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Semantic Feature in the English

" ((Ibragimov, 2006, p.1) Homonyms are abundant and connected intimately with the phonetic unit of word and stem or otherwise stated the "predominance of forms among the most frequent roots. It is very obvious that the frequency of words stands in some inverse relationship to length, the monosyllabic words will be the most frequent moreover, as the most frequent words are also highly polysemantic, It is only natural that they develop meanings, which in the course of time may deviate very far from the central one. When the inter-mediate links fall out, some of these new meanings lose all with the rest of the structure and start a separate existence. Phenomenon is known as disintegration or split of polysemy, VII. Different Causes for Homonymy Different causes by which homonymy may be brought about subdivided into two main groups: 1) Homonymy through convergent sound development, when or three words of different origin accidentally coincide in sound; 2) Homonymy developed from polysemy through divergent development. Both may be combined with loss of endings and other morphological processes. ((Ibragimov, 2006, p.1) It is important to understand that a polysemantic word may be long to several synonymic groups in the various meanings for example: E.g. fresh -- 1. A fresh metaphor: original, novel, striking; 2. fresh air: pure, invigorating 3. To be fresh with smb.: impertinent, rude. Synonymous differences may include the following: (1) Stylistic difference: insane and loony are synonymous, but the former is formal and the latter is informal; salt and sodium chloride are synonymous, but the former is everyday and the latter is technical. (2) Collocational difference: rancid and rotten are synonymous, but the former is used only for butter or bacon and the latter for low-fat or vegetarian food products; kingly, royal, and regal are synonymous, but the mail has to be royal in the UK. (3) Difference of emotional coloring or connotation: youth and youngster are synonymous, but youths are less pleasant than youngsters. (4) Difference in distribution: luxurious (about human luxury e.g. luxurious tastes, habits, food, mansions) and luxuriant (characterizing abundance of smth.) E.g. luxuriant hair, leaves, flowers); economic (dealing with economics e.g. economic situation, agreement) and economical (associated with economy e.g. economical stove, bulbs, method)." Stated as the primary etymological sources of current English synonyms are those of native English or (Anglo-Saxon) words, borrower French words, and borrowed Latin (or Greek) words of terminological character which are…

Pages: 8  |  Research Paper  |  Style: APA  |  Sources: 9


Linguistic Analysis of Word Order in Zulu Applied Linguistics

Linguistic Analysis of Word Order in Zulu Language Linguistics in most cases deals with the scientific studies relating to languages. Most of the undergraduates are not conversant with linguistics because it is hardly taught in high schools. Most of those who discover about linguistics do it in their college levels. This paper, however, focuses on the linguistic analysis of word…

Pages: 16  |  Essay  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 16


Elt in the Expanding Circle and/or Outer

ELT in the Expanding Circle and/or Outer Circle The 2001 maven conference bore testimony to the growth of interest in EW L' over the past few decades. In the years between ? The first major academic gathering on this subject, the seminal conference on cross-cultural communication held at the University of Illinois in 1978 (Kachru 1992), and MAVEN 2001, much…

Pages: 12  |  Essay  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 0


Linguistics, Language Acquisition, & Pronoun

In other words, overextension is pushing oneself beyond one's bounds. Consider the example of overextending the range of flexibility in a joint or a muscle as an analogy. Language is a muscle; the use of language exercises a muscle -- the brain. Language exercises very specific areas of the brain. Thus, just as in muscle growth in other areas of…

Pages: 10  |  Term Paper  |  Style: Harvard  |  Sources: 8


Korean Linguistics the Korean Language and Linguistics

Korean Linguistics The Korean Language and Linguistics The Korean language, a member of the Altaic family of languages, is spoken as a native language by peoples of Korean ethnic derivation living in the Korean peninsula, southern and eastern Manchuria, the Russian Far East (eastern Siberia), Kazakhstan, Japan, North America, and in other communities scattered throughout the world. The total number…

Pages: 12  |  Term Paper  |  Style: APA  |  Sources: 7


Inquiry of George Orwell's Politics and the English Language

¶ … Language Political or Historically Based? In George Orwell's essay, "All Art is Propaganda" he tells us the English language is intrinsically politically manipulative. 'The English language, " says Orwell, " Is in a bad way" and he goes on to demonstrate how this is so. There are many words and phrases that he uses to make his point. According to Orwell, and this is where all linguistics agree, language is a natural outgrowth of one's culture. It echoes the way we think and objectives our socialization and transmitted values. Language is a semantic instrument fashioned by a specific culture and the values and principles of that specific culture are sewn into the fabrics of the words that make up that specific language. In other words, "language is a natural outgrowth and not an instrument which we shape for our own purposes" (Orwell, 270). Language is as much a social construct as is race or class. As per example, Orwell points to 'dying metaphors', 'pretentious diction', and 'meaningless words'. All of these are used as tools to assert a certain implied superiority over a class of people that one sees as illiterate, uncouth, and uneducated. Leveraging oneself above that class with seemingly sophisticated and unintelligible language is a way of belligerently asserting one's authority. In other words, a certain class of academics and influential people assert their authority and dominance via inflated semantics. As Orwell sees it, "there is a gap between one's real and one's declared aims. One turns, as it were, instinctively to long words and exhausted idioms, like a cuttlefish squirting out ink" (282). Writing is a delicate piece of work. One has to know expressly what to say and ensure that one reaches the mind and attention of the other without boring him and deceiving him in long-winded ambiguous and rambling network of meaningless semantics. To that end, Orwell recommends that the write focus on simplicity, constantly asking him whether he may not have phrased the words in a simpler, more direct manner. Orwell compares the craft of writing with that of painting where both require precision, clarity, effort, and care. "Thought corrupts language and language corrupts thought" (282). To produce clear and effective writing therefore one has to have clear and effective thought. Users of the English language have to be aware of the possible corrupting influences of the language and evaluate those carefully,…

Pages: 3  |  Essay  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 0


Relationship Between Language in Threatening Communications and the Threatener's Potential Risk for Violence

