"Language / Linguistics" Essays

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Foundations Medical Terms Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (513 words)
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¶ … root, suffix and prefix sections of the six following words what the words mean. Be sure to note prefixes and other clues for any changes:




Cardiac Arrest

Intraosseous Infusion


As Greek was the language spoken at Universities until the 1900s, many of our scientific and medical terms come from that language. Root words are those basic parts of the body, such as the five major "cavities" of the body which hold internal organs: The cranial cavity (in the head), the Dorsal cavity (the back and head), the Vertebral cavity, the Ventral cavity or trunk of the body, which includes the Thoracic cavity (or chest) and the Abdominopelvic cavity, which is in the lower half of the trunk of the body and involves the pelvis. The suffix is the latter part of a combined word (such as "itis") and the prefix (such as "non") is attached to the beginning of the word (Kluwer, p. 32).

Dermatitis: The Greek word Dermatos means "skin," so Dermatitis is n inflammation of the skin as anything ending with itis means it is inflamed. Another example: colitis is a disease affecting the colon.

2. Hemothorax: A collection of blood in the thorax (interstitial and air spaces of the lungs). "Thorax" is the Greek word for "chest." "Hemo" is the Greek word for "blood" so anything beginning with "Hemo" means it has to do with blood. Given this reasoning, if we look at the word Pneuma, P and n together means this is a word of Greek…… [read more]

Chinua Achebe and Ngugi Wa Thiong'o Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,723 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 8


African Novels

When authors are relating the African experience, must they write the original book in the native language? Does this add to the experience? Better yet, does writing it in English lose its cultural identity? These questions have led to an ongoing debate by many authors, including Kenyon author Ngugi Wa Thiongo'o and his Nigerian contemporary Chinua Achebe. Ngugi… [read more]

Bilingual/Bilingue Research Paper Bilingual/Bilingue by Rhina Espaillat Essay

Essay  |  6 pages (2,231 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 6



Bilingual/Bilingue by Rhina Espaillat is a depiction of a girl
growing up in a Spanish speaking household in the United States. Through
excellent language choices and the successful use of literary devices,
Espaillat captures the difficulties of living in an English speaking
country but coming from a Spanish speaking home. The story, which relates
to the author's… [read more]

Reciprocal Causation: 5 (the Writer's Overall Description Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (553 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


¶ … Reciprocal Causation: 5 (the writer's overall description of reciprocal causation is clear, succinct, and thorough. The role of environment, the role of modeling, and especially the role of self-efficacy are all outlined well. One point is deducted for the poor grammar used throughout the paper.)

Differentiating from Behaviorism: 2 (the author supplies an excellent explanation of the differences in the two theories, in spite of bad grammar.)

Using Student as...to elaborate on reciprocal causation: 4 (the example of student as is succinct but clear. The author shows how the teacher could intervene and improve student outcome by intervening. However, the author could have done a better job explaining how the three aspects of the cycle related to student as. For example, demonstrating exactly which stages a teacher should intervene would make this aspect of the paper better.)

Spelling, Grammar, and Clarity of Writing: 3 (the writing is so clear, it makes up for the poor grammar in this paper)

Feedback: The grammar in this paper is deplorable, littered with sentences like: "This 'reciprocal causation' shows the relevance from all issues, and thus impacting each other with mutual respect." However, it is possible to look past the bad grammar and see that ironically the paper itself is well-written. The author explains both behaviorism and social cognition, comparing and contrasting the two theories. One of the strongest aspects of the paper is the author's explanation of self-efficacy using the example of student as. Therefore, it is evident that the writer has a grasp of the subject matter and also knows how to communicate effectively. The author simply needs assistance with the English language. Looking past the…… [read more]

Sociology Ebonics Came to Public Attention Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (342 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1




Ebonics came to public attention in 1996 when the Oakland CA school district allowed teachers to use this form of street slang in the classroom as a tool to reach students. This form of language is usually used by African-Americans as a street dialect. In fact, people who have studied it believe it evolved from black African slave language and Irish slang, among other influences (Stix, 2002, p. 45). Many educators and experts have supported the use of Ebonics in the classroom, but at least one study shows that "children taught using Ebonics readers did worse than their peers who were taught with standard English readers" (Stix, 2002, p. 45). Therefore, educating black children in the language of the streets does not seem to prepare them academically or personally for the challenges they will face as they attempt to gain more education. It may not prepare them for expressing themselves in business and professional situations as well.

One word often used in Eubonics is "untogether," which means the person…… [read more]

Tagging and Morphological Disambiguation in Turkish Text Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (594 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1


Tagging and Morphological Disambiguation

Kemal Oflazer and ?lker Kuruz describe the results of a text tagging project in their report "Tagging and Morphological Disambiguation of Turkish Text." The authors developed the Turkish text tagger for use within the PC-KIMMO environment and claim that the tagging process applies equally to other agglutinative languages like Finnish. Tagging text facilitates the parsing process, enabling linguists to create extensive databases of morphemes in the overall analysis of natural languages. Linguists will tag words for pertinent information such as part of speech, denoting their usage as well as their lexical form. Because Turkish and other agglutinative languages naturally carry with them ambiguous morphologies, a specialized tagging system can help linguistic analysts minimize error rates. The types of ambiguities in agglutinative languages differ from those in inflective languages. On the one hand, morphotactical rules limit the potential parts of speech of a given lexical form. On the other hand, the same lexical form can have various surface or contextual meanings. If part of the goal of the tagging project is also to include idiomatic constructs, then ambiguities become even harder to resolve.

Prior research indicated that rule-based and statistic-based tagging systems do not completely or reliably disambiguate agglutinative text. Rule-based tagging relies on construction rules to rule out potential errors, whereas statistical-based tagging relies on actual context. In the current study, a rule-based system was used to disambiguate the text. However, the researchers included a broad set of parameters and variables to promote accuracy. For the current study, researchers used 250 constraints, both general and specific, to test the strength of their tagger on the Turkish language. Using constraints is the key difference between Oflazer and Kuruz's tagger and previous efforts. Results showed that the tagger does help resolve morphological ambiguities, up to…… [read more]

Etymology of the Word Scum Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,295 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1


Etymology of the Word Scum

The word scum, pronounced as http://bartleby.com/images/pronunciation/ubreve.gif m could be use in many forms. As a noun, it could refer to a layer of dirt or froth on the surface of a liquid or, informally, a worthless or contemptible person or group of people. It could also be used as a verb in the form of scummed or scumming that means to cover or become covered with a layer of scum. Scummy, pronounced as / 'sk&-mE/, is also an adjective derivative of the word scum. It could be further qualified to scummier and scummiest. (http://www.askoxford.com/concise_oed/scum?view=uk) Scum could also be used as a verb in the form of scummed, scumming or scums or as an intransitive verb that means to become covered with scum. (Houghton Mifflin Company, 2000)

The etymology of the word scum started in 1326, when it was implied in scummer "shallow ladle for removing scum." It came from the Middle Dutch schume, meaning foam or froth, from P.Gmc. skuma-, cf. Old Norse skum, Old High German scum, and German Schaum meaning foam or froth.

Scum may also come from Indo-European base (s)keu that means to cover or conceal. The implication of the word evolved from "thin layer atop liquid" to "film of dirt" and eventually simply "dirt" in 1586 meaning the "lowest class of humanity." The word was also used as scum of the Earth in the year 1712.

Scum was then adopted in Romanic, cf. Old French escume, to Modern French ecume, Spanish escuma, and to Italian schiuma. It was used as an adjective in the form of scummy during the year 1577. The definition of "filthy, disreputable" was given during the year 1932. Scum was eventually transformed into its slang term scumbag, implying condom, during the year 1967. (D. Harper, 2001)

The Indo-European root of the word scum, which is (s)keu-, holds the meaning "to cover or conceal." Its zero-grade form is (s)ku-, variant of http://bartleby.com/images/pronunciation/schwa.gif

-, zero-grade form of http://bartleby.com/images/pronunciation/schwa.gif

- and later on contracted to http://bartleby.com/images/pronunciation/umacr.gif

-. The derivatives of these include the words sku, meerschaum, scum, obscure, recoil, and hoard. There are also suffixed basic forms of the mentioned derivatives. Sky came from Old Norse http://bartleby.com/images/pronunciation/ymacr.gif meaning cloud. Skewbald came from the Scandinavian source which is also similar to the Old Norse cloud or http://bartleby.com/images/pronunciation/ymacr.gif

The zero-grade form http://bartleby.com/images/pronunciation/umacr.gif

- was suffixed to form http://bartleby.com/images/pronunciation/umacr.gif

-mo-. Its derivatives are skim, from the Old French excume or scum, meerschaum, from the Old High German http://bartleby.com/images/pronunciation/umacr.gif m, also implying scum, and scum, from Middle Dutch http://bartleby.com/images/pronunciation/umacr.gif m. All of the three mentioned derivatives come from Germanic http://bartleby.com/images/pronunciation/umacr.gif maz meaning foam or scum, implied in "that which covers the water." The form http://bartleby.com/images/pronunciation/umacr.gif

- was also suffixed to http://bartleby.com/images/pronunciation/umacr.gif

-ro-. Its derivatives are obscure and chiaroscuro from the Latin http://bartleby.com/images/pronunciation/umacr.gif rus meaning "covered or dark." The prefix ob- in Latin means "away from."

Another zero-grade form of (s)keu- is http://bartleby.com/images/pronunciation/ubrevema.gif

-. It is suffixed to form http://bartleby.com/images/pronunciation/umacr.gif

-ti that means "hide" from… [read more]

Sociology- Social Work Ethics Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (647 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+


Qualitative researchers highlight the socially erected nature of reality, the close association between researcher and what is being examined, and the situational restraints that form the question (Hill, 1997).

There are three major qualitative methods that are frequently used. The first is phenomenology. This theory basically attempts to comprehend the nature of the being, the lived understanding by way of language. In this framework, the vital task of language is to communicate information and to explain reality. A researcher utilizing this theory has to be familiar with the subjectivity of human understanding and try to uncover and explain the spirit of being as represented by the informant's language and behavior. The second theory is that of grounded theory. This is a kind of naturalistic inquiry. This strategy shares the data gathering methods of other qualitative research models. The main difference though is its stress upon theory development. The third theory is ethnography. The central aim of ethnography is to understand another way of life from the indigenous point-of-view. Unstructured interviews and participant surveillance are two of the most common tools utilized in the qualitative methodology (Hill, 1997).

Sometimes it is necessary to look at things from many different angles. Triangulation is the procedure of surveillance from different viewpoints. Triangulation entails multiple measures of the same occurrence. Measuring something in more than one way one is probable to see all aspects of it. Triangulation of theory is multiple theoretical perspectives utilized during planning or analysis of an occurrence. Triangulation of methods is the mixing of multiple styles that may be qualitative and quantitative, making both of these types of research very important (Neuman, 2006).


Hill, B.P. (1997). Finding your way around qualitative methods in nursing research. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 25(1), p18-22.

Neuman, W.L. (2006). Chapter 6 Qualitative and Quantitative Research Designs. Social work research methods: Qualitative and quantitative approaches…… [read more]

On the Unaccusativity of the Existential Dissertation

Dissertation  |  2 pages (825 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … theoretical issues about Existential Constructions (ECs) in regards to the Copy Theory of Movement (CTM) and Pronouncing the Lower Copies (PLC).

We put forward four main propo sals.

It is first proposed that the existential-be has the properties of an unaccusative verb both syntactically and semantically.

Although unnaccusatives features largely in the syntax, its nature is determined by the semantic.

It is firstly argued that the existential-be has the primary semantic properties of an unnaccusative verb.

Then it is also argued that the existential-be has a ?- grid of an unaccusative verb. It appears to be a copula (or, as most researchers have noticed, informationally light) because of the formation of a monadic predicate with the PP. The detailed reason is that the formation of the monadic predicate will effect the dominant position of the verbal predicate to some extent.

