"Language / Linguistics" Essays

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Argue That Language Is Not Innate Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (705 words)
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¶ … Language Is Not Innate and That Is Innate

Argue That Language Is/Not Innate

It is apparent that language is an innate behavior to human species. Debate does arise, when one attempts to scrutinize the degree of genetic influence on human behavior. Many of human being abilities and limitations are innate in nature. Moreover a number of human being abilities are gained through human being's relations with the nature. This particular argument has been persisting on for many years, and popular attitudes have differed very much during this time. It is believed that the minds of newborn babies are vacant slates which will be distinguished and changed simply through sensory familiarity. Contemporary biological determinism symbolizes the other extreme. In its stringent form, this belief implies that behaviors are natural and innate. Furthermore it argues that behaviors emanate from the expression of genes (Gardner, 89). A good number academics devote to a view someplace between these two extremes. Those who think that language is gained through scholarly processes general to all knowledge acquiring processes and those who do not think in an inherent language faculty expounds the proof presented above in a different way. In accordance with the advocators of the nurture hypothesis, human beings are further complex in comparison with other creatures since they are capable of using language, rather than the other way around. (Chomsky, 4) do deem that language is an innate faculty. He also believes in worldwide aspects of language and of language acquirement in human beings. The mind is an organ whose principle function is to control the behavior of the body in surrounding to attain continued existence. This is truthful of all the kinds' of species from the snail to the human being. It has been revealed through experimentation that learning takes place in the links between neurons. Language moreover executes a double role. Not simply should language be capable of bringing about changes in the environment. It should also be capable of fitting the scholarly abilities which human beings possess. Thus, language as a tool would not be supportive if it insisted more of our…… [read more]


Language and Literacy Development in Young Children Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (785 words)
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Language and Literacy Development

There are a number of factors that affect the readiness for an individual's acquisition and development of written communication skills. Both muscular and cognitive development must progress to a certain point in order to facilitate the ability to make meaningful communications through a written medium. For most children, the muscular development occurs first, with the ability to grasp a writing implement such as a crayon progressing to the drawing of scribbles, and to eventually to more purposefully formed though still awkward shapes. After this, the cognitive recognition of letters and the knowledge of their shapes and sounds are necessary for the progression of written communication skills. Such knowledge coupled with the motor abilities enabling the "drawing" of specific and intentional letter-shapes is what, by definition, constitutes writing.

Theorist and researcher Jean Piaget suggested that the reflexive knowledge all species appear to be born with leads, in humans, to the construction of certain adapted schemes of understanding and manipulating the environment. The continuing adaptation and adjustment of these constructed schemes make up the stages of cognitive development, according to Piaget's theory. The sensorimotor stage takes place during infancy, and is marked by purely physical and non-symbolic interaction with the world; the pre-operational stage, exhibited by toddlers and those in early childhood, language use develops and becomes more refined. The concrete operational stage is when logic can be used to understand manipulations of real-world environmental factors, and the formal operational stage reached in late childhood allows for abstract thinking.

At this early stage, it would be premature (and thus largely frustrating and futile) to try and spark concrete signs of language development -- neither the necessary muscle control for the mouth, voice box, and other physical structures involved in the production of language nor the cognitive development of the vast majority of six-month-old infants will be up to the task of producing language. Simply talking to the infant, naming objects and people as the infant views them or comes into physical contact with them (with the latter being preferable, as this is how infants process the majority of the information they receive at this stage of their cognitive development) can promote the development of the cognitive skills necessary for language development. Again, however, it is unlikely that evidence of such progress will emerge at such a young age or this…… [read more]


T Chart Second Language Acquisition A2 Coursework

A2 Coursework  |  2 pages (710 words)
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¶ … Second Language T-Chart

Help vs. hinder: Factors promoting and inhibiting second language acquisition

Low level of linguistic distance (learning a Romantic language like Portuguese is relatively easy for a native Spanish speaker) versus a high level of linguistic difference (learning a tonal language like Chinese is a greater challenge for native non-tonal language speakers)

Knowing the standard dialect of one's native language vs. A non-standard dialect

Strong academic preparation in languages and other academic subjects vs. little preparation for the rigors of an academic environment. (Additionally, a high informal level of exposure to the new language vs. none at all is a factor in facilitating learning).

High level of personal motivation vs. little personal motivation to learn the new language

High support level at home and amongst the student's peers vs. hostility at home or amongst the student's peers

Contextual factors can have a great deal of influence upon a child's ability to acquire a second language. The relative linguistic distance between the child's native and second language, both in sound and appearance on the page can both be factors in ease of acquisition. Learning a new alphabet for a Russian speaker, or a new writing system for a Chinese or Japanese speaker, are additional challenges when coping with an English language environment, versus learning English for a French or German speaker. For an English speaker learning a new language: "the basic intensive language course, which brings a student to an intermediate level, can be as short as 24 weeks for languages such as Dutch or Spanish, which are Indo-European languages and use the same writing system as English, or as long as 65 weeks for languages such as Arabic, Korean, or Vietnamese, which are members of other language families and use different writing systems" (Walqui 2000). Also, the child's own language may itself be a dialect, with highly idiosyncratic sounds and constructions. This can make learning the rules of Standard English grammar more difficult than for a child who was brought up learning his or her language in a more conventional academic environment.

Tied to this notion of standardization is also the…… [read more]


Nheengatu: A Not-So Dead Language Thesis

Thesis  |  7 pages (2,055 words)
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Nheengatu: A Not-So dead language

There has been a recent drive to preserve so-called dead languages. A dead language "is a language which is no longer learned as a native language," which means that it is a language that has usually become static and fixed, and incorporates no new vocabulary from the modern world (What is, 2009, Wise Geek). There… [read more]


English Idioms Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  13 pages (4,304 words)
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Linguistics

English Idioms

An idiom is a phrase that when the words are taken together they have a different meaning from the dictionary definitions of the individual words. This is what makes idioms hard for ESL students and other learners to master (English Idioms & Idiomatic Expressions, 2009). English idioms are often fun and useful, but they are sometimes very… [read more]


Country for Study of Language Use Canada Thesis

Thesis  |  8 pages (2,232 words)
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Canadian Languages

An Examination of Canadian Official Bilingual Policy and Other Multi-Lingual Factors at Work in Canada

Historical and Current Linguistic Factors

Canada is a large country in terms of geographic area, and its history and society incorporate many diverse people and different languages. The country occupies over nine-million square miles of land -- almost seven percent of the Earth's… [read more]


Language and Comprehension Thesis

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Language and Comprehension are both skills that are essential for learning. Without these two entities, society would not have the capacity to function. A great deal of research has been conducted concerning the importance of these two elements, specifically as it pertains to education and classroom practices.

Pinell (1975) and Ketch (2005), both have views on the importance of language… [read more]


English as 2nd Language Learning New Languages Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  1 pages (309 words)
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English as 2nd Language

Learning new languages are fun and interesting but they can be difficult as well. Through language, we can also get a glimpse of a society's culture and structure. English, as a language, eases our communication process and bridges global barriers. These are some of the importance of learning English.

For those who are not native speakers of this language, there are certain difficulties and areas of ease that can be encountered.

In my case, one of my strengths in writing in English as my second language is my thorough understanding of the grammatical structure or syntax of this language. I find my lessons in grammatical structure very interesting which makes it easier to understand. Subsequently, writing with correct grammatical structure can be met with ease.

However, there are certain areas which I found difficult with the English language. Firstly, the vastness of the English vocabulary makes it difficult for me…… [read more]


Memory and Language Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (936 words)
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Language and Memory Issues

The Nature and Function of Semantic Memory:

According to a widely accepted theory of memory, the two principle components of long-term memory are episodic memory and semantic memory (Robinson-Riegler, 207). Whereas episodic memory pertains to knowledge based on first-hand personal experiences, semantic memory describes memory or knowledge of events and circumstances acquired indirectly such as through communication through academic learning or information communicated through narrative processes (Robinson-Riegler, 207).

Typically, semantic memory is devoid of the contextual elements such as the specific circumstances under which those memories were formed. Ordinarily, the contextual elements of episodic memories are inseparable from the informational content of the memories; by contrast, semantic memory of the same events are usually not associated with the specific circumstances surrounding their formation (Robinson-Riegler, 207).

For example, the episodic memory of witnessing the assassination of President John F. Kennedy in person is inseparable from the circumstances prevailing at the moment of memory formation and most individuals who witnessed that tragic event cannot discuss that event without vividly recalling their emotional reaction at the time that memory was established. However, individuals who learned of the same event from history books and televised documentaries generally do not associate the knowledge of the event with any of the specific circumstances of the moment when their factual memory of the event was formed. By definition, semantic memory allows the individual to remember a much broader range of information than that which is experienced personally.

The Basic Functions of Language:

In general, language is crucial to most animal species because it enables individuals to communicate important information for survival (Robinson-Riegler, 429). That information includes expressions of aggressive and non-aggressive intention, warnings about environmental threats, displays of dominance or submission, the location of food and other resources, as well as mating solicitations and their acceptance or rejection (Robinson-Riegler, 429-430).

In humans, communication is much more precise than it is among most non-human species. Primarily because it is significantly less rigid than the languages established by non-human animals. Whereas the languages used by animal species can communicate basic circumstances directly such as the presence of a threat, they are not capable of communicated more subtle concepts such as describing a threat experienced yesterday or concerns over a threat that might materialize tomorrow (Robinson-Riegler, 429).

Many evolutionary biologists and anthropologists believe that human language was the principle reason that Homo sapiens evolved a much more complex brain and more dynamic societies than other animal species. Specifically, the elements of recursion, phonology, morphology, grammatical structure, and word association in human language (Robinson-Riegler, 434) helped select for increasingly intelligent individuals. In the same respect, it was likely the capacity of complex human language that enabled multi-generational learning that was essential for technological progress and the accumulation of relevant knowledge that is either totally unique…… [read more]


Linguistics Web Field Trip Thesis

Thesis  |  1 pages (322 words)
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Linguistic Field Trip

In Robeson County, North Carolina, a situation that is of interest to many linguists exists. An ethnically diverse community made up of primarily African-Americans, Native Americans, and Anglo-Americans, the community has remained relatively segregated since its founding. Linguists are interested in this situation because it allows them to study how the English of a Native American community compared with the English of surroundings.

The dialect of Oracoke Island, North Carolina was shaped by those who migrated from different locations in England. According to the North Carolina Language and Life Project, most of those who settled in the South in the United States were actually from the South of England as well, although some from the East of England also settled in this area. Because the current dialect of the area is based on Middle English, it is true that these different varieties of Middle English influenced the development of the linguistic situation in the area. The Scots-Irish dialect…… [read more]


Student Language Production Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (696 words)
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¶ … Student Language Production

Difficulties with English for native French speakers

Compared with other foreign languages, English and French share some notable similarities. French is an Indo-European language and part of the Romance family, along with Spanish and Italian, and English has borrowed liberally from all of the Romance languages. "The English language was strongly influenced by the introduction of French at the time of the Norman invasion of Britain in the 11th century. As a result the two languages share many grammatical features and contain many cognates," as well as share the same a 26 letter alphabet (Vu 2008). Many English words are derived from French and unofficial French slang has incorporated many American English idoyms, like le Big Mac.

However, in terms of phonology, "there are some notable differences in the sound systems of the two languages that can cause French learners problems of comprehension and speech production," such as sounds that do not exist in French but exist in English (Vu 2008). "The tip of the tongue is not used in speaking French, so "learners often have problems with words containing the letters th (/? / / o/), such as then, think and clothes" (Vu 2008). The / h / sound does not exist in French, so French speakers may often forget to make the sound, as in the example "Ave you 'eard about 'arry? Or they may overcompensate by pronouncing the / h / in words like hour (Vu 2008). More generalized errors that occur amongst ESL speakers are spelling errors due to the "frequent lack of correspondence between the pronunciation of English words and their spelling" and unpredictable stress patterns of English words. French word stress is regular, in contrast to French. English also has more vowel reduction or swallowing of word syllables, which can give a distinct sound to English spoken by a native French speaker (Vu 2008). When speaking, the French place their stress at end of each rhythmic group while English is much more irregular in stress patterns. In English there is a stressed syllable in each word, stressed…… [read more]


Foreign Language Competence a Strategic Issue for Business in Libya Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  2 pages (637 words)
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Foreign Language Competence: A Strategic Issue for Business in Libya

The nation of Libya has transformed itself from an international pariah by renouncing terrorism to an increasingly willing partner in the international community in recent years, and it is becoming apparent that things are changing in substantive ways in the country today (Libya, 2009). In this environment, identifying opportunities for improving the ability of the Libyan business community to compete in a globalized marketplace has assumed new relevance and importance, which represents the major focus of the proposed study which is discussed further below.

The major aim of the proposed study is to identify appropriate avenues by which the nation's youth can gain increased competence in the lingua franca of the international business community, whether it is French, English or Chinese. This major aim will be achieved by accomplishing the certain objectives, which are represented by the research questions listed below:

A. What is the current state of affairs as it pertains to the delivery of foreign language instruction in Libyan schools?

B. What foreign languages are currently available for instruction?

C. Are there best practices available from other similar situated countries that can be used to good effect in Libya today?

D. How can foreign language competence in general and competence in the lingua franca of the international business community be improved in particular?

