Study "Language / Linguistics" Essays 1-54

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Semantic Feature in the English Research Paper

… " ((Ibragimov, 2006, p.1) Homonyms are abundant and connected intimately with the phonetic unit of word and stem or otherwise stated the "predominance of forms among the most frequent roots. It is very obvious that the frequency of words stands in some inverse relationship to length, the monosyllabic words will be the most frequent moreover, as the most frequent words are also highly polysemantic, It is only natural that they develop meanings, which in the course of time may deviate very far from the central one. When the inter-mediate links fall out, some of these new meanings lose all with the rest of the structure and start a separate existence. Phenomenon is known as disintegration or split of polysemy,

VII. Different Causes for Homonymy

Different causes by which homonymy may be brought about subdivided into two main groups:

1) Homonymy through convergent sound development, when or three words of different origin accidentally coincide in sound;

2) Homonymy developed from polysemy through divergent development. Both may be combined with loss of endings and other morphological processes. ((Ibragimov, 2006, p.1)

It is important to understand that a polysemantic word may be long to several synonymic groups in the various meanings for example: E.g. fresh -- 1. A fresh metaphor: original, novel, striking; 2. fresh air: pure, invigorating 3. To be fresh with smb.: impertinent, rude. Synonymous differences may include the following:

(1) Stylistic difference: insane and loony are synonymous, but the former is formal and the latter is informal; salt and sodium chloride are synonymous, but the former is everyday and the latter is technical.

(2) Collocational difference: rancid and rotten are synonymous, but the former is used only for butter or bacon and the latter for low-fat or vegetarian food products; kingly, royal, and regal are synonymous, but the mail has to be royal in the UK.

(3) Difference of emotional coloring or connotation: youth and youngster are synonymous, but youths are less pleasant than youngsters.

(4) Difference in distribution: luxurious (about human luxury e.g. luxurious tastes, habits, food, mansions) and luxuriant (characterizing abundance of smth.) E.g. luxuriant hair, leaves, flowers); economic (dealing with economics e.g. economic situation, agreement) and economical (associated with economy e.g. economical stove, bulbs, method)."

Stated as the primary etymological sources of current English synonyms are those of native English or (Anglo-Saxon) words, borrower French words, and borrowed Latin (or Greek) words of terminological character which are reported to, in combination: "make up the so-called stylistically conditioned triple "keyboard." (Cabinillas, nd)

Figure 2 - Triple Keyboard (Stylistically Conditioned)

Native English words

Words borrowed from French

Words borrowed from Latin/Greek

To ask to question to interrogate

Belly

stomach abdomen

To gather to assemble to collect

Source: Cabinillas (nd)

Summary

It is clear that homonyms are often classified as Homophones however, the polysemantic synonym effect upon the homonym lexical meaning is such that derives from the same origins as the polysemantic synonym including stylistic differences, collocational differences, difference of color of emotion or connotation; and the difference in distribution.… [read more]


Linguistic Analysis of Word Order in Zulu Applied Linguistics Essay

… Linguistic Analysis of Word Order in Zulu Language

Linguistics in most cases deals with the scientific studies relating to languages. Most of the undergraduates are not conversant with linguistics because it is hardly taught in high schools. Most of those… [read more]


Elt in the Expanding Circle and/or Outer Essay

… ELT in the Expanding Circle and/or Outer Circle

The 2001 maven conference bore testimony to the growth of interest in EW L' over the past few decades.

In the years between ? The first major academic gathering on this subject,… [read more]


Linguistics, Language Acquisition, and Pronoun Term Paper

… In other words, overextension is pushing oneself beyond one's bounds. Consider the example of overextending the range of flexibility in a joint or a muscle as an analogy. Language is a muscle; the use of language exercises a muscle --… [read more]


Inquiry of George Orwell's Politics and the English Language Essay

… ¶ … Language Political or Historically Based?

In George Orwell's essay, "All Art is Propaganda" he tells us the English language is intrinsically politically manipulative. 'The English language, " says Orwell, " Is in a bad way" and he goes… [read more]


Korean Linguistics the Korean Language Term Paper

… Korean Linguistics

The Korean Language and Linguistics

The Korean language, a member of the Altaic family of languages, is spoken as a native language by peoples of Korean ethnic derivation living in the Korean peninsula, southern and eastern Manchuria, the… [read more]


Memory and Language Semantic Term Paper

… The primary motor cortex send this message to these muscles and the response is articulated (Poeppel & Hickok, 2004). While the Wernicke -- Geschwind model has been popular for many years, with the advent of neuroimaging it is been discovered that multiple areas of the brain are activated during language production and not just the areas in this particular model. Moreover, patients with certain types of aphasia can have variable damage in the brain not specifically in these language production and language reception areas identified by the model (Poeppel & Hickok, 2004). Nonetheless, this model of language comprehension and language expression remains popular.

One interesting proposition regarding the Wernicke-Geschwind model is the notion of mentalese. Psycholinguists have proposed that some form of mentalese, a mental representation system different from language but that is translated into linguistic form in the brain, exists. However, there is little evidence or agreement as to the properties of this form of pre-linguistic mental representation (Dudai, 2007; Poeppel & Hickok, 2004).

Certainly some form of neural representation for language must exist. The stages of language production are similar to the serial method theories of the acquisition of declarative memories (especially semantic memory). Because semantic memories must somehow be represented in some formal neural code and since semantic memories are a form of declarative memory (e.g., they can be explicitly stated with language), it would follow that semantic memories are stored in the brain similar to linguistic codes and language representations. According to Dudai (2007) the serial model for semantic memory begins with paying attention to some to -- be -- remembered information (this model also received initial support via the study of patients with bran damage). After attending to it one must encode the information (this is typically considered to be a function of the hippocampus in the left temporal lobe). Consolidation and encoding are often achieved by some form of rehearsal. Following sufficient encoding the information is stored in areas of association cortex in some form of neural code. When one wishes to recall the memory it must be retrieved from its storage site in the brain and then translated into language code. The encoding -- storage/consolidation -- retrieval model parallels the Wernicke -- Geschwind model of language production. Just what the neural code is and how this is represented in the brain remains a mystery.

References

Bock, J.K. & Levelt, W.J.M. (1994.) Language production: Grammatical encoding. In Gernsbacher, M.A. (ed.) Handbook of psycholinguistics (pp. 945 -- 84). New York:

Academic Press.

Dudai, Y. (2007) Memory: It's all about representations. In: Roediger, H.L., Dudai, Y. & Fitzpatrick S.M., (eds.) Science of memory: Concepts (pp 13-16). New York: Oxford

Jakobson, R. (1963). Implications of language universals for linguistics. In Greenberg, J. (ed.)

Universals of language (pp. 208-219). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Poeppel, D. & Hickok, G. (2004). Towards a new functional anatomy of language. Cognition,

92, 1 -- 12.

Tulving, E. (1972). Episodic and semantic memory. In Tulving, E & Donaldson, M (eds.)

Organization of memory… [read more]


Modern Language Associations of America Essay

… So in order to maintain the synergy of academic and the language and linguistics followed and observed in the conformity of international standards cannot be subjugated. In the similar context if there were no standards followed than the cultural invasion in understanding the work done by researcher in part of the world may sound useless and amid to the researcher ion the other part of the world. Hence the historical development and deployment of the Modern Language Association cannot be denied and the historical perspectives also serve the key roles and responsibilities (Sparks, Javorsky, and Ganschow).

