore's photographs of the violent dispersals of civil rights activists were used as evidence during the congressional debates regarding the 1964 Civil Rights Act. James Nachtwey continues this tradition of powerful photographs by taking "antiwar" photographs in Sudan and around the world (Kiee 2001).

New technologies have also given rise to new methods of investigative journalism. Michael Moore, for example, has gained acclaim for documentaries like Roger and Me, and more recently, for Bowling for Columbine. Like their printed predecessors, these films highlight social problems like unemployment and violence, and challenge the relevant government authorities to find solutions.

In countries where press conditions are more controlled, muckrakers are turning to information technology. Tarun Tejpal, for example, edits, a news website based in India. Tehelka reporters go undercover as arms sellers and corrupt businesspeople, filming government officials who accept bribes. Similar websites have popped up China and other countries in Asia (Singh 2001).

In conclusion, the techniques of muckraking are far from being the bane of "good" journalism. So-called muckrakers have spurred social change throughout history. Modern-day muckrakers continue this tradition, exposing continuing social ills. Though there are more technologies available at their disposal, the goal of exposing injustices and agitating for change remains an important tenet of investigative journalism.

Works Cited

Ehrenreich, Barbara.

2001. Nickel and Dimed: On (Not) Getting By in America. New York: Metropolitan Books.

Goldberg, Jonah. 2001. "The Decline of Muckraking." The American Enterprise. June.

Jensen, Carl. 2003. Stories That Changed America: Muckrakers of the 20th Century. New York: Seven Stories Press.

Kiee, Kenneth. 2001. "Modern Muckrakers." Book. September/October.

Miraldi, Robert. The…… [read more]

Toxic Sludge Is Good Term Paper

… This book was an excellent read, not simply because of the clarity of the prose, which at times reads as quickly and persuasively as the media it attempts to criticize. It encourages its readers to become more informed and critical citizens of what they read and hear on a daily basis, and thus is an excellent preparatory manual for the coming presidential campaign in November. However, it is not useful simply from a political standpoint. It encourages readers to be more critical of advertising and what they believe and consume in the omnipresent, public relations driven world around them. Thus one does not become simply better informed by reading the book, but a better critical thinker in a fashion that is useful not simply from a news-based standpoint, or a citizen's standpoint, but also as a student and a moral human being.… [read more]

Beam, Randal A. Eunseong, Kim Term Paper

… Although their offices may be lined with hundreds of books, much legal information has been put into data banks and is accessible via computer. This means that the extensive and rigorous work that went into the law degree is no longer enough. Now they must also have a high degree of computer competence, and be good at learning new systems and programs. An old joke about computer says "If it's running, it's obsolete already." While an entertaining comment, it's true of all jobs. Lines grow long at supermarkets when cash register systems are upgraded.

There's no doubt the ever-changing computer technology brings benefits. We can check our bank statement at any time of the day or night and pay our bills online. Lose your receipt from Circuit City? It doesn't matter: it's stored for easy retrieval in their computer system -- until they upgrade their system. Then all the employees will have to learn the new system.

University instructors are no doubt stressed by all the new technology. So are we all, sooner or…… [read more]

Public Relations Gilded and Gelded Term Paper

… Strategically, another great move meant that the executive salaries froze the moment the company announced further firings. Again, a symbolical message was sent out: we are all in this together.

Martin's long career as a PR officer made him witness several PR blunders that certainly did no good. The small cartoon published in 1993 is the best example. The drawing appeared in Focus and depicted several stereotypical characters from around the world, including a monkey for Africa. It is obvious that the impression created by this was terrible in the African- American community. Funnily enough, AT&T had greatly contributed to several funds for the black community with the intent of creating a long-term relationship with the respective community. All this work and spending went down the drain with one single drawing. Again, imagery and symbolism is most important to a company: something does not necessarily represent a company's credo, but the impact on the public can be disastrous.

Finally, the media and the relationship with the media. What a company has to remember and keep in mind is that media sells stories and stories are what make its profit. The best stories are those of "conflicts, drama and setbacks" as Dennis Kneale from Forbes put it. Obviously, because this sells the article, the paper or the TV show and it is all about the money made in the end (long-term relationships eventually lead to that too). A company should try its best either to not leak information or to ensure that it is presented in the best possible way. The public opinion is mainly informed through the media, to the degree that almost everything published can be believed to be true, with the consequences deriving from this. If that puts the company in a positive light, then it has done its job.

Finally, intelligent people learn from their mistakes. Nobody is born with knowledge of PR and, even more than this, the public opinion has a very volatile set of reactions- you never entirely know what it is going to be the first time, but you can take the proper measures to ensure that it does not happen the second time.… [read more]

Art History the Functions Term Paper

… e., art used to be the most prevalent visual form, replaced by publicity when capitalism has set in the human society. This change or transition does not mean that art is synonymous with publicity. In fact, Berger posits that the two are different, since art, as projected in the mass media, pertains to the elitist society, while publicity caters to the mass or general public. Art, says Berger, "suggests cultural authority... which is superior to any vulgar material interest," while publicity is "the culture of the consumer society. It propagates through images that society's belief in itself."

Moreover, Berger, despite his discussions on the functions of publicity as a symbol of freedom, he still studies its adverse effects to society, which is "to make the spectator marginally dissatisfied with his present way of life." As mass media depict images of things that illustrate differences between what is desirable and undesirable in society, anxiety develops, according to Berger. As a result, society is "exploited," giving them narrow choices and decisions to what is appropriately desirable for their lives. Indeed, Berger's discussion of the adverse effects of mass media and publicity in the society agrees with the principles of the Adbusters. This organization, like Berger advocates against the use of advertising (publicity, in Berger's case) because it only provides "corporate disinformation, injustices in the global economy, and... pollutes our (society's) physical and mental commons (and environment).

Works Cited

Berger, J. (1972). Ways of Seeing. London: BBC and Penguin Books.… [read more]

FCC Rules Term Paper

… The supporters highlight that in spite of many mergers in the media industry in current years, Americans nowadays in fact take pleasure in more variety and competition in the media than at any other time in history, because of Internet, cable TV, the licensing of new broadcast stations and other issues.

Rather than media monopolies, customers face a confusing and unparalleled amount of option. In its place, the genuine hazard to Americans is that out-of-date and needless FCC limitations will bind developments in media markets and technologies, restraining the paybacks that they can supply (2).

The supporters argue that the case for varying the FCC's ownership regulations is apparent. They were written in a preceding era, and don't mirror the variety and competitiveness in today's media marketplace. As well as, they are probably throbbing customers, by restraining the capability of media openings to make use of resources as efficiently as possible. The best route would be for the FCC to get rid of the regulations completely (2).


Under this novel rule, one company might possess the largest television station in town, the sole newspaper, as well as half the radio. It is effortless to see how, in these mid-sized markets, the quantity of varied substance would quickly weaken. The FCC ought to revert and retrace these novel rules, observing in mind the apprehensions of Congress, as well as the American people, who have protested loud and clear in relation to this subject.


1) A.N. Crigler. The Psychology of Political Communication. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press. 1996.

2) Elfriede Fursich and Eli P. Lester Roushanzamir. Corporate Expansion, Textual Expansion: Commodification Model of Communication. Journal of Communications Inquiry 25.4. October 2001.

3) Edward S. Herman, Z Magazine. Word Tricks & Propaganda.

FCC Rules… [read more]

American Newspaper Term Paper

… Even though mass media is often viewed as being impersonal, this is a case that demonstrates that even the impersonal media is capable of allowing for elements of interpersonal communication such as feedback.

This brings us to the third aspect of public and group communication, which is the intersection of the mass media with public and group communication. Does mass media zoom in on interpersonal communication and make the "private" conversations into "public" conversations? Or is the media making "public" conversations into "private" ones? On the one hand it seems that the mass media is functioning to broadcast private conversations so as to make them into public ones. Conversations about race and civil rights policies are ongoing in interpersonal communications, especially in political circles such as the Thurmond birthday party. It makes sense that when these conversations are televised or reported, the result is that the general public glimpses a portion of the conversation. On the other hand, by bringing the remarks of Lott, a public figure, into the homes and offices of individual Americans and families, the media might be making public communication into one-on-one interpersonal communication. This might happen when a family sees the coverage of the Lott controversy on television and then discusses it among themselves.

It also might be possible to argue that the mass media only creates the appearance of interpersonal communication. It might be the case that without the mass media, not many people would have heard about Lott's remarks. If this were the case, people might not have responded the way they did. So without the mass media, maybe Lott's public or group communication may not have allowed for any feedback. Or maybe the feedback simply would not have reached Lott so quickly (or at all) and he would not have been as quick to apologize as he was.