3. Methodology:

review of the available research methodologies suggests that a mixed methodology would be most appropriate to achieve the above-stated research aims and objectives. The first part of the research methodology will consist of a critical review of the relevant peer-reviewed and scholarly literature concerning Libya, and the importance of foreign language competence today. The first part of the mixed methodology is highly congruent with numerous social researchers who emphasize the need to review what is known as well as to identify existing gaps in the literature (Neuman, 2003). In this regard,…… [read more]


Language Learning One of the Major Debates Thesis

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Language Learning

One of the major debates in psychology today concerns the human ability to develop and utilize language skills, the feature of humanity that has long been thought to separate us from the rest of the animal kingdom. On one side of the argument are the neurobiologists and other scientists and researchers who study the brain, many of whom believe that language is a skill we are innately born to; that is, they believe that human beings are hard-wired for language, and that it is something that would develop in an individual regardless of their cognitive or learning circumstances. The other side of te argument s, as might be expected, that language is a learned trait just like most other aspects pf human behavior and skill, and that the basic rules and processes which govern cognitive growth and ability are just as applicable to language as the are to anything else. The likelihood is that this argument will never be settled; the ethical and medical barriers to performing a controlled experiment concerning the development of language in pre-language infants renders this option simply unviable. A careful study of the current research and literature, however, can reveal many insights into this issue. The conclusion most soundly verified by current research is that while humans do have an innate predisposition to the learning, adaptation, and use of language, this is not sufficient for the actual adoption of language by an individual, and learning behaviors must also be present for the innate language potential to be met.

Some very powerful, if convoluted, arguments for the cognitive basis of language can be made by examining other mental phenomena that seem isolated to human beings. For instance, Michael Corballis (2009) reviewed an overwhelming amount of literature regarding the human capacity for episodic memory -- the ability to remember past events and mentally imagine and project future events and outcomes -- and one of his conclusions was that this had and has a large impact on the development of language (Corballis 2009). Corballis goes on to suggest that episodic memory, which he entertainingly dubs "mental time travel," must have evolved in tandem with language abilities, and that both most likely appeared and grew as the human brain grew larger (Corballis 2009). This suggests both the innate wiring for language and the cognitive need for learning it -- the human brain has the capacity for episodic memory and language, but Corballis never suggests that these things sprang fully-formed from the human brain, but rather that they developed slowly as the capacity fro thought and the need for expression coincided. It is this latter need that drives the cognitive processes, not simply the larger brain.

Morten Christiansen and Nick Chater (2008) would agree strongly with this sentiment. Their examination of what is known as the Universal Grammar or UG led them to the conclusion that "biologically determined UG is not evolutionarily viable. Instead, the original motivation for UG - the mesh between learners and languages - arises… [read more]


Language Instinct Essay

Essay  |  6 pages (1,647 words)
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¶ … Language Instinct

How are the Esthetic Systems of Music and Dance Related to the Language Instinct?

Steven Pinker asserts that all languages have a grammar, or a set of rules for word placement that affects not only the esthetic quality, but also the meaning of the communication. Words, sounds and signs can be arranged in an infinite number… [read more]


Hamlet's Language Hamlet Is a Very Complex Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  1 pages (410 words)
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Hamlet's Language

Hamlet is a very complex play with many layers. The tile character often speaks his mind to the audience, but a lot about his character can be gleaned simply from the language he speaks, without even going to the collective meaning of the words he says. Throughout the play, Hamlet's language is negative and hesitant, much like the brooding and indecisive Prince of Denmark himself.

It doesn't take long for this fact to make itself evident. In Act I, scene 2, Hamlet's first with the King and his mother the Queen, his first speech of any length contains nine "nay's, "no's, "not's, and "nor's (I, ii, 76-81). His tone here is anything but uncertain as he describes himself; he seems very certain, but always in the negative, defining always what he is not instead of what he is. This habit of thinking in the negative is further emphasized later in the scene during Hamlet's first soliloquy: "O that this too solid flesh would melt, / Thaw and resolve itself into a dew!" (I, ii, 129-30). Hamlet goes on to wish for many things to have not happened, and prays that other things will not happen -- but he does not wish for any…… [read more]


Language as it Relates to Cognition Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,513 words)
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Language as it Relates to Cognition

What comes first, language or the concepts that generate a language? This question has divided and perplexed linguists for decades. However, recent advances in the field of cognitive science have been able to illuminate this debate, although it provides no final answers -- in fact, it may make the question even more complex. What… [read more]


Linguistic Big Bang Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (303 words)
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Linguistics

Nicaraguan Sign Language, Idioma de Signos Nicaraguense (ISN) proves that human beings are born with at least some innate capacity to construct language. The sign language evolved when Nicaragua first started offering specialized public education to the country's deaf children. The children were not told to develop a language and nor did they have any cues as to how to develop syntax and grammar but those core elements of language did develop nonetheless. Moreover, the teachers at the deaf school had no formal educational training and thus could not and did not impose onto the students the rules or the vocabulary of Spanish.

Linguists are especially fascinated with ISN because the sign language offers the unique opportunity to study the genesis of language from a number of disciplinary perspectives including neuroscience. Complex nuances of language like subject-verb agreement, evolved in ISN out of nowhere, illustrating a previously unproven instinctual aspect…… [read more]


Extinct and Endangered Languages Term Paper

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Threatened Languages

The, major languages of the world are spoken by millions of people, but there're languages with far fewer speakers, languages that may go extinct within the next few years as the number of speakers dwindle and as other forces change the language until it is unrecognizable. The process of the extinction of language has been ongoing for centuries, and many languages once spoken widely in a given area are no longer understood by anyone today. A recent report suggests that more than half the languages now in use could disappear by the end of this century.

It is estimated that there have been more than 130,000 languages over the last 100,000 years. The peak of diversity was reached 10,000-year ago when there were 12,000 languages in use. There are about 6,700 languages in use today, and more than half of these languages are spoken by fewer than 10,000 people. These are the most endangered languages, and many are found in the Americas and in Australia, where 337 languages are spoken only by a few elderly people. These languages probably will not last beyond 2050 (Furniss, 2007, p. 53).

In the Americas, numerous Native American languages are endangered today, and one of the major ways these languages die out is that the last speaker dies and takes the knowledge with him. An obituary in 1996 noted the death of the last speaker of Catawba, his ancestral tongue. He had been unable to find anyone interested in learning it when he was alive. A reporter found Sangama, the last living speaker of Chamicuro, one of the 500 languages that once were common in the Peruvian Amazon:

According to linguists who track such things, at least half of the world's 6,000 languages will probably die out in the next century. Modern communications, migration and population growth have brought about a loss in cultural diversity that parallels the loss in biological diversity as wilderness areas have been cleared. Missionaries have also played a major role. In the school she attended as a child, Sangama remembers, missionaries used to make her kneel on corn if she spoke Chamicuro (Taylor, 2000, 1276).

Most of the languages that disappear are spoken languages only, so there is also no written record to be examined. Linguists note that only about five percent of existing languages can be considered safe, and these are languages that are spoken by at least a million people and that also have state backing. Hundreds of other languages are spoken only by a few elderly speakers, and these are likely to become extinct (Taylor, 2000, 1276).

Threatened languages can be found all over the world. Mayton (2006) notes the threat to Coptic, a language long thought virtually extinct and today existing only in the liturgical language of the Coptic Church in Egypt:

Coptic is a combination of the ancient Egyptian languages Demotic, Hieroglyphic and Hieratic. It was the language used by the Ptolemaic rulers of Egypt following the spread of Greek culture throughout… [read more]


Language Growth How Does Language Growth Affect Term Paper

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Language Growth

How does language growth affect student's reading development?

Contrary to popular wisdom, a child's development as a reader does not begin the first time he or she picks up a book. The child's development as a future reader begins at birth, the first time he or she hears spoken language. A child's future reading skill is based upon a child's awareness and facility in spoken language, which teaches the child such important concepts as the fact that words are separate units of spoken language and that words are made up of units called letters that divided into separate sounds (Cartwright, 1994).

This awareness of spoken language is especially important to learn a language based upon a written alphabet like English. An alphabet is a symbolic system of communication. Children must learn to connect spoken sounds with abstract written symbols called letters to be able to read the printed word. Playing language games, singing, as well as being read…… [read more]


ELL Language Acquisition in English Language Learners Term Paper

Term Paper  |  30 pages (9,381 words)
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ELL

Language Acquisition in English Language Learners

Significance

Language Acquisition in English Language Learners

The United States is a country of immigrants, and has been since its inception. However, until relatively recently, immigration did not pose a significant problem for the United States educational system or for many Americans because of the rigid cultural and social expectations for immigrants. New… [read more]


Second Language Acquisition Term Paper

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Second Language Acquisition

The objective of this work is to examine how children acquire a second language through social interaction and environment through supporting Vygotsky's theory in second language acquisition with a focus on school age children seven years of age and older.

Vygotsky viewed language as a "critical bridge between the sociocultural world and individual mental functioning" (Berk & Winsler, 1995; paraphrased; as cited in Clark, nd) and held that the acquisition of language is the most important achievement in the cognitive development of children. If language is what forms a "critical bridge" between the individual's mental functioning and the sociocultural world then this must be true in the initiative of second language acquisition as well.

SLA & the INFLUENCE of the SOCIOCULTURAL ENVIRONMENT

The work of James P. Lantolf entitled: "Sociocultural Source of Thinking and Its Relevance for Second Language Acquisition" states that: "Second language acquisition research is coming to recognize the influence of the sociocultural environment in the L2 learning." (2007) Lantolf relates that "beginning with the early work of Frawley and Lantolf (1985), a group of researchers have been exploring the implications of L.S. Vygotsky's (1978, 1986) sociocultural theory of mind for the learning and teaching of languages beyond the first." (2007) the work of Steven L. Thorne entitled: "Second Language Acquisition and the Truth(s) about Relativity" states that in the study of second language acquisition several themes arise which are those as follows: (1) the interdependences between language and conceptual development, (2) language as the principal sign system carrying socio-historical-cultural presence into the moment, (3) language as a primary resource through which people interactively construct social reality, and (4) the reproduction of individual and community practices due in part to the inertia of language constructed social worlds. (2000; paraphrased) the work of Vygotsky posits that the "mind is socially constructed 'through mediation via semiotic systems, notably language, that are themselves expressions of socio=historical processes' (Cazden, 1993; as cited in Thorne, 2000) Thorne states that sociocultural approaches to learning "have gained some currency in SLA theorists' and researchers' recent work, but often as an add-on to otherwise epistemologically divergent approach to SLA. Vygotsky's Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD), for exampled is a popularized and onstensibility accessible dimension of Vygotsky's work that has been widely discussed since the mid-80s." (Thorne, 2000)

II. SLA and COLLIER'S CONCEPTUAL MODEL

Virginia P. Collier presents in the work entitled: "Acquiring a Second Language for School" a conceptual model that has arisen from research in second language acquisition and states that this model has four major components which are those of: (1) sociocultural; (2) linguistic; (3) academic; and (4) cognitive components. Collier states that these processes are "inter-dependent and complex." (1995) the following figure illustrates the model proposed by Collier.

Language Acquisition for School

Source: Collier (1995)

Collier states that central in this figure is the "individual going through the process of acquiring a second language in school." (1995) the social and cultural processes in the students' every day life are central… [read more]


Phonological Rules in Language Phonology Term Paper

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Phonological Rules in Language

Phonology is essentially the linguistic subfield in which examines and dissects the system of sound, including the semantic relationship between different sounds (Schramm, 2001). Phonological rules function in language acquisition to aid in the development of characteristics that are integral to correct pronunciation of words. The understanding of phonological rules is of the utmost importance for language teachers because a grasp of these rules results in pronunciations that are more native-like in nature (Schramm, 2001). Phonological systems are complex and always involve more than one rule, and rules are considered either to be transparent, or with a context that is visible, or opaque, with a context that is not visible (Johnson).

There are four main types of phonological rules in language. These categories are assimilation, dissimilation, insertion and deletion (Scramm, 2001). The phonological rule of assimilation refers to the process of a sound becoming more similar to a neighboring sound (Scramm, 2001). A key example of this rule is nasalization, in which a vowel preceding a nasal consonant assimilates, or becomes more similar by taking on a nasal-like quality. The phonological rule of assimilation is prevalent in all languages (Scramm, 2001).

On the other hand, dissimilation is a phonological rule that functions opposite to assimilation. With dissimilation, two neighboring sounds become less similar to each other (Scramm, 2001). Fricative dissimilation is an example of this phonological rule. This is where it is necessary to pronounce two fricatives next to each other, such in the numbers "fifth" and "sixth." Non-native speakers of English often find it challenging to master these types of sound sequences (Scramm, 2001). Language instructors may ease the acquisition of these pronunciations by clearly outlining the processes involved in these dissimilar sounds.

Another type of…… [read more]


Language Is Fundamentally a Verbal Communication Code Term Paper

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Language is fundamentally a verbal communication code. Although animals do not develop the complex lexicons humans do, many species do engage in some form of linguistic discourse. Human beings are by far the most linguistically rich species on Earth, and we use language systematically and regularly. No culture on the planet is devoid of language and therefore language is integral to the human experience. Language is far more than a canon of lexicons and system of grammatical rules, however. Language conveys culture, emotional state, point-of-view, and demographics. in-group and out-group exclusion can be accomplished through the use of language. Colloquialism and the implementation of informal languages convey hidden or subtle meanings that the words themselves do not. Similarly, formal systems of grammar and vocabulary often denote social class or social status. Language is therefore a labyrinthine set of variables governing the communication process.

