Study "Language / Linguistics" Essays 221-274

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Asl My Reasons Essay

… There are a lot of people in the world today who are mute, and are unable to express themselves through the conventional means of speaking -- or who possibly have difficulty in hearing. ASL can play an integral role in allowing such people to communicate with others…but only if other people are proficient in this particular language. I do not think it is fair to socially isolate people for the simple fact that they are different from others, which is the case with individuals who cannot hear and speak the way most people can. Thus, I believe that by learning sign language I can help to make this language more commonly known, which would certainly help to improve the conditions for people who rely upon this language to communicate.

Additionally, I believe that learning different things and engaging in new experiences is valuable for a person's general edification. I am certainly attempting to make myself a well-rounded individual, since I place a high value on people skills and human interaction. As such, I believe that learning ASL will help me to meet different people and to put myself in different surroundings. I wholeheartedly agree with the German philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche, who said, "that which does not kill me only makes me stronger." As such, I am looking to find a variety of new experiences which will help to improve my overall personality, tolerance, and respect for others. I think that becoming fluent in ASL is a principle way for me to find new opportunities to express myself with people whom I otherwise would not be able to.

In summary, my reasons for wanting to become proficient in ASL are both personal and practical. My friends have shown me how interesting and crucial it is to communicate in various languages, and I believe my mastery of this language will help to make it more accessible for the disabled.… [read more]

Assigning Expatriates Research Paper

… Assigning Expatriates

Unfortunately, there are a multitude of problems that multinational companies encounter when they attempt to send expatriates to assignments in Eastern Europe. The vast majority of these problems expressly pertain to cultural differences. Global and cultural differences are decidedly commonplace in executives from different nations (Nardon and Steers, 2007, p. 47). These differences apply when utilizing an expatriate from virtually anywhere in the world except from Eastern Europe, but particularly apply when sending individuals from Western Europe or from North America to Eastern Europe. Although there are a variety of problems, a significant amount of them can be rectified by means of adequate preparation on the part of both the individual expatriate as well as that of his or her organization.

Cultural differences frequently encountered when individuals from multinational companies go to work in Eastern Europe for an extended period of time include language barriers. Although most people throughout Europe know English and use it as a neutral language, there are some people who do not know it. Moreover, there are also a host of other languages that expatriates may encounter while working in the part o the world that individuals may prefer to converse in -- such as during social settings, for example -- that may hamper the progress an expatriate could otherwise make were he or she more familiar with such casual, conversational languages. There is a correlation between inadequate language preparation and an inability to create contacts and to even maintain professional relationships because of this issue (Suutari, 1998).

Additionally, cultural problems help to create difficulties in adapting to work-related climates for expatriates in Eastern Europe. Specifically, "a further differentiation of adaptation problems into three major groups was proposed by Suutari and Brewster: leadership styles, organization systems and communication" (Suutari, 1998). Therefore, the differences in culture contribute to different modes of communication (not just in terms of language but in terms of how it is used for different meanings), varied perceptions of model or effective leadership, as well as different explicit and implicit methods of appropriately organizing companies and allocating and utilizing their resources.

The solutions to the aforementioned problems are nearly as varied as those problems themselves. In terms of the language barrier, it always behooves expatriates to make an attempt to learn the native tongue in the particular country in which they will be stationed. Thorough preparation is required to accomplish this feat. It involves attempting to learn the language prior to joining the new country, as well as making continual efforts to study that language while one is living and working in that foreign land. Doing so may prove all the more difficult because expatriates are primarily supposed to be completing their job tasks. Learning the foreign language of the country that they are stationed in, however, will actually assist in this endeavor.

Once an individual is able to more fluently speak the langue of the country in which he is stationed, he or she may have a better opportunity to understand… [read more]

Greek English Code Switching Bilinguals Emotional Responses Research Proposal


Greek-English code switching -- Bilinguals' Emotional Responses in English and Greek

Bilingual 'code-switching:' an overview and research proposal

Code-switching is the linguistic term for breaking in and out of different languages. "Going from one language to the other in mid-speech when both speakers know the same two languages" (Qing 2010). Code-switching has been observed cross-culturally, and has been attributed to a wide variety of different causes. The most common reason is unconscious behavior: when in a different social contexts, bilingual persons will naturally shift from one language to the other, depending on which 'feels' more natural to the circumstances, such as a home vs. A work environment (Thompson 2013). People may also 'code-switch' in a more conscious manner to fit into a specific social context or to ingrate themselves with others. A final possible rational for code-switching is the desire for greater clarity of expression and thought: the speaker may use a particular colloquialism to say something uniquely well that cannot be expressed in the main language being used (Thompson 2013).

Code-switching underlines how language is a context-specific experience, and translation is not merely something which is a literal process. A number of studies have been conducted examining how code-switching is affected by exterior circumstances. For example, one study of the responses of 122 bilingual Mexican-Americans to advertising found that an "ad written primarily in English placed within an all-English medium [i.e. during English programming] was just as effective and well received among respondents as the ad written mostly in Spanish inserted in a Spanish medium [during Spanish programming]. Further, the primarily English ad was more effective and better received than the primarily Spanish ad when placed in the English medium" in terms of how sensitive the advertisements were perceived to be to consumers' needs (Bishop & Peterson 2010). The very presence of code-switching itself was affirming.

Theoretical framework

The idea of language and emotions, as both culturally-constructed entities is part of the rationale behind a recent study by Panayiotou (2004) which drew distinctions between the expressions of emotions between speakers who were bilingual in Cypriot Greek and English. In the research study, the author interviewed five English-/Greek bilinguals and five Greek-English bilinguals and compared their responses to two similar stories, one in Greek about 'Andreas' and one in English about 'Andy.' The respondents' reactions were markedly different, depending on what language they used as a response and whether the content of the story was Greek or English. "The terms given in response to the English story are not a translation of the terms given for the Greek story and what bilinguals are reacting to is the different cultural context of each story. There also seems to be a pattern of concern for the family in the Greek scenario -- particularly for the widowed mother -- that does…… [read more]

Structuralism and Film Essay

… Structuralism and Film

In film and literature, structuralist analysis aims to deconstruct the how images and ideas are presented to others and aims to explain the subtextual meanings behind these images and ideas through an examination of signs and signifiers.… [read more]

Machine Translation and Horizons Seminar Paper

… Also, newspapers are relatively standard, simply-written documents that are not analogous to complex legal and business documents, and they lack the subtleties and complexities of literature.

The opponents of these enthusiastic supporters of machine translation contend that all forms of machine translation are inherently useless and produce nothing but humorous nonsense. "As they expect nearly perfect speech, they will find themselves largely disappointed."[footnoteRef:2] It is very easy to find examples of humorous mistranslations that leave the reader scratching his or her head at best, or, at worst leave the reader dangerously misled. But this dismissive view belies the fact that there is a serious need for effective machine translation, and real and sustained efforts are being made to ensure that the process can become a reality. Not every translation needs to be a work of perfect prose, sometimes merely workmanlike efforts will suffice. And given the spread of globalization, without machine translation, the ability to communicate between global locations would be severely hampered, particularly for smaller organizations that cannot afford professional translators. [2: Ibid., ]

Another important and often-overlooked form of machine translation is the ability to search different language databases using a single keyword. This function is performed by a developing system known as ACENTINUS. ACENTIUS was developed in Europe. The European Union, a polyglot trading block, is yet another example of an entity which demands some form of machine translation to function effectively. When pure accuracy is not essential, machine translation can thus be a very useful instrument.

When evaluating machine translation, it is also important to keep in mind that it is a technological work in progress and there are many different types. Assisted software translation requires human intelligence to set parameters, and comes closest to mimicking the work of a human translator, while unassisted translation is best for multi-language database searches like ACENTINUS. A newly developing form of machine translation called Natural Language Processing (NLP) is capable of translating entire clusters of words, rather than conducts a word-by-word translation. New methods using algorithms to select which word or phrase is best suited to a suggested translation are also being developed: "For instance a work in one language may have two words to which it could be translated. Both words may have the same technical meaning, but would convey a different thought, such as cool and cold. Both refer to a lower temperature; however, they have different connotations" and the program would be able to use a formula to select which one was best. [footnoteRef:3] Yet however sophisticated, these methods are merely ways to make machines a bit less prone to error and more useful: they cannot replace the feel for language possessed by…… [read more]

Sociolinguistics Sociolinguists Study the Cultural and Social Essay

… Sociolinguistics

Sociolinguists study the cultural and social factors that influence language change, and the ways that language changes in relation to these factors. All manner of different situations require different language use to say the same thing, and different cultures all have different ways of doing things -- including expressing things through language. All forms of communication can be thought of as language and thus as different ways of expressing the same things. understanding the social factors underlying linguistic changes leads to a better understanding of language itself.