It is then proposed that the existential verb and the PP form a monadic predicate via the movement of DP. The forming of such a monadic predicate can cause unergative verbs to be allowed in Ecs, whereas other unaccusative s cannot.

We argue that the process of forming such a monadic predicate in the EC is as follows: DP base generated at the spec position of pP. Then, pP is taken as the complement of the unnaccusative verb. DP is the external argument of p and its ?-role is THEME. It cannot get case at [Spec, Pp], so it moves to [Spec, VP], where it also cannot get Case checked. So it moves further to [Spec, ?P], becoming the external argument of the verb and receives its second ?-role, w hich is AGENT. T

he lowest copy is that on [Spec, pP]. As

it is a position that receives the presentational focus, if it is not pronounced, there will be a PF violation which causes PF crash. So PLC applies, an d it rescued such a violation. The lower copy is also realized in LF instead of the highest copy, since the convergence in LF of a sentence requires the linking of presentational focus to a designated 'constructional focus' position.

An Outline, the Unaccusativity of Existential-Be

In earlier forms of the verb "to be" in English, unaccusative verbs were used that slightly changed the meaning of the sentence from more modern constructions. Sentence construction is a lyrical interplay of various "parts" of the sentence that reflect the spirit of the time, and ways in which people think. "For example, many…… [read more]

Business English and Implications on TESOL Essay

Essay  |  16 pages (4,703 words)
Bibliography Sources: 15


Business English and Implications on TESOL

Throughout the recent period, the United States of America has emerged as the greatest global power at both economic as well as political levels. Today, the largest economic construction is represented by the European Union, with a total of $14,820 billion, but the EU is a formation of numerous states. Still, at an individual… [read more]

Median, and the Mode Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (580 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


¶ … median, and the mode. The mean is impacted by data points that are far out in the distribution. The further out on the tail that outlier data points are, the more the mean will be pulled in that direction (toward the tail extremes). This results in a mean that does not represent the majority of the data points (the central tendency) very well. The median represents the point at which half of the data points fall below a certain point and half of the data points fall above that point. The mode is useful for distributions that are nominal (the mean and the median do not apply to nominal data) and to distributions that are bi-modal.

Central tendency is one of the most useful descriptive statistic measures because of it functions as a general purpose "snap-shot" of distribution. The human mind looks for patterns in data, and central tendency measures cater to that aspect of human understanding by providing labels for data sets that represent patterns. Using central tendency measures permits researchers to employ a common language and specific methods to derive at the data labels that are collectively known as measures of central tendency.

Variability is an important measure of distributions because it reflects the spread of the data. Distribution variability is fundamentally a measure of distance, and the terms for describing this distance include standard deviation, range, and inter-quartile range. The range refers to the entire distribution but the inter-quartile range refers to the center two of four quartiles. Standard deviation refers to the standard distance of particular data points from the mean.

A combination of measures of central tendency and measures of variability can be used to construct a generalized visual display of the data…… [read more]

Resumptive Pronouns Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  2 pages (541 words)
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Resumptive Pronouns

Simply put, resumptive pronouns are those syntactical elements that refer back to the primary antecedent or, in some cases, another previously presented element within the same sentence. Uncommon in English except in certain cases where a complex series of clauses leads to a deep embedding of the original antecedent (the referent of the resumptive pronoun), many other languages contain resumptive pronouns as a means of clarifying or reaffirming the subject or object referred to by the pronoun. In the sentence, "This is the girl who, when the storm is coming, she hides," she is a resumptive pronoun, referring back to "the girl," the subject of the sentence. In English, "This is the girl who, when the storm is coming, hides" is also correct, and in many other cases a resumptive pronoun would be entirely incorrect ("This is the girl who she hides when the storm comes" is clearly incorrect when "she" refers to the same individual as "the girl" and thus is resumptive; "This is the girl who hides when the storm comes" -- the same clause less the resumptive pronoun -- would be the proper way to construct this in English). In other languages, however, the resumptive pronoun is not only allowable but required in many more circumstances. This can cause certain problems for foreign (non-native) learners of English.

There is some controversy as to whether or not primary languages serve as models that lead to errors when it comes to resumptive pronouns; though this definitely occurs for other types of errors, researchers have observed that resumptive pronoun errors are committed by small children that are native…… [read more]

Grammar for Me Is the Area Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (735 words)
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Grammar for me is the area in which I need most improvement. It is not something like spelling in which the computer program will invariably help correct it. It is rather far more complex and escapes correction by a program or when I speak.

More so, there are all these things that don't make sense that trip me up such to 'whom' or 'who' or 'I' or 'me';, and then there are all the grammar errors that shouldn't be errors and that just don't make sense.

Grammar is important because it helps the style flow and is simply one of the distinguishing marks of a well-written piece of work and of course a grammatically sound piece of work. A good grasp of grammar will, therefore, help me in innumerable ways from sounding more credible in the regular business format to publishing were I to enter the academic field.

Perhaps one of the thorniest areas of grammar is the all these notations that are connected with speech: The apostrophe, the exclamation point, the quotation mark, the semi-apostrophe. And exceeding all that ubiquitous comma that insists on coming everywhere and yet on falling out everywhere, too. Grammar manuals simply swim with directions about the comma and yet I find that they often omit certain aspects or make them too complex.

Lay/lie, comma splices, -ie or -ei, subjunctive mood are other challenges. As well as that dreaded dangling modifier .

I often err too with starting paragraphs when I should not have.

By far, though -- and I'm not sure whether this is a part of grammar -- are problems with my style. It often simply sounds awkward and stilting, not like that smooth, delicious, seamless writing that so many others, excluding me, seem to possess.

Running the risk of falling into dejection and frustration, I must add that there have been at least two books that have helped me over the years. One of these is 'Style' by J.M. Williams. It runs into several formats and editions. Some of these are rather abstruse and complex. I prefer the handbook with exercises: ..

Strunk and White's renowned 'elements of style' I like too, although I find it hugely incomplete.

Another…… [read more]

Politeness and Females Gender Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,447 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


" (Holmes, 1995:6)

Peter Trudgill (1972) doesn't support the subordinate theory and maintains that women are more polite because they are more status conscious. A polite person is seen as belonging to higher social status than someone impolite and for this reason women refer using standard form of speech. In this regard women still follow the old Victorian rules of… [read more]

Bilingualism One of the Inevitable Consequences Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (555 words)
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¶ … Bilingualism

One of the inevitable consequences of living in a multicultural society is the plurality of languages spoken by different members of the community. The coexistence of communities speaking different languages in the United States has generated controversy in the realm of public education. One school of thought supports the provision of lessons and learning materials in multiple languages to ensure that all children and young learners have comparable access to educational resources and equal educational opportunities. Another school of thought refutes the benefits of bilingual education. According to that view, providing educational instruction and resources in multiple languages only perpetuates resistance to learning the dominant language and, therefore, is more of a disservice than a benefit to the community in general. In principle, proponents of both positions probably believe that bilingualism is a good thing to the extent that bilingualism means learning the dominant language as a supplement to a foreign language that is native to the family. However, they disagree about the value of bilingual education toward that goal.

There is no conceivable objective justification to oppose bilingualism to the extent bilingualism means learning to speak multiple languages. American-born children of parents whose native language is not English should (obviously) learn English because English is the primary language in the country and English illiteracy or inability to communicate in English only has disadvantages socially, culturally, and professionally and there is absolutely no conceivable advantage to refusing to teach English to anybody who lives in the U.S. Nor is there any conceivable advantage to limiting children to learning only English to the exclusion of other languages, especially the native languages of their parents' heritage.…… [read more]

Seminar in Conflict Resolution Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (594 words)
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¶ … Conflict Resolution and their Application

The Manchester school of thought in conflict resolution emphasizes four basic premises of conflict resolution. These four premises are absolutely key in understanding techniques and situations in which conflict resolution skills and theories can and should be used.

The first premise lies in social problems. The students of the Manchester school studied conflict resolution patterns in British Central Africa. The problems in the area resulted from colonialism, and the social problems premise is grounded in the patterns of recovering from and progressing from colonialism: post-colonialism, if you will.

The theory behind the social problems premise is that conflict maintains the stability of a system through establishment and re-establishment of cross-cutting ties among social actors. These cross-cutting ties established a situation in which people formed a variety of allegiances with others that often transcended the different cleavages of the system.

In other words, conflict makes strange bedfellows, and conflict resolution must take that as a given in order to succeed. More precisely, conflict maintains the repetitive creation and destruction of ties ultimately resulting in a situation of social cohesion.

This must be applied to any further study of conflict resolution in that we must understand that conflicts are anything but static; rather, they change with the alliances that people make, and people who are on one side of a conflict one day, may be on entirely the other side a few days later.

The second premise is processes of articulation. This means, who is doing the talking in the conflict? As in, the resolution of the conflict depends not only on viewpoints and migration of viewpoints, but of the point of articulation. How much power does the person have who is attempting to resolve the conflict? As in, at what level…… [read more]

Jean Reynolds, "A New Speech Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (625 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


And by creating Eliza Dolittle's transformation and her dual persona, as well as overseeing Henry Higgins struggle to transform the cockney-accented rather crass flower girl into a mellifluous and well-dressed duchess through the media of performance and costume, Shaw was able to engage in a reinvention of himself as a popular author, one who was entertaining as well as educational, a sensational writer as well as a socialist author of wordy, sprawling plays.

And thus long before Derrida penned his deconstruction, Shaw through the medium of drama deployed Karl Marx's ideas about language in performance art in a radical fashion through populist art. In "Pygmalion," Shaw questioned through satire the binary oppositions of class and language, and as Derrida was later to calls them, the terms that uniquely characterize Western thought of essence vs. appearance, speech vs. writing, authenticity vs. performance. Change Eliza's way of speaking, change Eliza -- for one changes the way people relate to the girl, and also the way the girl moves through the world in a linguistic as well as a physical and social way.

There is no essence that is Eliza, and not simply because she is a character in a play. The play itself is a play of a play, the social play of the British class structure of the drawing room, and the fancy dress ball. The participants are so enmeshed in their world that they cannot see they are performing a role, mouthing lines and cliches that Eliza can eventually, with skill and practice learn to mimic. And eventually, by mimicking the superior manners and language of the elite, Eliza herself can acquire the esteem and sustaining psychological concepts that give her a stronger sense of self and allow her to dominate her creator Higgins.… [read more]

Nobel Prize Lecture by Author Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (697 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


It won her a Nobel Prize, but more than that, it is a medium that she can use to reach large amounts of people with a message she believes is important, even vital to the world. She wants people to use language for good, and not bad, and that is the ultimate message of her lecture. Finally, the old woman learns -- through language -- that she can trust the young people, and she recognizes they have changed their opinion after listening to her for a while. They have made a difference, and when they leave her home, they will continue to make a difference with language.

Morrison's lecture is highly political, because she decries language used to start wars and in bureaucracy and crime. She calls it the "looting of language," and worries that language will suffer and even die because of it. Beautiful, descriptive language is one of the most important gifts the people have, and to lose it would be a tragedy. Morrison sees language evolving into something less than art, and she is frightened by this "looting" and that it will continue. It seems that if people like Morrison continue to manipulate the language so effectively, that language, pure and beautiful language, will always exist, because the words of Morrison and other writers like her will live on long after they themselves are gone. Morrison's lecture is eloquent and thought provoking, and it is not easy to forget it after the reading is done. It is an important look at how the world communicates, and what those communications really mean, and how much power they have.

In conclusion, Morrison's lecture is much more than a look at language and what it can convey, it is a look at the power of language, and who wields that power. Some people use language effectively, and some people do not. If language is to live on, prosper, and grow, then more people like Morrison need to use it and develop it.


