Study "Language / Linguistics" Essays 56-110

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Second Language Acquisition Essay

… Second Language

Lightbown and Spada Chapter 1 and 2: Language Learning in Early Childhood

This chapter was a bit surprising because it did not address learning a second language but instead focused on how children learn their first language. It… [read more]

Communicative Language Teaching Essay

… Communicative Language Teaching Results Summary

Unfortunately in Libya, there are issues where there are little resources to provide sufficient training in regards to the CLT Approach. In order to better understand the current context, a mixed methods approach was taken… [read more]

Nature of the Linguistic Term Paper

… The extent to which reality is a factor to language is also brought about in the case where language truly is perceived as the determinant of experiences and reality as stipulated by structuralist theory. Further, the role, of spoken word in determining reality is disregarded by some theories claiming that it only severs to bring out language, which is an element already instilled among individuals. The complete disregard for speech here seems to be confusing since one could wonder whether language can possible exist and function independently and without the incorporation of speech.

Some theorists on contradicting the ideas advanced by poststructuralist's theory stipulate that self or ego is and ought to be the main determinant of experience and reality as opposed to the idea of language being responsible for that. The question that begs here is, where then does the role of language fall as regarding life experiences and the development of reality. Moreover, what is the degree by which ego determines reality? Does ego work with other elements; say language in enabling the process of experiencing life and formation of reality? The theorists who refute the suggestions of structuralists theory also indicate that experience is a factor of historical events and language therefore not fully considered as closely related with reality. The historical nature of language is however, pointed out at some point. How then can reality not relate or be based on the element of language?

Complications between the Notions of Thinking and Authorship

Language is considered as an aspect independent of writing or authorship and as such, the mental processes, mostly associates with language do not depend on writing. As opposed to the belief that authorship helps in the preservation of ideas, this tends not to be the actual case. Writing is basically the graphic form of ideas and has been considered by many as stable and more suited than sound in creating an account for the unity of language since history. This is however considered as purely fictitious. This is because; the oily true element that creates some bond is sound and not written words. Further, the shaper and more lasting nature of written material has been considered as responsible for the massive attention directed towards them. This makes the writtencontents force themselves into the mind of individuals instead of sound which ought to be the main elements of focus (Bally & Sechehaye 24-25).

Also to be noted is that fact that, Conflicts between language and authorship are occurrences which have been witnessed in a number of instances. Settlements of these disputes have always proved complicated and only solvable with the intervention of linguists. Because of this however, writing has always earned unwarranted significance with the outcome of such interventions. This is majorly because of the fact that the record sit provides gives it an upper hand in winning whenever disagreements occur.


Finding meaning in life and surviving in the society requires various forms of adaptation among individuals. One of the most important factors… [read more]

Cruickshank, K. ). Arabic-English Bilingualism Article Critique

… Generally, however, the article was an informative piece on Arabic language teaching in NSW with historical depth.


Cruickshank, K. (2008). Arabic-English bilingualism in Australia. In J. Cummins and N.H. Hornberger (eds), Encyclopedia of Language and Education, 2nd Ed., Vol. 5: Bilingual Education, 281 -- 291. Springer Science & Business Media LLC.

Haitham, Mohamed. (2012). Attitudes of Foreign Learners of Arabic towards Learning Ammya and Fusha. Abstract for Middle East Studies association. Arizona State University.

Sayahi, L. (2011). Code-switching and language change in Tunisia. International Journal Of The Sociology Of Language, 2011(211), 113-133.

Sayahi (2011) analyzes the data from interviews with 12 Tunisians who speak Arabic and French, to identify the code-switching characteristics unique to the Tunisian context, to determine the social factors that lead to code-switching, and to identify aspects of Tunisian Arabic language change that might stem from code-switching.

Sayahi draws upon several strands of research in his study. First, he establishes the co- existence of French and English in Tunisia, Algeria, and Morocco (i.e., in the Maghreb) (Bentahila and Davies 1983, 1995; Nait M'Barek and Sankoff 1988; Heath 1989; Belazi 1992; Belazi et al. 1994; Boumens and Caubet 2000; Davies and Bentahila 2008; 114). Second, drawing upon Myers- Scotton (1992), Thomason (2001), and Winford (2003), Sayahi points out that code-switching is "the initial stage for contact-induced language change" and a mechanism that offers "the greatest opportunity to intensify the contact and accelerate the change" (114). Sayahi notes that his study fills a gap in the literature by providing a look into "the implicaitons of code-switching" between "the languages in contact" within Tunisia (115). The research on code-switching between Modern Standard Arabic (MSA) and French in North Africa is scant, one of the early works being Heath (1989), who provides "a long list of lexical items entering Moroccan Arabic from French, Modern Standard Arabic" (115). Sayahi has argued elsewhere (2007) that "code-switching between Tunisian Arabic and French... has led to intensive lexical borrowing" (115).

Sayahi's method was to collect 15-minute segments from 12 interviews from Tunisians between the ages of 20 and 42 "selected from a larger corpus collected by the author over the last few years in Tunis" (118). The author analyzed the data for the "type and frequency of code-switching and use of French borrowings" demonstrated by the informants (113-14). Sayahi found that a higher "frequency of code-switching" occurred in speech by the university-educated informants; that "the direction of the switch is almost always from Arabic to French," and that the grammatical categories most to be switched were "single nouns and noun phrases" (114, 131).

In a broader reflection on the possibility of language change, the author points out that it would be impossible for French to replace Arabic, given the "type of code-switching observed" and because of the fact that "Tunisian Arabic is the base language" which "allows for intense lexical borrowing from French but without the possibility for restructuring, relexification or shift as Tunisians remain dominant in Arabic"; yet, contact-induced change was shown to… [read more]

Language Both Malcolm X Essay

… "

Language conveys social status, for both Rodriguez and Malcolm X "In the street, I had been the most articulate hustler out there -- I had commanded attention when I said something. But now, trying to write simple English, I not only wasn't articulate, I wasn't even functional." Malcolm X could write in slang but not in the way befitting someone of a higher social standing who would be taken seriously. For Rodriguez, broken English was a sure sign of low social status; gringo English was a sign of high social status. "But by being so firm and so clear, the sound of his voice said that he was a gringo; he belonged in public society… my parents' voices were softer than those of gringos we'd meet." Moreover, Rodriguez remembers feeling like his parents acted and were treated as second-class citizens when they were in public, which was a far cry from their attitudes in the home or with Spanish-speaking friends and family. "Hearing them, I'd grow nervous, my clutching trust in their protection and power weakened."