No one formal theory of language is comprehensive enough to address the multiple pathways of communication and expression. Some theories focus squarely on the biological, neurological, or evolutionary aspects of language. Its development over time, its increasing complexity, its relationship to brain structures, and other issues characterize the physiological or biological theories of language. Language and speech abnormalities stemming from brain injury, stroke, or communication-related disorders like autism provide continual challenges for formulating comprehensive neurological or biological theories.

Psychological variables give way to numerous theories of how language imparts emotion and how changes in language can induce changes in affect or behavior. New Age or pop psychology theories like neurolinguistic programming are examples of how psychological theories have creatively explored the role and function of language. Saying affirmations has been a common use of language to redirect negative emotions or to alter psychological states.

Some of the most robust theories of language explore primarily the social functions of language and how verbal communication serves social needs. Language conveys direct meanings, such as "I want food," or "You are beautiful." However, language is also used as an art form, a means of creative self-expression like painting, dance, or music. Poetry and literature, even powerful works of nonfiction, all prove that language can become a plaything, a tool to manipulate meaning. Language also denotes culture and age. Obviously, different languages imply different cultural backgrounds. Dialects and regional differences within parent languages illustrate the complex way languages serve social functions and demarcates group solidarity. Age or generation is a highly relevant use of language: a young person uses a whole set of different words and grammars than a grandparent. Oxford-style English is different from Bronx English; Canadian French differs from French spoken in Europe, and so on.

Similarly, anthropologists delve into the different uses of language in different cultures, exploring not only differential lexicons and grammatical rules but also the various ways verbal and non-verbal communication intersect. Anthropologists might also explore how language conveys religious meaning, gender, age, or social status. Some cultures have words for concepts or items that do not exist in other cultures too, proving that translation… [read more]


Free Word Order Scrambling Term Paper

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Linguistics Free Word Order, Scrambling

Linguistics: Free Word Order, Scrambling

This work conducts a review of historical and recent literature related to 'free word order' languages, or those, which use 'scrambling' in sentence structure placement of nouns and verbs. The social theory of language acquisition is reviewed as well as cultural influences on language acquisition and specifically related to 'free… [read more]


Computer Assisted Writing Learning: Applied Linguistics Term Paper

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Computer Assisted Writing Learning: Applied Linguistics

In the work entitled: "Introduction to Computational Linguistics: Computer-Assisted Language Learning" it is related that there are "variables such as the learner's proficiency level and goals, whether the language is being learned in a foreign-language or second-language setting; aspects of the language that are often taught with the assistance of books; and books are… [read more]


Teaching Foreign Language to Infants Term Paper

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Teaching Foreign Language to Infants

Consider the following facts and/or statistics (http://www.wordiq.com/definition/Bilingual,2004):

Most populace in the regions of southern China, are usually Cantonese-Chinese speaking and Mandarin- Chinese speaking

In ex-Soviet republics and Warsaw Pact countries, many people are fluently speaking Russian, especially in Slavic countries

Brussels is the bilingual capital of Belgium with a total percentage of 15% Dutch-speaking population… [read more]


How Language Affects People Term Paper

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¶ … Language Affects People -- the Power of Language

It is often said that a picture is worth a thousand words. However, despite the fact that visual images are powerful, and the modern era is a very visual place, given the predominance of television, movies, and the Internet in terms of how people receive information and communicate with one another, language is still one of the most powerful interpersonal mediums of communication in existence today.

There are over 6,800 known languages spoken in the 200 countries of the world. ("Language Dictionary," 2006, yourdictionary.com) All languages, within their own frameworks, have words with imaginative associations that can affect the listener in profound ways. Although images may be powerful, words can create an image for the listener or the reader that is more evocative than a photograph or a painting. A picture of an apple may make the fruit merely seem flat and shiny, but only an evocative description such as a "crisp, crimson apple," by using alliteration, can suggest to another person what it feels like and sounds like when a hungry individual bites…… [read more]


Second Language Acquisition Term Paper

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Second Language Acquisition

There is a very close relationship between second language acquisition and other areas of enquiry, and the fact that there are numerous ways in which to examine this issue means that the study of second language acquisition has its own goals. In addition, the study of the topic means that there must be presents its very own… [read more]


Language Development Among the Very Young Term Paper

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Language Acquisition

The ways in which young people go about learning how to talk have been the subject of an increasing amount of research in recent years. The research to date suggests that there are some commonalities involved that can help better understand how language acquisition operates and what educators and parents can do to facilitate the process. The purpose… [read more]


Language and Communication Term Paper

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¶ … world's small languages be saved" appeared in the August, 2000 issue of Harper's Magazine. In this beautiful piece of writing, Shorris talks about the extinction of small languages and partly holds globalization responsible for it. He also argues that inability to give higher education in indigenous languages is also the reason why weaker cultures are now at the brink of extinction.

Language is a very vital part of the whole cultural scheme. With the language being shunned by the people, it is only natural that culture would follow the death route too. "The weak must speak to the strong in the language of the strong.... The Darwinian way of the world bears some responsibility, globalization does the rest: movies, television, Reeboks, and the Internet." (p. 38) Shorris is basically concerned about the threat that small languages are facing.

Shorris argues that languages on the whole are losing words, even the stronger ones like English but what is really disturbing about this is that if such a thing can happen to a very strong language; imagine what would happen to smaller languages. "English, as it is generally spoken, appears to be losing more words than it gains. You only need to look at the thin thesaurus that comes with your word-processing programs to see how the English language is losing its internal diversity." Citing the linguist Michael Krauss, Shorris writes that about 3,000 small languages in the world contribute around 50% of the known words and they are all sadly facing possible extinction.

The writer goes to explain why any language, strong or weak, big or small, minor or major is important. "It is not merely a writer's conceit to think that the human world is made of words and to remember that no two words in all the world's languages are alike. Of all the arts and sciences made by man, none equals a language, for only a language in its living entirety can describe a unique and irreplaceable world." (p. 43) He describes an experience where he realized that indigenous languages are far more colorful and expressive than the well-known widely spoken ones. Shorris comes to see why the existence of small languages is important and realizes that the extinction of these languages would be a huge loss to articulation and expression.

I saw this once, in the forest of southern Mexico, when a butterfly settled beside me. The color of it was a blue unlike any I had ever seen, hue and…… [read more]


Dialects Language -- the Social Mirror Term Paper

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Dialects

Language -- the Social Mirror in a California Classroom

The more diverse the classrooms of the state of California become in the future, the greater the diversity of dialects, languages, and vocabulary will come from the mouths of students. In her study of sociolinguistics, Elaine O. Chaika notes how different regional and city dialects, the presence of two languages in a child's life as well as cultural differences can impact that child's expression in different settings and amongst different groups of people, including in the context of the classroom. For example a student may speak Spanish at home, English in the classroom and a combination 'Spanglish' on the playground with peers.

Thus, bilingualism and diversity is a reality in the United States, and this is true, perhaps even more so, in California. Bilingualism alone produces not simply many languages but many dialects. Spanish is one of the most common languages other than English spoken in the United States. (Chaika, 1994, p.35) Mexican-Americans, Puerto Ricans, and Dominican-American children may make up a teacher's classroom, and depending if these bilingual students are first, second or third generation, may speak with a different level of English and Spanish fluency. Between even their own forms of Spanish, however, there will many regional differences in dialect and vocabulary. Thus, teacher cannot even assume a natural cohesion between all Spanish speakers in the classroom, but approach every child from his or her own unique cultural and familial context.

Similarly, there may be Asian students with similar difficulties, if from first-generation homes, grappling with the often-considerable differences between Indo-European languages such as English and their own native tongues, spoken at homes. Again, the teacher must be mindful that simply because students come from the same region does not mean that they have a natural cultural cohesion, as their languages and dialects will be different. Also, often students from particular Asian backgrounds may have parents who operate their own businesses, where the students work after school, limiting their exposure to social, spoken English outside of the classroom. As with bilingual Spanish speakers, in a mixed classroom of native English speakers and individuals who speak English as a second language, students may be more reticent, not because of lack of intelligence or natural shyness (although culture may have an influence in inhibiting Latina girls or Asian students) but because of a lack of confidence speaking formal English.

Where a student lives in the city, regardless of his or her native language or may also limit his or her exposure to English, or to Standard English. Certain ethnic neighborhoods may not be primarily English speaking. In the case of English-speakers, such as African-Americans, students may feel more comfortable speaking their city-specific dialect. A teacher must remember only the so-called "correct English myth holds that there is one real English, Standard English, and that deviations from it are impoverished and unworthy." (Adger, 1997) The myth of the single correct dialect or way of speaking is one of the issues Chaika… [read more]


Language of Geoffrey Chaucer Term Paper

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" ( ibid)

Furthermore, in this regard Schlauch also refers to the fact that Chaucer's writing and use of language often differed from the accepted form of London English, For example,

....it can be established that Chaucer inclined to some slight archaisms in usage, perhaps for aesthetic reasons such as the requirements of metre, as compared with the current speech of London in his time. It is likely, for instance, that the typical unaccented final -e ? Of Middle English was more frequently suppressed in ordinary conversation than is the case in Chaucer's verse, where scansion indicates that it was normally (though not universally) retained except before a word beginning with a vowel.

( ibid)

Notwithstanding the above view, most critics and studies leave little doubt as to the impact and significance of Chaucer in the development of the English language and literature. Possibly one of the most important aspects is that he increased the prestige of English in terms of its perception as a literary language. He was also responsible for "extending the range of its poetic vocabulary and meters." (Chaucer, Geoffrey 1340-400)

He was also the first poet in English to use iambic pentameter. He was extremely influential with regard to the works and language of later writers and poets. There is little doubt that "For the Renaissance, he was the English Homer." (ibid) John Dryden, who was to modernize the Canterbury tales, called Chaucer " ... The father of English poetry." ( ibid)

Bibliography

Baugh, Albert C. A History of the English Language. 2nd ed. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1959.

Chaucer, Geoffrey 1340-400) August 15, 2005.

http://www.cartage.org.lb/en/themes/Biographies/MainBiographies/C/chaucergeoffrey/2.html

English Language. Encarta. August 16, 2005. http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761564210_2/English_Language.html

Emerson, Oliver Farrar. The History of the English Language. New York: Macmillan, 1894.

Schlauch, Margaret. The English Language in Modern Times, since 1400.…… [read more]


Communicative Language Teaching Communicative Competence Term Paper

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Communicative Language Teaching

Communicative Competence

In the past few years, the area of study termed "communicative competence" has received widespread attention as an alternative and successful method of teaching foreign language students. The desired outcome of the language learning process is the ability to communicate competently, not the ability to use the language exactly as a native speaker does (NCLRC,… [read more]


Secret Languages Term Paper

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Secret Languages

One of the most common "secret" languages is Pig Latin. Although many people can converse in Pig Latin, the language is still uncommon enough that it can be used to cloak sensitive conversations. Pig Latin is a playful variant of English, and has nothing at all to do with Latin. In Pig Latin, which is mainly a spoken as opposed to written language, the speaker removes the first consonant sound of every word, adds the vowel sound "Ay" and moves the resulting syllable to the end of the word. For example, the word "secret" becomes "ecretsay," the word "pen" becomes "enpay," the word "toilet" becomes "oilettay," the word "magazine" becomes "agazinemay," and the word "toast" becomes "oasttay." Consonant groups that form one single sound are treated as the same consonant and are moved together. For example, the word "glue" becomes "ueglay," not "lueglay." The word "school" becomes "oolschay," which sounds like "oolskay." Similarly, the word "scissors" would become "issorsscay," because the "sc" sound remains a soft "s." Pig Latin is therefore more of a verbal than a written language but can be used effectively in writing.

If a…… [read more]


Baby Acquire Language Term Paper

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Language Acquisition

It is unclear exactly how babies and young children acquire language. In humans, language acquisition seems to be instinctual and innate: babies begin making nonsense noises very soon after birth and before long are imitating the sounds they hear in the environment. Because babies can vocalize sounds and syllables, it would seem that language acquisition is at least in part instinctual and innate. On the other hand, learning the complexities of grammar, structure, and usage require memorization and rote skills. Very much like many other things children learn, language involves part innate nature, part environmental nurture.

When children learn basic sensory-motor skills, from manipulating their eating utensils to walking to throwing a ball, they also rely on learning tools such as imitation and means of correction such as punishment and reward systems. Like Pavlov training his dogs, parents and older siblings often use very basic means to teach young children how to perform simple activities. Some activities, like riding a bicycle, take practice, trial and error. Although many of the basic sensory-motor skills used by human beings are hard-wired, some of the more graceful activities…… [read more]


Language and Literacy Every Workplace Term Paper

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More often than not, the only contact that I have with members of the executive board is through written communications and word-of-mouth.

Language and literacy inevitably brings up issues related to ethnic and linguistic diversity as well as issues related to gender. Members of various ethnic groups communicate differently nonverbally, and nonverbal literacy is one of the most essential components… [read more]


Language Facilitates Criticism and Understanding? Term Paper

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(Sutton, 1993, p. 426)

However, even researchers striving for unbiased and hard data do not always have the recourse of objective, hard factual data. Consider a forensic investigation that involves querying bystanders about the same accident. The individual testimonies of the different people, all of whom saw the same little old lady slip on the sidewalk, will surely differ to some extent as to what happened and who was at fault. The investigator must interpret the validity of the different person's testimony and credibility from the language that the individuals use, just as much as when, in a much less frantic situation, one might compare the different responses of friends who all saw the same film. On some level, qualitative language analysis is part of life -- part of the critical skills of discrimination all individuals must deploy in life.