Morrison, Toni. "Nobel Lecture." NobelPrize.org. 1993. 11 Dec. 2004.

< http://nobelprize.org/literature/laureates/1993/morrison-lecture.html >… [read more]

Communication Practice in a Text: Conversation Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,206 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … Communication Practice in a Text: Conversation of Two Female Students

Communication practices within two-person conversations vary depending on (1) context; (2) relationship(s) of speakers; (3) medium (e.g., face-to-face; telephone talk; telephone text messaging; e-mail, etc.); (4) implied knowledge or understanding between speakers, and (5) subject(s) discussed. According to Dijk (1995) distinct social groupings inevitably impact content and context of human discourse: "norms or values, position, resources, attitudes... social representation shared by members of a group... "(qtd. In Bee, 2001, p. 2).

According to Foucault (1970a; 1970b; 1972; 1980) the three criteria that should be used to analyse human discourse are: (1) language; (2) power; (3) context; and (4) relationship. Building on Foucault's earlier theories of human discourse, Fairclough (1993) suggested three distinct levels of human discourse, each of which influences meaning in its own way. These are: (1) social identities; (2) social relations; and (3) systems of knowledge or belief affecting language content and context.

Within the conversational text to be examined, the conversation between two female students might have taken place either (1) face-to-face, tape-recorded, then transcribed into written text (spelling, grammatical, and punctuation errors and all); (2) by telephone, then similarly recorded and transcribed; (3) as written e-mail dialogue; or (4) as written telephone text messaging dialogue. In my opinion, based on the way the text is written (e.g., with verbal responses included, like "mm," and indications of mumbling on one end, the conversation is a written transcription of an originally verbal conversation between two female students making social plans. I will discuss communication practices in the text, including (1) implied meanings and understandings, (2) verbal expression and inflected speech, which, in conversational text, replaces capitalization and punctuation (but can cause problems with clarity when transcribed into writing); and (3) the peer relationship between the speakers.

First, the conversation is one between two college-age friends who share a circle of friends. "A" initiates the conversation with a question about Prague, implying that that is the reason she has begun the conversation with "S." In the first sentence, a says: "everyone wants to go to Prague for new year (3)do you think it would be good to go to Prague." This sentence implies, first, that'd" knows who "everyone" is; and that'd" knows what is meant by "Prague" (Prague is the name of the capital city of Czechoslovakia, but could also be the name of a club). Second, "A" is asking a question at the end of the sentence: "do you think it would be good to go to Prague." That would be apparent by "A's tone of voice in the actual conversation, but when transcribed into writing, the reader must imagine that inflected tone at the end of "A's sentence. Third, content and tone imply conversation between peers, rather than non-equals (e.g., boss and employee; teacher and student).

The middle of the conversation maintains those same patterns. Now, however, "A" tries harder (although without saying so) to convince "S" to come to Prague for New Year's: ("i… [read more]

Slang and Grammar Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,356 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Slang and Grammar

Slang is the use of words in a non-standard way of a particular social group and sometimes the creation of new words or importation of words from another language (Slang pp). The use of slang is a way to recognize members of a group and to distinguish that group from the rest of society (Slang pp).

Slang adds new words and meanings to a language and also produces new grammatical relationships among words (Grammar pp).

Language is the systematic communication by vocal symbols that is a universal characteristic of the human species, and although nothing is known of its origin, scientists have identified a gene that contributes to the ability to use language (Language pp). Language is a cultural system and thus, individual language my classify objects and ideas in different fashion, such as the sex or age of the speaker may determine the use of grammatical forms or the avoidance of taboo words (Language pp). Also, terms of address may vary depending on the age, sex and status of the speaker and audience (Language pp). Each person belongs to a speech community, a group of people who speak the same language, and according to estimates, there are between 3,000 and 6,500 speech communities in existence (Language pp).

Grammar is the description of the structure of language, consisting of the sounds and their meaningful combinations of sounds into words, called morphemes, that are arranged into phrases and sentences, called syntax (Grammar pp). Semantics is the study of the relationship between words and meanings and has three basic concerns: "the relations of words to the objects denoted by them, the relations of words to the interpreters of them, and, in symbolic logic, the formal relations of signs to one another" (Semantics pp).

The main distinction of slang is the presence of new words and new uses of old words (Grammar pp). Some new words and some old words with new meanings do not behave like any of the parts of speech concerning ordinary grammar (Grammar pp).

The word "like" presents the most complex picture regarding slang grammar because it is the one with the most slang uses (Grammar pp). Originally from the 1950's era of the beatniks, its use declined and then resurfaced with new life by the "valley girls" and has continued to flourish (Grammar pp). Its most common use today is as a "filler," a word added to a sentence without affecting its meaning, such as "she like slapped me," or "it's like around the corner," or "it's like huge" (Grammar pp).

Grammatically, the word "like" modifies a verb in a noun, an adjective, the whole sentence and a prepositional phrase; and is also an adverb in an adjective, a secondary modifier, a sentence modifier, and a phrase modifier (Grammar pp).

Like" is an intensifier and functions as a secondary modifier much the same way as "very," such as, "I was like stoked," yet in "It was like the bomb," it also intensifies but does so… [read more]

Added to Each Program Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (385 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


2. Multi-line Comments (/* ... */)


Good for any comment that will cover more than one line, as when you want to go into some detail about what's happening in the code or when you need to embed legal notices in the code. It requires both opening and closing delimiters.


You can put as many lines of discussion or as many pages of boilerplate as you like between this two tags.

You can nest single-line comments inside of the multi-line comments and the compiler will have no trouble with it at all.

Can act as if it were a single line statement, even though it can contain more than one statement.


Cannot nest multi-line types of comments of any sort because that will generate a compiler error.

Multi-line comments take up a fair amount of space. This means that they increase the effective line length.

If the programmer forgot the closing delimiter, it might cause either a run-time or syntax error.


"The Sofia Open Content Initiative - Java Programming." Sofia Open Content Initiative. 2004.

Sofia Open Content Initiative.…… [read more]

Cultural Effects Term Paper

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The Cultural Effects of Translations upon Owen in Brian Friel's play "Translations"

The notion of change, both the change of the Irish nation through colonizing British politics and the character changes of the central protagonist Owen, of Brian Friel's play "Translations" is continually debated throughout the play. How should the Irish country town respond to change, and how can… [read more]

English Poetry Term Paper

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¶ … English poetry, besides its almost foreign appearance, differs from modern forms of the language in its rhythm, tone, and style. Poems from the era of Middle English, such as "The Cuckoo Song," "Western Wind," "I Am of Ireland," and "Sunset on Calvary" are remarkably short; the longest of the four has only thirteen lines. Individual lines are terse too, with no more than five or six words per line. Therefore, these four samples of Middle English poetry denote an almost nursery-rhyme like poetic form.

Similarly, the tone of these poems is light and lilting, like the language itself. Each poem shimmers with an innocent, playful atmosphere. For example, "The Cuckoo Song" starts, "Sumer is ycomen in, / Loude sing cuckou!" The four-line ditty "Western Wind" is likewise lighthearted: "Western wind, when will thou blow / The small rain down can rain? / Christ, if my love were in my arms / And I in my bed again!" Both "The Cuckoo Song" and "Western Wind" contain exclamation points to underscore the excited, playful…… [read more]

Dogberry in "Much Term Paper

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When he speaks to Leonato, a noble, about men seen lurking around Leonato's house, he loses all ability to speak plainly. Leonato complains, saying "Neighbours, you are tedious." Dogberry responds that "... If I were as tedious as a king, I could find in my heart to bestow it all of your worship." Dogberry really doesn't grasp that Leonato does not value Dogberry's obsequious and absurdly flowerly language. Dogberry seems to think it is appropriate. With this language, the character of Dogberry allows Shakespeare to poke fun at language that is more ornate than useful or even interesting to listen to.

Leonato responds sarcastically: "All thy tediousness on me! ha?"

Dogberry misses the sarcasm and prattles on: "Yea, an't were a thousand pound more than 'tis ...."

Exasperated, Leonato finally says, "I would fain know what you have to say!" All that talk, and Dogberry has yet to come close to making his point.

Because of Shakespeare's skill with words the viewer has to assume that Dogberry's ridiculous dialogue serves a purpose, and the purpose is to demonstrate that manners taken too far become absurd, a major point of the play and emphasized by Dogberry's appearance in it.

Dogberry also provides humor in serious moments, such as when the treachery against Hero is revealed. As Dogberry is about to interrogate a prisoner, he says, "Is our whole dissembly appeared?" instead of assembly. At important times, Dogberry complicates his language so much that it makes no sense, even asking several times that people record him as "an ass."

Throughout the play, other characters take the style of expansive and elaborate language to the breaking point, but Dogberry's absurd use of language punches the lesson home for the viewer or reader of the…… [read more]

Anzaldua Like Our Genes Essay

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Discovering Chicano literature helped the author feel less isolated and alienated.

In fact, the formation of Chicano culture happened largely through the use of language. "Something momentous happened to the Chicano soul -- we became aware of our reality and acquired a name and a language (Chicano Spanish) that reflected that reality" (85). Furthermore, living within a dominant Anglo culture, Anzaldua and others like her found it necessary to use language as a tool, even a weapon of self-assertion. The author also notes that music, movies, and food serve similar purposes of reminding people of their ethnic and cultural heritages. Language is therefore one of the most important parts of the formation of personal and group identity. Anzaldua talks about how Chicano Spanish "sprang out of the Chicanos' need to identify ourselves as a distinct people," (77).

However, just as language unites a group of people as it did for the Chicanos, language also acts as a barrier between people and between cultures. Even when people of different cultures speak the same language, regional dialects and different accents serve to separate groups and individuals from one another. For example, most Spanish-speakers can identify a person's home country or even home town based on their accent or dialect, just as English speakers can tell the difference between someone from New York and someone from London. Similarly, with Spanish, people make judgments based on where someone is from. As Anzaldua noticed, Latinos often think of Chicanos in a derogatory manner because of their language. People from certain geographical regions look down on Mexicans and Central Americans in general because they felt heir language and therefore their culture is inferior.

Anzaldua presents a powerful case for becoming proud of one's heritage in spite of obstacles like shame or prejudice. "Until I can accept as legitimate Chicano Texas Spanish, Tex-Mex, and all the other languages I speak, I cannot accept the legitimacy of myself" (81). Therefore, self-acceptance and group identity come largely through the proud use of language. Using the example of the Chicanos, the author proves that language can be one of the forces linking people together to convey a sense of pride. Therefore, language is a collective experience, even when the language is as specific and localized as Tex-Mex. In fact, the smaller the group, the more important it is to reinforce identity. For example, when I meet someone from my home country, I become excited because finally I can speak naturally without being inhibited or without trying to use words and phrases that are from proper Spanish or proper English.

Although I identify differently than Anzaldua does, I can also attest to the power of rebellious languages and wild tongues. For me, Spanish and English are interchangeable as they are to Anzaldua. I may not speak the type of Tex-Mex that the author refers to in her article, but I do know that while living in the United States I have created and adapted new languages that combine English and Spanish.… [read more]

Anzaldua Gloria Essay

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English has become a "neutral language" for people whose first language is something other than English (80). As Anzaldua shows, however, immigrants must also retain their native languages by speaking them with friends and family. Otherwise, we run the risk of obliterating our entire culture. We should not be too general when referring to our backgrounds, either. To simply refer to ourselves as "Spanish" is, as Anzaldua states, "copping out" (84).

Language is one of the ways that subcultures such as Chicano culture create internal cohesion. For example, Anzaldua notes that Chicano Spanish is a "living language" because it is constantly changing (77). Languages are sometimes thought of as static and unchanging but languages do significantly change over time because of patterns of migration and the formation of sub-cultures like Chicanos in America. Living languages are exciting, fascinating expressions of cultural identity especially when a small group of people has to maintain their identity in spite of living within a dominant culture. People who speak "languages of rebellion" like Tex-Mex are powerful people because they are multilingual. They have broken down the barriers between languages by being able to interchange words and create new phrases. They are not restricted to using only formal English or formal Spanish to get their points across. Anzaldua believes that multilingual people should purposely and actively create "new" languages as bold assertions of who they are.