Reasons of its Development

The fact cannot be denied that learning languages and maintaining the dynamics of linguistics throughout the world is not a simple task; it has been for this reason English being an international language has to be sustained and maintained in a standard format. The Modern Language Association incepted the MLA writing format to ensure the sustenance of the language and literature along with all the specifications and requirements. The fact cannot be denied that the similar languages being spoken across the world differs from the local dialects' bounded by culture and the preferences, so in order to eliminate the infusion of various cultures in the English language the academic professional established this standard of writing and expressing the language in the standard format. Another important reason for the development and successful deployment of the Modern Language Association throughout the world is the fact that the researches conducted in any discipline across the world are to be shared with the fellow researches in the other parts of the world, so if an established standard ground misses than it cannot be assured that the research of one researches is perceived accurately by the other researcher. The importance of accurate understanding of the work cannot be denied because the academic or research work unless properly understood by all the researches cannot be expanded and replicated or reproduces. So in order to maintain the synergy of academic and the language and linguistics followed and observed in the conformity of international standards cannot be subjugated. In the similar context if there were no standards followed than the cultural invasion in understanding the work done by researcher in part of the world may sound useless and amid to the researcher ion the other part of the world. Hence in order to sustain the memento and synergy of academic and linguistics across the world the importance of the development and due deployment of Modern Language Association cannot be denied (Wilkerson)

Work Cited

Sharman, Gundula M. "Literature in the Modern Language Syllabus." Academic Exchange Quarterly 6.4 (2002): 98+.

Sparks, Richard L., James Javorsky, and Leonore Ganschow. "Should the Modern Language Aptitude Test Be Used to Determine Course Substitutions for and Waivers of the Foreign Language Requirement?" Foreign Language Annals 38.2 (2005): 201+.

Wilkerson, Carol. "Instructors' Use of English…… [read more]


Linguistics Critique of Cross-Cultural Culture Article Critique

… Multilingual or bilingual children speak English as one of their two or more languages that they speak, and mostly one language has a higher status than the other, depending on education, power or wealth. United States majorly speak English, since its recognition in a larger area than the ethnic languages present in various regions. This lowers the status of actual language spoken in different regions, with English dominating all fields involving people with same or different ethnical language. The less spoken language and of lower status associated with low income earners, or people who do not access better education or people who are poor.

The pro-efficiency of speaking proper English in America depend on the parents, especially mothers, or guardians, with formal spoken English associated with parents who have achieved higher levels of education. The exposure of a child to certain language also determines the pro-efficiency of the child in knowing the language over the other. Caretakers of the children to play a significant role in determining the language of the child, mainly being the family members, as proven in Hong Kong by Chinese children, who spoke English efficiently than Chinese because of their English speaking caretakers. English is dominant over other languages in the U.S., be it Chinese, Spanish or any other language in State, which covers the efficiency of other ethnic languages.

The mode of study in various schools, in the State, affects the language spoken by the child. Analysis proves that Chinese and Malay, as compared to Tamil language, is taught more, though English dominates it all. This mode of study encourages English proficiency of the children and somehow put aside their ethnic language, with Chinese and Malay taught as one subject and less of Tamil taught. Technology also plays a crucial role in determining the language Singaporean children speak. Television English Programs encourage the speaking of English, majorly associated with high SES children, with Chinese children equally speaking two languages efficiently with high in English, Malay showing likeliness of high proficiency in both languages or high in English with Tamil being at the risk of low proficiency in both language. Low SES status, poverty; low education levels and parents have low income due to their low levels of education is associated with the Tamil language of the Singaporean group

Exposure to language also determines the proficiency of language of children, with socioeconomic status and level of parent education playing a major role too. Children raised under low SES families are in the risk of having low proficiency in language, so do children whose parents, especially mothers, and guardians have a low level of education with low income. Education programs also play a key role and include more programs for ethnic classes will increase the proficiency of children in speaking ethnic language too. English has proven to dominate the other ethnic groups, lowering the proficiency of speaking such languages and increases baseness in the Singaporean speaking group.

The author focuses on one group, the Singaporeans of United… [read more]


Real-Time Language Change "The Moral Essay

… Using the past to understand the future becomes a key element of what real-time assessments have to offer (Turell, 2003:7).

In many ways, this approach is favored because it mirrors many of the techniques that quality social sciences expect to… [read more]


Second Language Oral Production in High School Within the Context of CLIL Research Proposal

… ¶ … SECOND LANGUAGE ORAL PRODUCTION IN HIGHSCHOOL WITHIN THE CONTEXT OF CLIL

This study is motivated by theoretical and pedagogical interests: to inform instructional design intended to integrate language and content and to explore how form and meaning intersect… [read more]


Extinct Languages Term Paper

… Extinct Languages

There are two definitions of an extinct language, according to a science forum. The first definition relates to a language that is extinct due to the fact that no more people speak it, even if some may be… [read more]


Linguistics Ebonics Term Paper

… Ebonics may borrow or take on words from Standard American English, but there are grammatical dissimilarities. In fact, there is substantiation suggesting that African-American speech has roots similar to that of Niger-Congo Africans. Ebonics shares African morphology and lacks certain… [read more]


Relationship Between Language in Threatening Communications and the Threatener's Potential Risk for Violence Literature Review

… Threatening Language

Threats and Worse

Legal systems such as those used in the United States and Europe make a clear distinction in criminal law between what people say and what people do. This is not to say that legal systems are positing that words cannot do harm, but rather that there is a distinction in the harm that is caused by words and other actions. However, while this is a legitimate legal distinction, within linguistics and related fields such as psychology, the distinction is much less clear (or useful): There is no equivalent bright line outside of the legal field. Rather, there is a continuum from threats to other kinds of violence.

Individuals who work in situations in which there are commonly overt threats to harm either self or others become skilled at ascertaining the ways in which threats can slide into physical violence. This thus provides a rich field of potential data for linguists, and one that does not seem to have been used to its full capacity. For example, first responders and medical staff who work in emergency rooms have to be able to make accurate assessments of whether an individual's verbal threats are likely to become anything more than that. Their own lives or lives of others may depend upon this. Novak & Hubbell (2002), for example, note that there is generally not a linear progression from verbal threat to physical assault.

Rather, there is a highly typical pattern of assault that follows this pattern: Trigger, Escalation, Assault, Recovery, Post-Crisis (p. 98). Being able to assess where an individual is in this cycle is key in being able to understand how threats and physical violence are connected to each other. There tends to be a cycling back and forth between physical and verbal escalations, so that verbal threats are mixed in with increasingly threatening body language, then this is added to another layer of verbal threats, which then feeds into increasingly physical threats, etc.

Thus when considering a linguistic analysis of threats and their…… [read more]


Second Language Learning Essay

… Language Acquisition

First and second language acquisition: Unnecessary differences and encouraging similarities

Language acquisition is a complex process that is still not entirely understood. The speed and apparent method by which infants acquire their native language continues to baffle researchers in linguistics, psychology, and neurology; no entirely valid explanation has been put forth that sufficiently explains the phenomenon given what is known about language acquisition later in life (Galasso 2003). This fact alone, though, has led to some interesting hypotheses and research regarding second language acquisition in both children and adults, with increasing evidence that the specific subconscious mechanisms of language acquisition -- whatever they may be, as they are still not fully understood -- can be used to help second-language learners later in life (Freeman & Freeman 2004; Wilson 2000). The human brain seems to have an innate ability to pick up on the rules of grammar, and this fact can be utilized in language learning and instruction to gain fluency faster and more completely (Wilson 2000).

The primary external difference between first language acquisition and second language acquisition is that the first occurs completely subconsciously, whereas the second is almost always the result of a conscious effort (Freeman & Freeman 2004). That is, second language acquisition in most instances of traditional learning is known to follow established cognitive problem solving mechanisms of thinking and reasoning (Galasso 2003). But attempts to integrate the innate knowledge of grammar that the human brain is capable of and that seems to facilitate first language acquisition with traditional and developing methods of learning a second language show very optimistic results for improving second language acquisition (Freeman & Freeman 2004).

