"Language / Linguistics" Essays

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Thai Culture and TESOL Essay

Essay  |  17 pages (4,751 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10


English in Thailand

Teaching English as a foreign language is a difficult task in any culture. The nation of Thailand has a long history of attempting to guarantee that its citizens can speak English. There are many factors that influence the likelihood that individuals will learn English. In Thailand culture and language have greatly affected the ability of the education… [read more]

Impact of Second Culture Acquisition for ESL Learners in Acquiring a Second Language Research Paper

Research Paper  |  6 pages (2,064 words)
Bibliography Sources: 15


¶ … acquisition of language is a difficult endeavor that can be greatly affected by cultural differences (May). Cultural differences can be a significant impediment to the ability of individuals to learn a second language. At the same time once knowledge about the culture is acquired learning the language can become simpler. The purpose of this discussion is to Impact… [read more]

Pragmatic Models in the Analysis Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,929 words)
Style: Harvard  |  Bibliography Sources: 7


While making absolute use of these presumptions, a speaker can utter one thing and still manage to mean something else from it, as with the utterance "Nature abhors a vacuum. The listener depends on these presumptions in order to make a contextually driven conclusion from what the speaker utters to what she actually means.

The strength and weaknesses of the pragmatics models

The pragmatic model that we have studied both represent the way the human language can be effective. However there are certain merits and demerits associated with their representation and usage. The very first and evident strength that the model bears is the fact that they allow for a more general and simplified way of understanding the human interaction process my means of very direct and succinct methods. This therefore helps in the faster understanding of the human correlation mechanism by means of easy to understand models.

The weaknesses of the implicature model however is that it is never specific and therefore can bring about problems associated with ambiguity. This problem is also eminent in the speech act theory. Speech act theory makes use of certain set of conventions that are pre-set. Because the basic center of the theory is surrounded by the notion that words, when put together do not always bring out a fixed meaning.


Bach, K. (1987a). On communicative intentions: A reply to Recanati. Mind & Language, 2, 141-154.

Bach, K. (1999a). The semantics-pragmatics distinction: What it is and why it matters. In K. Turner (Ed). The semantics-pragmatics interface from different points-of-view (pp. 65-84). Oxford: Elsevier.

Bach, K. & R.M. Harnish (1979). Linguistic communication and speech acts. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Carston, R. (1988). Implicature, explicature, and truth-theoretic semantics. In Ruth Kempson (Ed). Mental Representations: The Interface between Language and Reality

Davis, S. (Ed). (1991). Pragmatics: A reader. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Fraser, H.B. (1975). Hedged performatives. In P. Cole & J. Morgan (Eds). Syntax and Grice, H.P. (1957). Meaning. Philosophical Review, 66, 377

Grice, H.P. (1961). The causal theory of perception. Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society, Supp. Vol. 35, 121-152.

Grice, H.P. (1989). Studies in the way of words. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Levinson, S.C. (2000). Presumptive meanings: The theory of generalized conversational implicature.

Recanati, F. (1987). On defining communicative intentions. Mind & Language, 1

Recanati, F. (1989). The pragmatics of what is said. Mind & Language, 4, 295-329.

Schelling, T. (1960). The strategy of conflict. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Schiffer, S. (1972). Meaning.…… [read more]

English Language Learners Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  5 pages (1,558 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3



Elsa is an eager learner, described by her teachers as someone with great academic and social potential. She performs well in class and shows no behavioral problems. Elsa appears to enjoy reading, as the teacher describes Elsa reading by herself on cue. When Elsa reads aloud directly from the text, the specific strengths and weaknesses in her literacy development… [read more]

Russian Language as a Second Official Language in Ukraine Thesis

Thesis  |  4 pages (1,364 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 6


Ukraine: Walking the Linguistic Tightrope Between Ukraine and Russian

After the demise of the Soviet Union, many of the newly independent former republics changed their official national languages from Russian to that of the national 'ethnic' language. This was done for patriotic and practical reasons in most instances. In many of the outer-lying republics of the U.S.S.R., such as the Baltic republics and the Muslim and East Asian republics, Russian had never been the predominant conversational language of the populace. Russian was a language imposed upon the citizens by the leaders of the U.S.S.R. In a show of Soviet tyranny. However, in other republics, with a closer relationship with Russia such as the Ukraine, the relationship with the Russian language was more tenuous.

Today, Ukraine's official language is Ukrainian, but most residents of the Ukraine are bilingual. When the Ukraine severed from Russia in 1996 and created its own constitution, Ukrainian was declared the official state language (Reid 101). This may have been admirable as a political rallying cry of independence: however, as a practical policy in a nation where Russian is the predominant language of nearly 50% of the population in some areas, the wisdom of doing so is questionable (Ukrainian language, Try Ukraine, 2009). A more reasonable solution would be to establish Russian as the second official language of the Ukraine. This would show greater respect to the linguistic diversity of the nation, and also make the Ukraine more competitive on the international stage, given the relatively limited use of Ukrainian elsewhere in the world.

Ukrainian and Russian are both Slavic languages, which makes the country's bilingualism fairly easy to support: "Both use the Cyrillic alphabet and about a third of the words are similar" between Russian and Ukrainian (Ukrainian language, Try Ukraine, 2009). While overall, the populations of Ukrainian and Russian speakers within the city is about equal, "the preferred spoken language in most cities of southern, eastern, and northern Ukraine is Russian," thus to deny the influence of Russian upon the lives of many Ukrainian citizens to alienate large portions of the nation (Ukrainian language, Try Ukraine, 2009). Many people on a colloquial level merge the two languages: "Large segments of the population -- for example, street vendors, laborers, farmers, and many others -- speak a mixture of the two languages that leans either towards Russian or Ukrainian. This mix is commonly called 'Surzhyk' or 'Surzhik'" (Ukrainian language, Try Ukraine, 2009). This hybridization further supports the idea that both languages be taught in the schools, to ensure that good standard Russian and Ukrainian grammar is understood by a wide segment of the population.

"It would be naive to think that after a generation or two of 'Ukrainization' Russian will disappear or play a marginal role in Ukrainian society. People very rarely change their mother tongue and are almost always successful in passing it on to their children, regardless of the language of instruction in schools. The proportion of Ukrainians who consider Ukrainian or Russian their mother… [read more]

Discourse Analysis Politics Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  18 pages (5,584 words)
Bibliography Sources: 15


Linguistic Politics and the Reinforcement of Social Power Hierarchies

Discussion of language and how it functions socially. This section is meant to stimulate the readers interest and will raise the critical questions which my paper addresses.

Language has the potential to be a deeply powerful instrument when wielded to political, social or hierarchical interests. Distinct power structures are implicated in… [read more]

Politics and the English Language by George Orwell Thesis

Thesis  |  3 pages (774 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Politics and English

Politics and the English Language

The deterioration of language is tied to the deterioration of culture and tehre's nothing that can be done about either.

Foolish thoughts lead to ugly and inaccurate language, which in turn leads to an increase in the rate and degree of foolish thoughts.

"Staleness of imagery;" that is, the language is dry and/or cliched.

"Lack of precision:" the authors seem unclear about or indifferent to the meaning of their words.

A dying metaphor is a cliche phrase that is nt truly secure enough in its vividness of meaning to stand the test of time, and which destroys any sense of vividness and originality when used. Modern examples include "dragging his/her feet," "outside of the box," and arguably "show me the money" (when used in a symbolic context; the phrase is over-used regardless, but is not always metaphoric).


A verbal false limb is a verb phrase that could be more efficiently and effectively replaced with a single active verb. They are filler; useless except for watering down an argument to diluted drivel.


Pretentious diction can be used to add impartial-seeming scientific fact to an argument, to stir up emotion, and to simply seem more sophisticated. What distinguishes pretentious diction from varied, creative, erudite word choice is both the lack of true innovation and imaginativeness on the part of the scribe, as well as an obfuscation of cognitive comprehension in the interpretive capabilities of the reader.


Modern meaningless words, or those on their way there, are "liberal" and "conservative," "scientific" and "intellectual," and arguably "economics" and "economy," depending o one's level of cynicism.


The construction of the sentence is needlessly complicated, and deliberately avoids a standard subject-predicate-object delivery. There was more thought in the use of language than in the meaning of the phrase.


There is not a single concrete element in the entire sentence; it is vague and does not reference any actual or even hypothetical events, but instead generalizes both nouns and verbs with complex phrases.


The main problem Orwell points out is that people choose the easy route of selecting previously strung-together words for their thoughts rather than selecting their own words for their particular meanings. The ix questions that should be asked about every sentence are: What am I trying to…… [read more]

Non-Modular and Modular Views of Language Essay

Essay  |  1 pages (372 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1


Non-Modular and Modular Views of Language

Whether language is modular is a debate for a lot of people. The two schools of thought say that (a) language is modular in that it is separate from other cognitive processes, and (b) language is non-modular in that it is a product of various cognitive processes (Robinson-Riegler & Robinson, Riegler, 2008). It cannot really be both, however, so determining which one it is seems to be very important. Unfortunately for the people who want the issue resolved, there is no definitive test or experiment that can be done to clear the matter up. It remains opinion. Personally, I think that the modular opinion is the most accurate, although I'm not sure that either option is 100% correct. The experiments that were done with music, though, showed that there were two different issues appearing when it came to whether people noticed a wrong word, a wrong note, or both (Robinson-Riegler & Robinson, Riegler, 2008). Because two different indicators appeared when there was both a wrong note and a wrong word, it would be difficult to say that there was nothing…… [read more]

Linguistics American Dialects Interactive Feature Thesis

Thesis  |  2 pages (638 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 0


American Dialects

Geography in Linguistic Variation

Examining the dialects of the inland North and the South reveals many key differences, most notably having to do with vowels, but also touching on consonants and the syntactic usage of language. Whether these differences occurred as a result of change instituted through migration, isolation, etc. is a question of interest after this examination. Clearly, the dialect in the south would be expected to have been heavily influenced by the large number of slaves that once dwelled in the area and their native African languages. Other influences on the South may have been immigrants from areas of Europe that found the climate and economic opportunities more acceptable than in the North, which was, originally, populated with native English citizens during the colonial days. A discussion of the differences among vowel, consonant, and syntactic uses of language in the South and inland North, the dialect that I am most familiar with, begs these questions.

