"Language / Linguistics" Essays

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Synchronic and Diachronic Variation Term Paper

Term Paper  |  14 pages (3,737 words)
Bibliography Sources: 9


Synchronic and Diachronic Variation

This work will discuss the theory of grammaticalization, as it is defined within the current linguistic literature. The work will discuss the aspects of the term grammaticalization that allow it to be defined as an epiphenomenon of the physical neurological changes and language or grammatical changes that are consistent with the development of language, in both… [read more]

Speech Language Pathology Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,386 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 4



Educational Requirements

Colleges Offering Courses for Speech Language Pathology

Employment Outlook


Nature of the Work in Speech Pathology Field

Working Conditions in Speech Pathology Career

Typical Day Informational Interview



This objective of this work is to research and examine the qualifications for the career of the speech language pathologist. Specifically examined will be the educational requirements, colleges that offer preparation for this career, the costs of attending a college or university, the employment outlook, earnings, the nature of the work in this field, the working conditions, and the typical day information interview.

The speech-language pathologist is one who treats individuals with "speech, language, voice and fluency disorders..." (U.S. Department of Labor, 1997) Specifically the speech-language pathologists treats those who are unable to make sounds of speech or who cannot make those sounds clearly as well as those with problems in speech rhythm and fluency. One example of this is stuttering. Direct clinical services are provided by the speech-language pathologist to individuals who have communication disorders. The speech-language pathologist may be employed either in speech, language and hearing clinics or they may work in medical facilities with physicians, social workers, psychologists and other therapists in developing and execution of treatment plans. Some speech-language pathologists are employed in schools assisting teacher, counseling parents and developing both individual and group programs. (Ibid; paraphrased)

I. Educational Requirements master's degree in speech-language pathology is required as the standard credential in this field. States that regulate speech language pathologists total 43 and all require a master's degree plus 375 hours of clinical experience, passing score on a national examination as well as 9 months of post-graduate professional experience. Continuing educational requirements exist. Medicaid and Medicare and most private insurers require a license in order for reimbursements to be paid.. The master's degree individual may qualify for the Certificate of Clinical Competence (CCC) offered by the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. This certificate requires a master degree, 375 hours of supervised clinical experience and the completion of a nine-month post-graduate internship as well as passing a national exam.

II. Colleges Offering Courses for Speech Language Pathology

As of 1993 there were 230 colleges and universities offering master's degree programs in speech-language pathology. Courses include anatomy, physiology, normal speech development, speech, language, hearing and the nature of disorders; acoustics, psychological aspects in communication.

III. Costs of Attending College or University

There are many schools in the United States that offer the curriculum necessary for the Speech-Language Pathologists to acquire their master's degree. Fro the purpose of this study a review was conducted of colleges and universities in Alabama with the following findings being stated in relation to tuition and costs for educational attainment as a SLP:

1. Alabama A&M University - Fees and Tuition

In-State 7-10 credit hours - $1,166 + $200 mandatory fees + $5 registration fee; 12 credit hours - $1,391+ $200 mandatory fees + $5 registration fee; and Out of State: 7-10… [read more]

Ape Language Experiments Term Paper

Term Paper  |  18 pages (5,500 words)
Bibliography Sources: 15


Ape Speech

Research has been conducted for a long time on questions about the origin of language and how human beings first learned to speak. More recently, research has shifted to various primate studies as to whether or not other primates have what can be considered a language and in some cases whether apes can be taught to understand language… [read more]

Native American Language Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (3,063 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+


Native American Words in American English

Native American Influence on American English

American society evolved through the interactions of many different cultures and peoples who came to America to make a new life. Our language today is the result of blending that occurred as these immigrants tried to communicate and conduct their daily business. Communication represents an agreement among two… [read more]

Words and Meanings Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (2,281 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 5


Language Change

The Evolution of Language

In central Australia, where the rivers Murray and Darling meet, there lives a small group of aborigines who were forced to change their word for water nine times in five years, each time because the man had died whose name had been the accepted word for water while he was alive." 1 (Keller, 1994,… [read more]

History of Psycholinguistics Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (2,316 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 9



An Analysis of the History and Development of Psycholinguistics

Psycholinguistics has been defined as the study of language and the mind; as the term implies, it is a subject that links both psychology and linguistics (Aitchinson 1). While their methods and underlying philosophies may differ, the common goal of all psycholinguists is to identify the structures and processes that… [read more]

Gap for L2? Research Paper

Research Paper  |  5 pages (1,707 words)
Style: Harvard  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+


If differences between the groups were however discovered with baseline testing and these differences disappeared later on, situational factors may conceivably be posited as possible explanation of difference in ability of L2 acquisition. Contribution of this study is important since it is well-known that a critical age exists for L1 acquisition and that beyond that it is much harder for the individual to learn / acquire the language. Teachers and students of L2 would profit by the knowledge of whether or not acquisition of L2 shares the same characteristics. Results would enable teachers and students to determine whether or not a preferable period of language instruction exists.


Champagne-Muzar, C., Schneiderman, E.I., & Bourdages, J.S. (1993). Second

language accent: The role of the pedagogical environment. International Review of Applied Linguistics, 31, 143-1-60.Lenneneberg (1967)

McLaughlin, B. (1985). Second-language acquisition in childhood: Vol. 2. School-age children. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Marinova-Todd, S. et al., (2000). Three Misconceptions about Age and L2 Learning, TESOL Quarterly, 34,, pp. 9-34.

Penfield, W., & Roberts, L. (1959). Speech and brain-mechanisms. Princeton, NJ:

Weber-Fox, C., & Neville, H. (1999). Functional neural subsystems are differentially affected by…… [read more]

Opportunities to Help Young Learners "Know Essay

Essay  |  12 pages (3,322 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … Opportunities to Help Young Learners "Know a Word"

No one is able to predict the exact moment at which young learners will acquire knowledge, but this "ah-ha" moment is familiar to most experienced teachers who recognize when the learning connection has been successfully made. These processes are particularly evident in the acquisition of vocabulary as word after word… [read more]

According to the Linguistic Relativity Hypothesis Language Influences Thought Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (715 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Linguistic Relativity Hypothesis

According to the linguistic relativity hypothesis, what people think is influenced by the language they know, because the structure of the language affects the conceptualization that they have of their surrounding world (Deutscher, 2010; Niemeier & Dirven, 2000). I would have to agree with this for the most part, because when a person looks at the world, he or she identifies things in that world based on not only the words for the objects that are viewed but the concepts of what those objects are for. For example, seeing a chair produces the word "chair" in the mind of someone who speaks English, but it also brings up the concept of sitting. What kind of sitting is thought of, though, (after a long day of work, while holding a baby, while eating, because of sickness or disability, etc.) may be based on the past experience of the person and not strictly focused on the sitting concept itself. Because of that, I do not necessarily think that language influences all thought. Sometimes, memories from the past and other feelings that come up from seeing or hearing something also influence the thoughts a person has about the items seen in his or her world.

The different aspects of thought that are being dealt with are important to address, as well. Thoughts are not static, and they flow quite freely from one to the next in the minds of most people. Because that is the case, there are many issues about thought to consider - including the fact that thoughts seem to often appear at random. In other words, a thought may come from something in the subconscious, instead of from another thought that was recognized or from something that was seen or heard (Deutscher, 2010). Because it can be very difficult to determine from whence a thought actually came, it can also be very difficult to "make sense" of that thought in the context of how it relates to language. It can also be difficult to take that thought and tie it into other thoughts or into specific words, as it is not uncommon for people…… [read more]

Tutoring Grammar Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,016 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Tutoring Grammar

The student who I chose for this grammar lesson was an undergraduate student at the University. The student was completely deaf although able to communicate through speaking and lip reading. The student was a proficient writer as far as getting thoughts onto paper; however, her struggle was with verbs. Apparently in sign language verbs do not have any tense. So, the sign for run in sign language can mean run, ran or running. It was this issue that caused her to seek out tutoring help. Apparently she had already submitted one paper which received a very poor grade due to the verb mistakes.

Context of Tutoring

This student was referred to me by the university learning center. She qualified for the learning center program because she was deaf. She was very intelligent and I could tell she desperately wanted to learn the right way to draft her papers. Immediately I observed her paying close attention to my conversational use of verbs and trying to apply the verbs herself. She was in her first year of college, so the concept of writing papers was new to her, as her instructors at her deaf school were not strict when it came to grammar in papers. This was my first meeting with her and it lasted one hour.

Grammar Point: Verbs

The first half hour, she described her problem and showed me the first paper from her professor. During the conversation, I could tell that she was struggling with verbs not only in her papers but also in spoken conversation, although in conversation it did not seem as awkward. I pulled up a basic grammar lesson on verb tenses on my laptop and we read it together. She had many questions and I answered each one using examples as this seemed to make the most sense to her.

The second half of the session was spent working on her most recent paper that was to be submitted in a few days. I always have the policy when tutoring that I guide the editing, but do not make changes on my own. Instead, as I read the paper I stop the pen at problem areas and wait for the student to figure it out. So, we started working through the paper and within the first paragraph there were already four verb tense related mistakes. She had trouble with figuring out these first four and had to look back at the grammar lesson and check the tense of each. To further help facilitate her learning, I encouraged her to cross out the mistake and write the correct verb above the line.

By the second paragraph she was understanding the most common forms of verbs and able to correct the mistakes without looking at the lesson. By the end of the paper, she was picking out the mistakes without me pausing. I knew by the end of her paper that she understood the concept and would be alright from this point forward.

Examples of… [read more]

Syntax Analysis There Is Conflict Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  3 pages (948 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 4


¶ … Syntax Analysis

There is conflict whether syntax is innate or whether it is learned. Based on a 1973 study that investigated whether L2 (second language) errors that children make are created by 'creative construction" or "habit formation," this study plans to conduct a replication of that study with the difference that the phenomenon of "unique errors" (explained later) will be the syntactic element that will be investigated.

At one time, behaviorism held the center place positing that syntax was an element that was picked up from one's environment. In the 1960s, however, Chomsky showed that rather than picked up from environmental factors, syntax / grammar was innate in a person. Dulay, & Burt (1973) conducted research investigating whether advanced syntax of L2 was also innate or whether it was something that was arduously acquired by the child by particular taught linguistic rules.

According to the habit formation theory, certain errors are predicted in the syntax of the child learning a new language and these errors will appear whenever the second language and the child's natural language diverge. The errors are called 'interference' errors since they persist with the child's (or individual's) attempt to learn the new language.

The authors, thereupon, conducted several studies in which they tested their question on 5- to 8-year-olds.

The "creative construction theory" however which is a successor of Chomsky's innate hypothesis says that different errors should appear in learning of advanced syntax of L2 since the first language is innate and the child is learning a new one which is not impacted by his straining to remember the syntax rules of the first. In other words, since L1 is innate, it exists independent of L2 and all the child strains to internalize is the syntactic rules of L2. The errors would be 'developmental" errors since their pattern would be the same of children in the early stages of acquiring their first language.

The differences in semantic, syntactic and phonological errors between the two are, according to the authors, evident.


The authors tested outcome on a group of 145 Spanish-speaking 8-year-olds and 388 unambiguous errors were tabulated. The children were gathered from two different school areas -- two form California and one in NY. The Bilingual Syntax measure (BSM) was used as tool by their teachers. The BSM measures proficiency of L2 in children in the context of eliciting natural speech form the child.

Errors were then classified into three types -- (1) developmental (the errors that were similar to L1 acquisition errors); (2) interference (the errors that reflected child arduously merging one language with another); (3) unique -- those that appeared in neither of the two categories.

Results showed that tabulation of errors into each category revealed that 3% of the 388 error types were interference whilst 85% were developmental and 12% were unique.

Whilst the…… [read more]

Child Development in Observing Toby Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (958 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Furthermore, he is able to identify his emotions by having the correct facial expression for each emotion he expressed. In other words, Toby is a well adjusted five-year-old preschooler that has strong language skills and emotional state for his age group.

Along with strong language ski8lls, Toby's cognitive development is right on target for a five-year-old. As I observed him, he asked his mother to help him with the kid's chemistry set so that he could see how things mixed together and what would happen when those things were mixed. He also wanted his mother to help him sort his blocks in groups of colors. For example, one group would be his blue blocks and another coup would be his red blocks. Then, he wanted to cook a hotdog by himself in the family microwave. This shows great cognitive development because he wanted to cook and explore (Early Learning).