There are several essential factors in both first and second language acquisition. Psychological, physical, and social factors all contribute to both children's and adults' acquisition of language. The psychological factors surrounding first language acquisition are still a large part of the mystery surrounding how a native language is absorbed; grammar is understood to be something that human brains innately grasp, but the how of this grasping has yet to be explained (Freeman & Freeman 2004; Wilson 2000). The psychology of second language acquisition is somewhat better understood but still quite complex; using the first language as a monitor for the second almost always happens and can lead to difficulties in the learning process (Galasso 2003). Social immersion in a language -- or isolation from it -- also has a huge effect on both first and second language acquisition, and the physical movements of the mouth and tongue that are used to produce the phonemes in one language can assist or make difficult the physical creation of sounds during…… [read more]


Language Acquisition Theories Term Paper

… Linguistics

Language and Culture: An Important Intersection

While language acquisition has been a popular theory since Noam Chomsky's emergence into the field of linguistics, understanding the exact ways in which language acquisition occurs is still explored. While the connection between language and culture has long been explored, true believers in language acquisition might dismiss the fact that the two are related. Still, in their article "The Symbolic World of the Bilingual Child: Digressions on Language Acquisition and Process of Thinking," Nowak-Fabrykowski and Shkandrij suggest that culture and language acquisition share an important bond that cannot be broken. Through an explanation of their theories, as well as an application to classroom learning, a better understanding of language acquisition and its facets can be grasped.

First, the authors suggest that teachers should use a student's own culture and worldview to help them learn new languages. For instance, ELL students can be taught English not necessarily by immersion into American or British culture, but instead through applying their cultures to the English language and vice versa. The article calls on previous pedagogical study that has remarked upon scaffolding as an important technique in teaching. Applying scaffolding to the teaching of English as a second language might be similarly successful, as the authors' argue making a connection between what a student is familiar with and new tasks is one way to encourage learning.

Second, the authors argue that previously held concepts of alienation might actually be hindering a student's ability to learn a second language. They argue that students who are separated from their own cultures and forced to learn new ones are also forced to drop parts of their own language and culture, making them unsure of themselves and their position in society. Because this can not only cause problems with academic learning, but…… [read more]


Which Do You Think Is the Most Important Key Feature of Language and Why? Term Paper

… Certain learning techniques can also enhance retention, however, such as access to native speakers and immersion in the second language (Factors that influence the acquisition of a second language, 2014. ESL). Having a program tailored to the learner's unique learning style (such as emphasizing visual vs. auditory components of the language, or using immersion vs. grammatical drills) can influence acquisition regardless of the age of the learner.

Q4. Does the child brain process second language learning differently from the adult brain?

It is often assumed that although children may have less emotional discipline than adults when learning a language, they still possess an innate advantage in terms of acquiring fluency. "Any small child will acquire native fluency in any language if exposed to it on a consistent basis in a social setting. A child will naturally acquire native fluency in more than one language under these circumstances. In the overwhelming majority of individuals, however, this natural ability to acquire spoken language without deliberate effort begins to diminish sharply at about the age of puberty" (Language learning by adults, 2013, Linguistics 201). The reasons for this change are not clearly understood, but it does seem as though there is a critical window of language learning and that after that window closes language learning takes on a much more technical, less natural aspect that is not associated with true native comfort and fluency. Still, although adult-based learning methods tend to have a greater emphasis on grammar, there is also a movement to incorporate more natural and childlike ways of learning the language into adult language programs. A "natural approach -- (since the 60's) tries to approximate the environment that language would be learned as a child. Use of target language in class as much as possible, use of realia and play acting, attempt to make the learner feel at ease and not under pressure to perform, de-emphasizes direct correction" (Language learning by adults, 2013, Linguistics 201).

References

Factors that influence the acquisition of a second language. (2014). ESL. Retrieved from:

http://esl.fis.edu/teachers/support/factors.htm

Language learning by adults. (2013). Linguistics 201. Retrieved from: http://pandora.cii.wwu.edu/vajda/ling201/test4materials/secondlangacquisition.htm

What is grammar? (2014). English Club. Retrieved from: http://www.englishclub.com/grammar/grammar-what.htm… [read more]


Chinese Culture and Language Research Paper

… "Chinese is not only the only civilization whose history goes back five thousand years, but it is the longest surviving and continuing literary tradition in the world." (Gu, 2011, p. 7)

It would be safe to say that China has… [read more]


Manifestation of Speech and Language Research Paper

… It was they who set the number of subjects and they to whom a group of children with SLI were compared. The children with HI had their receptive language skills tested with the Reynell Development Language Scales I, their vocabulary tested with the "Aktiver Wortchatztest 3-6," grammar with the Ravensburger Dysgrammatiker Prufmaterial, and phonology by means of the Neuer Mainzer Laustatus picture-naming test. As a comparison to the results generated by testing the children with HI, the paired children with SLI were tested identically. As the study was done in Germany, all language tests were performed in German by a clinical psychologist "with experience in working with deaf children and those with severe language impairment…." (Keilmann, 2011, p.13) Finally the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) was used to perform statistical analysis of the data.

By performing this study the authors determined that children with HI and those with SLI both express impairment of their receptive language skills; and this is linked to the impairment of the child's phonological short-term memory. However, the impairment of the short-term memory seems to come from different causes. Children with SLI have an intrinsic impairment while those with HI seem to overload their memory due to their hearing deficiencies. Finally the authors conclude that SLI language deficiencies affect the expressive language skills of children more than their receptive ones, the opposite is true in children with HI. Because of their hearing impairment, the receptive language skills of children with HI are much more affected by their deficiency than their expressive ones.

When it comes to an application in a clinical setting for the results of this study, it lay in the introduction of the study itself. The children selected for this study were chosen from a group of 242 children enrolled in an "intensive speech, language, and perception training course…," (Keilmann, 2011, p.12) and this is where the results can be applied. In the past children with language deficiencies, regardless of their causes, were categorized together as a single group with a focus on the affect of their deficiency and not the cause. This study provided the first comparison between two groups of children with language deficiencies, but caused by different reasons. As a result of this study, children with hearing loss can be treated in a different manner than those with specific language impairment. For example, they may both be suffering from deficiencies in their phonological short-term memory, but a child with HI can be treated with a more effective hearing aid, or some other means to cease overloading their phonological short-memory. On the other hand, a child with SLI can be treated better with psychological, or mental-based, treatments rather than technological ones. Therefore, this study will help better classify children with language disorders and tailor their treatments to their specific deficiencies.

References

Keilmann, Annerose, Patrick Kluesener, Christina Freude, and Bianka Schramm. (2011).

"Manifestation of speech and language disorders in children with hearing…… [read more]


Bilingualism: First and Second Language Essay

… These results can be regarded as single dimensional presentation of the findings.

View of bilingualism:

The view of bilingualism is changed after the review of literature. I always thought it is the environment of a person that leads to bilingualism. Either there is a compressing need to learn a second language or one has extensively lived with the community from different language speakers. It is also noted that learning a second language has other factors also influencing the desire for learning as well as the process of learning a second language. The bilingual speakers are also required to follow learning process that is presented by Chomsky or Cummins.

Experience as a bilingual person:

The personal experience as a bilingual person is quite different as I inherited certain environmental factors that influenced my learning. The community that I lived in was Spanish and my mother and father were native Mexicans. Therefore I learnt English in school and Spanish in the community while interacting with neighboring children. The bilingual advantages and positives can be counted in numbers. The increased globalization and in order to understand the dynamics of a different culture it is essential to be acquainted with different languages.

Conclusion:

The bilingualism or multilingualism is an advantage in the global age. The individuals with certain inhabited environmental factors tend to learn more than one language however it is not necessary. The future concerns that should be addressed in order to have a clear understanding of the languages learning process I suppose Chomsky should be followed and his work should be understood to cater the needs of a learning process for multilingualism.