Also, even the apparently pre-existing categories that exist in data-based analysis are part of qualitative language. When one attempts to analyze different 'gendered' responses, and divides test subjects into men and women, one is engaged in a distinction that is located in language and culture in a qualitative fashion -- of if one fails to break down responses into different demographic groups, there is also a certain qualitative statement being made, that cultural or gender distinctions are not important to the data being reported or recorded. Furthermore, being mindful of qualitative biases as researchers and readers not only enable one to analyze reports more effectively, but also to be more reflectively and rigorously self-critical about one's own biases when setting up a study, reading a document, reflecting upon the results gleaned from a personal or professional investigation.

The subjective is thus inescapable -- it influences how we break elements of a text or study group down, how we express ourselves in language, as well as influences what we to expect to learn. Language influences how we 'see' categories at all, even the distinction between the quantitative and the qualitative itself. Of course, this does not mean that one needs to sink into relativism -- rather that through knowledge of how qualitative language is deployed and use, one can make one's own use of it more self-critical and reasonable.

Works Cited

Custer, R.L. (1996). Qualitative research methodologies. Journal of Industrial Teacher Education, 34, 3-6. Retrieved 13 May 2005 from Qualitative Research Database at ttp://www2.gsu.edu/~mstswh/courses/it7000/papers/qualitat.htm

Hoepfl, M.C. (1997, Fall). Choosing qualitative research: A primer for technology education researchers. Journal of Technology, 9, 12-39. Retrieved 13 May 2005 from Qualitative Research Database at ttp://www2.gsu.edu/~mstswh/courses/it7000/papers/qualitat.htm

Sutton, B. (1993). The rationale for qualitative research: A review of principles and theoretical foundations. Library Quarterly, 63, 411-430. Retrieved 13 May 2005 from Qualitative Research Database at ttp://www2.gsu.edu/~mstswh/courses/it7000/papers/qualitat.htm… [read more]


Language Is the Perfect Instrument of Empire Term Paper

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Language Is the Perfect Instrument of Empire:

Case for Teaching English Globally

Though the British empire over half a century ago, the mark it left on the world remains. The many countries colonized by Britain continue to use English colloquially to this day. There's really no surprise in that; English hegemony in matters of politics and economics was accompanied by… [read more]


Is it Possible to Say That Men and Women Use Language Differently? Term Paper

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¶ … men and women is a continually debated issue, which has significant personal, professional, political and social ramifications. Naturally, males and females do differ biologically. Less clear, however, are other possible differences. For example, the psychological variations between men and women are in a grey area and difficult to delineate. One of the areas that social scientists, especially sociolinguistics,… [read more]


Language and Language Diversity Play Term Paper

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Though language is generally empowering, it also presents limitations, especially with the wide variety of languages that have developed through time. Differences in language use results to different worldviews, or the perspective in which the individual tries to analyze and understand his/her reality. Instead of promoting unity and understanding among humans in general, language diversity creates sub-human cultures and creates misunderstanding because of the non-universality of each of these languages. In effect, though language and the capability to communicate is deemed as vital to human society, diversity and differences in terms of language (i.e., codes or symbols) limit people from their respective cultures, and cannot establish universal understanding and unity.

3. In the process of critical thinking, one is able to process information that she or he receives. This means that in the critical thinking process, there is an active transfer of message into the brain, wherein it assigns to a particular category in which this information is appropriately assigned. Once this information has been processed in the brain, the individual is now able to ascertain whether the information should be retained in his/her brain (memory, specifically) or not.

Thus, in the act of persuading a person, it is essential that the individual receiving the information determine whether this information is worth keeping or not. Furthermore, the individual also determines whether knowledge about the information should also constitute into action. In effect, critical thinking allows one to make systematic steps in identifying whether the thinking self should be persuaded by the information-giver or not.… [read more]


"If Black English Isn't a Language, Then Tell Me, What It? Term Paper

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¶ … Black English Isn't a Language, Then Tell Me, What Is?"

This paper will look at the argument presented by James Baldwin in his essay called "If Black English Isn't a Language, Then Tell Me, What Is?." This paper will discuss the logical soundness of the author's case by examining his line of reasoning and his use of evidence. Paying attention to writing style, structure of the argument, evidence provided and what is inferred by his use of tone; this paper will examine Baldwin's message.

The Author's Argument

James Baldwin makes the argument language itself is not the issue but the role of language and its relationship to people in society. Basically his argument is that language is born out people's use. He writes, "Language incontestably, reveals the speaker. Language, also, for more dubiously, is meant to define the other" (par. 1). He defines "other" as someone "refusing to be defined by a language that has never been able to recognize him" (Baldwin, par.1). Does this mean that language applies to people in different ways? That one person using a certain language can totally reject it and invent a new one out of the old? Baldwin seems to think so and continues this stance by offering a solid example. He elaborates that people from different French speaking countries use French differently to a point the French being used has a different context for the setting. "A Frenchman living in Paris speaks a subtly and crucially different language from that of the man living in Marseilles" (Baldwin, par. 2). He uses this element of context to back up his argument about English acting the same way. How does he do this effectively? Could this argument prove the element of context applies not only to nationality but also race?

He believes language acts a universal tool for humanity despite the issue of context. He notes, "What joins all languages, and all men, is the necessity to confront life, in order, not inconceivably, to outwit death" (Baldwin, par. 3). In this regard, he believes with knowledge of language comes power and it can be used a political tool. He reflects that there is a time and place for its use, "reveals the private identity, and connects one with, or divorces one from, the larger, public, or communal identity" (Baldwin, par. 3). He explains because language is powerful, using it correctly is important and could mean life or death in certain situations.

Still the individual speaking brings to language their style of articulation. He explains his argument also applies to English. The variations found are less to do with physical surroundings but more to do with class, race and the relationship between the two. He comments that he does not "know what white Americans would sound like if there had never been any black people in the United States, but they would not sound the way they sound" (Baldwin, par. 4). This only solidifies the idea that one language can feed off the… [read more]


Properties of Human Language (Displacement Term Paper

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Human language can also be subtle, as in poetry, and have dual and even multiple levels and significances of meaning. It can also be transmitted after the fact of the speaker's demise, as a reader can read about the joy of someone who is fictional and imagined, by an author died a long time ago.

Question 2: (Chapter 17) How does the process of acquiring a native language and the process of learning a foreign language differ?

Acquiring a language naturally from one's loved ones is done in a non-structured fashion, and in dialogue usually with a caregivers. Rather than stressing tenses, which children often misuse, communication of nouns and simple ideas rather than grammatical structure is stressed. (184) Because one usually learns one's first, native language a child, there is also an initial tendency to learn this language in a less distinctive fashion, referring to flowers rather than a rose, for example. (186) This may reflect, although it is a cross-cultural phenomena, the way that adults speak to children, although some scholars have also suggested it reflects the biological state of the human mind in early stages of development, and also is one reason why it is easier to acquire a language earlier in life. Children are also apt to call a bow-wow a dog, and to overextend their first animal names to other animals. (185)

Thus, learning a non-primary language in school depends greater specificity. Later in life, one better understands the importance, when communicating, of using more specific nouns and communicating the sense of tense, of when an action was completed. Learning a second language often stresses the distinct differences of sentence order and structure, something that young children are apt to eschew when they are first learning their native, primary language.

Work Cited

Yule, George. "The Study of…… [read more]


Language and Communication the Power Term Paper

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As a speaker of my native language, I am able to identify myself strongly to my heritage and Asian identity. Practicing and speaking my native language even in a foreign land allows me to reiterate my personality of being a member of Asian culture, yet able to assimilate with American culture. Through the Taiwanese language, I can express my thoughts without expressing them explicitly; this characteristic of my native language allows me to state things and communicate without being too direct, expressing my thoughts and ideas with a deeper meaning that must be thought upon carefully with the individual I am communicating with.

As a speaker of English, I am able to understand the way English-speakers perceive and interpret their world through their language. In English, I learn to be more direct and explicit in communicating my ideas, thoughts, and feelings with other people. It is evident that my perspective has changed when I speak in the English language, and this change had clashed with my values and attitudes as a Taiwanese native speaker. However, I am slowly able to reconcile these contrasting natures of Taiwanese and American culture, making me more flexible and able to adapt to their social environment. Indeed, the power of language in communication, as in my case, has been limitless, certainly full of benefits than detriments, keeping within me an open-minded attitude in understanding and acknowledging the differences among people in human society.… [read more]


Foreign Language Education in High Term Paper

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So even on a personal basis, more knowledge means more choices, and that alone would seem to be a cogent reason for foreign language study for any student, college-bound, tech-school bound, or workplace bound. It is worthwhile to note that plumbers generally earn more than elementary school teachers, and could actually better afford foreign travel if they had been enculturated… [read more]


Language Determines Thought: The Creation Term Paper

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People exposed to one culture, which may characteristically have a different language, may interpret their realities differently from another culture. That is, people of A language may have a different way of interpreting, solving conflicts, and relating with other people vis-a-vis people from another, which speaks a different language B.

To illustrate the power of language in affecting thinking, particularly ways in which people relate with others and perceive social realities, a comparative analysis of two culturally-different societies are analyzed. Filipino vs. American language are characteristically different with each other: the former is characterized as a highly collective society, while the latter as individualist. Filipino as the language of the Philippines, have numerous terms for actions and adjectives that are value-laden, with emphasis on Filipino values of cooperation, collectivism, respect, and hospitality. Filipinos, furthermore, is especially characterized as respectful people, with the words "po" and "opo" used when speaking with an older person or an individual with a high status in the society or an organization. The Filipino (language) example show how language affects critical thinking of its people: regard for hierarchical statuses and discrimination in terms of age and/or socioeconomic and political status is apparent with the utilization of the terms "opo" and "po." This observation is essential in critical thinking, since people are better able to understand the social realities of people in the Filipino society as expressed implicitly in their use of their language.

Bibliography

Adler, R. (1998). Interplay: Process of Interpersonal Communication. NY: Harcourt Brace & Co.

Santrock, J. (2001). Psychology. Singapore: McGraw-Hill Book Co.… [read more]


Politics and the English Language Term Paper

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' Although the use of such phrase truly created a strong effect to the audiences, Lincoln's speech is vague. This may prompt other observers to note whether Lincoln's words are expressed with truth or for dramatic flair and effect only.

The next lines of the speech shifts to a more concrete and clearer explanation and description of the 'great Civil War,' as Lincoln describes the current civil strife. However, the other half of the speech's second paragraph shifts back again to vagueness as Lincoln acknowledges the bravery and patriotism of the American people who have 'sacrificed' their lives for the nation's liberty and cause. The passage, "We have come to dedicate a portion of that field, as a final resting place for those who here gave their lives that that nation might live. It is altogether fitting and proper that we should do this," where audiences hearing this passage may not be able to discern in concrete terms the President's meaning. The dramatic phrase, "dedicate a portion of that field, as a final resting place," is an indirect way of telling the people that the speaker intends to mark the battlefield as a place where people have died for the country. The use of imagery and symbolism is apparent in this passage; however, the passage lacks clarity as a result of the succeeding lines that follow after this thought has been expressed.

Lastly, the inspirational speech that moved and stirred patriotism among the citizens of America contains the use of meaningless words and verbal false limbs. The third paragraph of the speech contains a lengthy description that only expresses thoughts on bravery, freedom, and patriotism. These words are not used in the speech; rather, meaningless words and phrases are used to replace the clearer equivalent of thoughts and concepts of "freedom," "bravery," and "patriotism." The passage, "... that this nation, under God, shall have a new birth of freedom -- and that government of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from the earth," shows America's invincibility in the face of a social strife, an implication of America's powerful legacy of freedom and patriotism, obtained through the display of bravery. These are only implied meanings, since Lincoln states in vague terms America's triumph in the midst of a war. Thus, Lincoln's speech is only meaningful for those who are able to relate to the experience he is talking about, which are the people of the American society during that period. Put in another time period, Lincoln's speech is vague and meaningless, giving the audience no idea what he pertains to when addressing or talking about a particular thought.

This example shows how Orwell uses language in analyzing the social and political implications the writer/speakers use to elucidate their feelings and/or thoughts. Orwell's objective study of modern English prose writing and composition shows how he treats political sentiments and beliefs in a neutral, unbiased manner, basing his analysis on the quality of vagueness or insincerity the text… [read more]


Politics and English Language Term Paper

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He cites various examples from everyday modern phrases, which are used commonly but can certainly complicate the writing. The following passage from David Lodge's Small World might give you some idea about what is meant by unclear modern writing. "Language is a code. But every decoding is another encoding.... It is the terpsichorean equivalent of the hermeneutic fallacy of recoupable meaning, which claims that if we remove the clothing of its rhetoric from a literary text we discover the bare facts it is trying to communicate.... To read is to surrender oneself to an endless displacement of curiosity and desire from one sentence to another. The text unveils itself before us, but never allows itself to be possessed; and instead of striving to possess it we should take pleasure in its teasing."

According to Orwell, the third common mistake is the use of passive voice instead of active. The author feels that when writers replace active sentences with passive, they make simple language more complicated, which adds to the vagueness of the writing. For clearer and more precise writing it is better to use active voice, which conveys the message directly instead of in a roundabout manner.