Threatening Language Threats and Worse Legal systems such as those used in the United States and Europe make a clear distinction in criminal law between what people say and what people do. This is not to say that legal systems are positing that words cannot do harm, but rather that there is a distinction in the harm that is caused by words and other actions. However, while this is a legitimate legal distinction, within linguistics and related fields such as psychology, the distinction is much less clear (or useful): There is no equivalent bright line outside of the legal field. Rather, there is a continuum from threats to other kinds of violence. Individuals who work in situations in which there are commonly overt threats to harm either self or others become skilled at ascertaining the ways in which threats can slide into physical violence. This thus provides a rich field of potential data for linguists, and one that does not seem to have been used to its full capacity. For example, first responders and medical staff who work in emergency rooms have to be able to make accurate assessments of whether an individual's verbal threats are likely to become anything more than that. Their own lives or lives of others may depend upon this. Novak & Hubbell (2002), for example, note that there is generally not a linear progression from verbal threat to physical assault. Rather, there is a highly typical pattern of assault that follows this pattern: Trigger, Escalation, Assault, Recovery, Post-Crisis (p. 98). Being able to assess where an individual is in this cycle is key in being able to understand how threats and physical violence are connected to each other. There tends to be a cycling back and forth between physical and verbal escalations, so that verbal threats are mixed in with increasingly threatening body language, then this is added to another layer of verbal threats, which then feeds into increasingly physical threats, etc. Thus when considering a linguistic analysis of threats and their……

Pages: 2  |  "Literature Review" Chapter  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 2


Second Language Learning

Language Acquisition First and second language acquisition: Unnecessary differences and encouraging similarities Language acquisition is a complex process that is still not entirely understood. The speed and apparent method by which infants acquire their native language continues to baffle researchers in linguistics, psychology, and neurology; no entirely valid explanation has been put forth that sufficiently explains the phenomenon given what is known about language acquisition later in life (Galasso 2003). This fact alone, though, has led to some interesting hypotheses and research regarding second language acquisition in both children and adults, with increasing evidence that the specific subconscious mechanisms of language acquisition -- whatever they may be, as they are still not fully understood -- can be used to help second-language learners later in life (Freeman & Freeman 2004; Wilson 2000). The human brain seems to have an innate ability to pick up on the rules of grammar, and this fact can be utilized in language learning and instruction to gain fluency faster and more completely (Wilson 2000). The primary external difference between first language acquisition and second language acquisition is that the first occurs completely subconsciously, whereas the second is almost always the result of a conscious effort (Freeman & Freeman 2004). That is, second language acquisition in most instances of traditional learning is known to follow established cognitive problem solving mechanisms of thinking and reasoning (Galasso 2003). But attempts to integrate the innate knowledge of grammar that the human brain is capable of and that seems to facilitate first language acquisition with traditional and developing methods of learning a second language show very optimistic results for improving second language acquisition (Freeman & Freeman 2004). There are several essential factors in both first and second language acquisition. Psychological, physical, and social factors all contribute to both children's and adults' acquisition of language. The psychological factors surrounding first language acquisition are still a large part of the mystery surrounding how a native language is absorbed; grammar is understood to be something that human brains innately grasp, but the how of this grasping has yet to be explained (Freeman & Freeman 2004; Wilson 2000). The psychology of second language acquisition is somewhat better understood but still quite complex; using the first language as a monitor for the second almost always happens and can lead to difficulties in the learning process (Galasso 2003). Social immersion in a language -- or isolation from…

Pages: 3  |  Essay  |  Style: APA  |  Sources: 3


Language Acquisition Theories

Linguistics Language and Culture: An Important Intersection While language acquisition has been a popular theory since Noam Chomsky's emergence into the field of linguistics, understanding the exact ways in which language acquisition occurs is still explored. While the connection between language and culture has long been explored, true believers in language acquisition might dismiss the fact that the two are related. Still, in their article "The Symbolic World of the Bilingual Child: Digressions on Language Acquisition and Process of Thinking," Nowak-Fabrykowski and Shkandrij suggest that culture and language acquisition share an important bond that cannot be broken. Through an explanation of their theories, as well as an application to classroom learning, a better understanding of language acquisition and its facets can be grasped. First, the authors suggest that teachers should use a student's own culture and worldview to help them learn new languages. For instance, ELL students can be taught English not necessarily by immersion into American or British culture, but instead through applying their cultures to the English language and vice versa. The article calls on previous pedagogical study that has remarked upon scaffolding as an important technique in teaching. Applying scaffolding to the teaching of English as a second language might be similarly successful, as the authors' argue making a connection between what a student is familiar with and new tasks is one way to encourage learning. Second, the authors argue that previously held concepts of alienation might actually be hindering a student's ability to learn a second language. They argue that students who are separated from their own cultures and forced to learn new ones are also forced to drop parts of their own language and culture, making them unsure of themselves and their position in society. Because this can not only cause problems with academic learning, but……

Pages: 2  |  Term Paper  |  Style: APA  |  Sources: 3


Linguistics Ebonics Is a Term

Ebonics may borrow or take on words from Standard American English, but there are grammatical dissimilarities. In fact, there is substantiation suggesting that African-American speech has roots similar to that of Niger-Congo Africans. Ebonics shares African morphology and lacks certain phonemes. These phonemes play an important role in the syntax and comprehension of Standard American English. However since Ebonics lacks…

Pages: 10  |  Term Paper  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 10


Extinct Languages

Extinct Languages There are two definitions of an extinct language, according to a science forum. The first definition relates to a language that is extinct due to the fact that no more people speak it, even if some may be able to read and even write it. Such examples include Old English and Ancient Chinese. Furthermore, in this group, one can also find scholarly or biblical languages such as Sanskrit and Slavonic, which can be recited, but which have no basis for correct pronunciation or fluency. The second definition relates to a second group. This "stricter" definition of such a language is one that has left so few traces that it cannot even be reconstructed. This is truly an extinct or dead language, as it cannot even give an idea of the most rudimentary of dialogues. These can include many Bronze Age languages, and even some Indo-European languages. A sad fact is that according to this definition, many other languages will be extinct by the year 2100. For instance, recently, it was found that as recently as February of last year, the last speaker of a tribal language, Bo, died in the Andaman Islands. The article mentioned that the death of this member of the tribe broke the 65,000-year-old link to one of the world's oldest cultures. The article adds, "Boa Sr., who lived through the 2004 tsunami, the Japanese occupation and diseases brought by British settlers, was the last native of the island chain who was fluent in Bo. Taking its name from a now-extinct tribe, Bo is one of the 10 Great Andamanese languages, which are thought to date back to pre-Neolithic human settlement of Southeast Asia. Though the language has been closely studied by researchers of linguistic history, Boa Sr. spent the last few years of her life unable to converse with anyone in her mother tongue." The article goes on to say that the language that Boa Sr. was speaking was so extensive, yet so far extinct that nobody else was able to understand her, so she could only communicate to her family and friends in Hindi and another local language. Despite the fact that this language was so obscure, it is important to note just how many other languages like it have gone extinct. In fact, according to some research, languages are becoming extinct more quickly than animals and plants. This further states that "…of…