References:

Baker, C. (2011). Foundations of bilingual education and bilingualism (Vol. 79). USA: Multilingual matters.

Bhatia, T.K., & Ritchie, W.C. (Eds.). (2012). The handbook of bilingualism and multilingualism. USA: John Wiley & Sons Inc.

Saville-Troike, M. (2012). Introducing second language acquisition. USA: Cambridge University Press.… [read more]


Nordic Languages Term Paper

… Nordic Languages

Today, most countries have more than one spoken language within its borders, both as a result of immigration and new communication technology. Indeed, the world is no longer simple in terms of nation or language. As a case in point, the United States has such a wide diversity of citizens that not all states have English as their official language. Countries like South Africa have 11 official languages. Currently, Norway has two official languages, Bokmal and Nynorsk. Many other examples can be quoted, including European and Asian countries, where more than one language enjoys official status. Indeed, there are few countries today with only one language as its official mode of speech. In the case of Norway, it is therefore less than easy to argue for the use of any one language to use as its official tongue. However, if the choices were to include Nynorsk and Bokmal, the latter might be chosen as the more viable option, since it is more commonly spoken among the Norwegian people and the former is mainly used as administrative language.

Bokmal is the most commonly used language among the Norwegian people. Indeed, when political parties attempted to find a linguistic basis for alliance with the urban working class, it was found that this group did not speak a Nynorsk-based dialect. Hence, compromises were needed to form such an alliance. If Bokmal had been the only official language in Norway, this problem would not have existed. Political parties would have been on an equal footing, since most citizens are able to speak and understand Bokmal. Since most citizens speak this language, nation building and identity would also have been easier to achieve, with fewer language-related conflicts. It would also be easier to invest time and funding into instruction efforts for citizens who do not speak the language, since they are in the minority. Schools would also have more time to focus on targeted training rather than artificially creating bilingual skills in their students. Indeed, one proposal suggested that Nynorsk be removed from Norwegian schools as obligatory alternative form of instruction, since most students needed more attention to reading and writing in the Bokmal standard. It therefore makes more sense to make the more commonly spoken, used, and taught Bokmal the singular official language in the country.

Some may argue, however, that Nynorsk is the most important language in official circles. Indeed, many workplaces require a proficiency in this language. This, in turn, is why it is required as alternative norm of instruction for schools. Making Bokmal the official standard, on the other hand, will remove difficulties associated with having to function in two languages. A single official language will create a more solid platform for creating language excellence in children and in general citizens. Indeed, using Bokmal for both social and administrative purposes will also create a more unified sense of nationality among the Norwegian people. Hence, both administrative, business, and social communication can improve…… [read more]


Fingerspelling as Children Learn New Peer Reviewed Journal

… Average improvement rates did vary among both conditions however. Children were more likely to improve and build upon skills already learned through the control method. They were able to recognize more written words by using both fingerspelling and the control method. However, when it came to actual learning, fingerspelling was an easier method to learn for the first time (Haptonstall-Nykaza & Schick, 2007). Children knew how to communicate in American Sign Language previously, therefore the control method basically expanded on principles that were already learned and mastered. On the other hand, children did not have a profound understanding of fingerspelling, but they were able to pick it up quickly enough to produce significant results and demonstrate improvement.

Research in linguistics suggests that fingerspelling is an easier way for children to be able to establish a connection between the English language and American Sign Language. Difficulty lies in teaching deaf children how to read because of the inability of a direct connection to exist. Children who learn to read for the first time do so because of their ability to sound words out and to hear what they see. However, the task is much more difficult in deaf children whom are unable to make those same connections. Haptonstall-Nykaza and Schick (2007) designed an experiment around this concept and proved that the ability of fingerspelling in providing a link to printed language is effective.

References:

Chamberlain, C., Morford, J.P., & Mayberry, R.I. (2000). Language acquisition by eye. Mahwah, N.J: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 131-140

Erting, C., Thumann-Prezioso, C., & Sonnenstrahl-Benedict, B. (2000). Bilingualism in deaf families: Fingerspelling in early childhood. In P. Spencer, C. Erting, & M. Marschark (Eds.), The deaf child in the family and at school (pp. 41 -- 54). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates

Haptonstall-Nykaza, T.S., & Schick, B. (2007). The transition from fingerspelling to english print: Facilitating english decoding. Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education, 12(2), 172-183.

Valli, C., Lucas, C.,…… [read more]


Language/Identity Language Essay

… The story of the SS Windrush was that it docked in Jammaica when on a home bound journey from Australia. The year was 1947, and there was a glut of low paying jobs that the English could not fill due to the losses experienced in WWII. Many Jamaicans were taken over to fill these vacancies and the SS Windrush was the original conveyance (Turnham Primary School). Bennett-Coverly demonstrated how the people may have left Jamaica, but they did not leave their roots behind.

"Wat a joyful news, Miss Mattie

I feel like me heart gwine burs

Jamaica people colonizin

Englan in reverse.

By de hundred, by de tousan

From country and from town,

By de ship-load, by de plane-load

Jamaica is Englan boun.

The people were easily identified by their language and they wrapped their identity in it as much as people gave it to them.

Many people have the same experience whether they are from a region that has a distinctive sound or a dialect shapes a particular people's voice. Many of these have been lost over time as the people they represented have passed, or modern technology has made the language more bland. Many are trying to preserve the heritage of the language whether they were a member of the particular group or not. One of these, from the islands, is Dr. Mervyn Morris who published an essay called "On Reading Miss Lou Seriously" about his experiences reading the works of Louise Bennett-Coverly (Morris). In the essay he discusses his reaction to the writings of the poet and how they made him realize the impact that language can have on a people. The fact the Bennett-Coverly was able to produce so accurately a portrait of the people of Jamaica is one reason why she was so loved. Morris was able to edit a book of her works for publication that is used in schools to further help students identify with their heritage.

No matter what the roots of the population, their language binds them together like nothing else can except maybe religion. But, it is true that religion, in the present, is more less a function of culture than language. The people of a region may have different means of worshipping, but they will likely share a common language. As far as culture is concerned, this is the single greatest identifier there is.

Works Cited

Bennett-Coverly, Louise. "Colonization in Reverse." 1966. Web.

Dance, Daryl Cumber. Fifty Caribbean Writers: A Bio-Bibliographic-Critical Sourcebook. Westport, CT: Greenwood Publishing Group, Inc., 1986. Print.

Morris, Mervyn. "On Reading Miss Lou Seriously." Caribbean Quarterly 28.1/2 (1982): 44-56.

Narain, Denise DeCaires. Contemporary Caribbean women's Poetry: Making Style. London: Routledge, 2002. Print.

Turnham Primary School. "The…… [read more]


Language and Sexuality Research Paper

… Knutson, A. (1905). The gender of words denoting living beings in English, and the different ways of expressing difference is sex. Hakan Ohlsson Publishers.

This volume is useful for backward-mapping to the origins and changes of language associated with sexuality with over 100 years perspective.

Kulick, C. (2006). The Language and Sexuality Reader. Taylor & Francis.

A collection of contemporary and historical works that spans many academic disciplines is brought together in this resource. The commonality of the works -- which include psychology, anthropology, linguistics, communication studies, and medicine -- is an exploration of human sexuality and the use of language to communicate about sexuality.

Morrish, L., Morrish, E., and Sauntson, H. (2007, November 15). New perspectives on language and sexual identity. Basingstoke, Hampshire, UK: Palgrave Publishing.

This work focuses on the ways that lesbians and gay men use language to create a situated identity. Actual linguistic data is analyzed using textual, spoken language, and corpus linguistic approaches. Analyses are related to contemporary sociolinguistic theories.