"Five-year-olds are interested in sorting and grouping (Flavell, Miller, & Miller, 1992). They can successfully sort objects on the basis of a single feature, such as color, shape, and size. Sorting things on the basis of more abstract concepts, such as an object's use, is more challenging. Kim proudly showed her teacher how she sorted all the beads into different color groups. When asked to sort all the toys in the dramatic play area that could be used in the kitchen, the group included spoons, artificial foods, as well as a doll and teddy bear. Kim explained that she frequently played with her doll and teddy in her kitchen at home" (Wasik, Cognitive Development in Preschooler).

In observing Toby, his verbalizations, vocabulary, language, emotional state, and cognitive development are fully developed according to the standards of his age group. He has very strong language skills because he is able to form sentences such as I am playing Dora the Explorer. His fine motor skills have some work because he does not understand how to hold a pencil correctly, however he is able to string beads together. His cognitive development is very high because he wants to experiment with mixing things together, sorting things in groups and wants to cook. By observing him, it is easily concluded that he is sociable because he is very talkative and always asking question. I have concluded that Toby's verbalizations, vocabulary, language, emotional state, and cognitive development are fully developed for his age group.

Works Cited

Early Learning. Cognitive Learning in Preschoolers. n.d.

http://www.del.wa.gov/publications/eceap/docs/WebChart_Cognitive.pdf. 27 April 2012.

Wasik, C. Seefeldt|B.A. Cognitive Development in Preschooler. 2006.

http://www.education.com/reference/article/cognitive-development-preschoolers/?page=6. 27 April 2012.

-- . Language Development in Preschoolers. 2006.

http://www.education.com/reference/article/language-development-preschool-children/?page=3. 27 April 2012.… [read more]

Vocabulary Acquisition Literature Review Chapter

Literature Review Chapter  |  6 pages (1,695 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Laufer Min

Language Acquisition: Literature Review

Laufer, B. & Rozovski-Roitblat, B. (2011). Incidental vocabulary acquisition: The effects of task type,-word occurrence and their combination. Language Teaching Research, 15(4), 391-411

For some number of decades, it had been more commonplace for second language acquisition to revolve primarily on strategies of 'generative learning' than in vocabulary-acquisition learning. Laufer & Rozovski-Roitblat (2011) --… [read more]

Comparative Analysis of British and American English Multiple Chapters

Multiple Chapters  |  24 pages (6,793 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


British and American English

Comparative Analysis of British and American English

Benefits of a comparative, polyimide approach

Conscious identification of differences

Traditional Standard English (SE)

Other standardized Wes

Unity within English

Zero-marking of 3rd person singular verbs

Modal Past in English

Modal Auxiliaries

Modal Past in Hypothetical Conditionals

Cross-Linguistic Findings

Comparative Analysis of British and American English

In a world… [read more]

English Structure vs. Russian Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (3,339 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Several sources must be utilized when attempting to decide how to translate between the Russian language and English from a lexicography perspective. "In 1985 Morkovkin's Leksicheskie minimumy sovremenngo russkogo jazyka was published. It was followed by Gabuchan's (1988) Uchebnyj tolkovyj slovar' russkogo jazyka. Gabuchan's dictionary contains almost 3,500 entries that were selected based on their high frequency and their typical… [read more]

Noam Chomsky States Are Not Moral Agents Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,832 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Noam Chomsky

States are not moral agents, people are, and can impose moral standards on powerful institutions. (Wisdom Quotes: Noam Chomsky)

Noam Chomsky's contribution to linguistics and philosophy, as well as contemporary theoretical and political thought, is extensive. He received numerous awards and accolades, specifically for his work in linguistics. Chomsky was born in Philadelphia in 1928. As the son… [read more]

Animals Communicate, Humans Do it With Style Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (752 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … Animals Communicate, Humans do it With Style

For many years it was believed that humans were the only animals with communication abilities. In more recent history, however, experts who have studied other life forms and animals have come to the conclusion that animals also have the ability to communicate with each other. While humans have the most highly developed communication ability they are not the only living things who can communicate. Human language can be distinguished from other forms of communication by its complexity and versatility.

Recent research has uncovered the fact that humans are not the only linguistic animals. While the human language is the most complicated form of communication but it is not the only form of communication as has been proven by studies and examinations. It is believed that the human language began with manual gestures and then slowly evolved into what humans use today.

The theory that grammatical language evolved in the hominid line invites conflicting perspectives. Living primates such a monkeys use a certain form of vocalizations for communication. Nevertheless, early humans were perhaps also capable of such vocalizations. However, if the theory is true, it poses the question of why such vocalizations evolved to human spoken language while remained as such for primates. Language, therefore, must have emerged not from vocalization but from manual gestures and only changed to a vocal mode."

One of the most important elements that distinguish human language from other forms of communication is that it has varied properties.

Whereas other forms of communication among animals seem to be limited to a relatively small number of signals, and restricted to limited contexts, there is essentially no limit to the number of ideas or propositions that we can convey using sentences."

Human language has the ability to understand sentences that have never been put together before whereas animal communication is based more on visual reminders of things that are familiar.

Experts believe that human language is an evolutionary process by which coding moves the language along. Studies have indicated that the early communication was similar to other animal forms of communication based on gestures and sounds. It was through an evolutionary process that other abilities developed so that sentences can be formed with words never…… [read more]

Racism on English Language Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,276 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


¶ … Racism in the English Language by Robert B. Moore. Specifically, it will discuss what I found interesting in the reading and why. It will focus on the "wrap up" statements that language influences Western thought from the first moment we learn it. This is a distressing thought because it implies that we have little real choice in our attitudes and prejudices because they are ingrained in us almost from birth. This idea seems to say that we have little choice in our attitudes, at least in the beginning, and it is a thought that bears much more study and understanding if we are to understand both our language and its sociological implications.

In the "Wrap-Up," the author states, "Negative language infects the subconscious of most Western people from the time they first learn to speak. Prejudice is not merely imparted or superimposed. It is metabolized into the bloodstream of society" (Moore 474). This statement is thought provoking because it makes the reader stand back and look at the subconscious ways language has affected our beliefs and ideas from the first time we could listen and speak. This is interesting and yet frightening at the same time. If it is true, that language "colors" our vision subconsciously from the beginning of life, then it also seems to imply that we really have no chance of every overcoming prejudice and racial bias in Western society, for the thoughts are too ingrained and run too deep. No matter how much we try, there will still be inherent prejudices that are too big to overcome.

This is an unsettling conclusion for a number of reasons. First, it presupposes the English language we speak predetermines our reactions and our very life outlook. It also indicates that while we can be open to change and intellectual thought, that our language influences us so much that ultimately, some of our most important ideas are not based on this thought, but instead on prejudices that we begin to hear and subtly understand from birth. This disturbing idea seems to say that we, as English speakers, have little control over the racism inherent in our language. However, the author does advocate understanding and recognition as ways to combat the inherent prejudices in our language. This at least gives hope for some kind of change or at least insight into the words we use and the hidden meanings they contain. If we can begin to change our own usage of the English language, removing the offensive words and phrases, then perhaps we can begin to change accepted usage of the language, too.

The author advocates changing our usage of the language, but that simply does not seem realistic. Does this mean removing any of the offensive words and phrases from our everyday speech and written communications? Perhaps, and certainly that is doable, but is it realistic or effective? I think not. Most people, if these ideas were presented to them, would probably scoff and say the linguists were… [read more]

Semantic vs. Poetic Meaning Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (838 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Burke's theory of hierarchies within language (which holds that language itself not only creates hierarchies, but also keeps hierarchies in place) (Language as Symbolic Action, 1966; A Rhetoric of Motives, 1950) in many ways parallels Foucault's Language/Power theory (1970a; 1970b; 1972; 1980), which holds that the deeper meaning of discourses (i.e., human language) is always dependent upon social context, from which all language/power relationships themselves necessarily spring.

Symbolic Action theory also contains the idea of "dramatism" (A Grammar of Motives, 1945) as illustrated within Burke's "Dramatistic Pentad" ("Kenneth Burke: Symbolic Action"). The five parts of Burke's Dramatistic Pentad are: (1) Act, or what is being done; (2) Scene, or where it is being done; (3) Agent, or who is doing it; (4) Agency, or how they are doing it; and (5) Purpose, or why they are doing it ("Kenneth Burke: Symbolic Action"). These five terms, together, are intended to offer "a critical vocabulary for isolating motivation in any text or discourse" ("Burke, Kenneth"), one similar, perhaps, to the "deep structure" of language identified by structuralist critics, e.g., Saussure; Levi-Strauss).

According to Burke, moreover, every narrative act (either spoken or written) is motivated by some combination of one or more of the five parts of the Dramatistic Pentad. In that sense, then, semantic and poetic uses of language are inherently equal, based on "deep structure" of language, which, Burke implies, cuts across all human content, contexts, and situations. Therefore, according to Burke, differences between semantic and poetic uses of language are, well, just semantic.

Works Cited

"Burke, Kenneth." Michael Groden and Martin Kreiswirth (Eds.) The Johns-

Hopkins University Press, 1997. Retrieved July 5, 2005, from:
www.press.jhu.edu/books/hopkins_ guide_to_literary_theory/kenneth_burke


Burke, Kenneth. A Grammar of Motives. New York: Prentice-hall, 1945

- -- . Language as Symbolic Action. Berkeley, CA: The University of California Press, 1966.

- -- . A Rhetoric of Motives. Berkeley, CA: The University of California Press,


Foucault, Michel. Discipline and Punish: The Birth of the Prison. London:

Allen Lane, 1970a.

- -- . . The Order of Things: An Archaeology of the Human Sciences. London:

Tavistock, 1970b.

- -- . The Archaeology of Knowledge. New York: Harper and Row, 1972.

- -- .. Power/Knowledge. New York: Pantheon, 1980.

'Kenneth Burke: Symbolic Action" Midframe. November 12, 2001. Retrieved

July 5,…… [read more]

Language Limits Our World Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (640 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


If one cannot think about something, whether an emotion or an action, then one cannot act in respones to that emotion or action. It requires a motivating thought, in language, for humans to act. Thus thought is at the base of all, and language is at the base of thought. While Wittgenstein for a time contended that the language did no more than create picture, in fact it does that, but also allows us to put the pictures into a context, one requiring a response, or not. Our responses will be limited -- unless something is a purely physical response such as a sneeze after smelling pepper -- by the language we have to describe the possibilities. Without language to describe the possibilities, we would not be able to recall the possibilities, wht our action or lack of action entails, and wht it will produce. Without language, in fact, we cannot predict outcomes from known precedent. We cannot, in all likelihood, even define ourselves.

If you have ever witnessed anyone in a state of being 'at a loss,' it is language they have lost. They often state that they do not know wht to say or do. This is true; their thinking about the matter at hand is limited to the languge they possess, nd if the mentally or emotionally correct response is not at hadn -- if they do not know the word compromise, for exaple -- then their response will be limited to what they do know, which might be a punch in the nose, or no action at all. (Of course, no action in response to a stimulus is a choice humans have; however, if one does nto know very many choices -- if one does not know wht those choices are called -- then necessarily the reaction will be limited to choices know, or to no reaction at all.… [read more]

Pedagogic Grammar, Written and Spoken Discourse Term Paper

Term Paper  |  13 pages (3,597 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Pedagogic Grammar, Written and Spoken Discourse for English Language

ESL English Language Learning

The objective of this work is to give an analytical account of the key concepts and issues in Pedagogic Grammar and Written and Spoken Discourse for the English Language by writing a detailed analysis of selected texts written for learner of English based on the concepts and… [read more]

Non-Pronominal Coding of Active Referents Term Paper

Term Paper  |  20 pages (5,498 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Thus, (1) below is more specific than (2) which is more specific than (3): (1) Our French readers buy Harris's books (2) Our readers buy his books (3) They buy them. Put differently, the denotation of a pronoun (the set of objects it may refer to) is larger than the denotation of a lexical item. As opposed to nouns which… [read more]

Polish Syntax Introduction Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (3,157 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Polish Syntax

Introduction to the Syntax of Polish

The syntactic differences between spontaneous spoken language and written language have direct consequences for various areas of linguistics; typology, psycholinguistics, and sociolinguistics, not to mention certain assumptions lying behind generative grammar. There is a range of syntactic constructions typical of spontaneous spoken English and with parallel constructions in the spontaneous speech produced… [read more]

Acquisition of Form Function Mapping of Morphology and Function Words Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,763 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Language Acquisition: Nature, Nurture, or Both?