All of this raises issues about media and public group identity. It seems that it is important to remember that the media might not be the most accurate reflection of the interpersonal communications that are actually going on among the different political parties. It is also important to note that the media may not even be reflecting any sort of communication at all, but might, instead, be creating it. Lott and his critics are not actually engaged in interpersonal communication, but the media creates the illusion that they are. It is interesting that this "virtual" communication follows some of the concepts of actual interpersonal communication. The element of feedback is the most obvious one, but also involved are group and personal identity formation, conflict resolution, intercultural communication, and crisis management.

Works Cited

Anderson, N. (2002, Dec 11). Outrage grows over Lott remarks. Los Angeles Times, p. A-17.

Bryant, B. (2002, Dec 10). Lott's praise of Thurmond puts him at center of racially charged debate. Knight Ridder/Tribune News Service. p. K4979. Retrieved December

12, 2002, from Opposing Viewpoints Resource Center database.

Pollock, T. (Oct 2002). Communications: a two way street. Automotive design and production, v114… [read more]

Tabloid Magazines Although Very Few Term Paper

… Characters such as the hero, God, the demon, the sun and the moon were present in all of these stories. The only differences he found were that the names of these characters were different.... He believed that we use our personal unconscious (memories that only the individual has) and the collective unconscious (archetypes that we all share) to overcome these problems.

Tabloids serve in many ways as a repository of the collective unconsciousness. We wish to believe that death does not mean an ending - for Elvis or Diana or John Lennon, or us. We read tabloids because they tell us stories - fantastical as myths, and just as true.

But even as we peek into tabloids as we are waiting in line to try to understand - even if from very oblique angles - central questions for our culture, we still want our fantastical stories to have some basis in reality. The best are those that might be true. Which is why tabloids use some of the trappings of broadsheet newspapers. American tabloids have over the last several years been creating a new mix in which the fantastical, mythical, archetypical elements of tabloid stories have been diluted to some greater extent by facts about the some arenas - education, politics, economics - that mainstream newspapers cover.

It could be the most shocking tabloid story in America - and one that they can't print. Splashed across newspaper delivery lorries making their rounds in the northeastern states of America are the words, "No Elvis. No Aliens. No UFOs." It's not, of course, that aliens have stopped abducting, or that Elvis no longer eats at Burger King, it's just that the new management at American Media, publisher of the National Enquirer, the Globe and the Star, has decreed that readers will no longer be hearing of it.

As Croteau and Hoynes's (1997) remind us, no democratic country can remain healthy without a free press because no society (at least one that contains more than a handful of people) can be organized unless some people have more power than others. Newspapers exist to help keep the powerful becoming omnipotent - one of the most worthy goals of human society.

This is not, however, what tabloids do. Tabloids are not soothsayers. They are storytellers. And there is a place in human society for the illumination that comes through stories just as there is a place in human society for the illumination that comes through truth. Which is why there is plenty of (intellectual and cultural) room for newspapers and tabloids both.

So next time you catch a headline about Martians invading, don't just laugh. Ask yourself what archetypal question at the heart of essential human nature is being answered by speculating about what lies beyond the possibilities of our personal experiences.


Barton. A. Three Worlds of Theory: An Existential-Phenomenological Study of the Therapies of Freud, Jung and Rogers. Chicago: University of Chicago, 1993.

Croteau, D. And Hoynes, H. (1997). Media/Society: Industries, Images, and… [read more]

Career Profile: Investigative Reporter Term Paper

… The Princeton Review Career Database describes the monetary aspects of being a journalist/investigative reporter as follows: "On average, a journalist will make $27,000 to start, $50,000 after ten years in the field, and $65,000 after ten to fifteen years" (The Princeton Review).

My career of choice has both its benefits and drawbacks. In my opinion the biggest benefit of this career is that each day is different. On any given day, an investigative reporter can be doing any of the following things: doing undercover work in the field, editing tape, writing script, interviewing sources, attending local meetings, or doing research on the internet or at the courthouse. Unfortunately, the advantage of getting to do something different each day also causes the biggest drawback in the field of journalism. The long hours and unsteady lifestyle of being a journalist are the drawbacks of this career. Being an investigative reporter also lends itself to being a risky occupation. When one acts as a whistle-blower exposing high-profile people and scandals, one's personal safety may come into question. Investigative reporters and journalists also have to worry about slander and libel lawsuits.

In my opinion, a career in investigative reporting compliments my personality. I like both challenge and risk, and would rather work long, unsteady hours doing a variety of things instead of sitting at the same desk every day from nine to five.

Works Cited

"Career Profile: Journalism." The Princeton Review Online.

"The International Consortium of Investigative Reporters." The Center for Public Integrity Project.

"Majors and Careers in Journalism." Indiana University College of Journalism.

"Muckraker: The Center for Investigative Reporting."

Unruh, Jilda. Personal Interview. July 5, 2002.… [read more]

Hate Radio, Patricia J. Williams Term Paper

… "

Williams heard the first broadcast by accident, intending to listen to something else. This may be why it is easy for those people who don't seek such shows out to diminish their potential impact on society. She sees these shows as polarizing society. Perhaps she is right, although something in the reader wants to resist what she says. The reader wants to believe that Williams is exaggerating. Maybe the radio personalities caught her on an off day. Perhaps she'd just broken a nail or been told the roof had to be replaced, and was predestined to over-react -- just a little. Decent people want her to be over-reacting.

But Williams backs up her views with hard facts. She notes statistics that 50% of the country believes that Latinos and Blacks aren't as smart as white people, and that the majority believe that "blacks are lazy, violent, welfare-dependent, and unpatriotic."

She makes an important point: blind, unthinking prejudice recently turned some Eastern European countries into war-torn wastelands, with atrocities committed in the name of race or religion that we haven't seen since World War II.

The new talk radio has raised constitutional issues, such as how to resolve the question of when free speech collides with the right to privacy (Levendosky, 2001), but that issue seems arcane when words like "Nigger" and "Kike" can be heard on the radio by our children.

It has been ten years since Williams first became aware of this form of talk radio, and within the last two weeks, a Cincinnati reporter tells us that a radio host referred to the Japanese who drowned when our submarine crashed into their boat as "yellow monkeys." She concludes that the views expressed on these call-in shows represent the views of a large proportion of American's white residents. She recognizes the power of the media to communicate ideas neutrally, as Churchill and Hitler both used the radio equally effectively. This reader would like to believe that Williams has either over-reported or over-reacted, but that rationalization is unjustified. It has become acceptable to say any ugly things about others on talk radio.

Works Cited

Campbell, Laurel, and Gottbrath, Paul. "Talk Radio: A Forum or a Sewer?" Cincinnati Post. February 16, 2001.,accessed2/20/02.

Levendosky, Charles. "Media Wins Over Privacy in Narrowly Cast Decision." Casper Star-Tribune First Amendment Cyber-Tribune Fact page. May 27, 2001.,accessed2/20/02.… [read more]

Development and Testing of Data Collection Tool Essay

… Validity, meanwhile, helps the researcher determine if data or information collected (i.e., responses from interviews or surveys) are authentic and therefore valid for data testing and analysis. Other factors also come into play when doing tool testing, including respondent bias and enumerator or assessor bias, both of which must be considered during testing as possible sources of error during data analysis. Respondent bias could happen when a respondent tend to respond differently from the rest of the respondent pool; this could affect the results of the study as the respondent becomes an "outlier" in the analysis. It is also possible that field enumerators or researchers gathering the data would record information differently or mistakenly record information due to confusion or fatigue in fieldwork. These factors must be taken into account during the testing of the tool and data analysis.

Other organizations would also conduct tool testing specific to the objectives of the study or program that they are implementing. The U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID), for example, conducts tests of "accuracy" and "practicality" to their poverty tools. They considered these tests necessary for they help establish a more realistic way of measuring poverty, especially when administered in "real-life" settings (i.e, administered in a participatory approach manner to communities and countries all over the world) ("Poverty Tools," 2014). Testing of data collection tools, just like their development, depends on the requirements of data analysis and ultimately, on the objectives and questions that need to be answered in the study.


"Poverty assessment tools." 2014. Poverty Tools Website. Accessed from:

Reisman, J., Gienapp, A. And S. Stachowiak. 2007. A Handbook of Data Collection Tools: Companion to "A Guide to Measuring Advocacy and Policy." Organizational Research Services.… [read more]

School Superintendents Need to Lead With Passion and Knowledge Essay

… What are some of the emerging issues that could potentially impact the entire school community? Provide a rationale for your response. For one thing, if a student was delivered near his or her home after dark and something untoward happened to that student, it would be a huge public relations disaster for Wallace and the district. Secondly, the newspaper might do an investigative article that detailed Wallace's seeming incompetence at getting proper bussing for the school -- including an interview with the bus company that could expose that the district was notified earlier in the year that the bus company was demanding more compensation but their demands were ignored. Thirdly, if parents wind up having to drive their kids to school from rural areas, that could impact traffic, it could greatly impact parents (at $4.00 a gallon for gas, especially), and it would show that the school leaders are incapable of handling a crisis

How important are community relations strategies and practices in a situation like this? Explain your response. These issues cry out for a community-wide response, which Wallace failed to coordinate. In every town and city there are "heavyweight" business, political, and religious leaders that can be tapped to apply the pressure to get things done. A working strategy could have been developed by bringing in principals, local political leaders, the faith community, state-wide elected officials, parents who carry weight in the town -- all in private, unofficial sessions in the superintendents' office. Public meetings where the superintendent keeps assuring that everything will be fine is wasted energy.