Pages: 5  |  Term Paper  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 5


Second Language Oral Production in High School Within the Context of CLIL

¶ … SECOND LANGUAGE ORAL PRODUCTION IN HIGHSCHOOL WITHIN THE CONTEXT OF CLIL This study is motivated by theoretical and pedagogical interests: to inform instructional design intended to integrate language and content and to explore how form and meaning intersect in SLA (second language acquisition). Both interests draw on an extensive body of research that encompasses theory and practice underlying…

Pages: 30  |  Research Proposal  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 40


Memory and Language Semantic Memory

The primary motor cortex send this message to these muscles and the response is articulated (Poeppel & Hickok, 2004). While the Wernicke -- Geschwind model has been popular for many years, with the advent of neuroimaging it is been discovered that multiple areas of the brain are activated during language production and not just the areas in this particular model. Moreover, patients with certain types of aphasia can have variable damage in the brain not specifically in these language production and language reception areas identified by the model (Poeppel & Hickok, 2004). Nonetheless, this model of language comprehension and language expression remains popular. One interesting proposition regarding the Wernicke-Geschwind model is the notion of mentalese. Psycholinguists have proposed that some form of mentalese, a mental representation system different from language but that is translated into linguistic form in the brain, exists. However, there is little evidence or agreement as to the properties of this form of pre-linguistic mental representation (Dudai, 2007; Poeppel & Hickok, 2004). Certainly some form of neural representation for language must exist. The stages of language production are similar to the serial method theories of the acquisition of declarative memories (especially semantic memory). Because semantic memories must somehow be represented in some formal neural code and since semantic memories are a form of declarative memory (e.g., they can be explicitly stated with language), it would follow that semantic memories are stored in the brain similar to linguistic codes and language representations. According to Dudai (2007) the serial model for semantic memory begins with paying attention to some to -- be -- remembered information (this model also received initial support via the study of patients with bran damage). After attending to it one must encode the information (this is typically considered to be a function of the hippocampus in the left temporal lobe). Consolidation and encoding are often achieved by some form of rehearsal. Following sufficient encoding the information is stored in areas of association cortex in some form of neural code. When one wishes to recall the memory it must be retrieved from its storage site in the brain and then translated into language code. The encoding -- storage/consolidation -- retrieval model parallels the Wernicke -- Geschwind model of language production. Just what the neural code is and how this is represented in the brain remains a mystery. References Bock, J.K. & Levelt, W.J.M. (1994.) Language production:…

Pages: 3  |  Term Paper  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 3


Modern Language Associations of America,

So in order to maintain the synergy of academic and the language and linguistics followed and observed in the conformity of international standards cannot be subjugated. In the similar context if there were no standards followed than the cultural invasion in understanding the work done by researcher in part of the world may sound useless and amid to the researcher ion the other part of the world. Hence the historical development and deployment of the Modern Language Association cannot be denied and the historical perspectives also serve the key roles and responsibilities (Sparks, Javorsky, and Ganschow). Reasons of its Development The fact cannot be denied that learning languages and maintaining the dynamics of linguistics throughout the world is not a simple task; it has been for this reason English being an international language has to be sustained and maintained in a standard format. The Modern Language Association incepted the MLA writing format to ensure the sustenance of the language and literature along with all the specifications and requirements. The fact cannot be denied that the similar languages being spoken across the world differs from the local dialects' bounded by culture and the preferences, so in order to eliminate the infusion of various cultures in the English language the academic professional established this standard of writing and expressing the language in the standard format. Another important reason for the development and successful deployment of the Modern Language Association throughout the world is the fact that the researches conducted in any discipline across the world are to be shared with the fellow researches in the other parts of the world, so if an established standard ground misses than it cannot be assured that the research of one researches is perceived accurately by the other researcher. The importance of accurate understanding of the work cannot be denied because the academic or research work unless properly understood by all the researches cannot be expanded and replicated or reproduces. So in order to maintain the synergy of academic and the language and linguistics followed and observed in the conformity of international standards cannot be subjugated. In the similar context if there were no standards followed than the cultural invasion in understanding the work done by researcher in part of the world may sound useless and amid to the researcher ion the other part of the world. Hence in order to sustain the memento and synergy…

Pages: 3  |  Essay  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 3


Linguistics Critique of Cross-Cultural Culture

Multilingual or bilingual children speak English as one of their two or more languages that they speak, and mostly one language has a higher status than the other, depending on education, power or wealth. United States majorly speak English, since its recognition in a larger area than the ethnic languages present in various regions. This lowers the status of actual language spoken in different regions, with English dominating all fields involving people with same or different ethnical language. The less spoken language and of lower status associated with low income earners, or people who do not access better education or people who are poor. The pro-efficiency of speaking proper English in America depend on the parents, especially mothers, or guardians, with formal spoken English associated with parents who have achieved higher levels of education. The exposure of a child to certain language also determines the pro-efficiency of the child in knowing the language over the other. Caretakers of the children to play a significant role in determining the language of the child, mainly being the family members, as proven in Hong Kong by Chinese children, who spoke English efficiently than Chinese because of their English speaking caretakers. English is dominant over other languages in the U.S., be it Chinese, Spanish or any other language in State, which covers the efficiency of other ethnic languages. The mode of study in various schools, in the State, affects the language spoken by the child. Analysis proves that Chinese and Malay, as compared to Tamil language, is taught more, though English dominates it all. This mode of study encourages English proficiency of the children and somehow put aside their ethnic language, with Chinese and Malay taught as one subject and less of Tamil taught. Technology also plays a crucial role in determining the language Singaporean children speak. Television English Programs encourage the speaking of English, majorly associated with high SES children, with Chinese children equally speaking two languages efficiently with high in English, Malay showing likeliness of high proficiency in both languages or high in English with Tamil being at the risk of low proficiency in both language. Low SES status, poverty; low education levels and parents have low income due to their low levels of education is associated with the Tamil language of the Singaporean group Exposure to language also determines the proficiency of language of children, with socioeconomic status and level of…

Pages: 4  |  Article Critique  |  Style: APA  |  Sources: 0


Real-Time Language Change "The Moral

Using the past to understand the future becomes a key element of what real-time assessments have to offer (Turell, 2003:7). In many ways, this approach is favored because it mirrors many of the techniques that quality social sciences expect to have value. Returning to groups or places many years later and looking at what they did is one way to…