How exactly do children learn to connect language with the things around them? Though virtually all of us were participants in this complex process, a full understanding of how children learn language and learn through language is a matter of debate. Primarily, the debate takes on two major points on view. Those who argue… [read more]

ESL Learning: Comparative Analysis Term Paper

Term Paper  |  9 pages (2,430 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … ESL Learning: Comparative Analysis of the works of N. Chomsky, M. Stubbs, and M. Halliday & R. Hasan

The prevalence of multiculturalism in American society today denotes an important phenomenon that is confronted by society and human culture -- the evolution of the English language as one of the dominant and oft-used languages in the world. As a… [read more]

Embedded Words Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (1,901 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Embedded Words

There have been a number of studies completed by researchers that concern imbedded words and their practicalities and implications in common language usage throughout society. Articles written about those studies show a number of conclusions that are both thought provoking and enlightening.

Bowers, Jeffrey S., Davis, Collin J. And Hanley, Derek a., (2004) Automatic Semantic Activation of Embedded… [read more]

Code Switching Term Paper

Term Paper  |  14 pages (3,873 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Code Switching

Although it sounds like something straight from a James Bond action thriller, the term "code switching" is actually used to describe those cases wherein a bilingual speaks to another bilingual with the same linguistic background and changes from one language to another in the course of conversation (Wei, 2000). Code switching is also used because it can help… [read more]

Brain Mechanisms in Early Language Acquisition Patricia Reaction Paper

Reaction Paper  |  2 pages (626 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … Brain Mechanisms in Early Language Acquisition

Patricia K. Kuhl's 2010 article entitled "Brain Mechanisms in Early Language Acquisition" provides an interest glimpse at the cognitive processes and neurological functioning of the brain which promote the learning of a language in early childhood. She explains how recent leaps in technology have allowed researches an inside glimpse into the workings of the brain in order to try to better understand how children naturally learn their native languages. Kuhl (2010) presents the idea that the brain is most effective at breaking languages down to the phonetic level, which can be seen in neurological research even in the youngest of children. Thus, Kuhl posits that phonetic elements are some of the strongest vehicles for teaching language acquisition, because this is the very same strategy that the brain naturally chooses earlier on. Kuhl asserts that this phonetic strategy is facilitated and nurtured through social interactions as well. The author also suggests that this importance placed on phonetic structures continues to be the main strategy the brain uses as the child continues to grow and evolves ever more complicated knowledge of language. She provides the example of school aged children learning to read using very similar neurological processes as when they were younger toddlers learning how to speak the native language of their parents. Having worked with children in learning both English grammar and a second language, I see how this would work. Phonetic strategies are crucial for children learning both linguistic and reading abilities.

Thus, this article has several implications to how language should be taught within a classroom. My teaching practice could best learn by imitating the natural strategies of the brain to acquire new language skills. Essentially, understanding how the brain naturally learns a language can help me create lessons that draw on the same mental processes and strategies as the earlier acquisition of…… [read more]

Saussure's Conception of the Linguistic Sign Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (632 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2



Ferdinand de Saussure's book Course in General Linguistics was extremely important due to the way it made human language more intelligible, revealing some of the ways it functioned as a system of signs. In particular, Sausurre argues that a "sign," by which he means a "two-sided linguistic unit," is made up of two inextricable constituent parts: the signifier and the signified (Saussure 2011, p. 103). By signifier, Saussure means the "sound-image," or what most people think of as a spoken word, and by signified, he means the larger concept being referred to. From here, Saussure attempts to describe how language allows for meaning on the basis of difference between signs.

For Saussure, signification is process by which a sign acts, signifying the signified in the action of language use. One must speak of signifier and signified at the same time, because as Saussure notes, "a succession of sounds is linguistic only if it supports an idea" (Saussure 2011, p. 103). Perhaps the most important thing to realize about the relationship between signifier and signified is that this relationship is always arbitrary, meaning that there is no inherent, meaningful connection between the signifier and the signified other than whatever connection has emerged due to the social evolution of language.

If the signifier and signified are what make up a sign, what actually allows people to make sense of the system of signs that constitutes language is the difference between them. This is what Saussure means by "value," because the value of a particular sign is only evident when it is considered within its larger system, because the value of a sign (and according to Saussure, almost anything) can only be determined by comparing and contrasting it to similar and dissimilar things (Saussure 2011, p. 115). Recognizing that the meaning of language comes from the difference between signs is important because it allows one to begin discussing…… [read more]

Function of Language in Macbeth Conclusion Chapter

Conclusion Chapter  |  5 pages (1,820 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1


Macbeth's Desire For Kingship: Conclusion

This paper uses a Lacanian hermeneutic to argue that Macbeth enters into the discourse of the witches in a manner which explains his moral trajectory over the course of Shakespeare's tragedy. Macbeth begins the play a loyal subject of Duncan, which is explicit when he says to his wife: "We will proceed no further in… [read more]

Sociolinguistic Aspect of Greek Dialects Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (892 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Greek Sociolinguistics

Socilinguistic Aspect Of Greek Dialects

Perceptions of dialectical variation in Modern Greek

What is a dialect? "Different language communities have certain ways of talking that set them apart from others. Those differences may be thought of as dialects -- not just accents (the way words are pronounced) but also grammar, vocabulary, syntax and common expressions" (Malone n.d.). In the nation of Greece, because of geographic and political divides, many distinct dialects of standard Modern Greek have developed. This paper will explore how different dialects have different emotional and social connotations for modern Greeks, both Greek-Americans who learned Greek in the U.S. And native speakers from Greece.

Theoretical framework

According to Joseph & Tserdanelis, in Modern Greek, "depending on how one decides the difficult question of distinguishing between dialects of a language as opposed to separate languages, the highly divergent modern form of Greek known as Tsakonian, spoken still in the eastern Peloponnesos (in Greece), could well be considered now a separate language from the rest of Modern Greek, and the Pontic dialects once spoken along the Black Sea coast of Asia Minor…modern Cypriot shows significant differences on all levels (phonological, morphological, and syntactic) that invite classification as a separate language, though this judgment is perhaps a more difficult one than in the case of Tsakonian or Pontic" (Joseph & Tserdanelis). The reason that Cypriot has developed into such a distinct linguistic specimen is very easy to guess, given the physical divisions between itself and the mainland, as well as the political conflicts that have resulted in Turkish influence in the region. Additionally, "the dialects of the Ionian Islands and those of Kydonies and Moschonisia constitute some major examples to this situation since they have been heavily affected by Italian and Turkish, respectively" (Modern Greek dialects, 2013, Laboratory of Modern Greek Dialects). The fact that Greek exhibits so many linguistic distinctions, to the point that new languages have been created in relatively recent years, highlights its dialectical variation. Dialects are very clearly 'coded' in a regional fashion to the ear of Greeks, and these different regions have strong class as well as geographical associations. Perceptions of 'foreignness' can also taint subjective perceptions of Greek dialects.

While Modern Greek is traditionally characterized as being either a northern and southern dialect, within this rather crude division is a great deal of linguistic multiplicity. "This categorization is far from covering all the deviances among the numerous dialectal varieties; in most dialects, high- or low-frequency of contact induced change is observed, depending on the degree of contact with a different language" (Modern Greek dialects, 2013, Laboratory of Modern Greek Dialects). The differentiation within Modern Greek, and the strong regional…… [read more]

Teaching Methods Hypothesis and Null Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  4 pages (1,396 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


Hypothesis: Colleges need to change the teaching methods in Translation and Languages courses as the current methods are insufficient to develop the translation skills required for a career as a professional qualified translator.

Quantitative Methods and Qualitative Methods:

The research will include qualitative and quantitative methods. The qualitative methods will be based on the interviews and focus groups held with college administration, teachers and students enrolled in such programs. The qualitative analysis will help in analyzing the deep rooted insights of the research problem. The interviews with administration will aid in focusing on the priority given by students to such courses and the opportunity of a career after attaining required translation skills. The interviews with teachers will focus on the current teaching methods that have been used by them and their suggestions on improving the standard of education provided. Finally the students will be interviewed in order to gain their view on how much competent do they feel after clearing such courses and what they feel can be improved to help them in their courses structure.

The quantitative methods will also be used for the objective analysis of the research. Various sampling methods will be used to attain quantitative information through distributing questionnaires in different colleges. The questionnaire will cover all the aspect of the research questions that will help the researcher to develop an objective analysis about the findings. Different statistical tools will also be used to get a clear picture of the findings of the research.

Theoretical Framework:

The following are the four theories that can be used in the theoretical framework for the research:

Engagement Theory:

The engagement theory is currently not applied in the Colleges teaching the Translation courses. The theory suggests a model of learning which is based on technology and integrates many elements of learning that had been employed in the past. The idea is to engage the students in class participation through various virtual exchanges and a much friendlier atmosphere which is provided through the aid of technology. Hiltz, an expert in online teaching methods mentions that the role of social networking is often used in order to create a higher level of engagement of students with each other. (Hiltz, 2004)

Constructivist Learning Theory:

The theory is based on the presumption that students can learn the most when they are actively involved in the teaching process when they are able to receive information passively. Learners are allowed to learn in an environment where they can express themselves and interpret meanings on their own understanding. Critical thinking is promoted through independent learning where the role of teacher is restricted to only facilitating the students. Bain Ken mentions that the active involvement mixed with a democratic environment can foster better translation skills of students. (Bain, 2004)

Group Work and Team Work:

The teaching methods currently used in such courses usually have some group assignments as a part of their courses. However the translation courses must have more group projects as students are more comfortable in… [read more]

Translation as Gunilla Anderman Puts Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (624 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2



As Gunilla Anderman puts it, "language has never been considered as important as literature" in academic circles. There is a perceived hierarchical relationship between language and literature, namely that language is a vehicle for literature. While literature depends on language, language is merely a tool and has no internal aesthetic or even value. This dichotomy has led to a binary opposition between literary translation vs. literary interpretation. The translation is viewed as the mundane and pedestrian activity; the interpretation is perceived as the more complex activity requiring in-depth semantic mastery. Daniel Gile argues that there may be no "fundamental difference between literary translators and non-literary translators." Gile essentially disparages the false hierarchy between texts labeled literature and those that are not.

Peter Newmark denies the relevance of the dichotomy between literary translation and literary interpretation, noting that it is a false dichotomy. Yet in criticizing this dichotomy, Newmark presents yet another false opposition between "interpretation in general and non-literary translation." He states, " "Literary translation is concerned with the mind or imagination, whilst non-literary translation is about the world, extralinguistic reality." Non-literary translation is concerned with nothing but "factual truth," whereas literature has a loftier goal of "aesthetic truth," and he adds, "unless it's trivial literature but that's another matter." Newmark clearly admits his academic snobbery when it comes to determining what texts are classified as literature and what texts are not, and that the act of translating or interpreting texts is constricted by the perceived quality or academic merit of those texts.

There is, therefore, a politics of translation or a politics of linguistics. As Fraser puts it, it is a matter of hierarchies, of different types of translation and interpretation and where they fit into the canon of academic research and practical application. There are completely different perceptions of professions that are related to either translation or interpretation. Fraser,…… [read more]

Arabic Morphology Morph = Form Term Paper

Term Paper  |  20 pages (6,720 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 10


Aspects of Contemporary Arabic morphology

Arabic language morphology is divided into two significant parts which is a well-established fact (Bohas & Guillaume, 1984). Primitive nouns constitute the first part that do not relate to verbs but it is possible to derive verbs from them. For instance, the verb [kaliba] which means "get infected with rabies" can be derived from the… [read more]

Lesson Plan Grade 5th English/Language Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,162 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


For gifted students, identify higher-level words to expand vocabulary and show how commonplace words can be used in unexpected ways. (Such as 'choice' -- which can be a noun (a decision) but also an adjective (something which is very good).