Vowel sounds in the southern part of the United States are noticeably longer in than in the Inland North. For instance, in speaking the sample sentence given to the participants, a Caucasian female from Alabama pronounces the words "white" and "air" much differently than I would, as an inland North dialect speaker. While I would use the [e] sound for the vowel in these words, pronouncing them with the "I" sound as in sky when pronouncing the word "white," the speaker pronounces them with the [a] sound as in father. The southern speaker uses a rounded, lower vowel in the pronunciation of the word, while I use a tense, closed, high vowel. The vowel length is different between my pronunciation and the southern dialect speakers when it comes to the word "air" as well. While I would use a shortened, vowel sound in pronouncing the word "air," the southern speaker almost creates a diphthong, using a hard "a" sound as…… [read more]

Marge Made Dinner for Homer and Bart Thesis

Thesis  |  2 pages (612 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


¶ … Marge made dinner for Homer and Bart watched television, "Homer and Bart" forms a constituent.

a) True

b) False (

The works of Ferdinand de Saussure were instrumental in founding Traditional Grammar.

a) True (

b) False

What syntactic function do the words the and never both perform in the following sentence, in terms of the X-bar schema?

"The President never agrees with Congress."

The words the and never are both constituent modifiers.

Draw a tree for the following sentence. Do not use triangles. You will need to create the tree in your word processing program, or with phpSyntaxTree.

"The evil scientist invented a new kind of virus."



The evil scientist




a new kind of virus [Note: You need to draw a line by hand connecting a to NP, S to VP, NP to "evil scientist," VP to V, VP to NP, V to "invented" and NP to "a new kind of virus" then delete this note.]

Infants can discriminate between sounds that are phonemic in other languages as well as those in their native language. For instance, Japanese infants can easily distinguish between [r] and [l] while their parents have difficulty doing so.

a) True (

b) False

6) Research into child language acquisition has established that children primarily acquire language by means of:

a) imitation (

b) analogy

c) motherese

d) reinforcement

e) none of the above

7) A child producing sentences like I no drink milk is at the telegraphic stage of language development.

a) True (

b) False

8) Explain the significance of the critical period to modern theories of language acquisition. Include examples in your answer.

In certain animals (especially birds such as finches), infants must be exposed to adult language (such as birdsongs) in order to be able to produce full songs themselves…… [read more]

Sociolinguistic Perspectives Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,536 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3


¶ … Sll

Variability in Second Language Acquisition -- Contrasting Explanations and Universal Implications

A field born out of the merging of two sciences, sociolinguistics is concerned with neither phonemics nor phonology but instead with how these more technical aspects of language function in society. For Holmes (2001), language change, the variations in language patterns, and the association between language… [read more]

Children Acquiring Syntax Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  3 pages (870 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 0


Acquisition of Syntax by Children

Innateness and Environment in Child Acquisition of Syntax

Understanding how children acquire language has monumental implications for a variety of studies, including psychology, education, and linguistics. When scientists can prove, definitively, how children acquire language, education programs can be designed in order to build off of that initial acquisition. The psychology of the brain and its development will be better understood, allowing scientists to design treatments for those who have developmental and psychological problems. Finally, linguists who understand how children acquire languages will be able to apply that knowledge to other areas of linguistic study, including second-language learning, one of the most practical applications for linguistics outside of the humanities field. It is perhaps the acquisition of syntax that has the most practical application in this field. As children learn to put sentences together, they form internal grammars that can allow linguists to comprehend how this might be done when one is learning a foreign language, as learning individual vocabulary words of a foreign language is not as difficult as putting sentences together. Thus, a study of children's acquisition of syntax not only allows further insight into the mind of the linguistically developing child, but also into the difficult and controversial subject of second language learning and whether or not it is ever possible to learn a second language to the degree of fluency that is attained by native speakers. For this reason, a study of children's acquisition of syntax is not only important, but it is also crucial to the understanding of both child development and second-language learning. This research will discuss the issue of children's acquisition of language from both a linguistic view, questioning the role of both Noam Chomsky's innateness hypothesis and environment or the caregiver in children's acquisition of Syntax.

I. Background

The conflict of nature vs. nurture affects nearly every discipline. Scientists of all varieties question how much of a person's functions, abilities, and conditions are a result of nature, or biology, and how much is a result of nurture, or environment. In the field of linguistics, this conflict is more appropriately named innateness, or universal grammar vs. environment. The former was proposed by noted linguist Noam Chomsky, who suggested the "innateness hypothesis," which argued that "children are equipped with an innate template or blueprint for language," a concept dubbed universal grammar (Fromkin et al., 2007, p. 319). Chomsky's theory was a reaction to earlier behaviorist principals that suggested language was learned through three principal methods -- imitation, reinforcement, and analogy (Fromkin et al., 2007, p. 314-318). Based on the fact that observations had proved…… [read more]

Specific Language Impairment Preschool Aged Children Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  2 pages (604 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


¶ … Language Impairment Disorder

Specific language impairment (SLI) is a disorder with long-term impacts. it's characterized by difficulty with language that is not caused by known neurological, sensory, intellectual, or emotional deficit. It can affect the development of vocabulary, grammar, and discourse skills, with evidence that certain elements of speech may be especially difficult to acquire (including past tense, third person singular, etc.). Children with SLI may be intelligent and healthy in all regards except in the difficulty they have with language. They may in fact be extraordinarily bright and have high nonverbal IQs (Ervin).

Children with SLI usually learn to talk late. It is not unusual to first encounter a child with SLI at age 3 or 4 years, with limited vocabulary and short expressions. Later on they are likely to be the kinds of kids who are told by well-meaning parents and teachers that they are smart but unmotivated and that they just need to try harder (Ervin).


Estimates of true SLI vary according to the age of identification. Some experts argue that as many as 10% of two-year-olds may have specific language impairment, but by age three or four, that percentage drops considerably, presumably because some difficulties resolve themselves. The incidence in the general population is estimated at about one percent. SLI is more common in boys than girls (Davidson, De Villers and Gale).


SLI is diagnosed when a child's language development is deficient for no obvious reason. For many years, there was a tendency to assume that SLI was caused by factors such as poor parenting, subtle brain damage around the time of birth, or transient hearing loss. Subsequently it became clear that these factors were far less important than genes in determining risk for SLI. A quest to find "the gene for SLI" was…… [read more]

History Evolution of the English Language Thesis

Thesis  |  10 pages (3,444 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 5


English by Time

To borrow from Robert McCrum, co-author of "The Story of English," English, which embodies a set of principles, has had a great influence on the world: "In a very real sense it contains, encoded within it, an innate declaration of independence. www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5013771159" ("Spreading the Word; Restore" A19)

Language is an ever changing, evolving and organic element of… [read more]

Specific Language Impairment Thesis

Thesis  |  5 pages (1,733 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … Language Impairment

Phonological Memory Deficits in Language Disordered Children: Is There a Causal Connection?

Working memory plays an important role in the ability to learn new tasks and may be connected to the ability to read and learn language in children (Gathercole & Baddeley, 1990). The central problem of this research study is to identify the role that… [read more]

History of English Thesis

Thesis  |  4 pages (1,293 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 6


History Of English

Language Bias and the Development of the English Language

Implications for Past and Future

Language is a remarkably complicated but simple matter. Each language system -- French, Japanese, African languages, etc. -- has its own set of sounds or hand gestures that people who speak or use their hands to communicate other languages would find difficult to produce. In the United States, children learn English via the parts of speech. They learn that verbs are action words, nouns are people, places, things, or ideas, and adjectives are descriptors. Students taking English classes in the United States may feel that only English speakers must struggle through these lessons, they are wrong. In fact, language universals appear in each language. This means that while every language has different words, sounds, and meanings, all share similar parts of speech, a concept that allows a great deal of insight into the human mind (Fromkin, Rodman, and Hyams (17). In fact, while children in English language classrooms are taught the standard features of their language, they do not need formal education in order to understand the language. Instead, children begin to speak simply by hearing their parents and others in their environment speak. The language that they, learn, therefore, is solely dependant on the language that they hear around them (Fromkin, Rodman, and Hyams 4). Interestingly, no matter whether a child learns English or a rare Native American tongue, the connection of sound and meaning, or sign and meaning, would be arbitrary. That is, any series of sound could have, theoretically, been assigned to any meaning, so the sounds or signs that make up the word are not inherently connected to the meaning. The English language is further criticized for its arbitrary nature because of its use of spelling. While the goal of spelling is generally to mimic the sounds represented, English often uses different spellings to represent the same sound ("A History of the English Language" 12). The fact that language is arbitrary, however, also reinforces the theory of descriptive grammar, or that no language or dialect is better than another as each has rules that allow it to operate logically (Fromkin, Rodman, Hyams 14). Despite this fact, English's evolution has long placed importance on the correct or proper way of speaking, associating this with class, status, and other socioeconomic factors. By studying the emphasis on "correct" usage as English evolved as compared to it emphasis today, one can understand the somewhat controversial importance of "correct" spoken English in the history of the language.

Although its linguistic importance can be gleaned from the preceding paragraph, an understanding of the history of the English language is also a cultural affair ("A History of the English Language" 1). English has its beginnings in both classical Rome and the Germanic invasions of Britain. While the Roman Empire had the privilege of introducing the first language, Latin, to the island, the invading Germanic tribes, as well as the Vikings with their Norse language, brought Old… [read more]

History of English Thesis

Thesis  |  4 pages (1,181 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 6


¶ … History of the English Language

The English language is one of the most interesting aspects of human history because it offers us a look into ourselves and our culture. We are not a people happy staying still in any generation. Instead, we would rather move, grow, and change and nothing demonstrates this more than the English language. One common understanding is that the English is a conglomeration of many other languages including Greek, Latin, and Sanskrit. Language was what Charles Champneys describes as "inflectual" (Champneys 52) in that it "marked the relation of words to each other" (52). Oliver Emerson agrees, noting that the English language is far from an "isolated language in any sense" (Emerson 1) and it is best to consider it as Indo-European when considering its heritage. This perspective allows us to see the English language as a vessel of change that represents who we are as a people.