Pages: 7  |  Essay  |  Style: APA  |  Sources: 7


Threatening Language & Freedom of Speech

¶ … threatening language and its link to actual acts of violence has helped us reach some conclusions which will be discussed in this section as results of our study. Our extensive literature review shows that threatening language, unless proven to cause harm to someone, is protected by first amendment under freedom of speech clause. However once threatening language leads to psychological or physical harm, it can be sued and seen as a criminal act. Our initial question was about what composes threatening language and later we studied levels of escalation and how it leads to violent actions. We shall now present a brief review of what we have found and see how it relates to some of the theories of linguistics we mentioned earlier in the paper. Threatening language is difficult to ascertain because it can range from shouting at someone in a regular fashion in a regular setting or it can be very detailed and graphic saying what a person would do in case the target doesn't comply with their order. Usually it is not easy even for the law enforcement to pin point what actually is threatening language and what kind of threatening language would lead to violent actions. Courts in the U.S. have thus established their own definitions of what constitutes threatening language but there is no standard definition. However they use the reasonability test which means if a reasonable person sees a certain communication as violent or threatening then it is considered to be a threat. During the course of threatening communication, there are some levels achieved and it is important to see how the communication is escalating or de-escalating. In case of de-escalation, it means there is a milder tone with each new message or communication and aggressor is turning favorable towards the target or due to some factor has decided not to threaten anymore. However it is escalation which is more important to study because this is what can lead to violent actions. Within threatening communication are clear signs of escalation for someone who is looking for them. First comes the point where a threat in made and is called posturing. This is for example when a person says, "if you report this action, I will come and get you." This sounds threatening but is the first step where aggressor is showing intent. The next step is when it gets more graphic like…

Pages: 3  |  "Discussion and Results" Chapter  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 3


Theory of Second Language Acquisition

Second Language Acquisition Theory of Second Language Acquisition Steven Krashen's (1997) Theory of Second Language Acquisition is made up of five main hypotheses: the Acquisition-Learning hypothesis; the Monitor hypothesis; the Natural Order hypothesis; the Input hypothesis; and the Affective Filter hypothesis (1997). The Acquisition-Learning distinction is the most basic of all the aforementioned hypotheses and the most widespread among linguistics and other professionals of language studies. After using this method in a classroom with high school students, the acquisition-learning theory is quite significant when it comes to acquiring a second language. Acquisition and Learning are, according to Kashen (1997), two distinct systems when it comes to learning a second language. The "acquired" system is the product of a subconscious process that Kashen describes as similar to what happens when a child is learning their first language. "It requires meaningful interaction in the target language -- natural communication -- in which speakers are concentrated not in the form of their utterances, but in the communicative act" (1997). This is one of the reasons that it is so effective to have a classroom where natural communication is allowed. Considering how we learn a first language, by picking up words from our parents and from others, mimicking, and remembering words and phrases, the acquisition theory is obvious. The "learned" system, on the other hand, is the product of formal teaching and it is consists of a "conscious process which results in conscious knowledge 'about' the language, for example, knowledge of grammar rules" (1997). This is important as well, but in order to learn rules there has to be some grasp of the language already. We don't learn grammar rules until we are already in school and have been speaking for a few years already. The Monitor hypothesis can be used to examine the link between……

Pages: 2  |  Essay  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 3


Language Acquisition

Language Acquisition The procedure of production, perception and use of words among human beings to understand each other and communicate is what is referred to as Language acquisition. The language could be the vocalized language like in speech or by sign language. Both involve the imbibing of the phonetics and phonology, syntax, vocabulary and their meaning. However, language acquisition more…

Pages: 6  |  Research Paper  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 3


Linguistic History of the Insular Celtic Language Family and Proto-Celtic

Linguistic History Of the Insular Celtic Family and Proto-Celtic The Celts were ancient people in Europe who spoke the Celtic languages forming a branch of the European languages including other languages which are unknown but which have been associated with Celtic cultural traits in archaeological evidence. Celtic is used in contemporary times to describe the languages and cultures of Ireland,…

Pages: 9  |  Thesis  |  Style: MLA  |  Sources: 6


Semantic Memory and Language Production Introduction and

Semantic Memory and Language Production Introduction and overview of semantic memory Semantic memory is referred to as an aspect or part of long-term memory which is "…concerned with ideas, meanings, and concepts which are not related to personal experiences" ( What is Semantic Memory?) In other words, semantic memory is that form of memory that deal with concepts and ideas about things and the way that the meaning of objects and things in the external world are recognized and responded to correctly. Because of the way that semantic memory provides access to shared and common concepts and ideas in a society or culture it is an essential component of language production and necessary for the normal functioning of the individual in society. A distinction however should be made between semantic memory and episodic memory. An example of the difference between these two types of memory also helps to shed light on the nature of semantic memory and the way that it relates to language. If two people are in a discussion about a cat, the word cat is recognized by both people in the conversation because of its semantic definition. The semantic definition of the concept or idea of a cat is learnt and shared by the two people in the process of language production. Each person may have a specific episodic memory of a cat that is derived from personal experience but this would not allow them to communicate and to develop interactive language skills if there was no shared semantic memory of the cat (What is Semantic Memory?). Both semantic and episodic memory constitutes what is known as declarative memory. Long-term memory also includes what is known as procedural memory; which is essentially the knowledge that has been associated in memory about how to accomplish certain tasks. These three different kinds of long-term memory "…all interact with each other to allow people to do everything from reading a book to flying a space shuttle." (What is Semantic Memory?). In essence semantic memory is the collation of all knowledge that an individual experiences -- and this includes language facilities such as vocabulary. In summary, the relationship between semantic memory and forms of language production and creation are fairly simple to discern. As one pundit states, …it is semantic memory which remembers what the different letters mean, and how they link together into words. Semantic memory also allows a reader…

