"Language / Linguistics" Essays

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Authors Michael Samuel Ofori-Duodu and Luke Humphries Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (700 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Authors Michael Samuel Ofori-Duodu and Luke Humphries both attempt to achieve the same goal: to define what research is and to explain the different methods of research commonly used in the physical and social sciences. In this reviewer's opinion, Humphries' article is the more successful of the two.

Ofori-Duodu's article suffers from a number of faults related to organization, content, and mechanics. Firstly, at one-and-a-half pages, the abstract is much too long and unwieldy. An abstract should summarize the contents of the article in a concise, focused manner. In his abstract, Ofori-Duodu not only to tells his reader what concepts are found in the article, he also attempts to define them, which bloats this section of his manuscript all out of portion. He identifies and defines three types of research methods the article will address and also gives the same detailed treatment to six characteristics of research. Oddly, however, those characteristics are not examined in the body the article (Ofori-Duodu, 2011).

Following so long an abstract, the "Introduction" section of the article strikes the reader as blatantly redundant. It does not much information beyond what was already presented in the abstract, nor does it add much in the way of context for the information to come in the body of the paper. Context can help situate an article's message within a larger frame of reference in some interesting, meaning, relevant manner. Here again, Ofori-Duodu is long on words, but in light of the redundant information here, short on substance.

The body of Ofori-Duodu's article explains in more detail the three research methods under examination. The examples he uses to illustrate the different methods are a good feature of his manuscript and do serve their purpose well. The body is hurt, however, by poor grammar and mechanical inconsistencies such as shifting back and forth from the more common term "research" to the odd construction "a research" (Ofori-Duodu, 2011). Grammatical problems plague not only the body but also the abstract and the introduction of the paper. This article cries out for careful proofreading.

The best part of the paper is the conclusion.…… [read more]

Letters Evaluating Writing Dear Student Peer Reviewed Journal

Peer Reviewed Journal  |  4 pages (1,237 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


¶ … Letters Evaluating Writing

Dear Student #1:

I have read your essay and I am trying my best to find something positive to say about it, but that is difficult. It is obvious to me that English is not your first language because of some of your choices of words, the way you mix tenses, and by the way that you construct your sentences. However, I realize that language proficiency is different from writing skills; therefore, I would like to suggest that you continue your English language studies and I would lie to commend you for being able to express yourself verbally and write in English. I will try to restrict my peer-review commentary to the other aspects of your writing that are not related to your relative fluency in the English language.

The introductory paragraph of your essay is very confusing. First it talks about a stage of life where, as you say, nothing was very important to you. Then you mention that you had a passion for speed, but after that, you return back to your attitude about life and spirituality. Next, you mention various ways that you acted recklessly and irresponsibly in your driving habits and you refer to your accident. However it is confusing to follow your organization and your choice of description because you continually shift back and forth between different ideas and you change back and forth from a past-tense description of an event that already occurred in your life to a present-tense description of the events leading up to the accident before it occurred.

In that regard, I would simply suggest that you try to express one idea at a time, such as by devoting an entire paragraph to one idea, such as by describing your attitude about life before your accident in your introductory paragraph. You might describe your confused sense of self and of your life purpose in a second paragraph. You could detail your irresponsible driving habits and love for speed in a third paragraph, and then maybe provide the reader with a description of how your accident happened, how you and others reacted, and how it changed your beliefs and values. Finally, you could conclude your essay with an explanation of why you believe you used to be so irresponsible; why you think your accident changed you; what you may have learned about yourself (and others) in the process; how you have changed your life since you recovered; whether you have succeeded in living up to those changes; and how you might advise other young people who might be experiencing the same thoughts and feelings today that you describe in yourself before your accident.

To my mind, all of those issues are matters of subject matter organization that are not dependent on language fluency at all. Therefore, if I were to provide the most constructive criticism possible, I might suggest that the next time you write an essay like this one, you might try to organize your thoughts… [read more]

Comparisons Between Two Translation Theories Equivalence and Skopos Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,341 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Equivalence and Skopos

Translation is a profession that has been increasingly in the spotlight, not least because technology has developed to such an extent that even contemporary computers can translate texts. Often, these make somewhat more sense than the first attempts by machines to translate works written by human beings. Because of the nature of and possibilities offered by translation today, various theories have been constructed to explicate the various purposes for which translation might be used. Two of the most prominent theories in this regard are the theories known as Equivalence, promoted by Nida, and Skopos theory, proposed in opposition by Vermeer. Whereas Equivalence theory promotes the, as far as possible, word-for-word translation of a text, Skopos theory suggests that the purpose of the translated text should also be taken into account when constructing the translation.

According to Sunwoo, Skopos theory is first theory to suggest that extra-linguistic factor such as the client, the culture of the recipient, and the purpose of a text should be taken into account when translations are constructed. This was a new movement in translation theory, known as "functionalism." As such, the relationship of the source and target text changed completely from one of an equivalence between the texts to one where the source text is seen as merely an "source of information," which can wholly or partly be simulated into a newly created text for use by a specific client with a specific culture. One disadvantage of the theory is that it is somewhat vague, and students find themselves a little in the dark regarding what needs to occur during the translation process.

However, it may be suggested that this vagueness is somewhat deliberate, as it suggests the arbitrary nature of the relationship between source and target text. The translator is to be creative in his or her efforts when translating the source text according to the needs and requirements of the target audience and the purpose of the target text (Skopos Theory in Practice, 2007). Because these needs and purposes will fluctuate with every text, it is impossible to construct an exact science surrounding what should be done during the translation process itself. This is left up to the experience and creativity of the translator. Indeed, the main requirement for this theory to realize is the fact that it promotes a negotiation between the translator and the client, where the client specifies the conditions under which the target text should function. The target text is no longer the "sacred original" according to its function in equivalence. Instead, the translator chooses among three major purpose kinds to construct a translated text for the appropriate audience. The first type of purpose is the general purpose of the translator in constructing the translation (Skopos Theory in Practice, 2007). The second is the communicative purpose of the text, which could entail something like providing information to a certain audience type. The third kind of purpose is the strategic purpose of a particular procedure, such as free… [read more]

Future of Intimacy "I Have Been Article Review

Article Review  |  2 pages (684 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


¶ … Future of Intimacy

"I have been away from home a lot lately," states Mark Kingwell, giving his essay on the future of intimacy an immediate and 'intimate' quality. The reader is suddenly taken into the process of writing, and is made to feel as if he or she is sitting on Kingwell's shoulder, observing the writer, as Kingwell muses upon the issues outlined in the essay while traveling from Toronto to Ottawa to Montreal, Vancouver, Edmonton, and Calgary. The places where the essay was penned span the "vastness of variety of Canada" as well as Boston and upstate New York (Kingwell 267). Kingwell uses specific locations and specific cities to stress the reality of his journey while writing, as well as Canada's diversity, a place where "cool kids" are different in Quebec than on the West Coast (Kingwell 267). How can true intimacy be possible, he suggests, when the world has grown so large and diverse?

Kingwell's use of specific anecdotes to persuade the reader also is evident in his use of statistics. He notes that despite the ease of travel conveyed by telephone, Internet, and airplane, ae of the world will die before making a telephone call (Kingwell 268). We take the small miracles of our technological lives for granted and fail to recognize the needs of the wider world community with whom we are not closely 'intimate.' Upon more careful reflection, even photographs of the past are miraculous, Kingwell suggests. He uses a reference to his father's Harry Connick haircut in an old photograph to suggest how the past and present are made one with technology, just as he can speak with Calgary and England while doing his laundry via email (Kingwell 268). We have come to take technology for granted. Technology can create intimacy through the generations and across geographical boundaries but can also shut technological 'have-nots' out of our world because our private, intimate bubbles makes things like email seem universally ubiquitous.

Kingwell even parses the word 'intimacy' for better understanding of what it signifies. 'Intimacy'…… [read more]

Bourdieu's Concepts of Cultural Capital and Linguistic Markets Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (638 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Bourdieu -- Cultural Capital and Linguistic Markets

Introduction to the Concept of Cultural Capital

Bourdieu originally outlined three forms of capital: economic, social, and cultural capital; subsequently, he added symbolic capital to the list (Webb, Schirato & Danaher, 2002). Briefly, economic capital relates to economic resources; social capital denotes the "aggregate of the actual or potential resources which are linked to possession of a durable network of more or less institutionalized relationships of mutual acquaintance and recognition" (King, 2005); cultural capital is a function of acquired knowledge, education, and learned skills; and symbolic capital describes resources derived from notoriety, prestige, and public recognition (Webb, Schirato & Danaher, 2002).

Bourdieu further distinguishes three subtypes of cultural capital: embodied, objectified, and institutionalized capital (Webb, Schirato & Danaher, 2002). Embodied cultural capital includes those forms of attitudinal capital that the individual acquires passively and over time, generally through socialization (especially) from the family. Objectified capital relates primarily to ownership of physical resources with tangible value in society; Institutionalized capital consists of formal credentials and recognized qualifications such as educational degrees and professional expertise (Emirbayer & Williams, 2005).

Linguistic Capital and its Influence over Interpersonal Communications

Bourdieu's embodied capital includes another subtype: linguistic capital (Webb, Schirato, & Danaher, 2002). Linguistic capital is that part of embodied capital that specifically relates to the use of language as an expression of the embodied capital that is generally acquired by virtue of social class, community and family economic status, and education. The individual elements of linguistic capital include sentence structure, grammar, idiomatic expression, vocabulary, and choice of substantive references (King, 2005). In some respects, the expression of linguistic capital is automatic and unconscious; in other respects, the expression of linguistic capital can also be manipulated deliberately in connection with the conscious desire to influence the perception of the audience (King, 2005).

For example, while conversing with a fellow college student, one might speak very naturally without…… [read more]

Communication for Information and Systems Technology Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (502 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Communication for Information and Systems Technology

Analysis of Article by Christopher Bantick

It has become all too commonplace for educators and academics to decry the quality of contemporary education. The loss of respect for standards and quality in favor of a more relativist and "progressive" approach is often cited as evidence of cultural decline. The article by Christopher Bantick, "Poor Show in Classrooms When Grammar's Tossed Out the Door," stands as an example this sort of cultural jeremiad.

In a general sense Bantick seeks to criticize the de-emphasizing of grammar studies as signaling an abandonment of scholastic rigor in favor of an more reticent and lackadaisical approach to the education of, in his case, Australian youths. As a sign of the horrific state of grammar in Australia, Bantick mentions the case of the English Teachers Association of Queensland failing to fix some 65 errors in one of its own manuals. He says that since the teaching of grammar was abandoned in the 1960's, "…two generations of teachers…do not understand grammar because they were not taught it. This should be a concern to all parents, employers, and educators" (Bantick 2010). Thus the deficit of understanding of grammar on the part of many Australians is as much the consequence of not teaching it as it is the result of most teachers not even knowing it. He balks at the claim, often made today in the age of communications technology, that computers (specifically spelling and grammar checkers) have "done away with the need for…… [read more]

Midwife Biblio Annotated Bibliography Entry Annotated Bibliography

Annotated Bibliography  |  2 pages (576 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Midwife Biblio

Annotated Bibliography Entry: "What is Midwifery? Role and Types of Midwives"

This information in this article relates to midwife generally and in the United States specifically, incorporating its medical, legal, and spiritual/philosophical elements in a comprehensive and brief overview. The comprehensiveness of the article is, of course, necessarily in inverse proportion to its brevity, but despite working against this logical paradox the author does an adequate job of summing up the history and practice of midwifery in a relatively short space. This is perhaps the only elements of the article that can be deemed wholly successful, however, and many of the other issues present in the article make it of questionable value to anyone attempting to truly educate themselves about midwifery. This value is decreased further if the article is to be considered for research purposes due to serious questions concerning the reliability and validity of the information.