Motivation: Students will be motivated because they will be able to volunteer the words: allow students to be as funny or as crazy as the want when suggesting words. If presenting the lesson around a holiday (like Halloween) or many of the students in the class are particularly interested in something coming up (like the release of a new cartoon or sporting event), suggest words that revolve around the occasion. Ask students to brainstorm words based upon pictures, such as listing to what words come to mind when looking at a cartoon: this reinforces the lesson for visual learners and students less confident in English.

Teacher input: The teacher will review the definitions of the different parts of speech, after asking the class to give their own definitions and providing examples. The teacher will point to the words in the picture and use repetition to reinforce the meaning. The teacher will write down next to the words on the board what part of speech the words are from (such as dog=noun) to visually reinforce the lesson.

Concept/skills/instruction: Definitions and examples of parts of speech; sentence diagramming

Student output: Students will brainstorm words, provide their own definitions of the parts of speech and then diagram sentences collectively as a class. After the in-class brainstorming, students will be asked to brainstorm in teams, and then individually using worksheets at home. The worksheets will ask students to diagram sentences, list different words under parts of speech categories, and finally draw a picture where they must label an example of each part of speech (for example, a picture of a boy running might be labeled with: running=verb; sneakers=noun; quickly=adverb; sweaty=adjective, etcetera).

Learning interactions: In-class 'sharing' of favorite words and creation of own definitions of parts of speech. Sharing existing knowledge. Learning how to 'teach' other students as well as understanding the concepts themselves in team-based learning.

Evidence of learning: Successful completion with minimal errors of individual worksheet; class participation. Ability to use concept independently when teaching other students or creating new work.

Product or performance: Successful completion with minimal errors of individual worksheet; class participation and consistent improvement in use of grammar on other assignments. Assessment: Students will be assessed primarily based on the performance of individual worksheets, although class participation will also be required and team participation will be observed in class

Traditional/Portfolio/Performance: Traditional (individual homework performance), portfolio (team-based work) and performance (in-class participation)

Student reflection: Students will understand how in their own daily interactions, they are constantly using the different parts of speech. Students will be able to understand how the parts of speech function separately and also using complete sentences. ESL learners will have challenging words classified in their minds; visual learners and learners less confident with language will gain confidence… [read more]

Animal Communication Research Paper

Research Paper  |  6 pages (1,972 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Analysis suggests that meaningful information is being conveyed by these behaviors, but it is disputed whether this phenomenon is truly language. Sign language and computer keyboards are used in primate language research because non-human primates lack vocal cords and other human speech organs. However, primates do possess the manual dexterity required for keyboard operation ("Great Ape Language").

Bottle-nosed dolphins dominate many marine acts because of their intelligence and researchers believe much of the dolphin's brain is used for communication. While it is not known if dolphins have a formal language, they do communicate with a signature whistle to identify themselves. Dolphins lack vocal cords but use a complicated system of whistles, squeaks, moans, trills and clicks produced by sphincter muscles within the blow hole to make sounds. Using echolocation dolphins send out frequencies by clicking. The clicking sounds bounce off objects and the returning sound waves are picked up by the dolphin's bulbous forehead and lower jaw and interpreted as to distance, size and shape of object. This sound system is particularly useful at night or in murky waters as it allows the dolphin to navigate even if visibility is poor. Dolphins have produced sound frequencies from 0.25 to 200 kHz, using the higher frequencies for echolocation and the lower frequencies for communication and orientation ("Dolphin Communication").


It is clear that we can communicate with some animals to some extent. Great apes have learned languages based on hand gestures and symbols. Parrots can learn to speak words, and even use those words to demonstrate feats of learning. Many animals can learn respond to hand gestures and voice commands. Research shows humans have the ability to convey meaning to animals of almost any kind. By recording animal sounds and playing them back, we can attract their attention or elicit the same behavior as the original call. In some cases researchers have modified signals and elicited modified behavior. These and other experiments help to shed light on how and to what extent animals can communicate.

Works Cited

"Dolphin Communication." Beach-Netcom. Atlantic Bottle-Nosed Dolphin. (2012) Web. 9 June 2012. < http://www.beach-net.com/dolphins.html

"Great Ape Language." Science Daily. (nd.) Web. 9 June 2012.

Hockett, Charles F. "The Origin of Speech." Columbia.edu. September 1960. Web. 9 June 2012.

Mannell, Robert. "Animal Communcation and Language." Macquarie University, Department of Linguistics. (1999). Web. 9 June 2012.

Morell, Virginia. "Minds of their Own." National Geographic. March 2008. Web. 9 June 2012. < http://ngm.nationalgeographic.com/2008/03/animal-minds/virginia-morell-text/1>

Pearce, John M. Animal Learning and Cognition:An Introduction, 3rd ed. East Sussex, UK: Psychology Press, 2008. Print.

Toothman, Jessika. "How do Animals Communicate?" Animal Planet.com. 22 March 2010. Web. 7 June 2012. < http://animals.howstuffworks.com/animal-facts/animals-communicate.htm>… [read more]

Standardization, Expectation, and Judgment Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (1,030 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


On the other hand, when we are at home in the company of our family members and close friends, we do not have to meet such a rigid set of expectations. We dress comfortably and informally, and this is reflected in our language as well. We know that we will not be judged or any less loved because we speak in sentence fragments and run-ons.

Cecelia Cutler takes this idea further in her essay. We often speak in ways that reflect who we are: our social class, our education level, our ethnicity, our race, our neighborhood. We may not always be conscious of all the things we say and what they reveal about us, but reading this essay made it easy to recognize how frequently we do this. Cutler describes the process of "crossing over" from one language variety to another. This is a sociolinguistic process, according to Cutler, and it is one which "can evoke a distinct sense of movement across social or ethnic boundaries." This movement may be the result of a number of different motivations, she explains, some positive, some negative.

For example, she mentions a few specific groups of teenagers, such as white suburban teenagers, who "cross over" into African-American English because they strongly identify with hip hop music and culture. This kind of crossing over reflects admiration for the music; musicians who have been raised in completely different settings (white suburbia) use the words and accents of musicians who were raised in urban, African-American settings. The musician Marshal Mathers, popularly known as Eminem, was an early example of this kind of crossing over. An example of using a different language variety in a negative way is that of mimicking individuals who speak broken English, or who speak with a heavy foreign accent. This type of "crossing over," when it is occurs, is not to express an identification with a group, but to clearly express their separateness, and it can certainly foster a deep sense of animosity that may go beyond words.

Every time we open our mouths to communicate, we deliver a message that goes beyond the content of the words. This is true in written speech as well, but the spontaneity of face-to-face conversations gives us less time to filter or edit our words. What we say, how we say it, and to whom we say it: all of these factors are used to determine who we truly are, or who we are trying to be. We may not be aware of how very much we reveal when we speak; however, it might be worth the time and effort to understand some of these important subtleties of language, and to do what many authority figures told us when we were growing up: to think before we speak.


Cutler, C. Crossing over. MacNeil/Lehrer Productions.

Retrieved May 1, 2012 from http://www.pbs.org/speak/speech/correct/gatekeeping/

Fought, J.G. Gatekeeping. MacNeil/Lehrer Productions.

Retrieved May 1, 2012 from http://www.pbs.org/speak/speech/correct/gatekeeping/… [read more]

Chomsky Noam Thesis

Thesis  |  10 pages (2,891 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


This dissimilarity is due to the application of various transformations, pronunciation, and word insertion rules. Transformational-generative grammar can also be distinguished by the difference between language proficiency and language performance ("Linguistics," 2009).

Transformational linguistics has also a strong influence on psycholinguistics. It is particularly influential in the study of language acquisition by children. The "Minimalist Program" formulated by Chomsky in… [read more]

Sociolinguistics Defining Simplicity: Jamaican Patwa Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (2,621 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


One interesting note is that many individuals mark the permanence, if anything can be called permanent about language based on its written use. This can in part be seen by the development of canon of literature or a canon of vernacular translation of dominant culture literature. In one sense a form of postcolonial development that will have a significant impact… [read more]

Right From the Beginning Lightbown Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,769 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 8


Lightbown and Spada (180) conclude that research on second language acquisition has yet to provide one method that is effective for all learners in all learning environments. Therefore, more classroom research is needed in this area. Based on the information that is available thus far, teachers need to consider a variety of approaches to decide which will be the most beneficial for the students in their classrooms.

Works Cited:

Brown, H. Douglas. "Forty Years of Language Teaching." Language Teaching 40.1 (2007): 1,1-2. ProQuest Education Journals. Web. 28 June 2011.

DeKeyser, Robert. "Practice for Second Language Learning: Don't Throw Out the Baby with the Bathwater." International Journal of English Studies 10.1 (2010): 155,155-165,170. ProQuest Education Journals. Web. 28 June 2011.

Hathcock, Dani. Wittgenstein, Behaviorism, and Language Acquisition. Drury University. 2000. Web. 27 June 2011. http://www.drury.edu/multinl/story.cfm?ID=2435&NLID=166

Lightbown, Patsy M. And Nina Spada. How Languages Are Learned. 3rd ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006. Print.

Schwab, Robert. Second Language Acquisition: Second Language Learning in the Classroom. 2006. Web. 27 June 2011. http://www.bobschwab.com/SLA/SLA%20Section%206_files/frame.htm

Second Language Acquisition. Web. 28 June 2011. http://www.powershow.com/view/808f-NzJmN/Second_Language_Acquisition_flash_ppt_presentation

Swan, Michael. "Forty Years of Language Teaching." Language Teaching 40.1 (2007): 1,3-4. ProQuest Education Journals. Web. 28 June 2011.

Tao, Guo, Zhou Lijuan, and Rosalind Raymond Gann. "Studies on Contrastive Analysis." International Forum of Teaching and Studies 4.1 (2008): 62,62-74,118-119. ProQuest Education Journals. Web. 28 June 2011.

Tarone,…… [read more]

Inari Sami -- an Endangered Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (545 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


In their struggle to get actively involved in the globalization process, some people abandon their cultural values and adopt values from other cultures in hope that this would improve their lives. This leads to situations like the one in the Inari Sami community, as most young individuals within it direct their attention toward matters other than the group's indigenous language. Language is an essential concept in this community, taking into account that it is one of the factors enabling Inari Sami individuals to focus on their traditional connection to the natural world.

By visiting the Sami museum in Finland, one is probable to learn more concerning the Inari Sami community's strength and its dedication to preserve its values. In the face of globalization however, individuals no longer have time to focus on matters such as disappearing languages, as these respective matters have nothing to do with concepts that actually interest them.

One of the most surprising elements concerning the present day condition of Inari Sami is its association with Finnish rapper Amoc (Lahteenmaki & Vanhala-Aniszewski 72). The singer writes his lyrics in Inari Sami and this seems to rejuvenate the language in a series of ways, as it enabled younger Inari Sami individuals to realize that there are many reasons why they should focus on preserving this language instead of ignoring the valuable role it plays in their lives and in their community.


Lahteenmaki, Mika, and Vanhala-Aniszewsk, Marjatta, Language Ideologies in Transition: Multilingualism in Russia and Finland, (Peter Lang, 2010)

Proctor, James, "Lapland: The Bradt Travel Guide," (Bradt…… [read more]

Bergvall, Victoria L., Janet M Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (874 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


' The book also contains a useful and very comprehensive historical background on studies of gender and language, which thoroughly discusses and explains the 'Androcentric Rule' of language (which actually means a male-dominated (or centered) language).

Green, Keith and Jill LeBihan. Critical Theory and Practice: A Coursebook. New York: Routledge, 1996.

Keith Green and Jill LeBihan's coursebook on the basics of language and its application to sociology is essential for studying gender effect on language because of its brief, but insightful discussion of the "Androcentric language" prevalently used in almost all societies throughout history. The common misconception about women language as purely 'gossip' and 'prattle' as also explained in light of the "Androcentric language" dilemma of gender influence on language. One of the important premises presented in this book about gender and language is the statement that "[s]ubordination is seen as an advances grammatical structure which requires complex brain functions (which women... cannot perform)." This book discusses the biological influences that somehow agues the fact that biology has a lot to do with how language is spoken by the gender groups of males and females.

Language and Gender." 1996. University of Pennsylvania Linguistic Data Consortium Web site. November 29, 2002 http://www.ldc.upenn.edu/myl/ling001/gender.htm.