A variety or code is a specific way of using language in a specific social and cultural context. The way someone speaks to their boss is likely different from the way someone speaks to their friends; the different contexts require two different codes. Diglossia literally means "two-tongues," and essentially refers to having two main codes -- usually a formal and an informal manner of speech. Code switching refers to changing back and forth between codes and/or the ability to make this switch, as in when someone at an informal gather answers a business call for example.

Shifts in language use can also occur within communities as social changes occur -- some words become obsolete while others are added. Language loss and death can occur when cultures that use a specific language assimilate into other cultures or otherwise fade away, possibly through the dying off of elders who still use the old language. Technology, cultural mixing, and many other factors can cause language loss and/or death, and protecting minority languages often takes a great deal of very concerted effort and dedication by a few scholars to truly preserving the language through recordings.

Vernacular languages are the spoken languages as populations of common people in a culture use them, while Standard…… [read more]

English (Grammar, Spelling) Is Important Essay

… On the other hand, about 56% of employers say "…proficiency in English" is a "top priority" when interviewing and recruiting potential employees. In other words, when a high school or college graduate fills out an application for employment, and that application has a number of spelling errors, the employer can either surmise that the applicant is ignorant of proper English, does not proofread adequately, or perhaps the applicant is simply sloppy. Either way, misspelling words on an application or a letter to a potential employer makes a very bad impression. Why would an employer hire a person who is slipshod in his or her use of language? It's possible that being careless in one aspect of one's professional life can portend sloppiness in other aspects as well; it's a fair assumption.

"First impression is crucial for graduates…" and yet high school and college graduates seem to make "…the same common spelling errors" over and over (Aston University).

Well beyond just using proper spelling on applications, students at the college and university level should be acutely aware that instructors fully expect students to pay close attention to their composition -- as well as to their use of spoken language. Standing in front of the class using poor English (i.e., "I ain't sure of the date that was written…") diminishes the value of what material is being presented in the same way that poor spelling reduces the value of work turned in to a college or university instructor.

Works Cited

Aston University. (2012). Graduate Advantage highlights the importance of spelling and grammar for graduates. Retrieved January 12, 2013, from

Chin, Beverly Ann. (2000). Why Do We Care About Grammar? Huff Post Teen. Retrieved January 12, 2013, from

Chin, Beverly Ann. (2008). The Role of Grammar in Improving Student's Writing. Sadlier-

Oxford. Retrieved January 12, 2013,…… [read more]

Plural Endings All Have K In Possesed Essay

… plural endings all have k in Possesed forms as well as having the J. randomly. What is predictable are the vowels. All Slavic languages make use of a high degree of inflection leading to the nominative marker in the nominative case being the bare form zero. The marker for the inessive case is ban or ben. vowel + t: at, ot, et is the marker for the accusative case.

szobaikan= szoba[N/room] + ik[PersPl-3-

PossPl] + ban[InessiveCase]

t ia a prefix in some of those in the table. The phonetic system shows a high degree of consonant saturation, and the morphology is agglutinative making t appear as a prefix more often and also leaning towards inflectional. There is a glottal stop in plurals. The glottal stop following the initial vowel of Chukchee and Koryak is often replaced by x or k preceding the vowel. Kamchadal treat syllables incorporating a glottal stop as heavy. xkin is always for the singular object in the second case.

Stress Modification

English gives an example in disyllabic noun-verb pairs, sometimes with accompanying vowel modification:



Primary stress on:

First syllable

Second syllable record contrast permit perm't pervert transport convict

Tonal Modification

Lumasaaba (a Bantu language from East Africa), in which "a morphological distinction may regularly be carried by tone alone":

'he saw' 'Near Past'


_ ^ ^ [a:Bo:ne]

^ _ [a:Bo:ne]


This process can be classified according to the amount of a form that is duplicated, whether complete or partial. In Marshallese, one finds at least three types of partial reduplication:

Initial C:

liw lliw scold someone be angry

Initial CVC:

yetal yetyetal go walk

Final CVC:

takin takinkin socks wear socks


kijdik kkijdikdik rat be infested with rats


A process by which a new word is formed without affixation, but simply by a change of the initial consonant of the base. EXAMPLE: in the Siberian language Nivkh (or Gilyak) nouns can be derived from verbs simply by changing the initial consonant (see (i)), and likewise transitive and intransitive verbs are often related solely by mutation (see (ii)):

(i) vutyidy 'sweep' putyis 'broom' fady 'put on knee-piece' phady 'knee-piece'

(ii) gesqody 'burn NP' kesqody 'burn oneself'

zody 'bend' tyody 'bend'

(Cy = palatalized C, Ch = aspirated C)

The major empirical and conceptual difficulties are: (Conceptual) if the inflected forms of verbs can be derived by iinflection in the lexicon and given that the surface forms observable in the input are ambiguous with respect to how they were derived, how are kids able to decide which verbs acquire inflection in one way or the other? (Empirical) Have/be can surface in…… [read more]

Diversity of the World and Even Single Term Paper

… ¶ … diversity of the world and even single countries today, learning and being able to communicate in a second language has become an increasingly common phenomenon. Usually, second language acquisition theory and fluency has focused on learners with foreign languages as their mother tongue aiming to learn English as second language.

Over the years, several theories have developed around the acquisition of a second language. To understand how one might become fluent in a second language, a study of the stages of second language acquisition (Haynes, 2005) is a good starting point.

Simple phrases and sentences are used. Fluency begins to appear at the intermediate level at stage IV. The vocabulary includes 6,000 active words, after which advanced fluency is finally achieved after about 4-10 years.

To gain a better understanding of how fluency in a second language, I interviewed Pamela Lang, a native Japanese speaker who came to the United States about ten years ago. When she first arrived, she knew almost no English, and her silent stage was quite long. Once she had reached the second stage of language acquisition, she moved rapidly towards the intermediate stage. To reach the advanced stage took her about three more years.

An interesting distinction Pamela made was between acquiring academic and social fluency. She gained social and colloquial fluency within about two years after her arrival in the country. Her journey towards academic fluency took about five years.

Assessment is an important part of student development, since it offers not only an indication of students' current abilities, but also a pathway towards future development and strategies that can best be utilized to this end.

In terms of assessment strategies for the beginning stage, for example,…… [read more]

Organization Would Introduce a Policy of Wearing Term Paper

… ¶ … organization would introduce a policy of wearing identification badges so people who work for the company could be more easily recognized (Anderson, 2005). Additionally, visitor badges are worn so the employees can tell who the visitor is and that he or she is allowed to be within the organization (Anderson, 2005). Visitors are required to sign in to get their badge, so it is safe to assume that a person with a visitor badge has signed in and the organization knows that the visitor is present. The same is true with employee badges. Each employee will have a badge issued to him or her, and that will allow the organization to determine who is an employee and who is not. However, because there are offices within the company that are not in the United States, there is the possibility of misunderstandings with the language barrier. There are, fortunately, ways to correct this potential problem.

In order to implement the policy throughout the entire company, the best thing to do is to be sure that the information about employee and visitor badges is translated into every language employees speak, and into every standard or common language which is spoken in the countries where the offices are located. That allows the employees and visitors to read important information about the badges and does not require the workers or the front office staff to speak every potential language that an employee or visitor might speak. The translation must be done correctly, however, by those who speak both English and the other language fluently. If the translation is not correct, it could be a serious problem and lead to a large number of misunderstandings. As long as the employees and visitors are properly addressed and the information is provided clearly, there shouldn't be any reason why the badge policy cannot be implemented in all of the company's offices, no matter where they are located or what language the people speak.

There are many things in an…… [read more]

Criticize a First Draft Reaction Paper

… ¶ … awe and grandeur with which the author regards his or her trip to China. This tone of voice is fairly compelling for the reader, since it presents the subject matter detailed within this essay from a fairly entertaining viewpoint that makes the reader want to continue to read the essay.

To that end, it is noteworthy that the author's tone is aided immensely by his or her vocabulary. In fact, the author's prudent choice of diction imbues the essay with a picturesque sense of detail in which the reader can actually experience some of the author's adventures and encounters. For instance, the humidity that characterized the Chinese weather during the author's visit there is wonderfully underscored by the author's usage of both verbs and adjectives, such as the allusion to the perspiration that enabled the author's brow to "moisten" within moments of disembarking from the plane, and the "slow trickle of sweat" that "ran" across his brow. In these passages the author's choice of diction actually sounds good, which is an integral component of good writing (Zinser, 36). Interestingly enough, most of the sensory details within this essay are about the intense heat which the author describes in vivid detail, and which includes references to the way "the sun baked" the Great Wall of China, and "the sweat beading on my forehead."