Pages: 4  |  Thesis  |  Style: APA  |  Sources: 2


Language (Cognitive Psychology) Language Is Considered to

Language (Cognitive Psychology) Language is considered to be an exclusively human mode of communication although other animals make use of quite sophisticated communicative systems, sometimes casually referred to as animal language, none of these are known to make use of all of the properties that linguists use to define language but when discussed more technically as a general phenomenon, "language" always entails a very particular way of human thinking which can be present even when communication is not the result, and this way of thinking is also sometimes treated as indistinguishable from language itself (Language, n. d.). Definition of Language and Lexicon Language is defined in Wikipedia (Language, n. d.) as a form of symbolic communication in which elements are combined to represent something other than themselves; and the term "language" also refers to particular systems of communal communication (Language, n. d.). The Online Etymology Dictionary (2001) stated that the word "Lexicon" came from Greek word, "lexicon" (biblion or book) from the words: "lexikos," means as words and "lexis" came from "legein," which means say or to lecture; lexicon was originally used in Greek, Syrian, Hebrew and Arabic dictionaries because these languages were usually in Latin. In linguistics, the lexicon of a language is its vocabulary, including its words and expressions; and the lexicon includes the lexemes used to actualize words (Lexicon, n. d.). The Key Features of Language Language is a set of generally accepted signs -- indices, icons or symbols, is only one feature of language; for all languages must identify the structural relationships between these signs in a system of grammar, the context wherein the signs are used -- pragmatics and be dependent on their context or its meaning (Language, n. d.). The grammar rules are one of the features at times supposed to differentiate language from other type of communication. They allow a limited set of signs to be influenced to make a possible limitless number of grammatical utterances and another property of language is that its symbols are subjective that whichever concept or grammatical rule can be mapped onto a symbol -- the majority of languages utilizes sound, except the arrangements of sounds employed do not have any essential and inherent meaning - they are just an agreed-upon rule to symbolize a particular thing by users of that language (Language, n. d.). The Four Levels of Language Structure and Processing The four levels of language…

Pages: 4  |  Thesis  |  Style: APA  |  Sources: 4


English as a Global Language

English as the Global Language As the world moves towards becoming a global community, communities within the global community will have to address the problem of language communication. This is actually a sensitive issue, because it goes to the heart cultural identity and heredity. Most everyone is proud of their ethnic origins, the country of their birth, and that is…

Pages: 9  |  Essay  |  Style: MLA  |  Sources: 6


Human Language Series, Part 1: Is Language

¶ … Human Language Series, Part 1: Is language innate? All day long, from when we get up in the morning to when we go to bed, even when we dream, our minds are producing language in some way or another. We are linguistic beings, whether we are in dialogue with ourselves, listening and speaking with others, or even receiving electronic or print media. But given that most of us cannot remember a time when our consciousness was not organized by language, how can we determine if the ability and/or need to use language is innate to the human brain? Starting in 1957, Noam Chomsky reframed the traditional study of language in his book Syntactic Structures, which shifted the focus of linguistics away from language as it existed to the question of why it exists. Chomsky believed the biologically-wired nature of the human mind enabled humans to produce language under the correct environmental (learning and cultural) conditions. Key to language is the production of new meanings within a sent of governed 'rules' or acceptable grammatical structures and sounds. Different languages have different rules for word production, calling somewhat into question the idea that all languages are infinitely flexible in their creativity. For example, languages may have words with meanings not shared by other languages. In other words, English and Eskimo may not just have different words for 'snow,' but will have words not present in the other linguistic system. There is a single Eskimo word that means "Don't you want to go window shopping with me" with no corresponding single word in English. Thus although all languages may be uniquely creative, and in English we daily create sentences that have never existed before, but grammatically and conceptually all languages are not all creative in the same way. At the core of language is the notion of syntax, or linking sounds to meaning. In language, words can occur in any order (boy, kick, ball) but to make meaning, the words must occur within a particular order within a particular fashion……

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Foreign Language Teaching Methods

Foreign Language Teaching Methods Globalization and the concept of the "global village," has brought about interesting developments in language teaching. It is currently recognized, for example, that contact with one or more natives from foreign countries during an average lifetime is more likely than not. Furthermore, the information age entails that knowledge from across the globe is integrated in the…

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Love Languages: Applications to Counseling and Life

¶ … Love Languages: Applications to Counseling and Life Communication has a major impact on all aspects of a relationship. Without such, a relationship has no chance of lasting past its prime. Talking things over with one's spouse is the easiest and most efficient way to keep a long lasting, healthy relationship. However, even though communication is the foundation, unless…

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Interwined With Other Writers Language and Class

Interwined With Other Writers Language and Class Upon initial examination, there are a variety of similarities to be found within the text of James Baldwin's "If Black Language Isn't a Language, Then Tell What Is?" And Gloria Arizaldua's "How To Tame A Wild Tongue." Both of these essays largely demonstrate the necessity for the creation of a language that is not indigenous to a respective pair of ethnic groups, one of which is African-American, the other of which is Latinos and Latinas living within the United States. The social isolation of both of these groups of people inherently influences the language (or in some cases, the languages) which they speak, and more importantly, how they speak that language. The relationship between these essays and Jean Anyon's "Social Class and the Hidden Curriculum of Work" is decidedly more equivocal, for the simple fact that Anyon is primarily addressing the disparities in the ways in which children of different socio-economic backgrounds are taught at the fifth grade level, as well as the ways in which these differentiated modes of instruction are aligned with the preparation for varying jobs at different classifications of laborers (from executives all the way to blue-collared employees). Yet if one is able to take into account the ethnic make-up of the different socio-economic classes that Anyon studies, as well as to consider the implications inherent in the ways that various lessons are presented to examples from the student population group, a number of analogous situations can be found within the all three texts. Liberty is one concept that is central to all of the author's written works, and can be found most clearly in Anyon's detailing of the method for teaching fifth graders who belong to the ultra elite, executive school system -- students who parents routinely earn over $100,000 by heading up major corporations. The following quotation indicates the degree of liberty which the students have in their education. "While strict attention to the lesson at hand is required, the teachers make relatively little attempt to regulate the movement of the children at other times." Such liberty of movement is not to be found in Anyon's discussion of the school life of the working class students, nearly a third of which come from families that hover around the poverty line and which have their every move -- in school -- regulated into a series of precise steps.…

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Applying Language Universal in the