What roles should principals and office administrators play in resolving this issue? As mentioned in the previous answer, a task force of principals and top executives in the district should bring together power brokers (elected officials, local business leaders who have children in the schools, state-wide political representatives) to focus on the pressure that needs to be placed on the right people in the right context to get the job done. Leadership means not just doing your job well, but it also means responding with competence and creativity…… [read more]

Practicing Essay

… Finally, (again, depending on the citation style), those ideas that are not mine but that are only general characterizations based on the general reading of a chapter or section of another author's work will be cited without a specific page number. The primary value of annotating a peer-reviewed journal article is that it provided valuable practice in reformulating the ideas of another author in entirely original wording while reinforcing the obligation to acknowledge credit for the ideas appropriately. I expect that in my management practice this skill will help me avoid ever putting myself in the situation that Senator Paul now finds himself. It has familiarized me with the natural impulse to plagiarize while allowing me to practice the skills necessary to avoid doing so even accidentally.


Because of this exercise, I would consider myself to have increased my skills in the areas of paraphrasing and annotating. Specifically, one insight I gained from this activity is that it can sometimes be tempting just to reword ideas without citing them properly because the process of composing the words originally can make it feel as though the ideas belong to you. One technique that I will be using in the future will be to markup hardcopy sources by labeling the ideas of the authors to avoid accidentally forgetting to give proper credit. My general approach to paraphrasing the ideas of others will be to rewrite the specific ideas labeled in my marked-up hard copy in my own words systematically and one at a time before incorporating them into my…… [read more]

Republic, Empire and Belle Epoque Research Paper

… He is also a multi-faceted character: on the one hand very organized and thus of the Enlightenment, but as an individualistic, passion-driven self-made man he is also a romantic hero.

Question 3

Delacroix's "Liberty Leading the People"

Question 3

Delacroix's depiction of the July uprising What impression do you think that Delacroix is attempting to give of the July 1830 uprising in his painting "Liberty Leading the People"?

Could we call this painting a romantic portrait of the people -- why or why not?

Is the artist with the people or against them? What aspects of the people's uprising does he pay attention to? Examine the details of the painting, its colors, and the emblems and monuments it includes, and give examples to back up your ideas.

In his painting dedicated to the three days of Parisians fighting in the streets to overthrow the king, Delacroix works with vibrant brushstrokes. He intends to leave a powerful impression of the onlooker. The painter relies on contrast in almost every aspect of his work. Liberty itself is depicted as a bare breasted woman with a gun in one hand and the flag in the other. There is nothing humble or frail about her. She communicates with the onlooker in a direct, powerful, doubtless way. Delacroix picked a woman to represent force in a very suggestive way. Not many would have thought that a bare breasted… [read more]

Product I Have Chosen Essay

… The reason that the Family Dollar razor trumps the Gillette version has everything to do with the price. The cheapest I've every purchased the Gillette product was for approximately $4.50 in a pack of five. Walgreens used to carry these packs, and then, by the turn of the current decade, the only place to carry them (on the West Coast, anyways) was Food Maxx. To get those Gillette razors anywhere else in the country (such as in Miami where I moved at the beginning of the year), one would have to buy a 10 pack, with prices ranging from $6.99 to $12.99. The advantage to the Family Dollar brand, however, is that it delivers the same five pack that used to be obtainable from Gillette for a single dollar. That fact alone makes it much more competitive than Gillette, especially when one considers spending a dollar for razor blades versus $14 dollars.

One of the principle drawbacks to using the Twin Blade Pivot Razor from Family Dollar is that its durability could certainly be improved. The razors come covered in a plastic opening that one removes before using them. On numerous occasions, the plastic opening has gotten stuck on the actual razor blade and, when I have attempted to remove it, the entire portion of the razor blade (which is connected to the handle) comes off. Suddenly, that pack of five has been reduced to a four-pack. I have since learned how to delicately maneuver the handle when removing the clear plastic part on razors that have gotten stuck to it. However, perhaps due to the inexpensive cost of this product, its durability is somewhat suspect. I have even had the entire blade become detached from the handle when I was simply using it to shave my head. I'm not certain how feasible it is to attempt to correct this problem, when a dollar can get you five more and a little delicate handling can ensure that such a problem does not exist.

In conclusion, I would highly recommend that people utilize Family Dollar's Twin Blade Pivot Razor, particularly if they are looking to shave the contours of a rounded surface such as their head. The price is unbeatable, and the razor blade is just as competitive as Gillette's in every way except for durability. I have never had a problem removing the cover off the razor blade from Gillette's product. However, there have been countless times when I was going through my 10-pack of Gillette razors and had one or two of them simply broken off due to some process in the shipping and the handling. As such, one may infer that perfection in disposable razorblades is fairly unrealistic. What is realistic is Family Dollar's product, and the many months of successful shaving it's provided me.


Baba, S. (2013). "Women Have Kissed and Told and Demand Their Men to "Keep It Smooth Shaven" (K.I.S.S.)." Gillette Newsroom. Retrieved from

Oguche, S. (2013). "Gillette enlists top NFL players and… [read more]

Demographics of the Associated Publication Essay

… The only exception to the above would be the fact that the paragraphs in the story are quite truncated and short in nature, much shorter than would be seen in academic or similar work. For example, the last paragraph of the story is a scant two paragraphs and many are three or not much more than three. Regardless, people that are in the echelon that is catered to by this article will obviously lap this up and want more. The talk about upgrading one's style to a more professional and forward-leaning image will appeal to a lot of up and comers.


The Wall Street Journal obviously plays to a certain part of society just like Teen Vogue caters to teenage girls and car/truck magazines cater to car enthusiasts. The article up for review in this report appears in the Wall Street Journal and it is clear that the article and the Wall Street Journal at large caters to the moderately to majorly wealthy investor and/or mid- to top-level managers and/or people that have future aspirations to be any of the prior. Some publications have a very broad readership but many others have a niche that they reside within and it is clear that the Wall Street Journal is the latter.


Lublin, J.S. (2011, August 11). How to Look and Act Like a Leader - The Wall Street Journal - Breaking News, Business, Financial and Economic News,

World News & Video - Wall Street Journal - Retrieved September 8,

2013, from (2013, September 7). Wall Street Journal Online Demographics. Wall Street

Journal. Retrieved September 7, 2013, from

/WSJcom_Audience_Profile.pdf?130908103825… [read more]

Start Method of Triage Essay

… Minor patients can have their care delayed up to three hours, delayed people can have care delayed up to an hour and immediate need patients must be helped right away (CERT, 2013).

One major consideration is whether hazardous materials are involved at the scene of a triage situation and whether that is indeed the cause of the situation and/or how that will prevent/hinder care being rendered. A balance has to be struck between helping people in need and endangering first responders. A good example would be a nuclear plant that is in meltdown. Obviously, the people there that are still alive need help but simply entering the scene can endanger the lives of responders and thus must be handled a specific way (CERT, 2013). The Fukishima plant meltdown in Japan after their massive earthquake would be a good real-world example of this (AP, 2013).


Basically, the proper way to use START is to remain calm, absorb the important and relevant details of the patients to be treated and the surrounding environment and treat people based on their level of need. If all injuries are minor, then the level of emergency can be dialed down. However, if there are varying levels of injury, the people in the most need should be handled and treated first and then the moderate to milder injuries after that. Doing this and doing it the right way preserves life the best and this should be the standard operating procedure for triage responders.


AP. (2013, August 28). Japanese agency labels radioactive Fukushima leak 'serious' | Fox News. Fox News - Breaking News Updates | Latest News Headlines | Photos & News Videos. Retrieved August 28, 2013, from

CERT. (2013, August 28). CERT Los Angeles - Simple Triage and Rapid Treatment (START). CERT Los Angeles. Retrieved August…… [read more]

Shakespeare the Character and Relationship Essay

… This tells the reader how deep her love for Macbeth is. But, taken together with the other speeches she has already made, it could be a look at her true character and her desire to be the wife of the thane and eventually king. Macbeth seems happy that he has received this news from the sources he cites, while Lady Macbeth worries that he is too weak to make it come true. It does not seem like she is someone who is looking out for the best interests of Macbeth, she is looking out for her own best interests. She just realizes that to get what she wants, she will have to bolster Macbeth to get it.