Both Malcolm X and Richard Rodriguez agree that young people need to understand and command of language to have knowledge and power. "Every book I picked up had few sentences which didn't contain anywhere from one to nearly all of the words that might as well have been in Chinese," Malcolm X states. He needed to have a command of English in order to empower himself. Rodriguez also needed to master English for self-empowerment and for community empowerment. The author notes, "What I needed to learn in school was that I had the right -- and the obligation -- to speak the public language of los gringos."


Malcolm X (1965). Coming to an awareness of language. Excerpt online:

Rodriguez, R. (2004). Hunger of memory. Random House. Retrieved online:… [read more]

English Language Essay

… Those who deny this would argue, if they produced an argument at all, that language merely reflects existing, social conditions, and that we cannot influence its development by any direct tinkering with words and constructions. So far as the general tone or spirit of a language goes, this may be true, but it is not true in detail." (Orwell, Page 283)

There is an interesting moment within his writing, in the midst of his linguistic rant, that Orwell acknowledges that he has engaged in some of the behaviors and practices he admonishes against in the writing itself. It is less notable that he breaks his own rules and more notable that he has the self-awareness as a writer to know when he has committed the same practices. He admits his humanity and in doing so admits the humanity of bad writers, too. Orwell writes in the hopes that the reader will continue asking questions or maybe even be able to answer a few. This writer writes for the sake of writing, reading, and discussing, as a means to robust communication, whether in regard to problems or solutions.


Orwell, George. All Art is…… [read more]

English Language Usage and the Respective Merits Essay

… ¶ … English language usage and the respective merits of the positions of linguistic "Prescriptivists" and "Descriptivists" in connection with what should be considered proper English grammar and usage. On one hand, the author acknowledges the fundamental tenet of the Descriptivists that language always evolves and changes to reflect the ways that it is, in fact, used by the population. On the other hand, he absolutely rejects the descriptivist argument that this evolution can be quantified scientifically. Meanwhile, he also acknowledges the value of maintaining standard written English (SWE) and of resisting changes to English language usage that reflect ignorance and a lack of education rather than genuine social trends as reflected in language usage.

Main Thesis and Methodology

Wallace's main thesis seems to be that neither the strict Prescriptivist approach nor the infinitely lax descriptivist approach is necessarily the best solution to the dilemma of maintaining those aspects of proper English grammar and usage that are important while incorporating gradual changes that truly reflect the evolution rather than the devolution of the English language. The author's principal methodology seems to be to develop a common ground by unpacking the respective underlying sources of both positions and identifying potential problems associated with adhering to either one too strictly while ignoring the objective merits of the other.

More specifically, Wallace suggests that certain aspects of the Prescriptivist position are merely functions of the arbitrary fact that English originated from Latin, such as in connection with the technical prohibition against split infinitives. However, Wallace acknowledges that there are absolute limits to what types of (or how much) change is acceptable under the concept of linguistic evolution as function of popular use. Specifically, he illustrates that an overly board permissiveness in that regard would allow words such as "brung" and "feeled."

Analysis of Important Passage

In the following passage, Wallace explains the central thesis of the Descriptivist position by breaking it down into five rules that, according to that view, allow a scientific analysis and application of rules of linguistic evolution.

"The Descriptivist revolution takes a…… [read more]

Individual to Develop the First Language Research Paper

… ¶ … individual to develop the first language and roughly before reaching the puberty, and if development of first language does not occur when an individual has reached the puberty, it is unlikely that the development of first language will… [read more]

Language and Arts Term Paper

… ¶ … home sign systems challenge the idea that language input is necessary for language acquisition?

Home sign systems do not challenge the idea that language input is necessary for language acquisition. Home sign systems are a substitute for verbal language that rely on alternate mechanisms precisely because language input is required for linguistic development. In infancy, human beings possess a so-called "window of opportunity" to develop the cognitive elements of linguistic speech (Gerrig & Zimbardo, 2009). During that time, the infant has the capacity to absorb and learn all of the sounds in all of the languages in human societies. Infants watch their parents, listen to the sounds that they make in communication, and perpetually mimic those sounds. That is part of the cognitive development process in which the neural pathways associated with producing those sounds are formed, reused, and thereby strengthened (Brownlee, 1998; Dennet, 2001).

Initially, the infant can learn all of the different sounds that the human mouth is capable of producing; however, if the infant is not exposed to certain sounds during this critical period, the capacity to produce sounds not heard repeatedly is lost. Thereafter, we may still learn how to speak foreign languages but with greater difficulty and a foreign accent characteristic of our natural language (Brownlee, 1998; Gerrig & Zimbardo, 2009). When infants engage in the behavior we refer to as babbling, the linguistic content of the sounds they make include all of the sounds in all human languages, including those to which the infant will not learn. At that stage, the content of infant babble is identical everywhere in the world (Brownlee, 1998; Gerrig & Zimbardo, 2009).

More importantly, there is also a critical window during which we must be exposed to verbal language after which it may no longer be possible to establish the same neural pathways necessary for verbal speech (Brownlee, 1998;…… [read more]

Finite and Non-Finite English Verbs Research Paper

… Notice that the use of ne . . not does not follow the usual pattern of historical change. The curve for the use of ne . .

not is not S-shaped. The ne . . not form is used frequently even in the first time period, but it is never fully established as the sole form of sentential negation. In addition, the ne data are odd, as the rate of use of ne is apparently level around 65%

in stable variation with ne . . mt in early Middle English and then falls to disuse. In the next section, I explain these oddities by showing that ne is the only sentential negator in early Middle English, and that it is categorically replaced by not by the end of the Middle English period. The early use of not is as an emphatic sentential adverb, an optional intensifier for ne and not as a sentential negator. Structurally, the early use of not is an adjunct of INFL'. Only later does not act as a negator and occupy a position within NEGP.