The English language has a varied history and growth chart. This growth, because of its various influence, is difficult to trace. However, most critics agree that the Teutonic language is one that is "nearer to our own tongue" (Champneys 65). Champneys points out that English and German grammar have much in common as well as proverbs and idioms. He claims that English, German and Latin "all belong to the same great family of languages, but that English and German are members of the same brand of it" (66). Oliver Emerson notes that American English has had several influences, which are from within in with out. Many American English words have retained meanings which are no longer used in Great Britain and the has also been a "retention of an older pronunciation" (Emerson 72) than we find in England. This only adds to the complexity of the nature of language, for it seems to grow outside its limits in one regard but yet it seems to linger in the past in another regard and there seems to be no logical pattern for this behavior.

However, we must never look at the English language as something that is stagnant because it is not. With a society that is based upon a continuity of many factors, language becomes a victim, if you will of many of the things that we encounter in our daily lives. Language is best seen as a tool that evolves with man and the emergence of the technological age is just one example of how this occurs. Albert Baugh notes that the English language is "subject to growth and decay which characterize all forms of life" (Baugh 2). While it may be true that classical Latin is a dead language that cannot be said of English because it is alive and how we know this is through a simple observation of humanity. Baugh notes that language is important because it is connected to humanity in such a way that they "can scarcely be thought of apart" (3). In fact, he observes that a language lives… [read more]

English Grammar Essay

Essay  |  7 pages (2,133 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 4


English Grammar as Reveled by an English Textbook Used by the Pupils in Hong Kong

Globalization is the buzz word of the twenty first century and this can be simply explained through the numerous effects it has had upon the international community. Emerged from the economic context, the globalizing forces expanded to the cultural domain as well, leading to a… [read more]

Biological Basis for Language Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (685 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Biological Basis for Language

Language has long been considered the thing that separates man from the animals. It is our ability to communicate and coordinate that has enabled our species to spread to and control so many diverse climates and situations. Recent research however, as well as a rich history of anecdotal evidence, suggests that the ability to produce something at least approximating speech might not be so unique, after all. Dolphins and whales have been found to communicate using the sounds they produce, though it is unlikely that this could ever be considered language. On the opposite end of the spectrum, animals as diverse as parrots and chinchillas are able to produce sounds using much the same physical mechanisms as human beings. Parrots are even believed to be able understand many of the words they speak. Other research, such as training primates in the use of sign language, proves that we are not the only species capable of acquiring basic language skills. The question remains, however, whether or not there is a unique biological basis for linguistic speech in humans. The answer to this question, given the current state of research both into the neurology and physiology of other species and research conducted on human speech and the speech centers in the brain, the answer to this question is most reasonably a "yes." In addition, even the auditory communication found in other species could not really be considered language; no other species is known to be capable of the abstractions that human language can recall.

It is true that almost no part of the human physiology or anatomy can be said to be solely devoted to producing speech. The mouth and the multitude of articulators it contains -- the teeth, tongue, hard and soft palates, and lips -- are used for the more basic functions of eating and, to a degree, breathing, which certainly cannot be seen as uniquely human phenomena. Other apparatuses involved in speech production, such as vocal chords, appear in many other animals, from other primates to dogs,…… [read more]

Language Comparison Essay

Essay  |  6 pages (1,703 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3


¶ … Jonathan Swift's "A Modest Proposal" and George Orwell's

Politics and the English Language"

Language is more than words. Language is a tool that can be used in a variety of ways to achieve a variety of purposes. In his essay, "Politics and the English Language," George Orwell focuses on the function of language, emphasizing that it is a… [read more]

Translating the Iliad Into More Contemporary Language Term Paper

Term Paper  |  20 pages (6,546 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Translating the Iliad into more contemporary language, with a dramatic change in setting presents many challenges. The first is to decide the degree to which the work needs to be translated.

This alone consists of multiple different concepts that must be integrated. For example, there is the issue of substitution. With an entirely different setting, certain things must be substituted,… [read more]

Origin of the F Word Fuck Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,583 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 6


¶ … F' WORD

The objective of this work is to examine the origin of the 'F' word and how the word came to be and how it is used today in American culture.

There are various legends and claims regarding the origin of the 'F' word. While some claim that the word was derived from the language of the… [read more]

Strategies on Morphology Syntax and Semantics Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (627 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1


Second Language Acquisition Through Child's Play

Every child learns the morphology, syntax, and semantics of their native language through strategies geared towards their developing mind. These lessons, in the form of songs and games, are then internalized and can be remembered later in life as fond childhood memories. Using these fun strategies with second language learners does make a difference in how the second language is internalized. The rhythm and methodology of semantics can be broken down from boring exercises into fun activities of breaking down the syntax and semantics of songs written in the second language. Another entertaining way to incorporate childhood memories into learning a second language is the implementation of games to help pump u student enthusiasm and increase student activity and thinking in the teaching of new languages.

Learning a second language can be tough, especially if students dive into translating complex sentences and big chunks of text with intricate syntax which may seem confusing. Learning songs or children's rhymes is a better way to introduce students into new languages. These songs and stories have a clear rhythm which is both easy to understand and pleasing to say out loud. A good source of children's material which is rich in lessons of morphology, syntax, and semantics are the stories of Dr. Seuss. Despite the lack of long and complex words, his rhymes are clear and concise but yet use words in unique ways which would also help build vocabulary and grammar structures in the minds of new English learners. The repetition of his rhymes also helps solidify grammar and semantics principles within the mindset of ESL students. These stories may be simple in their appearance, but they are a rich source of fun methods of teaching basic grammar and vocabulary. Through reading these stories out loud, ESL students can also practice their pronunciation and understanding of the rhythm and…… [read more]

Deborah Tannen and Amy Tan Use Language Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (396 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1


¶ … Deborah Tannen and Amy Tan use language as a springboard to discuss gender. In "Marked Women, Unmarked Men," Tannen shows how the English language reflects a patriarchal culture. In "Mother Tongue," Tan demonstrates how her mother's limited English belies her power, strength, and intelligence. Tan is more concerned with ethnicity than Tannen. However, Tannen also understands how "geographical region, ethnicity, class, age and gender" interact. Therefore, Tannen and Tan appreciate the impact of language on gender and the impact of gender on language even while Tan frames her argument in terms of her ethnic identity.

Language and linguistics play an important role in Tan's and Tannen's analyses of gender. Tannen deeply delves into the ways women are more "marked" than men, borrowing her metaphor from the field of linguistics. Whereas the men at the table wore relatively nondescript clothing and hairstyles, each of the women had carefully cultivated her own style. Women are expected, Tannen argues, to mark themselves. Another way women mark themselves is by choosing whether or not to keep their surname after getting married. Amy Tan desists from using the linguistic terms that Tannen uses. However, Tan does note that while linguists point…… [read more]

Code Switching Term Paper

Term Paper  |  14 pages (3,873 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Code Switching

Although it sounds like something straight from a James Bond action thriller, the term "code switching" is actually used to describe those cases wherein a bilingual speaks to another bilingual with the same linguistic background and changes from one language to another in the course of conversation (Wei, 2000). Code switching is also used because it can help… [read more]

Alaskan Native Languages Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,523 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3


Alaskan Language Project

The continuance and historical understanding of the remaining approximate 200 tribal languages in Alaska (Krauss, 1996) is a significant cultural and educational concern for the American Indian and Alaska Native societies. Recently, the tribes and educators have spent considerable resources to ensure they capture the present languages and allow for their survival. Richard Littlebear relates the emergency… [read more]

Whorfian Hypothesis Term Paper

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Bibliography Sources: 12


Whorfian Hypothesis

Tis nature's work that man should utter words

But whether thus or thus, 'tis left to you

To do as seems most pleasing" (9)

Dante's Paradiso

How relevant is the Whorfian Hypothesis (WH) - also referred to as the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis - to language learning, in particular for the person who learned (or is learning) English as a… [read more]

Synchronic and Diachronic Variation Term Paper

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Bibliography Sources: 9


Synchronic and Diachronic Variation

This work will discuss the theory of grammaticalization, as it is defined within the current linguistic literature. The work will discuss the aspects of the term grammaticalization that allow it to be defined as an epiphenomenon of the physical neurological changes and language or grammatical changes that are consistent with the development of language, in both… [read more]

Speech Language Pathology Term Paper

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Educational Requirements

Colleges Offering Courses for Speech Language Pathology

Employment Outlook


Nature of the Work in Speech Pathology Field

Working Conditions in Speech Pathology Career

Typical Day Informational Interview



This objective of this work is to research and examine the qualifications for the career of the speech language pathologist. Specifically examined will be the educational requirements, colleges that offer preparation for this career, the costs of attending a college or university, the employment outlook, earnings, the nature of the work in this field, the working conditions, and the typical day information interview.

The speech-language pathologist is one who treats individuals with "speech, language, voice and fluency disorders..." (U.S. Department of Labor, 1997) Specifically the speech-language pathologists treats those who are unable to make sounds of speech or who cannot make those sounds clearly as well as those with problems in speech rhythm and fluency. One example of this is stuttering. Direct clinical services are provided by the speech-language pathologist to individuals who have communication disorders. The speech-language pathologist may be employed either in speech, language and hearing clinics or they may work in medical facilities with physicians, social workers, psychologists and other therapists in developing and execution of treatment plans. Some speech-language pathologists are employed in schools assisting teacher, counseling parents and developing both individual and group programs. (Ibid; paraphrased)

I. Educational Requirements master's degree in speech-language pathology is required as the standard credential in this field. States that regulate speech language pathologists total 43 and all require a master's degree plus 375 hours of clinical experience, passing score on a national examination as well as 9 months of post-graduate professional experience. Continuing educational requirements exist. Medicaid and Medicare and most private insurers require a license in order for reimbursements to be paid.. The master's degree individual may qualify for the Certificate of Clinical Competence (CCC) offered by the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. This certificate requires a master degree, 375 hours of supervised clinical experience and the completion of a nine-month post-graduate internship as well as passing a national exam.