The first and highly consistent indicator that this article is not of first-rate (or really even of second-rate) quality is the poor sentence structure (the last sentence of the first paragraph is a subject fragment without a verb), the use of cliched and almost meaningless phrases ("fast forward to today" and "Midwives were the first...holistic practitioners of the past" are examples that immediate leap out; though there intended meanings are clear, they are rather vaguer meanings and poorly worded sentences), and simple mistakes in spelling and grammar (such as the use of "through out" as two separate words). Though scholarly writing need not be the most eloquent or well formed, it should at least adhere to the basic rules of the language in which it is being published, and this article fails to meet this criteria despite maintaining…… [read more]

Truth Ways of Knowing the Truth Human Thesis

Thesis  |  5 pages (1,353 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


¶ … Truth

Ways of Knowing the Truth

Human knowledge can at times seem a very fickle thing. This is not necessarily because empirical and objective truth does not exist (though this has long been a highly debated and important contention in philosophical queries, and remains so today), but rather because it can be difficult for individuals to distinguish between what they truly know to be true -- what appears to have an empirical and therefore objective basis, that is -- and what they believe to be true. The ways of knowing identified in the general theories of knowledge -- sense perception, reasoning, emotion, and language/symbol -- all have a different relationship with the knowledge of real and objective truth vs. simple belief.

Sense Perception

Perhaps the clearest and most solid relationship between an ay of knowing and empirical truth is delivered through the senses. It is through our perception, after all, that we are able to measure things, and it is the ability to duplicate measurements that equates to objectivity. Subjective terms like "big" and "small," for instance, mean little in the way of real truth; a person who has only ever encountered Chihuahuas might consider a terrier a big dog, while someone who grew up with huskies would call the same breed small, but the ability to actually measure the dog's height and weight provides an objective classification (or classifications) for the dog's size. These measurements require our perceptions -- sight and touch, at the very least -- and in this way it can be seen that perceptions lead to empirical truth. This is, in actuality, the definition of empirical truth.

Perception cannot be trusted completely, however. Not only do different individuals appear to have different levels of acuity with different perceptions, meaning that the "truths" perceived through the sense would have subtle differences without objective standards of measure, but our perceptions are also filtered through our minds. People hearing voices or seeing hallucinations are extreme examples of this fact; the differences found in eyewitness accounts of certain events is a more basic illustration of the way that perceived "truths" can differ. So although sense perceptions are one of the most instrumental ways in which an objective concept of a truth or truths can be formed, these perceptions must be properly related to outside measures and other interrelationships.


Reasoning, or rationality has consistently been considered another primary source of discovering objective truth. The debate between perception and rationality is, in fact, one of the oldest questions in philosophy. Renee Descartes famously said, "I think therefore I am" (actually, Descartes said "Cogito ergo sum," but the translation is close). This is the ultimate argue for rationality as a means of perceiving objective truth; the perceived world might be perceived differently by other people, and the entire thing could in fact be an illusion working on the minds of every individual, but that which can be logically deduced -- such as one's own existence by the fact that one… [read more]

Tipping Point Advertising and the Tailoring Thesis

Thesis  |  4 pages (1,189 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1


Tipping Point

Advertising and the Tailoring of Message: The Insidious Underside of Gladwell's Translation

In Tipping Point, Malcolm Gladwell examines the nature of trends in all of their forms, form political ideas to rumors to manners of dress and social habits. In so doing, he identifies and explains several key personalities that are involved, whether consciously or not, in the creation and perpetuation of trends, capable of turning the smallest idea or innovation into the next big thing. Some of the various personalities he identifies are easily identifiable and readily expected in this context: there is of course the Salesman, who packages ideas in ways that laymen can see their benefits; the Connector, who knows everyone and is an expert at knowing who to got for what, and when; and the Maven who knows everything there is to know on a subject, and knows where to find out more.

These are only three of many of the personalities involved in creating an idea or innovation that takes hold of the public that Gladwell identifies in his book that help to create what he terms the tipping point, where a simple innovation stops being a limited idea and instead begins to mimic a viral epidemic in its spread. The specific functions performed by these individuals are quite obviously essential in the development and spread of an idea from something small to something viral, but there is another function that Gladwell describes that is equally essential, yet less obvious to one who hasn't studies this issue from the same perspective. Some of the statements that Gladwell makes regarding this function also hints at other possibilities for its use, and though they are not explicitly detailed in Tipping Point these hints constitute some of the most interesting ponderables in the book.

This function is that of the translator, which performs something of an intermediary step between the Innovator -- the originator of the idea, product, or trend -- and the rest of the world. Interestingly, Gladwell does not assign this role to a specific personality, but rather sees it as a function performed during the primary function of the other personalities -- the Salesman, Connector, and Maven -- that is necessary for the successful completion of their functions. Gladwell describes the role of the translator, in whatever shape they take, quite succinctly: "the take ideas and information from a highly specialized world and translate them into a language the rest of us can understand (Gladwell 200). Mavens must make their knowledge understandable for it to be useful; Salesman must be able to make cerebral and abstruse concepts resonate emotionally with their buyers, and the Connector translates between different people all the time as the essence of their function.

This is all well and good, and the need for translation is fairly obvious in the creation of the next big thing or indeed in almost any field of human endeavor -- the auto mechanic lets people know how to take care of their car… [read more]

Grammar Instruction Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  12 pages (4,321 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10


Grammar Instruction

Hybrid Grammar Instruction

"It is generally posited in the literature that tasks should be structured in reference to desirable goals"

Maria J. de la Fuente, Vanderbilt University, USA (2006, p. 266).

Work Plan

Intensive explicit grammar instruction does make a significant, in fact, "all the" difference, Ernesto Macaro and Liz Masterman (2006), University of Oxford, UK, stress in… [read more]

Ludwig Wittgenstein Thesis

Thesis  |  3 pages (959 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3



Ludwig Wittgenstein: Logic and Computers

Language is at once one of the most complex and one of the most fundamental aspects of humanity. It is, according to many, what separates us from the rest of the animal kingdom. Yet for all of its essential place in the formation of societies and individuals, it is also one of the most fiercely debated and (perhaps) misunderstood human phenomenon. To complicate matters further, the modern era has brought language out of the realm of a human-only feature. Not only have various other primates and other mammals -- including dolphins and possibly whales -- been observed to use communication methods that closely resemble (if not replicate) true language, but computers are instruments that also use language in order to operate.

It could be argued that this latter example does not truly bring language out of the human realm, as computers are human inventions. This becomes something of a semantic battle, however, and is unimportant in the face of the fact that language is at least as essential to the functioning of a computer as it is to a fully functioning human being. Because of this, many contributions to the understanding of language have been made by computer science and the pure logic involved therein. Viewing the situation in this way is certainly valid, but it also places the cart before the horse to some degree. Many important contributions were made to the logic of language in the decades leading up to the true advent of computers and computer science.

One of the leading philosophers in this area -- and indeed of the twentieth century in general -- was Ludwig Wittgenstein. The title of "philosopher" should not be taken in the wrong way. Like many philosophers, Wittgenstein's contributions to thought applied to mathematics and logic at least as much as they did to more metaphysical aspects of philosophy.

For many thinkers, including philosophers and especially those leaning towards a belief in metaphysics, language was not a system butyl entirely on logic, but subject to the vagaries of individual interpretation. One of Wittgenstein's major contributions to the philosophy of language was his assertion and explanation of language as a system of pure logical construction (Stanford, sec. 2.1). Most important was his belief that grammar was really a philosophical term describing a set of rules by which language behaved (Bagni, 215). In fact, he believed that all previous philosophy (or at least most of it, including the major problems it had dealt with for millennia) came as the result of misunderstanding the logic of our language, which led to a misunderstanding of individual terms and propositions (Richter, sec. 2).

Though Wittgenstein set out speaking directly about human language and grammar -- that is, the words we use and the ways in which we use them to construct complex thoughts -- have direct implications in mathematics,…… [read more]

Jean Jacque Rousseau's Emile or on Education Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,834 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 2


Philosophy of Education - Rousseau


Rousseau on Learning Language and Limiting Early Vocabulary:

Let the child's vocabulary, therefore, be limited. It is very undesirable that he should have more words than ideas, that he should be able to say more than he thinks. One of the reasons why peasants are generally shrewder than townsfolk… [read more]

Idiomatic Phrases Have Been the Foundation Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  9 pages (2,886 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


¶ … idiomatic phrases have been the foundation upon which civilization was developed, with the evolution of romance, trade and government being directly related to the corresponding availability of words with which to express an individual's unverbalized thoughts. Indeed, words have power and history has also shown that they have even been the source of costly wars and the peaceful… [read more]

Utterance Length in Children Verses Chimpanzees Thesis

Thesis  |  5 pages (1,533 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3


Utterance Length in Children Verses Chimpanzees

Language is the essential foundation of the human species. Yet, is it completely unique to mankind? Several studies have shown that out closest relatives have a relatively strong grasp on the techniques and methodologies of language; however, chimpanzees have proven to be unable to pass the language capacity of a small child as measured… [read more]

Approaches to English Grammar Term Paper

Term Paper  |  15 pages (4,733 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 5


¶ … English Grammar: "Letter from Birmingham Jail" by Martin Luther King Jr.

Martin Luther King Jr. was a very educated man who's passions shine through his prose. Analyzing his words through a grammatical standpoint not only allows us to gain insight on his genius, but also how the intricate complications of the English grammar works in eloquent every day… [read more]

Introducing to a Student the Academic Discipline of Sociolinguistics Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (613 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+



Few students even know what sociolinguistics is, much less its practical applications and relevance to other fields of study. This is unfortunate because sociolinguistics is a very exciting discipline that studies the effect of any and all aspects of society, including cultural norms, expectations, and context on the way language is used. Sociolinguists are interested in the social implications of the use and reception of language (Shuy, 1969). To understand these implications, they research language variation, sensitivity and acquisition of social groups such as ones based on social status, age, race, sex, family, friendship units and other variables. Some of the topics covered by sociolinguistics include dialect geography, bilingualism, linguistic interference, social dialectology (including studies of social stratification and minority group speech), and language situations (language rivalries, standardization language as a means of group identification and functional styles and attitudes toward language) (Shuy, 1969).

Sociolinguistics is important because language is so important. We use language almost every minute to send vital social messages about who we are, where we come from, and who we associate with (Wolfram). Understanding how we use language may sound relatively simple, but in fact it is far more complications for a variety of reasons. The ways in which language reflects behavior can often be complex and subtle and the relationship between language and society affects a wide range of encounters -- from broadly based international relations to narrowly defined interpersonal relationships (Wolfram).

Because the field of sociolinguistics is so broad, sociolinguists often specialize in a particular area. According to Wolfram, specializations are increasingly coinciding with the mergence of more broadly-based social and political issues. For example, specializations in language and nationalism, language and ethnicity, and language and gender have corresponded with the rise of related issues in society at large. Specialists are applying the results of their studies to the…… [read more]

Effect of Bilingualism in the U.S Term Paper

Term Paper  |  12 pages (3,197 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 6


¶ … BILINGUALISM in the U.S.


Effect of Bilingualism in America


During 2008 in America, the movement for bilingualism, no matter its intent in theory, in practice, some individuals, as Kimball contends in "Institutionalizing Our Demise: America vs. Multiculturalism," published in 2004 in New Criterion, translates to not mastering English. Whether he/she fluently masters English or not, an… [read more]

English Tutor, I Work Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (381 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


¶ … English tutor, I work with a lot of people from all over the world, and from the United States as well. Not all students who need help with English are learning it as a foreign language - some of them just need help. For those who learn it as a foreign language, though, like John, it takes a lot of hard work and dedication to get it right and to speak the language like a native citizen. John is applying for an MBA in General Management, and there are some people who would be concerned about this. They might say that John is not qualified to do this, or that his English skills are not good enough. This is not true. Speaking as someone who has tutored him, I certainly feel confident in saying that his English ability is enough that he can both understand what is being taught to him and communicate to others effectively. Could his English be better? Perhaps, but this is true of many of us who grew up speaking it, as well. His tutoring will continue, just as his education will continue, and…… [read more]

Indian Literature Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (558 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 5


Speech and the Culture of the Vedic Aryans

Speech was a key component of the Vedic Aryans' culture owing to the fact that theirs was a preliterate society. This means that they had no written language with which to communicate, and had to rely solely on the spoken word in order to carry out the functions of their day-to-day lives. In order to understand why this is so, we must take a look at the history of the Vedic Aryans. In doing so, we will also compare the role that speech played in their culture to the role that speech plays in the United States today.