There is a major complication in the analysis of ne as a negator. In addition to being used with not, ne also appears in negative concord constructions with other negative elements. For example, ne is used with never (12a), with negative quanti-fiers like nofhing (12b) and with negated NPs (12~).

(12) a. he ne mizhte neure finde man of so grete chastete.

he ne might never find man of so great chastity 'he might never find a man of such great chastity.' (St.…… [read more]

Theory Behind Second Language Socialisation (Sls) Essay

… Theory behind Second Language Socialisation (SLS) and Some of Its Applications in ESOL Research

As English continues to become the lingua franca of choice in the business world, educators are faced with some challenges as well as opportunities to deliver… [read more]

Process and Goal of Second Language Acquisition Essay

… ¶ … Goal of Second Language Acquisition

Ellis (142) defines two positions of linguistic knowledge. The first, which draws on the work of Chomsky claims that linguistic competence consists of a biological capacity for acquiring languages, commonly referred to as… [read more]

Language Development Research Paper

… ¶ … Language Acquisition" (2004), the authors have put together an array of information on the development and origination of language in infants. Two of the most over bearing theories in language development is whether language is in fact due to nature or due to nurture. The debate is whether language is preprogrammed in the brain and works like an on and off switch when certain parts are triggered, or whether it is learned through proper teaching and a literacy upbringing. In the first six months of life, infants are exposed to so many different sounds and they see so many different mouthed movements that they capture all that into their system.

When disorders are found in language, it makes it interesting to analyze because it's a way for psychologists to determine how much influence the brain or certain areas of the brain has on language development. In the article titled, "Language Disorder, Developmental" (2009), this is exactly what the authors tries to emphasize. Dysphasia and Aphasia are both language disorders which encompasses the loss of ability to understand or express speech, caused by brain damage. This gives analysts a unique opportunity to determine exactly where language is controlled in the brain.

Various methods are used to measure hearing and speech in the article, "Speech and Hearing Measures" (2004). Just as the amount of power given off by speakers in sound waves is measured, the same is done for speech and audio released from it by humans. Scientists offer a unique look into the dimensions of speech and give physiologists a unique opportunity to measure language by its parts, and break it down. Unlike a therapist who would teach someone how to speak and how to develop their language by teaching them syntax, phonics, and other kindred speech, these tools would teach them how to measure the sound that comes out from the speech. Clinical assessments are also used as tools to measure how each individual interprets language. Not everyone thinks, learns, nor speaks the same way, so these tools try to take all that into consideration to develop a well rounded way and incorporate everyones different style. But in the end, it should all measure how language is developing within that person.

The article, "Psycholinguistics" (2003) explains the correlation between "linguistic behavior and the psychological processes thought to underlie that behavior. For example, what the effects of language have on how things are perceived or how things are memorized. Psychologists in this area want to determine what the role in speech and how speech is perceived effects everything else that a person does or is involved in. The way an infant learns the language is something that is also of interest to these types of psychologists because it gives them an underlying understanding of how language development is acquired.

Overall, language is a very complex subject. How an infant learns how to speak is something that seems to be innate and learned by…… [read more]

Iraqi Students the Literature Review Literature Review

… What skills are required to communicate?

It is not necessary to have acquired all the communicative skills in order to communicate. For example, an infant can communicate in a general sense the fact that he or she is dissatisfied with… [read more]

Morphology a Large Range Term Paper

… where an indication is adequate to designate the whole. For instance; exam (ination), math (ematics), and lab (oratory) invented in school jargon; spec (ulation) and tick (et = credit) in stock-exchange jargon; and vet (eran) and cap (tain) in army… [read more]

Mexican Sign Language Article Review

… ¶ … American Sign Language (ASL) & Mexican Sign Language (LSM). The purpose of this review is to look at another language outside of ASL. Faurot, Dellinger, Eatough, & Parkhurst reported in this article that according to informal Deaf history, both languages came from Old French Sign Language and were brought over to the United States and Mexico within roughly 50 years of each other: to the U.S.A. In 1816 and to Mexico about 1869. However, as the sign systems were brought over from France, they were adapted to the situations that existed in each country. Both countries already had deaf people who used sign. These signs were incorporated into the new language and supplemented heavily by the French Sign system. It appears that the "founders" of the languages had different ideas as to how the new language should be structured. Mexican sign appears to be very strongly influenced by Spanish in its vocabulary.

Throughout the reading comparisons are made between ASL and LSM, it is actually concluded that the two a very dissimilar and this is believed to be due to the strong Spanish influences that exist in LSM. However, it is also discussed that though this strong influence exists there too are marked differences between Spanish and LSM. The first section of the writing discusses the comparisons that were done in order to access the similarities in the words of ASL & LSM. During this review the researchers looked at 100 words, 16 were identical while 13 were similar. It was determined that there was only a 23% lexical similarity. This data confirmed the idea that a sign in one language often means something else in another. There appear to be very different attitudes regarding initialization. ASL showed only 12% of the 100 signs to be initialized. LSM showed 37% initialization. In the U.S.A., initialized signs are often viewed as "hearing" signs. Initialized signs are commonly used in schools to help teach children to speak or spell English. The systems, which make the strongest use of initialization…… [read more]

Evolution of Language Reaction Paper

… Evolution of Language

Mirror Neurons: A Reaction to the Tower of Babel: The Evolution of Language

Ramachandran's implicit theory for the evolution of language revolves around the presence of mirror neurons, which were discovered in the frontal lobes of monkeys in the latter half of the 20th century by Giacomo Rizzolatti. Certain characteristics of these neurons, which have been confirmed to exist within humans as well, help to elucidate a number of questions about the development of language in humans that have plagued psychological, evolutionary, and linguistic theorists since the time of Charles Darwin, and help to disprove Noam Chomsky's view that language is a barrier to the theory of evolution since it stems from an alleged "language organ" in humans, and not in primates. Mirror neurons provide a scientific basis for the function of mimicry which is an innate element of the propagation of language, which Ramachandran posits as a likely explanation for its evolution.

The neurologist's viewpoint borrows heavily from Darwin, who popularized the notion that voice modulation, which eventually led to language, initially began as a way to project emotional and musical sounds as part of a primitive courtship ritual. The mirror neuron point-of-view bolsters this theorem by applying Rizzolatti's finding that certain cells fire in monkeys when they are performing an action or observing another perform that same action. According to Ramachandran, these mirror neurons may have propagate the development of language in humans (which possess a more sophisticated set of vocal paraphernalia and a correspondingly advanced language area in the brain than primates) by allowing people to mimic the physical motions and sounds of others until words, sentences, and the complexities of language itself was existent.