II. Colleges Offering Courses for Speech Language Pathology

As of 1993 there were 230 colleges and universities offering master's degree programs in speech-language pathology. Courses include anatomy, physiology, normal speech development, speech, language, hearing and the nature of disorders; acoustics, psychological aspects in communication.

III. Costs of Attending College or University

There are many schools in the United States that offer the curriculum necessary for the Speech-Language Pathologists to acquire their master's degree. Fro the purpose of this study a review was conducted of colleges and universities in Alabama with the following findings being stated in relation to tuition and costs for educational attainment as a SLP:

1. Alabama A&M University - Fees and Tuition

In-State 7-10 credit hours - $1,166 + $200 mandatory fees + $5 registration fee; 12 credit hours - $1,391+ $200 mandatory fees + $5 registration fee; and Out of State: 7-10… [read more]

Embedded Words Term Paper

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Embedded Words

There have been a number of studies completed by researchers that concern imbedded words and their practicalities and implications in common language usage throughout society. Articles written about those studies show a number of conclusions that are both thought provoking and enlightening.

Bowers, Jeffrey S., Davis, Collin J. And Hanley, Derek a., (2004) Automatic Semantic Activation of Embedded… [read more]

Ape Language Experiments Term Paper

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Ape Speech

Research has been conducted for a long time on questions about the origin of language and how human beings first learned to speak. More recently, research has shifted to various primate studies as to whether or not other primates have what can be considered a language and in some cases whether apes can be taught to understand language… [read more]

Native American Language Term Paper

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Native American Words in American English

Native American Influence on American English

American society evolved through the interactions of many different cultures and peoples who came to America to make a new life. Our language today is the result of blending that occurred as these immigrants tried to communicate and conduct their daily business. Communication represents an agreement among two… [read more]

Words and Meanings Term Paper

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Language Change

The Evolution of Language

In central Australia, where the rivers Murray and Darling meet, there lives a small group of aborigines who were forced to change their word for water nine times in five years, each time because the man had died whose name had been the accepted word for water while he was alive." 1 (Keller, 1994,… [read more]

History of Psycholinguistics Term Paper

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An Analysis of the History and Development of Psycholinguistics

Psycholinguistics has been defined as the study of language and the mind; as the term implies, it is a subject that links both psychology and linguistics (Aitchinson 1). While their methods and underlying philosophies may differ, the common goal of all psycholinguists is to identify the structures and processes that… [read more]

ESL Learning: Comparative Analysis Term Paper

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¶ … ESL Learning: Comparative Analysis of the works of N. Chomsky, M. Stubbs, and M. Halliday & R. Hasan

The prevalence of multiculturalism in American society today denotes an important phenomenon that is confronted by society and human culture -- the evolution of the English language as one of the dominant and oft-used languages in the world. As a… [read more]

Acquisition of Form Function Mapping of Morphology and Function Words Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,763 words)
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Language Acquisition: Nature, Nurture, or Both?

How exactly do children learn to connect language with the things around them? Though virtually all of us were participants in this complex process, a full understanding of how children learn language and learn through language is a matter of debate. Primarily, the debate takes on two major points on view. Those who argue… [read more]

Polish Syntax Introduction Term Paper

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Polish Syntax

Introduction to the Syntax of Polish

The syntactic differences between spontaneous spoken language and written language have direct consequences for various areas of linguistics; typology, psycholinguistics, and sociolinguistics, not to mention certain assumptions lying behind generative grammar. There is a range of syntactic constructions typical of spontaneous spoken English and with parallel constructions in the spontaneous speech produced… [read more]

Non-Pronominal Coding of Active Referents Term Paper

Term Paper  |  20 pages (5,498 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Thus, (1) below is more specific than (2) which is more specific than (3): (1) Our French readers buy Harris's books (2) Our readers buy his books (3) They buy them. Put differently, the denotation of a pronoun (the set of objects it may refer to) is larger than the denotation of a lexical item. As opposed to nouns which… [read more]

Pedagogic Grammar, Written and Spoken Discourse Term Paper

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Pedagogic Grammar, Written and Spoken Discourse for English Language

ESL English Language Learning

The objective of this work is to give an analytical account of the key concepts and issues in Pedagogic Grammar and Written and Spoken Discourse for the English Language by writing a detailed analysis of selected texts written for learner of English based on the concepts and… [read more]

Semantic vs. Poetic Meaning Term Paper

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Burke's theory of hierarchies within language (which holds that language itself not only creates hierarchies, but also keeps hierarchies in place) (Language as Symbolic Action, 1966; A Rhetoric of Motives, 1950) in many ways parallels Foucault's Language/Power theory (1970a; 1970b; 1972; 1980), which holds that the deeper meaning of discourses (i.e., human language) is always dependent upon social context, from which all language/power relationships themselves necessarily spring.

Symbolic Action theory also contains the idea of "dramatism" (A Grammar of Motives, 1945) as illustrated within Burke's "Dramatistic Pentad" ("Kenneth Burke: Symbolic Action"). The five parts of Burke's Dramatistic Pentad are: (1) Act, or what is being done; (2) Scene, or where it is being done; (3) Agent, or who is doing it; (4) Agency, or how they are doing it; and (5) Purpose, or why they are doing it ("Kenneth Burke: Symbolic Action"). These five terms, together, are intended to offer "a critical vocabulary for isolating motivation in any text or discourse" ("Burke, Kenneth"), one similar, perhaps, to the "deep structure" of language identified by structuralist critics, e.g., Saussure; Levi-Strauss).

According to Burke, moreover, every narrative act (either spoken or written) is motivated by some combination of one or more of the five parts of the Dramatistic Pentad. In that sense, then, semantic and poetic uses of language are inherently equal, based on "deep structure" of language, which, Burke implies, cuts across all human content, contexts, and situations. Therefore, according to Burke, differences between semantic and poetic uses of language are, well, just semantic.

Works Cited

"Burke, Kenneth." Michael Groden and Martin Kreiswirth (Eds.) The Johns-

Hopkins University Press, 1997. Retrieved July 5, 2005, from:
www.press.jhu.edu/books/hopkins_ guide_to_literary_theory/kenneth_burke


Burke, Kenneth. A Grammar of Motives. New York: Prentice-hall, 1945

- -- . Language as Symbolic Action. Berkeley, CA: The University of California Press, 1966.

- -- . A Rhetoric of Motives. Berkeley, CA: The University of California Press,


Foucault, Michel. Discipline and Punish: The Birth of the Prison. London:

Allen Lane, 1970a.

- -- . . The Order of Things: An Archaeology of the Human Sciences. London:

Tavistock, 1970b.

- -- . The Archaeology of Knowledge. New York: Harper and Row, 1972.

- -- .. Power/Knowledge. New York: Pantheon, 1980.

'Kenneth Burke: Symbolic Action" Midframe. November 12, 2001. Retrieved

July 5,…… [read more]

Language Limits Our World Term Paper

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If one cannot think about something, whether an emotion or an action, then one cannot act in respones to that emotion or action. It requires a motivating thought, in language, for humans to act. Thus thought is at the base of all, and language is at the base of thought. While Wittgenstein for a time contended that the language did no more than create picture, in fact it does that, but also allows us to put the pictures into a context, one requiring a response, or not. Our responses will be limited -- unless something is a purely physical response such as a sneeze after smelling pepper -- by the language we have to describe the possibilities. Without language to describe the possibilities, we would not be able to recall the possibilities, wht our action or lack of action entails, and wht it will produce. Without language, in fact, we cannot predict outcomes from known precedent. We cannot, in all likelihood, even define ourselves.

If you have ever witnessed anyone in a state of being 'at a loss,' it is language they have lost. They often state that they do not know wht to say or do. This is true; their thinking about the matter at hand is limited to the languge they possess, nd if the mentally or emotionally correct response is not at hadn -- if they do not know the word compromise, for exaple -- then their response will be limited to what they do know, which might be a punch in the nose, or no action at all. (Of course, no action in response to a stimulus is a choice humans have; however, if one does nto know very many choices -- if one does not know wht those choices are called -- then necessarily the reaction will be limited to choices know, or to no reaction at all.… [read more]

Racism on English Language Term Paper

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¶ … Racism in the English Language by Robert B. Moore. Specifically, it will discuss what I found interesting in the reading and why. It will focus on the "wrap up" statements that language influences Western thought from the first moment we learn it. This is a distressing thought because it implies that we have little real choice in our attitudes and prejudices because they are ingrained in us almost from birth. This idea seems to say that we have little choice in our attitudes, at least in the beginning, and it is a thought that bears much more study and understanding if we are to understand both our language and its sociological implications.

In the "Wrap-Up," the author states, "Negative language infects the subconscious of most Western people from the time they first learn to speak. Prejudice is not merely imparted or superimposed. It is metabolized into the bloodstream of society" (Moore 474). This statement is thought provoking because it makes the reader stand back and look at the subconscious ways language has affected our beliefs and ideas from the first time we could listen and speak. This is interesting and yet frightening at the same time. If it is true, that language "colors" our vision subconsciously from the beginning of life, then it also seems to imply that we really have no chance of every overcoming prejudice and racial bias in Western society, for the thoughts are too ingrained and run too deep. No matter how much we try, there will still be inherent prejudices that are too big to overcome.

This is an unsettling conclusion for a number of reasons. First, it presupposes the English language we speak predetermines our reactions and our very life outlook. It also indicates that while we can be open to change and intellectual thought, that our language influences us so much that ultimately, some of our most important ideas are not based on this thought, but instead on prejudices that we begin to hear and subtly understand from birth. This disturbing idea seems to say that we, as English speakers, have little control over the racism inherent in our language. However, the author does advocate understanding and recognition as ways to combat the inherent prejudices in our language. This at least gives hope for some kind of change or at least insight into the words we use and the hidden meanings they contain. If we can begin to change our own usage of the English language, removing the offensive words and phrases, then perhaps we can begin to change accepted usage of the language, too.