When Macbeth enters, she is his loving spouse and greets him with the titles he apparently has already been awarded, and tells him that he will also be the king soon. She is fawning in her praise, but it does seem genuine. It is difficult to detect any cunning in how she addresses him here. He is also doting as he calls her "My dearest love." The two seem to be in a heart-felt conference from the first and it is the conference of two people who are in love. Both seem sincere in their desire and liking for the other.

She seems to know Macbeth very well because she first asks when Duncan will leave, and when he says that the king will leave tomorrow, she says "O never shall sun that morrow see." She tells him straight out that Duncan is not going to survive to ride from their castle tomorrow. He knows that she is prepared to do all that she can to make sure that Macbeth becomes the king.

The next bit of conversation between the two is interesting though. She is worried about Macbeth's countenance; that he will give away what they are planning. Before she was worried that he was too weak to do what needed to be done, and now she is worried that he will give away their plans. It seems that they have planned before this time to make sure that the king died and that Macbeth was able to take his place. She tells him "Bear welcome in your eye, your hand, your tongue. Look like th' innocent flower,…" She wants him to project a look of innocence and well-meaning to the king. She wants to make sure that Duncan has no idea what is going to transpire. Of course her next line is that he should be as a snake in the grass -- unseen, but deadly. It seems again as if they had previously planned this in advance when she says "put this night's great business into my dispatch, which shall to all our nights and days to come…" She is the serpent in reality and he acknowledges this apparently, but tells her that they will talk about it later.

In the end, Lady Macbeth is still pleading with him to… [read more]

Fire Disaster Research Paper

… An article in The New York Times five years after the tragedy explains that Linda Fisher, one of the survivors who was badly burned, has been through "…a dozen surgeries to salvage her arms, her hands, her face," but she feels lucky (Goodnough, 2008). "There are survivors who have no ears, eyes, nose, hair," Fisher explained. Another survivor, Todd King, runs the "Station Family Fund," a nonprofit that raises money for the most seriously burned victims. King told the Times that there are hardships survivors face because they can't earn a living any longer.

"People that were making $30,000, $40,000 a year…" but were seriously burned, "had to take jobs making eight bucks an hour because they are so physically challenged. They can barely use their hands, and they're exhausted all the time because their bodies have been put through the war" (Goodnough, p. 1).

How could this tragedy have been avoided? First of all, a permit for pyrotechnics should have been the primary goal of the promoter for Great White. The city or county would have likely checked to note that The Station had no sprinklers. A permit for the pyrotechnics would have been denied. The owner of the building should have been made aware of the plans for fireworks. Sprinklers should have been installed even though they were exempted by the law. Fire marshals should have been brought in before the concert to approve production plans. This was a needless loss of life, a sad situation with so many badly burned people whose lives will never be the same again.

Works Cited

Cable News Network (CNN). 2003. At least 96 killed in nightclub inferno. Retrieved October

15, 2012, from

Goodnough, Abby. (2008). 5 Years After a Nightclub Fire, Survivors Struggle to Remake Their

Lives. The New…… [read more]

Political Agents and Public Policy PhD Model Answer

… Public Policy Making

It has been said that ideas allow political agents to reduce uncertainty, propose a particular solution to a crisis, and empower agents to resolve crises by constructing new institutions in line with these new… [read more]

Sharon Begley and Published in Newsweek Magazine Essay

… ¶ … Sharon Begley and published in Newsweek Magazine. I think that the article is very interesting and important to several categories of audience. The targeted audience is represented by businessmen, people working in media, communication, information technology, people involved in decision making processes, and other categories of individuals that must make different decisions.

The importance of the article relies on the fact that it addresses a subject that presents discoveries of great interest. This subject is represented by the increasing volume of information affecting people's decision making abilities. The article presents some of the findings of numerous specialists in the field that have developed certain studies on how the decision making process is significantly influenced by the excess of information (Begley, 2011). Therefore, some of these studies have revealed that the increased volume of information that people are bombarded with affects their ability of making decisions, and of making correct decisions.

These studies also reveal how the decision making process is sabotaged by excessive information, although information is intended to help make better decisions. It seems that the main reason that determines this situation relies on the fact that by receiving continuous information, the brain is not allowed to relax and assimilate this information that must be integrated, correlated, and combined with other information that can lead to good decisions. Another interesting issue addressed by the article reveals the fact that the decision making process is performed by the unconscious part of the brain. In other words, the information received by individuals must be analyzed under the awareness level in order to be properly integrated and used.

This excess of information reaches individuals through all communication channels: newspapers, TV, radio, the Internet, telephone, social networks, and others. The writer presents several examples that…… [read more]

Bad Publicity? Generally, Product Manufacturers Essay

… In the following weeks, pet store owners reported a tremendous number of people who had no idea what breed of dog it was were asking for an "O. J. Dog"; similarly, Ford dealerships were quickly inundated with requests for Broncos in white, hardly a popular color for SUVs.

Recently, it was widely reported that the clothing manufacturer Tommy Hilfiger had signed a contract with one of the members of the cast of the MTV show The Jersey Shore not to wear their products anymore. Many suspected that this was nothing more than a publicity stunt designed to result in widespread coverage of the story and, therefore, volumes of free publicity for the company. To date, it has not been revealed publicly whether or not the contract was genuine, but either way, it turned out to be tremendously valuable in terms of the amount of coverage the story got and the resulting exposure for Tommy Hilfiger clothing.

The O.J. Simpson and Jersey Shore cases both illustrate that negative publicity can be as valuable from the marketing perspective as positive publicity. The O.J. Simpson case, in particular, seems to suggest that exposure is much more important than the quality or character or context of that exposure. If association with a bloody murder scene by virtue of actually being the shoe worn by a murderer who left bloody shoe prints of his ex-wife's blood in front of their former home results in positive publicity for the shoe company, there may be very few types of publicity that could be considered "bad."


Tyre, P. "Thanks to O.J., Bruno Maglis are really big shoes." CNN Interactive, 23 Jan

1997. Retrieved September 19, 2011 from:… [read more]

Schooling Technology and Democracy Essay

… Schooling, Technology, And Democracy

Mouthpiece of the Media

"Literacy and Orality" in Our Times, Walter J. Ong's treatise on the dissonance and assonance of oral tradition and that of writing, compares and contrasts these two forms of communication that are the most salient in today's culture. This work begins by briefly defining each of the fundamental ideas which comprise written and verbal communication, and initially alludes to the fact that present American culture is highly literate and actually has a fair amount of disdain for oral tradition as being less intellectual. The author, however, is quick to point out the inherent artificialities which written communication is based upon, despite readily acknowledging the fact that it is responsible for several fundamental thought processes of upper level reasoning. Yet this notion alone does not belie the fact that writing is still completely contrived primarily due to the fact that it does not occur in "real time," in much the way that language does.

In fact, the spontaneity and instant accessibility of speech is regarded as one of its foremost virtues in "Literacy and Orality in Our Times." Whereas written communication is based upon a series of advanced projections about what information audiences need, oral communication is more expedient in the sense that its connections and germane information can always be inquired about. This notion leads the author into stratifying the various types of orality, the first of which is quintessential and is not based upon written works at all, and the second of which is largely in response to written communication. The treatise ends with several examples illustrating each of these two points, and with the author passing a value judgment that legitimizes both the first form of orality as well as the inherent worth in oral communication in general. However, the main argument of this paper is to stratify oral communication from the…… [read more]

Public Policy and Opinion Polls Discussion Chapter

… Public Policy and Opinion Polls

Sometimes it appears that the government is completely unresponsive to the will of the baby. Public opinion may strongly favor a certain policy or law, without leading to any support for that law among Congress. On the other hand, when one looks at vocal fringe minority political groups, sometimes it seems like vocal public opinion can unduly influence public policy, with politicians pandering to extremists on either side of the political divide. These observations are both true, but they also fail to recognize the true impact of public opinion on public policy. Though American public policy may not reflect the exact will of the people, time and time again it has been shown that American government is extremely responsive to the will of the people. Moreover, the representative, Federal style of American government was established in a way to prevent majority tyranny over the minority. Therefore, while a government may not respond to 51% of all Americans wanting a particular policy change, that same percentage, across all states, might lead to a change.