In order to confirm the presence of mirror neurons in humans, Ramachandran performed two separate studies which provided the basis for his explanation of language's development. The first came from a series of observations of patients afflicted with anosognosia, a syndrome in which patients deny facts that are known to…… [read more]

Linguistics Theories and Discourse Analysis Essay

… Linguistic Theories and Discourse Analysis

Linguistics is the scientific study of human language, which, it turns out, is a highly complex system. Linguists come up with theories to represent and account for the structure and the functioning of human language… [read more]

Linguistics Translation Assessment

… The first attempts at trying to use technology as the mechanism for language translation was in the mid-20th century. Scientists who were trying to develop automated translation processes had to be in touch with the concerns of linguists. Without a human directly involved in the process of translation, syntactic ambiguity was difficult to overcome. The machine could not always tell the difference between the subject or the object of the sentence. A sentence like "The turkey is ready to eat," could be interpreted as if the turkey is ready to eat its meal or the turkey is ready to be eaten by the humans. The machine was unable to venture beneath the surface structure of the language to the "internalized set of rules that speakers have about their language," Anderman writes (48). This is where the translator puts his or her knowledge about the linguistics of a particular language into use. Not only can a human translator integrate linguistic knowledge into a translation, they can also use what a machine can't -- intuition about meaning. Regardless of how many rules a linguist develops about how a language works, the translator must bring his or her own sense of meaning to the work of translation.

Even the search for meaning can become complicated when one considers the Sapir/Whorf hypothesis that a disparity between world views between speakers of vastly different languages "makes translation a near impossibility." In a weaker interpretation of the hypothesis, however, Anderman points out that languages "differ not so much with respect to what it is possible to say in them as to the degree of difficulty with which it can be said" (47). Other schools chose to focus on the rules and structure of languages. Anderman also touches on the work of Noam Chomsky, whose theories were revolutionary, but in his own view had uncertain implications for translation.

As Anderman points out throughout the article, the relationship between linguistics and translation can either express itself as an attempt to formulate a linguistic theory of translation, or it can be "less" ambitious and merely be an ongoing interaction between the two, "each drawing on the findings of the other whenever this is mutually beneficial" (54). Anderman goes on to explain some of the theories of linguistics that did have an effect on translation, including the approach of the Prague School, which developed the approach that syntax was multileveled: grammatical, semantic and sentence organization. Translators can put the work of the Prague school to practical use in their work by realizing that while they are translating, they are working on many different levels.

As a comprehensive article in the evolution of linguistics and its effects on translation, "Linguistics and Translation" does an excellent job. Anderman traces the disciplines from the very beginning of their intertwining and matches the various schools of each with their respective influences. At times it does become difficult to follow the actual timelone of the relationship between linguistic development and the corresponding development of the… [read more]

Linguistics the Phones Essay

… i) the morphological process which manifests in the list is infliction in the form of affixes.

ii) The root word is seen to modify when I. prefix is added. II. suffix is added. III. infix is added

iii) allomorphs are seen within the words, yet the word takes on a different meaning. this is seen with the adding of affixes

19. a. Infliction

b. Infliction

c. Lexeme

d. Lexeme

e. Stress

f. Lexeme

g. Lexeme

h. Infliction

i. Lexeme

j. abbreviation

k. allomorph

l. Lexeme

m. Abbreviation

n. abbreviation

o. Lexeme

p. abbreviation

q. abbreviation

r. acronym

5. a.) Leave

Guests Should


b. Ate

Maria Never

A brownie

c. Fall

Shelf will that

d. Broke



e. Lost

The Student

The debate

f. Offer

My Manager may

A raise

g. Jails

Judge Often


h. Organized

The teacher Often

A discussion

i. Speak to A psychic-this group

j. Fond of Marianne could become


9. a. Said

The Reporter an accident


A woman

b. Think

The fishermen polluted

The company The bay

c. Reported

Bill asked

Student the eclipse would occur


Deep structure

Surface structure

a. Will Hilary be hired by the boss?

Will the boss hire Hilary

b. Can the Frisbee be caught by the dog?

Can the dog catch the Frisbee

c. Should the incident be reported by the student?

Should the student report the incident?

d. Must the musicians play the sonata?

Must the sonata be played by the musicians?

e. Might that player leave the team?

That player might leave the team?

11. a. Call

The director who should

b. Call

Who should The director

d. Eat

What can joanne

e. Bake

Terry Might


f. Bring

Anne Could

What Gathering

g. Hit

the Lightning

What did

1. a. synonym

b. antonym

c. antonym

d. antonym

e. antonym

f. synonym

g. synonym

h. antonym

2. a. polysemy

b. polysemy

c. A polysemy

d. homophony

e. homophony

f. polysemy

g. polysemy

3. a. paraphrase

b. entailment

c. paraphrase

5. cat, kitten: feline, animal. Dog, puppy: canine, animal.

ii. man-boy, woman-girl are separated by gender iii. shape. The problem encountered is that they are not similar objects and they are…… [read more]

Difference Between Language and Culture Term Paper

… ¶ … Deborah Fallow's Dreaming in Chinese and how the Chinese language influences the Chinese worldview

Language and culture article review: Deborah Fallow's Dreaming in Chinese and how the Chinese language influences the Chinese worldview

When Deborah Fallows traveled to… [read more]

Saussure on Language: Ferdinand De Essay

… Saussure on Language:

Ferdinand de Saussure, who is widely considered as the most significant linguistic theorist of the 20th Century, mainly concentrated on the foundational system that permits daily speech practices. As compared to other linguists, Saussure is credited for transforming the study of language because of his focus was beyond surface utterances. In his work, Saussure differentiated language system and speech practices usually known as langue and parole respectively. According to him, utterances basically function as carriers of ideas or names when a complete language system is disguised in each speech ("Structuralism & Poststructuralism" par, 2). In fact, Saussure uses to illustrations to prove this point with the first being the example of a leaf exposes the whole invisible structure when transversally cut. Secondly, he compares language to a game of chess where every move is governed by the regulations of the game.