Language is also a meaningful part of personal identity. Anzaldua states, "there is not one Chicano language just as there is no one Chicano experience" (80). Individual differences in both language and identity show how the two are intimately linked. One's gender also impacts language and vice-versa. For example, in Spanish and other Romance languages in which nouns are assigned a gender, some derogatory terms refer to females but not males. "Language is a male discourse," according to Anzaldua. This causes women and men to think and feel certain ways about their gender and personal identities.

Anzaldua's essay "How to Tame a Wild Tongue" demonstrates the importance of becoming aware of how language shapes identity; actively changing and implementing language helps change or improve one's sense of self. Because language is such an integral part of being human, it is only logical that language helps form one's cultural identity. In fact, being proud of one's heritage and language can have a positive impact on society at large. As Anzaldua shows, the book I Am Joaquin and other pieces of Chicano literature made a huge impact on the identities of millions of people. It helped Chicanos become proud of their identities and more conscious of…… [read more]

Multiculturalism and Multilingualism in Classrooms Term Paper

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Second language offerings expanded beyond the European standards: French and Spanish. Furthermore, in some areas with large non-English speaking communities, core curriculum classes were offered in native languages. Finally, schools began to become more culturally sensitive on the issues of religion, striving to balance one student's right to worship with another student's right not to worship.

Given the positive move towards multiculturalism, one would anticipate a continued expansion of multiculturalism and multilingualism in the classroom. However, American society appears to be rejecting the broader notions of multiculturalism. There are several reasons for this phenomenon. The first reason is that the terror attacks of 9-11 have made many people wary of cultures, languages, and religions that they do not understand. However, a more important reason is that multiculturalism has been extremely successful and Americans are guaranteed equal treatment. It simply is not possible for a school to study all of the world's languages and cultures. As pressure increases for schools to expand those programs, there will be an instinctive reining in of the programs, in order to avoid any claims of discrimination or…… [read more]

Bilingual Education Is a Method of Teaching Term Paper

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Bilingual Education is a method of teaching that employs more than one language and is designed for students whose native language is not English. There are two different models of Bilingual Education; one uses both languages for instruction, and the other uses mostly English, but will fall back on the students' native language to help clarify points to help them understand the concepts clearly. This kind of teaching model is of particular concern in the southwestern states such as California, Arizona, Texas, and New Mexico because of the larger population of Spanish immigrants.

The main argument against Bilingual Education is that it has the potential to keep non-native speakers from developing their skills in English quickly enough. Consequently, if the non-native speaker is delayed in developing their English language skills then they will continue to fall behind in their education because they will not have the skills to pursue all the educational avenues that are open to native-speakers. Basically, since the majority of these children live and play in environments that speak…… [read more]

Morphology Derivational Term Paper

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Morphology and Vocabulary Acquisition

Vocabulary empowers a person when it comes to expressing oneself. The vast and better the vocabulary the more expressive and articulate the person will be, This is the reason why vocabulary acquisition is so important for language learners that different methods are adopted to facilitate and expedite vocabulary learning. Morphology is also one way of facilitating this process. Understanding morphemes and developing morphological skills, the ability to recognize and use morphemes, to comprehend words and the relationships between words (and sentences and paragraphs) are no doubt important for learner as also shown by the researches. However, while analyzing a particular method different aspects like human cognitive, social, and behavioral aspects should be considered. Drawing conclusion just on the basis of cognitive aspect of learning would not validate the results. Most of the researches related to the importance and role of morphology have had their focus on cognitive aspects and other important social aspects were ignored. "Researchers have only begun to unweave a few strands of the complex interplay of constitutional and social environmental factors in accounting for the development of language in children"(Dixon & Smith, 2000).

The age differences also play a very important role in language learning. Adults have a different way of learning than children. Similarly special children may have different needs than normal children. While children's awareness and use of function words may develop early, their ability to process these types of words in the rapid automatic way manifested by adults does not develop until much later. So, use of morphology might be appropriate for a certain age group that uses simple words and sentences than another group the use complex and less frequent words with varying grammatical uses. Sometimes words may be assisting while they also may confuse. For example, the 'ea' in 'heal' and 'health', though pronounced differently, preserves the morpheme 'heal' in both words and so allows the…… [read more]

Phonological and Conceptual Activation in Speech Comprehension Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,354 words)
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¶ … Phonological and conceptual activation in speech comprehension

This article focuses on the process of understanding as it relates to separate lexical representations of sound and meaning. The phonological and conceptual representations in language have been separated, as comprehension are connected to these different concepts separately. In explaining these concepts, the article distinguishes between word representation in the mental lexicon and the lexical candidates for recognizing utterances.

When the hearer is the presented with running speech with few clear cues to word boundaries, a mechanism is needed to determine the best sequence in terms of the input. In this way the correct utterance is determined by competition. The activation concept is addressed via a number of divisions in the text. Firstly, activation testing involves the cross-modal priming task. Lexical activation is then determined by presenting the hearer with an aural phonetic prime word, and following with a visual target word, after which the relationship between the two is determined. In the context of sentences however, priming is neither obvious nor as reliable as in the simple word pairs of associative priming. The effect of this phenomenon upon sound and meaning comprehension is examined by a number of experiments discussed in the document. The conclusion is that a single level of representation is not enough to explicate spoken language comprehension. Processing occurs at a number of different levels of representation.

Article 2: The activation of offset-embedded words: Evidence from eye-tracking and identity priming.

The article addresses the problem of understanding the flow of speech in the face of embedded words often occurring in polysyllabic English words. The phenomenon of competition is once again addressed in its capacity to activate the accurate meaning associations of these words. As the utterance becomes increasingly clear, the possible meanings of polysyllabic words gradually out compete each other for dominance. The document cites several studies done to determine the nature of the connection between competition and comprehension of polysyllabic words and embedded monosyllabic words. The goal is identified as investigating the activation of offset-embedded words and the role of find-grained acoustic detail in the comprehension process. The central problem addressed by the study is the fact that studies relating to offset-embedded words have been contradictory in their results. The authors identify the solution to the problem as one of generalization. The suggestion is that offset-embedded words are indeed activated, but the question should rather focus on which specific conditions and factors are required for this to occur. While the embedded word's lexical connotation can therefore be activated in competition with the longer word, but this does not necessarily occur.

Article 3: The role of prosodic boundaries in the resolution of lexical embedding in speech comprehension.

The problem addressed by this article focuses on onset-embedded words and the way in which they present problems in word recognition. The research presented in the document attempts to reconcile embedding and instrumentality in spoken-word recognition. The premise is that spoken words are recognized incrementally as their associated sounds become… [read more]

Dialects the Spanish Dialect: Spain Essay

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It is not like some other languages, where people do not have enough changes in the dialect from one region to another to have any real trouble speaking a language correctly. English, for example, can cause some confusion if a person from the U.S. is exposed to the UK. Many of the phrases and words for common items are different. The same is true for Spanish, with the added confusion of having some differences of grammar and syntax that go beyond what word is being used. When there are different kinds of formal and informal pronouns that are also used, confusion can easily result. Children who learn Spanish from a very young age or as their first language often do better than people who learn Spanish later in life, because younger people tend to learn faster than older people.

Despite the ease of learning something, even younger people can have trouble with other dialects of Spanish as opposed to the one they learn first. Traveling from one region or country to another often overwhelms a person, and assuming that the language spoken in one area will be the same as the language spoken in another area is not a good idea. Spanish is not the same across different countries, and anyone who plans to travel should be aware of that. It will certainly not make communication impossible, but it is very easy for there to be misunderstandings - and a few funny moments - because of the differences in dialect. There can also be some tense moments, and it is important to speak clearly and pay attention when dialects change. That way serious problems can often be avoided, and with a little trial and error a person can figure out what is meant by an unfamiliar word or phrase that is in his or her own language but subject to dialectic differences.… [read more]

Translations by Brian Friel's Play Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (524 words)
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¶ … Translations" by Brian Friel

Brian Friel's play "Translation" is all about the unfortunate and gradual decline of the Irish identity and language as portrayed in O'Donnel family's experience. This issue is what is central to the play. In this paper; I present an in-depth analysis of the central themes in the play "Translation" by Brian Friel.This play documented the sad end of Irish language and its replacement by the English language.

At the very beginning of the play, Maire is note perfect in speaking English. The only thing that she can say are just a few words as well as select English phrases as is seen when she said "In Norfolk we bespot ourselves around the maypole" (Friel 8).We also see Jimmy in almost similar situation even though the Irish Maire is somehow more vocal about her apparent lack of English knowledge. Jimmy on the other hand is only conversant with Irish and he does not known the word "bo-som," a term which he had a lot of difficulty in pronouncing (Friel 9).

The characters in the play are noted to gradually improve their proficiency and skills throughout.At the end of the play, we notice that Maire is making a lot of efforts to learn English. She feels that it is necessary for her to be proficient in spoken and written English for the sake of her future prosperity. She feels that sticking to her first language, Irish would be a total disaster.

Her opinions are in contrast with those of the character Hugh who views English as a very…… [read more]

Biological Psychology the Human Ear Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (543 words)
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Biological Psychology

The human ear is one of the body's sensory organs that is used for both hearing and balance. The ear seems to have evolutionarily developed based on the need for a more acute sense outside of the water. The range of frequencies that the human ear can both detect and analyze is probably the result of evolutionary pressure to understand complex speech sounds and differentiate between natural sounds in the environment, and speech. For instance, the sound of a predator, rockslide or lightning bolt tend to rise slowly instead of abruptly -- human speech and sounds (music, etc.) is planned, and therefore expected. Too, the frequencies in which humans hear are the most likely to be translated appropriately into a learning function for the brain, and thus an evolutionary advantage.

Part 2 -- Frequency changes are picked up in the human brain based on pressure sensors in the ear. Loudness is determined by the rate at which these sound pulses occur and frequency by which nerves are activated and then need interpreted. It seems that the human brain would distinguish loudness for a high-frequency tone by comparing it with messages in the auditory cortex. In addition, these are localized by means of tone and timbre, which differs from frequency and is analyzed in a different manner than just loudness.

Part 3 -- Hypnosis in humans is really a state of deep relaxation, almost sleep, but not quite. It is a state of mind that allows the subconscious mind to be freer to make associates, articulate memories, and become more readily accessible. To determine whether hypnosis releases endorphins, one could…… [read more]

Value of Qualitative vs. Quantitative Research Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (639 words)
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¶ … value of qualitative vs. quantitative research is occasionally debated in the natural and social sciences, both are generally acknowledged to be fundamentally useful constructs, although they are used to answer very different types of research questions. Quantitative research is data-driven and often used to answer an experimental or quasi-experimental question. It may use a comparison between an experimental group and a control group to establish scientifically valid and falsifiable results. "It is commonly asserted that quantitative research is based on positivistic assumptions, whereas the qualitative approach is grounded on anti-positivistic positions, often some sort of phenomenology, constructivism, hermeneutics, or naturalism" although the idea of 'positivism' is not generally thought to be applicable to the social sciences in the same way that it is to the natural sciences (Lund 2005: 118). The research data collected is structured, often in the form of questionnaires or other methods which enable numerical calculations. The sample size is sufficiently large to make assumptions beyond the anecdotal. Because of the generalizable intention of the research, participants are randomly selected to be representative of the general population under study (Qualitative vs. quantitative research, 2012, Snap Surveys).