They can endeavor to practice in real life, or in mock skits amongst each other. They can extend written invitations to one another or to other individuals. Teacher and students can criticize scenarios of real life situations where speech acts are preformed and analyze how students can imitate them and/or correct them. Speech acts may be difficult fro ESL students due to the fact that idiomatic expressions and mannerisms differ from one culture to another and which is appropriate in one may be inappropriate in another. One of the best recommendations, therefore, is to closely watch, analyze and model. Applying registers in the ESL format 'Register' is where a person talks differently to different people. There are, for instances, differences in speech between formal and informal situations. ESL students can be taught differences by playing games around diverse situations identifying, for instance, the differences between a 'formal' and an 'informal' context. The teacher, too, can employ media in this context selecting different TV programs where she can help students analyze the different speech acts and mannerisms performed in the various disparate situations. Students can compare and see how many differences they can come up with. As with all situations, students can also practice their learning in both mock and real-life applications. Applying dialects to ESL teaching Teacher can explain to students that many different dialects occur in the English langue. She can contrast it to their own, so that they understand. To further teach the point, teacher can have students listen to recording of the same sentence uttered in different dialects or to English spoken, for instance in America and the same language spoken in England. Teacher can point out the main distinctions. Applying Corpus linguistics to ESL teaching A corpus consists of a databank of texts that are compiled from writing and/or transcription of recorded speech. The prime focus of corpus linguistics is to discover patterns of language usage thoguh analysis of the actual usage. Corpus analysis (i.e. analysis of the different texts) shows that language is used differently in various contexts, e.g. In poetry, fiction, non-fiction, newspaper articles, academic articles etc. The teacher can go with the student through each text and together they can analyze the different patterns and rules. This can be done in various ways: via themes organized according to each lesson; via students doing their own research and teacher acting as research facilitator; or…

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Language-In-Use, Whether it Is Presented

" The article has an official air, as the information is supported by verified facts: the weddings were cancelled, according to a statement belonging to Clijsters, published on her official website. Furthermore, the story is not intended to create more public pressure on the two sportspersons, who intend to keep "distance ... from the malicious gossip which inevitably surfaces in…

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Test Taking Strategies and Language Test Validity

Test Taking Strategies and Language Test Validity One of the many effects of globalization is the increasing need for workers in all countries and at all levels of the socioeconomic scale to become multilingual, and English is still far and away the preferred language of international business throughout the developed and developing worlds (Cheng, 2008). English proficiency is thus a highly desired trait in many non-English-speaking countries, and performance on language tests can often determine occupational opportunities an, prior to that, educational opportunities that could truly determine the course of an individual's life (Cheng, 2008; Mohamaddi & Abidin, 2012). Language test validity has thus become a topic of intense scrutiny in research and in practice, as determining the ability of these tests to truly measure language proficiency is a question not only of extreme practical importance given the employment demands of the modern world, but also of extreme ethical importance given the tests' impact on people's lives. Test taking strategies present barriers to language test validity, and thus these must also be examined to derive truly valid and meaningful results from such testing. Defining test taking strategies can be more difficult than it might initially seem, given the number of parameters involved in these strategies. Different theoretical constructs have been applied to the identification and definition of test taking strategies by different researchers and in different perspectives. While these different frameworks are not necessarily mutually exclusive they do present radically different means of assessing and analyzing test taking strategies (Cohen, 2006; Amer, 2007; Mohamaddi & Abidin, 2012). These different approaches can make the implications of test taking strategies on the validity of language tests also quite varied and difficult to measure. The pressures to achieve, as noted, are quite high, and instructors can also contribute to the knowledge and use by students of test taking strategies which also affects not only the rate of test taking strategy use but also the effectiveness and the degree to which it can tamper with language test validity (Amer, 2007; Cheng, 2008; Lee, 2011). Some general test-taking strategies, such as skipping over more difficult answers and completing easier answers first and taking the time to review answers to ensure they are correct, can actually be seen in some ways as increasing test validity in that this leads to more accurate assessments of actual knowledge held by the test taker (Amer, 2007; Mohamaddi & Abidin,…

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Approaches to Second Language Classroom Interaction

SLA Second Language Aquisition As the world has become increasingly more global, interests in second language acquisition has also increased. More specifically second language acquisition as it pertains to the second language classroom has become a focal point. The following research will examine three methods that are utilized in Second Language research including conversation analysis, stimulated recall and the Think…

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Role Does Language and Language Diversity Play

¶ … role does language and language diversity play in the critical thinking process? Language and language diversity play very significant roles in critical thinking processes, of speakers and listeners alike (and also of writers and readers alike). This is because language and language diversity are never separate from the meanings, intended and unintended, driving those very critical thinking processes of both the speaker/writer and hearer/reader. Also, the relative ease or difficulty of way(s) in which language is expressed by, say, someone speaking English who is (or is not) a native speaker of the language, will influence both that individual's critical thinking process (es) and the way the communication is received and/r understood by hearer or reader. That in turn inevitably influences the hearer or reader's critical thinking process as well. Additionally, even when a speaker or writer is fluent across languages or language systems, nothing ever translates exactly as intended, or is received just as it was intended, in any language, either between two native speakers; a native and a non-native speaker; two non-native speakers, or even in a circumstance like hearing a question in one language (say English) and then answering it in another (say Spanish) in order (for example) for the language not to be understood by someone overhearing one end of a telephone conversation. This also goes for language systems like sign language, which must be rendered physically, instead of verbally or in writing, thus bringing into play a unique issue of speed of translation as well as accuracy of translation. Another factor that influences roles of language and language diversity is stereotypic attitudes about various languages, accents, and diversities of linguistic expression within various contexts, even before they are uttered by a speaker. Here, I also mean social attitudes and relationships of power, where identities and roles of speakers and/or listeners play important roles, depending on environment and circumstance. For example, accurately or not, an American high school teacher in Nebraska is in general more likely (initially at least) to give more credit, for good critical thinking skills, to a student in her class speaking aristocratic-sounding British English (whatever the true content of the expression), say, a foreign exchange student from upper-crust England than a Mexican-born student in that same class who speaks labored, broken, heavily accented American English. Arguably, this bias would have to do with both embedded stereotypes about the British upper class…

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Childhood Second Language Learning and

One criticism of Polinsky's 1995 research is that for some of his groups of speakers, only a few members participated. Then there were other groups that consisted of 20 members, such as the Russian speakers, and in the Reduced Lithuanian Group, there were only 4 speakers. A future research study could even out the numbers of speakers, unless this would…

