Study "Language / Linguistics" Essays 276-329

X Filters 

Abstract Dealing With Some Aspect of Intercultural Communication Term Paper

… Second Language Research

Miles, C. (2007). Identity's playground: Linking second language use with strategic competence. Journal of Intercultural Communication Issue 13, 5.

Miles offers a case study that examines how a French immigrant of Senegalese descent negotiates his second language… [read more]


Intercultural Communications Evolution of New Multicultural Identities Term Paper

… Intercultural CommunicationS

Evolution of New Multicultural Identities:

As societies become more multicultural, new concepts of cultural identity evolve whenever assimilated immigrant groups congregate in specific regions and local neighborhoods. This phenomenon is a natural function of combining traditional cultural practices with local American customs as well as those of local communities. Over time, substantially different cultural components may evolve, even among people who originally shared the same heritage before emigrating to new countries. It is not unheard of for immigrant communities to form different communities in a new host country, purposefully, or to bring with them intercultural prejudice or antagonism that originated in their respective countries of origin. Many Chinese-

Americans and Philippine-Americans retain a certain amount of uneasiness around Japanese-Americans, even though very few of them were even alive during World War II when Japan invaded their countries and brutalized their ancestors

Finally, even within a single culture, multicultural differences evolve between groups that have already been assimilated for one or two generations and contemporary (first-generation) immigrants. In many Asian-American communities, for just one example, there are substantial differences between Asians who were born in the United States and first-generation Asian-Americans. In many Asian-American communities, second and third-generation Asian-Americans refer to themselves as "ABCs" for "American born Asians," and to "first-generation Asian-Americans as "FOBs" for "fresh off the boat."

2. Untranslatable Vocabulary and Idiomatic Expressions:

All human beings are hard wired for spoken language in the in sense that our developing brains absorb new language skills in childhood and in the sense that in infancy, we naturally mimic parts of speech even before we understand the language.

However, the languages that actually evolved in different parts of the world differ substantially, partly as a function of the natural environment.

As a result, certain concepts routinely expressed in one language may have no comparable translation in others. The English language, for example, has several different words for snow, such as "snow," "sleet," and "hail," for precipitation, and "slush," to describe melted, partly liquefied snow

Skiers and snowboarders may add several more terms, such as "hard pack" and "soft pack" to denote different types of snow that have particular relevance to them. However, Eskimo languages may have dozens of different words for snow that are not directly translatable into English. The Inuit have specific words for fresh snow with ice cover, fresh snow on the ground, old snow on the ground, thin ice, thin ice floating at sea, and smooth ice on the ground, none of which translates directly into English, except by description. Likewise, African and Mediterranean languages may have as many different variations of the word for sand as the Inuit have for snow that do not translate… [read more]


Colbert Report and a Theory Term Paper

… ¶ … Colbert Report has been on the air a little less than two years. The program was an immediate hit, following the Daily Show on Comedy Central and carrying the pretense of the Daily Show into a new realm.… [read more]


Pittsburgh the City Term Paper

… Pittsburgh

The city of Pittsburgh has long been known as a 'steel' tough city filled with a variety of individuals who are as rough and coarse as the city itself. This perception of Pittsburgh and its inhabitants began to change… [read more]


Hawaiian Creole English in Hawaii's Public Schools Term Paper

… HCE

Hawaiian Creole English and Standardized English in Hawaiian Schools

History shows language elicits certain organized behaviors towards the language and the users of the same. Many cultures have allowed vernacular language to develop as their own independent language in… [read more]


Chomsky and Skinner Term Paper

… Chomsky's And Skinner

There are different theories that exist regarding language acquisition A.N. Chomsky's perspective follows the Nativist theory wherein it is believed that children have a Language Acquisition Device in their brains that gives them the natural ability to organize the laws of language even without formal training. B.F. Skinner on the other hand explained language acquisition through a learning process that positively reinforces correct form of grammar and the incorrect form is negatively reinforced. This is what he called, Verbal Operant Conditioning.