One of the major reasons why Saussure is considered as one of the most important linguistic theorist is because of his creative argument that language are symbols that consist of:

Obvious Sound Image (Signifier):

The fundamental linguistic unit consist of two parts which are sound image and concept with sound image referring to the mental imprint of the sound (or the thoughts it creates) rather than the physical sound itself. For example, when an individual is talking to him/herself, he/she does not necessarily make a physical sound but rather possesses an impression of what he/she is saying (Klages par, 10). While every signifier or the obvious sound image has value, different languages allocate different values to signifiers with the value being determined by the relation between various signifiers. Consequently, each signifier operates within the language system and the set of relations between diversely linked terms for it to be of value. The value of a signifier is its ability to function as the indicator of a certain thing or grammatical operation.

Mental Concept (Signified):

In explaining the mental concept of language, Saussure uses the example of a tree where the sound image of a tree routinely invoke the concept…… [read more]

English Language Acquisition Among Latino Immigrants Literature Review

… ¶ … Connected Immigrant Communities

Chaney (2010) reports that there has been a large influx of Hispanic immigrants to Nashville, Tennessee over the last two decades. This large number of immigrants to the area has led to the establishment of… [read more]

Oakland School Board Ebonics Resolution and the Controversy Term Paper

… Ebonics Resolution Ebonics Controversy


"For optimal development and learning of all children, educators must accept the legitimacy of children's home language, respect (hold in high regard) and value (esteem, appreciate) the home cul-ture, and promote and… [read more]

Linguistics Syntax Minimalist Theory Term Paper

… EPP and "There" construction in English

The question of how humans develop language capabilities has been a question that researchers have grappled with for many years. The question has divided theorist into two ideologically different camps of thought. The first… [read more]

Argue That Language Is Not Innate Research Paper

… ¶ … Language Is Not Innate and That Is Innate

Argue That Language Is/Not Innate

It is apparent that language is an innate behavior to human species. Debate does arise, when one attempts to scrutinize the degree of genetic influence on human behavior. Many of human being abilities and limitations are innate in nature. Moreover a number of human being abilities are gained through human being's relations with the nature. This particular argument has been persisting on for many years, and popular attitudes have differed very much during this time. It is believed that the minds of newborn babies are vacant slates which will be distinguished and changed simply through sensory familiarity. Contemporary biological determinism symbolizes the other extreme. In its stringent form, this belief implies that behaviors are natural and innate. Furthermore it argues that behaviors emanate from the expression of genes (Gardner, 89). A good number academics devote to a view someplace between these two extremes. Those who think that language is gained through scholarly processes general to all knowledge acquiring processes and those who do not think in an inherent language faculty expounds the proof presented above in a different way. In accordance with the advocators of the nurture hypothesis, human beings are further complex in comparison with other creatures since they are capable of using language, rather than the other way around. (Chomsky, 4) do deem that language is an innate faculty. He also believes in worldwide aspects of language and of language acquirement in human beings. The mind is an organ whose principle function is to control the behavior of the body in surrounding to attain continued existence. This is truthful of all the kinds' of species from the snail to the human being. It has been revealed through experimentation that learning takes place in the links between neurons. Language moreover executes a double role. Not simply should language be capable of bringing about changes in the environment. It should also be capable of fitting the scholarly abilities which human beings possess. Thus, language as a tool would not be supportive if it insisted more of our…… [read more]

Language and Literacy Development in Young Children Essay

… Language and Literacy Development

There are a number of factors that affect the readiness for an individual's acquisition and development of written communication skills. Both muscular and cognitive development must progress to a certain point in order to facilitate the ability to make meaningful communications through a written medium. For most children, the muscular development occurs first, with the ability to grasp a writing implement such as a crayon progressing to the drawing of scribbles, and to eventually to more purposefully formed though still awkward shapes. After this, the cognitive recognition of letters and the knowledge of their shapes and sounds are necessary for the progression of written communication skills. Such knowledge coupled with the motor abilities enabling the "drawing" of specific and intentional letter-shapes is what, by definition, constitutes writing.

Theorist and researcher Jean Piaget suggested that the reflexive knowledge all species appear to be born with leads, in humans, to the construction of certain adapted schemes of understanding and manipulating the environment. The continuing adaptation and adjustment of these constructed schemes make up the stages of cognitive development, according to Piaget's theory. The sensorimotor stage takes place during infancy, and is marked by purely physical and non-symbolic interaction with the world; the pre-operational stage, exhibited by toddlers and those in early childhood, language use develops and becomes more refined. The concrete operational stage is when logic can be used to understand manipulations of real-world environmental factors, and the formal operational stage reached in late childhood allows for abstract thinking.

At this early stage, it would be premature (and thus largely frustrating and futile) to try and spark concrete signs of language development -- neither the necessary muscle control for the mouth, voice box, and other physical structures involved in the production of language nor the cognitive development of the vast majority of six-month-old infants will be up to the task of producing language. Simply talking to the infant, naming objects and people as the infant views them or comes into physical contact with them (with the latter being preferable, as this is how infants process the majority of the information they receive at this stage of their cognitive development) can promote the development of the cognitive skills necessary for language development. Again, however, it is unlikely that evidence of such progress will emerge at such a young age or this…… [read more]

T Chart Second Language Acquisition A2 Coursework

… ¶ … Second Language T-Chart

Help vs. hinder: Factors promoting and inhibiting second language acquisition

Low level of linguistic distance (learning a Romantic language like Portuguese is relatively easy for a native Spanish speaker) versus a high level of linguistic difference (learning a tonal language like Chinese is a greater challenge for native non-tonal language speakers)

Knowing the standard dialect of one's native language vs. A non-standard dialect

Strong academic preparation in languages and other academic subjects vs. little preparation for the rigors of an academic environment. (Additionally, a high informal level of exposure to the new language vs. none at all is a factor in facilitating learning).