In contrast, qualitative research takes the form of case studies, ethnographies, and other forms of research which are experiential, hands-on, and focus upon a particular population. The research is not always generalizable to the general population. In fact, it might be designed specifically to only encapsulate the worldview and experiences of a very narrow group, such as Native Americans with diabetes. It is non-experimental and does not begin with a hypothesis. The researcher may simply decide to explore a phenomenon without expecting to draw specific scientific conclusions. The research is open-ended, semi-or unstructured, and involves interviews, observations, and sometimes participant-observation by the researcher (Qualitative vs. quantitative research, 2012, Snap Surveys).

Qualitative research seldom keeps track of results using statistics, and instead reports the results in a narrative form,…… [read more]

Translation Studies and Interpretation Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (651 words)
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¶ … translation vs. literary interpretation

Any form of 'pure' translation is effectively impossible -- to translate something by definition is to produce an alternative version, as seen through the eyes of the translator. One debate in the field amongst translators is if oral translations have the character of literary interpretations. According to Peter Newmark: "For non-literary translation, the truth is the factual truth and in literary translation, the truth is the moral and aesthetic truth." A particular word or phrase, for example, could be phrased literally, such as the word 'fat' when translating a literary document. A more literary view of the way 'fat' was used in context might suggest that the writer actually meant someone who was contented, and at the time the author wrote, a word like 'fat' was used to convey this, as opposed to physical corpulence, which the word means today. When this judgment is made, it is argued, a work of 'literary interpretation' has occurred, not literary translation. However, an oral translator, in an 'in the moment' effort to translate what a person said, would not have to contextualize the world in the same literary fashion.

Other authors contend that fundamentally, the aim of translation is not truth. According to Daniel Gile: "if you want to get as close as possible to the 'truth', to what is really essential, I am not even convinced that there is a fundamental difference between literary translators and non-literary translators." No translator translates the text word-for-word, and specific wordings choices that influence both literary and oral content are invariably being made in Gile's view and thus all forms of translation are effectively new works of literature. Both literary and oral translators are effectively performing the same task.

There are clearly many divergent interpretive literary intentions when a reader peruses modern versions of old and new classics. For example, some translations of Homeric epics such as the Odyssey and the Iliad render both books…… [read more]

Academic Writing Australian Dictionary Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (691 words)
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City life offers opportunities to explore new fields and interests. Many different kinds of activities can be found within a large population center for a person with a wide variety of interests. Access to tennis, golf, bowling, and opportunities to take classes in a variety of disciplines add to the ability to enrich one's life and allow individuals to meet people with whom they would not normally come in contact. The rewards of choosing to make ones home in a city are many for individuals who enjoy a wide range of activities.

Paragraph Three: Ownership of a Pet

Studies are inconclusive about the long-term psychological and physical health benefits of owning a pet, however many find pet ownership to be very rewarding. According to a 2008 study by the National Institutes of Health people who had suffered a heart attack were more likely to be alive one year after the event if they owned a dog. Furthermore, dog owners who regularly walked their dogs were more physically active, had greater mobility, and were less likely to be obese, and since walking a dog leads to more conversations, are more apt to stay socially connected. Research indicates that pet ownership may help lower blood pressure, reduce stress, lower health care costs (pet owners visit the doctor less frequently), and fight depression. There is also evidence that children benefit from interaction with a pet. According to Dr. James Griffin when asked who they talk to when they are upset many times a child's first answer is their pet. This is indicative of the value of a pet as a source of comfort and developing empathy. Whether or not these findings can be proven remains to be seen, however, when considering taking on the responsibility of pet ownership you might want to take this evidence into account, it forms a powerful argument in favor of getting a pet. ("Are Pets Good for Your Health?").

Works Cited

"Are Pets Good for Your Health?" Reader's Digest. (ND). Web. 14 November 2012.

Moore, Bruce. "Australian English in…… [read more]

Cardio Author ____ Reviewer Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (844 words)
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VERY POOR: Absence of thesis and/or absence of relevant evidence.



EXCELLENT TO VERY GOOD: Sequence of ideas (paragraphs) in the paper is clear, logical, and complete; paragraphs have topic sentences, transitions, and are internally coherent.


GOOD TO AVERAGE: Minor weaknesses in overall organizational pattern and/or paragraph structure (e.g., some irrelevant ideas/paragraphs included; some ideas omitted or not fully developed; some paragraphs with no major point).


FAIR TO POOR: Major weaknesses in organization and/or paragraph structure (e.g., frequent digressions; few transitions; serious omissions or underdevelopment).


VERY POOR: lack of overall organization and/or absence of coherent paragraphs (e.g., no explicit relationships among ideas in the paper; many one-sentence paragraphs, etc.).



EXCELLENT TO VERY GOOD: Vocabulary of sophisticated range; effective use of word/idiom choice and usage, word form mastery, appropriate register.


GOOD TO AVERAGE: Vocabulary shows adequate range; occasional errors of word/idiom form, choice, and usage, but meaning is not obscured.


FAIR TO POOR: Vocabulary has limited range, frequent errors of word/idiom form, choice, usage; meaning is confused or obscured.


VERY POOR: Vocabulary is essentially translation; clear projection from English.



EXCELLENT TO VERY GOOD: Good construction of sentences, including proper word order, referents, subject-verb agreement, parallel structure, modifier and clause placement; few errors of agreement, tense, number, articles, pronouns, prepositions.


GOOD TO AVERAGE: Minor weaknesses in grammar; few grammatical errors that, in the context of the essay, cause the reader some distraction; effective but simple constructions; several errors in agreement, tense, number, word order/function, articles, pronouns, prepositions, but meaning seldom obscured.


FAIR TO POOR: Major weaknesses in grammar that cause the reader significant distraction; frequent errors of negation, agreement, tense, number, word order/function; frequent errors of articles, pronouns, prepositions and/or fragments, run-ons, deletions; meaning is confused or obscured; reads like a translation from English.


VERY POOR: Poor grammar; virtually no mastery of sentence construction rules; dominated by errors; does not communicate.



EXCELLENT TO VERY GOOD: Shows mastery of conventions of spelling, punctuation, capitalization, paragraphing, and accent marks.


GOOD TO AVERAGE: Occasional errors of spelling, punctuation, capitalization, paragraphing, and accent marks, but meaning is not obscured.


FAIR TO POOR: Frequent errors of spelling, punctuation, capitalization, paragraphing, and accent marks; meaning is confused or obscured.


VERY POOR: Shows no mastery of conventions; dominated by errors of spelling, punctuation, capitalization, paragraphing, and accent marks.… [read more]

Reckoning Life Has Some Form Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,395 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


For example, some of that the words of Eva's used in childhood did not hold the same significance for her when she learned the word in a new language. She explains, "River' in Polish was a vital sound, energized with the essence of riverhood, of my rivers, of my being immersed in rivers. 'River' in English is cold -- a word without an aura. It has no accumulated associations for me, and it does not give off the radiating haze of connotation. It does not evoke."

In The Way to Rainy Mountain, Scott Momaday also illustrates a certain type of barrier to memories, but in an entirely different way. As opposed to a language barrier, the author depicts the barriers that are in place when trying to understand the culture of a people from their stories and thus be able to tap into more of a collective memory. In the story, a young man relives his grandmother's life by traveling to the grave of his grandmother along the same route that her people, the Kiowas, took on their journey to a new land.

Another interesting dynamic that also represents something of a barrier is the fact that the young man's grandmother did not actually experience the journey herself. However, she knew the stories so well that it seemed as if she had actually made the journey herself. Though she did not have the firsthand experience of the journey, she was able to effectively recreate it through the memories of others that had been passed down to her. Then she passed down this experience again from one generation to the next in the same way that it was taught to her.

Figure 1 - Portrayal of The Way to Rainy Mountain (Lanigan)

The way to rainy mountain represented a long and hard journey for the Kiowa people. Despite the hardships they experienced all the way, they became stronger, learned new skills, and gaining a new spirituality. Recreating this passage, the young man's way to rainy mountain revealed many insights about the memories his grandmother passed to him. Not only did the journey provide him a greater understanding pilgrimage undertaken by the Kiowa people but it also provided a mental picture of the places described by his grandmother; though she had never actually seen them herself with her eyes. "My grandmother had a reverence for the sun, a holy regard that now is all but gone out of mankind. There was a wariness in her, and an ancient awe. (Momaday)"

The story represents multiple journeys that occur simultaneously which indicates a timeless element to memory. However, all of the journeys ended in some way at Rainy Mountain which represents something of a closing point for the memory. For the young man, his journey ended at his Grandmother's grave. For his grandmother her journey ended where it began, at the Rainy Mountain. She was born there, lived her life with the Kiowa, and died there. The journey of the Kiowa also ended at… [read more]

Philosophy the Difference Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (566 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


We can say then that universals are more fixed with respect to meaning, while particulars are contingent on time with meanings that are relative and constantly shifting.

Universals, furthermore, depend upon and illustrate the presence of a priori knowledge, a sort of foreknowledge of knowing or a kind of cultural intuition with respect to meaning, knowledge, and truth.

This suggests a proposition which we shall now endeavour to establish: namely, All a priori knowledge deals exclusively with the relations of universals. This proposition is of great importance, and goes a long way towards solving our previous difficulties concerning a priori knowledge. The only case in which it might seem, at first sight, as if our proposition were untrue, is the case in which an a priori proposition states that all of one class of particulars belong to some other class, or (what comes the same thing) that all particulars having some one property also have some other. In this case it might seem as though we were dealing with the particulars that have the property rather than with the property. (Russell, 1997)

We must already have some form of knowledge regarding what is true and what is univeral in order to understand a universal. In the moments of understanding a universal, we illustrate the presence of a priori knowledge. Knowledge regarding particulars can be picked up at any moment in time and do not require a priori knowledge to be understood, nor is it necessarily referenced when one has knowledge of particulars.


Russell, Betrand. The Problems of Philosophy. Chapter 9 --…… [read more]

Post as a Team Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (580 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


This could have adverse implications since more funds would be required for training to enhance consistency in results (Raser & Lemon, 2011). However, there is still no guarantee of attaining measurable benefits after completing the coding process. This makes data coding to be of low quality as compared to the modern methods of integrating data because of its inconsistent outcomes in case of coding similar data by different people.

Patton (2002) reports that the aim of the first reading through data is to develop the coding categories or classification system, followed by a new reading to actually start the formal coding in a systematic way (Patton, 2002). The use of colored highlighting pens is also helpful to some to highlight a different idea or concepts (Patton, 2002). My coding structure and strategies were based on my reading of the data and developing coding categories, followed by a new reading to systematically start a formal coding process. Finally, Patton (2002) reports that a qualitative analyst must first deal with the challenge of convergence in developing codes and categories; yet these categories should be judged by internal homogeneity and external heterogeneity (Patton, 2002). Internal homogeneity is concerned with the extent to which the data that belong in a certain category hold together or 'dovetail' in a meaningful way, while external heterogeneity is concerned with the extent to which differences among categories are bold and clear (Patton, 2002). My coding process involved putting my data into categories and examining similarities and themes found within the data, as well as differences. An example of my coding strategy is found in the coded interview question below of the three interviewee's responses:

Based on these characteristics, what do you admire most about this… [read more]

Powerpoint vs. Prezi Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (572 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


The author posits the notion that saving time is one of the most influential drivers for this method of communication in the following quotation. "Abbreviations make it possible to type short messages for all devices as easily and quickly as just for one. Between the spiraling time commitments of full sentences…online shorthand provides the only approach to online communication that makes…sense" (Wertheimer, 2002). It is interesting to see that the author refers to the length of time to write complete, conventional sentences as "spiraling," and describes the mode of communication facilitated by shorthand as "short."