The Vedic Aryans were semi-nomads who migrated in several series during the second millennium B.C. They spoke an early form of Sanskrit. Their language had a lot of similarities to other Indo-European languages, including ancient Greek and Latin, as well as Avestan in Iran. The term Aryan means "pure." The word was likely chosen to designate the conscious efforts of the invaders to retain their tribal roots and identities, while simultaneously asserting their difference from earlier inhabitants of the region.

While proof of the Vedic Aryans has not yet been established through archaeological means, the evolution and spread of their culture throughout the Indo-Gangetic Plain is indisputable and can be traced back through the evolution of their language. Our current knowledge of their existence stems from several sacred texts. These include the four Vedas - a collection of prayers, liturgy, and hymns; the Brahamanas and the Upanishads - commentaries on Vedic rituals and philosophical treatises; as well as the Puranas, which are traditional works rooted in a combination of myth and history. Were…… [read more]

Seven Steps to Non-Sexist Writing the English Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (413 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Seven Steps to Non-Sexist Writing

The English language a very rich language. It contains thousands of words that can convey different concepts. Language is powerful in the sense that it can be used to convey ideas and emotions and ultimately influence the mind and heart of the reader or listener. However, language can sometimes contain words that can be used to insult, discriminate, or belittle people. We therefore have the responsibility of using language so that we don't inadvertently convey offensive ideas. The English language has long been riddled with terms that are biased towards the male group of society. This might have been due to the culture of past generations. However, we have a new culture now that treats men and women equally. This is the reason why we need to promote non-sexist language. We want to discourage language that emphasizes the superiority of one sex over the other, since this promotes discrimination.

There are several suggestions on how to develop non-sexist writing. This includes using the term "human" instead of "man," using "person" in place of "-man" (ex. chairman -> chairperson), and using a generic pronoun instead of using "he" for unspecified genders. Sometimes, it's difficult to follow these "rules" due to convention. Here…… [read more]

Figures and Tropes Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (588 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1


Precis Tropes

Monikers like "The King" for Elvis rely on the use of figurative language. Figurative language is used under the assumption that no one would mistake the image for reality. Figures of speech, known as tropes, are usually described as being opposed to common, "literal" or "ordinary language. Thus, figures of speech are portrayed as deviant uses of language even though figures of speech pervade human communication. Some philosophers like Nietzsche suggest that all language is at its essence figurative and that truth cannot be conveyed without the use of figures of speech. Human beings may not be able to interpret or communicate about the world without figurative language. In fact, human perception is mediated by the figures of speech commonly used to describe physical reality.

Figurative language includes tools like hyperbole, metaphor, simile, metonymy, and anthropomorphism. Metaphors are figurative relationships between one thing and another. Similes announce their being figurative through the use of keywords "like" or "as." Metonymy is a figure of association in which one thing is discussed in terms of its relationship to another. Anthropomorphism refers to the figurative attribution of human traits to non-human entities. Hyperbole is figurative exaggeration, including those that apply kingly or godly monikers to rock-and-roll stars. More obscure types of figurative language abound in poetry. For example, paronomasia refers to the use of homophones to evoke each word's nuances or the subtle relationships between them. Poetry like that work of Emily Dickenson reveals the power of figurative language.

Literary studies depends on a fundamental understanding of figurative language. Literary criticism, for example, analyzes the effectiveness and impact of figurative language on a narrative. Figurative language is not simply decorative; it is integral to the telling of a story, integral to conveying the truth. The…… [read more]

Cochlear Implants Can Help Children With Hearing Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (556 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


cochlear implants can help children with hearing impairments acquire spoken language skills much more efficiently than with the use of hearing aids alone. Especially in families without any other deaf members, children with hearing impairments start school at a significant disadvantage vs. their peers. The current study examined the effects of early implantation with measured results at 3.5 to 4.5 years of age.

Early implantation may assist neuron development in the auditory system, which proceeds through a period of relative plasticity during the toddler years. Cochlear implants may even offer the possibility of restoring stunted auditory system development. Prior research shows that children under the age of five who receive cochlear implants develop at almost the same rate as their typically developing counterparts and faster than same-age children who only use hearing aids. Moreover, research shows that the younger the age of implant the higher the rate of language development.

The current study focuses on spoken language development. Previous research included overall language acquisition including signing. Some preliminary studies indicate that implants at later ages (up to six years old) result in greater lags in language development. Thus, early implantation may mitigate developmental disabilities in children with hearing loss.

Early implantation (under three years of age) also results in longer use of the implants. The current research also examined the role of pre-implant hearing aid usage on language development. The authors hypothesized that children who were implanted at an earlier age would score better on language assessment tests than children implanted later, regardless of the total duration of implant use. Moreover, the authors predicted that children who received their implants at younger ages would be prepared for age-appropriate…… [read more]

Foundations Medical Terms Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (513 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 2


¶ … root, suffix and prefix sections of the six following words what the words mean. Be sure to note prefixes and other clues for any changes:




Cardiac Arrest

Intraosseous Infusion


As Greek was the language spoken at Universities until the 1900s, many of our scientific and medical terms come from that language. Root words are those basic parts of the body, such as the five major "cavities" of the body which hold internal organs: The cranial cavity (in the head), the Dorsal cavity (the back and head), the Vertebral cavity, the Ventral cavity or trunk of the body, which includes the Thoracic cavity (or chest) and the Abdominopelvic cavity, which is in the lower half of the trunk of the body and involves the pelvis. The suffix is the latter part of a combined word (such as "itis") and the prefix (such as "non") is attached to the beginning of the word (Kluwer, p. 32).

Dermatitis: The Greek word Dermatos means "skin," so Dermatitis is n inflammation of the skin as anything ending with itis means it is inflamed. Another example: colitis is a disease affecting the colon.

2. Hemothorax: A collection of blood in the thorax (interstitial and air spaces of the lungs). "Thorax" is the Greek word for "chest." "Hemo" is the Greek word for "blood" so anything beginning with "Hemo" means it has to do with blood. Given this reasoning, if we look at the word Pneuma, P and n together means this is a word of Greek…… [read more]

Chinua Achebe and Ngugi Wa Thiong'o Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,723 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 8


African Novels

When authors are relating the African experience, must they write the original book in the native language? Does this add to the experience? Better yet, does writing it in English lose its cultural identity? These questions have led to an ongoing debate by many authors, including Kenyon author Ngugi Wa Thiongo'o and his Nigerian contemporary Chinua Achebe. Ngugi… [read more]

Bilingual/Bilingue Research Paper Bilingual/Bilingue by Rhina Espaillat Essay

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Bilingual/Bilingue by Rhina Espaillat is a depiction of a girl
growing up in a Spanish speaking household in the United States. Through
excellent language choices and the successful use of literary devices,
Espaillat captures the difficulties of living in an English speaking
country but coming from a Spanish speaking home. The story, which relates
to the author's… [read more]

Reciprocal Causation: 5 (the Writer's Overall Description Term Paper

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¶ … Reciprocal Causation: 5 (the writer's overall description of reciprocal causation is clear, succinct, and thorough. The role of environment, the role of modeling, and especially the role of self-efficacy are all outlined well. One point is deducted for the poor grammar used throughout the paper.)

Differentiating from Behaviorism: 2 (the author supplies an excellent explanation of the differences in the two theories, in spite of bad grammar.)

Using Student as...to elaborate on reciprocal causation: 4 (the example of student as is succinct but clear. The author shows how the teacher could intervene and improve student outcome by intervening. However, the author could have done a better job explaining how the three aspects of the cycle related to student as. For example, demonstrating exactly which stages a teacher should intervene would make this aspect of the paper better.)

Spelling, Grammar, and Clarity of Writing: 3 (the writing is so clear, it makes up for the poor grammar in this paper)

Feedback: The grammar in this paper is deplorable, littered with sentences like: "This 'reciprocal causation' shows the relevance from all issues, and thus impacting each other with mutual respect." However, it is possible to look past the bad grammar and see that ironically the paper itself is well-written. The author explains both behaviorism and social cognition, comparing and contrasting the two theories. One of the strongest aspects of the paper is the author's explanation of self-efficacy using the example of student as. Therefore, it is evident that the writer has a grasp of the subject matter and also knows how to communicate effectively. The author simply needs assistance with the English language. Looking past the…… [read more]

Sociology Ebonics Came to Public Attention Term Paper

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Ebonics came to public attention in 1996 when the Oakland CA school district allowed teachers to use this form of street slang in the classroom as a tool to reach students. This form of language is usually used by African-Americans as a street dialect. In fact, people who have studied it believe it evolved from black African slave language and Irish slang, among other influences (Stix, 2002, p. 45). Many educators and experts have supported the use of Ebonics in the classroom, but at least one study shows that "children taught using Ebonics readers did worse than their peers who were taught with standard English readers" (Stix, 2002, p. 45). Therefore, educating black children in the language of the streets does not seem to prepare them academically or personally for the challenges they will face as they attempt to gain more education. It may not prepare them for expressing themselves in business and professional situations as well.

One word often used in Eubonics is "untogether," which means the person…… [read more]

Phonological and Conceptual Activation in Speech Comprehension Term Paper

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Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … Phonological and conceptual activation in speech comprehension

This article focuses on the process of understanding as it relates to separate lexical representations of sound and meaning. The phonological and conceptual representations in language have been separated, as comprehension are connected to these different concepts separately. In explaining these concepts, the article distinguishes between word representation in the mental lexicon and the lexical candidates for recognizing utterances.

When the hearer is the presented with running speech with few clear cues to word boundaries, a mechanism is needed to determine the best sequence in terms of the input. In this way the correct utterance is determined by competition. The activation concept is addressed via a number of divisions in the text. Firstly, activation testing involves the cross-modal priming task. Lexical activation is then determined by presenting the hearer with an aural phonetic prime word, and following with a visual target word, after which the relationship between the two is determined. In the context of sentences however, priming is neither obvious nor as reliable as in the simple word pairs of associative priming. The effect of this phenomenon upon sound and meaning comprehension is examined by a number of experiments discussed in the document. The conclusion is that a single level of representation is not enough to explicate spoken language comprehension. Processing occurs at a number of different levels of representation.

Article 2: The activation of offset-embedded words: Evidence from eye-tracking and identity priming.

The article addresses the problem of understanding the flow of speech in the face of embedded words often occurring in polysyllabic English words. The phenomenon of competition is once again addressed in its capacity to activate the accurate meaning associations of these words. As the utterance becomes increasingly clear, the possible meanings of polysyllabic words gradually out compete each other for dominance. The document cites several studies done to determine the nature of the connection between competition and comprehension of polysyllabic words and embedded monosyllabic words. The goal is identified as investigating the activation of offset-embedded words and the role of find-grained acoustic detail in the comprehension process. The central problem addressed by the study is the fact that studies relating to offset-embedded words have been contradictory in their results. The authors identify the solution to the problem as one of generalization. The suggestion is that offset-embedded words are indeed activated, but the question should rather focus on which specific conditions and factors are required for this to occur. While the embedded word's lexical connotation can therefore be activated in competition with the longer word, but this does not necessarily occur.