This web page by the University of Pennsylvania Linguistic Data Consortium Web site is a comprehensive discussion of the differences between men and women language, supported by biological studies (illustrated by graphical representations) and research that proves how gender differences affects language. The cultural and psychological approaches are also used to explain the problem of gender difference in language. The web page also includes a proper distinction of the definitions of sex and gender for better comprehension of the readers.

Rosenfeld, Lawrence, and Ronald B. Adler. Interplay: The Process of Interpersonal Communication. New York: Harcourt Brace and Company, 1998.

The topic of gender and language can be found in second part, Chapter Five of the book, wherein Language is thoroughly discussed as a tool for communication. The discussion about gender and language mainly focused on research studies conducted that explains what are the primary factors that determine the differences and similarities among male and female communication and everyday language. The part on gender and language includes a study of the researches about the content, reasons for communicating, and communicating styles among men and women. The gender and language discussion if the book does not offer a critical study of the issue of gender and language, but is a useful resource for getting some research/study results about the dynamics and content of male and female communication and language.… [read more]

Linguistic Processes Underlie Understanding Sentences Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,956 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


This linguistic blurring of sound patterns has its limits. Obviously, if the speaker mentioned an elephant by accident, as in 'John was gazing at an elephant in the mirror,' rather than her as opposed to him, the listener might demand further clarification. Or, even if further clarification were not deemed emotionally valid to seek on a social level by the listener, at very least the listener would not glean the meaning desired by the speaker as to the meaning of the sentence about John looking at the face of another boy in the mirror. The contextual nature of language again exists within the framework of a tacitly agreed upon lexicon and syntactical frame of reference that contextual meaning and the blurring of sounds and meanings in context can stretch, but only stretch within a certain limit. These limits are social and contextual themselves as well as cognitive, of course, and vary from speaker to speaker and listener to listener.

The best-known model of speech perception and speech processing is the TRACE model of spoken word recognition It is assumed that sound information passes bottom-up through a system that first analyses the sound information in terms of its auditory features. It then converts the auditory features into a sequence of phonemes before finally combining these phonemes to form spoken words. However, there are also top-down influences on processing. (Eysenck & Keane, Chapter 14) Processing decisions made may be influenced by intermediate decisions made at the immediately higher level of analysis, such as the realization in the situation above that John was referring to a male or female, and the idea that the introduction of an elephant into the discussion of what transpired before the mirror made no logical or coherent sense.

Thus, the understanding of sentences, including anaphors, does involve some distinct stages of processing in the sense that the individual must be fully aware of the contextual nature of the language, lexicon, and context that the speaker is articulating him or herself in. However, the understanding of language is not a sequential process in the sense of an individual learning to walk or to play a ball. The processes involved in linguistic understanding are diffuse and interactive because of the human nature of linguistic cognitive processing. They are themselves highly situation-specific and interactive in nature and are dependent upon the linguistic education and interpretive ability of the individual listener.

Works Cited

Eysenck & Keane. Cognitive Psychology. Fourth Edition.

Farrar, W. & A. Kawamoto. (1993) ' The return of "visiting relatives": Pragmatic effects…… [read more]

Language Diversity Crawford Begins Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (314 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


It is specifically interesting to me how the adamant criticism received by the above theorists have not been specifically addressed. It appears that the language acquisition community of academics are more interested in promoting their own pioneering ideals than in addressing the needs of language learners. Addressing such needs would mean not only criticizing the newest of theories, but also debating these until improvements or confirmations are arrived at that would benefit learners.

The situation explained in the article appears to be counter-productive in terms of effective language teaching in schools. Instead of merely criticizing, evidence should be taken into account and testing should be done to either confirm or negate the effectiveness of existing theories. Also, the theorists criticized should address the specific issues raised. Only then can true progress be expected in this very important area.… [read more]

Language Diversity and Education Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (337 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


175 Native American languages have survived. In Anchorage, Alaska, the students speak more than 100 languages as first languages.

This article was most interesting for the detailed explanation of the truly multi-language nature of America's schools. Obviously when one city may have students who speak any of 100 languages other than English, the schools cannot expect to be able to hire teachers fluent in all those languages as well as English, so broader strategies are needed. Ovanda suggests adopting a policy of "constructive pluralism" as a starting point. In this view the student is not criticized for being linguistically different, and the teacher adopts a problem-solving frame of mind rather than making judgments. This approach would combat the view that Black English is inferior because of its use, for instance, of double negatives. Those opposed to this view may feel that "Americans should speak English," but teachers should be able to look past a political stance and teach all the students in their classrooms in the…… [read more]

Language Acquisition by J. Crawford Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (348 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


This article shows there are so many different theories and methods of language acquisition, and this shows how difficult it is for educators to decide on a method, and then implement it. Clearly, language acquisition depends on many different learning and teaching technologies, and it does not look like the experts still really understand just what at least some of those technologies are. In addition, it is clear from this article that even the most highly skilled professionals do not agree on what entails successful language teaching, and how different students acquire languages. Each person is unique, and while there are commonalities in learning styles, this article makes it clear we have a long way to go in the study and dissemination of language, and that we need to continue studies and experiments until we find the optimum way of teaching a second language in our nations' schools.


Crawford, J. "Basic Research on…… [read more]

Bilingual Policies Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,441 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


They feel that a bilingual stance would encourage those in minority cultures to resist assimilation (Rubenstein, 2001).

In education, some are adamantly opposed to bilingual education, arguing that earlier immigrants went to school and simply "sank or swam," and that the great majority learned good English and became successful. All instruction was in English and "it worked." (Rothstein, 1998) Other… [read more]

Comrie, Reconstruction, Typology and Reality Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (302 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


A few years later she actually bought proper needles and yarn and a book for constant guidance. She worked at this skill and 45 years later can not only do complex work but can design her own patterns.

3) Why would one want to require that reconstructed languages have the same general typological characteristics as present day languages? What problems might arise if you don't make this assumption?

3) It would seem logical that there should be similar typological features in both reconstructed languages and current languages since, to communicate, people will have always had to get similar messages across and it would make sense features that worked to do this is old languages would be found in current languages. Without similarities to work from, linguists wouldn't know to where or how to…… [read more]

How Language Can Give Rise to Cultural Misunderstandings Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,323 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


¶ … Language:

Kingston, Tannen, and Klass show the limits of language

Words are an extremely important part of the way human beings communicate. However, as well as building bridges between people, words can also create misunderstandings and divides. This can be seen in an analysis of Maxine Hong Kingston personal essay "Silence," the socio-linguist Deborah Tannen's essay "Men and Women Talking on the Job," and the physician Perry Klass' essay "Learning the Language." All of these essays illustrate how someone can have a grasp of the surface meanings of a language but fail to fully understand the way that language is operating in a specific context. Language is located in a culture and simply knowing the meaning of vocabulary does not mean that someone fully understands the language. This is reflected in my own personal experiences as an ESL student as well as the observations I have made in school and the workplace.

The Chinese-American author Maxine Hong Kingston's essay "Silence" describes how Kingston spent her years growing up largely in a profound state of silence. Although Kingston could speak, she chose to remain mute at school. Kingston grew up bilingual, able to speak both Chinese and English but this left her feeling torn between two worlds. She had no way to reconcile her two cultures as a small child. Silence was her only defense and means of protest as a little girl. "My silence was thickest -- total -- during the three years I covered my school paintings with black paint. I painted layers of black over houses and flowers and suns" (Kingston 2). The only students Kingston felt comfortable with were the African-American students whom she knew also felt culturally excluded from the school environment. A critical aspect of Kingston's discomfort was the way in which the school day was structured. Students were called upon to recite individually, which made her uncomfortable, versus being able to speak in a collective voice as was customary in the Chinese school she also attended. Unable to reconcile the two words, Kingston protested in silence. As a non-native speaker, Kingston's essay resonated with me. Very often people who are not native speakers of the language may be able to speak it but are frightened of doing so for fear of seeming awkward or not understanding the subtle cues native speakers make when voicing their opinions. Silence, smiling, and nodding are the only way to deal with this uncomfortable situation. Kingston was used to a collective environment where fitting into a common social order was good; the school she was a part of was individualistic. I have often seen immigrant Chinese students called passive or quiet in American schools, simply because they are not loud and do not debate what is being discussed in class. People fail to understand that in some cultures open disagreement is considered rude and wrong.

It is not only people from different cultures who are judged harshly as poor speakers because they do not have the same… [read more]

ECE Expressive Language Case Study

Case Study  |  5 pages (1,325 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Language Disorders in Children


The mean length of utterance in Jay's sample of 25 meaningful utterances is 3.8 or 3.5. Three uses of slang (gotta, gonna) by Jay increase the count to 83 morphemes, which results in a score of 3.8. If these slang words were considered one morpheme, the rate would be 3.5. However, since the meaning of the slang words is compound, as in "got to" or "going to," the slang words may be considered two morphemes for each occurrence. The MLUM for children with language impairment (affected) in the age range 3.0 to 3.5 years is 2.84. Jay's MLUM falls between the age ranges of 5.0 to 5.5 years and 5.6 to 5.11 years for children with language impairment, which shows MLUM to be 3.72 and 3.95, respectively (Rice, et al., 2010). The MLUM for children without language impairment has been shown to be higher in each age range (Rice, et al., 2010). Accordingly, Jay's MLUM can be considered to be within typical limits. The main caveat in this analysis is that 25 intelligible utterances is low, by research standards that recommend a sample of more than 50 utterances (Rice, et al., 2010).




Age Range



Std Dev

Cohen's d Effect Size


Std Dev

Cohen's d Effect Size
































































Source: Rice, et al., 2010.


DSS Score = # of points / # of utterances

Jay's Developmental Sentence Score on the 25 utterances sample is 100 points divided by 15 sentences = 6.67. One limitation of this analysis is that the DSS uses a 50 utterances sample. Only children that score below the 10 percentile or more than one standard deviation below the mean are likely to need intervention. Jay scores at the 50th percentile, which shows a benchmark score of 6.64 for 3 years 6-month.

Correct/Incorrect Form Analysis

Jay's speech sample notably lacks use of past tense, third person, possessives, contractible copula, and contractible auxiliary phrases. Referencing Brown's morphemes, Jay's use of language corresponds with the age of mastery range for 28 to 46 months. At 41 months of age, Jay is approaching the upper end of the range but his expressive language appears to be developing normally. It is possible that the language sample has not produced many opportunities for Jay to use past tense, as it appears that he is narrating his play -- perhaps interacting with objects while an adult looks on.

Type Token Ratio

Jay's Type Token Ratio (TTR) scored the conventional way is .67. This score is calculated by dividing the number of different words produced in the sample by the total number… [read more]

Cognitive Psychology and Language Development Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (706 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Milgram's experiments in obedience were ethical, but from at least one perspective, they were not admirable. Contemporary research is governed by rather stringent human subjects review committees and human subjects policies that must be followed in order to gain permission to conduct research with people as subjects. In particular, the human subjects policies are designed to ensure that subjects understand that they can end their participation in the study at will, that they voluntarily engage with the study, and that they give consent to participating only after they have been informed about any adverse conditions that could be associated with their participation in the research.

The experiments caused considerable stress to the study participants based on false beliefs about the outcomes of their own actions. That said, the research provided valuable information about human nature with respect to obedience to authority figures, and also about the accuracy of predicting the behavior of others under circumstances such as those presented during the experiment.

Question 2.