This sort of sensory detail definitively adds to the essay because it reinforces the verve the author experienced during his visit to China. Additionally, another strength of the essay is that the author is able to substantiate his reasons for his feelings in a concrete way that most readers can identify with. Instead of focusing on details related to his management practice course, he chose to emphasize aspect of the China's…… [read more]

Special Education Word Power People Term Paper

… In general, the author's conviction could be significantly improved had she added, say, statistical data or examples from history that could defend many of the claims that she makes. These essays move best and her beliefs become more tangible when she does go into detail about them, such as when she describes all of the accomplishments of her son -- before explaining his limitations and how she has managed to work around them.

The author's belief that language has a negative effect -- such as the fact that categorizing someone as special or handicapped inherently evokes pity -- makes a fair amount of sense. However, it would be better if she could offer better examples of how using proper language would boost the self-esteem of these people that she is concerned with. Personally, I found her articles fairly compelling as well as frustrating, the latter principally because I could not all the way believe her because of her limited use of details that reinforced her assertions.

In summary, Snow wrote a pair of articles that certainly need to be written, since they advocate equality between disable people and those who are not disabled. The author believes the language used to refer to these people, if it were changed and updated to terminology and phrasing that was less pejorative, could significantly help people overcome their disabilities. Although the author makes a number of salient points, they most serve as topics for future research so that they can have sufficient corroboration and give readers the sense of conviction that fuels both essays. Doing so would only aid her objective of promoting equality between those who are disabled and those who are not.


Snow, K. (2012). "People First Language." Retrieved from

Snow, K. (2012). "The Case Against "Special Needs." Retrieved from… [read more]

Nagel's Model of Inter-Theoretic Reduction Essay

… They believed that physical descriptions of a process can be the source of meaningful statements of bridge laws.

However, Nagel himself admitted that the reduction of a theory to physical science does require the use of identities or biconditionals in… [read more]

ESL Vocab Acquisition Deriving a Pedagogical Strategy Research Paper

… ESL Vocab Acquisition

Deriving a Pedagogical Strategy for Vocabulary Acquisition Instruction

Among ESL Students

Learning a new language is among the most confounding of challenges to those entering into new countries of school systems. In addition to the conceptual and… [read more]

Cv Writing in Today's Competitive Environment Essay

… CV Writing

In today's competitive environment, it is extremely important to make the best first impression possible. Recent graduates thus have to learn how to embed their CVs with the right language and styles in order to maximize their efficiency. The articles discuss practical and effective strategies for CV and resume writing. These articles focus on discussing how to maximize the efficiency of one's potential CV, without sounding too cheesy or manipulated. The authors spell out a clear career objective early on in the CV to allow potential employers to distinguish if one is appropriate for the position needing to be filled. One major important step is the expression how one's educational achievements will help secure success in meeting one's defined career objectives. Moreover, organization is key to allow the CV to flow and mesh well with potential employers.

Many recent graduates are more than willing to embellish their CVs in order to get a greater competitive edge, yet this can be a bit dangerous. Any CV should contain no blatant lies or promises that one cannot actually keep within the context of the work environment and position he or she is aiming to achieve. Fibs and blatant fallacies will only serve to discredit one's entire resume. This can be a serious issue if a CV is posted on the internet, where it will end up haunting the applicant for years to come. Once a potential employer catches a lie in the act, chances of that individual being hired are incredibly reduced.

Yet, sit is necessary to tailor one's CV in order to maximize its potential position within a sea of other applicants. In a way, this is a form…… [read more]

Zulu Linguistic Analysis of Word Essay

… Therefore, the subordinate clause in Zulu can be understood as a unique order in the sentence but rather existing to modification various parts of speech in relation to noun class and verb agreement (Poulous, 2004; Wilkes, 2004).

5. Order of… [read more]

Oakland, California School Board Shocked Many American Essay

… ¶ … Oakland, California School Board shocked many American educators by passing a resolution that authorized the use of Ebonics. The passed resolution not only authorized the use of Ebonics it also declared Ebonics to be the primary language of… [read more]

Native American Literature Presentation Essay

… Native Americans

The introduction of the video discusses a prophesy that "language would leave" and then come back. The language is noted as a metaphor for the person -- "It is not the language that is lost, it is you." This sets the theme for the video wherein the Wampanoag language, an Algonquin language, is representative of the people and the heritage of the people is restored along with the language.

The last fluent speaker of the language is believed to have died more than a century ago, but the language lives on in many place names in Southeastern Massachusetts. Successive generations grew to believe that the people and the language were gone. The people were separated from their land, and the Christian religion destroyed much of the culture. A yellow fever epidemic had already wiped out much of the native population before the Pilgrims arrived in the area, weakening their ability to retain their land. This was a major part of the cultural and linguistic decline among these people.

One lady's ancestors spoke to her in a dream and this began the path to restoring the language. The tribal leaders made the decision to try to revive the language and have set up courses to teach people the language. The written language still existed because many towns had the language in their civil records. This is the largest corpus of Native written language in North America. Many Wampanoag had learned to read and write their language and that provides the material for those learning the language today.

They brought in Ken Hale, a linguist from MIT, to help with the speech aspect and the teaching aspect of the language. One lady named Jessie Little Doe got a research fellowship at MIT, which has a leading linguistics program.

They learned a lot about their culture as a result of learning the language, such as their creation myth that the first man and woman were created out of pine trees. There are many different words for water, depending on the type. The way that phrasing of losing one's land is important -- you fall down, your feet leave the ground. There are animate and inanimate nouns, so for example the stars move across the sky and these are animate nouns, while the sun does not move so it is an inanimate noun. The first Bible published in the Western Hemisphere was in Wampanoag, because missionaries wanted to convert the people. Christianity was used to break the culture and spirit…… [read more]

Constructivism in TESOL-1 Abreviations EFL Term Paper

… However, it is first important to acknowledge that in Thailand the key or main language is known as the standard Thai, which is also known as Siamese or central Thai and it is the official language that is used by… [read more]

Codeswitching Code Switching -- How Many Grammars? Research Paper

… Codeswitching

Code Switching -- How many grammars?

Language Contact

Lexical Borrowing

Code Switching

Types of Code Switching

Grammar of Intrasentential Code Switching

Theory of One Grammar

Theory of Two Grammar

Theorie of Three Grammar

According to Winford (2003:2) "Whenever people… [read more]

Language Data Analysis Chapter

… This certainly may be true in some cases, but it is hardly the norm anymore. Very few cultures are so isolated today that their visual (or material or linguistic) grammars and systems are untouched by other "grammatical" systems. A few… [read more]

Contrastive Rhetoric Between Arabic Research Paper

… However, this is not the case as Al-Sibai later states. It seems that because of different modifiers and places where the adverb can be used, Arab speakers do have great difficulty putting these verb descriptors in the correct position in English compositions. Al-Sibai also sees that the English verb set "to be" can also be an issue for native Arab speakers. This is largely due to "its unavailability in Arabic" (Al-Sibai). Since this is the most common verb form in the English language, it is easy to see that a native Arab speaker would have difficulty expressing themselves correctly in even the simplest conversational writing. Another issue is with the contrasting ways that English and Arab writers construct sentences and paragraphs. "Anglo-European expository essays are developed linearly whereas essays in Semitic languages use parallel coordinate clauses; those in Oriental languages prefer an indirect approach, coming to the point in the end; and those in Romance languages and in Russian include material that, from a linear point-of-view, is irrelevant" (Connor). This difference in style often means that the writer does not understand the original argument, and they have difficulty formulating a comprehensible line of thought in their writing.

This difference can also be seen in the way that native Arabic speakers formulate an argument (Connor). Connor further states that "Arabic argumentation may be heavy on through-argumentation (i.e., thesis to be supported, substantiation, and conclusion), unlike Western argumentation, which is characterized by counterarguments (i.e., thesis to be opposed, opposition, substantiation of counterclaim, and conclusion)." This difference is akin to the scientific method of research. In writing English speaking people are more likely to propose a thesis and then try to find the how it can be disproved. The negativity of this approach can lead to a more positive outcome, but since the Arabic writing form is contrary to this, it may be difficult for them to change their style to match the English style. Argumentation within an essay is the backbone of the discussion and a contrasting effort breeds confusion.

An English speaking issue also concerns the way that different peoples have been labeled. This can add to the difficulties of contrasting rhetoric. People from different cultural backgrounds who speak a version of the same language often express themselves differently than others not from the same region. "Contrastive descriptions of Arabic and English do not specify regional varieties, and while such generalized comparisons are often appropriate, there do exist important differences in the pronunciation of Arabic speakers in Iraq, Egypt, Morocco, etc. which can result in important differences in learners' pronunciation of English" (Al-Sibai). Pronunciation may be different, but a specific culture may have developed a different word for a specific item. Thus, when an instructor tries to teach a non-native speaker using the normal Arabic conventions, the non-native speaker may not understand because they use a different dialect than other Arabic speakers.