The author advocates changing our usage of the language, but that simply does not seem realistic. Does this mean removing any of the offensive words and phrases from our everyday speech and written communications? Perhaps, and certainly that is doable, but is it realistic or effective? I think not. Most people, if these ideas were presented to them, would probably scoff and say the linguists were… [read more]

Animals Communicate, Humans Do it With Style Term Paper

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¶ … Animals Communicate, Humans do it With Style

For many years it was believed that humans were the only animals with communication abilities. In more recent history, however, experts who have studied other life forms and animals have come to the conclusion that animals also have the ability to communicate with each other. While humans have the most highly developed communication ability they are not the only living things who can communicate. Human language can be distinguished from other forms of communication by its complexity and versatility.

Recent research has uncovered the fact that humans are not the only linguistic animals. While the human language is the most complicated form of communication but it is not the only form of communication as has been proven by studies and examinations. It is believed that the human language began with manual gestures and then slowly evolved into what humans use today.

The theory that grammatical language evolved in the hominid line invites conflicting perspectives. Living primates such a monkeys use a certain form of vocalizations for communication. Nevertheless, early humans were perhaps also capable of such vocalizations. However, if the theory is true, it poses the question of why such vocalizations evolved to human spoken language while remained as such for primates. Language, therefore, must have emerged not from vocalization but from manual gestures and only changed to a vocal mode."

One of the most important elements that distinguish human language from other forms of communication is that it has varied properties.

Whereas other forms of communication among animals seem to be limited to a relatively small number of signals, and restricted to limited contexts, there is essentially no limit to the number of ideas or propositions that we can convey using sentences."

Human language has the ability to understand sentences that have never been put together before whereas animal communication is based more on visual reminders of things that are familiar.

Experts believe that human language is an evolutionary process by which coding moves the language along. Studies have indicated that the early communication was similar to other animal forms of communication based on gestures and sounds. It was through an evolutionary process that other abilities developed so that sentences can be formed with words never…… [read more]

Noam Chomsky States Are Not Moral Agents Term Paper

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Noam Chomsky

States are not moral agents, people are, and can impose moral standards on powerful institutions. (Wisdom Quotes: Noam Chomsky)

Noam Chomsky's contribution to linguistics and philosophy, as well as contemporary theoretical and political thought, is extensive. He received numerous awards and accolades, specifically for his work in linguistics. Chomsky was born in Philadelphia in 1928. As the son… [read more]

English Structure vs. Russian Term Paper

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Several sources must be utilized when attempting to decide how to translate between the Russian language and English from a lexicography perspective. "In 1985 Morkovkin's Leksicheskie minimumy sovremenngo russkogo jazyka was published. It was followed by Gabuchan's (1988) Uchebnyj tolkovyj slovar' russkogo jazyka. Gabuchan's dictionary contains almost 3,500 entries that were selected based on their high frequency and their typical… [read more]

Comrie, Reconstruction, Typology and Reality Term Paper

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A few years later she actually bought proper needles and yarn and a book for constant guidance. She worked at this skill and 45 years later can not only do complex work but can design her own patterns.

3) Why would one want to require that reconstructed languages have the same general typological characteristics as present day languages? What problems might arise if you don't make this assumption?

3) It would seem logical that there should be similar typological features in both reconstructed languages and current languages since, to communicate, people will have always had to get similar messages across and it would make sense features that worked to do this is old languages would be found in current languages. Without similarities to work from, linguists wouldn't know to where or how to…… [read more]

Bilingual Policies Term Paper

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They feel that a bilingual stance would encourage those in minority cultures to resist assimilation (Rubenstein, 2001).

In education, some are adamantly opposed to bilingual education, arguing that earlier immigrants went to school and simply "sank or swam," and that the great majority learned good English and became successful. All instruction was in English and "it worked." (Rothstein, 1998) Other… [read more]

Language Acquisition by J. Crawford Term Paper

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This article shows there are so many different theories and methods of language acquisition, and this shows how difficult it is for educators to decide on a method, and then implement it. Clearly, language acquisition depends on many different learning and teaching technologies, and it does not look like the experts still really understand just what at least some of those technologies are. In addition, it is clear from this article that even the most highly skilled professionals do not agree on what entails successful language teaching, and how different students acquire languages. Each person is unique, and while there are commonalities in learning styles, this article makes it clear we have a long way to go in the study and dissemination of language, and that we need to continue studies and experiments until we find the optimum way of teaching a second language in our nations' schools.


Crawford, J. "Basic Research on…… [read more]

Language Diversity and Education Term Paper

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175 Native American languages have survived. In Anchorage, Alaska, the students speak more than 100 languages as first languages.

This article was most interesting for the detailed explanation of the truly multi-language nature of America's schools. Obviously when one city may have students who speak any of 100 languages other than English, the schools cannot expect to be able to hire teachers fluent in all those languages as well as English, so broader strategies are needed. Ovanda suggests adopting a policy of "constructive pluralism" as a starting point. In this view the student is not criticized for being linguistically different, and the teacher adopts a problem-solving frame of mind rather than making judgments. This approach would combat the view that Black English is inferior because of its use, for instance, of double negatives. Those opposed to this view may feel that "Americans should speak English," but teachers should be able to look past a political stance and teach all the students in their classrooms in the…… [read more]

Language Diversity Crawford Begins Term Paper

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It is specifically interesting to me how the adamant criticism received by the above theorists have not been specifically addressed. It appears that the language acquisition community of academics are more interested in promoting their own pioneering ideals than in addressing the needs of language learners. Addressing such needs would mean not only criticizing the newest of theories, but also debating these until improvements or confirmations are arrived at that would benefit learners.

The situation explained in the article appears to be counter-productive in terms of effective language teaching in schools. Instead of merely criticizing, evidence should be taken into account and testing should be done to either confirm or negate the effectiveness of existing theories. Also, the theorists criticized should address the specific issues raised. Only then can true progress be expected in this very important area.… [read more]

Linguistic Processes Underlie Understanding Sentences Term Paper

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This linguistic blurring of sound patterns has its limits. Obviously, if the speaker mentioned an elephant by accident, as in 'John was gazing at an elephant in the mirror,' rather than her as opposed to him, the listener might demand further clarification. Or, even if further clarification were not deemed emotionally valid to seek on a social level by the listener, at very least the listener would not glean the meaning desired by the speaker as to the meaning of the sentence about John looking at the face of another boy in the mirror. The contextual nature of language again exists within the framework of a tacitly agreed upon lexicon and syntactical frame of reference that contextual meaning and the blurring of sounds and meanings in context can stretch, but only stretch within a certain limit. These limits are social and contextual themselves as well as cognitive, of course, and vary from speaker to speaker and listener to listener.

The best-known model of speech perception and speech processing is the TRACE model of spoken word recognition It is assumed that sound information passes bottom-up through a system that first analyses the sound information in terms of its auditory features. It then converts the auditory features into a sequence of phonemes before finally combining these phonemes to form spoken words. However, there are also top-down influences on processing. (Eysenck & Keane, Chapter 14) Processing decisions made may be influenced by intermediate decisions made at the immediately higher level of analysis, such as the realization in the situation above that John was referring to a male or female, and the idea that the introduction of an elephant into the discussion of what transpired before the mirror made no logical or coherent sense.

Thus, the understanding of sentences, including anaphors, does involve some distinct stages of processing in the sense that the individual must be fully aware of the contextual nature of the language, lexicon, and context that the speaker is articulating him or herself in. However, the understanding of language is not a sequential process in the sense of an individual learning to walk or to play a ball. The processes involved in linguistic understanding are diffuse and interactive because of the human nature of linguistic cognitive processing. They are themselves highly situation-specific and interactive in nature and are dependent upon the linguistic education and interpretive ability of the individual listener.

Works Cited

Eysenck & Keane. Cognitive Psychology. Fourth Edition.

Farrar, W. & A. Kawamoto. (1993) ' The return of "visiting relatives": Pragmatic effects…… [read more]

Bergvall, Victoria L., Janet M Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (874 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


' The book also contains a useful and very comprehensive historical background on studies of gender and language, which thoroughly discusses and explains the 'Androcentric Rule' of language (which actually means a male-dominated (or centered) language).

Green, Keith and Jill LeBihan. Critical Theory and Practice: A Coursebook. New York: Routledge, 1996.

Keith Green and Jill LeBihan's coursebook on the basics of language and its application to sociology is essential for studying gender effect on language because of its brief, but insightful discussion of the "Androcentric language" prevalently used in almost all societies throughout history. The common misconception about women language as purely 'gossip' and 'prattle' as also explained in light of the "Androcentric language" dilemma of gender influence on language. One of the important premises presented in this book about gender and language is the statement that "[s]ubordination is seen as an advances grammatical structure which requires complex brain functions (which women... cannot perform)." This book discusses the biological influences that somehow agues the fact that biology has a lot to do with how language is spoken by the gender groups of males and females.

Language and Gender." 1996. University of Pennsylvania Linguistic Data Consortium Web site. November 29, 2002 http://www.ldc.upenn.edu/myl/ling001/gender.htm.

This web page by the University of Pennsylvania Linguistic Data Consortium Web site is a comprehensive discussion of the differences between men and women language, supported by biological studies (illustrated by graphical representations) and research that proves how gender differences affects language. The cultural and psychological approaches are also used to explain the problem of gender difference in language. The web page also includes a proper distinction of the definitions of sex and gender for better comprehension of the readers.

Rosenfeld, Lawrence, and Ronald B. Adler. Interplay: The Process of Interpersonal Communication. New York: Harcourt Brace and Company, 1998.