The Bowflex ad featuring the 50-year-old grandmother of a five-year-old is quite persuasive. The woman featured on the ad does not look like she is 50-years old and she has a very attractive face, long luxurious hair, and a slim, shapely body. She TV advertisement shows her actively engaged in using the Bowflex and swimming and lounging in a two-piece bikini swimsuit. The primary element of persuasion used in the advertisement is ethos. The woman featured in the ad seems credible, respectable, and certainly exhibits the healthy, fit persona to which she refers and to which she attributes her shapely body. She reasonably talks about loosing weight over a period of time that is believable. While it does seem that her statement that she saw results from using the Bowflex right away may seem a bit exaggerated, the rest of her testimony seems credible. The advertisement works because any 50-year-old woman watching the TV ad would want to look as slim and fit as the woman featured in the ad.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=I0Y5o1FvGXU&list=PLD4284B0B4A0EB5D8&index=3… [read more]

Components of Working Memory Discussion and Results Chapter

Discussion and Results Chapter  |  6 pages (2,194 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


¶ … Components of Working Memory

Working memory includes elements that can be characterized as the phonological loop, the visuospatial sketchpad, and the central executive function. The phonological loop -- which is also called the phonetic or articulatory loop -- rehearses verbal (or aural) information. Short-term phonological memory tracks memories that are subject to rapid decay and the articulatory rehearsal… [read more]

Pitman Bullokar Two Champions and Two Eras Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,226 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


Pitman Bullokar

Two Champions and Two Eras of Attempts at English Reform: A Comparison of William Bullokar and Sir Isaac Pitman

The English language is often referred to as a "bastard" language, as it has no pretensions to the type of "purity" supposedly inherent to other more ancient languages. Rooted as it is in Germanic grammar with many Greek and Latinate word forms and vocabulary enhancements, however, it is understandable that often proves difficult to master (especially by non-native speakers) for its complexities, rule-breaking tendencies, and the staggering amount of vocabulary and randomly complex declensions it contains. Due to the diverse background of the development of the English language, there appear to be several systems at work at once in the language, and though most native speakers develop a feel for this language through their personal development, this can be difficult even for them.

The complexities and inconsistencies of the English language have been more than the source of simple frustration in the minds and mouths of English learners, however; they have also been the focus of concerted and conscious efforts of correction and alteration at different points in time, with varying degrees of success. Shortly before the time of Shakespeare, the still-new printing press was already starting to churn out the written word in unheard of quantities, leading to one of the first eras of major reform efforts aiming at the standardization and rationalization of English spelling and grammar. In the nineteenth century, education reform movements -- which themselves were part of overall social movements -- helped to usher in a second era of serious and concentrated efforts to simplify and codify the English language. Two champions of reform, their purposes, techniques, and circumstances, are examined below.

William Bullokar was born sometime around 1520 (the exact year, let alone date, is unknown), and was a teacher in London by the 1550s (Dons 7). After a somewhat adventurous and highly edifying middle-age, Bullokar returned to London as both a teacher and a printer, and he began publishing his works that amounted a complete overhaul of the English language: an alphabet with new letters and diacritical marks, each of which was supposed to correspond to only one sound, three significant pamphlets regarding grammar and a set of standardizations for it, and even a dictionary that was extensive yet incomplete upon Bullokar's death in 1590 (Dons 7; Wolfe 40-1; Bullokar). Through all of this, Bullokar's primary goal seems most clearly to have been a desire for simplicity, as an aid to both teachers and learners and with a devotion to logical principles.

Sir Isaac Pitman also pushed for the simplification -- in some senses -- and standardization of English, though his purposes and approach were both somewhat different. Pitman was above all a scientist in his approach, and though a teacher like Bullokar before him he was not primarily concerned with making English understandable and regular, but rather by making it more correct -- which naturally leads to (or stems from, depending… [read more]

Sapir-Whorf and Boas View Linguistic Relativity Term Paper

Term Paper  |  12 pages (3,716 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10


Language as Mirror and Prism

If one had to pick a single attribute that defines us as human, our ability to talk to each other must surely be among the top choices. Certainly there is our opposable human thumb and our use of sophisticated tools, and these would also be possible choices. But most people can imagine a world in… [read more]

Stone Hammer Poem &amp Surfacing Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,243 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


¶ … Stone Hammer Poem & Surfacing

The concept of language has changed a great deal over time, to the point where, in the present, the same words our ancestors used can have different meanings. Language is mainly a method to communicate, somewhat like a social contract that all people agree with in order for society to function properly. Robert Kroetsch's poem "Stone Hammer Poem" and Margret Atwood's novel "Surfacing" are both examples of how the general role language usually plays does not apply to all people.

At a first glance, one might consider Kroetsch's poem to have little effect on the reader because of its ambiguous nature. The poem actually resembles an amalgam of words put together by a mad man that had no clear reason for doing so. However, this can be accounted for the public's superficiality, and the general indifference such writings are welcome with. In order to understand this text, people need to abandon their preconceptions and attempt to recognize the theme of the poem instead of trying to relate to its words and their normal substance.

Language offers much more freedom than one might think. Kroetsch had clearly discovered this and took advantage of this quality in his poem. Everything seems to be backwards in the writer's world, and this has been made possible through his efforts to confuse his audience by presenting it with a totally new perspective. One can go as far as coming to believe that Kroetsch had attempted to play a prank on readers, in an attempt to prove that everything that they held on to had been questionable.

Whether or not he should be taken for granted is unclear. What is obvious is that the poet has displayed a strong rejection for regular language. Nothing is comprehensible relating to the poem's main theme and it is possible that not even Kroetsch has a solid idea of what it means.

It is very surprising that in spite of the author's nature, his writings are not necessarily written in a caricatured way. His sympathy for the old Canadian West is sometimes distinguishable through the mixture of words that he produces. It is as if he is certain that language can have a strong effect on people, even though he does not use it in the conventional way they expect him to. The poem can be considered to be pretty much dedicated to the Canadian landscape and its inhabitants over time. The stone is eternal in the prairie, it serves several purposes and stands witness to people coming and going. It is of value to some, while for others it is meaningless. The stone hammer had witnessed a great deal of events during its life and is able to tell the history of many happenings.

The writer's work can be related to works of fiction, but the difference is that he truly wants his poem to involve a real story. Considering that his story is broken off in various parts of the poem… [read more]

Six Characters on Search of an Author and the Birthday Party Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (758 words)
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¶ … illusion and reality in terms of Pirandello's Six Characters in Search of an Author

The play Six Characters in Search of an Author opens meta-theatrically, with actors rehearsing a play within the play. However, the realism of the actors' rehearsal is quickly interrupted by the arrival of six characters, and immediately the audience is forced to question which reality they are supposed to consider 'true.' Even the play being rehearsed is subject to scrutiny and doubt, when the Prompter reads a stage direction and the Leading Man asks if he must wear the cooking hat as described in the text. When the Prompter responds that yes, the Leading Man has no choice but to adhere to the text, reality is established as the confines of the language in a certain context. Reality for the actors is not defined by their lives, but rather by the certainty of this moment in which they must portray permanent characters. In itself, this makes the audience aware of their role as spectators and consequently, the illusion of the stage becomes an integral part of a moment in each person's reality.

Even as the audience becomes a part of the story, the reality being played out before them is continually shifting. The Father almost instantly declares that he is the truest form of being among the living, because he is immortalized in writing. Although his character is a fantasy of the mind, he is not an illusion. He is a representation of the reality of human nature, which in Pirandello's opinion is a higher form of reality than the fleeting moments of life itself. When the Father descries that his reality is unchangeable, it is relative to the transitory reality of human beings. A character lives forever as is, repeating the same designated actions eternally, and these actions represent a certain truth. However, human beings understand their world differently from day-to-day and each of their actions is new and transitory. The illusion the audience experiences, then, is not one of the play itself, but one of thinking that their involvement with the play is a reality.

Second Question: How does Harold Pinter's the Birthday Party represent the limits of language and meaning? Describe the various ways language is employed in the play.…… [read more]

Speech Perception Research Paper

Research Paper  |  5 pages (1,688 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


¶ … Learning Impairment (LLI)

Speech perception refers to a person's ability to hear and then understand or break down the hearing into comprehensible linguistic parts (Kuhl, 2004). For most people, this process comes naturally. However, to some, speech perception may lead to a language learning impediment. Research in this field yields compelling as wasll as practical results to help… [read more]

Energy Sources of the Future Syntax Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (1,280 words)
Bibliography Sources: 9


Energy Sources of the Future

Syntax is the theory surrounding the basic template of language -- constructing sentences out of words. It is a higher level of cognition than morphology (the manner in which words are constructed), and is far more than just a topic for grammarians. Instead, in recent years the study of syntax has relevance in the cognitive structure of language, but also in the way the human brain synthesizes meaning, representation, logic, and can construct multi-levels of hierarchy throughout a the individual's communication's universe. The construct that the basic structure of sentences is, at its most basic, hierarchical, became a new and exciting topic in the 1950s. The idea that behind any linear order or words and morphenes that exists in natural languages there is yet another, more hidden but no less robust, organization nested within, was a milestone for psychologists, linguists, sociologists, and anthropologists in bringing together divergent theories about human knowledge. One such pioneer in this field was Noam Chomsky, specifically in his Theory of Generative Syntax first articulated in his holistic approach to language in "Systems of Syntactic Analysis" (1953). This was developed further into a more universe theory of grammar in the publication of Syntactic Structures (1957).

Biographical Introduction- Noam Chomsky has had a huge impact on the field of modern linguistics. He received his doctorate from the University of Pennsylvania in 1955 having completed most of his thesis research during a four-year Harvard Fellowship. He began his teaching career at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in 1955 and has remaned there since, consistently receiving honors and awards for his service there. Chomsky remains newsworthy to the lay audience because of his extreme liberal viewpoints and anti-war speeches and still tours giving public criticisms of U.S. Foreign policy and the legacy of U.S. global power (Wall, 2008).

Chomsky's approach to linguistics focuses on his views regarding a universal grammar, "an innate set of linguistic principles shared by all humans, the initial state of the language learner, and linguistic variation" (Audi, 2009, 138). Through his work on universal grammar and the cognitive processes involved in communication, Chomsky rejected the Skinnerian approach to behaviorism, finding instead a more naturalistic approach to the study of language an the mind/language template (Sullivan, 2000).

Theoretical Introduction- Generative grammar approaches linguistic syntax in a more universal an holistic manner. This approach attempts to formulate a set of rules that will predict the combination of words that form appropriate and culturally-based grammatical sentences. Further, generative grammar hopes to predict the morphology of a sentence, giving insight into the paradigm of culture and world-view through language acquisition and development (Marastsos and Matheny, 1994). Chomsky's early work in this area was called "transformational grammar," a term that generally encompasses a more umbrella definition of various approaches of generative grammar.

Chomsky, however, developed the idea that within language each sentence has a dual level approach -- the surface structure and the deep structure (Chomsky, 1957). The surface structure is the overt meaning… [read more]

Use of Contextual Cues in Conversation Essay

Essay  |  6 pages (1,756 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


¶ … Contextual Cues in Conversation

Gumperz (*) defines contextualization cues in the following manner:

Contextualization cues refer to the means by which speakers signal and listeners interpret what the activity is, how semantic content is to be understood and how each sentence relates to what precedes or follows. (p.599)

Since contextualization cues are habitually used and so innate to… [read more]

Thinking and Language Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (598 words)
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¶ … video primarily uses attorney arguments in a case of alleged sexual harassment and wrongful termination as means of outlining the decision making process. Decisions are often influenced by prior experience and stereotypes rather than by probabilities and the direct facts of a given decision. There are also systematic ways of making decisions -- deliberation -- or through simple cues. In a test for example, the "central route" to persuasion is based on facts and/or knowledge, while "simple cues" can also be used as a form of deductive reasoning to make decisions based on facts external to the actual problem/decision at hand. Another scholar also suggests that both praise and negative feedback have the tendency of bringing performance/decision-making in line with the mean; positive feedback for good performance will reduce the quality of a repeated performance, while negative feedback for poor performance will increase the quality of performance.

Video 13: 5:46-13:06

There are three major heuristics of judgment identified here. Representational information is based on perceptions -- the example of the President walking to his helicopter needing to "look like a leader" making people believe they are good at their job -- is provided. "Availability" refers to how easily information can be retrieved in the brain; facts that are immediately present affect judgment inordinately compared to realities of probability; "anchoring" is a similar process in which information recently processed leads to unrelated conclusions in other circumstances. Decisions are also made with "affective forecasting," or beliefs about which options will make individuals happier. Risks of failure and benefits of success are often exaggerated in people's minds. Preconceived judgments also tend to become strengthened rather than weakened when they are challenged. Intuition and perception also play a large part in much thinking and the decision making process.

Video 13: 13:07-19:08…… [read more]

Mounting a Spirited Defense of the Rights Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (694 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Mounting a spirited defense of the rights of individuals to be able to use their native language, Nancy Hornberger in "Language Policy, Language Education, Language Rights: Indigenous, Immigrant, and International Perspectives" provides unique insight into the disappearance of indigenous languages. Her main thrust is that language is a resource, and as such, it is worth protecting and preserving. Therefore, the loss of indigenous languages impoverishes the entire world. The dominance of English and other languages needs to be counterbalanced by preserving ethnic languages. Within these languages, there is a wealth of culture and heritage that cannot be replaced.