Contrasting rhetoric speaks to the difficulties that people from different language backgrounds and cultures have writing in another… [read more]

Special Curriculum for Young Indigenous Learners of English Research Proposal

… Special Curriculum for Young Indigenous Learners of English

Introduction and Theoretical Framework

The proposed study seeks to design a special curriculum of English Language for young indigenous English learners in Malaysia. The national curriculum places them at a disadvantage due to a lack of exposure to English-speaking environments. Although English is increasingly becoming the international lingua franca (Tender & Vihalemm, 2009; Matras & Bakker, 2003), these indigenous speakers lack opportunities to gain fluency and English remains a completely foreign language to them. The primary focus of the proposed study will therefore be on developing basic literacy and vocabulary building as described further below.

Statement of the Problem

According to Kameda and Sullivan, "As global competition increases, more and more firms in many countries are doing business with each other. This increase in business transactions requires negotiations and discussions over prices, sales terms, contracts, and so forth. English-speaking managers are fortunate in that English has become the language of business internationally, but what of the plight of non-English speakers doing business with each other?" (1999, p. 52). Although English is widely spoken in Malaysia, the official language is Bahasa Malaysia, and various forms of Chinese, Tamil, Telugu, Malayalam, Panjabi and Thai languages are also extensively used (Malaysia, 2001). Moreover, in East Malaysia, a wide range of indigenous languages are also used, with the most common being Iban and Kadazan (Malaysia, 2011). Young indigenous Malays in this polyglot environment may therefore not have ready access to English language resources despite the need for the ability to speak English in an increasingly globalized marketplace, a problem that directly relates to the purpose of the proposed study which is discussed further below.

Purpose of the Study

The purpose of the proposed study is three-fold as follows:

A. Deliver a critical review of the relevant peer-reviewed and scholarly literature concerning special curricular offerings and methods that have been developed in other countries to develop English-speaking skills among indigenous youths;

B. To identify the fundamental components needed for a special curriculum for this population; and,

C. To provide a set of recommendations concerning what steps need to be taken by local, provincial and national authorities to implement and administer a special curriculum for young indigenous learners of English in Malaysia today.

Review of the Literature

In recent years, Malaysia has emerged as a burgeoning economic powerhouse (Tsen, 2005), having transformed from a largely agricultural and harvest-based society to one that is actively competing in the international marketplace through a wide range of value-added enterprises, including electronics and petroleum (Rahman, 1999). To continue this pace of economic development, young people entering the job market will need to possess a new set of skills, including the ability to speak and write English (Kameda & Sullivan, 1999). This point is also made by Charles who emphasizes, "In the past few decades, it has become widely accepted that the lingua franca of international business is English; witness the way companies increasingly choose English as their official corporate language" (2007, p.… [read more]

Use of Contextual Cues in Conversation Essay

… ¶ … Contextual Cues in Conversation

Gumperz (*) defines contextualization cues in the following manner:

Contextualization cues refer to the means by which speakers signal and listeners interpret what the activity is, how semantic content is to be understood and… [read more]

Thinking and Language Term Paper

… ¶ … video primarily uses attorney arguments in a case of alleged sexual harassment and wrongful termination as means of outlining the decision making process. Decisions are often influenced by prior experience and stereotypes rather than by probabilities and the direct facts of a given decision. There are also systematic ways of making decisions -- deliberation -- or through simple cues. In a test for example, the "central route" to persuasion is based on facts and/or knowledge, while "simple cues" can also be used as a form of deductive reasoning to make decisions based on facts external to the actual problem/decision at hand. Another scholar also suggests that both praise and negative feedback have the tendency of bringing performance/decision-making in line with the mean; positive feedback for good performance will reduce the quality of a repeated performance, while negative feedback for poor performance will increase the quality of performance.

Video 13: 5:46-13:06

There are three major heuristics of judgment identified here. Representational information is based on perceptions -- the example of the President walking to his helicopter needing to "look like a leader" making people believe they are good at their job -- is provided. "Availability" refers to how easily information can be retrieved in the brain; facts that are immediately present affect judgment inordinately compared to realities of probability; "anchoring" is a similar process in which information recently processed leads to unrelated conclusions in other circumstances. Decisions are also made with "affective forecasting," or beliefs about which options will make individuals happier. Risks of failure and benefits of success are often exaggerated in people's minds. Preconceived judgments also tend to become strengthened rather than weakened when they are challenged. Intuition and perception also play a large part in much thinking and the decision making process.

Video 13: 13:07-19:08…… [read more]

Mounting a Spirited Defense of the Rights Essay

… Mounting a spirited defense of the rights of individuals to be able to use their native language, Nancy Hornberger in "Language Policy, Language Education, Language Rights: Indigenous, Immigrant, and International Perspectives" provides unique insight into the disappearance of indigenous languages. Her main thrust is that language is a resource, and as such, it is worth protecting and preserving. Therefore, the loss of indigenous languages impoverishes the entire world. The dominance of English and other languages needs to be counterbalanced by preserving ethnic languages. Within these languages, there is a wealth of culture and heritage that cannot be replaced.

To demonstrate her position she uses vignettes from several qualitative studies. Each vignette underscores the need to preserve a language and demonstrates how preservation and revitalization may be enhanced by policy actions and educational practices. She begins with a case study from her experience in Amazonian Brazil. This case shows the benefits of allowing native language speakers to develop educational material and curricula. This is followed by an articulation of the benefits of bilingual program. Enmeshed bilingual programs that are within the communities have the potential to revitalize flagging languages.

The substantive thread that unites the work is the demonstration of the value of policy and government action to aid the preservation and revitalization of native language. The author notes that a disconnect exists between the passage of legislation and the implementation process. However, in spite of this gap legislative support for language is useful as it legitimizes the experiences and culture of the people who speak the language.

The overarching argument is that language policy and education animates, and stabilizes languages. This resuscitation of an indigenous language is necessary as an acceptance of the rights of individuals to address the world in their language. The support for this position is derived from dual sources. The first is legal and government policy documents such as constitutions and United Nations resolutions. The second is empirical examples provided by other researchers.

In the author's argumentation, there is evidence of careful thought and stringent logical analysis. The author mixes these elements together…… [read more]

People's Children: Cultural Conflict Essay

… The constant consciousness of how they were speaking was not helping their production of a new language. Delpit also suggests that correction may not be a very good way to get results and can change students' attitude towards learning.

This was shown in an example dialogue between a teacher asked a young boy named Tony how he was. Tony responded to the greeting saying "I be's fine," which is grammatically incorrect. The teacher tried to correct him and asked him the question two times more. Tony became frustrated and responded negatively, not seeing where he went wrong with his answer. Delpit concludes that Tony must have questioned his teacher's intelligence, because she did not seem to understand him, however from where he comes from how he speaks is just fine.

Another issue which can affect oral production and language performance is someone's ethnic identity. This is where different people from different cultures speak in a certain way and it goes unnoticed when a group of people converse. Delpit recognizes that there is a need for teachers to be able to embrace language diversity in the classroom and try to be able to acquire an additional oral form. They need to be able to support languages that students speak, and also be able to provide students with a new code in a non-threatening way; not in the way Tony was corrected.

Delpit also suggests that there should be activities within the classroom which promote linguistic pluralism. This can be made possible by integrating the idea in to the curriculum. She speaks of how different children of all different ages can be taught this way, by teachers embracing language diversity within the classroom. She goes in to more detail on how these ethnic identities can be seen by the teacher and used. There are two styles, which are: The questioning style, and the oral styles in community life.

Delpit's overall article was very well written. She spoke from the heart and used her past experiences with children as examples. This was connected with works done by other people, and she established her point well that there is a need for more consciousness on a teacher's part when it comes to the issues of language diversity and speaking in codes. Because she worked with very young children, she saw their innocence and their awareness of these codes; that, children are becoming affected by some teachers' insensitivities towards their language or dialects. Delpit gives a clear definition of what is going on inside classrooms and how it can be changed for the better learning facilitation of all students.