Motschenbacher, H. ( 2011, November 11). Language, gender, and sexual identity: Poststructuralist perspectives. John Benjamins Publishing.

The authors focus on the relatively new field of Queer Linguistics. Using a poststructuralist frame, a deconstructionist perspective, and a linguistic point-of-view, the authors address the manner and outcomes of discursive construction of heteronormativity and gender binarism. Experts in linguistics can appreciate the scientific analyses, while students and those new to the field will find the basic topics appealing. Especially salient is the treatment of the damaging potential of some gendered linquistic forms may have in particular contexts.

Sauntson, H. And Kyratzis, S. (Eds.) (2007). Language, sexualities, & desires: Cross-cultural perspectives. Basingstoke, Hampshire, UK: Macmillan.

This collection of works addresses the nexus between culture and sexuality by illustrating the basis and theories for the different ways in which sexualities are constructed, perceived, and represented in societies, in cultures, and in language. The ways in which linguistic features are used to construct and signal sexual identities, sexual relationships, lifestyle choices, and identification and membership in particular social groups.

References 10

Bieswanger, M. And Motschenbacher, H. (2010). Language in its socio-cultural context: New explorations in gendered, global, and media uses. New York, NY: Peter Lang Publisher.

Bucholtz, M. And Hall, K. (2004). Theorizing identity in language and sexuality research. Language in Society, 33, 469-515. DOI: 10.10170S004740450044021

Cameron, D. And Kulick, R. (2003). Lanuage and Sexuality. Cambridge University Press.

Cameron, D. (2005, December). Language, gender, and sexuality: Current issues and new directions. Applied Linguistics, 26(4), 482-502. doi: 10.1093/applin/ami027

Canakis, C., Kantsa, V., and Yannakopoulos (Eds.). (2010). Language and Sexuality (through and) beyond gender. Cambridge Scholars Publishing.

Knutson, A. (1905). The gender of words denoting living beings in English, and the different ways of expressing difference is sex. Hakan Ohlsson Publishers.

Kulick, C. (2006). The Language and Sexuality Reader. Taylor & Francis.

Morrish, L., Morrish, E., and Sauntson, H. (2007, November 15). New perspectives on language and sexual identity. Palgrave…… [read more]


Test Taking Strategies and Language Test Validity Peer-Reviewed Journal

… Test Taking Strategies and Language Test Validity

One of the many effects of globalization is the increasing need for workers in all countries and at all levels of the socioeconomic scale to become multilingual, and English is still far and away the preferred language of international business throughout the developed and developing worlds (Cheng, 2008). English proficiency is thus a highly desired trait in many non-English-speaking countries, and performance on language tests can often determine occupational opportunities an, prior to that, educational opportunities that could truly determine the course of an individual's life (Cheng, 2008; Mohamaddi & Abidin, 2012). Language test validity has thus become a topic of intense scrutiny in research and in practice, as determining the ability of these tests to truly measure language proficiency is a question not only of extreme practical importance given the employment demands of the modern world, but also of extreme ethical importance given the tests' impact on people's lives. Test taking strategies present barriers to language test validity, and thus these must also be examined to derive truly valid and meaningful results from such testing.

Defining test taking strategies can be more difficult than it might initially seem, given the number of parameters involved in these strategies. Different theoretical constructs have been applied to the identification and definition of test taking strategies by different researchers and in different perspectives. While these different frameworks are not necessarily mutually exclusive they do present radically different means of assessing and analyzing test taking strategies (Cohen, 2006; Amer, 2007; Mohamaddi & Abidin, 2012).

These different approaches can make the implications of test taking strategies on the validity of language tests also quite varied and difficult to measure. The pressures to achieve, as noted, are quite high, and instructors can also contribute to the knowledge and use by students of test taking strategies which also affects not only the rate of test taking strategy use but also the effectiveness and the degree to which it can tamper with language test validity (Amer, 2007; Cheng, 2008; Lee, 2011). Some general test-taking strategies, such as skipping over more difficult answers and completing easier answers first and taking the time to review answers to ensure they are correct, can actually be seen in some ways as increasing test validity in that this leads to more accurate assessments of actual knowledge held by the test taker (Amer, 2007; Mohamaddi & Abidin, 2012). Other types of test taking strategies, however, undermine test validity and ultimately test the student's ability to strategize and manipulate the design and circumstances of the test rather than more comprehensively and accurately measuring language proficiency (Cohen, 2006; Lee, 2011; Mohamaddi &…… [read more]


Language Defines Identity, and Creates Creative Writing

… Language can be used to keep others out of the group: as when people will speak in the tongue that is not understandable by the outsider. Or, language can be used as a means of inclusion, as by adapting tongues to welcome newcomers.

Language has been shown to have direct impacts on the construction of reality -- and not just socio-cultural reality. For example, Hudson points out that different cultures have different "linguistic strategies" for describing spatial and temporal realities (94). For example, different cultural-linguistic groups have different means of conceptualizing direction. "Some people consistently used a left/right approach, and others consistently used compass-points; very few people mixed the two," (Hudson 94). The difference seems mundane and inconsequential, but it can highlight core ways language shapes not just identity, but reality itself. Language can shape one's physical orientation in space, in the here-and-now. Thus, language may also be able to shape one's psychic orientation and worldview.

Research in social cognition is ripe with evidence that language impacts intercultural communication; and that translations are inherently problematic because of that fact. Idioms and poetic phrases are easily mistranslated, because there will be no cultural reference points outside of the original. Similarly, something may be "lost" in the translation. What is lost might be simply a matter of lack of experience: such as a person from the Arctic never having seen a palm tree and thus having no word for the fronds or the trunk. However, what is lost in translation can be more impactful in terms of human relationships. Emotions that are considered standard because they have been given a "voice" are legitimized via language. If those emotions are not codified in language, then it would be impossible to translate those concepts. Problems related to historical texts testify as to how important sociolinguistic theory is in shaping reality. Social policy is a product of sociolinguistic theory.

As Sapir states, "language has a setting," (221). Language can never be separated from that setting without it losing something -- or gaining something -- or at least changing in some meaningful way. English is a language that has evolved and grown to accommodate for its cultural intersections. Colonization, globalization, and trade have all morphed English into a great hybrid tongue that borrows from Arabic, French, old Dutch and German. A study of a living language can highlight the ways that language represents a specific culture in a specific historical epoch.

Works Cited

Anzaldua, Gloria. Borderlands: The New Mestiza -- La Frontera. Aunt Lute, 1999.

Chomsky, Noam. Language and Mind. Cambridge University Press, 2006.

Hudson, Richard A. Sociolinguistics. Cambridge University Press, 1996.

Sapir, Edward. Language: An Introduction to the Study of Speech.…… [read more]


Charting Sociolinguistic Variations Linguistics Assessment

… The American did not intend this incident to occur; it occurred naturally. The American did not know about how to change language to be more British. The lack of knowledge also did not impede the change to occur. Now let us consider the second half of the statement: it's who you know. People are very valuable resources when it comes to sociolinguistic variation. Certainly, for the study of ancient languages and linguistics, texts are more valuable as most people do not speak ancient languages, though many modern and prolific languages such as English are heavily based on ancient languages such as Latin. Knowledge in applied sociolinguistics comes from knowing people; that knowledge comes from engaging people. The "who you know" adds to the "what you know," so it matters not if one knows nothing (relatively).

4. Sociolinguistic research typically relies on categorisations of speakers based on age, social class, and gender. Briefly discuss how useful these categories are.