One of the problems with trying to describe how opinion polls impact policy is with the assumption that the impact is uniform. It is not. Different people or organizations take opinion polls and seek to discover the public mood for different reasons. Moreover, different systems may be set up to respond to public policy in different ways. This means that responsiveness to public opinion may be contingent on a number of factors other than public opinion. "Different domains have varying levels of responsiveness, according to contingency arguments, because of the nature of public opinion within the domain or institutional or political factors that mediate the opinion-policy link" (Manza & Cook, 2002). Furthermore, some organizations purport to seek public opinion, but their polls are designed to shape public opinion about an issue. The semantics of a question in a poll can change how people respond to an issue, and, once publicized, those results can further change public opinion about the issue. Take, for example, the debate over "death panels" in the recent health care law; there was no proposal that a panel meet and deny care to a dying person, but that characterization was incorporated into public opinion polls, and seemed to help change how the American public perceived the new legislation. Therefore, it is important to keep in mind that polls are rarely neutral; not only do they show public opinion, but they also have the power to change public opinion.

While there are certain cautions to using opinion polls to help determine public policy, in America, it appears that policy is very responsive to public opinion. Roll call votes in Congress tend to reflect the public opinion of the…… [read more]

Walk-A-Thon's Planning for Success Case Study

… Walkathon: Planning for Success

The early Walkathons seemed remarkable in their effectiveness and in the amount of interest that they aroused. It might be that a quantity of their success hinged on the spirit of the times; after all, they were launched in the 1960s, a period of idealism and community, which, arguably, differs from the 'me-me' 1980s and beyond in its altruism and other-centeredness. Nonetheless, however, it is possible that strategic and managerial factors, too, contributed to its success, and this is what this essay is going to consider.

The first walk in the United States (occurring in Fargo, north Dakota in 1969) attracted one thousand high schools and college students who walked twenty-five miles to raise funds for self-help development projects, and to raise consciousness about poverty. Within four years, committees in more than a thousand communities were conducting their own Walkathons under the auspices of the American Freedom from Hunger Foundation. In their early years, Walks for Development mobilized hundreds of thousands of participants who raised $100,00 to $250,000 per walk. A sample timetable might indicate why they were so successful.

Walkathon Sample Timeline

The event was tightly planned out and structured three months before the Walkathon actually occurred. Each segment (3 months before the walk date; 2 months before the date; and 1 month before the hike) had its reiterated pattern of 1. Publicity, 2. Recruitment of Walkers, and 3. Logistics. The last segment (one month before the date) also included activity for after the walk. All details were considered; everything was effectively and scrupulously organized with the specific month's task carefully delineated and expected to be actualized within that segment, before participants would proceed to the following month's assignments.

Details under Publicity, Recruitment of Walkers, and Logistics also show a decreasing…… [read more]

Calder vs Jones ) Ethics Essay

… Calder vs Jones (1984) Ethics Case Study

What kind of newspaper is the National Enquirer?

The National Enquirer is a weekly tabloid that has been in operation since 1926. It has vast readership and circulation and gets published around the country including California where a significant percentage of published copies are sold even though the magazine originates from Florida [2]. The newspaper has a reputation of publishing revealing stories about celebrities-things which had been hitherto unknown to the public. They have a network of informants and openly admit to paying sources for tips, something which is not considered an acceptable practice in world of news publishing.

Was it unethical of the newspaper to avoid a case in California?

It was not unethical of The National Enquirer to avoid a case in California because it was well established that newspaper reporters cannot be held accountable in another state. The question of personal jurisdiction is a complex one and can be decided differently in different case. However the bottom line in law is that a newspaper cannot be asked to appear to respond to case filed in a state other than where it is based. It is however also established that in case of significant circulation in another state, a person or newspaper can be sued in that state. I do not however blame The National Enquirer for avoiding the case in the beginning because they cannot possibly be asked to appear in court cases filed in all corners of the country.

3. Are the defendants subject to suit in California? Why or why not?

The defendants would not have been subject to a suit in California had they not been enjoying a vast readership in the state. The reason being…… [read more]

Television Program Review Essay

… The fact that guests are usually subject-matter experts such as sitting members of Congress, renowned authors, and educators from accredited national level universities and graduate schools means that the information provided by the program is credible and accurate. The host apparently also makes an effort to provide a balanced viewpoint by scheduling guests with opposing opinions and beliefs on the topics of discussion such as Republican and Democratic members of Congress and other national, state, and local political governing bodies.

The show is probably more popular among viewers already inclined toward a left-wing or "liberal" perspective and if there is any criticism of the program it might be that the host is obviously much more supportive of the liberal point-of-view; this could compromise the objectivity of the program, especially from the perspective of many conservative or "right-wing" political orientation. In that regard, the program might be appreciated more by those viewers who already share the host's general political beliefs and opinions than by those who hold the opposite point-of-view. To viewers with a strong Republican orientation or politically conservative points-of-view, the show might be somewhat offensive because the host does make frequent critical references to Republican political positions that could easily be construed as politically conservative rhetoric. However, to viewers without particularly strong political affiliation or party orientation, the program is probably a valuable source of commentary; the one-on-one and round-table segments are particularly valuable because they cover various important national and international events and situations in much greater depth than they are ordinarily covered in network news programs and other types of "light" news programs.

On the whole, the program definitely does have a beneficial value that goes beyond superficial entertainment. It provides valuable information that is relevant to some of the most important contemporary issues in society and it presents subject-matter experts in a format where they have more of an opportunity to explain issues and circumstances than they may have in network news programs. More importantly, it covers some of the same types of issues that are covered in-depth "straight" network news shows that many of its viewers may not choose to watch as often such as Meet the Press or Face the Nation. The show is much more appropriate for an adult audience than for children younger than high school age, primarily because it sometimes involves adult themes and because it is not edited for adult language. Likewise, younger viewers may not necessarily understand the difference between genuine commentary and satire and they may also misconstrue sarcasm for literal statements and beliefs.… [read more]

Entrepreneurship in Publishing Magazine Research Paper

… Entrepreneurship in Publishing Magazine

Over the last several years the issue of AIDS/HIV awareness has been continually brought to the forefront. To help inform and entertain this audience, a magazine will be published highlighting the issues that are most important to them. However, to fully understand the risk vs. rewards of having such a business venture; requires that you carefully examine this industry using the NAICS. This will tell you the overall challenges faced within a particular industry, and reflect the way that your views will play a role in its long-term success. It is through considering these different variables; that will provide the greatest insights as to what are the challenges of starting such a venture.

What were those difficulties specifically?

In the publishing business, there was one major challenge that was consistently encountered, effectively finding the right target market. This is due to the fact, that publishing and media encompass a large spectrum. In order to effectively target your message, means that you must identify a specific audience. Then, it is essential for you to determine if the audience needs to be targeted even further. For example, in the case of the AIDS/HIV magazine, the initial target audience is a good start. However, determining if the message will need to be narrowed down is when this issue will become more ambiguous. In the case of the NAICS, this would fall under the category of: magazine publishing, publisher's magazine, scholastic or professional. Where, determining the specific category and the size of the audience is what was most challenging. ("Magazine Publishing," 2010)

What do the specific difficulties around establishing our businesses within the NAICS system tell us about our own limitations about how we define and think about our products and services?

This says that there are a large number of possible readers for the magazine. The problem is: making certain that there is sufficient capital to create a loyal following, writing compelling content and ensure that you are reaching out to the right audience.…… [read more]

Truth and Photography Essay

… Truth and photography: The relationship between truth and photography.

"I heard it through the grapevine" suggests unreliable rumor-mongering, but "seeing is believing." As a culture we have long had a tendency to equate fact with being able to see something before our own eyes. That is why photography is often viewed as inherently more objective than even factual reporting. Within our language, our bias in favor of the truth of what we can see is evident. Hearsay (second-hand testimony) is not admissible in court, but eyewitness testimony is often allowed.

However, there is ample evidence to suggest that even seeing something in a photograph can be a kind of a lie. The most obvious example of this phenomenon are the many airbrushed photos of models that make their subjects look much more beautiful than people in real life. But even non-photoshopped images can be deceitful. A carefully staged wedding picture with a bride's train falsely scattered with rose petals is the work of a photographer's artifice. It is a cliche, not emotionally truthful. Conversely, an elaborately staged photograph can…… [read more]

Worst Composition Class Policies the Editing Essay

… ¶ … Worst Composition Class Policies

The Editing and Review Process:

The editing and review process of the English Composition I class was the most helpful aspect of the class for me. On our writing assignments, we submitted essays that the instructor reviewed and returned to us with editorial suggestions and comments. We were allowed the opportunity to review those comments and to resubmit a second draft incorporating the instructor's suggestions and comments.

That process fulfilled at least two specific roles for me. First, I benefited greatly from the opportunity to consider the instructor's comments and to incorporate them into a second submission through this process. Second, it also taught me that my writing can be significantly improved without the help of anybody else. That is because I noticed that some of the instructor's corrections and suggestions were things that I could (and should) have noticed on my own through a more thorough editing process prior to any formal submission, much less for a grade. The instructor also pointed out several (necessary) corrections about which I would be embarrassed if anybody thought that I was unable to correct them independently.