To demonstrate her position she uses vignettes from several qualitative studies. Each vignette underscores the need to preserve a language and demonstrates how preservation and revitalization may be enhanced by policy actions and educational practices. She begins with a case study from her experience in Amazonian Brazil. This case shows the benefits of allowing native language speakers to develop educational material and curricula. This is followed by an articulation of the benefits of bilingual program. Enmeshed bilingual programs that are within the communities have the potential to revitalize flagging languages.

The substantive thread that unites the work is the demonstration of the value of policy and government action to aid the preservation and revitalization of native language. The author notes that a disconnect exists between the passage of legislation and the implementation process. However, in spite of this gap legislative support for language is useful as it legitimizes the experiences and culture of the people who speak the language.

The overarching argument is that language policy and education animates, and stabilizes languages. This resuscitation of an indigenous language is necessary as an acceptance of the rights of individuals to address the world in their language. The support for this position is derived from dual sources. The first is legal and government policy documents such as constitutions and United Nations resolutions. The second is empirical examples provided by other researchers.

In the author's argumentation, there is evidence of careful thought and stringent logical analysis. The author mixes these elements together…… [read more]

Theory a Critical Discussion of Teaching Approaches Essay

Essay  |  15 pages (4,698 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10



A Critical Discussion of Teaching Approaches in TESOL

Language teaching practice often takes for granted that most of the complexities that learners face in the study of English are a result of the degree to which their native language differs from English. A resident speaker of Chinese often faces many more difficulties than a native speaker of German, because… [read more]

Worldviews Development &amp Social Networks Interaction Essay

Essay  |  7 pages (2,116 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


Worldviews, Their Development, And How They Affect Our Social Networks

A comprehensive world view is the fundamental thinking orientation of a society or individual that encompasses natural philosophy about fundamental normative/existentialist themes, emotions, values, or ethics. This concept is fundamental to German philosophy and refers to a very wide world perception. An individual interprets the world and interacts with it… [read more]

Special Curriculum for Young Indigenous Learners of English Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  4 pages (1,245 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10


Special Curriculum for Young Indigenous Learners of English

Introduction and Theoretical Framework

The proposed study seeks to design a special curriculum of English Language for young indigenous English learners in Malaysia. The national curriculum places them at a disadvantage due to a lack of exposure to English-speaking environments. Although English is increasingly becoming the international lingua franca (Tender & Vihalemm, 2009; Matras & Bakker, 2003), these indigenous speakers lack opportunities to gain fluency and English remains a completely foreign language to them. The primary focus of the proposed study will therefore be on developing basic literacy and vocabulary building as described further below.

Statement of the Problem

According to Kameda and Sullivan, "As global competition increases, more and more firms in many countries are doing business with each other. This increase in business transactions requires negotiations and discussions over prices, sales terms, contracts, and so forth. English-speaking managers are fortunate in that English has become the language of business internationally, but what of the plight of non-English speakers doing business with each other?" (1999, p. 52). Although English is widely spoken in Malaysia, the official language is Bahasa Malaysia, and various forms of Chinese, Tamil, Telugu, Malayalam, Panjabi and Thai languages are also extensively used (Malaysia, 2001). Moreover, in East Malaysia, a wide range of indigenous languages are also used, with the most common being Iban and Kadazan (Malaysia, 2011). Young indigenous Malays in this polyglot environment may therefore not have ready access to English language resources despite the need for the ability to speak English in an increasingly globalized marketplace, a problem that directly relates to the purpose of the proposed study which is discussed further below.

Purpose of the Study

The purpose of the proposed study is three-fold as follows:

A. Deliver a critical review of the relevant peer-reviewed and scholarly literature concerning special curricular offerings and methods that have been developed in other countries to develop English-speaking skills among indigenous youths;

B. To identify the fundamental components needed for a special curriculum for this population; and,

C. To provide a set of recommendations concerning what steps need to be taken by local, provincial and national authorities to implement and administer a special curriculum for young indigenous learners of English in Malaysia today.

Review of the Literature

In recent years, Malaysia has emerged as a burgeoning economic powerhouse (Tsen, 2005), having transformed from a largely agricultural and harvest-based society to one that is actively competing in the international marketplace through a wide range of value-added enterprises, including electronics and petroleum (Rahman, 1999). To continue this pace of economic development, young people entering the job market will need to possess a new set of skills, including the ability to speak and write English (Kameda & Sullivan, 1999). This point is also made by Charles who emphasizes, "In the past few decades, it has become widely accepted that the lingua franca of international business is English; witness the way companies increasingly choose English as their official corporate language" (2007, p.… [read more]

English as Creole: Still Trying Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,043 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3


Ryan also presents counter arguments that argue Middle English is not a creole, but that it can be considered a trilingual. This argument is based on a less restrictive definition of creole, where a creole does not need to have a primitive language, or a pidgin. Specifically, citing Rothwell (1998), Ryan notes that Middle English can be viewed as trilingual; specifically a combination of Old English, Central French, and Anglo-French. W. Rothwell argues that proponents of Middle English as a creole argue that one of the combination languages is dominant and the other more primitive. However, he argues that none of the following languages can be considered primitive: Old English, Central French, Middle English, or Anglo-French.

Interestingly, the initial definitions of creole that are given by Ryan indicate that a pidgin must first exist for there to be a creole. In A History of the English language, Elly van Gelderen argues "the rapid changes in Middle English are due to the many contacts with other languages but that a pidgin never arose." Certainly, the hypothesis that Middle English is a trilingual, as argued by W. Rothwell, does not necessarily depend on the existence of a pidgin of any combination of Old English, Central French, and Anglo-French.

If we accept the argument that a creole does not require a pidgin, we can perhaps even begin to consider Middle English as more than simply trilingual. Certainly, Middle English contains elements of Old French, Latin or Scandinavian. Perhaps we can consider Middle English in a way that is less restrictive than trying to fit it into a rigid definition of a creole. Middle English, perhaps, may simply be a hodgepodge of different languages, with different proportions of each.

In conclusion, the arguments presented by Ryan that Middle English is a creole are based on a definition of creole that a pidgin must exist, or that a creole requires a primitive language. However, if we loosen the definition of a creole so that a creole does not require a primitive language or a pidgin, we can begin to see Middle English as something other than a creole, e.g., a trilingual. Essentially, whether we define Middle English as a creole fundamentally boils down to our definition of creole itself.


Bailey, Charles J. And Karl Maroldt. "The French lineage of English." Langues en contact -- Pidgins -- Creoles. Ed, Jurgen M. Meisel. Tubingen: Narr, 21-53, 1977.

Dalton-Puffer, Chritiane. "Middle English is a creole and its opposite: On the value of plausible speculation." Linguistic Change Under Contact Conditions. Ed. Jacek Fisiak. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter, 1995. 35-50.

Gorlach, Manfred. "Middle English -- a creole?" Linguistics Across Historical and Geographical Boundaries. Eds.

Poussa, Patricia. "The Evolution of Early Standard English: The Creolization Hypothesis." Studia Anglica Posnaniensia 14 (1982): 69-85.

Rothwell, W. "Arrivals and Departures: The Adoption of French Terminology into Middle English." English Studies (1998) 144-65.

Ryan, Brandy. Middle English as Creole: "Still trying not to refer to you lot as 'bloody colonials'," 2005.

Van Gelderen, Elly.…… [read more]

Amy Tan Thesis

Thesis  |  6 pages (1,812 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Amy Tan is one of the most prominent voices in the contemporary literary world. Despite the fact that her popularity is based in the United States of America, she is most likely to achieve the deserved credit in other countries as well in the following years. The purpose of the present paper is to describe her background and analyze two… [read more]

Society Utopia Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (625 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Turning Language Into Law

In the eyes of the world, the passage of an "English Only" law would strengthen the image and identity of the U.S. because it would legitimize the nation and give nationalists a central pillar with which to unite American culture. As far as national unity and stability, I believe that the passage of such a law would be detrimental to the United States and would forego much of the richness and diversity that the country was built upon. Having an official language does nothing to create a strong national unity, as many people who are for an official language claim. Instead, it fuels separation of culture and unfair racial and cultural discrimination. National identity is made up of more than languages, but instead encompasses the ethnic, religious, and cultural diversity and values that make up a society.

The idea that something so widely varying and seeming arbitrary as language could be the answer to uniting a country as culturally diverse as the U.S. is preposterous. As author King (1997) states, "Language is a convenient surrogate for nonlinguistic claims that are often awkward to articulate, for they amount to a demand for more political and economic power." I agree with him, that the "English Only" movement started out by attracting those who were more idealistic about creating a melting pot out of American society, but the movement has morphed into a launching pad for reactionary conservatives eager to try to secure as much power for their own cultures as possible. These people are often not able to accurately articulate their own feelings and desires, and lump their emotions and strong political and cultural beliefs into the movement. To these people, as King (1997) states, "…language is a symbol, an icon." Symbols and icons are important for movements and in the fight for a united national identity, but they are…… [read more]

Society Utopia Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (736 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 2


¶ … Utopia

'Mother tongue:' Why America needs to grow up and accept the realities of a multilingual world

Making English the official language of America will only sow division within its borders, rather than create unity. America is such a diverse nation, aspects of its culture its citizens consider uniquely 'American' -- everything from pizza to the concept of individual liberty and the right to 'life, liberty, and property' -- are in fact exported from other nations. It is in the blend of cultural traditions, including languages, that America finds its identity as a nation of immigrants. Creating 'English only' laws will exacerbate social divisions.

Contrary to English-only advocates, many multilingual societies live in harmony across the globe. Switzerland has German, French, and Italian-speaking provinces. Canada is a bilingual nation: both English and French are spoken in most provinces. Europe as a whole, with the ease in travel restrictions between EU nations, has grown more multilingual. The future of the world is multilingual, as to function in the global economy people will need to speak more than one language. Suggesting that Americans only need to speak English to function in the world sends the wrong message to its young citizens. Children should be striving for bilingualism and multilingualism rather than feel self-satisfied that they speak only one language.

From a practical point-of-view, English-only laws are absurd. "Official English obviously has a lot to do with concern about immigration, perhaps especially Hispanic immigration…The usual arguments made by academics against Official English are commonsensical. Who needs a law when, according to the 1990 census, 94% of American residents speak English anyway?" (King 1997). English-only laws are really expressions of profound cultural anxieties of a demographic shift. America is an increasingly non-white, multicultural nation. Children must learn to speak English to survive in school, employees must speak English to 'get ahead' in the workforce, and schools already have a profound financial incentive to bring students to standard English proficiency, thanks to No Child Left Behind Legislation.

There is a certain level of hypocrisy in the postures of politicians who cry for English-only legislation. Many promote such laws -- and then run campaign advertisements in Spanish, or speak in carefully coached…… [read more]

Communication Disorders Essay

Essay  |  1 pages (492 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


¶ … communication disorders have been considered less severe than other types of disabilities. Under what types of conditions would a communication disorder not be handicapping at all? Under what types of conditions would a communication disorder result in severe limitations for the individual?

The idea that communication disorders are not 'serious' and are limited to a sibilant's or a stutter has been belied by the explosion of autism in the United States, where an inability to speak is often one of the primary characteristics of the disorder. Being unable to relate to others can profoundly limit the child's education, and cause concurrent academic and psychological afflictions such as conduct disorders and depression. Even children with moderate-to-severe speech defects may be teased, experience social anxiety, and not reach their full academic or social potential without assistance. Minor speech defects may not pose a difficulty, and in some instances, speaking non-standard English may be the 'norm' of a particular community, rather than regarded as socially abnormal.

Should all children in the United States be expected to speak Standard American English regardless of their cultural, social, or geographic background? Explain your answer.