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Nordic Languages

Nordic Languages Today, most countries have more than one spoken language within its borders, both as a result of immigration and new communication technology. Indeed, the world is no longer simple in terms of nation or language. As a case in point, the United States has such a wide diversity of citizens that not all states have English as their official language. Countries like South Africa have 11 official languages. Currently, Norway has two official languages, Bokmal and Nynorsk. Many other examples can be quoted, including European and Asian countries, where more than one language enjoys official status. Indeed, there are few countries today with only one language as its official mode of speech. In the case of Norway, it is therefore less than easy to argue for the use of any one language to use as its official tongue. However, if the choices were to include Nynorsk and Bokmal, the latter might be chosen as the more viable option, since it is more commonly spoken among the Norwegian people and the former is mainly used as administrative language. Bokmal is the most commonly used language among the Norwegian people. Indeed, when political parties attempted to find a linguistic basis for alliance with the urban working class, it was found that this group did not speak a Nynorsk-based dialect. Hence, compromises were needed to form such an alliance. If Bokmal had been the only official language in Norway, this problem would not have existed. Political parties would have been on an equal footing, since most citizens are able to speak and understand Bokmal. Since most citizens speak this language, nation building and identity would also have been easier to achieve, with fewer language-related conflicts. It would also be easier to invest time and funding into instruction efforts for citizens who do not speak the language, since they are in the minority. Schools would also have more time to focus on targeted training rather than artificially creating bilingual skills in their students. Indeed, one proposal suggested that Nynorsk be removed from Norwegian schools as obligatory alternative form of instruction, since most students needed more attention to reading and writing in the Bokmal standard. It therefore makes more sense to make the more commonly spoken, used, and taught Bokmal the singular official language in the country. Some may argue, however, that Nynorsk is the most important language in official circles. Indeed, many…

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Fingerspelling as Children Learn New

Average improvement rates did vary among both conditions however. Children were more likely to improve and build upon skills already learned through the control method. They were able to recognize more written words by using both fingerspelling and the control method. However, when it came to actual learning, fingerspelling was an easier method to learn for the first time (Haptonstall-Nykaza & Schick, 2007). Children knew how to communicate in American Sign Language previously, therefore the control method basically expanded on principles that were already learned and mastered. On the other hand, children did not have a profound understanding of fingerspelling, but they were able to pick it up quickly enough to produce significant results and demonstrate improvement. Research in linguistics suggests that fingerspelling is an easier way for children to be able to establish a connection between the English language and American Sign Language. Difficulty lies in teaching deaf children how to read because of the inability of a direct connection to exist. Children who learn to read for the first time do so because of their ability to sound words out and to hear what they see. However, the task is much more difficult in deaf children whom are unable to make those same connections. Haptonstall-Nykaza and Schick (2007) designed an experiment around this concept and proved that the ability of fingerspelling in providing a link to printed language is effective. References: Chamberlain, C., Morford, J.P., & Mayberry, R.I. (2000). Language acquisition by eye. Mahwah, N.J: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 131-140 Erting, C., Thumann-Prezioso, C., & Sonnenstrahl-Benedict, B. (2000). Bilingualism in deaf families: Fingerspelling in early childhood. In P. Spencer, C. Erting, & M. Marschark (Eds.), The deaf child in the family and at school (pp. 41 -- 54). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Haptonstall-Nykaza, T.S., & Schick, B. (2007). The transition from fingerspelling to english print: Facilitating english decoding. Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education, 12(2), 172-183. Valli, C., Lucas, C.,……

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Language/Identity Language and Identity a

The story of the SS Windrush was that it docked in Jammaica when on a home bound journey from Australia. The year was 1947, and there was a glut of low paying jobs that the English could not fill due to the losses experienced in WWII. Many Jamaicans were taken over to fill these vacancies and the SS Windrush was the original conveyance (Turnham Primary School). Bennett-Coverly demonstrated how the people may have left Jamaica, but they did not leave their roots behind. "Wat a joyful news, Miss Mattie I feel like me heart gwine burs Jamaica people colonizin Englan in reverse. By de hundred, by de tousan From country and from town, By de ship-load, by de plane-load Jamaica is Englan boun. The people were easily identified by their language and they wrapped their identity in it as much as people gave it to them. Many people have the same experience whether they are from a region that has a distinctive sound or a dialect shapes a particular people's voice. Many of these have been lost over time as the people they represented have passed, or modern technology has made the language more bland. Many are trying to preserve the heritage of the language whether they were a member of the particular group or not. One of these, from the islands, is Dr. Mervyn Morris who published an essay called "On Reading Miss Lou Seriously" about his experiences reading the works of Louise Bennett-Coverly (Morris). In the essay he discusses his reaction to the writings of the poet and how they made him realize the impact that language can have on a people. The fact the Bennett-Coverly was able to produce so accurately a portrait of the people of Jamaica is one reason why she was so loved. Morris was able to edit a book of her works for publication that is used in schools to further help students identify with their heritage. No matter what the roots of the population, their language binds them together like nothing else can except maybe religion. But, it is true that religion, in the present, is more less a function of culture than language. The people of a region may have different means of worshipping, but they will likely share a common language. As far as culture is concerned, this is the single greatest identifier there is. Works Cited Bennett-Coverly, Louise. "Colonization…

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Language and Sexuality From a

Knutson, A. (1905). The gender of words denoting living beings in English, and the different ways of expressing difference is sex. Hakan Ohlsson Publishers. This volume is useful for backward-mapping to the origins and changes of language associated with sexuality with over 100 years perspective. Kulick, C. (2006). The Language and Sexuality Reader. Taylor & Francis. A collection of contemporary and historical works that spans many academic disciplines is brought together in this resource. The commonality of the works -- which include psychology, anthropology, linguistics, communication studies, and medicine -- is an exploration of human sexuality and the use of language to communicate about sexuality. Morrish, L., Morrish, E., and Sauntson, H. (2007, November 15). New perspectives on language and sexual identity. Basingstoke, Hampshire, UK: Palgrave Publishing. This work focuses on the ways that lesbians and gay men use language to create a situated identity. Actual linguistic data is analyzed using textual, spoken language, and corpus linguistic approaches. Analyses are related to contemporary sociolinguistic theories. Motschenbacher, H. ( 2011, November 11). Language, gender, and sexual identity: Poststructuralist perspectives. John Benjamins Publishing. The authors focus on the relatively new field of Queer Linguistics. Using a poststructuralist frame, a deconstructionist perspective, and a linguistic point-of-view, the authors address the manner and outcomes of discursive construction of heteronormativity and gender binarism. Experts in linguistics can appreciate the scientific analyses, while students and those new to the field will find the basic topics appealing. Especially salient is the treatment of the damaging potential of some gendered linquistic forms may have in particular contexts. Sauntson, H. And Kyratzis, S. (Eds.) (2007). Language, sexualities, & desires: Cross-cultural perspectives. Basingstoke, Hampshire, UK: Macmillan. This collection of works addresses the nexus between culture and sexuality by illustrating the basis and theories for the different ways in which sexualities are constructed, perceived, and represented in societies, in cultures, and in language. The ways in which linguistic features are used to construct and signal sexual identities, sexual relationships, lifestyle choices, and identification and membership in particular social groups. References 10 Bieswanger, M. And Motschenbacher, H. (2010). Language in its socio-cultural context: New explorations in gendered, global, and media uses. New York, NY: Peter Lang Publisher. Bucholtz, M. And Hall, K. (2004). Theorizing identity in language and sexuality research. Language in Society, 33, 469-515. DOI: 10.10170S004740450044021 Cameron, D. And Kulick, R. (2003). Lanuage and Sexuality. Cambridge University Press. Cameron, D. (2005,…