Among other things, that taught me the importance of doing a careful enough proofread to make sure that any mistakes corrected by my instructor are genuine mistakes on my part instead of careless oversights that I could have avoided in any piece of writing submitted formally. Similarly, I learned that it is impossible for me to perform an accurate proofread immediately after completing a draft. In that regard, when rereading my work after having not seen it for several days, I noticed additional changes that could have improved my writing (even apart from my instructor's comments), that I clearly missed before my initial submission…… [read more]

Poll Opinions Essay

… ¶ … Public Opinion Polling and Social Security

On Election Day in 1948 newly elected President Harry Truman smiles in a photograph where he holds a copy of the Chicago Tribune, which reads, "Dewey Defeats Truman." Basing its information on… [read more]

Art of Historical Detection by James West Research Proposal

… ¶ … Art of Historical Detection by James West Davidson and Mark Hamilton Lytle. Specifically it will discuss and compare chapters eleven and twelve of the book. These chapters illustrate another example of historical evidence, how different evidence helps recreate history in unique cases, and how the same evidence cannot be utilized in each case, because evidence tells specific stories about specific events.

The Sacco and Vanzetti and Dust Bowl chapters illustrate how different pieces of history are examined with different pieces of evidence. In the Sacco and Vanzetti case, which concerns two Italian immigrants charged with robbery and murder, the primary evidence is largely from the trial itself, along with the police reports of the investigation. Thus, these types of evidence tell the facts of the case, but tell nothing about the emotions and public reaction to the case. For that, evidence including newspaper reports and accounts must be used to get a wider picture of the entire historic case. In addition, as the authors note, historians have hindsight and often new knowledge to use to examine historic cases, such as the evidence that now exists that Judge Thayer was prejudiced against the two men, and allowed that prejudice to color his remarks to the jury and his own ruling on the case.

Photographs and other evidence certainly exist in the Sacco and Vanzetti case, but they are not as useful in examining the case. The photos simply freeze a moment in time, and they are useful for understanding the participants in the case, but they are not as useful and print evidence and analysis of what happened in the case. They also have to look at every aspect of the case, from those involved to those who protested, because they are the real evidence and information on this case, and they are the most relevant to its study. The public reaction to the case, the immigrants' backgrounds, and the overall political climate all form a backdrop to this case, and that…… [read more]

Formulating Crisis Management Policy Term Paper

… ¶ … Crisis Management

Yes, Kim and Lee's model is consistent with governmental policy and response. E. coli has been a situation that is being dealt with a lot more in recent years than decades before. That is why I have chosen the topic for this assignment. In the reading it is reported that the scope must be middle ranged or wide scope, such as those that take place in a community, in order to warrant significance on a policy level.(Kim & Lee, 2001, pp.505-506)

coli has not only effected a community, it has effected countries, states etc. therefore it has the scope that Kim & Lee report is necessary to warrant higher policy objectives. The U.S. Department of Agriculture said in a statement Saturday that United Food Group LLC had expanded an earlier recall to include approximately 5.7 million pounds of fresh and frozen ground beef after a person in Arizona tested positive for E. coli. In all, beef from the California-based firm has sickened 14 people in six states. (MSNBC. online [MSNBC], 2007) the response from the government was that all people that have come forward stating they were sick have been treated and are fine now. Confirmation…… [read more]

Criminal Justice When Would You Use Content Term Paper

… ¶ … Criminal Justice

When would you use content analysis to conduct research?

Content analysis is the method of analyzing existing data through the systematic analysis and selective classification of the contents of mass communication. Content analysis is used in many aspects of conducting research. The procedure for this analysis begins with selection of categories and subjects that are being analyzed. The system of exact criterion is essential for establishing a means for duplicated procedure for others to follow and emulate. The procedure must follow pre-established classification schemes, and finally statistically analyzing the results.

The most significant benefit to content analysis is its potential and ability in usefulness in regards to replication. Stated simply; content analysis provides a method by which previously used methods, and their successful outcomes, can be utilized in the imperative beginnings of research.

Content analysis is effective in accumulating statistical information pertinent to crime or law-breaking-trends in specific areas. In conducting research, content analysis is best and most used in the terms of such desired information gathering. The most common methods of content analysis in relation to conducting research are within the confines of the mass media. The mass media - relating to public communicative measures - involves areas directly correlated to crime and other illegal propaganda. These areas are found in newspaper media, certain television media, magazine publications, mainstream music and audio media, and other areas of mass audience. Researchers have done content analysis of newspaper reports of gang activity, popular articles pertaining to drug use or promotion, various aspects of popular culture including art and print, and other mainstream media avenues.

2. What are the advantages and disadvantages of complete participant observation?

Participant observation refers to a variety of strategies in which the researcher studies a group in its natural setting by observing its activities and, to varying degrees, participating in its activities.

Complete participation observation takes place when the researcher not only joins in, but actually begins to manipulate the direction of, group activity. This type of activity is commonly in violation of essential elements of any variation of good participation observation. Complete participation observation, in this regard, influences the behavior and attitudes of the subjects under study. Therefore, it eliminates the opportunity of accurate findings and conclusions as the matter of determination is corrupted.

There is however, two methods by which complete observation can be conducted- qualitative and quantitative, or participant as observer and observer as participant. Objectivity in research is imperative to each, but disadvantages and advantages exist in altogether. In complete participation, the advantage of first-hand accumulation and derivation of study material is utterly attainable. Such approaches of complete…… [read more]

Computer Consulting Marketing Plan Term Paper

… Computer consulting - Marketing plan

The evaluation of the image of the Cosmopolitan magazine and its importance in the opinion of its readers; the determination of the segment of society from which most of its readers come.

What is to be analyzed:

Whether or not the image of the magazine is already formed and whether it is favorable or not;

In what way the image of the magazine has been influenced by several of its characteristics, such as the price, the cover, the publicity, the promotional contests, the graphic and content formulation;

The hobbies and the preferences for certain articles of the readers, in order to determine the age criteria;

The establishment of the buying intentions in the future- the appreciation of the dimensions of the potential market.

Research methods

In order to reach the list of objectives of the present marketing plan, the method used is the survey, which will imply a sample of 100 females with ages between 15 and 65 years old, who live both in the countryside and in cities and who have different incomes.

The formulation of the hypotheses

1. The image of the magazine is already formed and it is favorable

2. The factors which have contributed to the formulation of the magazine are:

the price (40%) the publicity and the promotional contests (25%) the content, the graphic, the cover (20%) the interviews with some celebrities (15%)

3. It is appreciated that most of the readers are between 20 and 35 years old and they are still students or at the beginning of their careers.

The defining of the variables:

The variable

The conceptual defining

The operational defining


The number of years since the birth of a person until a certain moment

15-24 years

25-34 years

35-44 years

45-54 years

55-65 years over 65 years


The space and the place in which a person lives.

City with more than 500.000 people

City between 500.000-200.000 people

City between 200.000-50.000 people



Activity, job, proffesion

The medical Domain /

Social Assistance

The Financial Services

Commerce and Services

Public administration


Liberal Proffessions and private businesses


The sum of money a person receives from a practiced activity or an owned property

Under 1.000$

Between 1.000-3.000$


Over 10.000$

The elaboration of the questionnaire:

1. Do you read the "Cosmopolitan" magazine?


Very rarely

2. What women's magazines do you constantly read?



Women's Health


Others (mention the title)

3. What is your opinion about the cover of the magazine?

I am attracted to buy the magasine

It is remarkable among the others

It is the same as the others

It is uninteresting / unatractive

4.Which of the following appreciations do you think it is appropriate for Cosmopolitan"?

It is my favourite magasine

It is a magasine which represents me

It is my guide in my day-to-day life

It is a complex magasine

It is a practical magasine

It is a ususal magasine

5.How would you describe the presentation mode/the general aspect… [read more]

Online vs. Print Newspaper Term Paper

… Newspapers have existed in the United States for centuries and so have played an important role for people who want to be knowledgeable about what is going on in their communities or in the world for a very long time. Over time newspapers have changed in style and format. On relatively recent and dramatic change is the opportunity to view a newspaper either in one's hand or online. The two formats have different characteristics, which make both formats potentially valuable to readers.

Petersburg Times can be bought from street venders, from curbside machines, in many stores, or by subscription delivered to one's home. However, a person can save that money and view the newspaper online for free, making one wonder why someone would pay for it. However, the printed version has strengths the online version does not possess.

The great advantage of the printed version is, paradoxically, speed. It is faster to turn the page of a printed newspaper than it is to go to a new page on many computers. In addition, taking a closer look at something is easier than it is on the computer screen. It is also easier to browse the paper form of the paper. One can pick up the printed paper, scan the front page for articles the person might want to read, read one or two front page stories, and then turn easily to the person's favorite part of the paper, which might be sports, comics, or informational articles. In the entertainment section, a person might be looking for a movie when an announcement about an interesting show at a local museum catches the reader's eye.