High level of personal motivation vs. little personal motivation to learn the new language

High support level at home and amongst the student's peers vs. hostility at home or amongst the student's peers

Contextual factors can have a great deal of influence upon a child's ability to acquire a second language. The relative linguistic distance between the child's native and second language, both in sound and appearance on the page can both be factors in ease of acquisition. Learning a new alphabet for a Russian speaker, or a new writing system for a Chinese or Japanese speaker, are additional challenges when coping with an English language environment, versus learning English for a French or German speaker. For an English speaker learning a new language: "the basic intensive language course, which brings a student to an intermediate level, can be as short as 24 weeks for languages such as Dutch or Spanish, which are Indo-European languages and use the same writing system as English, or as long as 65 weeks for languages such as Arabic, Korean, or Vietnamese, which are members of other language families and use different writing systems" (Walqui 2000). Also, the child's own language may itself be a dialect, with highly idiosyncratic sounds and constructions. This can make learning the rules of Standard English grammar more difficult than for a child who was brought up learning his or her language in a more conventional academic environment.

Tied to this notion of standardization is also the…… [read more]

Nheengatu: A Not-So Dead Language Thesis

… Nheengatu: A Not-So dead language

There has been a recent drive to preserve so-called dead languages. A dead language "is a language which is no longer learned as a native language," which means that it is a language that has… [read more]

English Idioms Research Proposal

… Linguistics

English Idioms

An idiom is a phrase that when the words are taken together they have a different meaning from the dictionary definitions of the individual words. This is what makes idioms hard for ESL students and other learners… [read more]

Country for Study of Language Use Canada Thesis

… Canadian Languages

An Examination of Canadian Official Bilingual Policy and Other Multi-Lingual Factors at Work in Canada

Historical and Current Linguistic Factors

Canada is a large country in terms of geographic area, and its history and society incorporate many diverse… [read more]

Language and Comprehension Thesis

… Language and Comprehension are both skills that are essential for learning. Without these two entities, society would not have the capacity to function. A great deal of research has been conducted concerning the importance of these two elements, specifically as… [read more]

English as 2nd Language Learning New Languages Research Proposal

… English as 2nd Language

Learning new languages are fun and interesting but they can be difficult as well. Through language, we can also get a glimpse of a society's culture and structure. English, as a language, eases our communication process and bridges global barriers. These are some of the importance of learning English.

For those who are not native speakers of this language, there are certain difficulties and areas of ease that can be encountered.

In my case, one of my strengths in writing in English as my second language is my thorough understanding of the grammatical structure or syntax of this language. I find my lessons in grammatical structure very interesting which makes it easier to understand. Subsequently, writing with correct grammatical structure can be met with ease.

However, there are certain areas which I found difficult with the English language. Firstly, the vastness of the English vocabulary makes it difficult for me…… [read more]

Memory and Language Essay

… Language and Memory Issues

The Nature and Function of Semantic Memory:

According to a widely accepted theory of memory, the two principle components of long-term memory are episodic memory and semantic memory (Robinson-Riegler, 207). Whereas episodic memory pertains to knowledge based on first-hand personal experiences, semantic memory describes memory or knowledge of events and circumstances acquired indirectly such as through communication through academic learning or information communicated through narrative processes (Robinson-Riegler, 207).

Typically, semantic memory is devoid of the contextual elements such as the specific circumstances under which those memories were formed. Ordinarily, the contextual elements of episodic memories are inseparable from the informational content of the memories; by contrast, semantic memory of the same events are usually not associated with the specific circumstances surrounding their formation (Robinson-Riegler, 207).

For example, the episodic memory of witnessing the assassination of President John F. Kennedy in person is inseparable from the circumstances prevailing at the moment of memory formation and most individuals who witnessed that tragic event cannot discuss that event without vividly recalling their emotional reaction at the time that memory was established. However, individuals who learned of the same event from history books and televised documentaries generally do not associate the knowledge of the event with any of the specific circumstances of the moment when their factual memory of the event was formed. By definition, semantic memory allows the individual to remember a much broader range of information than that which is experienced personally.

The Basic Functions of Language:

In general, language is crucial to most animal species because it enables individuals to communicate important information for survival (Robinson-Riegler, 429). That information includes expressions of aggressive and non-aggressive intention, warnings about environmental threats, displays of dominance or submission, the location of food and other resources, as well as mating solicitations and their acceptance or rejection (Robinson-Riegler, 429-430).

In humans, communication is much more precise than it is among most non-human species. Primarily because it is significantly less rigid than the languages established by non-human animals. Whereas the languages used by animal species can communicate basic circumstances directly such as the presence of a threat, they are not capable of communicated more subtle concepts such as describing a threat experienced yesterday or concerns over a threat that might materialize tomorrow (Robinson-Riegler, 429).

Many evolutionary biologists and anthropologists believe that human language was the principle reason that Homo sapiens evolved a much more complex brain and more dynamic societies than other animal species. Specifically, the elements of recursion, phonology, morphology, grammatical structure, and word association in human language (Robinson-Riegler, 434) helped select for increasingly intelligent individuals. In the same respect, it was likely the capacity of complex human language that enabled multi-generational learning that was essential for technological progress and the accumulation of relevant knowledge that is either totally unique…… [read more]

Linguistics Web Field Trip Thesis

… Linguistic Field Trip

In Robeson County, North Carolina, a situation that is of interest to many linguists exists. An ethnically diverse community made up of primarily African-Americans, Native Americans, and Anglo-Americans, the community has remained relatively segregated since its founding. Linguists are interested in this situation because it allows them to study how the English of a Native American community compared with the English of surroundings.

The dialect of Oracoke Island, North Carolina was shaped by those who migrated from different locations in England. According to the North Carolina Language and Life Project, most of those who settled in the South in the United States were actually from the South of England as well, although some from the East of England also settled in this area. Because the current dialect of the area is based on Middle English, it is true that these different varieties of Middle English influenced the development of the linguistic situation in the area. The Scots-Irish dialect…… [read more]

Student Language Production Essay

… ¶ … Student Language Production

Difficulties with English for native French speakers

Compared with other foreign languages, English and French share some notable similarities. French is an Indo-European language and part of the Romance family, along with Spanish and Italian, and English has borrowed liberally from all of the Romance languages. "The English language was strongly influenced by the introduction of French at the time of the Norman invasion of Britain in the 11th century. As a result the two languages share many grammatical features and contain many cognates," as well as share the same a 26 letter alphabet (Vu 2008). Many English words are derived from French and unofficial French slang has incorporated many American English idoyms, like le Big Mac.