The fourth mistake pointed out by Orwell is the use of pretentious and meaningless words. Orwell maintains modern writers find it important to use foreign words or pretentious phrases which are not well understood by the readers and only give rise to the risk of possible misinterpretation. This is a very common mistake that is often regarded as a sign of knowledge and vast vocabulary by the writers but tends to leave readers more confused. For this reason, instead of trying to decode the writing, they would much rather switch to some other writer with more meaningful and less obscure views. But if we thought that only few modern writers make these errors, then we are certainly grossly mistaken. This is because some of the best institutions in the country that are known for their quality education are found guilty of these common mistakes in writing. For example, the following passage is extracted from an anthropology course description at Stanford University and this is by far the most unclear piece of writing I have come across.

This course attempts to sort out the significance and mobilization potential of a new jumble of cultural practices located in the terrain that calls for, yet paradoxically refuses, boundaries. This terrain is situated in the borderzone between identity-as-essence and identity-as-conjecture, and its practices challenge the ludic play with essence and conjuncture as yet another set of postmodernist binarisms. Much work on resistance has been response-oriented, reacting to the Eurocenter by occupying either the essence pole or the hybrid pole. The course stakes out this new terrain, where opposition is not only responsive, but creative. It is a guerrilla warfare of the interstices, where minorities rupture categories of race, gender, sexuality, and class in the center as well as on the margins, and where such rupture intersect with… [read more]


Noam Chomsky's Language Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,204 words)
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By giving the dolphins a waterproof keyboard with a set of symbols, Herman also found that the dolphins could produce language as well as understand it. The dolphins learned that pushing certain key symbols with their snouts generated specific whistling sounds. In effect, they were "writing" sentences while they were speaking. Through this technique, the researchers further concluded that dolphins were capable of understanding language, could use abstract concepts and can think in terms of the past and future (Hume).

These are all cognitive abilities that were previously solely as human abilities. In addition, the use of a specific set of whistles and the ability to understand and express the differences between "bring the ball to the basket" and "bring the basket to the ball" demonstrate both Chomsky's creative aspect of language and the various human uses of language as thought expression and communication.

However, most researchers also believed that only dolphins in captivity demonstrated this ability. Researchers like Herman and Norris believed that while dolphins had the ability to use language, they had not evolved to a point where language use came naturally.

In the wild

In 2000, marine biologist Vincent M. Janik of the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute in Massachusetts challenged this prevailing belief. Janik recorded and analyzed more than 1,700 whistle signals between bottle-nosed dolphins swimming along the Moray Firth coast of Scotland. He concluded that the dolphins responded to each other in matching signals, echoing identical whistles ("Dolphin Whistles Offer Signs of Language Ability").

Furthermore, Janik believes that dolphin already have this differential whistling ability at birth, in keeping with Chomsky's theory that the ability for language is inborn in every human. Within its first year, he proposed that each dolphin calf develops its unique personal sound signal, which is composed of a pattern of rising and falling tones. This sound is similar to the "whistle" of the calf's parents, allowing dolphins to communicate to which pod they belong. However, the sound is also significantly differentiated enough to be recognized as the calf's own "acoustic signature" (Suplee).

Janik proposes that another dolphin may imitate the signature whistle of another in order to address the individual (Tyack). It is similar to a human's ability to recognize a friend's voice over the telephone. The dolphin's ability for "vocal labeling," in alliance with its demonstrated ability to understand and manipulate human syntax and grammar, may provide the basis for social communication among dolphins.

Conclusion

In conclusion, dolphins share similar traits with humans, lending credence to the belief that dolphins can use language. They have both fairly large brains in relation to their bodies and are both highly social beings.

In addition, dolphins have demonstrated an ability to develop, recognize, imitate and manipulate a system of sounds to create various meanings. Their ability to string together agreed-upon symbols to form new sentences is in keeping with Chomsky's writings on the "creative aspect" of language. Based on these qualities, researchers have thus concluded that dolphins and other cetacean mammals have all… [read more]


Bilingual First Language Acquisition Term Paper

Term Paper  |  30 pages (8,477 words)
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Infants use multiple cues to determine word boundaries between the ages of six months to 24 months. As early as 7.5 months of age, infants can detect stress patterns in speech and later, phonotactic nuances (i.e., acceptable consonant clusters at the beginning of a word).

Oller's research was aimed at providing empirical research in an effort to support parents who… [read more]


Language Controversy the Art Term Paper

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Naylor uses personal details about her own family, friends and experiences to expalsin how the word "nigger," which is basically taboo in our society, can have a positive meaning. She also uses languages to persuade the reader to understand both sides of the argument.

In Ward Churchill's Crimes Against Humanity (1991), the author compares the use of politically incorrect language with the tragedy that occurred during World War II. Churchill reveals how the Nazis labeled the Jews using language that carried negative connotations. Churchill shows how powerful language really is, as it convinced an entire nation that the Jewish population was worthless and should be executed.

In addition, Churchill attacks the use of politically incorrect language in sports teams. According to Churchill, being labeled as savages in sports dehumanizes Native Americans. To make his point, Churchill adds some fictional sports teams, including "the St. Louis 'Sluts,' Boston 'Bimbos,' Detroit 'Dykes,' and the Fresno 'Fags.'" Churchill's use of language hits home for his readers, and he also appeals to their feelings of sympathy by showing how language can dehumanize people.

By using such explicit names, he is able to make a very poignant point. Churchill uses language to appeal directly to the reader's feelings of sympathy. He does this with his references to World War II and the dehumanizing names of sports teams, causing his argument to be very strong in its appeal to the emotion.

Rosalie Maggio, in Bias-Free Language: Some Guidelines (Goshgarian, 2001), uses concrete examples and situations to explain the power of language and get her point across. Maggio shows how the generic association of masculine pronouns with the Presidency makes it hard for people to imagine a woman in office.

Maggio also points out that when one racial group becomes so accustomed to using derogatory language to label other groups, it becomes easier for them to justify inflicting harm upon these groups.

Maggio makes an important point, saying that specific language leads to dramatic actions and choices. She is basically saying that language shapes our perceptions and ultimately influences our beliefs and values. Maggio stresses that when things and people are labeled or named, they are dentified through this language.

These different examples of gender and cultural texts show why and how certain research and argumentation strategies are important to illustrate different topics. Many individuals, groups and writers have attempted to transform language in an effort to discourage racism and violence. However, changing the language would rob us of more direct and colorful words, in many cases.

It is important to understand that discussions of language and its negative effect on society often arise because different groups experience discrimination on a daily basis and are denied many basic rights and opportunities because of it. Many of the words that are used to label people have the power and are often used to justify oppression.

As the articles discussed in this paper clearly show, our choice of language is extremely important. Using politically correct terminology provides groups with… [read more]


Psycholinguistics Gives Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,661 words)
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She had been isolated from almost all human contact, held in a baby crib most of her life, and had never been spoken to. She was physically immature, and could not walk or talk, and had no ability to speak. Psychologists spent years attempting to teach Genie to speak. While she did eventually learn to communication, Genie's ability to speak never moved much past beyond the extent of that of a chimpanzee. She never learned to manipulate grammar, or use suffixes or prefixes. Genie eventually stopped using language later in her life and was committed to a mental institution (Kolb and Whishaw).

Psycholinguistics has also been invaluable in elucidating many of the mechanisms behind the human ability to discern written language. Psycholinguistic theories like Chomsky's move easily to written language, which follows similar developmental patterns. Further, there also appears to be a genetic basis to the development of syntax and grammar in written language, across languages and cultures (Taylor).

Further, psycholinguistics has helped to develop useful models for teaching children to read. For example, Psycholinguists have determined that humans look for subject/verb patterns in written language, and then move onto the next pattern. As such, individual words are "chunked" into meaningful bits (Taylor).

In conclusion, psycholinguistics has played an invaluable role in determining the underlying basis of language development. Psycholinguistics offers a comprehensive and viable understanding of language development. As such, psycholinguistic approach to teaching children to read, write, and speak is likely to be the most effective and appropriate tool for educators.

Works Cited

Kess, Joseph F. (1992) Psycholinguistics: psychology, linguistics, and the study of natural language. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

Kolb, Bryan and Whishaw, I.Q. (1985).

Fundamentals of human neuropsychology, 2nd ed. New York: Freeman.

McConnell, James V. Understanding Human Behavior, 6th ed. Fort Worth: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, Inc.

McGroarty, Mary E. (2001). Language and psychology. Publication info: Port Chester, NY: Cambridge University Press.

Taylor, Insup. (1990).

Psycholinguistics: learning and using language.

Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall.

Weaver, Constance. (1988).

Reading process and practice: from socio-psycholinguistics to whole language. Portsmouth, N.H.: Heinemann.

Xrefer. Psycholinguistics. 05 November 2002. http://www.xrefer.com/entry/443536… [read more]


Cognitive Psychology and Language Development Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (706 words)
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Milgram's experiments in obedience were ethical, but from at least one perspective, they were not admirable. Contemporary research is governed by rather stringent human subjects review committees and human subjects policies that must be followed in order to gain permission to conduct research with people as subjects. In particular, the human subjects policies are designed to ensure that subjects understand that they can end their participation in the study at will, that they voluntarily engage with the study, and that they give consent to participating only after they have been informed about any adverse conditions that could be associated with their participation in the research.

The experiments caused considerable stress to the study participants based on false beliefs about the outcomes of their own actions. That said, the research provided valuable information about human nature with respect to obedience to authority figures, and also about the accuracy of predicting the behavior of others under circumstances such as those presented during the experiment.

Question 2.

The Bowflex ad featuring the 50-year-old grandmother of a five-year-old is quite persuasive. The woman featured on the ad does not look like she is 50-years old and she has a very attractive face, long luxurious hair, and a slim, shapely body. She TV advertisement shows her actively engaged in using the Bowflex and swimming and lounging in a two-piece bikini swimsuit. The primary element of persuasion used in the advertisement is ethos. The woman featured in the ad seems credible, respectable, and certainly exhibits the healthy, fit persona to which she refers and to which she attributes her shapely body. She reasonably talks about loosing weight over a period of time that is believable. While it does seem that her statement that she saw results from using the Bowflex right away may seem a bit exaggerated, the rest of her testimony seems credible. The advertisement works because any 50-year-old woman watching the TV ad would want to look as slim and fit as the woman featured in the ad.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=I0Y5o1FvGXU&list=PLD4284B0B4A0EB5D8&index=3… [read more]


ECE Expressive Language Case Study

Case Study  |  5 pages (1,325 words)
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Language Disorders in Children

MLU

The mean length of utterance in Jay's sample of 25 meaningful utterances is 3.8 or 3.5. Three uses of slang (gotta, gonna) by Jay increase the count to 83 morphemes, which results in a score of 3.8. If these slang words were considered one morpheme, the rate would be 3.5. However, since the meaning of the slang words is compound, as in "got to" or "going to," the slang words may be considered two morphemes for each occurrence. The MLUM for children with language impairment (affected) in the age range 3.0 to 3.5 years is 2.84. Jay's MLUM falls between the age ranges of 5.0 to 5.5 years and 5.6 to 5.11 years for children with language impairment, which shows MLUM to be 3.72 and 3.95, respectively (Rice, et al., 2010). The MLUM for children without language impairment has been shown to be higher in each age range (Rice, et al., 2010). Accordingly, Jay's MLUM can be considered to be within typical limits. The main caveat in this analysis is that 25 intelligible utterances is low, by research standards that recommend a sample of more than 50 utterances (Rice, et al., 2010).

MLUW

MLUM

Group

Age Range

N

Mean

Std Dev

Cohen's d Effect Size

Mean

Std Dev

Cohen's d Effect Size

Affected

2;6-2;11

6

2.37

0.32

0.93

2.59

0.39

0.90

Affected

3;0-3;5

15

2.84

0.38

0.97

3.07

0.48

1.07

Affected

3;6-3;11

24

3.10

0.75

1.04

3.36

0.80

1.09

Affected

4;0-4;5

54

3.31

0.70

1.22

3.64

0.80

1.22

Affected

4;6-4;11

72

3.60

0.62

0.95

3.95

0.70

1.01

Affected

5;0-5;5

84

3.72

0.61

1.05

4.09

0.70

1.10

Affected

5;6-5;11

97

3.95

0.60

0.85

4.34

0.67

0.89

Source: Rice, et al., 2010.

DSS

DSS Score = # of points / # of utterances

Jay's Developmental Sentence Score on the 25 utterances sample is 100 points divided by 15 sentences = 6.67. One limitation of this analysis is that the DSS uses a 50 utterances sample. Only children that score below the 10 percentile or more than one standard deviation below the mean are likely to need intervention. Jay scores at the 50th percentile, which shows a benchmark score of 6.64 for 3 years 6-month.

Correct/Incorrect Form Analysis

Jay's speech sample notably lacks use of past tense, third person, possessives, contractible copula, and contractible auxiliary phrases. Referencing Brown's morphemes, Jay's use of language corresponds with the age of mastery range for 28 to 46 months. At 41 months of age, Jay is approaching the upper end of the range but his expressive language appears to be developing normally. It is possible that the language sample has not produced many opportunities for Jay to use past tense, as it appears that he is narrating his play -- perhaps interacting with objects while an adult looks on.