By comparison, it is a bit cumbersome to read the paper casually online. The format is different. The viewer does not see the front page, but instead sees the first thirty or so words on a variety of topics. On September 18, the most prominent feature online was…… [read more]

Polling Report the Poll Chosen Term Paper

… Polling Report

The poll chosen was the "Right Track/Wrong Track" poll from Polling I believe this poll is scientific because the pollsters polled 1,000 adults nationwide with no other criteria, so any adult in the country had a chance of being polled. The results were plus or minus 3.1 margin of error. I think the reliability of the results is questionable because of the relatively small sample of people, and a larger sampling might have produced more reliable results. This poll is more reliable than others because it is scientific, and it also lists prior results all the way back to 2002, so the results can be tracked and the reader can see where public opinion has changed.

The purpose of this poll seems to be twofold. One purpose is to show how a sampling of the American people feel, and what their opinion is. The poll relates to the job the government is doing and asks if the country and its policies are heading on the right track or the wrong track. In the last survey, 59% of the people feel it is headed on the wrong track, while 36% of the people feel it is headed in the right direction, and 5% are unsure of where the country is going. This shows that a majority of the people polled are not happy with the current direction the country is taking, and feel government should take a different direction.

The second purpose of this poll is to show history, and to show how our current government compares in similar samples from January 2002 until the present. This is extremely helpful to see how public opinion has changed. If specific dates and times of particular happenings are known (such as the invasion of Iraq, for example), then the poll can show trends, highs, lows, and how important events may spike the poll. It is interesting to…… [read more]

Spy Plane Collision: U.S. and China Term Paper

… Spy Plane Collision: U.S. And China

On April 21, 2001, the United States and China faced their first major incident of the 21st century when a U.S. spy plane accidentally collided with a Chinese fighter plane. The dialogue that followed between the two countries, as well as the tenor of the incident as reported in the international press, provide some interesting and insightful glimpses into how these major powers handled the incident in the days and weeks that followed. Although the mainstream media in both China and the United States reported the key facts and elements of the incident in a similar fashion, the spin that was ultimately placed on the event by the Chinese press was clearly indicative of the Asian state's desire to portray the United States as being at fault; however, because both countries have an enormous stake in ensuring continued friendly relations for trade purposes, the Chinese press eventually adopted an…… [read more]

Libraries and Newspaper Preservation Double Term Paper

… That question was asked by journalist Richard Poynder, whose piece covers the book, the bitter reaction to the book by librarians and archivists, and the real issue at hand, which is, what is the best way to preserve the great… [read more]

Product Contamination in October Term Paper

… It became the first company to comply with the Food and Drug Administration mandate of tamper-resistant packaging.

In order to motivate consumers to buy the product, they offered a $2.50 off coupon on the purchase of their product.

To recover loss stock from the crisis, Johnson & Johnson made a new pricing program that gave consumers up to 25% off the purchase of the product.

Over 2250 sales people made presentations for the medical community to restore confidence on the product.

The company's handling of the Tylenol tampering crisis is considered by public relations experts to be one of the best in the history of public relations (Kaplan). Within five months of the crisis, the company had recovered seventy percent of its market share for the drug - and the fact this went on to improve over time showed that the company had succeeded in maintaining the long-term value of the brand (Companies in crisis - What to do when it all goes wrong).


Companies in Crisis - What to do when it all goes wrong. Retrieved February 28, 2005 from Web site:

Effective crisis management. Retrieved February 28, 2005 from Web site:

Kaplan, T. The Tylenol crisis: How effective public relations saved Johnson & Johnson. Retrieved February 28, 2005 from Web site:… [read more]

Communications Personal Statement for Graduate Study Term Paper

… Communications Personal Statement for Graduate Study

As a Communications major as an undergraduate, I frequently found my major scoffed at by both friends and family. People seemed to assume that because they knew how to communicate in their daily lives that they were experts in understanding how the media had an impact upon their lives. They assumed because they know how to write and speak that they were experts in how to deploy the language effectively through verbal and nonverbal means.

However, almost at the end of my course of undergraduate study and hopefully poised upon embarking upon my graduate study, I must beg to differ. Although I was a consumer of various communications media before embarking upon my university career, only through academic study did I become conversant in the different social and linguistic nuances of various communication sources. I am a more critical consumer of the media and hope to help my future students to become one as well.

The multi-disciplinary nature of the communications field continues to intrigue me. I hope to become a 'total' teacher, as I was a 'total' student. I wish to deploy my own experiences, the study of English and sociology, as…… [read more]

Lessons Learned From Physical Exercise Chapter

… Societal Needs and Our Field

Three pressing societal needs/challenges that we face today are obesity, a stagnant economy, and environmental pollution. Each one needs to be overcome and the eight ESS core courses can help society to meet these challenges.

The Foundations of PE are important in these challenges in that they provide the framework for a healthy and active lifestyle. They can help young people to fight obesity by teaching how to exercise effectively. They can also provide the kind of self-discipline and desire to better oneself that is needed mentally in today's economy: instead of settling for a low-paying, waitressing job, a toughness of mind developed via these foundations can help a young person persevere and reach his or her goals. In terms of the environment, the self-awareness that these foundations can support can extend to not only how we treat our bodies but also how we treat the planet. When we have an active and healthy mindset, our entire worldview changes.

Kinesiology is the study of movement and it helps us to understand how things in and outside our body relate. By studying the movement of body and non-body parts, we can see the beauty of action and be readier to handle the immense hurdles that face us today. It gives a sense of relativity, of interaction and the importance of having a working relation of parts.

Exercise physiology is especially helpful when facing these challenges. It teaches the basics of what it means to be fit and healthy, which is a great first step to combating obesity. Likewise, it can when put into practice help to form self-reliant individuals with the confidence they need to face other challenges in life, such as the economy or the environment.

Lifespan motor development is also important because it provides…… [read more]

Public Policy Evaluation Term Paper

… Policy Formulation

Policy matters arise from the interaction between daily occurrences in human life and the social, natural and economic challenges thereof. In the course of daily lives, individuals face up and are affected directly or indirectly, by an extensive array of issues obviously or subtly. These interactions necessitate the creation of ideas with those concerned with attending to the society's welfare. Most of the policies arrived at aim at resolving an existing situation that appears to relate to the welfare of a society.

The rational involved in making the choice relating to the public matter is guided also by laid down policies. This directs and guides the acting public officer towards formulation of public policies concerning the public and the laid down guidelines. Considering the increases in public concerns, and expansion in population, there is bound to occur conflict in the formulation of public policy. The formulation of public policy to safeguard populations' interest is seen sometime as conferring advantage to some while it takes away pleasure from others. This aspect of formation of public policy makes it appealing to assess the measures and rational involving the creation of a public policy.

Rationality of Decisions

If policies are made as the result of presence of conflict, then there is a chance that rationality is left out in coming up with the policy. One can easily see that the policy will likely tackle the immediate need, as opposed to tackling a more sustainable coexistence in the end. At the time of need for policy formulation, an individual is not capable of coming up with an all-inclusive policy decision. The decisions taken are highly based on satisfaction of the immediate needs and not optimal intervention.

The decision-making process and formulation of policy based on the presence of a need invokes among the policy maker a sense of agency. This sense of agency inhibits satisfactory collection of information that can be used to lead formulation of policy. By taking the present satisfactory measure, man is considered to have paid a higher price of sacrifice a greater good that flows from optimality. This force the society and the policy makers to sacrifice comprehensively rational for satisfying minimal needs

Policy makers will make incremental alteration on policy if its formulation is a measure to resolve a looming or already prevailing undesirable situation. Policy decisions based on the previous existing policy to resolve current problems are irrational. This is because they evade the necessary measures for collection of total information…… [read more]

Policy Changes Eight Models Term Paper

… This can be done through boundary analysis, which aims to understand the boundaries of the problem itself. Boundary analysis helps break down a system of problems into "individual problem formations" so that these metaproblems can be most effectively solved (Chapter, 3-95). Therefore, these individual chunks of the metaproblem is best paired with Second-Best Rationality.

Disjointed Instrumentalism and Classificational Analysis

Here, "policy changes occur at the margin with the status quo, so that behavior at time t is marginally different from behavior at time t _ 1" (Chapter 2, 51)

The only alternatives to be considered are those that are slightly different than the status quo.

Such a style of policy change requires shared responsibilities.

The City Council may want to begin a grass roots publicity campaign to inform the city's citizens that a change has taken place.