There is no single, standard pronunciation or dialect that trumps all others in America. In contrast to England, even American news announcers may speak in slightly different regional accents -- in a slight Midwestern twang or New York-accented English, in most instances. However, there is no question that there are many English dialects which are extremely…… [read more]

Attitudes to the Southern Dialect Thesis

Thesis  |  5 pages (1,241 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 2


Attitudes to the Southern Dialect

According to George Bernard Shaw, America and England "are two countries separated by a common language." Indeed, the differences in the manner in which English is spoken in these two countries has been the source of a great deal of research -- and amusement -- on both sides of the Atlantic but the interest in how English is spoken differently also extends to the dialects spoken in various regions of the United States itself. In this regard, Bex and Watts (1999) report that, "Standard English is simply a sub-variety of English, differing from regional varieties of the language in being a 'social dialect.' There is thus no one accent which is associated with it. (113). Likewise, Hartley and Preston (1999) advise, "A commonplace in United States linguistics is that every region supports its own standard. In the United States there is no one regional dialect that serves as the model. Each region of the country has its own standard" (207).

While English speakers in the U.S. may use many of the same words, the manner in which they are articulated and the syntax and phraseology used by Americans from different regions appears to make regional dialects sound strange to people from different regions. These different perception of regional variations has been the focus of a growing amount of research in recent years. For instance, according to Macneil (2005), "Linguist Dennis Preston of Michigan State University has spent years studying the prejudices Americans have concerning speech different from their own" (18). The studies by Preston typically involve asking random Americans to identify those regions of the country where they believed people spoke differently in an effort to determine where regional dialects adversely affected the perception of the uneducated and unpleasant qualities of these regional dialects. Time and again, Preston has determined that most Americans cite the South as being characterized by uneducated language use but that they still regard the dialect as being "charming" (Macneil 19). To explain this perception, Preston and other linguists suggest that many Americans are exposed to and learn to understand regional dialects through the media, a process that contributes to an increased appreciation for the diversity of the American social landscape. According to Macneil, though, "No matter how they themselves speak, Americans learn to understand the language of network broadcasters, which is the closest thing to an overall American standard. That standard coincides with the speech that Preston's subjects inevitably identify as the best American speech -- that of the Midwest -- because it has the fewest regional features" (19).

Research Question

The research question that guided this study was, "Do people tend to prefer the dialect of the region of the United States in which they were raised?


Based on studies of languages attitudes by the linguist, Dennis Preston (1999) and others, that have determined that individuals tend to prefer the dialects of their own region, it was the hypothesis of this study that those respondents who identified themselves… [read more]

Comparing Linguistic and Folk Linguistic Definitions of American Slang Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  1 pages (412 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Linguistic and Folkloric Definitions of Slang

Slang is often defined as an informal classification of language spoken by members of a particular group. It is casual and informal, and often changes quite rapidly, compared with standard vocabulary, or even dialect. Slang is vernacular (of the 'folk') and/or colloquial speech. It can be used to convey the speaker's membership in a particular group (Akmajan 2001, p. 302). For example, for a non-native speaker of English, the words '411' might be a number, for an English speaker '411' refers to dialing for information, and for a teenager fluent in slang, getting the '411' means finding out gossip or the information about someone or something. Slang can also refer to turns of phrase, like adding city to refer to a large quantity -- like 'fat city' and 'charm city' (Akmajan 2001, p. 305).

Folkloric slang or speech refers specifically to colloquialisms in dialect: such as linguistic terms or meanings that require a regional accent to be fully conveyed as in "Hyde Pork / "Hyde Park or warsh/wash (Folklife, 2009, Teaching students). Folkloric slang can also encompass "local terms, specialized language, and other elements that make up the distinctive speech patterns of a region, folk group, or occupation" that are…… [read more]

Stress and Intonation Patterns Thesis

Thesis  |  12 pages (3,430 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 10


Cultural Intonation

Cultural differences in stress and intonation patterns as they relate to overall language processing and acquisition

Language is arguably the most essential and recognizable cultural identifier. The communicative value of language far exceeds that of the simple meanings behind words used; information is transmitted through syntax, word stress, and intonation by methods that are highly mediated by the… [read more]

Representation and Culture Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  9 pages (2,593 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 5


Representation and Culture

Hall, Stuart. "The Work of Representation." Representation: Cultural Representations and Signifying Practices. Ed. Stuart Hall. Thousand Oaks: The Open University, 1997. 13-74.

In this chapter, Hall focuses on the meaning of representation, which he defines as a way of connecting meaning and language to culture. However, he cautions against an over-simplified approach to representation, which would reduce… [read more]

Relationship Between Individual's Working Memory Capacity and Their Speech Production of the Second Language Thesis

Thesis  |  3 pages (793 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3


¶ … Linguistic Learning Studies

Differences in Conceptual Design:

The Kormos and Safar study (2008) seems to have been much better designed to produce meaningful results than the Mota study (2003). At the most fundamental level, the Kormos and Safar study manifested an explicit recognition of the degree to which the dependent variable (foreign language learning and performance) is inherently a function of many different variables besides memory. In that regard, the Kormos and Safar study even acknowledged the relevance of variables not traditionally associated with learning, even in the most general sense, such as those attributable to the expanded definitions of cognitive intelligence advanced by pioneers in human learning and education such as Howard Gardner (Kormos & Safar, 2008 p261). That study referenced variables as far-removed from memory as temperament and personality (Kormos & Safar, 2008 p261).

By contrast, the Mota study (2003) focused exclusively and one-dimensionally on the importance of working memory, seemingly without regard for the complex, multidimensional variables outside of memory that may influence the dependent variables measured (foreign language fluency, accuracy, and complexity (Mota, 2003 p69). Furthermore, whereas the Kormos and Safar study (2008) distinguished between the respective roles of working memory and phonological short-term memory in different aspects of language learning, the Mota study (2003) ignored phonological short-term memory altogether from the outset, instead presupposing that any measurable differences in language learning are attributable to differences in working memory alone. Finally, whereas the experimental design devised for the Kormos and Safar study (2008) specifically included both advanced foreign language learners and beginners (Kormos & Safar, 2008 p 264), the Mota study (2003) used only advanced foreign language learners.

Differences in Experimental Methodology:

The Kormos and Safar study (2008) employed a non-word span test (Kormos & Safar, 2008 p 264) to establish one independent variable (short-term memory) and a backward digit span test to establish another independent variable (working memory). Combined with the crucial inclusion of both advanced foreign language learners and beginners, this experimental methodology allowed the researchers to consider the disparate effects and possible roles of different cognitive processes involved in performance not directly attributable to working memory alone.

Conversely, the Mota study (2003) employed only a speaking (word) span test (Mota, 2003 p75) without any test of other cognitive processes potentially involved in foreign language learning and recall. Similarly, the non-word span test employed by the Kormos and…… [read more]

War, Isolation, and English Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,327 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 5


War, Isolation, And English

English is often referred to as a "bastard" language due to the fact that it has so many sources. Though technically a Germanic language there is also a heavy Latinate influence that occurred over the millennia of English's spread, beginning in the time that Romans first set foot on the British Isles and continuing through direct and indirect influence from French, Spanish, and other romance languages; so much so that now less than half of the words in the modern English lexicon are actually etymologically rooted in the Germanic family (Marsh, 89). This kind of change is inevitable in any language where the speaking population is not in total isolation, and even then language may still adapt and develop as society changes. The unique history of the British Isles and the subsequent history and influence of the English-speaking world, however, makes the development of English especially volatile and interesting. It was Great Britain's mixture of geographical isolation and extreme centrality in terms of world events for much of its history that forced its unique evolution; more specifically, it was the history of warfare and occupation within and radiating from the British Isles and the later British Empire that made English the eclectic language it is today.

The association of war with English and the isolation of the British Isles both began playing into the history of the English language in the fifth century, with a series of invasions from the Germanic tribes of the Jutes, Saxons, and Angles, all of whom spoke a similar language (English Club, par. 1). The Celtic peoples who populated the island at the time were pushed across the sea to Ireland, and north to Scotland and west to Wales on the main island, establishing the Germanic peoples and their language as the supreme and dominant force on the British Isles (English Club, 2). Neither the Celts nor the Germanic peoples who pushed them out were especially peaceful people, and it was only through intense bloodshed that English began to exist in such a concentrated form. This form, however, called Old English by today's scholars, is not even recognizable to the lay reader as English (Merriam Webster, par. 6). Many of its words appear to have much more in common with modern day German than they do with English. In fact, at this point in the language's history and for several centuries to come, English was not the official name of the language -- Marsh notes that the collective peoples occupying the main portion of the large island of Britain "often spoke of themselves as Saxons, [and] of their language as the Saxon speech" (Marsh, 44). The label of English for the language -- and England for the country -- was derived from the name of the Angles tribes (Anglik.net, par. 4). Though the Germanic tribes are usually referred t as the Anglo-Saxons, history has rewarded only one of these groups with a language.

Though it was war -- or at least… [read more]

Bernard Shaw's Pygmalion Thesis

Thesis  |  1 pages (450 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Shaw's Pygmalion Q's

Shaw claimed to be an early feminist, believing women were very much equal to men in terms of cognitive ability and philosophical reasoning. Does this sentiment correspond with what you see in Eliza? Is she the true equal of her mentor? Although in many ways it appears as though Eliza is not equal to Henry Higgins, she is in fact many ways superior -- she is the one who tracks down the professor, meaning she determines her own future and is bright enough to see when opportunity is available. In the end, she has education, manners, and a heart, while Higgins is left alone; Eliza has surpassed her teacher, 2) Does Shaw truly unsettle the boundaries between classes in this play or does the end of the play ultimately affirm class boundaries and divisions? Then end of the play, too, could be read as reaffirming class divisions, but it is Eliza who rejects the upper-class and its treatment of the lower. Shaw does not suggest a breakdown of the class system, but he points out his hypocrisies and prejudices, in some ways glorifying the lower class.

3) What makes this a "classic," a "masterpiece" that transcends its original time and place? The themes the play deals with are timeless; the tile comes from a Greek myth -- the idea of creation and…… [read more]

Official Langue and Communication Essay

Essay  |  1 pages (484 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 6


Official Langue and Communication

The topic of first and second language in the United States is one that widely debated. Many Hispanic immigrants think that children of first language Spanish speaking backgrounds should retain that cultural distinction, and that coursework should be taught in Spanish. It is, however, part the United States naturalization process that a command of the English language is necessary to become a naturalized citizen in the United States (U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services, found online, 2008). The real puzzle is that there is any concern over by either coalition in acquiring a second language that is as useful as the first language in a world that is speedy towards a global community in which a second language can only be perceived as an individual asset, even a lucrative one. Teaching a course in a dual language is perhaps challenging in the contemporary classroom setting that lacks the appropriate teaching tools, but many educators are looking at the prospect of dual language teaching (Culatta, Barbara, Reese, Marin, and Setzer, Lee Ann, 2006, p. 67).

Social researchers Barbara Culatta, Reese Marin, and Lee Ann Setzer say that early dual language programs have a better chance for success when instituted early in the student's academic career (Culatta, Reese, Setzer, p. 67). Cultural diversity, they say, and the process of language support and exchange between students would make for a positive learning environment involving first and second languages (Culatta, Reese, Setzer, p.…… [read more]

Vocabulary Learning Methods With Beginning Learners Article Review

Article Review  |  10 pages (2,662 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 4


¶ … Vocabulary Learning Methods With Beginning Learners of Spanish

This work intends to conduct a critical review of the work of Nuria Sagarra and Matthew Alba entitled: "The Key Is in the Keyword: L2 Vocabulary Learning Methods with Beginning Learners of Spanish" published in the Modern Language Journal in July, 2006.

Cognitive Models and Lexical Processing

The work of… [read more]

Valuable Techniques Students and Lecturers Alike Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (316 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


¶ … Valuable Techniques

Students and lecturers alike often overlook the many challenges involved in essay writing; the former because of their lack of experience, and the latter because of an excess of the same. Essay writing, as the experienced know, does not come naturally at any level. Although lecturers are often sufficiently experienced to feel as if the techniques of essay writing come naturally, they also are bound by the rules and techniques of the phenomenon. As such, both lecturers and students can benefit from revisiting these techniques in the classroom. Three techniques that are specifically valuable in this regard include writing better essays, illustrating paragraphs, and narrating paragraphs.

Writing better essays ultimately results in better grades at the end of the school year. In pursuing this goal, the student should keep a number of things in mind. One of these is grammar. Good grammar and sentence construction are two of the basic requirements for a good…… [read more]

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