Type Token Ratio

Jay's Type Token Ratio (TTR) scored the conventional way is .67. This score is calculated by dividing the number of different words produced in the sample by the total number… [read more]


How Language Can Give Rise to Cultural Misunderstandings Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,323 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3

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¶ … Language:

Kingston, Tannen, and Klass show the limits of language

Words are an extremely important part of the way human beings communicate. However, as well as building bridges between people, words can also create misunderstandings and divides. This can be seen in an analysis of Maxine Hong Kingston personal essay "Silence," the socio-linguist Deborah Tannen's essay "Men and Women Talking on the Job," and the physician Perry Klass' essay "Learning the Language." All of these essays illustrate how someone can have a grasp of the surface meanings of a language but fail to fully understand the way that language is operating in a specific context. Language is located in a culture and simply knowing the meaning of vocabulary does not mean that someone fully understands the language. This is reflected in my own personal experiences as an ESL student as well as the observations I have made in school and the workplace.

The Chinese-American author Maxine Hong Kingston's essay "Silence" describes how Kingston spent her years growing up largely in a profound state of silence. Although Kingston could speak, she chose to remain mute at school. Kingston grew up bilingual, able to speak both Chinese and English but this left her feeling torn between two worlds. She had no way to reconcile her two cultures as a small child. Silence was her only defense and means of protest as a little girl. "My silence was thickest -- total -- during the three years I covered my school paintings with black paint. I painted layers of black over houses and flowers and suns" (Kingston 2). The only students Kingston felt comfortable with were the African-American students whom she knew also felt culturally excluded from the school environment. A critical aspect of Kingston's discomfort was the way in which the school day was structured. Students were called upon to recite individually, which made her uncomfortable, versus being able to speak in a collective voice as was customary in the Chinese school she also attended. Unable to reconcile the two words, Kingston protested in silence. As a non-native speaker, Kingston's essay resonated with me. Very often people who are not native speakers of the language may be able to speak it but are frightened of doing so for fear of seeming awkward or not understanding the subtle cues native speakers make when voicing their opinions. Silence, smiling, and nodding are the only way to deal with this uncomfortable situation. Kingston was used to a collective environment where fitting into a common social order was good; the school she was a part of was individualistic. I have often seen immigrant Chinese students called passive or quiet in American schools, simply because they are not loud and do not debate what is being discussed in class. People fail to understand that in some cultures open disagreement is considered rude and wrong.

It is not only people from different cultures who are judged harshly as poor speakers because they do not have the same… [read more]


Inari Sami -- an Endangered Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (545 words)
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In their struggle to get actively involved in the globalization process, some people abandon their cultural values and adopt values from other cultures in hope that this would improve their lives. This leads to situations like the one in the Inari Sami community, as most young individuals within it direct their attention toward matters other than the group's indigenous language. Language is an essential concept in this community, taking into account that it is one of the factors enabling Inari Sami individuals to focus on their traditional connection to the natural world.

By visiting the Sami museum in Finland, one is probable to learn more concerning the Inari Sami community's strength and its dedication to preserve its values. In the face of globalization however, individuals no longer have time to focus on matters such as disappearing languages, as these respective matters have nothing to do with concepts that actually interest them.

One of the most surprising elements concerning the present day condition of Inari Sami is its association with Finnish rapper Amoc (Lahteenmaki & Vanhala-Aniszewski 72). The singer writes his lyrics in Inari Sami and this seems to rejuvenate the language in a series of ways, as it enabled younger Inari Sami individuals to realize that there are many reasons why they should focus on preserving this language instead of ignoring the valuable role it plays in their lives and in their community.

Bibliography:

Lahteenmaki, Mika, and Vanhala-Aniszewsk, Marjatta, Language Ideologies in Transition: Multilingualism in Russia and Finland, (Peter Lang, 2010)

Proctor, James, "Lapland: The Bradt Travel Guide," (Bradt…… [read more]


Sociolinguistic Aspect of Greek Dialects Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (892 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3

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Greek Sociolinguistics

Socilinguistic Aspect Of Greek Dialects

Perceptions of dialectical variation in Modern Greek

What is a dialect? "Different language communities have certain ways of talking that set them apart from others. Those differences may be thought of as dialects -- not just accents (the way words are pronounced) but also grammar, vocabulary, syntax and common expressions" (Malone n.d.). In the nation of Greece, because of geographic and political divides, many distinct dialects of standard Modern Greek have developed. This paper will explore how different dialects have different emotional and social connotations for modern Greeks, both Greek-Americans who learned Greek in the U.S. And native speakers from Greece.

Theoretical framework

According to Joseph & Tserdanelis, in Modern Greek, "depending on how one decides the difficult question of distinguishing between dialects of a language as opposed to separate languages, the highly divergent modern form of Greek known as Tsakonian, spoken still in the eastern Peloponnesos (in Greece), could well be considered now a separate language from the rest of Modern Greek, and the Pontic dialects once spoken along the Black Sea coast of Asia Minor…modern Cypriot shows significant differences on all levels (phonological, morphological, and syntactic) that invite classification as a separate language, though this judgment is perhaps a more difficult one than in the case of Tsakonian or Pontic" (Joseph & Tserdanelis). The reason that Cypriot has developed into such a distinct linguistic specimen is very easy to guess, given the physical divisions between itself and the mainland, as well as the political conflicts that have resulted in Turkish influence in the region. Additionally, "the dialects of the Ionian Islands and those of Kydonies and Moschonisia constitute some major examples to this situation since they have been heavily affected by Italian and Turkish, respectively" (Modern Greek dialects, 2013, Laboratory of Modern Greek Dialects). The fact that Greek exhibits so many linguistic distinctions, to the point that new languages have been created in relatively recent years, highlights its dialectical variation. Dialects are very clearly 'coded' in a regional fashion to the ear of Greeks, and these different regions have strong class as well as geographical associations. Perceptions of 'foreignness' can also taint subjective perceptions of Greek dialects.

While Modern Greek is traditionally characterized as being either a northern and southern dialect, within this rather crude division is a great deal of linguistic multiplicity. "This categorization is far from covering all the deviances among the numerous dialectal varieties; in most dialects, high- or low-frequency of contact induced change is observed, depending on the degree of contact with a different language" (Modern Greek dialects, 2013, Laboratory of Modern Greek Dialects). The differentiation within Modern Greek, and the strong regional…… [read more]


Teaching Methods Hypothesis and Null Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  4 pages (1,396 words)
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Hypothesis: Colleges need to change the teaching methods in Translation and Languages courses as the current methods are insufficient to develop the translation skills required for a career as a professional qualified translator.

Quantitative Methods and Qualitative Methods:

The research will include qualitative and quantitative methods. The qualitative methods will be based on the interviews and focus groups held with college administration, teachers and students enrolled in such programs. The qualitative analysis will help in analyzing the deep rooted insights of the research problem. The interviews with administration will aid in focusing on the priority given by students to such courses and the opportunity of a career after attaining required translation skills. The interviews with teachers will focus on the current teaching methods that have been used by them and their suggestions on improving the standard of education provided. Finally the students will be interviewed in order to gain their view on how much competent do they feel after clearing such courses and what they feel can be improved to help them in their courses structure.

The quantitative methods will also be used for the objective analysis of the research. Various sampling methods will be used to attain quantitative information through distributing questionnaires in different colleges. The questionnaire will cover all the aspect of the research questions that will help the researcher to develop an objective analysis about the findings. Different statistical tools will also be used to get a clear picture of the findings of the research.

Theoretical Framework:

The following are the four theories that can be used in the theoretical framework for the research:

Engagement Theory:

The engagement theory is currently not applied in the Colleges teaching the Translation courses. The theory suggests a model of learning which is based on technology and integrates many elements of learning that had been employed in the past. The idea is to engage the students in class participation through various virtual exchanges and a much friendlier atmosphere which is provided through the aid of technology. Hiltz, an expert in online teaching methods mentions that the role of social networking is often used in order to create a higher level of engagement of students with each other. (Hiltz, 2004)

Constructivist Learning Theory:

The theory is based on the presumption that students can learn the most when they are actively involved in the teaching process when they are able to receive information passively. Learners are allowed to learn in an environment where they can express themselves and interpret meanings on their own understanding. Critical thinking is promoted through independent learning where the role of teacher is restricted to only facilitating the students. Bain Ken mentions that the active involvement mixed with a democratic environment can foster better translation skills of students. (Bain, 2004)

Group Work and Team Work:

The teaching methods currently used in such courses usually have some group assignments as a part of their courses. However the translation courses must have more group projects as students are more comfortable in… [read more]


Translation as Gunilla Anderman Puts Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (624 words)
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Translation

As Gunilla Anderman puts it, "language has never been considered as important as literature" in academic circles. There is a perceived hierarchical relationship between language and literature, namely that language is a vehicle for literature. While literature depends on language, language is merely a tool and has no internal aesthetic or even value. This dichotomy has led to a binary opposition between literary translation vs. literary interpretation. The translation is viewed as the mundane and pedestrian activity; the interpretation is perceived as the more complex activity requiring in-depth semantic mastery. Daniel Gile argues that there may be no "fundamental difference between literary translators and non-literary translators." Gile essentially disparages the false hierarchy between texts labeled literature and those that are not.

Peter Newmark denies the relevance of the dichotomy between literary translation and literary interpretation, noting that it is a false dichotomy. Yet in criticizing this dichotomy, Newmark presents yet another false opposition between "interpretation in general and non-literary translation." He states, " "Literary translation is concerned with the mind or imagination, whilst non-literary translation is about the world, extralinguistic reality." Non-literary translation is concerned with nothing but "factual truth," whereas literature has a loftier goal of "aesthetic truth," and he adds, "unless it's trivial literature but that's another matter." Newmark clearly admits his academic snobbery when it comes to determining what texts are classified as literature and what texts are not, and that the act of translating or interpreting texts is constricted by the perceived quality or academic merit of those texts.

There is, therefore, a politics of translation or a politics of linguistics. As Fraser puts it, it is a matter of hierarchies, of different types of translation and interpretation and where they fit into the canon of academic research and practical application. There are completely different perceptions of professions that are related to either translation or interpretation. Fraser,…… [read more]


Function of Language in Macbeth Conclusion Chapter

Conclusion Chapter  |  5 pages (1,820 words)
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Macbeth's Desire For Kingship: Conclusion

This paper uses a Lacanian hermeneutic to argue that Macbeth enters into the discourse of the witches in a manner which explains his moral trajectory over the course of Shakespeare's tragedy. Macbeth begins the play a loyal subject of Duncan, which is explicit when he says to his wife: "We will proceed no further in… [read more]


Saussure's Conception of the Linguistic Sign Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (632 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2

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Saussure

Ferdinand de Saussure's book Course in General Linguistics was extremely important due to the way it made human language more intelligible, revealing some of the ways it functioned as a system of signs. In particular, Sausurre argues that a "sign," by which he means a "two-sided linguistic unit," is made up of two inextricable constituent parts: the signifier and the signified (Saussure 2011, p. 103). By signifier, Saussure means the "sound-image," or what most people think of as a spoken word, and by signified, he means the larger concept being referred to. From here, Saussure attempts to describe how language allows for meaning on the basis of difference between signs.

For Saussure, signification is process by which a sign acts, signifying the signified in the action of language use. One must speak of signifier and signified at the same time, because as Saussure notes, "a succession of sounds is linguistic only if it supports an idea" (Saussure 2011, p. 103). Perhaps the most important thing to realize about the relationship between signifier and signified is that this relationship is always arbitrary, meaning that there is no inherent, meaningful connection between the signifier and the signified other than whatever connection has emerged due to the social evolution of language.

If the signifier and signified are what make up a sign, what actually allows people to make sense of the system of signs that constitutes language is the difference between them. This is what Saussure means by "value," because the value of a particular sign is only evident when it is considered within its larger system, because the value of a sign (and according to Saussure, almost anything) can only be determined by comparing and contrasting it to similar and dissimilar things (Saussure 2011, p. 115). Recognizing that the meaning of language comes from the difference between signs is important because it allows one to begin discussing…… [read more]


Arabic Morphology Morph = Form Term Paper

Term Paper  |  20 pages (6,720 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 10

SAMPLE TEXT:

Aspects of Contemporary Arabic morphology

Arabic language morphology is divided into two significant parts which is a well-established fact (Bohas & Guillaume, 1984). Primitive nouns constitute the first part that do not relate to verbs but it is possible to derive verbs from them. For instance, the verb [kaliba] which means "get infected with rabies" can be derived from the… [read more]


Brain Mechanisms in Early Language Acquisition Patricia Reaction Paper

Reaction Paper  |  2 pages (626 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

SAMPLE TEXT:

¶ … Brain Mechanisms in Early Language Acquisition

Patricia K. Kuhl's 2010 article entitled "Brain Mechanisms in Early Language Acquisition" provides an interest glimpse at the cognitive processes and neurological functioning of the brain which promote the learning of a language in early childhood. She explains how recent leaps in technology have allowed researches an inside glimpse into the workings of the brain in order to try to better understand how children naturally learn their native languages. Kuhl (2010) presents the idea that the brain is most effective at breaking languages down to the phonetic level, which can be seen in neurological research even in the youngest of children. Thus, Kuhl posits that phonetic elements are some of the strongest vehicles for teaching language acquisition, because this is the very same strategy that the brain naturally chooses earlier on. Kuhl asserts that this phonetic strategy is facilitated and nurtured through social interactions as well. The author also suggests that this importance placed on phonetic structures continues to be the main strategy the brain uses as the child continues to grow and evolves ever more complicated knowledge of language. She provides the example of school aged children learning to read using very similar neurological processes as when they were younger toddlers learning how to speak the native language of their parents. Having worked with children in learning both English grammar and a second language, I see how this would work. Phonetic strategies are crucial for children learning both linguistic and reading abilities.