The topic of gender and language can be found in second part, Chapter Five of the book, wherein Language is thoroughly discussed as a tool for communication. The discussion about gender and language mainly focused on research studies conducted that explains what are the primary factors that determine the differences and similarities among male and female communication and everyday language. The part on gender and language includes a study of the researches about the content, reasons for communicating, and communicating styles among men and women. The gender and language discussion if the book does not offer a critical study of the issue of gender and language, but is a useful resource for getting some research/study results about the dynamics and content of male and female communication and language.… [read more]

Journal Writing "A Modest Proposal Discussion and Results Chapter

Discussion and Results Chapter  |  10 pages (3,216 words)
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There are some simple and not easily recognizable habits that each language carries and the individual will automatically find himself expressing these as is imbibed through the languages. I agree that English is a carrier of culture and this is evident by looking at the countries that were colonized by British, there are several cultures that they took after the… [read more]

Grammar Correction Best Practices Research Paper

Research Paper  |  10 pages (3,384 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10


For example, Spanish speakers will typically put the adjective describing the item after the noun it references whereas the opposite is usually done in English. In other words, a person speaking in English would say "red car" whereas a Spanish speaker would say "coche rojo" (car red). However, it can get much more subtle and complex than that. For example,… [read more]

Pronouns and Feminism Term Paper

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As noted before, if someone hears someone refer to a doctor, they are generally going to assume it is a male. If they hear someone refer to a nurse, they will often assume that the person is a female. They may very well be wrong but they probably are not and assuming as such does not necessarily mean that any malice or bias is in play. As with many things, it is all about probability and trends more than favoring one gender over another. Even so, the fact that there is not a feature built into the English language to negate the problem entirely is annoying to say the least and that would indeed seem to fix the problem. However, creating such a word or words and making it register and take hold with the American public, let along other countries and regions in the world, would not be the easiest thing. As such, perhaps the best thing to do is focus on educating people on a few good habits. First, gender should be just like race or ethnicity in the respect that bringing it up is not necessary unless it is mundane or relevant to the discussion. Second, people should dial back their outrage and vitriol unless it is clear that an anti-gender bias is in play. Real discrimination and bias should be identified and dealt with but people should still be given the benefit of the doubt unless it is clear that insult and degradation is the intent. Lastly, bias in reaction to perceived or actual bias is still bias. Put another way, two wrongs do not make a right and lashing back at an entire group of people for the ill intent of a smaller portion of the whole is not fair, not valid and not productive.


Gender politics can be very dicey and chaotic. People tend to engage in character assassination at the drop of the hat at even the most perceived or theoretical insult. That being said, the English language has an obvious male dominance and even when both relevant gender pronouns are included the male version tends to come first. While this may frost a lot of women and women advocates, not everyone has a bias and one of the two has to come first. Further, it is only necessary because the English language does not have a defined and yet grammatically correct way to avoid such a condition. Both sides of this argument have a point but both really need to see that the other has a point as well and there is not a clean way to avoid all of the fuss.… [read more]

Anthropology Andrew Bank's Evolution and Racial Theory Essay

Essay  |  6 pages (2,000 words)
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Andrew Bank's Evolution and Racial Theory: The Hidden Side of Wilhelm Bleek is focused on challenging how Bleek has been romanticized in recent years by those in Southern African scholarship. While his research into San mythology was very important during is Bushman period, it was not the only aspect of his life worthy of note. Because so many scholars… [read more]

Morpheme and Syntax Analysis Data Analysis Chapter

Data Analysis Chapter  |  3 pages (870 words)
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Never mind about that shopping



I would take them to fun places only









And Chuck E. Cheese's



Bounceland and Jungle Joe's.



Mm, from the bank



You know how you get some money from the bank?



Can you turn



Can you turn that around?



Um, so I can, like



And I'll -- But I'll buy my own food because






My wife will work. And I will



No, I I'm I'm just I didn't I didn't mean that



I was kidding, okay?



I want a wife



Um, the girl that that holds the case from XX



So I'm gonna marry that girl



Mm, light



I will let them whenever they want, do paint craft. They could paint on the walls.


Total Morphemes = 248

Total number of utterances = 50

MLU= 4.96

Language stage according to Brown = 5

B. Brown's Morphemes Analysis



Present progressive ing

I was kidding (45)

In my bedroom (6)


They could paint on the walls. (50)

Regular Plural-s

They can write words (3)

Irregular past

I was kidding (45)


Chuck E. Cheese's, Jungle Joe's (34, 35)

Uncontractible copula

That would be fine (4)


In the basement, I want a wife (7, 46)

Regular Past -- ed


Irregular third person

I would take them to fun places (31)

Uncontractible auxiliary

I was kidding (45)

Contractible copula


Contractible auxiliary

I'm gonna marry that girl (48)


Based on what you see, what stage of language development is the child exhibiting?

This child is operating at Stage V or above. He is linguistically developed at his age level or higher.

II. Lexical Development

Word Type



Bedroom (6) Meal (12)


Get (37) Buy (41) Work (43)


Fine (4) Different (12) Fun (31)


Probably (20)

prepositions in (6) on (50) for (3) at (20)


Fun places only (31)


a (46) the (7)

auxiliary verbs

I'm gonna marry (48)


Would be (4)


Shopping (30)


Want to play (20)

Sentence Types:

Identify as many examples of each type of sentence construction seen in the child's language sample

Utterance #







37… [read more]

Asl My Reasons Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (653 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


There are a lot of people in the world today who are mute, and are unable to express themselves through the conventional means of speaking -- or who possibly have difficulty in hearing. ASL can play an integral role in allowing such people to communicate with others…but only if other people are proficient in this particular language. I do not think it is fair to socially isolate people for the simple fact that they are different from others, which is the case with individuals who cannot hear and speak the way most people can. Thus, I believe that by learning sign language I can help to make this language more commonly known, which would certainly help to improve the conditions for people who rely upon this language to communicate.

Additionally, I believe that learning different things and engaging in new experiences is valuable for a person's general edification. I am certainly attempting to make myself a well-rounded individual, since I place a high value on people skills and human interaction. As such, I believe that learning ASL will help me to meet different people and to put myself in different surroundings. I wholeheartedly agree with the German philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche, who said, "that which does not kill me only makes me stronger." As such, I am looking to find a variety of new experiences which will help to improve my overall personality, tolerance, and respect for others. I think that becoming fluent in ASL is a principle way for me to find new opportunities to express myself with people whom I otherwise would not be able to.

In summary, my reasons for wanting to become proficient in ASL are both personal and practical. My friends have shown me how interesting and crucial it is to communicate in various languages, and I believe my mastery of this language will help to make it more accessible for the disabled.… [read more]

Assigning Expatriates Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (1,021 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Assigning Expatriates

Unfortunately, there are a multitude of problems that multinational companies encounter when they attempt to send expatriates to assignments in Eastern Europe. The vast majority of these problems expressly pertain to cultural differences. Global and cultural differences are decidedly commonplace in executives from different nations (Nardon and Steers, 2007, p. 47). These differences apply when utilizing an expatriate from virtually anywhere in the world except from Eastern Europe, but particularly apply when sending individuals from Western Europe or from North America to Eastern Europe. Although there are a variety of problems, a significant amount of them can be rectified by means of adequate preparation on the part of both the individual expatriate as well as that of his or her organization.

Cultural differences frequently encountered when individuals from multinational companies go to work in Eastern Europe for an extended period of time include language barriers. Although most people throughout Europe know English and use it as a neutral language, there are some people who do not know it. Moreover, there are also a host of other languages that expatriates may encounter while working in the part o the world that individuals may prefer to converse in -- such as during social settings, for example -- that may hamper the progress an expatriate could otherwise make were he or she more familiar with such casual, conversational languages. There is a correlation between inadequate language preparation and an inability to create contacts and to even maintain professional relationships because of this issue (Suutari, 1998).

Additionally, cultural problems help to create difficulties in adapting to work-related climates for expatriates in Eastern Europe. Specifically, "a further differentiation of adaptation problems into three major groups was proposed by Suutari and Brewster: leadership styles, organization systems and communication" (Suutari, 1998). Therefore, the differences in culture contribute to different modes of communication (not just in terms of language but in terms of how it is used for different meanings), varied perceptions of model or effective leadership, as well as different explicit and implicit methods of appropriately organizing companies and allocating and utilizing their resources.

The solutions to the aforementioned problems are nearly as varied as those problems themselves. In terms of the language barrier, it always behooves expatriates to make an attempt to learn the native tongue in the particular country in which they will be stationed. Thorough preparation is required to accomplish this feat. It involves attempting to learn the language prior to joining the new country, as well as making continual efforts to study that language while one is living and working in that foreign land. Doing so may prove all the more difficult because expatriates are primarily supposed to be completing their job tasks. Learning the foreign language of the country that they are stationed in, however, will actually assist in this endeavor.

Once an individual is able to more fluently speak the langue of the country in which he is stationed, he or she may have a better opportunity to understand… [read more]

Greek English Code Switching Bilinguals Emotional Responses Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  3 pages (938 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3



Greek-English code switching -- Bilinguals' Emotional Responses in English and Greek

Bilingual 'code-switching:' an overview and research proposal

Code-switching is the linguistic term for breaking in and out of different languages. "Going from one language to the other in mid-speech when both speakers know the same two languages" (Qing 2010). Code-switching has been observed cross-culturally, and has been attributed to a wide variety of different causes. The most common reason is unconscious behavior: when in a different social contexts, bilingual persons will naturally shift from one language to the other, depending on which 'feels' more natural to the circumstances, such as a home vs. A work environment (Thompson 2013). People may also 'code-switch' in a more conscious manner to fit into a specific social context or to ingrate themselves with others. A final possible rational for code-switching is the desire for greater clarity of expression and thought: the speaker may use a particular colloquialism to say something uniquely well that cannot be expressed in the main language being used (Thompson 2013).

Code-switching underlines how language is a context-specific experience, and translation is not merely something which is a literal process. A number of studies have been conducted examining how code-switching is affected by exterior circumstances. For example, one study of the responses of 122 bilingual Mexican-Americans to advertising found that an "ad written primarily in English placed within an all-English medium [i.e. during English programming] was just as effective and well received among respondents as the ad written mostly in Spanish inserted in a Spanish medium [during Spanish programming]. Further, the primarily English ad was more effective and better received than the primarily Spanish ad when placed in the English medium" in terms of how sensitive the advertisements were perceived to be to consumers' needs (Bishop & Peterson 2010). The very presence of code-switching itself was affirming.