Delpit gives good reasoning for why these things happen, and recommendations for what teachers should to in certain situations where there is a greatly diverse language context spoken within the classroom. She stresses that it is the teachers' job to be able to recognize these things and that they should be able to know how to…… [read more]

Theory a Critical Discussion of Teaching Approaches Essay

… Theory

A Critical Discussion of Teaching Approaches in TESOL

Language teaching practice often takes for granted that most of the complexities that learners face in the study of English are a result of the degree to which their native language… [read more]

Worldviews Development and Social Networks Interaction Essay

… Worldviews, Their Development, And How They Affect Our Social Networks

A comprehensive world view is the fundamental thinking orientation of a society or individual that encompasses natural philosophy about fundamental normative/existentialist themes, emotions, values, or ethics. This concept is fundamental… [read more]

Energy Sources of the Future Syntax Research Paper

… Energy Sources of the Future

Syntax is the theory surrounding the basic template of language -- constructing sentences out of words. It is a higher level of cognition than morphology (the manner in which words are constructed), and is far more than just a topic for grammarians. Instead, in recent years the study of syntax has relevance in the cognitive structure of language, but also in the way the human brain synthesizes meaning, representation, logic, and can construct multi-levels of hierarchy throughout a the individual's communication's universe. The construct that the basic structure of sentences is, at its most basic, hierarchical, became a new and exciting topic in the 1950s. The idea that behind any linear order or words and morphenes that exists in natural languages there is yet another, more hidden but no less robust, organization nested within, was a milestone for psychologists, linguists, sociologists, and anthropologists in bringing together divergent theories about human knowledge. One such pioneer in this field was Noam Chomsky, specifically in his Theory of Generative Syntax first articulated in his holistic approach to language in "Systems of Syntactic Analysis" (1953). This was developed further into a more universe theory of grammar in the publication of Syntactic Structures (1957).

Biographical Introduction- Noam Chomsky has had a huge impact on the field of modern linguistics. He received his doctorate from the University of Pennsylvania in 1955 having completed most of his thesis research during a four-year Harvard Fellowship. He began his teaching career at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in 1955 and has remaned there since, consistently receiving honors and awards for his service there. Chomsky remains newsworthy to the lay audience because of his extreme liberal viewpoints and anti-war speeches and still tours giving public criticisms of U.S. Foreign policy and the legacy of U.S. global power (Wall, 2008).

Chomsky's approach to linguistics focuses on his views regarding a universal grammar, "an innate set of linguistic principles shared by all humans, the initial state of the language learner, and linguistic variation" (Audi, 2009, 138). Through his work on universal grammar and the cognitive processes involved in communication, Chomsky rejected the Skinnerian approach to behaviorism, finding instead a more naturalistic approach to the study of language an the mind/language template (Sullivan, 2000).

Theoretical Introduction- Generative grammar approaches linguistic syntax in a more universal an holistic manner. This approach attempts to formulate a set of rules that will predict the combination of words that form appropriate and culturally-based grammatical sentences. Further, generative grammar hopes to predict the morphology of a sentence, giving insight into the paradigm of culture and world-view through language acquisition and development (Marastsos and Matheny, 1994). Chomsky's early work in this area was called "transformational grammar," a term that generally encompasses a more umbrella definition of various approaches of generative grammar.

Chomsky, however, developed the idea that within language each sentence has a dual level approach -- the surface structure and the deep structure (Chomsky, 1957). The surface structure is the overt meaning… [read more]

Speech Perception Research Paper

… ¶ … Learning Impairment (LLI)

Speech perception refers to a person's ability to hear and then understand or break down the hearing into comprehensible linguistic parts (Kuhl, 2004). For most people, this process comes naturally. However, to some, speech perception… [read more]

Six Characters on Search of an Author and the Birthday Party Term Paper

… ¶ … illusion and reality in terms of Pirandello's Six Characters in Search of an Author

The play Six Characters in Search of an Author opens meta-theatrically, with actors rehearsing a play within the play. However, the realism of the actors' rehearsal is quickly interrupted by the arrival of six characters, and immediately the audience is forced to question which reality they are supposed to consider 'true.' Even the play being rehearsed is subject to scrutiny and doubt, when the Prompter reads a stage direction and the Leading Man asks if he must wear the cooking hat as described in the text. When the Prompter responds that yes, the Leading Man has no choice but to adhere to the text, reality is established as the confines of the language in a certain context. Reality for the actors is not defined by their lives, but rather by the certainty of this moment in which they must portray permanent characters. In itself, this makes the audience aware of their role as spectators and consequently, the illusion of the stage becomes an integral part of a moment in each person's reality.

Even as the audience becomes a part of the story, the reality being played out before them is continually shifting. The Father almost instantly declares that he is the truest form of being among the living, because he is immortalized in writing. Although his character is a fantasy of the mind, he is not an illusion. He is a representation of the reality of human nature, which in Pirandello's opinion is a higher form of reality than the fleeting moments of life itself. When the Father descries that his reality is unchangeable, it is relative to the transitory reality of human beings. A character lives forever as is, repeating the same designated actions eternally, and these actions represent a certain truth. However, human beings understand their world differently from day-to-day and each of their actions is new and transitory. The illusion the audience experiences, then, is not one of the play itself, but one of thinking that their involvement with the play is a reality.

Second Question: How does Harold Pinter's the Birthday Party represent the limits of language and meaning? Describe the various ways language is employed in the play.…… [read more]

Stone Hammer Poem and Surfacing Essay

… ¶ … Stone Hammer Poem & Surfacing

The concept of language has changed a great deal over time, to the point where, in the present, the same words our ancestors used can have different meanings. Language is mainly a method to communicate, somewhat like a social contract that all people agree with in order for society to function properly. Robert Kroetsch's poem "Stone Hammer Poem" and Margret Atwood's novel "Surfacing" are both examples of how the general role language usually plays does not apply to all people.

At a first glance, one might consider Kroetsch's poem to have little effect on the reader because of its ambiguous nature. The poem actually resembles an amalgam of words put together by a mad man that had no clear reason for doing so. However, this can be accounted for the public's superficiality, and the general indifference such writings are welcome with. In order to understand this text, people need to abandon their preconceptions and attempt to recognize the theme of the poem instead of trying to relate to its words and their normal substance.

Language offers much more freedom than one might think. Kroetsch had clearly discovered this and took advantage of this quality in his poem. Everything seems to be backwards in the writer's world, and this has been made possible through his efforts to confuse his audience by presenting it with a totally new perspective. One can go as far as coming to believe that Kroetsch had attempted to play a prank on readers, in an attempt to prove that everything that they held on to had been questionable.

Whether or not he should be taken for granted is unclear. What is obvious is that the poet has displayed a strong rejection for regular language. Nothing is comprehensible relating to the poem's main theme and it is possible that not even Kroetsch has a solid idea of what it means.

It is very surprising that in spite of the author's nature, his writings are not necessarily written in a caricatured way. His sympathy for the old Canadian West is sometimes distinguishable through the mixture of words that he produces. It is as if he is certain that language can have a strong effect on people, even though he does not use it in the conventional way they expect him to. The poem can be considered to be pretty much dedicated to the Canadian landscape and its inhabitants over time. The stone is eternal in the prairie, it serves several purposes and stands witness to people coming and going. It is of value to some, while for others it is meaningless. The stone hammer had witnessed a great deal of events during its life and is able to tell the history of many happenings.

The writer's work can be related to works of fiction, but the difference is that he truly wants his poem to involve a real story. Considering that his story is broken off in various parts of the poem… [read more]

Sapir-Whorf and Boas View Linguistic Relativity Term Paper

… Language as Mirror and Prism

If one had to pick a single attribute that defines us as human, our ability to talk to each other must surely be among the top choices. Certainly there is our opposable human thumb and… [read more]

Pitman Bullokar Two Champions and Two Eras Term Paper

… Pitman Bullokar

Two Champions and Two Eras of Attempts at English Reform: A Comparison of William Bullokar and Sir Isaac Pitman

The English language is often referred to as a "bastard" language, as it has no pretensions to the type of "purity" supposedly inherent to other more ancient languages. Rooted as it is in Germanic grammar with many Greek and Latinate word forms and vocabulary enhancements, however, it is understandable that often proves difficult to master (especially by non-native speakers) for its complexities, rule-breaking tendencies, and the staggering amount of vocabulary and randomly complex declensions it contains. Due to the diverse background of the development of the English language, there appear to be several systems at work at once in the language, and though most native speakers develop a feel for this language through their personal development, this can be difficult even for them.

The complexities and inconsistencies of the English language have been more than the source of simple frustration in the minds and mouths of English learners, however; they have also been the focus of concerted and conscious efforts of correction and alteration at different points in time, with varying degrees of success. Shortly before the time of Shakespeare, the still-new printing press was already starting to churn out the written word in unheard of quantities, leading to one of the first eras of major reform efforts aiming at the standardization and rationalization of English spelling and grammar. In the nineteenth century, education reform movements -- which themselves were part of overall social movements -- helped to usher in a second era of serious and concentrated efforts to simplify and codify the English language. Two champions of reform, their purposes, techniques, and circumstances, are examined below.