Article 3: The role of prosodic boundaries in the resolution of lexical embedding in speech comprehension.

The problem addressed by this article focuses on onset-embedded words and the way in which they present problems in word recognition. The research presented in the document attempts to reconcile embedding and instrumentality in spoken-word recognition. The premise is that spoken words are recognized incrementally as their associated sounds become… [read more]

Tagging and Morphological Disambiguation in Turkish Text Term Paper

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Tagging and Morphological Disambiguation

Kemal Oflazer and ?lker Kuruz describe the results of a text tagging project in their report "Tagging and Morphological Disambiguation of Turkish Text." The authors developed the Turkish text tagger for use within the PC-KIMMO environment and claim that the tagging process applies equally to other agglutinative languages like Finnish. Tagging text facilitates the parsing process, enabling linguists to create extensive databases of morphemes in the overall analysis of natural languages. Linguists will tag words for pertinent information such as part of speech, denoting their usage as well as their lexical form. Because Turkish and other agglutinative languages naturally carry with them ambiguous morphologies, a specialized tagging system can help linguistic analysts minimize error rates. The types of ambiguities in agglutinative languages differ from those in inflective languages. On the one hand, morphotactical rules limit the potential parts of speech of a given lexical form. On the other hand, the same lexical form can have various surface or contextual meanings. If part of the goal of the tagging project is also to include idiomatic constructs, then ambiguities become even harder to resolve.

Prior research indicated that rule-based and statistic-based tagging systems do not completely or reliably disambiguate agglutinative text. Rule-based tagging relies on construction rules to rule out potential errors, whereas statistical-based tagging relies on actual context. In the current study, a rule-based system was used to disambiguate the text. However, the researchers included a broad set of parameters and variables to promote accuracy. For the current study, researchers used 250 constraints, both general and specific, to test the strength of their tagger on the Turkish language. Using constraints is the key difference between Oflazer and Kuruz's tagger and previous efforts. Results showed that the tagger does help resolve morphological ambiguities, up to…… [read more]

Etymology of the Word Scum Term Paper

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Etymology of the Word Scum

The word scum, pronounced as http://bartleby.com/images/pronunciation/ubreve.gif m could be use in many forms. As a noun, it could refer to a layer of dirt or froth on the surface of a liquid or, informally, a worthless or contemptible person or group of people. It could also be used as a verb in the form of scummed or scumming that means to cover or become covered with a layer of scum. Scummy, pronounced as / 'sk&-mE/, is also an adjective derivative of the word scum. It could be further qualified to scummier and scummiest. (http://www.askoxford.com/concise_oed/scum?view=uk) Scum could also be used as a verb in the form of scummed, scumming or scums or as an intransitive verb that means to become covered with scum. (Houghton Mifflin Company, 2000)

The etymology of the word scum started in 1326, when it was implied in scummer "shallow ladle for removing scum." It came from the Middle Dutch schume, meaning foam or froth, from P.Gmc. skuma-, cf. Old Norse skum, Old High German scum, and German Schaum meaning foam or froth.

Scum may also come from Indo-European base (s)keu that means to cover or conceal. The implication of the word evolved from "thin layer atop liquid" to "film of dirt" and eventually simply "dirt" in 1586 meaning the "lowest class of humanity." The word was also used as scum of the Earth in the year 1712.

Scum was then adopted in Romanic, cf. Old French escume, to Modern French ecume, Spanish escuma, and to Italian schiuma. It was used as an adjective in the form of scummy during the year 1577. The definition of "filthy, disreputable" was given during the year 1932. Scum was eventually transformed into its slang term scumbag, implying condom, during the year 1967. (D. Harper, 2001)

The Indo-European root of the word scum, which is (s)keu-, holds the meaning "to cover or conceal." Its zero-grade form is (s)ku-, variant of http://bartleby.com/images/pronunciation/schwa.gif

-, zero-grade form of http://bartleby.com/images/pronunciation/schwa.gif

- and later on contracted to http://bartleby.com/images/pronunciation/umacr.gif

-. The derivatives of these include the words sku, meerschaum, scum, obscure, recoil, and hoard. There are also suffixed basic forms of the mentioned derivatives. Sky came from Old Norse http://bartleby.com/images/pronunciation/ymacr.gif meaning cloud. Skewbald came from the Scandinavian source which is also similar to the Old Norse cloud or http://bartleby.com/images/pronunciation/ymacr.gif

The zero-grade form http://bartleby.com/images/pronunciation/umacr.gif

- was suffixed to form http://bartleby.com/images/pronunciation/umacr.gif

-mo-. Its derivatives are skim, from the Old French excume or scum, meerschaum, from the Old High German http://bartleby.com/images/pronunciation/umacr.gif m, also implying scum, and scum, from Middle Dutch http://bartleby.com/images/pronunciation/umacr.gif m. All of the three mentioned derivatives come from Germanic http://bartleby.com/images/pronunciation/umacr.gif maz meaning foam or scum, implied in "that which covers the water." The form http://bartleby.com/images/pronunciation/umacr.gif

- was also suffixed to http://bartleby.com/images/pronunciation/umacr.gif

-ro-. Its derivatives are obscure and chiaroscuro from the Latin http://bartleby.com/images/pronunciation/umacr.gif rus meaning "covered or dark." The prefix ob- in Latin means "away from."

Another zero-grade form of (s)keu- is http://bartleby.com/images/pronunciation/ubrevema.gif

-. It is suffixed to form http://bartleby.com/images/pronunciation/umacr.gif

-ti that means "hide" from… [read more]

Morphology Derivational Term Paper

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Bibliography Sources: 1+


Morphology and Vocabulary Acquisition

Vocabulary empowers a person when it comes to expressing oneself. The vast and better the vocabulary the more expressive and articulate the person will be, This is the reason why vocabulary acquisition is so important for language learners that different methods are adopted to facilitate and expedite vocabulary learning. Morphology is also one way of facilitating this process. Understanding morphemes and developing morphological skills, the ability to recognize and use morphemes, to comprehend words and the relationships between words (and sentences and paragraphs) are no doubt important for learner as also shown by the researches. However, while analyzing a particular method different aspects like human cognitive, social, and behavioral aspects should be considered. Drawing conclusion just on the basis of cognitive aspect of learning would not validate the results. Most of the researches related to the importance and role of morphology have had their focus on cognitive aspects and other important social aspects were ignored. "Researchers have only begun to unweave a few strands of the complex interplay of constitutional and social environmental factors in accounting for the development of language in children"(Dixon & Smith, 2000).

The age differences also play a very important role in language learning. Adults have a different way of learning than children. Similarly special children may have different needs than normal children. While children's awareness and use of function words may develop early, their ability to process these types of words in the rapid automatic way manifested by adults does not develop until much later. So, use of morphology might be appropriate for a certain age group that uses simple words and sentences than another group the use complex and less frequent words with varying grammatical uses. Sometimes words may be assisting while they also may confuse. For example, the 'ea' in 'heal' and 'health', though pronounced differently, preserves the morpheme 'heal' in both words and so allows the…… [read more]

Bilingual Education Is a Method of Teaching Term Paper

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Bilingual Education is a method of teaching that employs more than one language and is designed for students whose native language is not English. There are two different models of Bilingual Education; one uses both languages for instruction, and the other uses mostly English, but will fall back on the students' native language to help clarify points to help them understand the concepts clearly. This kind of teaching model is of particular concern in the southwestern states such as California, Arizona, Texas, and New Mexico because of the larger population of Spanish immigrants.

The main argument against Bilingual Education is that it has the potential to keep non-native speakers from developing their skills in English quickly enough. Consequently, if the non-native speaker is delayed in developing their English language skills then they will continue to fall behind in their education because they will not have the skills to pursue all the educational avenues that are open to native-speakers. Basically, since the majority of these children live and play in environments that speak…… [read more]

Multiculturalism and Multilingualism in Classrooms Term Paper

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Second language offerings expanded beyond the European standards: French and Spanish. Furthermore, in some areas with large non-English speaking communities, core curriculum classes were offered in native languages. Finally, schools began to become more culturally sensitive on the issues of religion, striving to balance one student's right to worship with another student's right not to worship.

Given the positive move towards multiculturalism, one would anticipate a continued expansion of multiculturalism and multilingualism in the classroom. However, American society appears to be rejecting the broader notions of multiculturalism. There are several reasons for this phenomenon. The first reason is that the terror attacks of 9-11 have made many people wary of cultures, languages, and religions that they do not understand. However, a more important reason is that multiculturalism has been extremely successful and Americans are guaranteed equal treatment. It simply is not possible for a school to study all of the world's languages and cultures. As pressure increases for schools to expand those programs, there will be an instinctive reining in of the programs, in order to avoid any claims of discrimination or…… [read more]

Anzaldua Gloria Essay

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English has become a "neutral language" for people whose first language is something other than English (80). As Anzaldua shows, however, immigrants must also retain their native languages by speaking them with friends and family. Otherwise, we run the risk of obliterating our entire culture. We should not be too general when referring to our backgrounds, either. To simply refer to ourselves as "Spanish" is, as Anzaldua states, "copping out" (84).

Language is one of the ways that subcultures such as Chicano culture create internal cohesion. For example, Anzaldua notes that Chicano Spanish is a "living language" because it is constantly changing (77). Languages are sometimes thought of as static and unchanging but languages do significantly change over time because of patterns of migration and the formation of sub-cultures like Chicanos in America. Living languages are exciting, fascinating expressions of cultural identity especially when a small group of people has to maintain their identity in spite of living within a dominant culture. People who speak "languages of rebellion" like Tex-Mex are powerful people because they are multilingual. They have broken down the barriers between languages by being able to interchange words and create new phrases. They are not restricted to using only formal English or formal Spanish to get their points across. Anzaldua believes that multilingual people should purposely and actively create "new" languages as bold assertions of who they are.

Language is also a meaningful part of personal identity. Anzaldua states, "there is not one Chicano language just as there is no one Chicano experience" (80). Individual differences in both language and identity show how the two are intimately linked. One's gender also impacts language and vice-versa. For example, in Spanish and other Romance languages in which nouns are assigned a gender, some derogatory terms refer to females but not males. "Language is a male discourse," according to Anzaldua. This causes women and men to think and feel certain ways about their gender and personal identities.

Anzaldua's essay "How to Tame a Wild Tongue" demonstrates the importance of becoming aware of how language shapes identity; actively changing and implementing language helps change or improve one's sense of self. Because language is such an integral part of being human, it is only logical that language helps form one's cultural identity. In fact, being proud of one's heritage and language can have a positive impact on society at large. As Anzaldua shows, the book I Am Joaquin and other pieces of Chicano literature made a huge impact on the identities of millions of people. It helped Chicanos become proud of their identities and more conscious of…… [read more]

Anzaldua Like Our Genes Essay

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Discovering Chicano literature helped the author feel less isolated and alienated.

In fact, the formation of Chicano culture happened largely through the use of language. "Something momentous happened to the Chicano soul -- we became aware of our reality and acquired a name and a language (Chicano Spanish) that reflected that reality" (85). Furthermore, living within a dominant Anglo culture, Anzaldua and others like her found it necessary to use language as a tool, even a weapon of self-assertion. The author also notes that music, movies, and food serve similar purposes of reminding people of their ethnic and cultural heritages. Language is therefore one of the most important parts of the formation of personal and group identity. Anzaldua talks about how Chicano Spanish "sprang out of the Chicanos' need to identify ourselves as a distinct people," (77).

However, just as language unites a group of people as it did for the Chicanos, language also acts as a barrier between people and between cultures. Even when people of different cultures speak the same language, regional dialects and different accents serve to separate groups and individuals from one another. For example, most Spanish-speakers can identify a person's home country or even home town based on their accent or dialect, just as English speakers can tell the difference between someone from New York and someone from London. Similarly, with Spanish, people make judgments based on where someone is from. As Anzaldua noticed, Latinos often think of Chicanos in a derogatory manner because of their language. People from certain geographical regions look down on Mexicans and Central Americans in general because they felt heir language and therefore their culture is inferior.