Categorisations of speakers in sociolinguistics based on age, social, class, and gender are relatively useful. They are not useless, but those categories may not be specific enough or wide ranging enough to yield as candid or precise information about speakers as other categories. Categories are fundamental to survival; thus, the categorisations are useful on a basic level. Age is certainly a strong indicator in the study of sociolinguistics. Levels and patterns of speech in children reflect the rate and level of development socially, cognitively, physically, and otherwise. Teenagers and adolescents speak in very distinctive linguistic patterns and would provide useful data regarding patterns of speech within this group. Class may not be so simple. There are impoverished people who still find ways to thoroughly and effectively educate themselves or find sources of education despite the lack of material wealth. There are those who are materially wealthy and lack considerable education or are so lazy that they do not endeavor to advance their education as far as the wealth permits. Therefore, categorising speakers sociolinguistically based on class requires further modification and specification. With the advent of the Internet, many marketing firms and media outlets have found it exceptionally challenging to accurately identify consumers by gender. This is why marketers changed their perspective and market more so now by choice in products rather than guessing (incorrectly) the gender of a consumer and marketing products to them in which they have no interest. The same can be said for sociolinguistics, especially if taking or providing a study online. It is not so easy to readily identify speakers by gender because of digital technology, so this must be accounted for when categorising speakers in sociolinguistics in speakers.

References:

Blommaert, J. (2003) Commentary: A sociolinguistics of globalization. Journal of Sociolinguistics, 7(4), 607 -- 623.

Bucholtz, M. (2003) Sociolinguistic nostalgia and the authentication…… [read more]


Language American English Is Incredible Essay

… Add to that the multiple dialects spoken in the UK and Australia, and English becomes one of the most colorful languages in the world. English words can be traced as often to Old French, Arabic, and Greek as they can to Old English. The language has always been dynamic and will continue to be so. The grammar Nazis are wrong. The point of grammar is to encourage clarity of expression, and not to enforce social hierarchies. Descriptive grammar teaches ground rules: necessary to know how to best get a point across so that an audience member will listen. Effective rhetoric demands a keen attention to audience demographics, anyway: which means that the speaker's language should ebb and flow depending on who is being addressed. There is no need to always talk one way, or to denigrate the speech of others because it differs from the familiar.

References

Baron, D. (n.d.). Language and society. PBS. Retrieved online: http://www.pbs.org/speak/words/sezwho/socialsetting/

Cutler, C. (n.d.). Crossing over. PBS. Retrieved online: http://www.pbs.org/speak/speech/prestige/crossing/

Deresiewicz, W. (2005). You talkin' to me? The New York Times. Jan 9, 2005. Retrieved online: http://www.nytimes.com/2005/01/09/books/review/09DERESIE.html?_r=2&pagewanted=print&position=

Finegan, E. (n.d.). State of American. PBS. Retrieved online: http://www.pbs.org/speak/speech/correct/prescriptivism/

Fought, C. (n.d.). Are dialects fading? PBS. Retrieved online: http://www.pbs.org/speak/ahead/mediapower/dialect/

Fought, J. (n.d.). Gatekeeping. PBS. Retrieved online: http://www.pbs.org/speak/speech/correct/gatekeeping/

Nunberg, G. (1983). The decline of grammar. Reproduced on PBS.org. Retrieved online: http://www.pbs.org/speak/speech/correct/decline/

"The Prescriptive Tradition." Retrieved online: http://www.uni-due.de/SHE/HE_Grammar_Prescriptivism.htm… [read more]


Applying Language Universal Essay

… They can endeavor to practice in real life, or in mock skits amongst each other. They can extend written invitations to one another or to other individuals. Teacher and students can criticize scenarios of real life situations where speech acts are preformed and analyze how students can imitate them and/or correct them.

Speech acts may be difficult fro ESL students due to the fact that idiomatic expressions and mannerisms differ from one culture to another and which is appropriate in one may be inappropriate in another. One of the best recommendations, therefore, is to closely watch, analyze and model.

Applying registers in the ESL format 'Register' is where a person talks differently to different people. There are, for instances, differences in speech between formal and informal situations.

ESL students can be taught differences by playing games around diverse situations identifying, for instance, the differences between a 'formal' and an 'informal' context.

The teacher, too, can employ media in this context selecting different TV programs where she can help students analyze the different speech acts and mannerisms performed in the various disparate situations. Students can compare and see how many differences they can come up with.

As with all situations, students can also practice their learning in both mock and real-life applications.

Applying dialects to ESL teaching

Teacher can explain to students that many different dialects occur in the English langue. She can contrast it to their own, so that they understand. To further teach the point, teacher can have students listen to recording of the same sentence uttered in different dialects or to English spoken, for instance in America and the same language spoken in England. Teacher can point out the main distinctions.

Applying Corpus linguistics to ESL teaching

A corpus consists of a databank of texts that are compiled from writing and/or transcription of recorded speech. The prime focus of corpus linguistics is to discover patterns of language usage thoguh analysis of the actual usage. Corpus analysis (i.e. analysis of the different texts) shows that language is used differently in various contexts, e.g. In poetry, fiction, non-fiction, newspaper articles, academic articles etc. The teacher can go with the student through each text and together they can analyze the different patterns and rules. This can be done in various ways: via themes organized according to each lesson; via students doing their own research and teacher acting as research facilitator; or via students using a concordancing program and selected corpus to make their own discoveries.… [read more]


Interwined With Other Writers Language and Class Essay

… Interwined With Other Writers

Language and Class

Upon initial examination, there are a variety of similarities to be found within the text of James Baldwin's "If Black Language Isn't a Language, Then Tell What Is?" And Gloria Arizaldua's "How To… [read more]


Love Languages: Applications to Counseling and Life Book Report

… ¶ … Love Languages: Applications to Counseling and Life

Communication has a major impact on all aspects of a relationship. Without such, a relationship has no chance of lasting past its prime. Talking things over with one's spouse is the… [read more]


Linguistics of Arabic and English Research Paper

… )

In conclusion, a contrastive morphology of English and Arabic languages indicates that there are far more meaningful similarities than differences in the grammatical elements of the two languages. The script and directionality differences between the two languages create the appearance of a much greater degree of contrast than really is evident through a morphological analysis. Number, tense, specificity of reference and place are all communicated through prefixes and suffixes in the language. While Arabic is a more gender-dependent language than English, this is a trait shared by many other European/Romance languages. The way in which roots are built upon to conjugate and create subject-verb agreement are fundamentally similar, even if the subject-verb-object ordering is often different. Considering the phylogenic and cultural differences between the two languages, the morphological elements of Arabic and English indicate a great deal of commonality when Arabic is viewed in transliteration into the alphabet used in contemporary English.

References

Carter, Ronald; McCarthy, Michael (2006). Cambridge Grammar of English: A Comprehensive Guide. Cambridge University Press.

El-Shiek, SM. (1970). A Linguistic Analysis of Some Syntactic and Semantic Problems of English-Arabic Translastion. Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation, SOAS, London.

Lass, Roger (2006). "Phonology and morphology." A history of the English language. Cambridge University Press. p. 70.

Shunnaq, Abdullah Talal, (1993), 'Patterns of Repetition in Arabic Forced by Morphology with Reference to Arabic-English Translation', Papers and Studies in Contrastive Linguistics, 28 89-98

Stetkevych, J. (1970). The Modern Arabic Literary Language; Lexical and Stylistic Developments. Chicago and London: The University of Chicago…… [read more]


Threatening Language and Freedom of Speech Discussion Chapter

… ¶ … threatening language and its link to actual acts of violence has helped us reach some conclusions which will be discussed in this section as results of our study. Our extensive literature review shows that threatening language, unless proven to cause harm to someone, is protected by first amendment under freedom of speech clause. However once threatening language leads to psychological or physical harm, it can be sued and seen as a criminal act. Our initial question was about what composes threatening language and later we studied levels of escalation and how it leads to violent actions. We shall now present a brief review of what we have found and see how it relates to some of the theories of linguistics we mentioned earlier in the paper.