Thus, this article has several implications to how language should be taught within a classroom. My teaching practice could best learn by imitating the natural strategies of the brain to acquire new language skills. Essentially, understanding how the brain naturally learns a language can help me create lessons that draw on the same mental processes and strategies as the earlier acquisition of…… [read more]


Lesson Plan Grade 5th English/Language Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,162 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5

SAMPLE TEXT:

For gifted students, identify higher-level words to expand vocabulary and show how commonplace words can be used in unexpected ways. (Such as 'choice' -- which can be a noun (a decision) but also an adjective (something which is very good).

Motivation: Students will be motivated because they will be able to volunteer the words: allow students to be as funny or as crazy as the want when suggesting words. If presenting the lesson around a holiday (like Halloween) or many of the students in the class are particularly interested in something coming up (like the release of a new cartoon or sporting event), suggest words that revolve around the occasion. Ask students to brainstorm words based upon pictures, such as listing to what words come to mind when looking at a cartoon: this reinforces the lesson for visual learners and students less confident in English.

Teacher input: The teacher will review the definitions of the different parts of speech, after asking the class to give their own definitions and providing examples. The teacher will point to the words in the picture and use repetition to reinforce the meaning. The teacher will write down next to the words on the board what part of speech the words are from (such as dog=noun) to visually reinforce the lesson.

Concept/skills/instruction: Definitions and examples of parts of speech; sentence diagramming

Student output: Students will brainstorm words, provide their own definitions of the parts of speech and then diagram sentences collectively as a class. After the in-class brainstorming, students will be asked to brainstorm in teams, and then individually using worksheets at home. The worksheets will ask students to diagram sentences, list different words under parts of speech categories, and finally draw a picture where they must label an example of each part of speech (for example, a picture of a boy running might be labeled with: running=verb; sneakers=noun; quickly=adverb; sweaty=adjective, etcetera).

Learning interactions: In-class 'sharing' of favorite words and creation of own definitions of parts of speech. Sharing existing knowledge. Learning how to 'teach' other students as well as understanding the concepts themselves in team-based learning.

Evidence of learning: Successful completion with minimal errors of individual worksheet; class participation. Ability to use concept independently when teaching other students or creating new work.

Product or performance: Successful completion with minimal errors of individual worksheet; class participation and consistent improvement in use of grammar on other assignments. Assessment: Students will be assessed primarily based on the performance of individual worksheets, although class participation will also be required and team participation will be observed in class

Traditional/Portfolio/Performance: Traditional (individual homework performance), portfolio (team-based work) and performance (in-class participation)

Student reflection: Students will understand how in their own daily interactions, they are constantly using the different parts of speech. Students will be able to understand how the parts of speech function separately and also using complete sentences. ESL learners will have challenging words classified in their minds; visual learners and learners less confident with language will gain confidence… [read more]


Animal Communication Research Paper

Research Paper  |  6 pages (1,972 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5

SAMPLE TEXT:

Analysis suggests that meaningful information is being conveyed by these behaviors, but it is disputed whether this phenomenon is truly language. Sign language and computer keyboards are used in primate language research because non-human primates lack vocal cords and other human speech organs. However, primates do possess the manual dexterity required for keyboard operation ("Great Ape Language").

Bottle-nosed dolphins dominate many marine acts because of their intelligence and researchers believe much of the dolphin's brain is used for communication. While it is not known if dolphins have a formal language, they do communicate with a signature whistle to identify themselves. Dolphins lack vocal cords but use a complicated system of whistles, squeaks, moans, trills and clicks produced by sphincter muscles within the blow hole to make sounds. Using echolocation dolphins send out frequencies by clicking. The clicking sounds bounce off objects and the returning sound waves are picked up by the dolphin's bulbous forehead and lower jaw and interpreted as to distance, size and shape of object. This sound system is particularly useful at night or in murky waters as it allows the dolphin to navigate even if visibility is poor. Dolphins have produced sound frequencies from 0.25 to 200 kHz, using the higher frequencies for echolocation and the lower frequencies for communication and orientation ("Dolphin Communication").

Conclusion

It is clear that we can communicate with some animals to some extent. Great apes have learned languages based on hand gestures and symbols. Parrots can learn to speak words, and even use those words to demonstrate feats of learning. Many animals can learn respond to hand gestures and voice commands. Research shows humans have the ability to convey meaning to animals of almost any kind. By recording animal sounds and playing them back, we can attract their attention or elicit the same behavior as the original call. In some cases researchers have modified signals and elicited modified behavior. These and other experiments help to shed light on how and to what extent animals can communicate.

Works Cited

"Dolphin Communication." Beach-Netcom. Atlantic Bottle-Nosed Dolphin. (2012) Web. 9 June 2012. < http://www.beach-net.com/dolphins.html

"Great Ape Language." Science Daily. (nd.) Web. 9 June 2012.

Hockett, Charles F. "The Origin of Speech." Columbia.edu. September 1960. Web. 9 June 2012.

Mannell, Robert. "Animal Communcation and Language." Macquarie University, Department of Linguistics. (1999). Web. 9 June 2012.

Morell, Virginia. "Minds of their Own." National Geographic. March 2008. Web. 9 June 2012. < http://ngm.nationalgeographic.com/2008/03/animal-minds/virginia-morell-text/1>

Pearce, John M. Animal Learning and Cognition:An Introduction, 3rd ed. East Sussex, UK: Psychology Press, 2008. Print.

Toothman, Jessika. "How do Animals Communicate?" Animal Planet.com. 22 March 2010. Web. 7 June 2012. < http://animals.howstuffworks.com/animal-facts/animals-communicate.htm>… [read more]


Standardization, Expectation, and Judgment Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (1,030 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1

SAMPLE TEXT:

On the other hand, when we are at home in the company of our family members and close friends, we do not have to meet such a rigid set of expectations. We dress comfortably and informally, and this is reflected in our language as well. We know that we will not be judged or any less loved because we speak in sentence fragments and run-ons.

Cecelia Cutler takes this idea further in her essay. We often speak in ways that reflect who we are: our social class, our education level, our ethnicity, our race, our neighborhood. We may not always be conscious of all the things we say and what they reveal about us, but reading this essay made it easy to recognize how frequently we do this. Cutler describes the process of "crossing over" from one language variety to another. This is a sociolinguistic process, according to Cutler, and it is one which "can evoke a distinct sense of movement across social or ethnic boundaries." This movement may be the result of a number of different motivations, she explains, some positive, some negative.

For example, she mentions a few specific groups of teenagers, such as white suburban teenagers, who "cross over" into African-American English because they strongly identify with hip hop music and culture. This kind of crossing over reflects admiration for the music; musicians who have been raised in completely different settings (white suburbia) use the words and accents of musicians who were raised in urban, African-American settings. The musician Marshal Mathers, popularly known as Eminem, was an early example of this kind of crossing over. An example of using a different language variety in a negative way is that of mimicking individuals who speak broken English, or who speak with a heavy foreign accent. This type of "crossing over," when it is occurs, is not to express an identification with a group, but to clearly express their separateness, and it can certainly foster a deep sense of animosity that may go beyond words.

Every time we open our mouths to communicate, we deliver a message that goes beyond the content of the words. This is true in written speech as well, but the spontaneity of face-to-face conversations gives us less time to filter or edit our words. What we say, how we say it, and to whom we say it: all of these factors are used to determine who we truly are, or who we are trying to be. We may not be aware of how very much we reveal when we speak; however, it might be worth the time and effort to understand some of these important subtleties of language, and to do what many authority figures told us when we were growing up: to think before we speak.

References

Cutler, C. Crossing over. MacNeil/Lehrer Productions.

Retrieved May 1, 2012 from http://www.pbs.org/speak/speech/correct/gatekeeping/

Fought, J.G. Gatekeeping. MacNeil/Lehrer Productions.

Retrieved May 1, 2012 from http://www.pbs.org/speak/speech/correct/gatekeeping/… [read more]


Comparative Analysis of British and American English Multiple Chapters

Multiple Chapters  |  24 pages (6,793 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3

SAMPLE TEXT:

British and American English

Comparative Analysis of British and American English

Benefits of a comparative, polyimide approach

Conscious identification of differences

Traditional Standard English (SE)

Other standardized Wes

Unity within English

Zero-marking of 3rd person singular verbs

Modal Past in English

Modal Auxiliaries

Modal Past in Hypothetical Conditionals

Cross-Linguistic Findings

Comparative Analysis of British and American English

In a world… [read more]


Vocabulary Acquisition Literature Review Chapter

Literature Review Chapter  |  6 pages (1,695 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2

SAMPLE TEXT:

Laufer Min

Language Acquisition: Literature Review

Laufer, B. & Rozovski-Roitblat, B. (2011). Incidental vocabulary acquisition: The effects of task type,-word occurrence and their combination. Language Teaching Research, 15(4), 391-411

For some number of decades, it had been more commonplace for second language acquisition to revolve primarily on strategies of 'generative learning' than in vocabulary-acquisition learning. Laufer & Rozovski-Roitblat (2011) --… [read more]


Child Development in Observing Toby Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (958 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3

SAMPLE TEXT:

Furthermore, he is able to identify his emotions by having the correct facial expression for each emotion he expressed. In other words, Toby is a well adjusted five-year-old preschooler that has strong language skills and emotional state for his age group.

Along with strong language ski8lls, Toby's cognitive development is right on target for a five-year-old. As I observed him, he asked his mother to help him with the kid's chemistry set so that he could see how things mixed together and what would happen when those things were mixed. He also wanted his mother to help him sort his blocks in groups of colors. For example, one group would be his blue blocks and another coup would be his red blocks. Then, he wanted to cook a hotdog by himself in the family microwave. This shows great cognitive development because he wanted to cook and explore (Early Learning).

"Five-year-olds are interested in sorting and grouping (Flavell, Miller, & Miller, 1992). They can successfully sort objects on the basis of a single feature, such as color, shape, and size. Sorting things on the basis of more abstract concepts, such as an object's use, is more challenging. Kim proudly showed her teacher how she sorted all the beads into different color groups. When asked to sort all the toys in the dramatic play area that could be used in the kitchen, the group included spoons, artificial foods, as well as a doll and teddy bear. Kim explained that she frequently played with her doll and teddy in her kitchen at home" (Wasik, Cognitive Development in Preschooler).

In observing Toby, his verbalizations, vocabulary, language, emotional state, and cognitive development are fully developed according to the standards of his age group. He has very strong language skills because he is able to form sentences such as I am playing Dora the Explorer. His fine motor skills have some work because he does not understand how to hold a pencil correctly, however he is able to string beads together. His cognitive development is very high because he wants to experiment with mixing things together, sorting things in groups and wants to cook. By observing him, it is easily concluded that he is sociable because he is very talkative and always asking question. I have concluded that Toby's verbalizations, vocabulary, language, emotional state, and cognitive development are fully developed for his age group.

Works Cited

Early Learning. Cognitive Learning in Preschoolers. n.d.

http://www.del.wa.gov/publications/eceap/docs/WebChart_Cognitive.pdf. 27 April 2012.

Wasik, C. Seefeldt|B.A. Cognitive Development in Preschooler. 2006.

http://www.education.com/reference/article/cognitive-development-preschoolers/?page=6. 27 April 2012.

-- . Language Development in Preschoolers. 2006.

http://www.education.com/reference/article/language-development-preschool-children/?page=3. 27 April 2012.… [read more]


Syntax Analysis There Is Conflict Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  3 pages (948 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 4

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¶ … Syntax Analysis

There is conflict whether syntax is innate or whether it is learned. Based on a 1973 study that investigated whether L2 (second language) errors that children make are created by 'creative construction" or "habit formation," this study plans to conduct a replication of that study with the difference that the phenomenon of "unique errors" (explained later) will be the syntactic element that will be investigated.

At one time, behaviorism held the center place positing that syntax was an element that was picked up from one's environment. In the 1960s, however, Chomsky showed that rather than picked up from environmental factors, syntax / grammar was innate in a person. Dulay, & Burt (1973) conducted research investigating whether advanced syntax of L2 was also innate or whether it was something that was arduously acquired by the child by particular taught linguistic rules.

According to the habit formation theory, certain errors are predicted in the syntax of the child learning a new language and these errors will appear whenever the second language and the child's natural language diverge. The errors are called 'interference' errors since they persist with the child's (or individual's) attempt to learn the new language.

The authors, thereupon, conducted several studies in which they tested their question on 5- to 8-year-olds.

The "creative construction theory" however which is a successor of Chomsky's innate hypothesis says that different errors should appear in learning of advanced syntax of L2 since the first language is innate and the child is learning a new one which is not impacted by his straining to remember the syntax rules of the first. In other words, since L1 is innate, it exists independent of L2 and all the child strains to internalize is the syntactic rules of L2. The errors would be 'developmental" errors since their pattern would be the same of children in the early stages of acquiring their first language.

The differences in semantic, syntactic and phonological errors between the two are, according to the authors, evident.

Method

The authors tested outcome on a group of 145 Spanish-speaking 8-year-olds and 388 unambiguous errors were tabulated. The children were gathered from two different school areas -- two form California and one in NY. The Bilingual Syntax measure (BSM) was used as tool by their teachers. The BSM measures proficiency of L2 in children in the context of eliciting natural speech form the child.

Errors were then classified into three types -- (1) developmental (the errors that were similar to L1 acquisition errors); (2) interference (the errors that reflected child arduously merging one language with another); (3) unique -- those that appeared in neither of the two categories.