Anzaldua presents a powerful case for becoming proud of one's heritage in spite of obstacles like shame or prejudice. "Until I can accept as legitimate Chicano Texas Spanish, Tex-Mex, and all the other languages I speak, I cannot accept the legitimacy of myself" (81). Therefore, self-acceptance and group identity come largely through the proud use of language. Using the example of the Chicanos, the author proves that language can be one of the forces linking people together to convey a sense of pride. Therefore, language is a collective experience, even when the language is as specific and localized as Tex-Mex. In fact, the smaller the group, the more important it is to reinforce identity. For example, when I meet someone from my home country, I become excited because finally I can speak naturally without being inhibited or without trying to use words and phrases that are from proper Spanish or proper English.

Although I identify differently than Anzaldua does, I can also attest to the power of rebellious languages and wild tongues. For me, Spanish and English are interchangeable as they are to Anzaldua. I may not speak the type of Tex-Mex that the author refers to in her article, but I do know that while living in the United States I have created and adapted new languages that combine English and Spanish.… [read more]

Dogberry in "Much Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (609 words)
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When he speaks to Leonato, a noble, about men seen lurking around Leonato's house, he loses all ability to speak plainly. Leonato complains, saying "Neighbours, you are tedious." Dogberry responds that "... If I were as tedious as a king, I could find in my heart to bestow it all of your worship." Dogberry really doesn't grasp that Leonato does not value Dogberry's obsequious and absurdly flowerly language. Dogberry seems to think it is appropriate. With this language, the character of Dogberry allows Shakespeare to poke fun at language that is more ornate than useful or even interesting to listen to.

Leonato responds sarcastically: "All thy tediousness on me! ha?"

Dogberry misses the sarcasm and prattles on: "Yea, an't were a thousand pound more than 'tis ...."

Exasperated, Leonato finally says, "I would fain know what you have to say!" All that talk, and Dogberry has yet to come close to making his point.

Because of Shakespeare's skill with words the viewer has to assume that Dogberry's ridiculous dialogue serves a purpose, and the purpose is to demonstrate that manners taken too far become absurd, a major point of the play and emphasized by Dogberry's appearance in it.

Dogberry also provides humor in serious moments, such as when the treachery against Hero is revealed. As Dogberry is about to interrogate a prisoner, he says, "Is our whole dissembly appeared?" instead of assembly. At important times, Dogberry complicates his language so much that it makes no sense, even asking several times that people record him as "an ass."

Throughout the play, other characters take the style of expansive and elaborate language to the breaking point, but Dogberry's absurd use of language punches the lesson home for the viewer or reader of the…… [read more]

English Poetry Term Paper

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¶ … English poetry, besides its almost foreign appearance, differs from modern forms of the language in its rhythm, tone, and style. Poems from the era of Middle English, such as "The Cuckoo Song," "Western Wind," "I Am of Ireland," and "Sunset on Calvary" are remarkably short; the longest of the four has only thirteen lines. Individual lines are terse too, with no more than five or six words per line. Therefore, these four samples of Middle English poetry denote an almost nursery-rhyme like poetic form.

Similarly, the tone of these poems is light and lilting, like the language itself. Each poem shimmers with an innocent, playful atmosphere. For example, "The Cuckoo Song" starts, "Sumer is ycomen in, / Loude sing cuckou!" The four-line ditty "Western Wind" is likewise lighthearted: "Western wind, when will thou blow / The small rain down can rain? / Christ, if my love were in my arms / And I in my bed again!" Both "The Cuckoo Song" and "Western Wind" contain exclamation points to underscore the excited, playful…… [read more]

Cultural Effects Term Paper

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The Cultural Effects of Translations upon Owen in Brian Friel's play "Translations"

The notion of change, both the change of the Irish nation through colonizing British politics and the character changes of the central protagonist Owen, of Brian Friel's play "Translations" is continually debated throughout the play. How should the Irish country town respond to change, and how can… [read more]

Added to Each Program Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (385 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


2. Multi-line Comments (/* ... */)


Good for any comment that will cover more than one line, as when you want to go into some detail about what's happening in the code or when you need to embed legal notices in the code. It requires both opening and closing delimiters.


You can put as many lines of discussion or as many pages of boilerplate as you like between this two tags.

You can nest single-line comments inside of the multi-line comments and the compiler will have no trouble with it at all.

Can act as if it were a single line statement, even though it can contain more than one statement.


Cannot nest multi-line types of comments of any sort because that will generate a compiler error.

Multi-line comments take up a fair amount of space. This means that they increase the effective line length.

If the programmer forgot the closing delimiter, it might cause either a run-time or syntax error.


"The Sofia Open Content Initiative - Java Programming." Sofia Open Content Initiative. 2004.

Sofia Open Content Initiative.…… [read more]

Slang and Grammar Term Paper

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Slang and Grammar

Slang is the use of words in a non-standard way of a particular social group and sometimes the creation of new words or importation of words from another language (Slang pp). The use of slang is a way to recognize members of a group and to distinguish that group from the rest of society (Slang pp).

Slang adds new words and meanings to a language and also produces new grammatical relationships among words (Grammar pp).

Language is the systematic communication by vocal symbols that is a universal characteristic of the human species, and although nothing is known of its origin, scientists have identified a gene that contributes to the ability to use language (Language pp). Language is a cultural system and thus, individual language my classify objects and ideas in different fashion, such as the sex or age of the speaker may determine the use of grammatical forms or the avoidance of taboo words (Language pp). Also, terms of address may vary depending on the age, sex and status of the speaker and audience (Language pp). Each person belongs to a speech community, a group of people who speak the same language, and according to estimates, there are between 3,000 and 6,500 speech communities in existence (Language pp).

Grammar is the description of the structure of language, consisting of the sounds and their meaningful combinations of sounds into words, called morphemes, that are arranged into phrases and sentences, called syntax (Grammar pp). Semantics is the study of the relationship between words and meanings and has three basic concerns: "the relations of words to the objects denoted by them, the relations of words to the interpreters of them, and, in symbolic logic, the formal relations of signs to one another" (Semantics pp).

The main distinction of slang is the presence of new words and new uses of old words (Grammar pp). Some new words and some old words with new meanings do not behave like any of the parts of speech concerning ordinary grammar (Grammar pp).

The word "like" presents the most complex picture regarding slang grammar because it is the one with the most slang uses (Grammar pp). Originally from the 1950's era of the beatniks, its use declined and then resurfaced with new life by the "valley girls" and has continued to flourish (Grammar pp). Its most common use today is as a "filler," a word added to a sentence without affecting its meaning, such as "she like slapped me," or "it's like around the corner," or "it's like huge" (Grammar pp).

Grammatically, the word "like" modifies a verb in a noun, an adjective, the whole sentence and a prepositional phrase; and is also an adverb in an adjective, a secondary modifier, a sentence modifier, and a phrase modifier (Grammar pp).

Like" is an intensifier and functions as a secondary modifier much the same way as "very," such as, "I was like stoked," yet in "It was like the bomb," it also intensifies but does so… [read more]

Communication Practice in a Text: Conversation Term Paper

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¶ … Communication Practice in a Text: Conversation of Two Female Students

Communication practices within two-person conversations vary depending on (1) context; (2) relationship(s) of speakers; (3) medium (e.g., face-to-face; telephone talk; telephone text messaging; e-mail, etc.); (4) implied knowledge or understanding between speakers, and (5) subject(s) discussed. According to Dijk (1995) distinct social groupings inevitably impact content and context of human discourse: "norms or values, position, resources, attitudes... social representation shared by members of a group... "(qtd. In Bee, 2001, p. 2).

According to Foucault (1970a; 1970b; 1972; 1980) the three criteria that should be used to analyse human discourse are: (1) language; (2) power; (3) context; and (4) relationship. Building on Foucault's earlier theories of human discourse, Fairclough (1993) suggested three distinct levels of human discourse, each of which influences meaning in its own way. These are: (1) social identities; (2) social relations; and (3) systems of knowledge or belief affecting language content and context.

Within the conversational text to be examined, the conversation between two female students might have taken place either (1) face-to-face, tape-recorded, then transcribed into written text (spelling, grammatical, and punctuation errors and all); (2) by telephone, then similarly recorded and transcribed; (3) as written e-mail dialogue; or (4) as written telephone text messaging dialogue. In my opinion, based on the way the text is written (e.g., with verbal responses included, like "mm," and indications of mumbling on one end, the conversation is a written transcription of an originally verbal conversation between two female students making social plans. I will discuss communication practices in the text, including (1) implied meanings and understandings, (2) verbal expression and inflected speech, which, in conversational text, replaces capitalization and punctuation (but can cause problems with clarity when transcribed into writing); and (3) the peer relationship between the speakers.

First, the conversation is one between two college-age friends who share a circle of friends. "A" initiates the conversation with a question about Prague, implying that that is the reason she has begun the conversation with "S." In the first sentence, a says: "everyone wants to go to Prague for new year (3)do you think it would be good to go to Prague." This sentence implies, first, that'd" knows who "everyone" is; and that'd" knows what is meant by "Prague" (Prague is the name of the capital city of Czechoslovakia, but could also be the name of a club). Second, "A" is asking a question at the end of the sentence: "do you think it would be good to go to Prague." That would be apparent by "A's tone of voice in the actual conversation, but when transcribed into writing, the reader must imagine that inflected tone at the end of "A's sentence. Third, content and tone imply conversation between peers, rather than non-equals (e.g., boss and employee; teacher and student).

The middle of the conversation maintains those same patterns. Now, however, "A" tries harder (although without saying so) to convince "S" to come to Prague for New Year's: ("i… [read more]

Nobel Prize Lecture by Author Term Paper

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It won her a Nobel Prize, but more than that, it is a medium that she can use to reach large amounts of people with a message she believes is important, even vital to the world. She wants people to use language for good, and not bad, and that is the ultimate message of her lecture. Finally, the old woman learns -- through language -- that she can trust the young people, and she recognizes they have changed their opinion after listening to her for a while. They have made a difference, and when they leave her home, they will continue to make a difference with language.

Morrison's lecture is highly political, because she decries language used to start wars and in bureaucracy and crime. She calls it the "looting of language," and worries that language will suffer and even die because of it. Beautiful, descriptive language is one of the most important gifts the people have, and to lose it would be a tragedy. Morrison sees language evolving into something less than art, and she is frightened by this "looting" and that it will continue. It seems that if people like Morrison continue to manipulate the language so effectively, that language, pure and beautiful language, will always exist, because the words of Morrison and other writers like her will live on long after they themselves are gone. Morrison's lecture is eloquent and thought provoking, and it is not easy to forget it after the reading is done. It is an important look at how the world communicates, and what those communications really mean, and how much power they have.

In conclusion, Morrison's lecture is much more than a look at language and what it can convey, it is a look at the power of language, and who wields that power. Some people use language effectively, and some people do not. If language is to live on, prosper, and grow, then more people like Morrison need to use it and develop it.


Morrison, Toni. "Nobel Lecture." NobelPrize.org. 1993. 11 Dec. 2004.

< http://nobelprize.org/literature/laureates/1993/morrison-lecture.html >… [read more]

Jean Reynolds, "A New Speech Term Paper

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And by creating Eliza Dolittle's transformation and her dual persona, as well as overseeing Henry Higgins struggle to transform the cockney-accented rather crass flower girl into a mellifluous and well-dressed duchess through the media of performance and costume, Shaw was able to engage in a reinvention of himself as a popular author, one who was entertaining as well as educational, a sensational writer as well as a socialist author of wordy, sprawling plays.