Another claim that Wertheimer makes is that reading and writing standard written English is too difficult for a number of people. Thus, shorthand has an appeal to this audience which is largely ignorant of the grammatical rules in general. Subsequently, they break such rules with impunity, and are not even aware of the fact that they are doing so. The author implies that it is essential for those who do know how to properly write (himself included, grammarians, teachers, etc.) to embrace shorthand because it will help the audience to which they are writing. He also makes a number of statements that imply that those who do write in standard written English are dated, and need to utilize the modern style of abbreviations instead of their arcane, "abstruse" standard writing styles.

The author claims that time constraints and difficulty understanding standard written English contribute to the widespread usage of abbreviations. He also claims that the internet is fueling this trend.


Wertheimer, D. (2002). 99.9% of grammar is obsolete. Digital Web Magazine. Retrieved from http://www.digital-web.com/articles/999_of_proper_grammar_is_obsolete/… [read more]

Bhagavad-Gita Is a Conversation Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,971 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


The inability of the Bhavagdad-Gita to be translated in a straight forward manner of which all can agree places it in the category of mythological work, with the Lord Krishna and Arjuna as the heroes of the tale. The Bhavagdad-Gita stands the test of time as a classical work. The Bhavagdad-Gita has a different meaning for each and every person who reads it.

Annotated Bibliography

Beck, Sanderson. "Wisdom Bible From Ancient China, India, Greece, the Middle East, and Rome." 2001. http://san.beck.org/Gita.html. Accessed June 2002.

Sanderson Beck gives a highly symbolic representation of the concepts found in the Bhavagdad-Gita. He considers representation of the earthly elements of earth, fire, water, wind and other earthly things as representative of man and the cosmos as representative of God.

Judge, William Quan. "Essays on the Gita." Theosophical University Press Electronic version.

1969. http://www.theosociety.org/pasadena/gita/bg1.htm. Accessed June 2002.

This translation and commentary presented here give a contrast to the other commentaries presented in this work. It gives a very Western version of the Bhavagdad-Gita. It is a good illustration of how the background of the commentator can influence the translation and interpretation.

Prasad, Ramanand The Bhavagdad Gita. American Gita Society 1988. http://home.talkcity.com/GaiaWay/infinite_freedom/BHAGAVAD_GITA.htm. Accessed June 2002.

This translation is a softened version of the Judge translation. It is not as dramatically presented the judge commentary, but still seems to miss the deeper inspirational meaning conveyed by Maharashi, Beck, and Row. It is a Western perspective written for a different audience than the Judge translation. It is included here to serve as a contrast to the Judge translation.

Row, T. Subba B.A., B.L., F.T.S. "Notes on the Bhagavad Gita." Theosophical University Press

Online Edition First printing 1934, second printing 1978. Accessed online at URL: http://www.theosociety.org/pasadena/gita-sr/nbg-hp.htm. Accessed June, 2002.

T. Subba Row proposes the hypothesis the symbolism of evolution in the Bhavagdad-Gita is that to ascertain the highest level of which a man is capable is determined by examining the forces that are inside him and those that are outside him. Row uses symbolism in the Bhavagdad-Gita to support his hypothesis that man is a dichotomy of his inner thoughts and strengths and his interactions with the rest of the universe.

Wells, Geofrey and Samuel Y. Boothby. "Absolute Principles of Society in Maharishi's

Commentary on the Bhagavad-Gita." Maharishi University of Management. Fairfield,

Iowa, U.S.A. (Originally published in Modern Science and Vedic Science Volume 6, NO. 1, p. 3-30) http://www.mum.edu/msvs/6195WellsIntro.html. Accessed June 2002.

Geofrey Wells and Samuel Boothby discuss the absolute principles of society as found in Maharashi's commentary. Maharashi argues that the evolutionary principle is representative of an individual within a society and that the cosmos is representative of the larger society acting on the actions of an individual.… [read more]

Machine Translation, and the Future Dissertation

Dissertation  |  24 pages (7,864 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Machine Translation: History and Current Issues

Champollion (2001) addresses the issue that is the main subject of this research, the ability of machines to replace human translators. Champollion agrees that the field of machine translation is still very young. He also feels that advances in software will eventually make the job of a translator, more of a proofreader of machine… [read more]

Appalachian Dialect Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,579 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Further, some meanings of words and phrases can vary between regions.

In conclusion, the unique American Appalachian dialect is often greatly misunderstood. Many modern Americans would characterize the Appalachian dialect as a corruption of the English language that is spoken by uneducated and unintelligent hillbillies. Instead, the Appalachian dialect is more aptly characterized as an archaic type of English that resembles the English spoken in the time of the first Queen Elizabeth.

Geographical, cultural, and social isolation have kept the Appalachian dialect essentially pure over the past 200 years of America's history. Today, the Appalachian dialect continues to thrive, preserving one of America's great linguistic traditions.

Works Cited

Appalachian Dialect. 01 November 2003. Google cache of http://mcweb.martin.k12.ky.us/hillsweb/history/dialect.htm. http://www.google.com/search?q=cache:Dllb1lcywE4J:mcweb.martin.k12.ky.us/hillsweb/history/dialect.htm+Appalachian+dialect+&hl=en&ie=UTF-8

Burke, Henry. Notes from the Underground. Appalachian dialect unusual to non-natives. 01 November 2003. http://www.mariettaleader.com/100400/notesfromtheunderground.htm

Crafton, Michael, Dr. Present Day English. Excerpts from the works of Dr. Micheal Crafton. Department of English, State University of West Georgia, Carrollton, Georgia. 01 November 2003. http://www.tutorpal.com/Our_English/present_day_english/dchn_pde.html

Dial, Wylene P. The Dialect of the Appalachian People. West Virginia History, volume 30, no. 2, (January 1969), pp. 463-71. 02 November 2003. Available online at http://www.wvculture.org/history/journal_wvh/wvh30-2.html

Kephart, Horace, Nicholas, J. Karl, and Farwell, Herold F.

Smoky Mountain Voices: A Lexicon of Southern Appalachian Speech Based on the Research of Horace Kephart.

Virgin English. Dickenson County Gal. 01 November 2003. http://www.dickensoncounty.net/dialect.html… [read more]

David Mamet From the Perspective Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (2,867 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Indeed, this below quotation, which was applied originally to the works of Walter Benjamin, could well be applied to Mamet as well:

In the constellation, the oblique links between words that break out of the linear path of communication are due to the room-giving discontinuity that Benjamin stresses as the sigh of presentation.

Indeed, Mametspeak also introduces and reveals this… [read more]

Translation -- Art or Science? Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (743 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0



It could be argued that to render Homer in vernacular English, or more vernacular poetry, is a truer example of how Greeks of the day experienced these legendary works of literature. However, to simply 'translate' Shakespearean English into modern slang would not be a true translation, either, if one were grappling with that particular project of translation, because even though the Elizabethans used a different vocabulary than us and were more comfortable with the iambic form by and large, the poetry of these plays was still 'heightened' to their ear. Individuals value the vernacular more today, and poetry less than either the Greeks or Elizabethan English, and thus any encounter with these texts will be different than theirs, will be a translation even if one is from an ancient alternative language and the other text is still in recognizable but different English.

If it is so difficult to tread a fine line between 'dumbing down' and rendering a work entirely into one's own cultural understanding to the point that its initial milieu is lost, one is best to stick with a literal mode of translation, a scientific advocate might argue. However, the creativity that is generated by individuals such as Ezra Pound, for instance, producing translations of ancient Chinese verse that are themselves both original works of art yet render the works more accessible when read in more strict translations seem to fly in the face of such a rigid assertion.

Ideally, variety seems to be the best medium by which to grasp a translation. However, the laborious even if delightful process of reading a work in translation, of a modern and a literal rendering, can never quite give one the original accessibility of the work's first audience. One must accept that translation is always that, a filtration rather than a primary apprehension of the original, however one contemplates the original work. Ultimately, one can only hope to learn through its very difficulty, rather than to avoid the difficulties inherent in the translation process…… [read more]

Grammar Presentation the Hook Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,330 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


In either case, the sentence only contains one independent clause. Dangling participles can occur in simple sentences. For example: Lingering there, the street came alive.

A complex sentence contains one independent clause and at least one dependent clause. For example: After the game is over, we will go out to dinner. An example of a dangling participle in a complex sentence could be the following: Crying all night, the television show failed to cheer me up because I felt so bad.

A compound sentence contains two or more independent clauses and a compound-complex sentence, as the name suggests, contains both. Dangling participles can occur in all these types of sentences.

Stage Two: Learn to Identify a Participle

Technically, a participle is a word or phrase that is derived from a verb but used as an adjective in a sentence. In the following example, the participle is italicized: Finished with his work, the insurance agent left the office. The word "finished" is a verb that can also be used as an adjective; therefore, it is participating as both verb and adjective.

Try to identify the participles in the following sentences:

1. Leaving the office early, I ran into my friend Wendy.

Protected from the sun, the old woman took a nap on the beach.

Disposing the body in the river, the murderer thought he could easily get away.

Stage Three: Learn to Recognize a Dangling Participle

Now that you understand what a participle is and how it acts in a sentence, let's learn how to recognize a dangling participle. In fact, let's rearrange the three sentences I just mentioned so that their participles dangle:

1. Leaving the office early, Wendy suddenly showed up in the lobby.

In this case, the sentence actually makes sense and could be grammatically correct, had we not known what the writer actually intended to say. It wasn't actually Wendy who got off early, but the narrator of the sentence. Therefore, dangling participles can create a great deal of confusion and misunderstanding.

2. Protected from the sun, the trees shaded the old woman as she took a nap on the beach.

Obviously the trees aren't protected from the sun; the old woman is.

3. Disposing the body in the river, getting away became easier for the murderer.

In this case, the phrase "getting away" serves as a noun. However, the participle "disposing the body in the river" is supposed to modify the murderer, not the act of getting away.

Note that dangling participles usually occur in introductory phrases at the beginnings of sentences.


Try to recognize the dangling participles in the following sentences and provide a corrected version.

1. Having already eaten, the mashed potatoes did not jump out at me.

2. Pouring the water absent-mindedly, a puddle formed on the carpet.

3. Melted from the heat, I put the chocolate bar back in the refrigerator.

4. Supervising the employees, an angry look crept over John's face.

5. Jaded from a botched relationship, his bourbon was… [read more]

Successful Writing Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (348 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


However, this alone will not teach me the formal use of proper grammar and punctuation in a technical way. To truly learn how to write well myself, I must practice, practice, practice, as well as read, read, read. I must write compositions and to have an English teacher grade them for correct usage. Also, I must formally study the structure of the language.

Perhaps the best way to do this is to study a foreign language. By understanding the structure of verbs, nouns, adjectives, and adverbs in a different linguistic context, I think I can better understand the way English is 'put together' as an expressive language. Combined with learning more about English grammar in a fun way through writing and reading many well-written books, I will become more aware of how I can deploy the correct usage of English grammar and punctuation in my daily written life.… [read more]

Exemplify the Importance of Louis Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,374 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Describe the four fundamental principles of Gestalt Theory and give examples of their impact on visual images

The sum of the 'whole' of Gestalt Theory, no pun intended, is that the sum of the whole of a composition is greater or may have a different effect than that composition's specific parts. Visually speaking, this relates to the perception of a composition as a whole rather than a series of images, colors, brush strokes, or lines. While each of the individual parts of a picture or a photograph has meaning on its own, when all of the elements of the piece are taken together by the eye and mind as one, the meaning of that piece must and will change. The perception of the gazer of the piece is thus based on the individual's understanding of all the bits and pieces working in unison.

The four principles of Gestalt Theory relating to visual composure are that proximity, similarity, orientation, and closure. The principle of proximity (nearness, or similarity of location) means that the eye is able to focus more closely on smaller shapes if they are near rather than far. If far or close together, small shapes become related as a group. This can be seen in pointillism, where tiny pinpoints of color blend together to create different colors and images than they would if viewed singularly or far from one another, and also simply how by relating two images together, such as a saint and a sinner in a Medieval triptych, the two figures take on a different meaning.