Results showed that tabulation of errors into each category revealed that 3% of the 388 error types were interference whilst 85% were developmental and 12% were unique.

Whilst the…… [read more]


Tutoring Grammar Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,016 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0

SAMPLE TEXT:

Tutoring Grammar

The student who I chose for this grammar lesson was an undergraduate student at the University. The student was completely deaf although able to communicate through speaking and lip reading. The student was a proficient writer as far as getting thoughts onto paper; however, her struggle was with verbs. Apparently in sign language verbs do not have any tense. So, the sign for run in sign language can mean run, ran or running. It was this issue that caused her to seek out tutoring help. Apparently she had already submitted one paper which received a very poor grade due to the verb mistakes.

Context of Tutoring

This student was referred to me by the university learning center. She qualified for the learning center program because she was deaf. She was very intelligent and I could tell she desperately wanted to learn the right way to draft her papers. Immediately I observed her paying close attention to my conversational use of verbs and trying to apply the verbs herself. She was in her first year of college, so the concept of writing papers was new to her, as her instructors at her deaf school were not strict when it came to grammar in papers. This was my first meeting with her and it lasted one hour.

Grammar Point: Verbs

The first half hour, she described her problem and showed me the first paper from her professor. During the conversation, I could tell that she was struggling with verbs not only in her papers but also in spoken conversation, although in conversation it did not seem as awkward. I pulled up a basic grammar lesson on verb tenses on my laptop and we read it together. She had many questions and I answered each one using examples as this seemed to make the most sense to her.

The second half of the session was spent working on her most recent paper that was to be submitted in a few days. I always have the policy when tutoring that I guide the editing, but do not make changes on my own. Instead, as I read the paper I stop the pen at problem areas and wait for the student to figure it out. So, we started working through the paper and within the first paragraph there were already four verb tense related mistakes. She had trouble with figuring out these first four and had to look back at the grammar lesson and check the tense of each. To further help facilitate her learning, I encouraged her to cross out the mistake and write the correct verb above the line.

By the second paragraph she was understanding the most common forms of verbs and able to correct the mistakes without looking at the lesson. By the end of the paper, she was picking out the mistakes without me pausing. I knew by the end of her paper that she understood the concept and would be alright from this point forward.

Examples of… [read more]


Chomsky Noam Thesis

Thesis  |  10 pages (2,891 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5

SAMPLE TEXT:

This dissimilarity is due to the application of various transformations, pronunciation, and word insertion rules. Transformational-generative grammar can also be distinguished by the difference between language proficiency and language performance ("Linguistics," 2009).

Transformational linguistics has also a strong influence on psycholinguistics. It is particularly influential in the study of language acquisition by children. The "Minimalist Program" formulated by Chomsky in… [read more]


According to the Linguistic Relativity Hypothesis Language Influences Thought Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (715 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2

SAMPLE TEXT:

Linguistic Relativity Hypothesis

According to the linguistic relativity hypothesis, what people think is influenced by the language they know, because the structure of the language affects the conceptualization that they have of their surrounding world (Deutscher, 2010; Niemeier & Dirven, 2000). I would have to agree with this for the most part, because when a person looks at the world, he or she identifies things in that world based on not only the words for the objects that are viewed but the concepts of what those objects are for. For example, seeing a chair produces the word "chair" in the mind of someone who speaks English, but it also brings up the concept of sitting. What kind of sitting is thought of, though, (after a long day of work, while holding a baby, while eating, because of sickness or disability, etc.) may be based on the past experience of the person and not strictly focused on the sitting concept itself. Because of that, I do not necessarily think that language influences all thought. Sometimes, memories from the past and other feelings that come up from seeing or hearing something also influence the thoughts a person has about the items seen in his or her world.

The different aspects of thought that are being dealt with are important to address, as well. Thoughts are not static, and they flow quite freely from one to the next in the minds of most people. Because that is the case, there are many issues about thought to consider - including the fact that thoughts seem to often appear at random. In other words, a thought may come from something in the subconscious, instead of from another thought that was recognized or from something that was seen or heard (Deutscher, 2010). Because it can be very difficult to determine from whence a thought actually came, it can also be very difficult to "make sense" of that thought in the context of how it relates to language. It can also be difficult to take that thought and tie it into other thoughts or into specific words, as it is not uncommon for people…… [read more]


Sociolinguistics Defining Simplicity: Jamaican Patwa Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (2,621 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4

SAMPLE TEXT:

One interesting note is that many individuals mark the permanence, if anything can be called permanent about language based on its written use. This can in part be seen by the development of canon of literature or a canon of vernacular translation of dominant culture literature. In one sense a form of postcolonial development that will have a significant impact… [read more]


Opportunities to Help Young Learners "Know Essay

Essay  |  12 pages (3,322 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

SAMPLE TEXT:

¶ … Opportunities to Help Young Learners "Know a Word"

No one is able to predict the exact moment at which young learners will acquire knowledge, but this "ah-ha" moment is familiar to most experienced teachers who recognize when the learning connection has been successfully made. These processes are particularly evident in the acquisition of vocabulary as word after word… [read more]


Gap for L2? Research Paper

Research Paper  |  5 pages (1,707 words)
Style: Harvard  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+

SAMPLE TEXT:

If differences between the groups were however discovered with baseline testing and these differences disappeared later on, situational factors may conceivably be posited as possible explanation of difference in ability of L2 acquisition. Contribution of this study is important since it is well-known that a critical age exists for L1 acquisition and that beyond that it is much harder for the individual to learn / acquire the language. Teachers and students of L2 would profit by the knowledge of whether or not acquisition of L2 shares the same characteristics. Results would enable teachers and students to determine whether or not a preferable period of language instruction exists.

References

Champagne-Muzar, C., Schneiderman, E.I., & Bourdages, J.S. (1993). Second

language accent: The role of the pedagogical environment. International Review of Applied Linguistics, 31, 143-1-60.Lenneneberg (1967)

McLaughlin, B. (1985). Second-language acquisition in childhood: Vol. 2. School-age children. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Marinova-Todd, S. et al., (2000). Three Misconceptions about Age and L2 Learning, TESOL Quarterly, 34,, pp. 9-34.

Penfield, W., & Roberts, L. (1959). Speech and brain-mechanisms. Princeton, NJ:

Weber-Fox, C., & Neville, H. (1999). Functional neural subsystems are differentially affected by…… [read more]


Right From the Beginning Lightbown Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,769 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 8

SAMPLE TEXT:

Lightbown and Spada (180) conclude that research on second language acquisition has yet to provide one method that is effective for all learners in all learning environments. Therefore, more classroom research is needed in this area. Based on the information that is available thus far, teachers need to consider a variety of approaches to decide which will be the most beneficial for the students in their classrooms.

Works Cited:

Brown, H. Douglas. "Forty Years of Language Teaching." Language Teaching 40.1 (2007): 1,1-2. ProQuest Education Journals. Web. 28 June 2011.

DeKeyser, Robert. "Practice for Second Language Learning: Don't Throw Out the Baby with the Bathwater." International Journal of English Studies 10.1 (2010): 155,155-165,170. ProQuest Education Journals. Web. 28 June 2011.

Hathcock, Dani. Wittgenstein, Behaviorism, and Language Acquisition. Drury University. 2000. Web. 27 June 2011. http://www.drury.edu/multinl/story.cfm?ID=2435&NLID=166

Lightbown, Patsy M. And Nina Spada. How Languages Are Learned. 3rd ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006. Print.

Schwab, Robert. Second Language Acquisition: Second Language Learning in the Classroom. 2006. Web. 27 June 2011. http://www.bobschwab.com/SLA/SLA%20Section%206_files/frame.htm

Second Language Acquisition. Web. 28 June 2011. http://www.powershow.com/view/808f-NzJmN/Second_Language_Acquisition_flash_ppt_presentation

Swan, Michael. "Forty Years of Language Teaching." Language Teaching 40.1 (2007): 1,3-4. ProQuest Education Journals. Web. 28 June 2011.

Tao, Guo, Zhou Lijuan, and Rosalind Raymond Gann. "Studies on Contrastive Analysis." International Forum of Teaching and Studies 4.1 (2008): 62,62-74,118-119. ProQuest Education Journals. Web. 28 June 2011.

Tarone,…… [read more]


Psycholinguistics and Threat Prediction Discussion and Results Chapter

Discussion and Results Chapter  |  4 pages (1,160 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 4

SAMPLE TEXT:

Psycholinguistics and Threat Prediction: Analyzing the Words That Hurt

The purpose of the study is to conduct research into actual language and see what constitutes a presage of violence and what does not. The applications are valuable and obvious in the field of psycholinguistics. Within the study, several approaches including game theory, threat simulation theory, options theory, lexical features, phonological features and finally syntactic features in order to answer the following questions.

What is threatening language?

Are there specific levels of escalation within threatening language?

How can these levels of escalation be determined through the language used?

How does escalation of language lead to an actual violent act?

Within the scope of the research, there is especially a huge amount of work to be carried out in the area of game and options theory where both epistemic and frequentistic methodology has been applied to the prediction of human behavior (Jaeger, 2008, pp. 407-408). While previously game theory has provided more insightful than quantitative results for psycholinguistics, impressive results from the gambling industry where human behavior has been accurately and profitably predicted based upon the work of Harrah's CEO and former Harvard associate Dr. Gary Loveman. In Dr. Loveman's work, the Harrah's hotel and casino chain scientifically gauges and accurately predicts a specific variable in human behavior: the willingness to spend money (Metters, et. al., 2008, pp. 162-163).

While the Metters article centers more on the specific statistical aspects of Loveman's approach, a practical example can be shown of the effect that the research has upon the functioning of the Harrah's Casino chain on a customer service level. While not a law enforcement example, the revolutionary implications can easily be carried over into the threat arena. For instance, Loveman quotes an example of a casino customer that most of the industry would not consider a typical prospect. However, by using game theory to predict the customer's behavior, they are able specifically tailor the staff's service to match this predicted behavior and keep her coming back many more times to game and to enjoy the hotel's amenities. In this effort, they use an extensive data base that tracks customer purchases and spending in the casino, as well as gaming habits and preferances. By mining this data and using statistical analysis to process it, they have being able to accurately anticipate the customer's behavior. Harrah's can offer attractive options packages based upon that will impress the patron and attract their business (Loveman, 2003, p. 1). If one can use game theory to predict one type of human behavior such as spending and behavior in games of chance, one should be able to predict violent behavior of potential and active perpetrators. Dr. Loveman and his company is not just a scientific, but also a financial success.

It is the opinion of this author that it would be profitable to apply this approach of analysis to provide more accuracy to the field of linguistics and to not just profile, but accurately predict the behavior of… [read more]


Teaching Common Idiomatic Expressions Through Intensive Reading for Young Adult Pre-Intermediate ESL Students Research Paper

Research Paper  |  8 pages (2,328 words)
Bibliography Sources: 11

SAMPLE TEXT:

Teaching Idiomatic Expressions

An idiom is an expression, word, or even phrase that has a unique of figurative meaning that is understood colloquially but that is often unrelated to the literal meaning of the word or phrase. American English, for instance, is rich with idiomatic expressions, with about 25,000 terms or words in common usage. Idioms are unique in that… [read more]


Momaday's Theory of the Importance of Language and the Imagination as it Is Expressed Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,192 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3

SAMPLE TEXT:

¶ … Man

Scott Momaday, in both his poetry and in his criticism, shows an incisive knowledge of humanity and of the functions and nature of language. Especially evident in much of his writing, and made explicit in his commentary and criticism at several points, is the connection that exists between language and humanity, and the manner in which language is truly the only vehicle by which a sense of humanity can be achieved or expressed -- and vice versa, one might argue. The imagination also plays an important role in Momaday's writing and his philosophy of man, and is strongly linked to language; it is the ability to associate elements of the world with elements of thought -- that is, expressible thought, which is language almost by definition -- in a free and unhindered manner that is the essence of humanity, and this is imagination. It is what allows man to perceive himself and the world around him in a meaningful and communicable way. This assertion makes its presence known in a variety of ways and with wide implications throughout Momaday's works.

In an essay titled, "The Man Made of Words," (1970), Momaday writes, "the state of human being is an idea, an idea which man has of himself. Only when he is embodied in an idea, and the idea is realized in language, can man take possession of himself" (88). That is, it is only when man can imagine himself in a way that is expressible to others -- and more importantly, to himself -- in a concise and repeatable manner that he has truly achieved the status and being of "man." An idea, after all, is a concise and repeatable expression of some naturally occurring complexity, meaning it has been framed in a conscious way, and man is the creature of consciousness.

According to Momaday, it is precisely the gift of language that allows for this framing, and is the automatic hallmark of consciousness in the human sense. This is made perhaps more clear by the story of the arrowmaker, with which Momaday opens "The Man Made with Words." Spotting an intruder outside his teepee, the arrowmaker converses in his wife in normal tones, yet he is actually asking the stranger outside to identify himself if he understands the language being spoken. Receiving no response, the arrowmaker shoots and kills his enemy. According to Momaday, this story, "centers upon [the] procession of words to meaning. It seems in fact to turn upon the very idea that language involves the elements of risk and responsibility" (11). When language is the creative and identifying force, it necessarily and automatically carries the weight of the world and all of survival on its shoulders.

In his memoir The Names (1996), which the author himself considers both autobiographical and a work of the imagination, language and imagination are again both seen as the essential creative force both in terms of thought and in terms of reality. That is, it is through the… [read more]

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