And thus long before Derrida penned his deconstruction, Shaw through the medium of drama deployed Karl Marx's ideas about language in performance art in a radical fashion through populist art. In "Pygmalion," Shaw questioned through satire the binary oppositions of class and language, and as Derrida was later to calls them, the terms that uniquely characterize Western thought of essence vs. appearance, speech vs. writing, authenticity vs. performance. Change Eliza's way of speaking, change Eliza -- for one changes the way people relate to the girl, and also the way the girl moves through the world in a linguistic as well as a physical and social way.

There is no essence that is Eliza, and not simply because she is a character in a play. The play itself is a play of a play, the social play of the British class structure of the drawing room, and the fancy dress ball. The participants are so enmeshed in their world that they cannot see they are performing a role, mouthing lines and cliches that Eliza can eventually, with skill and practice learn to mimic. And eventually, by mimicking the superior manners and language of the elite, Eliza herself can acquire the esteem and sustaining psychological concepts that give her a stronger sense of self and allow her to dominate her creator Higgins.… [read more]

Seminar in Conflict Resolution Term Paper

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¶ … Conflict Resolution and their Application

The Manchester school of thought in conflict resolution emphasizes four basic premises of conflict resolution. These four premises are absolutely key in understanding techniques and situations in which conflict resolution skills and theories can and should be used.

The first premise lies in social problems. The students of the Manchester school studied conflict resolution patterns in British Central Africa. The problems in the area resulted from colonialism, and the social problems premise is grounded in the patterns of recovering from and progressing from colonialism: post-colonialism, if you will.

The theory behind the social problems premise is that conflict maintains the stability of a system through establishment and re-establishment of cross-cutting ties among social actors. These cross-cutting ties established a situation in which people formed a variety of allegiances with others that often transcended the different cleavages of the system.

In other words, conflict makes strange bedfellows, and conflict resolution must take that as a given in order to succeed. More precisely, conflict maintains the repetitive creation and destruction of ties ultimately resulting in a situation of social cohesion.

This must be applied to any further study of conflict resolution in that we must understand that conflicts are anything but static; rather, they change with the alliances that people make, and people who are on one side of a conflict one day, may be on entirely the other side a few days later.

The second premise is processes of articulation. This means, who is doing the talking in the conflict? As in, the resolution of the conflict depends not only on viewpoints and migration of viewpoints, but of the point of articulation. How much power does the person have who is attempting to resolve the conflict? As in, at what level…… [read more]

Politeness and Females Gender Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,447 words)
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" (Holmes, 1995:6)

Peter Trudgill (1972) doesn't support the subordinate theory and maintains that women are more polite because they are more status conscious. A polite person is seen as belonging to higher social status than someone impolite and for this reason women refer using standard form of speech. In this regard women still follow the old Victorian rules of… [read more]

Exemplify the Importance of Louis Essay

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Describe the four fundamental principles of Gestalt Theory and give examples of their impact on visual images

The sum of the 'whole' of Gestalt Theory, no pun intended, is that the sum of the whole of a composition is greater or may have a different effect than that composition's specific parts. Visually speaking, this relates to the perception of a composition as a whole rather than a series of images, colors, brush strokes, or lines. While each of the individual parts of a picture or a photograph has meaning on its own, when all of the elements of the piece are taken together by the eye and mind as one, the meaning of that piece must and will change. The perception of the gazer of the piece is thus based on the individual's understanding of all the bits and pieces working in unison.

The four principles of Gestalt Theory relating to visual composure are that proximity, similarity, orientation, and closure. The principle of proximity (nearness, or similarity of location) means that the eye is able to focus more closely on smaller shapes if they are near rather than far. If far or close together, small shapes become related as a group. This can be seen in pointillism, where tiny pinpoints of color blend together to create different colors and images than they would if viewed singularly or far from one another, and also simply how by relating two images together, such as a saint and a sinner in a Medieval triptych, the two figures take on a different meaning.

Similarity can simply mean that objects in a visual composition can have a similar form pattern, as well as size, color, and texture. But it also underlines that if objects are alike in one of several ways, the eye will have less difficulty relating them to one another, whether they lie together or at a distance. In Monet's "Water lilies," one does not perceive each lily distinctly, the fact that numerous lilies of similar design are in the picture make it easier to see them as proximate and related, even if the lilies may have slightly different shapes, they still belong to the same form pattern.

Orientation relates to the fact that if points, lines, or shapes fall along a definite path and share the same visual elements that contribute to a sensation, or in film, have a similar sense of kinetic cohesion in their energy and speed, the eye will see or orient them all as moving together. In most basic terms, this orientation can be seen in a child's flip book, whose similar yet slightly different images along the same visual path can be paged through slowly or quickly to give a sense of motion. It can also be seen in highly kinesthetic paintings or photographs that create a sense of motion if they are, for instance, elongated like an El Greco or in trick fun house photography in a way that all the lines are aimed in the… [read more]

History of Egyptian and Mayan Term Paper

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www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5001517610" (Gould) The Spanish Conquerors destroyed most of the Mayan books leaving only four codices intact. The four remaining codices are: the Dresden Codex; the Madrid Codex; the Paris Codex and the Grolier Codex.

Similarly the decline of Egyptian writing is also linked to historical and political developments. Early Egyptian writing was absorbed into Coptic and replaced by Arabic due to complex sociological and cultural changes and movements in the region. After Ramses II, the power of the Egyptian Empire went into decline. The character of the country, as well as its cultural context, was changed due to Invaders such as the Assyrians and Persians. Later, Greek and Roman armies marched into the rich Nile Valley. All of these influences resulted in the decline of Egyptian writing.


Why do we concern ourselves with these ancient languages and forms of writing? The answer lies in the fact that the best understanding of the ancient civilization comes from their written sources. Writing represents invaluable records that have importance not only for that specific time and place. Writing "arose out of the need to store information and transmit information outside of human memory and over time and over space." (Wilford, J.N.)

The Egyptian and Mesoamerican cultures are part of our universal heritage and origins. Understanding ourselves in the contemporary world requires that we also understand our past history. There are many clues and revelations about the development of human civilization that lies hidden within the scripts as well as many mysteries that still need to be deciphered. Both these cultures achieved amazing technical, intellectual and scientific feats that still astound scholars and scientists today.


Ancient Egyptian Writing. May 18, 2004. http://www.dragonstrike.com/egypt/write.htm

The Ancient Maya.

Digital Meesh. May 18, 2004. http://www.digitalmeesh.com/maya/history.htm

Egyptian writing dating to 3300 B.C. discovered. The Japan Times, December 17, 1998. Accessed: May 20, 2004. http://www.trussel.com/prehist/news95.htm

Gelb, I.J. A Study of Writing: The Foundations of Grammatology. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1952.

Gould, Stephen Jay. "Unusual Unity." Natural History Apr. 1997: 20+. Questia. 21 May 2004 http://www.questia.com/.

Hardman, Chris. "Writing at the Start." Americas (English Edition) Sept.-Oct. 2003: 5. Questia. 21 May 2004 http://www.questia.com/.

Mysteries of Egypt.

Civilization. Ca, May 20, 2004. http://www.civilization.ca/civil/egypt/egcw01e.html.

Mattessich, Richard. "The oldest writings, and inventory tags of Egypt. (Interfaces)." Accounting Historians Journal, June 1, 2002.

Parsons, Marie. The History of Ancient Egyptian Writing, Tour Egypt Net. Accessed May 17, 2004, http://www.touregypt.net/featurestories/writing.htm

Realms of the Sacred. University of California. Irvine. May 19, 2004. http://www.lib.uci.edu/libraries/exhibits/meso/sacred.html

Moorhouse, A.C. The Triumph of the Alphabet: A History of Writing. New York: H. Schuman, 1953.

Sanders, William T., and Barbara J. Price. Mesoamerica; the Evolution of a Civilization. New York: Random House, 1968.

Setting the Record Straight. Native Languages of the Americas. May 20, 2004. http://www.native-languages.org/iaq.htm

Smith, Tony. Early Human Civilization. May 19, 2004. http://www.innerx.net/personal/tsmith/oldciv.html

Tomlinson, Sue. History of Writing. May 20, 2004. http://www.delmar.edu/engl/instruct/stomlin/1301int/lessons/language/history.htm

Ullman, B.L. Ancient Writing and Its Influence. New York: Longmans, Green and Co., 1932.

Wilford, J.N. Who Began Writing?, The New York Times on the Web,… [read more]

Successful Writing Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (348 words)
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However, this alone will not teach me the formal use of proper grammar and punctuation in a technical way. To truly learn how to write well myself, I must practice, practice, practice, as well as read, read, read. I must write compositions and to have an English teacher grade them for correct usage. Also, I must formally study the structure of the language.

Perhaps the best way to do this is to study a foreign language. By understanding the structure of verbs, nouns, adjectives, and adverbs in a different linguistic context, I think I can better understand the way English is 'put together' as an expressive language. Combined with learning more about English grammar in a fun way through writing and reading many well-written books, I will become more aware of how I can deploy the correct usage of English grammar and punctuation in my daily written life.… [read more]

Grammar Presentation the Hook Term Paper

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In either case, the sentence only contains one independent clause. Dangling participles can occur in simple sentences. For example: Lingering there, the street came alive.

A complex sentence contains one independent clause and at least one dependent clause. For example: After the game is over, we will go out to dinner. An example of a dangling participle in a complex sentence could be the following: Crying all night, the television show failed to cheer me up because I felt so bad.

A compound sentence contains two or more independent clauses and a compound-complex sentence, as the name suggests, contains both. Dangling participles can occur in all these types of sentences.

Stage Two: Learn to Identify a Participle

Technically, a participle is a word or phrase that is derived from a verb but used as an adjective in a sentence. In the following example, the participle is italicized: Finished with his work, the insurance agent left the office. The word "finished" is a verb that can also be used as an adjective; therefore, it is participating as both verb and adjective.

Try to identify the participles in the following sentences:

1. Leaving the office early, I ran into my friend Wendy.

Protected from the sun, the old woman took a nap on the beach.

Disposing the body in the river, the murderer thought he could easily get away.

Stage Three: Learn to Recognize a Dangling Participle

Now that you understand what a participle is and how it acts in a sentence, let's learn how to recognize a dangling participle. In fact, let's rearrange the three sentences I just mentioned so that their participles dangle:

1. Leaving the office early, Wendy suddenly showed up in the lobby.

In this case, the sentence actually makes sense and could be grammatically correct, had we not known what the writer actually intended to say. It wasn't actually Wendy who got off early, but the narrator of the sentence. Therefore, dangling participles can create a great deal of confusion and misunderstanding.

2. Protected from the sun, the trees shaded the old woman as she took a nap on the beach.

Obviously the trees aren't protected from the sun; the old woman is.

3. Disposing the body in the river, getting away became easier for the murderer.

In this case, the phrase "getting away" serves as a noun. However, the participle "disposing the body in the river" is supposed to modify the murderer, not the act of getting away.

Note that dangling participles usually occur in introductory phrases at the beginnings of sentences.


Try to recognize the dangling participles in the following sentences and provide a corrected version.

1. Having already eaten, the mashed potatoes did not jump out at me.

2. Pouring the water absent-mindedly, a puddle formed on the carpet.

3. Melted from the heat, I put the chocolate bar back in the refrigerator.

4. Supervising the employees, an angry look crept over John's face.

5. Jaded from a botched relationship, his bourbon was… [read more]

Translation -- Art or Science? Term Paper

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It could be argued that to render Homer in vernacular English, or more vernacular poetry, is a truer example of how Greeks of the day experienced these legendary works of literature. However, to simply 'translate' Shakespearean English into modern slang would not be a true translation, either, if one were grappling with that particular project of translation, because even though the Elizabethans used a different vocabulary than us and were more comfortable with the iambic form by and large, the poetry of these plays was still 'heightened' to their ear. Individuals value the vernacular more today, and poetry less than either the Greeks or Elizabethan English, and thus any encounter with these texts will be different than theirs, will be a translation even if one is from an ancient alternative language and the other text is still in recognizable but different English.