Similarity can simply mean that objects in a visual composition can have a similar form pattern, as well as size, color, and texture. But it also underlines that if objects are alike in one of several ways, the eye will have less difficulty relating them to one another, whether they lie together or at a distance. In Monet's "Water lilies," one does not perceive each lily distinctly, the fact that numerous lilies of similar design are in the picture make it easier to see them as proximate and related, even if the lilies may have slightly different shapes, they still belong to the same form pattern.

Orientation relates to the fact that if points, lines, or shapes fall along a definite path and share the same visual elements that contribute to a sensation, or in film, have a similar sense of kinetic cohesion in their energy and speed, the eye will see or orient them all as moving together. In most basic terms, this orientation can be seen in a child's flip book, whose similar yet slightly different images along the same visual path can be paged through slowly or quickly to give a sense of motion. It can also be seen in highly kinesthetic paintings or photographs that create a sense of motion if they are, for instance, elongated like an El Greco or in trick fun house photography in a way that all the lines are aimed in the… [read more]

History of Egyptian and Mayan Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (2,110 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5001517610" (Gould) The Spanish Conquerors destroyed most of the Mayan books leaving only four codices intact. The four remaining codices are: the Dresden Codex; the Madrid Codex; the Paris Codex and the Grolier Codex.

Similarly the decline of Egyptian writing is also linked to historical and political developments. Early Egyptian writing was absorbed into Coptic and replaced by Arabic due to complex sociological and cultural changes and movements in the region. After Ramses II, the power of the Egyptian Empire went into decline. The character of the country, as well as its cultural context, was changed due to Invaders such as the Assyrians and Persians. Later, Greek and Roman armies marched into the rich Nile Valley. All of these influences resulted in the decline of Egyptian writing.


Why do we concern ourselves with these ancient languages and forms of writing? The answer lies in the fact that the best understanding of the ancient civilization comes from their written sources. Writing represents invaluable records that have importance not only for that specific time and place. Writing "arose out of the need to store information and transmit information outside of human memory and over time and over space." (Wilford, J.N.)

The Egyptian and Mesoamerican cultures are part of our universal heritage and origins. Understanding ourselves in the contemporary world requires that we also understand our past history. There are many clues and revelations about the development of human civilization that lies hidden within the scripts as well as many mysteries that still need to be deciphered. Both these cultures achieved amazing technical, intellectual and scientific feats that still astound scholars and scientists today.


Ancient Egyptian Writing. May 18, 2004. http://www.dragonstrike.com/egypt/write.htm

The Ancient Maya.

Digital Meesh. May 18, 2004. http://www.digitalmeesh.com/maya/history.htm

Egyptian writing dating to 3300 B.C. discovered. The Japan Times, December 17, 1998. Accessed: May 20, 2004. http://www.trussel.com/prehist/news95.htm

Gelb, I.J. A Study of Writing: The Foundations of Grammatology. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1952.

Gould, Stephen Jay. "Unusual Unity." Natural History Apr. 1997: 20+. Questia. 21 May 2004 http://www.questia.com/.

Hardman, Chris. "Writing at the Start." Americas (English Edition) Sept.-Oct. 2003: 5. Questia. 21 May 2004 http://www.questia.com/.

Mysteries of Egypt.

Civilization. Ca, May 20, 2004. http://www.civilization.ca/civil/egypt/egcw01e.html.

Mattessich, Richard. "The oldest writings, and inventory tags of Egypt. (Interfaces)." Accounting Historians Journal, June 1, 2002.

Parsons, Marie. The History of Ancient Egyptian Writing, Tour Egypt Net. Accessed May 17, 2004, http://www.touregypt.net/featurestories/writing.htm

Realms of the Sacred. University of California. Irvine. May 19, 2004. http://www.lib.uci.edu/libraries/exhibits/meso/sacred.html

Moorhouse, A.C. The Triumph of the Alphabet: A History of Writing. New York: H. Schuman, 1953.

Sanders, William T., and Barbara J. Price. Mesoamerica; the Evolution of a Civilization. New York: Random House, 1968.

Setting the Record Straight. Native Languages of the Americas. May 20, 2004. http://www.native-languages.org/iaq.htm

Smith, Tony. Early Human Civilization. May 19, 2004. http://www.innerx.net/personal/tsmith/oldciv.html

Tomlinson, Sue. History of Writing. May 20, 2004. http://www.delmar.edu/engl/instruct/stomlin/1301int/lessons/language/history.htm

Ullman, B.L. Ancient Writing and Its Influence. New York: Longmans, Green and Co., 1932.

Wilford, J.N. Who Began Writing?, The New York Times on the Web,… [read more]

Grammar Argument Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (611 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1


These include "ditch periods," and "kill capital letters while we're at it."

The biggest claim there is that grammar is critical to communication. While he takes a few jabs at some of the arcane grammar, his ultimate point is that grammar is critical to communicate. The cliche "garbage in, garbage out" is a supporting point, but it highlights the role that grammar plays. Devoid of grammar, communication becomes a jumbled mess, devoid of the very structure that makes language comprehensible across a broad audience.

This claim is not stated explicitly, but is implied in the way that the argument is framed. Wertheimer proposes new grammar rules that would render written communication entirely unintelligible. The use of tone -- in particular the tongue-in-cheek style of some of the arguments against grammar -- mocks the idea that grammar is no longer relevant.

In making his claim that grammar is a critical element of language because it provides critical structure, Wertheimer makes most of his claims in the subtext. A line like "and its kewl 2 use alt splings + use 2 and 4 instead of the words b/c we all wish we were prince" is so blatantly mocking that the reader should clearly see this is a point in support of the exact opposite of what the words actually say. Style, tone and the choice of words are critical traits of the way Wertheimer crafts his argument. Failure to pick up on these might lead the reader to take Wertheimer seriously, which would lead to confusing over some of the more self-contradictory elements of his post.


Wertheimer, D. (2002). 99.9% of proper grammar is obsolete. Digital Web Magazine. Retrieved March 2, 2014 from http://www.digital-web.com/articles/999_of_proper_grammar_is_obsolete/… [read more]

Translation Plagiarism and Detection Software Chapter Writing

Chapter Writing  |  4 pages (1,942 words)
Bibliography Sources: 15


Bailey, J. (2011). The problem with detecting translated plagiarism. Plagiarism Today. Retrieved online: https://www.plagiarismtoday.com/2011/02/24/the-problem-with-detecting-translated-plagiarism/

This is a thorough article related to the difficulties in detecting translation plagiarism. According to Bailey (2011), there is no reliable technology tool that can be used to detect instances of translation plagiarism. According to Bailey (2011), the three most notable problems with identifying translation plagiarism… [read more]

Organizing My Thoughts Sometimes, I Have Trouble Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (732 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … Organizing my Thoughts

Sometimes, I have trouble getting started because it is hard for me to organize the ideas that I need to present in my writing. I have made the mistake of starting to write before having a clear idea of what I want to say in the rest of the assignment and then having to start over again. I have tried to change that by writing outlines to lay out my points in the order that I want to make them before I start writing. That has helped me very much to write without having to change what I have already written later in the assignment. In that respect, twenty minutes spent thinking and outlining my points before starting to write has saved me much more time spent rewriting after the fact.

Repetitive Vocabulary

I have noticed that I tend to use some of the same words too often within the same paragraph or within consecutive sentences. Unless I look for it afterwards while proofreading, I may completely miss the redundancy completely.

Proofreading Long Complex Sentences

Sometimes, I write complex sentences that seem to change direction halfway through. Unless I proofread them carefully, I may not notice this because both the beginnings and the ends of those sentences make sense; they just do not go together logically. Proofreading has also allowed me to fix this problem, but I have also learned that it is much harder for me to proofread my work shortly after writing it because I tend to overlook the mistakes in my writing. By giving myself enough time to wait at least a few hours between writing and proofreading, I have managed to improve the accuracy of my proofreading to catch those (and other) types of mistakes in my writing.


1. What types of writing do you and your colleagues have to do most often on the job?

Generally, most of the writing we do consists of formal status reports and project update reports. We also write quite a few emails to communicate with one another and with our supervisors.

2. When you receive written communication from other employees, what features of the writing make you likely to…… [read more]

Grammar Is a Cornerstone of Communication Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  2 pages (623 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Grammar is a cornerstone of communication, the skeleton of every sentence. Grammatical rules may be occasionally broken for poetic impact, but only when the writer understands the rule and why it may be effective to break it. Re-reading a grammar book two or three times a year reinforces the rules of grammar. Because bad grammar is commonplace, we can easily slip into bad writing habits.

Proofreading documents for spelling also prevents miscommunications. Having another person proofread is important because readers often notice what writers miss. Passive verb constructions often signal weak writing.

Punctuation is a drum set, creating rhythm in a piece of prose or poetry. Writers should not forget semicolons and colons; they can link together clauses in meaningful ways. Writing too many words is like talking too much; at some point the audience will stop listening. Superfluous words in a sentence are anathema to good writing. A good writer takes care crafting each sentence and choosing each word. Brevity makes pieces pleasurable to read.

A writer is like any other artist who communicates abstract concepts to an audience. The best way for a writer to remain mindful of the audience is to be the audience as much as possible. In other words, writers should read a lot. The higher the quality of the reading material, the better writing habits the reader will pick up. Readers glean tone, style, grammar, pacing, and vocabulary from writers. No matter what the genre of writing, research is crucial. Even a poet requires an in-depth understanding of an image or other subject matter. Research enables a multisensory, multifaceted, and multilayered piece of writing. Intimate knowledge of a subject matter allows a writer to connect with the reader's senses in ways a superficial writer could not do. For example, a piece of pizza is a triangular-shaped wedge of dough topped with bright red tomato sauce…… [read more]

English Grammar Grammatical Analysis of UNICEF Essay

Essay  |  7 pages (1,948 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 4


English Grammar

Grammatical Analysis of UNICEF - supported soap opera raises awareness about HIV / AIDS in Niger

It is often said that today's generations tend to learn less than the older ones have learned in the past. The children of the contemporaneous society have an increased access to resources and technologies and may easily prefer a computer game instead… [read more]

Speech Production the Formation Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (559 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Speech Production

The formation of speech actually begins in the brain as described by Fernando Trujillo. After the creation of a message and the lexico-grammatical structure (a combination of vocabulary and grammar) in our mind, we need a representation of a sound sequence and a number of commands which will be executed by our speech organs to produce speech. These are referred to as a phonetic plan and a motor plan, respectively. Next, speech is produced through four processes: 1) initiation, 2) phonation, 3) oro-nasal process and 4) articulation.

Giegerich (1992) describes the initiation phase. In this phase, air is exhaled from the lungs. This air stream serves as the source of energy for speech. For speaking in English, the air stream moves out of the lungs and through the trachea. The air stream then passes through the larynx at the upper end of the trachea which contains folds of tissue called vocal folds.

Between these folds lies the glottis.

The glottis, according to Giegerich (1992), is where the phonation phase occurs. Speakers manipulate their vocal folds and thus, the glottis into different positions to make sounds. There are three significant positions, closed, narrow and open:

Closed where the vocal folds are brought close together to prevent air from passing between them. This produces what is called a glottal stop heard in English before a forcefully pronounced vowel; an example is 'Out!'

Narrow where there is an only a small gap for the air stream to pass through so that the passage of air makes them vibrate. This vibration of the vocal folds causes the air column above the glottis to vibrate. This produces what is known as voiced…… [read more]

Land of "Whatisit?" Was Very Upset Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (374 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


¶ … land of "Whatisit?" was very upset. The more they tried to become the smartest and most knowledgeable nation in all of Googleland, the more that other states jumped ahead of them. They did not know what to do. Already, their children could memorize 300 books by the time they were five. They could recite all the rules of grammar in 500-page grammar book, spell every word in the 15-pound wikidictionary, and count forward and backwards to 100,000.