William Bullokar was born sometime around 1520 (the exact year, let alone date, is unknown), and was a teacher in London by the 1550s (Dons 7). After a somewhat adventurous and highly edifying middle-age, Bullokar returned to London as both a teacher and a printer, and he began publishing his works that amounted a complete overhaul of the English language: an alphabet with new letters and diacritical marks, each of which was supposed to correspond to only one sound, three significant pamphlets regarding grammar and a set of standardizations for it, and even a dictionary that was extensive yet incomplete upon Bullokar's death in 1590 (Dons 7; Wolfe 40-1; Bullokar). Through all of this, Bullokar's primary goal seems most clearly to have been a desire for simplicity, as an aid to both teachers and learners and with a devotion to logical principles.

Sir Isaac Pitman also pushed for the simplification -- in some senses -- and standardization of English, though his purposes and approach were both somewhat different. Pitman was above all a scientist in his approach, and though a teacher like Bullokar before him he was not primarily concerned with making English understandable and regular, but rather by making it more correct -- which naturally leads to (or stems from, depending… [read more]

Components of Working Memory Discussion Chapter

… ¶ … Components of Working Memory

Working memory includes elements that can be characterized as the phonological loop, the visuospatial sketchpad, and the central executive function. The phonological loop -- which is also called the phonetic or articulatory loop --… [read more]

English as Creole: Still Trying Term Paper

… Ryan also presents counter arguments that argue Middle English is not a creole, but that it can be considered a trilingual. This argument is based on a less restrictive definition of creole, where a creole does not need to have a primitive language, or a pidgin. Specifically, citing Rothwell (1998), Ryan notes that Middle English can be viewed as trilingual; specifically a combination of Old English, Central French, and Anglo-French. W. Rothwell argues that proponents of Middle English as a creole argue that one of the combination languages is dominant and the other more primitive. However, he argues that none of the following languages can be considered primitive: Old English, Central French, Middle English, or Anglo-French.

Interestingly, the initial definitions of creole that are given by Ryan indicate that a pidgin must first exist for there to be a creole. In A History of the English language, Elly van Gelderen argues "the rapid changes in Middle English are due to the many contacts with other languages but that a pidgin never arose." Certainly, the hypothesis that Middle English is a trilingual, as argued by W. Rothwell, does not necessarily depend on the existence of a pidgin of any combination of Old English, Central French, and Anglo-French.

If we accept the argument that a creole does not require a pidgin, we can perhaps even begin to consider Middle English as more than simply trilingual. Certainly, Middle English contains elements of Old French, Latin or Scandinavian. Perhaps we can consider Middle English in a way that is less restrictive than trying to fit it into a rigid definition of a creole. Middle English, perhaps, may simply be a hodgepodge of different languages, with different proportions of each.

In conclusion, the arguments presented by Ryan that Middle English is a creole are based on a definition of creole that a pidgin must exist, or that a creole requires a primitive language. However, if we loosen the definition of a creole so that a creole does not require a primitive language or a pidgin, we can begin to see Middle English as something other than a creole, e.g., a trilingual. Essentially, whether we define Middle English as a creole fundamentally boils down to our definition of creole itself.


Bailey, Charles J. And Karl Maroldt. "The French lineage of English." Langues en contact -- Pidgins -- Creoles. Ed, Jurgen M. Meisel. Tubingen: Narr, 21-53, 1977.

Dalton-Puffer, Chritiane. "Middle English is a creole and its opposite: On the value of plausible speculation." Linguistic Change Under Contact Conditions. Ed. Jacek Fisiak. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter, 1995. 35-50.

Gorlach, Manfred. "Middle English -- a creole?" Linguistics Across Historical and Geographical Boundaries. Eds.

Poussa, Patricia. "The Evolution of Early Standard English: The Creolization Hypothesis." Studia Anglica Posnaniensia 14 (1982): 69-85.

Rothwell, W. "Arrivals and Departures: The Adoption of French Terminology into Middle English." English Studies (1998) 144-65.

Ryan, Brandy. Middle English as Creole: "Still trying not to refer to you lot as 'bloody colonials'," 2005.

Van Gelderen, Elly.…… [read more]

Amy Tan Thesis

… Amy Tan is one of the most prominent voices in the contemporary literary world. Despite the fact that her popularity is based in the United States of America, she is most likely to achieve the deserved credit in other countries… [read more]

Society Utopia Essay

… Turning Language Into Law

In the eyes of the world, the passage of an "English Only" law would strengthen the image and identity of the U.S. because it would legitimize the nation and give nationalists a central pillar with which to unite American culture. As far as national unity and stability, I believe that the passage of such a law would be detrimental to the United States and would forego much of the richness and diversity that the country was built upon. Having an official language does nothing to create a strong national unity, as many people who are for an official language claim. Instead, it fuels separation of culture and unfair racial and cultural discrimination. National identity is made up of more than languages, but instead encompasses the ethnic, religious, and cultural diversity and values that make up a society.

The idea that something so widely varying and seeming arbitrary as language could be the answer to uniting a country as culturally diverse as the U.S. is preposterous. As author King (1997) states, "Language is a convenient surrogate for nonlinguistic claims that are often awkward to articulate, for they amount to a demand for more political and economic power." I agree with him, that the "English Only" movement started out by attracting those who were more idealistic about creating a melting pot out of American society, but the movement has morphed into a launching pad for reactionary conservatives eager to try to secure as much power for their own cultures as possible. These people are often not able to accurately articulate their own feelings and desires, and lump their emotions and strong political and cultural beliefs into the movement. To these people, as King (1997) states, "…language is a symbol, an icon." Symbols and icons are important for movements and in the fight for a united national identity, but they are…… [read more]

Society Utopia Essay

… ¶ … Utopia

'Mother tongue:' Why America needs to grow up and accept the realities of a multilingual world

Making English the official language of America will only sow division within its borders, rather than create unity. America is such a diverse nation, aspects of its culture its citizens consider uniquely 'American' -- everything from pizza to the concept of individual liberty and the right to 'life, liberty, and property' -- are in fact exported from other nations. It is in the blend of cultural traditions, including languages, that America finds its identity as a nation of immigrants. Creating 'English only' laws will exacerbate social divisions.

Contrary to English-only advocates, many multilingual societies live in harmony across the globe. Switzerland has German, French, and Italian-speaking provinces. Canada is a bilingual nation: both English and French are spoken in most provinces. Europe as a whole, with the ease in travel restrictions between EU nations, has grown more multilingual. The future of the world is multilingual, as to function in the global economy people will need to speak more than one language. Suggesting that Americans only need to speak English to function in the world sends the wrong message to its young citizens. Children should be striving for bilingualism and multilingualism rather than feel self-satisfied that they speak only one language.

From a practical point-of-view, English-only laws are absurd. "Official English obviously has a lot to do with concern about immigration, perhaps especially Hispanic immigration…The usual arguments made by academics against Official English are commonsensical. Who needs a law when, according to the 1990 census, 94% of American residents speak English anyway?" (King 1997). English-only laws are really expressions of profound cultural anxieties of a demographic shift. America is an increasingly non-white, multicultural nation. Children must learn to speak English to survive in school, employees must speak English to 'get ahead' in the workforce, and schools already have a profound financial incentive to bring students to standard English proficiency, thanks to No Child Left Behind Legislation.

There is a certain level of hypocrisy in the postures of politicians who cry for English-only legislation. Many promote such laws -- and then run campaign advertisements in Spanish, or speak in carefully coached…… [read more]

Communication Disorders Essay

… ¶ … communication disorders have been considered less severe than other types of disabilities. Under what types of conditions would a communication disorder not be handicapping at all? Under what types of conditions would a communication disorder result in severe limitations for the individual?

The idea that communication disorders are not 'serious' and are limited to a sibilant's or a stutter has been belied by the explosion of autism in the United States, where an inability to speak is often one of the primary characteristics of the disorder. Being unable to relate to others can profoundly limit the child's education, and cause concurrent academic and psychological afflictions such as conduct disorders and depression. Even children with moderate-to-severe speech defects may be teased, experience social anxiety, and not reach their full academic or social potential without assistance. Minor speech defects may not pose a difficulty, and in some instances, speaking non-standard English may be the 'norm' of a particular community, rather than regarded as socially abnormal.

Should all children in the United States be expected to speak Standard American English regardless of their cultural, social, or geographic background? Explain your answer.