If it is so difficult to tread a fine line between 'dumbing down' and rendering a work entirely into one's own cultural understanding to the point that its initial milieu is lost, one is best to stick with a literal mode of translation, a scientific advocate might argue. However, the creativity that is generated by individuals such as Ezra Pound, for instance, producing translations of ancient Chinese verse that are themselves both original works of art yet render the works more accessible when read in more strict translations seem to fly in the face of such a rigid assertion.

Ideally, variety seems to be the best medium by which to grasp a translation. However, the laborious even if delightful process of reading a work in translation, of a modern and a literal rendering, can never quite give one the original accessibility of the work's first audience. One must accept that translation is always that, a filtration rather than a primary apprehension of the original, however one contemplates the original work. Ultimately, one can only hope to learn through its very difficulty, rather than to avoid the difficulties inherent in the translation process…… [read more]

David Mamet From the Perspective Term Paper

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Bibliography Sources: 1+


Indeed, this below quotation, which was applied originally to the works of Walter Benjamin, could well be applied to Mamet as well:

In the constellation, the oblique links between words that break out of the linear path of communication are due to the room-giving discontinuity that Benjamin stresses as the sigh of presentation.

Indeed, Mametspeak also introduces and reveals this… [read more]

Appalachian Dialect Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,579 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Further, some meanings of words and phrases can vary between regions.

In conclusion, the unique American Appalachian dialect is often greatly misunderstood. Many modern Americans would characterize the Appalachian dialect as a corruption of the English language that is spoken by uneducated and unintelligent hillbillies. Instead, the Appalachian dialect is more aptly characterized as an archaic type of English that resembles the English spoken in the time of the first Queen Elizabeth.

Geographical, cultural, and social isolation have kept the Appalachian dialect essentially pure over the past 200 years of America's history. Today, the Appalachian dialect continues to thrive, preserving one of America's great linguistic traditions.

Works Cited

Appalachian Dialect. 01 November 2003. Google cache of http://mcweb.martin.k12.ky.us/hillsweb/history/dialect.htm. http://www.google.com/search?q=cache:Dllb1lcywE4J:mcweb.martin.k12.ky.us/hillsweb/history/dialect.htm+Appalachian+dialect+&hl=en&ie=UTF-8

Burke, Henry. Notes from the Underground. Appalachian dialect unusual to non-natives. 01 November 2003. http://www.mariettaleader.com/100400/notesfromtheunderground.htm

Crafton, Michael, Dr. Present Day English. Excerpts from the works of Dr. Micheal Crafton. Department of English, State University of West Georgia, Carrollton, Georgia. 01 November 2003. http://www.tutorpal.com/Our_English/present_day_english/dchn_pde.html

Dial, Wylene P. The Dialect of the Appalachian People. West Virginia History, volume 30, no. 2, (January 1969), pp. 463-71. 02 November 2003. Available online at http://www.wvculture.org/history/journal_wvh/wvh30-2.html

Kephart, Horace, Nicholas, J. Karl, and Farwell, Herold F.

Smoky Mountain Voices: A Lexicon of Southern Appalachian Speech Based on the Research of Horace Kephart.

Virgin English. Dickenson County Gal. 01 November 2003. http://www.dickensoncounty.net/dialect.html… [read more]

Machine Translation, and the Future Dissertation

Dissertation  |  24 pages (7,864 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Machine Translation: History and Current Issues

Champollion (2001) addresses the issue that is the main subject of this research, the ability of machines to replace human translators. Champollion agrees that the field of machine translation is still very young. He also feels that advances in software will eventually make the job of a translator, more of a proofreader of machine… [read more]

Bhagavad-Gita Is a Conversation Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,971 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


The inability of the Bhavagdad-Gita to be translated in a straight forward manner of which all can agree places it in the category of mythological work, with the Lord Krishna and Arjuna as the heroes of the tale. The Bhavagdad-Gita stands the test of time as a classical work. The Bhavagdad-Gita has a different meaning for each and every person who reads it.

Annotated Bibliography

Beck, Sanderson. "Wisdom Bible From Ancient China, India, Greece, the Middle East, and Rome." 2001. http://san.beck.org/Gita.html. Accessed June 2002.

Sanderson Beck gives a highly symbolic representation of the concepts found in the Bhavagdad-Gita. He considers representation of the earthly elements of earth, fire, water, wind and other earthly things as representative of man and the cosmos as representative of God.

Judge, William Quan. "Essays on the Gita." Theosophical University Press Electronic version.

1969. http://www.theosociety.org/pasadena/gita/bg1.htm. Accessed June 2002.

This translation and commentary presented here give a contrast to the other commentaries presented in this work. It gives a very Western version of the Bhavagdad-Gita. It is a good illustration of how the background of the commentator can influence the translation and interpretation.

Prasad, Ramanand The Bhavagdad Gita. American Gita Society 1988. http://home.talkcity.com/GaiaWay/infinite_freedom/BHAGAVAD_GITA.htm. Accessed June 2002.

This translation is a softened version of the Judge translation. It is not as dramatically presented the judge commentary, but still seems to miss the deeper inspirational meaning conveyed by Maharashi, Beck, and Row. It is a Western perspective written for a different audience than the Judge translation. It is included here to serve as a contrast to the Judge translation.

Row, T. Subba B.A., B.L., F.T.S. "Notes on the Bhagavad Gita." Theosophical University Press

Online Edition First printing 1934, second printing 1978. Accessed online at URL: http://www.theosociety.org/pasadena/gita-sr/nbg-hp.htm. Accessed June, 2002.

T. Subba Row proposes the hypothesis the symbolism of evolution in the Bhavagdad-Gita is that to ascertain the highest level of which a man is capable is determined by examining the forces that are inside him and those that are outside him. Row uses symbolism in the Bhavagdad-Gita to support his hypothesis that man is a dichotomy of his inner thoughts and strengths and his interactions with the rest of the universe.

Wells, Geofrey and Samuel Y. Boothby. "Absolute Principles of Society in Maharishi's

Commentary on the Bhagavad-Gita." Maharishi University of Management. Fairfield,

Iowa, U.S.A. (Originally published in Modern Science and Vedic Science Volume 6, NO. 1, p. 3-30) http://www.mum.edu/msvs/6195WellsIntro.html. Accessed June 2002.

Geofrey Wells and Samuel Boothby discuss the absolute principles of society as found in Maharashi's commentary. Maharashi argues that the evolutionary principle is representative of an individual within a society and that the cosmos is representative of the larger society acting on the actions of an individual.… [read more]

Pros and Cons of Polygamy Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (583 words)
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¶ … Polygamy

Today, polygamy is outlawed in most countries around the world, but a handful of countries still allow the practice at the government level, including Afghanistan. Proponents of polygamy in Afghanistan argue that both religious and pragmatic factors influence their decisions concerning the practice. For instance, Tayler cites the example of Shah Mohammed, described as a "chivalrous man" whose decision to take a second wife was based on one of compelling need. From Mohammed's perspective, "It is ethical and virtuous to marry a second time. Because so many men were killed or left the country during the war, we have families with three, four, even five girls who can't find a good husband. Their parents are suffering because they have so many daughters to support" (cited in Tayler at 3).

Moreover, the Koran authorizes Muslim men to marry as many as four wives provided they have the economic means to support them, and under Muslim laws and traditions, the groom must provide the bride's family with a hefty dowry that is regarded as a more-than-fair price. For instance, Tayler quotes an elderly Afghan man, Dadullah, who reports that for his second wife, "I gave them 10,000 Afghanis, as well as 210 kilos of rice, 70 kilos of meat, 70 kilos of flour, 21 kilos of potatoes, 21 kilos of onions, 5 gallons of gas and 700 kilos of firewood" (cited in Tayler at 6). In a country where poverty is endemic and employment opportunities for women are virtually nonexistent, such polygamous arrangements would appear to represent a superior alternative to allowing unmarried Afghan women to languish with no viable hopes for the future. Indeed, some Afghani women welcome new wives to the family because it means less work for…… [read more]

Why Marriages Fail and Others Succeed Chapter Writing

Chapter Writing  |  2 pages (732 words)
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The couple I know who has the most successful relationship of anyone else in my life has seven children (and counting). There is always a ton of activity happening in their house, which is not large (and is actually small considering the number of children they have). By normal standards it would be considered a modest home. The kids are all under the age of 12 and the couple is in their mid-30s. They have a strong devotion to one another that they have nursed since they were together in high school. They enjoy being in each other's company, laugh at one another's jokes, and love to tell stories about one another, their family and their experiences. They are very social and active in the community. He works full-time and she is a stay-at-home mom who sends the kids to the local school at the parish church where they go for Mass.

I think this couple is happy and successful because they accept what they are given in life and do not make any complaints about it. I have never seen either one complain about anything, whether it is the house, bills, or sickness. They take everything in stride, often able to make a joke about it to lighten the effect. This is not to say that they do not have their trying times. They face a lot of stress because his job is not the best and they would like to move to a bigger house in a better neighborhood, but they are able to support each other in the sense that they do not place demands on one or other. Part of the reason for this is that they are on the same page when it comes to what is most important in their lives. They view their children being healthy and happy and able to attend a good school in their neighborhood as a great blessing and they love being able to go for walks with the kids around the neighborhood and visit with other couples in the neighborhood and talk about life. From the looks of it, you would think they did not have a care in the world. This is…… [read more]

Clarity Readers Prefer Book Review

Book Review  |  2 pages (634 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


¶ … Clarity

Readers prefer clear and concise writing because it is easy to understand. Whether readers are highly or lowly educated, they do not want to struggle searching for the meaning of a sentence because of wordiness or complexity. Concise writing is not only comprehensive but also easy to locate certain information. Therefore, when writing any information, the writer should avoid unnecessary words in a sentence. This is the foundation of achieving concise and clearly written sentences (May and May 51).

A good writer must peruse the required text to verify the absence of errors. While doing this, all unnecessary words should be eliminated. This can be done by crossing out all words that are not required in a sentence. Long sentences complicate one's piece and create room for grammatical errors. According Claire and Gordon May (2012), a sentence should not be more than twenty words (p. 53). From the limitation of words, the writer should ensure that every word used is expressing the intended information.

Another way of being concise is capitalizing on simplicity. This means that apart from writing short sentences, the words must also be familiar. Using everyday words is convenient for most readers. It will mainly help those who cannot understand jargon or other difficult words in English. However, in some circumstances, it is not possible to avoid a difficult word. The meaning of the word should follow wherever possible. Using short sentences and simple words are successful ways of explaining complex ideas to a general audience.

Verbs and nouns in writing have always made a text concise. They are a preferred compared to adverbs and adjectives. Verbs and nouns will result to short sentences while using adverbs and adjective encourages wordiness (Sundem 55). A major cause of wordiness is hidden verbs. For instance, people commonly write, "we came to a conclusion," while the correct thing is, "we concluded." In most cases,…… [read more]

Jumps Out Regarding the Privatization Report Seminar Paper

Seminar Paper  |  4 pages (1,237 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


¶ … jumps out regarding the privatization report is how many to most of the pages are quite empty on the bottom third and it's perhaps a bit distracting depending on who is reading the paper. The paper has a good abstract as well as an introduction. The person who wrote the report clearly possesses a solid vocabulary but this level of writing would perhaps be "above the head" of a more casual reader. As such, the intended audience of this report would matter a lot in terms of whether it is perhaps a little to high-level for some readers. More scholarly readers will know what "permutations" are and what "praxis" means but an average reader would probably not.