Theoretical framework

The idea of language and emotions, as both culturally-constructed entities is part of the rationale behind a recent study by Panayiotou (2004) which drew distinctions between the expressions of emotions between speakers who were bilingual in Cypriot Greek and English. In the research study, the author interviewed five English-/Greek bilinguals and five Greek-English bilinguals and compared their responses to two similar stories, one in Greek about 'Andreas' and one in English about 'Andy.' The respondents' reactions were markedly different, depending on what language they used as a response and whether the content of the story was Greek or English. "The terms given in response to the English story are not a translation of the terms given for the Greek story and what bilinguals are reacting to is the different cultural context of each story. There also seems to be a pattern of concern for the family in the Greek scenario -- particularly for the widowed mother -- that does…… [read more]

Structuralism and Film Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,779 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Structuralism and Film

In film and literature, structuralist analysis aims to deconstruct the how images and ideas are presented to others and aims to explain the subtextual meanings behind these images and ideas through an examination of signs and signifiers. One of the major proponents of structuralism was Ferdinand de Saussure, a Swiss linguist who is considered to be the… [read more]

Machine Translation and Horizons Seminar Paper

Seminar Paper  |  3 pages (919 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Also, newspapers are relatively standard, simply-written documents that are not analogous to complex legal and business documents, and they lack the subtleties and complexities of literature.

The opponents of these enthusiastic supporters of machine translation contend that all forms of machine translation are inherently useless and produce nothing but humorous nonsense. "As they expect nearly perfect speech, they will find themselves largely disappointed."[footnoteRef:2] It is very easy to find examples of humorous mistranslations that leave the reader scratching his or her head at best, or, at worst leave the reader dangerously misled. But this dismissive view belies the fact that there is a serious need for effective machine translation, and real and sustained efforts are being made to ensure that the process can become a reality. Not every translation needs to be a work of perfect prose, sometimes merely workmanlike efforts will suffice. And given the spread of globalization, without machine translation, the ability to communicate between global locations would be severely hampered, particularly for smaller organizations that cannot afford professional translators. [2: Ibid., ]

Another important and often-overlooked form of machine translation is the ability to search different language databases using a single keyword. This function is performed by a developing system known as ACENTINUS. ACENTIUS was developed in Europe. The European Union, a polyglot trading block, is yet another example of an entity which demands some form of machine translation to function effectively. When pure accuracy is not essential, machine translation can thus be a very useful instrument.

When evaluating machine translation, it is also important to keep in mind that it is a technological work in progress and there are many different types. Assisted software translation requires human intelligence to set parameters, and comes closest to mimicking the work of a human translator, while unassisted translation is best for multi-language database searches like ACENTINUS. A newly developing form of machine translation called Natural Language Processing (NLP) is capable of translating entire clusters of words, rather than conducts a word-by-word translation. New methods using algorithms to select which word or phrase is best suited to a suggested translation are also being developed: "For instance a work in one language may have two words to which it could be translated. Both words may have the same technical meaning, but would convey a different thought, such as cool and cold. Both refer to a lower temperature; however, they have different connotations" and the program would be able to use a formula to select which one was best. [footnoteRef:3] Yet however sophisticated, these methods are merely ways to make machines a bit less prone to error and more useful: they cannot replace the feel for language possessed by…… [read more]

Sociolinguistics Sociolinguists Study the Cultural and Social Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (594 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0



Sociolinguists study the cultural and social factors that influence language change, and the ways that language changes in relation to these factors. All manner of different situations require different language use to say the same thing, and different cultures all have different ways of doing things -- including expressing things through language. All forms of communication can be thought of as language and thus as different ways of expressing the same things. understanding the social factors underlying linguistic changes leads to a better understanding of language itself.

A variety or code is a specific way of using language in a specific social and cultural context. The way someone speaks to their boss is likely different from the way someone speaks to their friends; the different contexts require two different codes. Diglossia literally means "two-tongues," and essentially refers to having two main codes -- usually a formal and an informal manner of speech. Code switching refers to changing back and forth between codes and/or the ability to make this switch, as in when someone at an informal gather answers a business call for example.

Shifts in language use can also occur within communities as social changes occur -- some words become obsolete while others are added. Language loss and death can occur when cultures that use a specific language assimilate into other cultures or otherwise fade away, possibly through the dying off of elders who still use the old language. Technology, cultural mixing, and many other factors can cause language loss and/or death, and protecting minority languages often takes a great deal of very concerted effort and dedication by a few scholars to truly preserving the language through recordings.

Vernacular languages are the spoken languages as populations of common people in a culture use them, while Standard…… [read more]

English (Grammar, Spelling) Is Important Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (693 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


On the other hand, about 56% of employers say "…proficiency in English" is a "top priority" when interviewing and recruiting potential employees. In other words, when a high school or college graduate fills out an application for employment, and that application has a number of spelling errors, the employer can either surmise that the applicant is ignorant of proper English, does not proofread adequately, or perhaps the applicant is simply sloppy. Either way, misspelling words on an application or a letter to a potential employer makes a very bad impression. Why would an employer hire a person who is slipshod in his or her use of language? It's possible that being careless in one aspect of one's professional life can portend sloppiness in other aspects as well; it's a fair assumption.

"First impression is crucial for graduates…" and yet high school and college graduates seem to make "…the same common spelling errors" over and over (Aston University).

Well beyond just using proper spelling on applications, students at the college and university level should be acutely aware that instructors fully expect students to pay close attention to their composition -- as well as to their use of spoken language. Standing in front of the class using poor English (i.e., "I ain't sure of the date that was written…") diminishes the value of what material is being presented in the same way that poor spelling reduces the value of work turned in to a college or university instructor.

Works Cited

Aston University. (2012). Graduate Advantage highlights the importance of spelling and grammar for graduates. Retrieved January 12, 2013, from http://www1.aston.ac.uk.

Chin, Beverly Ann. (2000). Why Do We Care About Grammar? Huff Post Teen. Retrieved January 12, 2013, from http://www.uwplatt.edu.

Chin, Beverly Ann. (2008). The Role of Grammar in Improving Student's Writing. Sadlier-

Oxford. Retrieved January 12, 2013,…… [read more]

Plural Endings All Have K In Possesed Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (878 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


plural endings all have k in Possesed forms as well as having the J. randomly. What is predictable are the vowels. All Slavic languages make use of a high degree of inflection leading to the nominative marker in the nominative case being the bare form zero. The marker for the inessive case is ban or ben. vowel + t: at, ot, et is the marker for the accusative case.

szobaikan= szoba[N/room] + ik[PersPl-3-

PossPl] + ban[InessiveCase]

t ia a prefix in some of those in the table. The phonetic system shows a high degree of consonant saturation, and the morphology is agglutinative making t appear as a prefix more often and also leaning towards inflectional. There is a glottal stop in plurals. The glottal stop following the initial vowel of Chukchee and Koryak is often replaced by x or k preceding the vowel. Kamchadal treat syllables incorporating a glottal stop as heavy. xkin is always for the singular object in the second case.

Stress Modification

English gives an example in disyllabic noun-verb pairs, sometimes with accompanying vowel modification:



Primary stress on:

First syllable

Second syllable record contrast permit perm't pervert transport convict

Tonal Modification

Lumasaaba (a Bantu language from East Africa), in which "a morphological distinction may regularly be carried by tone alone":

'he saw' 'Near Past'


_ ^ ^ [a:Bo:ne]

^ _ [a:Bo:ne]


This process can be classified according to the amount of a form that is duplicated, whether complete or partial. In Marshallese, one finds at least three types of partial reduplication:

Initial C:

liw lliw scold someone be angry

Initial CVC:

yetal yetyetal go walk

Final CVC:

takin takinkin socks wear socks


kijdik kkijdikdik rat be infested with rats


A process by which a new word is formed without affixation, but simply by a change of the initial consonant of the base. EXAMPLE: in the Siberian language Nivkh (or Gilyak) nouns can be derived from verbs simply by changing the initial consonant (see (i)), and likewise transitive and intransitive verbs are often related solely by mutation (see (ii)):

(i) vutyidy 'sweep' putyis 'broom' fady 'put on knee-piece' phady 'knee-piece'

(ii) gesqody 'burn NP' kesqody 'burn oneself'

zody 'bend' tyody 'bend'

(Cy = palatalized C, Ch = aspirated C)

The major empirical and conceptual difficulties are: (Conceptual) if the inflected forms of verbs can be derived by iinflection in the lexicon and given that the surface forms observable in the input are ambiguous with respect to how they were derived, how are kids able to decide which verbs acquire inflection in one way or the other? (Empirical) Have/be can surface in…… [read more]

Diversity of the World and Even Single Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (571 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


¶ … diversity of the world and even single countries today, learning and being able to communicate in a second language has become an increasingly common phenomenon. Usually, second language acquisition theory and fluency has focused on learners with foreign languages as their mother tongue aiming to learn English as second language.

Over the years, several theories have developed around the acquisition of a second language. To understand how one might become fluent in a second language, a study of the stages of second language acquisition (Haynes, 2005) is a good starting point.

Simple phrases and sentences are used. Fluency begins to appear at the intermediate level at stage IV. The vocabulary includes 6,000 active words, after which advanced fluency is finally achieved after about 4-10 years.

To gain a better understanding of how fluency in a second language, I interviewed Pamela Lang, a native Japanese speaker who came to the United States about ten years ago. When she first arrived, she knew almost no English, and her silent stage was quite long. Once she had reached the second stage of language acquisition, she moved rapidly towards the intermediate stage. To reach the advanced stage took her about three more years.

An interesting distinction Pamela made was between acquiring academic and social fluency. She gained social and colloquial fluency within about two years after her arrival in the country. Her journey towards academic fluency took about five years.