However, in terms of phonology, "there are some notable differences in the sound systems of the two languages that can cause French learners problems of comprehension and speech production," such as sounds that do not exist in French but exist in English (Vu 2008). "The tip of the tongue is not used in speaking French, so "learners often have problems with words containing the letters th (/? / / o/), such as then, think and clothes" (Vu 2008). The / h / sound does not exist in French, so French speakers may often forget to make the sound, as in the example "Ave you 'eard about 'arry? Or they may overcompensate by pronouncing the / h / in words like hour (Vu 2008). More generalized errors that occur amongst ESL speakers are spelling errors due to the "frequent lack of correspondence between the pronunciation of English words and their spelling" and unpredictable stress patterns of English words. French word stress is regular, in contrast to French. English also has more vowel reduction or swallowing of word syllables, which can give a distinct sound to English spoken by a native French speaker (Vu 2008). When speaking, the French place their stress at end of each rhythmic group while English is much more irregular in stress patterns. In English there is a stressed syllable in each word, stressed…… [read more]

Foreign Language Competence a Strategic Issue for Business in Libya Research Proposal

… Foreign Language Competence: A Strategic Issue for Business in Libya

The nation of Libya has transformed itself from an international pariah by renouncing terrorism to an increasingly willing partner in the international community in recent years, and it is becoming apparent that things are changing in substantive ways in the country today (Libya, 2009). In this environment, identifying opportunities for improving the ability of the Libyan business community to compete in a globalized marketplace has assumed new relevance and importance, which represents the major focus of the proposed study which is discussed further below.

The major aim of the proposed study is to identify appropriate avenues by which the nation's youth can gain increased competence in the lingua franca of the international business community, whether it is French, English or Chinese. This major aim will be achieved by accomplishing the certain objectives, which are represented by the research questions listed below:

A. What is the current state of affairs as it pertains to the delivery of foreign language instruction in Libyan schools?

B. What foreign languages are currently available for instruction?

C. Are there best practices available from other similar situated countries that can be used to good effect in Libya today?

D. How can foreign language competence in general and competence in the lingua franca of the international business community be improved in particular?

3. Methodology:

review of the available research methodologies suggests that a mixed methodology would be most appropriate to achieve the above-stated research aims and objectives. The first part of the research methodology will consist of a critical review of the relevant peer-reviewed and scholarly literature concerning Libya, and the importance of foreign language competence today. The first part of the mixed methodology is highly congruent with numerous social researchers who emphasize the need to review what is known as well as to identify existing gaps in the literature (Neuman, 2003). In this regard,…… [read more]

Language Learning One of the Major Debates Thesis

… Language Learning

One of the major debates in psychology today concerns the human ability to develop and utilize language skills, the feature of humanity that has long been thought to separate us from the rest of the animal kingdom. On… [read more]

Language Instinct Essay

… ¶ … Language Instinct

How are the Esthetic Systems of Music and Dance Related to the Language Instinct?

Steven Pinker asserts that all languages have a grammar, or a set of rules for word placement that affects not only the… [read more]

Hamlet's Language Hamlet Is a Very Complex Research Proposal

… Hamlet's Language

Hamlet is a very complex play with many layers. The tile character often speaks his mind to the audience, but a lot about his character can be gleaned simply from the language he speaks, without even going to the collective meaning of the words he says. Throughout the play, Hamlet's language is negative and hesitant, much like the brooding and indecisive Prince of Denmark himself.

It doesn't take long for this fact to make itself evident. In Act I, scene 2, Hamlet's first with the King and his mother the Queen, his first speech of any length contains nine "nay's, "no's, "not's, and "nor's (I, ii, 76-81). His tone here is anything but uncertain as he describes himself; he seems very certain, but always in the negative, defining always what he is not instead of what he is. This habit of thinking in the negative is further emphasized later in the scene during Hamlet's first soliloquy: "O that this too solid flesh would melt, / Thaw and resolve itself into a dew!" (I, ii, 129-30). Hamlet goes on to wish for many things to have not happened, and prays that other things will not happen -- but he does not wish for any…… [read more]

Language as it Relates to Cognition Term Paper

… Language as it Relates to Cognition

What comes first, language or the concepts that generate a language? This question has divided and perplexed linguists for decades. However, recent advances in the field of cognitive science have been able to illuminate… [read more]

Linguistic Big Bang Term Paper

… Linguistics

Nicaraguan Sign Language, Idioma de Signos Nicaraguense (ISN) proves that human beings are born with at least some innate capacity to construct language. The sign language evolved when Nicaragua first started offering specialized public education to the country's deaf children. The children were not told to develop a language and nor did they have any cues as to how to develop syntax and grammar but those core elements of language did develop nonetheless. Moreover, the teachers at the deaf school had no formal educational training and thus could not and did not impose onto the students the rules or the vocabulary of Spanish.

Linguists are especially fascinated with ISN because the sign language offers the unique opportunity to study the genesis of language from a number of disciplinary perspectives including neuroscience. Complex nuances of language like subject-verb agreement, evolved in ISN out of nowhere, illustrating a previously unproven instinctual aspect…… [read more]

Extinct and Endangered Languages Term Paper

… Threatened Languages

The, major languages of the world are spoken by millions of people, but there're languages with far fewer speakers, languages that may go extinct within the next few years as the number of speakers dwindle and as other… [read more]

Language Growth How Does Language Growth Affect Term Paper

… Language Growth

How does language growth affect student's reading development?

Contrary to popular wisdom, a child's development as a reader does not begin the first time he or she picks up a book. The child's development as a future reader begins at birth, the first time he or she hears spoken language. A child's future reading skill is based upon a child's awareness and facility in spoken language, which teaches the child such important concepts as the fact that words are separate units of spoken language and that words are made up of units called letters that divided into separate sounds (Cartwright, 1994).