It is crucial that the right structure of the problem is adapted here in order to avoid risks of committing money and efforts to combating the wrong part of the actual problem. This is done through classificational analysis, where all concepts of the problem are classified for review and discussion. They must be in accordance with the status quo so that the City Council does not waste time on implementing a policy that is too distant from the needs of the community.

Bounded Rationality and Hierarchy Analysis

According to the text, "although choices are rational, they are bounded by the practical circumstances in which the policy makers work" (Chapter 2, 51-52).

This… [read more]

Operation Fast and Furious: The United States Essay

… ¶ … Operation Fast and Furious:

The United States Bureau of Alcohol Tobacco and Firearms started Operation Fast and Furious as a gun running initiative that involved the sale of 1,026 weapons to members of the Mexican Sinaloa drug cartel. The Mexican drug cartels were provided with weapons worth over $650,000 such as caliber revolvers, AK-47's, pistols and Barrett. This initiative was geared towards tracking the movement of these guns and weapons from the Mexican drug cartel organizations. While the motive of Operation Fast and Furious was to help the U.S. law enforcement to examine the movement of guns into America through the Mexican drug cartels, the initiative had serious unintended consequences. These severe consequences emerged due to lack of sufficient mechanisms to track the weapons and prevent their use for illegal and violent reasons. As a result, the major unintended consequence of Operation Fast and Furious is that it resulted in the spread of violent crimes in the United States.

While the full extent of the unintended consequences of Operation Fast and Furious is unknown, the failure of the initiative to accomplish its intended purpose presents several lessons to policymakers in the U.S. First, the operation shows the need to ensure suitable coordination between law enforcement agencies on important policies and procedures in law enforcement agencies. Secondly, the most essential risk management principles must be established when developing policies and procedures in this field. Third, Operation Fast and Furious demonstrates the need to examine the intended and unintended consequences in policy making decisions.

The consequences of this operation can be prevented in the future through increased collaboration between law enforcement agencies and policy makers (Kimery, 2012). Lack of coordination is likely to contribute to severe impacts of a policy as evident in the fact that federal officials ignored several warnings from other agencies and officials that the initiative would fail.

Public Policy:

Before taking the course, I considered public policy as a concept that is similar to the process of making a bill into law. This implies that public policy involved the development and enactment of a bill into law…… [read more]

1_Policy Analyzing Public Policy Reaction Paper

… ¶ … 1_Policy

Analyzing Public Policy

Essentially, the first two chapters of this book provide a comprehensive overview of the various applications of public policy in relation to governments. The first chapter details the various uses for and practical purposes regarding policy and its analysis, while the second chapter outlines a number of specific models that assist in policy analysis. Included within these pages, of course, is an overview of what policy itself is -- particularly public policy as mandated and tended to by governmental entities. In many ways, this definition may be considered rather broad since it encompasses virtually anything that governments do from regulating various aspects of society to starting or ending conflicts. Actually, in today's society the majority of citizens depend upon public policy -- as administered by the government -- to assist in virtually all aspects of their lives, from economic to social needs. To that end, the government has grown substantially in the role it plays within the lives of ordinary citizens, due to the fact that the diversity of realms which it encompasses and administers has expanded as well. This fact may be best revealed through a look at the amount of money that governments spend, which is commonly referred to as the gross national product of a particular country and is measured by the sum of its services and goods that are produced. When the economy is struggling, as it currently is, more government is needed to assist in various aspects of life.

Therefore, the study of public policy allows individuals to ascertain key aspects of the political system that is setting and regulating policy, in order to determine who is benefitting from it and in what sorts of ways. There are a number of things that can be learned from public policy, such as what exactly the government is doing (which is a description of its policy), why it is taking whatever action it is or is not (the causes), as well as what the…… [read more]

Rules Was the Research Conducted by Segal A2 Coursework

… ¶ … rules was the research conducted by Segal and Cover to determine the extent to which Supreme Court justices were influenced by their own political views when casting votes on important issues. The three theories to apply to this study include:

Building theories that are internally consistent,

Selecting dependent variables carefully, and Maximizing concreteness.

Building theories that are internally consistent

One of the ways to ensure that theories are internally consistent is by means of ensuring their validity. This concerns the closeness of the measure to the underlying phenomenon being studied. Some measures could yield a high degree of reliability, but not of validity, as the idea, process, or concept of representation is not accurately reflected. In the study in by Segal and Cover, there were two levels of measurement. One concerned measuring the justices' votes on the cases decided by the Supreme Court, while the other was concerned with measuring their political attitudes. The first was not problem in terms of validity, as they were publicly available for scrutiny. The second, however, presented several problems in terms of validity. One of the main problems was the challenge of obtaining Supreme justices' political viewpoints via measurements such as interviews and questionnaires. Not all of them would be willing to reveal such information. Many of the justices of interest have also died, making their opinions in accessible to the researchers. There was therefore little possibility of internal consistency, because of the nature and subject of study.

Selecting dependent variables carefully

Dependent variables differ from independent variables in that they are…… [read more]

Decisions Below Are Six Questions Essay

… ¶ … Decisions

Below are six questions that might be found on questionnaires. Comment on each as to whether or not it is a good question. If it is not, explain why. (Assume that no lead- in or screening questions are required. Judge each question on its own merits.)

Do you read National Geographic magazine regularly?

This question is too general in the information is asks for. First, we need to assume that the people answering the question read National Geographic at all. If they answer "no" does that mean that they never read the magazine or that they do not read it "regularly." The other problem with the question is that "regularly" is completely undefined. For some people, reading a magazine regularly is reading every single issue; for others it may be reading it six times a year or even less often. To gather useful data, the question needs to be rewritten into a two-part question. First, do you read National Geographic (yes or no) and second, how often do you read the magazine (multiple answers available.)

b. What percentage of your time is spent asking for information from others in your organization?

This question may be easily misunderstood by survey-takers because "percentage of your time" is not easy to quantify and people may use different methods of calculation to come up with their answers. One employee may figure the percentage based on his entire eight-hour day while another may base hers just on the time she actually works at her desk. It is also unclear what "asking for information" means. Do phone calls count? E-mails? Text messages? How does one quantify the time it takes to send an instant message to a colleague. A better form for the question would be to list…… [read more]

John Berger Ways of Seeing Term Paper

… ¶ … Seeing" by John Berger

In a similar vein as argued in Jacques Ellul's discourse on advertising and the "mass man," John Berger in "Ways of Seeing" provided a critical analysis of how publicity helped promote the idea of freedom and democratization through the act of consumption. In his book, Berger identified publicity (synonymous to the idea of advertising) as the main politico-economic force that shaped the nature of human society during the period of modernism and capitalism. Publicity, according to him, had been the primary cause of today's consumption- and materialistically-motivated society. Using this general objective as the foundation of his arguments, Berger set out to argue against the political propaganda embedded in publicity.

One of the important insights that the author expressed as an effect of publicity was its inherent capability to create an alternative reality, a reality that centers on possibilities or what Berger identified as the future. In this alternative reality, the consumer, also the receiver of this publicity messages, become fixated in the eventualities enumerated by forms of publicity, which leads to the development of the psyche that one lives not for the present and future, but for the future alone.

Centering one's attention towards the future is not altogether detrimental to the individual, but it can lead to an unhealthy self-development. Publicity makes the individual feel inadequate and dissatisfied with the kind of life s/he has -- these feelings of dissatisfaction leads to the 'imprisonment' of one's freedom. Thus, the individual becomes susceptible to believing suggestions and ideas promoted through publicity. Beliefs and opinions are no longer formed from the self, but from the publicity instead. The…… [read more]

Stage Play the Meeting Dramaticwriter Term Paper

… TOM: Wasn't it.

JENNY: I came in here and TOM: And?

JENNY: You're a pig.

TOM: Whatever.

JENNY: You weren't looking at me?

TOM: Why would you want a pig looking at you?

JENNY: I'm sorry.

TOM: That's okay.

JENNY: You waiting for the bus?

TOM: I'm sitting at a bus stop. What do you think?

JENNY: You are a pig.

TOM: And you're kinda' cute.

JENNY: What?

TOM: Nothing.

JENNY: You said I was cute.

TOM: Why would I say that?

JENNY: 'Cause

TOM: 'Cause why?

JENNY: Okay the relationship wasn't that serious.

TOM: It wasn't?


TOM: So you don't have a lot of baggage?


TOM: You gotta' go somewhere on this bus today?

JENNY: I should.

TOM: But?

JENNY: I don't have too.

TOM: Good.


TOM: Why?

JENNY: Yeah why?

TOM: Alright.

JENNY: Alright what?

TOM: You wanna' go get some coffee or something?

JENNY: Yeah. Yeah I do.

TOM: Good.

Tom stands. He puts his hand out. Jenny takes it and stands. They smile at one another. Tom drops his newspaper on the park bench. They exit right. The lights fade to black.)

The Play…… [read more]

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