The report is well-cited and the amount of sources are quite high which lends credence to the assertions and claims made within the report. The report flows quite well from idea to idea. If there is one kvetch that the author of this response can offer is that there is perhaps a bit too much jumping from source to source. Some of the sources are cited for as few as a single sentence and it would perhaps be better to flesh out a few less different sources with a more robust cross-section of each to perhaps suggest that the author of this response is not cherry-picking sentences out of the reports being looked at. Another option would be to do the fleshing out for all of the existing sources. This would make the report much longer but it would hold more credibility. One other thing that may throw some off is that some of the sources cited are quite old and there is a range of dates cited in the sources that are fairly wide, with some of the sources coming from the 1990's while some others are as recent as the last few years or so. Perhaps it would be better to focus, if possible, on works in the last five years or less.

Knowledge of Outsourcing Review

The arc and flow of this work is a little haphazard. There is a clear and defined abstract at the genesis of the paper but there is then an abrupt shift into the apparent introduction and the rest of the paper. There is use of sub-headings under APA style but there is no major headings in the early part of the paper except for the abstract section. There is also an "insert model 1 about here" on page 11, so this report seems in many ways to be incomplete of the finishing touches at the very least. The citation style seems to be a mishmash between Harvard and APA, although the citations themselves are quite thorough and pervasive throughout the work so at least that part of scholarly work is covered.

The vernacular and verbiage used in the report is very down-to-earth and would be easily readable by any competent reader so that is a definite plus. The formatting absences mentioned before… [read more]

Basic Rules of Coding Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (596 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


¶ … Rules of Coding

Qualitative Analysis: The Basic Rules of Coding

Qualitative analysis is definitely much more abstract than its quantitative counterparts. The methodologies used in qualitative analysis must be fluid and flexible to examine social phenomenon, which is often much too complicated and diverse to study in a typical quantitative format. Thus, various methods of qualitative analysis aim to explore the more abstract realm of social phenomenon, with content analysis and grounded theory being two popular methods which utilize the process of coding to provide a strong foundation for systematic analysis of abstract concepts.

Content analysis is a methodology that is often used within the qualitative field. It is a methodology which aims to systematically analyze open ended interviews through a series of coding processes that help extrapolate important concepts and build relationships among such concepts in a meaningful manner. According to the research, "content analysis has its own approach to analyzing data that stems largely from how the object of analysis, content, is conceived" (Krippendorff 2004 p 18). Content analysis uses coding as a way to uncover patterns within communicative applications, such as open ended interviews, political speeches, and a plethora of other linguistic sources. This style of coding is very flexible and fluid, focusing on frequently used words, meanings, and phrases in a multi-layered analysis covering semantics and syntax coding processes. Different layers of analysis focus on different concepts within the given data source. According to Krippendorff (2004), frequencies are pulled out of the data set, and then priorities are set to those frequencies, with a final examination of the values and meanings behind such frequencies.

Grounded theory is a tangent methodology that grew out of content analysis as it continued to gain popularity in qualitative applications. This methodology goes even further to provide…… [read more]

Glimpse Your Reader Sees Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (926 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


The Body of the report should discuss the methodology used in obtaining the data, discussing in detail how the data have been collected. It should be indicated whether the collection methods were qualitative or quantitative, and collected methods should be discussed in detail.

The data should be presented in an organized format. Quantitative data should be organized in tables or charts that give the reader an overview of the results. This should be followed by an explanation of the findings, including a synthesis of the data and an analysis of the findings. It is important to report and analyze data in an objective and organized manner. If more than one conclusion has been reached, each conclusion should be related to the data on which it is based. That data should then be interpreted and analyzed accordingly.


Rather than merely echoing what is said in the Introduction, the Conclusion should draw together the premise of the problem and the conclusions indicated in the Body of the report from the Collected Data. The resulted analysis and interpretation should be the focus of the Conclusion. Other areas of content would be recommendations made on the basis of the Collected Data. In longer reports, these recommendations may be in list format, with brief descriptions presented under appropriate subheadings. Areas for further study should also be indicated in this section of the report.


As indicated above, a Glossary may be included in longer reports as necessary, such as when there are an extended number of terms that need to be defined. The Glossary should be in alphabetical order to allow for easy access.

Works Cited

If quotations, paraphrases, or summaries are included in any part of the report, a Works Cited page should be included. This page should list in alphabetical order the names of all authors whose works have been used in compiling the report. If authors' names are not available, the works may be listed by title. All essential information about the source, such as date and place of publication and URL if applicable, should also be included in this section.

Final Step: Proofreading

All sections of the paper should be proofread carefully before submission. Using a grammar review program such as Spell-Check is one way of catching errors. However, not all mistakes can be detected by using such software, so a final review is essential to avoid unnecessary and embarrassing errors and typos. Superficial mistakes indicate a lack of attention to detail. They also distract the reader from the content of the report. Finally, they undermine the writer's credibility. Therefore, taking this final step to ensure a well-written, error free report is well worth…… [read more]

Security Public or Private Good Analysis Using Commercial Satellite Article Critique

Article Critique  |  2 pages (580 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


¶ … illuminative and educational. I learned something new and I read perhaps 5000 journal articles a year and probably 500 books, many on economics and I have never seen anything on the public / private management of interorbital communications. I found the content accessible, not overly technical, and the figures helped illustrate the concepts effectively and clearly. The figures enhanced, rather than simply repeated or obscured the discussion. Minor specific note in text points out one opportunity for increased consistency in one of the figures.

You should see specific comments inserted in the text. You may have to adjust 'turn markup on' or 'view normal' etc. But you should see a line of comments down the right-hand margin. If not, let me know and I will try to re-format although that will take some time. 'Track changes' should also display the comments.

In general, my top four recommendations are,

Take a deliberate scan for repetition one more time;

Will need to harmonize citation styles prior to submission. This depends on the publication of course but as is here, references do not match throughout.

I would personally revise every single passive verb construction into active voice. You will see specific examples in notes in text. Why?

More direct; tighter; stronger.

Active voice = clearer; less internal switching of direction, reference.

This does not mean shorter sentences and some passive is ok but ~95% active is "better writing," and what I read here is perhaps 60% passive verb constructions.

Likewise pronouns: In several places I have to stop and go back to verify exactly whom or what "they" or "it" or "them" referred to. Again this does not suggest get rid of every pronoun but pronouns introduce danger of incorrect reference…… [read more]

Organizing My Thoughts Sometimes, I Have Trouble Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (732 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … Organizing my Thoughts

Sometimes, I have trouble getting started because it is hard for me to organize the ideas that I need to present in my writing. I have made the mistake of starting to write before having a clear idea of what I want to say in the rest of the assignment and then having to start over again. I have tried to change that by writing outlines to lay out my points in the order that I want to make them before I start writing. That has helped me very much to write without having to change what I have already written later in the assignment. In that respect, twenty minutes spent thinking and outlining my points before starting to write has saved me much more time spent rewriting after the fact.

Repetitive Vocabulary

I have noticed that I tend to use some of the same words too often within the same paragraph or within consecutive sentences. Unless I look for it afterwards while proofreading, I may completely miss the redundancy completely.

Proofreading Long Complex Sentences

Sometimes, I write complex sentences that seem to change direction halfway through. Unless I proofread them carefully, I may not notice this because both the beginnings and the ends of those sentences make sense; they just do not go together logically. Proofreading has also allowed me to fix this problem, but I have also learned that it is much harder for me to proofread my work shortly after writing it because I tend to overlook the mistakes in my writing. By giving myself enough time to wait at least a few hours between writing and proofreading, I have managed to improve the accuracy of my proofreading to catch those (and other) types of mistakes in my writing.


1. What types of writing do you and your colleagues have to do most often on the job?

Generally, most of the writing we do consists of formal status reports and project update reports. We also write quite a few emails to communicate with one another and with our supervisors.

2. When you receive written communication from other employees, what features of the writing make you likely to…… [read more]

Grammar Is a Cornerstone of Communication Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  2 pages (623 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Grammar is a cornerstone of communication, the skeleton of every sentence. Grammatical rules may be occasionally broken for poetic impact, but only when the writer understands the rule and why it may be effective to break it. Re-reading a grammar book two or three times a year reinforces the rules of grammar. Because bad grammar is commonplace, we can easily slip into bad writing habits.

Proofreading documents for spelling also prevents miscommunications. Having another person proofread is important because readers often notice what writers miss. Passive verb constructions often signal weak writing.

Punctuation is a drum set, creating rhythm in a piece of prose or poetry. Writers should not forget semicolons and colons; they can link together clauses in meaningful ways. Writing too many words is like talking too much; at some point the audience will stop listening. Superfluous words in a sentence are anathema to good writing. A good writer takes care crafting each sentence and choosing each word. Brevity makes pieces pleasurable to read.

A writer is like any other artist who communicates abstract concepts to an audience. The best way for a writer to remain mindful of the audience is to be the audience as much as possible. In other words, writers should read a lot. The higher the quality of the reading material, the better writing habits the reader will pick up. Readers glean tone, style, grammar, pacing, and vocabulary from writers. No matter what the genre of writing, research is crucial. Even a poet requires an in-depth understanding of an image or other subject matter. Research enables a multisensory, multifaceted, and multilayered piece of writing. Intimate knowledge of a subject matter allows a writer to connect with the reader's senses in ways a superficial writer could not do. For example, a piece of pizza is a triangular-shaped wedge of dough topped with bright red tomato sauce…… [read more]

English Grammar Grammatical Analysis of UNICEF Essay

Essay  |  7 pages (1,948 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 4


English Grammar

Grammatical Analysis of UNICEF - supported soap opera raises awareness about HIV / AIDS in Niger

It is often said that today's generations tend to learn less than the older ones have learned in the past. The children of the contemporaneous society have an increased access to resources and technologies and may easily prefer a computer game instead… [read more]

Speech Production the Formation Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (559 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Speech Production

The formation of speech actually begins in the brain as described by Fernando Trujillo. After the creation of a message and the lexico-grammatical structure (a combination of vocabulary and grammar) in our mind, we need a representation of a sound sequence and a number of commands which will be executed by our speech organs to produce speech. These are referred to as a phonetic plan and a motor plan, respectively. Next, speech is produced through four processes: 1) initiation, 2) phonation, 3) oro-nasal process and 4) articulation.

Giegerich (1992) describes the initiation phase. In this phase, air is exhaled from the lungs. This air stream serves as the source of energy for speech. For speaking in English, the air stream moves out of the lungs and through the trachea. The air stream then passes through the larynx at the upper end of the trachea which contains folds of tissue called vocal folds.

Between these folds lies the glottis.

The glottis, according to Giegerich (1992), is where the phonation phase occurs. Speakers manipulate their vocal folds and thus, the glottis into different positions to make sounds. There are three significant positions, closed, narrow and open:

Closed where the vocal folds are brought close together to prevent air from passing between them. This produces what is called a glottal stop heard in English before a forcefully pronounced vowel; an example is 'Out!'

Narrow where there is an only a small gap for the air stream to pass through so that the passage of air makes them vibrate. This vibration of the vocal folds causes the air column above the glottis to vibrate. This produces what is known as voiced…… [read more]

Land of "Whatisit?" Was Very Upset Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (374 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


¶ … land of "Whatisit?" was very upset. The more they tried to become the smartest and most knowledgeable nation in all of Googleland, the more that other states jumped ahead of them. They did not know what to do. Already, their children could memorize 300 books by the time they were five. They could recite all the rules of grammar in 500-page grammar book, spell every word in the 15-pound wikidictionary, and count forward and backwards to 100,000.

Yet still the other nation states were ahead of them in all the tests. They said it was because they knew how to enjoy the books, write stories and use the numbers to compute math problems. "What a waste of time" said "Whatisit?" And they made their children make a list of everything they saw every day in alphabetical order, learn how to spell every word backwards as well as forwards.

Yet still the other nation states were more educated. They said it was because the used what they learned to make their lives better, to do their jobs and take care of their families. "What a waste…… [read more]