Assessment is an important part of student development, since it offers not only an indication of students' current abilities, but also a pathway towards future development and strategies that can best be utilized to this end.

In terms of assessment strategies for the beginning stage, for example,…… [read more]

Organization Would Introduce a Policy of Wearing Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (669 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


¶ … organization would introduce a policy of wearing identification badges so people who work for the company could be more easily recognized (Anderson, 2005). Additionally, visitor badges are worn so the employees can tell who the visitor is and that he or she is allowed to be within the organization (Anderson, 2005). Visitors are required to sign in to get their badge, so it is safe to assume that a person with a visitor badge has signed in and the organization knows that the visitor is present. The same is true with employee badges. Each employee will have a badge issued to him or her, and that will allow the organization to determine who is an employee and who is not. However, because there are offices within the company that are not in the United States, there is the possibility of misunderstandings with the language barrier. There are, fortunately, ways to correct this potential problem.

In order to implement the policy throughout the entire company, the best thing to do is to be sure that the information about employee and visitor badges is translated into every language employees speak, and into every standard or common language which is spoken in the countries where the offices are located. That allows the employees and visitors to read important information about the badges and does not require the workers or the front office staff to speak every potential language that an employee or visitor might speak. The translation must be done correctly, however, by those who speak both English and the other language fluently. If the translation is not correct, it could be a serious problem and lead to a large number of misunderstandings. As long as the employees and visitors are properly addressed and the information is provided clearly, there shouldn't be any reason why the badge policy cannot be implemented in all of the company's offices, no matter where they are located or what language the people speak.

There are many things in an…… [read more]

Criticize a First Draft Reaction Paper

Reaction Paper  |  2 pages (591 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


¶ … awe and grandeur with which the author regards his or her trip to China. This tone of voice is fairly compelling for the reader, since it presents the subject matter detailed within this essay from a fairly entertaining viewpoint that makes the reader want to continue to read the essay.

To that end, it is noteworthy that the author's tone is aided immensely by his or her vocabulary. In fact, the author's prudent choice of diction imbues the essay with a picturesque sense of detail in which the reader can actually experience some of the author's adventures and encounters. For instance, the humidity that characterized the Chinese weather during the author's visit there is wonderfully underscored by the author's usage of both verbs and adjectives, such as the allusion to the perspiration that enabled the author's brow to "moisten" within moments of disembarking from the plane, and the "slow trickle of sweat" that "ran" across his brow. In these passages the author's choice of diction actually sounds good, which is an integral component of good writing (Zinser, 36). Interestingly enough, most of the sensory details within this essay are about the intense heat which the author describes in vivid detail, and which includes references to the way "the sun baked" the Great Wall of China, and "the sweat beading on my forehead."

This sort of sensory detail definitively adds to the essay because it reinforces the verve the author experienced during his visit to China. Additionally, another strength of the essay is that the author is able to substantiate his reasons for his feelings in a concrete way that most readers can identify with. Instead of focusing on details related to his management practice course, he chose to emphasize aspect of the China's…… [read more]

Special Education Word Power People Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (664 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


In general, the author's conviction could be significantly improved had she added, say, statistical data or examples from history that could defend many of the claims that she makes. These essays move best and her beliefs become more tangible when she does go into detail about them, such as when she describes all of the accomplishments of her son -- before explaining his limitations and how she has managed to work around them.

The author's belief that language has a negative effect -- such as the fact that categorizing someone as special or handicapped inherently evokes pity -- makes a fair amount of sense. However, it would be better if she could offer better examples of how using proper language would boost the self-esteem of these people that she is concerned with. Personally, I found her articles fairly compelling as well as frustrating, the latter principally because I could not all the way believe her because of her limited use of details that reinforced her assertions.

In summary, Snow wrote a pair of articles that certainly need to be written, since they advocate equality between disable people and those who are not disabled. The author believes the language used to refer to these people, if it were changed and updated to terminology and phrasing that was less pejorative, could significantly help people overcome their disabilities. Although the author makes a number of salient points, they most serve as topics for future research so that they can have sufficient corroboration and give readers the sense of conviction that fuels both essays. Doing so would only aid her objective of promoting equality between those who are disabled and those who are not.


Snow, K. (2012). "People First Language." Disabilityisnatural.com. Retrieved from http://www.disabilityisnatural.com/images/PDF/pfl09.pdf

Snow, K. (2012). "The Case Against "Special Needs." Disabilityisnatural.com Retrieved from http://www.infantva.org/documents/conf2006-SpecialNeeds.pdf… [read more]

Nagel's Model of Inter-Theoretic Reduction Essay

Essay  |  9 pages (2,376 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


They believed that physical descriptions of a process can be the source of meaningful statements of bridge laws.

However, Nagel himself admitted that the reduction of a theory to physical science does require the use of identities or biconditionals in the bridge laws, provided the assumptions are adequate for derivation.

The Alteration of Formalized Law during the Process of Derivation… [read more]

ESL Vocab Acquisition Deriving a Pedagogical Strategy Research Paper

Research Paper  |  10 pages (3,474 words)
Bibliography Sources: 12


ESL Vocab Acquisition

Deriving a Pedagogical Strategy for Vocabulary Acquisition Instruction

Among ESL Students

Learning a new language is among the most confounding of challenges to those entering into new countries of school systems. In addition to the conceptual and practical challenges that impact this process, there are considerable cultural and structural obstacles that the learner must face. This is… [read more]

Cv Writing in Today's Competitive Environment Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (561 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


CV Writing

In today's competitive environment, it is extremely important to make the best first impression possible. Recent graduates thus have to learn how to embed their CVs with the right language and styles in order to maximize their efficiency. The articles discuss practical and effective strategies for CV and resume writing. These articles focus on discussing how to maximize the efficiency of one's potential CV, without sounding too cheesy or manipulated. The authors spell out a clear career objective early on in the CV to allow potential employers to distinguish if one is appropriate for the position needing to be filled. One major important step is the expression how one's educational achievements will help secure success in meeting one's defined career objectives. Moreover, organization is key to allow the CV to flow and mesh well with potential employers.

Many recent graduates are more than willing to embellish their CVs in order to get a greater competitive edge, yet this can be a bit dangerous. Any CV should contain no blatant lies or promises that one cannot actually keep within the context of the work environment and position he or she is aiming to achieve. Fibs and blatant fallacies will only serve to discredit one's entire resume. This can be a serious issue if a CV is posted on the internet, where it will end up haunting the applicant for years to come. Once a potential employer catches a lie in the act, chances of that individual being hired are incredibly reduced.

Yet, sit is necessary to tailor one's CV in order to maximize its potential position within a sea of other applicants. In a way, this is a form…… [read more]

Zulu Linguistic Analysis of Word Essay

Essay  |  12 pages (3,240 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 15


Therefore, the subordinate clause in Zulu can be understood as a unique order in the sentence but rather existing to modification various parts of speech in relation to noun class and verb agreement (Poulous, 2004; Wilkes, 2004).

5. Order of the main and auxiliary verbs

As previously noted, the Zulu verb consists of a class prefix and a verb stem.… [read more]

Oakland, California School Board Shocked Many American Essay

Essay  |  7 pages (2,070 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … Oakland, California School Board shocked many American educators by passing a resolution that authorized the use of Ebonics. The passed resolution not only authorized the use of Ebonics it also declared Ebonics to be the primary language of Black students then attending Oakland area schools. The passage of this resolution ignited a debate across the nation among educators… [read more]

Native American Literature Presentation Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (836 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Native Americans

The introduction of the video discusses a prophesy that "language would leave" and then come back. The language is noted as a metaphor for the person -- "It is not the language that is lost, it is you." This sets the theme for the video wherein the Wampanoag language, an Algonquin language, is representative of the people and the heritage of the people is restored along with the language.

The last fluent speaker of the language is believed to have died more than a century ago, but the language lives on in many place names in Southeastern Massachusetts. Successive generations grew to believe that the people and the language were gone. The people were separated from their land, and the Christian religion destroyed much of the culture. A yellow fever epidemic had already wiped out much of the native population before the Pilgrims arrived in the area, weakening their ability to retain their land. This was a major part of the cultural and linguistic decline among these people.

One lady's ancestors spoke to her in a dream and this began the path to restoring the language. The tribal leaders made the decision to try to revive the language and have set up courses to teach people the language. The written language still existed because many towns had the language in their civil records. This is the largest corpus of Native written language in North America. Many Wampanoag had learned to read and write their language and that provides the material for those learning the language today.

They brought in Ken Hale, a linguist from MIT, to help with the speech aspect and the teaching aspect of the language. One lady named Jessie Little Doe got a research fellowship at MIT, which has a leading linguistics program.

They learned a lot about their culture as a result of learning the language, such as their creation myth that the first man and woman were created out of pine trees. There are many different words for water, depending on the type. The way that phrasing of losing one's land is important -- you fall down, your feet leave the ground. There are animate and inanimate nouns, so for example the stars move across the sky and these are animate nouns, while the sun does not move so it is an inanimate noun. The first Bible published in the Western Hemisphere was in Wampanoag, because missionaries wanted to convert the people. Christianity was used to break the culture and spirit…… [read more]

Constructivism in TESOL-1 Abreviations EFL Term Paper

Term Paper  |  17 pages (5,320 words)
Bibliography Sources: 15


However, it is first important to acknowledge that in Thailand the key or main language is known as the standard Thai, which is also known as Siamese or central Thai and it is the official language that is used by the over 20 million citizens of Thailand in their day-to-day activities. This therefore means that English is referred to as… [read more]

Codeswitching Code Switching -- How Many Grammars? Research Paper

Research Paper  |  14 pages (3,716 words)
Bibliography Sources: 20



Code Switching -- How many grammars?

Language Contact

Lexical Borrowing

Code Switching

Types of Code Switching

Grammar of Intrasentential Code Switching

Theory of One Grammar

Theory of Two Grammar

Theorie of Three Grammar

According to Winford (2003:2) "Whenever people speaking different languages come into contact, there is a natural tendency for them to seek ways of bypassing the communicative… [read more]

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