Yet still the other nation states were ahead of them in all the tests. They said it was because they knew how to enjoy the books, write stories and use the numbers to compute math problems. "What a waste of time" said "Whatisit?" And they made their children make a list of everything they saw every day in alphabetical order, learn how to spell every word backwards as well as forwards.

Yet still the other nation states were more educated. They said it was because the used what they learned to make their lives better, to do their jobs and take care of their families. "What a waste…… [read more]

Security Public or Private Good Analysis Using Commercial Satellite Article Critique

Article Critique  |  2 pages (580 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


¶ … illuminative and educational. I learned something new and I read perhaps 5000 journal articles a year and probably 500 books, many on economics and I have never seen anything on the public / private management of interorbital communications. I found the content accessible, not overly technical, and the figures helped illustrate the concepts effectively and clearly. The figures enhanced, rather than simply repeated or obscured the discussion. Minor specific note in text points out one opportunity for increased consistency in one of the figures.

You should see specific comments inserted in the text. You may have to adjust 'turn markup on' or 'view normal' etc. But you should see a line of comments down the right-hand margin. If not, let me know and I will try to re-format although that will take some time. 'Track changes' should also display the comments.

In general, my top four recommendations are,

Take a deliberate scan for repetition one more time;

Will need to harmonize citation styles prior to submission. This depends on the publication of course but as is here, references do not match throughout.

I would personally revise every single passive verb construction into active voice. You will see specific examples in notes in text. Why?

More direct; tighter; stronger.

Active voice = clearer; less internal switching of direction, reference.

This does not mean shorter sentences and some passive is ok but ~95% active is "better writing," and what I read here is perhaps 60% passive verb constructions.

Likewise pronouns: In several places I have to stop and go back to verify exactly whom or what "they" or "it" or "them" referred to. Again this does not suggest get rid of every pronoun but pronouns introduce danger of incorrect reference…… [read more]

Basic Rules of Coding Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (596 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


¶ … Rules of Coding

Qualitative Analysis: The Basic Rules of Coding

Qualitative analysis is definitely much more abstract than its quantitative counterparts. The methodologies used in qualitative analysis must be fluid and flexible to examine social phenomenon, which is often much too complicated and diverse to study in a typical quantitative format. Thus, various methods of qualitative analysis aim to explore the more abstract realm of social phenomenon, with content analysis and grounded theory being two popular methods which utilize the process of coding to provide a strong foundation for systematic analysis of abstract concepts.

Content analysis is a methodology that is often used within the qualitative field. It is a methodology which aims to systematically analyze open ended interviews through a series of coding processes that help extrapolate important concepts and build relationships among such concepts in a meaningful manner. According to the research, "content analysis has its own approach to analyzing data that stems largely from how the object of analysis, content, is conceived" (Krippendorff 2004 p 18). Content analysis uses coding as a way to uncover patterns within communicative applications, such as open ended interviews, political speeches, and a plethora of other linguistic sources. This style of coding is very flexible and fluid, focusing on frequently used words, meanings, and phrases in a multi-layered analysis covering semantics and syntax coding processes. Different layers of analysis focus on different concepts within the given data source. According to Krippendorff (2004), frequencies are pulled out of the data set, and then priorities are set to those frequencies, with a final examination of the values and meanings behind such frequencies.

Grounded theory is a tangent methodology that grew out of content analysis as it continued to gain popularity in qualitative applications. This methodology goes even further to provide…… [read more]

Jumps Out Regarding the Privatization Report Seminar Paper

Seminar Paper  |  4 pages (1,237 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


¶ … jumps out regarding the privatization report is how many to most of the pages are quite empty on the bottom third and it's perhaps a bit distracting depending on who is reading the paper. The paper has a good abstract as well as an introduction. The person who wrote the report clearly possesses a solid vocabulary but this level of writing would perhaps be "above the head" of a more casual reader. As such, the intended audience of this report would matter a lot in terms of whether it is perhaps a little to high-level for some readers. More scholarly readers will know what "permutations" are and what "praxis" means but an average reader would probably not.

The report is well-cited and the amount of sources are quite high which lends credence to the assertions and claims made within the report. The report flows quite well from idea to idea. If there is one kvetch that the author of this response can offer is that there is perhaps a bit too much jumping from source to source. Some of the sources are cited for as few as a single sentence and it would perhaps be better to flesh out a few less different sources with a more robust cross-section of each to perhaps suggest that the author of this response is not cherry-picking sentences out of the reports being looked at. Another option would be to do the fleshing out for all of the existing sources. This would make the report much longer but it would hold more credibility. One other thing that may throw some off is that some of the sources cited are quite old and there is a range of dates cited in the sources that are fairly wide, with some of the sources coming from the 1990's while some others are as recent as the last few years or so. Perhaps it would be better to focus, if possible, on works in the last five years or less.

Knowledge of Outsourcing Review

The arc and flow of this work is a little haphazard. There is a clear and defined abstract at the genesis of the paper but there is then an abrupt shift into the apparent introduction and the rest of the paper. There is use of sub-headings under APA style but there is no major headings in the early part of the paper except for the abstract section. There is also an "insert model 1 about here" on page 11, so this report seems in many ways to be incomplete of the finishing touches at the very least. The citation style seems to be a mishmash between Harvard and APA, although the citations themselves are quite thorough and pervasive throughout the work so at least that part of scholarly work is covered.

The vernacular and verbiage used in the report is very down-to-earth and would be easily readable by any competent reader so that is a definite plus. The formatting absences mentioned before… [read more]

Glimpse Your Reader Sees Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (926 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


The Body of the report should discuss the methodology used in obtaining the data, discussing in detail how the data have been collected. It should be indicated whether the collection methods were qualitative or quantitative, and collected methods should be discussed in detail.

The data should be presented in an organized format. Quantitative data should be organized in tables or charts that give the reader an overview of the results. This should be followed by an explanation of the findings, including a synthesis of the data and an analysis of the findings. It is important to report and analyze data in an objective and organized manner. If more than one conclusion has been reached, each conclusion should be related to the data on which it is based. That data should then be interpreted and analyzed accordingly.


Rather than merely echoing what is said in the Introduction, the Conclusion should draw together the premise of the problem and the conclusions indicated in the Body of the report from the Collected Data. The resulted analysis and interpretation should be the focus of the Conclusion. Other areas of content would be recommendations made on the basis of the Collected Data. In longer reports, these recommendations may be in list format, with brief descriptions presented under appropriate subheadings. Areas for further study should also be indicated in this section of the report.


As indicated above, a Glossary may be included in longer reports as necessary, such as when there are an extended number of terms that need to be defined. The Glossary should be in alphabetical order to allow for easy access.

Works Cited

If quotations, paraphrases, or summaries are included in any part of the report, a Works Cited page should be included. This page should list in alphabetical order the names of all authors whose works have been used in compiling the report. If authors' names are not available, the works may be listed by title. All essential information about the source, such as date and place of publication and URL if applicable, should also be included in this section.

Final Step: Proofreading

All sections of the paper should be proofread carefully before submission. Using a grammar review program such as Spell-Check is one way of catching errors. However, not all mistakes can be detected by using such software, so a final review is essential to avoid unnecessary and embarrassing errors and typos. Superficial mistakes indicate a lack of attention to detail. They also distract the reader from the content of the report. Finally, they undermine the writer's credibility. Therefore, taking this final step to ensure a well-written, error free report is well worth…… [read more]

Clarity Readers Prefer Book Review

Book Review  |  2 pages (634 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


¶ … Clarity

Readers prefer clear and concise writing because it is easy to understand. Whether readers are highly or lowly educated, they do not want to struggle searching for the meaning of a sentence because of wordiness or complexity. Concise writing is not only comprehensive but also easy to locate certain information. Therefore, when writing any information, the writer should avoid unnecessary words in a sentence. This is the foundation of achieving concise and clearly written sentences (May and May 51).

A good writer must peruse the required text to verify the absence of errors. While doing this, all unnecessary words should be eliminated. This can be done by crossing out all words that are not required in a sentence. Long sentences complicate one's piece and create room for grammatical errors. According Claire and Gordon May (2012), a sentence should not be more than twenty words (p. 53). From the limitation of words, the writer should ensure that every word used is expressing the intended information.

Another way of being concise is capitalizing on simplicity. This means that apart from writing short sentences, the words must also be familiar. Using everyday words is convenient for most readers. It will mainly help those who cannot understand jargon or other difficult words in English. However, in some circumstances, it is not possible to avoid a difficult word. The meaning of the word should follow wherever possible. Using short sentences and simple words are successful ways of explaining complex ideas to a general audience.

Verbs and nouns in writing have always made a text concise. They are a preferred compared to adverbs and adjectives. Verbs and nouns will result to short sentences while using adverbs and adjective encourages wordiness (Sundem 55). A major cause of wordiness is hidden verbs. For instance, people commonly write, "we came to a conclusion," while the correct thing is, "we concluded." In most cases,…… [read more]

Why Marriages Fail and Others Succeed Chapter Writing

Chapter Writing  |  2 pages (732 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0



The couple I know who has the most successful relationship of anyone else in my life has seven children (and counting). There is always a ton of activity happening in their house, which is not large (and is actually small considering the number of children they have). By normal standards it would be considered a modest home. The kids are all under the age of 12 and the couple is in their mid-30s. They have a strong devotion to one another that they have nursed since they were together in high school. They enjoy being in each other's company, laugh at one another's jokes, and love to tell stories about one another, their family and their experiences. They are very social and active in the community. He works full-time and she is a stay-at-home mom who sends the kids to the local school at the parish church where they go for Mass.

I think this couple is happy and successful because they accept what they are given in life and do not make any complaints about it. I have never seen either one complain about anything, whether it is the house, bills, or sickness. They take everything in stride, often able to make a joke about it to lighten the effect. This is not to say that they do not have their trying times. They face a lot of stress because his job is not the best and they would like to move to a bigger house in a better neighborhood, but they are able to support each other in the sense that they do not place demands on one or other. Part of the reason for this is that they are on the same page when it comes to what is most important in their lives. They view their children being healthy and happy and able to attend a good school in their neighborhood as a great blessing and they love being able to go for walks with the kids around the neighborhood and visit with other couples in the neighborhood and talk about life. From the looks of it, you would think they did not have a care in the world. This is…… [read more]

Pros and Cons of Polygamy Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (583 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


¶ … Polygamy

Today, polygamy is outlawed in most countries around the world, but a handful of countries still allow the practice at the government level, including Afghanistan. Proponents of polygamy in Afghanistan argue that both religious and pragmatic factors influence their decisions concerning the practice. For instance, Tayler cites the example of Shah Mohammed, described as a "chivalrous man" whose decision to take a second wife was based on one of compelling need. From Mohammed's perspective, "It is ethical and virtuous to marry a second time. Because so many men were killed or left the country during the war, we have families with three, four, even five girls who can't find a good husband. Their parents are suffering because they have so many daughters to support" (cited in Tayler at 3).

Moreover, the Koran authorizes Muslim men to marry as many as four wives provided they have the economic means to support them, and under Muslim laws and traditions, the groom must provide the bride's family with a hefty dowry that is regarded as a more-than-fair price. For instance, Tayler quotes an elderly Afghan man, Dadullah, who reports that for his second wife, "I gave them 10,000 Afghanis, as well as 210 kilos of rice, 70 kilos of meat, 70 kilos of flour, 21 kilos of potatoes, 21 kilos of onions, 5 gallons of gas and 700 kilos of firewood" (cited in Tayler at 6). In a country where poverty is endemic and employment opportunities for women are virtually nonexistent, such polygamous arrangements would appear to represent a superior alternative to allowing unmarried Afghan women to languish with no viable hopes for the future. Indeed, some Afghani women welcome new wives to the family because it means less work for…… [read more]