There is no single, standard pronunciation or dialect that trumps all others in America. In contrast to England, even American news announcers may speak in slightly different regional accents -- in a slight Midwestern twang or New York-accented English, in most instances. However, there is no question that there are many English dialects which are extremely…… [read more]

Attitudes to the Southern Dialect Thesis

… Attitudes to the Southern Dialect

According to George Bernard Shaw, America and England "are two countries separated by a common language." Indeed, the differences in the manner in which English is spoken in these two countries has been the source of a great deal of research -- and amusement -- on both sides of the Atlantic but the interest in how English is spoken differently also extends to the dialects spoken in various regions of the United States itself. In this regard, Bex and Watts (1999) report that, "Standard English is simply a sub-variety of English, differing from regional varieties of the language in being a 'social dialect.' There is thus no one accent which is associated with it. (113). Likewise, Hartley and Preston (1999) advise, "A commonplace in United States linguistics is that every region supports its own standard. In the United States there is no one regional dialect that serves as the model. Each region of the country has its own standard" (207).

While English speakers in the U.S. may use many of the same words, the manner in which they are articulated and the syntax and phraseology used by Americans from different regions appears to make regional dialects sound strange to people from different regions. These different perception of regional variations has been the focus of a growing amount of research in recent years. For instance, according to Macneil (2005), "Linguist Dennis Preston of Michigan State University has spent years studying the prejudices Americans have concerning speech different from their own" (18). The studies by Preston typically involve asking random Americans to identify those regions of the country where they believed people spoke differently in an effort to determine where regional dialects adversely affected the perception of the uneducated and unpleasant qualities of these regional dialects. Time and again, Preston has determined that most Americans cite the South as being characterized by uneducated language use but that they still regard the dialect as being "charming" (Macneil 19). To explain this perception, Preston and other linguists suggest that many Americans are exposed to and learn to understand regional dialects through the media, a process that contributes to an increased appreciation for the diversity of the American social landscape. According to Macneil, though, "No matter how they themselves speak, Americans learn to understand the language of network broadcasters, which is the closest thing to an overall American standard. That standard coincides with the speech that Preston's subjects inevitably identify as the best American speech -- that of the Midwest -- because it has the fewest regional features" (19).

Research Question

The research question that guided this study was, "Do people tend to prefer the dialect of the region of the United States in which they were raised?


Based on studies of languages attitudes by the linguist, Dennis Preston (1999) and others, that have determined that individuals tend to prefer the dialects of their own region, it was the hypothesis of this study that those respondents who identified themselves… [read more]

Comparing Linguistic and Folk Linguistic Definitions of American Slang Research Proposal

… Linguistic and Folkloric Definitions of Slang

Slang is often defined as an informal classification of language spoken by members of a particular group. It is casual and informal, and often changes quite rapidly, compared with standard vocabulary, or even dialect. Slang is vernacular (of the 'folk') and/or colloquial speech. It can be used to convey the speaker's membership in a particular group (Akmajan 2001, p. 302). For example, for a non-native speaker of English, the words '411' might be a number, for an English speaker '411' refers to dialing for information, and for a teenager fluent in slang, getting the '411' means finding out gossip or the information about someone or something. Slang can also refer to turns of phrase, like adding city to refer to a large quantity -- like 'fat city' and 'charm city' (Akmajan 2001, p. 305).

Folkloric slang or speech refers specifically to colloquialisms in dialect: such as linguistic terms or meanings that require a regional accent to be fully conveyed as in "Hyde Pork / "Hyde Park or warsh/wash (Folklife, 2009, Teaching students). Folkloric slang can also encompass "local terms, specialized language, and other elements that make up the distinctive speech patterns of a region, folk group, or occupation" that are…… [read more]

Stress and Intonation Patterns Thesis

… Cultural Intonation

Cultural differences in stress and intonation patterns as they relate to overall language processing and acquisition

Language is arguably the most essential and recognizable cultural identifier. The communicative value of language far exceeds that of the simple meanings… [read more]

Representation and Culture Research Proposal

… Representation and Culture

Hall, Stuart. "The Work of Representation." Representation: Cultural Representations and Signifying Practices. Ed. Stuart Hall. Thousand Oaks: The Open University, 1997. 13-74.

In this chapter, Hall focuses on the meaning of representation, which he defines as a… [read more]

Relationship Between Individual's Working Memory Capacity and Their Speech Production of the Second Language Thesis

… ¶ … Linguistic Learning Studies

Differences in Conceptual Design:

The Kormos and Safar study (2008) seems to have been much better designed to produce meaningful results than the Mota study (2003). At the most fundamental level, the Kormos and Safar study manifested an explicit recognition of the degree to which the dependent variable (foreign language learning and performance) is inherently a function of many different variables besides memory. In that regard, the Kormos and Safar study even acknowledged the relevance of variables not traditionally associated with learning, even in the most general sense, such as those attributable to the expanded definitions of cognitive intelligence advanced by pioneers in human learning and education such as Howard Gardner (Kormos & Safar, 2008 p261). That study referenced variables as far-removed from memory as temperament and personality (Kormos & Safar, 2008 p261).

By contrast, the Mota study (2003) focused exclusively and one-dimensionally on the importance of working memory, seemingly without regard for the complex, multidimensional variables outside of memory that may influence the dependent variables measured (foreign language fluency, accuracy, and complexity (Mota, 2003 p69). Furthermore, whereas the Kormos and Safar study (2008) distinguished between the respective roles of working memory and phonological short-term memory in different aspects of language learning, the Mota study (2003) ignored phonological short-term memory altogether from the outset, instead presupposing that any measurable differences in language learning are attributable to differences in working memory alone. Finally, whereas the experimental design devised for the Kormos and Safar study (2008) specifically included both advanced foreign language learners and beginners (Kormos & Safar, 2008 p 264), the Mota study (2003) used only advanced foreign language learners.

Differences in Experimental Methodology:

The Kormos and Safar study (2008) employed a non-word span test (Kormos & Safar, 2008 p 264) to establish one independent variable (short-term memory) and a backward digit span test to establish another independent variable (working memory). Combined with the crucial inclusion of both advanced foreign language learners and beginners, this experimental methodology allowed the researchers to consider the disparate effects and possible roles of different cognitive processes involved in performance not directly attributable to working memory alone.

Conversely, the Mota study (2003) employed only a speaking (word) span test (Mota, 2003 p75) without any test of other cognitive processes potentially involved in foreign language learning and recall. Similarly, the non-word span test employed by the Kormos and…… [read more]

War, Isolation, and English Essay

… War, Isolation, And English

English is often referred to as a "bastard" language due to the fact that it has so many sources. Though technically a Germanic language there is also a heavy Latinate influence that occurred over the millennia of English's spread, beginning in the time that Romans first set foot on the British Isles and continuing through direct and indirect influence from French, Spanish, and other romance languages; so much so that now less than half of the words in the modern English lexicon are actually etymologically rooted in the Germanic family (Marsh, 89). This kind of change is inevitable in any language where the speaking population is not in total isolation, and even then language may still adapt and develop as society changes. The unique history of the British Isles and the subsequent history and influence of the English-speaking world, however, makes the development of English especially volatile and interesting. It was Great Britain's mixture of geographical isolation and extreme centrality in terms of world events for much of its history that forced its unique evolution; more specifically, it was the history of warfare and occupation within and radiating from the British Isles and the later British Empire that made English the eclectic language it is today.

The association of war with English and the isolation of the British Isles both began playing into the history of the English language in the fifth century, with a series of invasions from the Germanic tribes of the Jutes, Saxons, and Angles, all of whom spoke a similar language (English Club, par. 1). The Celtic peoples who populated the island at the time were pushed across the sea to Ireland, and north to Scotland and west to Wales on the main island, establishing the Germanic peoples and their language as the supreme and dominant force on the British Isles (English Club, 2). Neither the Celts nor the Germanic peoples who pushed them out were especially peaceful people, and it was only through intense bloodshed that English began to exist in such a concentrated form. This form, however, called Old English by today's scholars, is not even recognizable to the lay reader as English (Merriam Webster, par. 6). Many of its words appear to have much more in common with modern day German than they do with English. In fact, at this point in the language's history and for several centuries to come, English was not the official name of the language -- Marsh notes that the collective peoples occupying the main portion of the large island of Britain "often spoke of themselves as Saxons, [and] of their language as the Saxon speech" (Marsh, 44). The label of English for the language -- and England for the country -- was derived from the name of the Angles tribes (, par. 4). Though the Germanic tribes are usually referred t as the Anglo-Saxons, history has rewarded only one of these groups with a language.