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Language Defines Identity, and Creates

Language can be used to keep others out of the group: as when people will speak in the tongue that is not understandable by the outsider. Or, language can be used as a means of inclusion, as by adapting tongues to welcome newcomers. Language has been shown to have direct impacts on the construction of reality -- and not just socio-cultural reality. For example, Hudson points out that different cultures have different "linguistic strategies" for describing spatial and temporal realities (94). For example, different cultural-linguistic groups have different means of conceptualizing direction. "Some people consistently used a left/right approach, and others consistently used compass-points; very few people mixed the two," (Hudson 94). The difference seems mundane and inconsequential, but it can highlight core ways language shapes not just identity, but reality itself. Language can shape one's physical orientation in space, in the here-and-now. Thus, language may also be able to shape one's psychic orientation and worldview. Research in social cognition is ripe with evidence that language impacts intercultural communication; and that translations are inherently problematic because of that fact. Idioms and poetic phrases are easily mistranslated, because there will be no cultural reference points outside of the original. Similarly, something may be "lost" in the translation. What is lost might be simply a matter of lack of experience: such as a person from the Arctic never having seen a palm tree and thus having no word for the fronds or the trunk. However, what is lost in translation can be more impactful in terms of human relationships. Emotions that are considered standard because they have been given a "voice" are legitimized via language. If those emotions are not codified in language, then it would be impossible to translate those concepts. Problems related to historical texts testify as to how important sociolinguistic theory is in shaping reality. Social policy is a product of sociolinguistic theory. As Sapir states, "language has a setting," (221). Language can never be separated from that setting without it losing something -- or gaining something -- or at least changing in some meaningful way. English is a language that has evolved and grown to accommodate for its cultural intersections. Colonization, globalization, and trade have all morphed English into a great hybrid tongue that borrows from Arabic, French, old Dutch and German. A study of a living language can highlight the ways that language represents a specific culture…

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Charting Sociolinguistic Variations Linguistics Briefly

The American did not intend this incident to occur; it occurred naturally. The American did not know about how to change language to be more British. The lack of knowledge also did not impede the change to occur. Now let us consider the second half of the statement: it's who you know. People are very valuable resources when it comes to sociolinguistic variation. Certainly, for the study of ancient languages and linguistics, texts are more valuable as most people do not speak ancient languages, though many modern and prolific languages such as English are heavily based on ancient languages such as Latin. Knowledge in applied sociolinguistics comes from knowing people; that knowledge comes from engaging people. The "who you know" adds to the "what you know," so it matters not if one knows nothing (relatively). 4. Sociolinguistic research typically relies on categorisations of speakers based on age, social class, and gender. Briefly discuss how useful these categories are. Categorisations of speakers in sociolinguistics based on age, social, class, and gender are relatively useful. They are not useless, but those categories may not be specific enough or wide ranging enough to yield as candid or precise information about speakers as other categories. Categories are fundamental to survival; thus, the categorisations are useful on a basic level. Age is certainly a strong indicator in the study of sociolinguistics. Levels and patterns of speech in children reflect the rate and level of development socially, cognitively, physically, and otherwise. Teenagers and adolescents speak in very distinctive linguistic patterns and would provide useful data regarding patterns of speech within this group. Class may not be so simple. There are impoverished people who still find ways to thoroughly and effectively educate themselves or find sources of education despite the lack of material wealth. There are those who are materially wealthy and lack considerable education or are so lazy that they do not endeavor to advance their education as far as the wealth permits. Therefore, categorising speakers sociolinguistically based on class requires further modification and specification. With the advent of the Internet, many marketing firms and media outlets have found it exceptionally challenging to accurately identify consumers by gender. This is why marketers changed their perspective and market more so now by choice in products rather than guessing (incorrectly) the gender of a consumer and marketing products to them in which they have no interest. The same…

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Language American English Is Incredible

Add to that the multiple dialects spoken in the UK and Australia, and English becomes one of the most colorful languages in the world. English words can be traced as often to Old French, Arabic, and Greek as they can to Old English. The language has always been dynamic and will continue to be so. The grammar Nazis are wrong. The point of grammar is to encourage clarity of expression, and not to enforce social hierarchies. Descriptive grammar teaches ground rules: necessary to know how to best get a point across so that an audience member will listen. Effective rhetoric demands a keen attention to audience demographics, anyway: which means that the speaker's language should ebb and flow depending on who is being addressed. There is no need to always talk one way, or to denigrate the speech of others because it differs from the familiar. References Baron, D. (n.d.). Language and society. PBS. Retrieved online: http://www.pbs.org/speak/words/sezwho/socialsetting/ Cutler, C. (n.d.). Crossing over. PBS. Retrieved online: http://www.pbs.org/speak/speech/prestige/crossing/ Deresiewicz, W. (2005). You talkin' to me? The New York Times. Jan 9, 2005. Retrieved online: http://www.nytimes.com/2005/01/09/books/review/09DERESIE.html?_r=2&pagewanted=print&position= Finegan, E. (n.d.). State of American. PBS. Retrieved online: http://www.pbs.org/speak/speech/correct/prescriptivism/ Fought, C. (n.d.). Are dialects fading? PBS. Retrieved online: http://www.pbs.org/speak/ahead/mediapower/dialect/ Fought, J. (n.d.). Gatekeeping. PBS. Retrieved online: http://www.pbs.org/speak/speech/correct/gatekeeping/ Nunberg, G. (1983). The decline of grammar. Reproduced on PBS.org. Retrieved online: http://www.pbs.org/speak/speech/correct/decline/ "The Prescriptive Tradition." Retrieved online: http://www.uni-due.de/SHE/HE_Grammar_Prescriptivism.htm…

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