This awareness of spoken language is especially important to learn a language based upon a written alphabet like English. An alphabet is a symbolic system of communication. Children must learn to connect spoken sounds with abstract written symbols called letters to be able to read the printed word. Playing language games, singing, as well as being read…… [read more]

ELL Language Acquisition in English Language Learners Term Paper


Language Acquisition in English Language Learners


Language Acquisition in English Language Learners

The United States is a country of immigrants, and has been since its inception. However, until relatively recently, immigration did not pose a significant problem for… [read more]

Second Language Acquisition Term Paper

… Second Language Acquisition

The objective of this work is to examine how children acquire a second language through social interaction and environment through supporting Vygotsky's theory in second language acquisition with a focus on school age children seven years of… [read more]

Phonological Rules in Language Phonology Term Paper

… Phonological Rules in Language

Phonology is essentially the linguistic subfield in which examines and dissects the system of sound, including the semantic relationship between different sounds (Schramm, 2001). Phonological rules function in language acquisition to aid in the development of characteristics that are integral to correct pronunciation of words. The understanding of phonological rules is of the utmost importance for language teachers because a grasp of these rules results in pronunciations that are more native-like in nature (Schramm, 2001). Phonological systems are complex and always involve more than one rule, and rules are considered either to be transparent, or with a context that is visible, or opaque, with a context that is not visible (Johnson).

There are four main types of phonological rules in language. These categories are assimilation, dissimilation, insertion and deletion (Scramm, 2001). The phonological rule of assimilation refers to the process of a sound becoming more similar to a neighboring sound (Scramm, 2001). A key example of this rule is nasalization, in which a vowel preceding a nasal consonant assimilates, or becomes more similar by taking on a nasal-like quality. The phonological rule of assimilation is prevalent in all languages (Scramm, 2001).

On the other hand, dissimilation is a phonological rule that functions opposite to assimilation. With dissimilation, two neighboring sounds become less similar to each other (Scramm, 2001). Fricative dissimilation is an example of this phonological rule. This is where it is necessary to pronounce two fricatives next to each other, such in the numbers "fifth" and "sixth." Non-native speakers of English often find it challenging to master these types of sound sequences (Scramm, 2001). Language instructors may ease the acquisition of these pronunciations by clearly outlining the processes involved in these dissimilar sounds.

Another type of…… [read more]

Language Is Fundamentally a Verbal Communication Code Term Paper

… Language is fundamentally a verbal communication code. Although animals do not develop the complex lexicons humans do, many species do engage in some form of linguistic discourse. Human beings are by far the most linguistically rich species on Earth, and… [read more]

Free Word Order Scrambling Term Paper

… Linguistics Free Word Order, Scrambling

Linguistics: Free Word Order, Scrambling

This work conducts a review of historical and recent literature related to 'free word order' languages, or those, which use 'scrambling' in sentence structure placement of nouns and verbs. The… [read more]

Computer Assisted Writing Learning: Applied Linguistics Term Paper

… Computer Assisted Writing Learning: Applied Linguistics

In the work entitled: "Introduction to Computational Linguistics: Computer-Assisted Language Learning" it is related that there are "variables such as the learner's proficiency level and goals, whether the language is being learned in a… [read more]

Teaching Foreign Language to Infants Term Paper

… Teaching Foreign Language to Infants

Consider the following facts and/or statistics (,2004):

Most populace in the regions of southern China, are usually Cantonese-Chinese speaking and Mandarin- Chinese speaking

In ex-Soviet republics and Warsaw Pact countries, many people are fluently speaking… [read more]

How Language Affects People Term Paper

… ¶ … Language Affects People -- the Power of Language

It is often said that a picture is worth a thousand words. However, despite the fact that visual images are powerful, and the modern era is a very visual place, given the predominance of television, movies, and the Internet in terms of how people receive information and communicate with one another, language is still one of the most powerful interpersonal mediums of communication in existence today.

There are over 6,800 known languages spoken in the 200 countries of the world. ("Language Dictionary," 2006, All languages, within their own frameworks, have words with imaginative associations that can affect the listener in profound ways. Although images may be powerful, words can create an image for the listener or the reader that is more evocative than a photograph or a painting. A picture of an apple may make the fruit merely seem flat and shiny, but only an evocative description such as a "crisp, crimson apple," by using alliteration, can suggest to another person what it feels like and sounds like when a hungry individual bites…… [read more]

Second Language Acquisition Term Paper

… Second Language Acquisition

There is a very close relationship between second language acquisition and other areas of enquiry, and the fact that there are numerous ways in which to examine this issue means that the study of second language acquisition… [read more]

Language Development Among the Very Young Term Paper

… Language Acquisition

The ways in which young people go about learning how to talk have been the subject of an increasing amount of research in recent years. The research to date suggests that there are some commonalities involved that can… [read more]

Language and Communication Term Paper

… ¶ … world's small languages be saved" appeared in the August, 2000 issue of Harper's Magazine. In this beautiful piece of writing, Shorris talks about the extinction of small languages and partly holds globalization responsible for it. He also argues that inability to give higher education in indigenous languages is also the reason why weaker cultures are now at the brink of extinction.

Language is a very vital part of the whole cultural scheme. With the language being shunned by the people, it is only natural that culture would follow the death route too. "The weak must speak to the strong in the language of the strong.... The Darwinian way of the world bears some responsibility, globalization does the rest: movies, television, Reeboks, and the Internet." (p. 38) Shorris is basically concerned about the threat that small languages are facing.

Shorris argues that languages on the whole are losing words, even the stronger ones like English but what is really disturbing about this is that if such a thing can happen to a very strong language; imagine what would happen to smaller languages. "English, as it is generally spoken, appears to be losing more words than it gains. You only need to look at the thin thesaurus that comes with your word-processing programs to see how the English language is losing its internal diversity." Citing the linguist Michael Krauss, Shorris writes that about 3,000 small languages in the world contribute around 50% of the known words and they are all sadly facing possible extinction.

The writer goes to explain why any language, strong or weak, big or small, minor or major is important. "It is not merely a writer's conceit to think that the human world is made of words and to remember that no two words in all the world's languages are alike. Of all the arts and sciences made by man, none equals a language, for only a language in its living entirety can describe a unique and irreplaceable world." (p. 43) He describes an experience where he realized that indigenous languages are far more colorful and expressive than the well-known widely spoken ones. Shorris comes to see why the existence of small languages is important and realizes that the extinction of these languages would be a huge loss to articulation and expression.

I saw this once, in the forest of southern Mexico, when a butterfly settled beside me. The color of it was a blue unlike any I had ever seen, hue and…… [read more]

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