Threatening language is difficult to ascertain because it can range from shouting at someone in a regular fashion in a regular setting or it can be very detailed and graphic saying what a person would do in case the target doesn't comply with their order. Usually it is not easy even for the law enforcement to pin point what actually is threatening language and what kind of threatening language would lead to violent actions. Courts in the U.S. have thus established their own definitions of what constitutes threatening language but there is no standard definition. However they use the reasonability test which means if a reasonable person sees a certain communication as violent or threatening then it is considered to be a threat.

During the course of threatening communication, there are some levels achieved and it is important to see how the communication is escalating or de-escalating. In case of de-escalation, it means there is a milder tone with each new message or communication and aggressor is turning favorable towards the target or due to some factor has decided not to threaten anymore. However it is escalation which is more important to study because this is what can lead to violent actions. Within threatening communication are clear signs of escalation for someone who is looking for them. First comes the point where a threat in made and is called posturing. This is for example when a person says, "if you report this action, I will come and get you." This sounds threatening but is the first step where aggressor is showing intent. The next step is when it gets more graphic like when the same aggressor says, "you didn't listen to me, did you. I will wait for you outside your workplace and beat the hell out of you." This leads to the actual act of violence. These are the levels of escalation within threatening communication.

In order to be able to determine levels of escalation, we need to study the language carefully to see which level has been achieved with latest communication. Some theories of linguistics may help a person determine if…… [read more]


Theory of Second Language Acquisition Essay

… Second Language Acquisition

Theory of Second Language Acquisition

Steven Krashen's (1997) Theory of Second Language Acquisition is made up of five main hypotheses: the Acquisition-Learning hypothesis; the Monitor hypothesis; the Natural Order hypothesis; the Input hypothesis; and the Affective Filter hypothesis (1997). The Acquisition-Learning distinction is the most basic of all the aforementioned hypotheses and the most widespread among linguistics and other professionals of language studies. After using this method in a classroom with high school students, the acquisition-learning theory is quite significant when it comes to acquiring a second language.

Acquisition and Learning are, according to Kashen (1997), two distinct systems when it comes to learning a second language. The "acquired" system is the product of a subconscious process that Kashen describes as similar to what happens when a child is learning their first language. "It requires meaningful interaction in the target language -- natural communication -- in which speakers are concentrated not in the form of their utterances, but in the communicative act" (1997). This is one of the reasons that it is so effective to have a classroom where natural communication is allowed. Considering how we learn a first language, by picking up words from our parents and from others, mimicking, and remembering words and phrases, the acquisition theory is obvious. The "learned" system, on the other hand, is the product of formal teaching and it is consists of a "conscious process which results in conscious knowledge 'about' the language, for example, knowledge of grammar rules" (1997). This is important as well, but in order to learn rules there has to be some grasp of the language already. We don't learn grammar rules until we are already in school and have been speaking for a few years already.

The Monitor hypothesis can be used to examine the link between…… [read more]


Language Acquisition Research Paper

… Language Acquisition

The procedure of production, perception and use of words among human beings to understand each other and communicate is what is referred to as Language acquisition. The language could be the vocalized language like in speech or by… [read more]


Linguistic History of the Insular Celtic Language Family and Proto Thesis

… Linguistic History Of the Insular Celtic Family and Proto-Celtic

The Celts were ancient people in Europe who spoke the Celtic languages forming a branch of the European languages including other languages which are unknown but which have been associated with… [read more]


Semantic Memory and Language Production Thesis

… Semantic Memory and Language Production

Introduction and overview of semantic memory

Semantic memory is referred to as an aspect or part of long-term memory which is "…concerned with ideas, meanings, and concepts which are not related to personal experiences" (… [read more]


Language (Cognitive Psychology) Thesis

… Language (Cognitive Psychology)

Language is considered to be an exclusively human mode of communication although other animals make use of quite sophisticated communicative systems, sometimes casually referred to as animal language, none of these are known to make use of… [read more]


English as a Global Language Essay

… English as the Global Language

As the world moves towards becoming a global community, communities within the global community will have to address the problem of language communication. This is actually a sensitive issue, because it goes to the heart… [read more]


Human Language Series Term Paper

… ¶ … Human Language Series, Part 1:

Is language innate?

All day long, from when we get up in the morning to when we go to bed, even when we dream, our minds are producing language in some way or another. We are linguistic beings, whether we are in dialogue with ourselves, listening and speaking with others, or even receiving electronic or print media. But given that most of us cannot remember a time when our consciousness was not organized by language, how can we determine if the ability and/or need to use language is innate to the human brain? Starting in 1957, Noam Chomsky reframed the traditional study of language in his book Syntactic Structures, which shifted the focus of linguistics away from language as it existed to the question of why it exists. Chomsky believed the biologically-wired nature of the human mind enabled humans to produce language under the correct environmental (learning and cultural) conditions. Key to language is the production of new meanings within a sent of governed 'rules' or acceptable grammatical structures and sounds.

Different languages have different rules for word production, calling somewhat into question the idea that all languages are infinitely flexible in their creativity. For example, languages may have words with meanings not shared by other languages. In other words, English and Eskimo may not just have different words for 'snow,' but will have words not present in the other linguistic system. There is a single Eskimo word that means "Don't you want to go window shopping with me" with no corresponding single word in English. Thus although all languages may be uniquely creative, and in English we daily create sentences that have never existed before, but grammatically and conceptually all languages are not all creative in the same way.

At the core of language is the notion of syntax, or linking sounds to meaning. In language, words can occur in any order (boy, kick, ball) but to make meaning, the words must occur within a particular order within a particular fashion…… [read more]


Foreign Language Teaching Methods Term Paper

… Foreign Language Teaching Methods

Globalization and the concept of the "global village," has brought about interesting developments in language teaching. It is currently recognized, for example, that contact with one or more natives from foreign countries during an average lifetime… [read more]


Childhood Second Language Learning Term Paper

… One criticism of Polinsky's 1995 research is that for some of his groups of speakers, only a few members participated. Then there were other groups that consisted of 20 members, such as the Russian speakers, and in the Reduced Lithuanian… [read more]


Role Does Language and Language Diversity Play Term Paper

… ¶ … role does language and language diversity play in the critical thinking process?

Language and language diversity play very significant roles in critical thinking processes, of speakers and listeners alike (and also of writers and readers alike). This is… [read more]


Approaches to Second Language Classroom Interaction Term Paper

… SLA Second Language Aquisition

As the world has become increasingly more global, interests in second language acquisition has also increased. More specifically second language acquisition as it pertains to the second language classroom has become a focal point. The following… [read more]


Language-In-Use Term Paper

… " The article has an official air, as the information is supported by verified facts: the weddings were cancelled, according to a statement belonging to Clijsters, published on her official website. Furthermore, the story is not intended to create more… [read more]


Language Is Arbitrary Term Paper

… The ability to learn language is hard-wired into the cognitive structure of the human brain, as notes Steven Pinker, a psycholinguist whose book The Language Instinct suggests that language is an instinct, an evolutionary adaptation as well as something learned. Communal verbal exchanges may have evolutionary roots, but the structures exchanges these take, so they can be understood and generated socially, are specific rather general to the human animal. Even the deaf uneducated in sign language strive to communicate, within their linguistic parameters and ability to understand through the sensory data they do possess, of the body and hand.

Language is an instinct to acquire, but an art to perfect, says Pinker. Its morphological structure and the syntactic meaning of different words are arbitrary. There is no inherent reason, other than common cultural exposure, for instance, that Japanese takes some of its sound and sensory data used to communicate from China rather than from the Indo-European structures of writing and semantic meanings attached to words. But this does not mean that the data, although arbitrary, arose from the human mind in an arbitrary fashion. There was an evolutionary selection process that favored certain acquisition processes in certain areas, and individuals whom were better able to communicate with one another were better able to survive.