Though it was war -- or at least… [read more]

Bernard Shaw's Pygmalion Thesis

… Shaw's Pygmalion Q's

Shaw claimed to be an early feminist, believing women were very much equal to men in terms of cognitive ability and philosophical reasoning. Does this sentiment correspond with what you see in Eliza? Is she the true equal of her mentor? Although in many ways it appears as though Eliza is not equal to Henry Higgins, she is in fact many ways superior -- she is the one who tracks down the professor, meaning she determines her own future and is bright enough to see when opportunity is available. In the end, she has education, manners, and a heart, while Higgins is left alone; Eliza has surpassed her teacher, 2) Does Shaw truly unsettle the boundaries between classes in this play or does the end of the play ultimately affirm class boundaries and divisions? Then end of the play, too, could be read as reaffirming class divisions, but it is Eliza who rejects the upper-class and its treatment of the lower. Shaw does not suggest a breakdown of the class system, but he points out his hypocrisies and prejudices, in some ways glorifying the lower class.

3) What makes this a "classic," a "masterpiece" that transcends its original time and place? The themes the play deals with are timeless; the tile comes from a Greek myth -- the idea of creation and…… [read more]

Official Langue and Communication Essay

… Official Langue and Communication

The topic of first and second language in the United States is one that widely debated. Many Hispanic immigrants think that children of first language Spanish speaking backgrounds should retain that cultural distinction, and that coursework should be taught in Spanish. It is, however, part the United States naturalization process that a command of the English language is necessary to become a naturalized citizen in the United States (U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services, found online, 2008). The real puzzle is that there is any concern over by either coalition in acquiring a second language that is as useful as the first language in a world that is speedy towards a global community in which a second language can only be perceived as an individual asset, even a lucrative one. Teaching a course in a dual language is perhaps challenging in the contemporary classroom setting that lacks the appropriate teaching tools, but many educators are looking at the prospect of dual language teaching (Culatta, Barbara, Reese, Marin, and Setzer, Lee Ann, 2006, p. 67).

Social researchers Barbara Culatta, Reese Marin, and Lee Ann Setzer say that early dual language programs have a better chance for success when instituted early in the student's academic career (Culatta, Reese, Setzer, p. 67). Cultural diversity, they say, and the process of language support and exchange between students would make for a positive learning environment involving first and second languages (Culatta, Reese, Setzer, p.…… [read more]

Vocabulary Learning Methods With Beginning Learners Article Review

… ¶ … Vocabulary Learning Methods With Beginning Learners of Spanish

This work intends to conduct a critical review of the work of Nuria Sagarra and Matthew Alba entitled: "The Key Is in the Keyword: L2 Vocabulary Learning Methods with Beginning… [read more]

Valuable Techniques Students and Lecturers Alike Term Paper

… ¶ … Valuable Techniques

Students and lecturers alike often overlook the many challenges involved in essay writing; the former because of their lack of experience, and the latter because of an excess of the same. Essay writing, as the experienced know, does not come naturally at any level. Although lecturers are often sufficiently experienced to feel as if the techniques of essay writing come naturally, they also are bound by the rules and techniques of the phenomenon. As such, both lecturers and students can benefit from revisiting these techniques in the classroom. Three techniques that are specifically valuable in this regard include writing better essays, illustrating paragraphs, and narrating paragraphs.

Writing better essays ultimately results in better grades at the end of the school year. In pursuing this goal, the student should keep a number of things in mind. One of these is grammar. Good grammar and sentence construction are two of the basic requirements for a good…… [read more]

Dark by Yu Ren Dong ) Illustrates Term Paper

… ¶ … dark" by Yu Ren Dong (2004) illustrates one of the greatest challenges of language acquisition for any English Language Learner (ELL) -- understanding when a native English speaker is using a metaphor or if the native speaker means his or her words in a concrete and literal fashion. "I have often found that even graduate [ELL] students have a limited understanding of metaphorical language" in English (Dong 2004: 29). Context is critical for understanding what is meant metaphorically and what is meant literally. This requires that the speaker has some exposure to the accepted norms of American culture that native speakers take for granted. "Learners who grow up in the mainstream American culture, immersed in oral language and schooling, acquire cultural and linguistic competence in metaphorical language. However, L2 learners are asked in their adolescence to acquire a new language for which they have no cultural references or natural oral immersion" (Dong 2004:30).

Even a highly fluent ELL student may not understand the significance of 'bread' as a metaphor in English, particularly if he or she comes from a nation where bread is not consumed as a staple. "Give us this day our daily bread," seems like an inexplicable statement. To reinforce this idea, Dong once asked a classroom of ELL teachers to spend an entire day without using metaphors or colloquialisms, and they found it almost impossible (Dong 2004: 30).

It is critical that teachers do not merely assume that ELL students will naturally and intuitively acquire connotative meanings in language. Increased vocabulary and even high levels of intelligence do not necessarily guarantee metaphoric language acquisition, and it is incumbent upon teachers to make use of learning techniques like scaffolding and creating dramatized situations to reinforce metaphorical…… [read more]

Language Standards Term Paper

… ¶ … working definition of an accent. That working definition takes into consideration the fact that "accents are loose bundles of prosodic and segmental features distributed over geographic and/or social space" (42). If that was the true, and only, definition of the word accent I would be satisfied to pen an entire essay based on accents and how they affect literary works and the individuals in society that read those works. There is further definition contained in the article, however, that makes such an essay not as comprehensive a work as is required. That definition says that "we usually use geography as the first line of demarcation: a Maine accent, a New Orleans accent, an Appalachian accent a Utah accent" (42). Based on the fact that I was born in a foreign country (Poland), immigrated to the United States when I was just four years old, and having traveled extensively throughout the United States, I am in definite agreement with the fact that there are as many varieties of language accents than there are societies of people. An individual can travel from Maine to Appalachia to New Orleans then to Utah and would have to learn what seems like an entirely new version of the English language in each area. Even when the words used enjoy the exact same definition or usage, the way they are spoken can render the language either understandable or uncomprehendable. What I really find fascinating is the fact that not only do accents change the way we view different cultures but word usage changes as well.

As an example when I once traveled to North Carolina the state was experiencing some significant snowfall (a rarity in North Carolina) and I saw some young people sledding down the hill. I talked to some of those young people, and told them that they rode their 'toboggans' with a certain style and panache. They laughed at me and told me that they were not riding toboggans, their toboggans were the quilted hats they wore on their heads. My toboggan (of course) was a sled used to travel through the snow. Of course, this does not certify the accent but (as the article suggests) it does show that there are different uses for different words.

A also currently reside in a very ethnically diverse area and as such also agree with additional arguments as they are contained within the article. One primary argument presented by the author is that accent is not only based on geography but it is also based on the individual's culture and upbringing. The article states "there are also socially bound clusters of features which are superimposed on the geographic: Native American accents, black accents, Jewish accents. Gender, race, ethnicity, income, religion - these and other elements of social identity are often clearly marked by means of choice between linguistic variants" (42-43).

As I walk out of my residence I can be assailed by accents and word usages that vary from culture to culture based… [read more]

Marx Kafka Term Paper

… Marx, Kafka

In his Communist Manifesto, Karl Marx at one point states that a foreign language is only appropriated by translation. In other words, what Marx is saying, at the most basic level, is that a foreign language only becomes a foreign language when it is identified as being foreign and thus set off from the "normal" or accepted language through the process of foreign language translation. At the same time, in his An Introductory Talk on the Yiddish Language, Franz Kafka once described the relationship between the German and Yiddish language as being related in that Yiddish is the only language that allows the Jew to describe their suffering at the hands of the German language. Taken together, what both authors claim is that the act of translating a foreign language is futile in that, within the translation, the concepts or emotions of the words and language becomes lost and thus the result of the translation is a foreign language.

According to Marx, language and political or economic power does not intertwine. Take for instance the case of Russia. For centuries the dominant language of Russia has been Russian. This has been the language of all classes of people. Even after the fall of the Czar and the reign of Communist Russia, Russian remained the national language. Likewise, after the fall of the communist regime and the establishment of the Russian Federation, Russian remains the language of the nation.

However, when the Soviet Union began to colonize the surrounding states, such as the Ukraine, Georgia, Estonia, and the nations of Central Asia, part of the plan was to enforce the Russian way of life onto these people and thus make them Russian. To do this, the Russian language was forced onto them. However, as can be seen, this plan did not work as it is through language that one maintains an identity (see the current situation in Belgium, for example). Once one loses their language, they lose their self-identification to the foreign language. Thus, when Marx claims that a foreign language only becomes foreign through translation, he means that a language is given an identity when it is forced to translate into another language. When this occurs, the parameters for revolution become ripe.

The reason that language persist, whether it be Estonian or Moldavian in the face of Russian or of Yiddish in the face of German, is because it is language that allows a specific society to express itself. In other words, language has been created for the precise purpose of serving the society as a whole by serving as a means of intercourse and to crate a thread of commonality between people. In a Marxists sense, language is the one commonality that overcomes class differences, as it is language that…… [read more]

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