Both Pinker and Frompkin's more introductory text on linguistics have a social component as well. Neither judge different types of language, from slang to more formal kinds of English, because such arbitrary judgments of 'correct' use of structure are dependant upon social norms -- there is no natural overall form of a language, merely a moment in time in that language's history where certain forms, as understood in a relational structure are deemed to be correct or not. This method of understanding language means that English and indeed all languages, are living and expansive entities, rather than closed modalities of understanding.

Works Cited

Frompkin, Victoria. (2002) Introduction to Language. Heinle: Seventh edition.

Pinker, Steven. (2000) The Language Instinct.…… [read more]


Saussure on Language and Thought Term Paper

… It would seem in the light of Saussure's ideas about language as individual structures -- each language a separate structure -- that there would be no point to comparing the two words.

3) Certain meanings tend to be associated with similar phonological forms in a wide variety of languages. For example, ma means mother in English and (with the proper tone) Chinese. Do you think this a problem for Saussure's notion of arbitrariness? Why or why not?

3) No. By Saussure's various explanations and theories of language and langue, whatever the word, sound, parole is for mother or anything else is only significant within the framework of whatever language is being discussed. Because the same sound happens to re-occur in different languages and happens to mean the same thing in all of them would be outside the technicalities of…… [read more]


Traditional Methods of Language Term Paper

… In this learning approach teachers arrange and directly pass on the information to students and reinforce the transmission through repetition and positive reinforcement, or rewards. Then the students gets the complete and thorough information, while teachers than use objective tests to determine the success students have learned from the information and whether they are ready to move forward to the next set of skills.

This approach is widely practiced. Complex skills such as reading are broken down to simple skills and are presented, taught and learned through repetition (ALTA Language Services).

Functional-Notional Approach

Verbal behavior is analyzed into two components:

1. The performance of language functions such as the people emphasize, question, command, reprove, convince, make an apology etc.

2. The expression of, or reference to, notions such as in performing functions, people manage particular notions. For example, they may say sorry for being late.

However, the concepts of notions include such as, frequency, location, time, motion, quantity etc. The functional-notional approach had a formative influence on the communicative approach to language teaching (Center for Applied Linguistics).

The task-based approach

This approach provides its learners with wisely graded activities or tasks to develop their communicative competence. However, if the tasks become more complicated, the students require a more developed set of communicative skills. According to this approach, a communicative syllabus should be developed according to the problems of the tasks required of the learner at different stages in a course (Kitao).

References

Benstein, Patricia. Explaining concepts behind the Silent Way. Wanadoo Communiquer. www.wanadoo.fr

Communicative language teaching. Sil International.

A www.sil.org

Capes - History of Language Teaching 2. Club Internet.

A www.perso.club-internet.fr

Grammar-Translation Method. Selected Lesson Plans.

A www.members.cts.com

Kitao, S. Kathleen. The History of English Teaching Methodology. Lamel Home page. www.ling.lancs.ac.uk

Language Teaching Methodology. Center for Applied Linguistics.

A www.cal.org

Language Training Methods. ALTA Language Services.

A www.altalang.com.

The Audio-Lingual Method. Welcome to ELT Net. www.eltnet.com.tw

TEFL Methodologies Recent Past. HET Team; Sim.

A www.simsim.rug.ac.be

The Natural Approach Web Site - A comprehension-based approach to language teaching and learning. MAX Pages Website. www.maxpages.com

Methods of Language Teaching… [read more]


Language Kuhl Et Al. ) Article Review

… ¶ … Language

Kuhl et al. (1992) presented some very compelling evidence in their research into childhood linguistics and language understanding. The purpose of their article was to reveal their findings of their investigation into the importance of age and its correlation to phonetic recognition and linguistic experience. The research is premised on the idea that linguistic experience definitely affects phonetic perception, but the study attempted to find out at what age this process may begin.

The study's hypothesis is that this phonetic perception begins in infants at the age of 6 months. The authors wrote " we show here that by 6 months of age, well before the acquisition of language infants' phonetic perception has been altered by exposure to a specific language." The authors addressed the issue of non-specific language recognition as being an issue, as a result the study was created to eliminate this bias and select two different languages to interpret their investigation.

In their study, 64-6-month-old infants were tested, 32 in the United States and 32 in Sweden. The study then applied certain linguistic criteria to evaluate the infants ability to phonetically recognize, language specific sounds. The infants were judged on their ability…… [read more]


Socio-Cultural Influences in English Language Learning Research Paper

… This can be used to help structure language and cultural learning while the student is at home, even if his or her parents do not speak English at all. Watching television in English or listening to English song lyrics can… [read more]


Harnessing of Unstructured Data in Radiology Term Paper

… , 2011).

The theory behind this type of software for the mining of radiology reports is that a great deal of information is lost in the pictures and images themselves (Chapman, et al., 2011). When a report is "read" through… [read more]


Linguistic Differences Between Men and Women Essay

… Genders and Linguistics

Many studies have been conducted on the different ways that men and women use language (Westin 2013, Westin 2013). These works have come up with two main theories. The first says that men use language to dominate… [read more]


Relationship Between Translation and Linguistics Seminar Paper

… Translation Linguistic

The Challenges of Arabic to English Translation

The need for effective Arabic-to-English translation has never been greater. With the barriers to international business being reduced all the time, the need for improved cross-cultural understanding growing greater all the… [read more]


Vocabulary Essay

… For example, for centuries, children were seen as property of their parents and expected to engage in productive hours of work each day: "Often it was the most dangerous, dirty, and menial jobs that were left to the children. In England, a five-year-old might be expected to work a 16-hour day and to receive a beating the process if he wasn't working hard enough" (Levine & Munsch, 2010). While a short-sighted person might dismiss these facts as merely the behavior of primitive people, a more thoughtful person would be able to imagine the differences of the time. A more well-rounded person would be able to imagine that hundreds of years ago, the needs and values of people were so incredibly different due to the demands of mere survival that certain differences in behavior and treatment occurred. This demonstrates an ability of the mind to imagine -- a type of understanding and knowledge that can occur without vocabulary's tendency to shape.

Regarding vocabulary and knowledge of the human and natural sciences, a more narrow-minded person might argue that a limited vocabulary simply limits all that one can understand in these more advanced fields. However, the reality is that more often than not, in the sciences vocabulary is used to be exclusive and to exclude areas of knowledge. In many cases, it appears that vocabulary shapes what one can know -- but often this is simply because others have determined that to be the case. For example, some of the most complex processes in the sciences can be explained and understood using the simplest vocabulary. However, the vocabulary chosen instead is that of the elite, allowing much of the concepts, processes and phenomena of science to be understood only by a select few when that absolutely doesn't have to be the case. In this case vocabulary isn't shaping what we can know -- people are shaping vocabulary so it appears to be shaping all that we can know.

Thus, the sentiment that vocabulary communicates our knowledge is indeed a sound one. However, it's too easy to forget that vocabulary is not the only tool which can be used to shape our knowledge. Humankind has the resources of creativity through the arts to aid in our expression of thought and to communicate the incommunicable. Yet, words far too often become the primary means in society for expression. The notion that vocabulary shapes our knowledge is a deceptive one. Vocabulary can indeed limit our amount of communication in certain respects but there is much that human beings can understand intuitively and instinctually.

References

Eliot, T. (1971). The Waste Land: A Facsimile and Transcript of the Original Drafts. New York: Harcourt Books.

Levine, L., & Munsch, J. (2010). Child Development: An Active Learning Approach. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publishers.

Pinker, S. (2008, January 13). The Moral Instinct. Retrieved from cuny.edu: http://www.qcc.cuny.edu/SocialSciences/ppecorino/INTRO_TEXT/Chapter%208%20Ethics/Reading-The%20Moral-Instinct.htm… [read more]

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