These are two different perspectives with different sets of arguments, but in my opinion the more feasible one is that of Chomsky's. Skinner, being a behavioral psychologist, only looked on the "outer" aspect of the process. He only saw the physical stimulus that serves as reinforcements to acquiring the grammar. But where does the child's vocabulary come from in the first place and how can it explain the rapid evolution of his/her vast grammar? Skinner's perspective limits learning to what the child hears and experiences, but even on the same culture/country not every child receives the same kind of stimulus yet they learn the same set of vocabulary. Not… [read more]


Grammar Different Views Term Paper

… " (Contents)

In other words, for Chomsky languages differ from each other on the surface or with regard to their surface structure. However at the level of deep structure they are the same " ... reflecting the general rules of… [read more]


Is English Only Legislation a Practical Solution to Multilingualism in the United States? Term Paper

… English Only Legislation

Is 'English Only' Legislation a Practical Solution to Multilingualism in the United States?

English Only' legislation or none, multilingualism is as much a fact of American life as baseball and apple pie (and, in recent decades, formerly… [read more]


Sociology of Education Term Paper

… Sociology of Education

The purpose of this work is to explain, in relation to the developments of a 'universal' pedagogy in a society where children acquire early literacy in a different family environment, the implications of the statement "what has… [read more]


Mother Tongue by Amy Tan Term Paper

… Mother Tongue

AMY TAN: MOTHER TONGUE

Amy Tan is one of most imminent Asian-American writers of contemporary times. With a Chinese descent and a mother whose English skills could best be described as 'limited', Tan found herself at a significant… [read more]


Speak What We Feel Term Paper

… She is the only character who only speaks from her truthful heart over the course of the play, except for Lear's fool. At the beginning of the play, Lear sees language like fancy clothing, something for display, only later does he understand the importance of truth in language.

Edgar's stress upon the value of a correlation between truthful speaking and truthful feelings and actions is underlined by his own experiences, as his bastard half-brother tells lies about his honesty, requiring Edgar to dissemble and lie in the guise of 'Mad Tom' to survive, a harrowing experience. Another pretending madman, Hamlet, could have told Lear, of course, that one can "smile and smile," and still be a villain, as he notes about his uncle Claudius' behavior after being visited with the truth by his father's ghost. But unlike Lear, Hamlet and Edgar pretend to be mad so they can tell the truth about Claudius and… [read more]


Obscurity of Real Feeling Term Paper

… After being stripped of his power, he begins to understand the naked truth of the human condition. He also understands the value of his daughter Cordelia's brutal honesty and the honesty of his loyal fool.

Edgar's final statement in the play "King Lear" affirms the idea that one should speak as one feels, not what one feels one ought to say, because he has seen Edmund trick his father through lies, and through flattery, much like Lear's older daughters flattered him. Leadership, says the king-to-be, is about being honest and not simply rewarding shows of loyalty. Both Edgar and Hamlet assume personas to protect themselves, but with the aim of preserving their fathers and protecting the real truth. Their personas of madmen are humble, like the loyal Kent's assumption of the persona of a commoner as he follows Lear. But this shows again how ostentation of verbiage, which Lear values at the beginning of his tragedy, means little. Actions mean all, and language can be too easily deployed to obscure the truth of actions, so one… [read more]


Public Communications and Public Relations Term Paper

… However, in the future I hope to deploy these skills into practical use beyond the page, into the human realm of the workforce.

The need to put technical knowledge into a human context remains key. For instance, medical language and… [read more]


Bilingual Education and English Term Paper

… This should however be restricted to the point, where subject matter instruction in English is understood. The bilingual education program also provides literacy in the first language. (Bilingual Education: Arguments For and (Bogus) Arguments Against). The objective of English as… [read more]


Medical Technical and Scientific Translation Term Paper

… Scientific Medical Translation

Personal Statement

Describe your academic interests and reasons for applying. Include details of work experience you consider relevant to your proposed study, career objectives and relevant non-academic achievements.

Translation. I wish to embark upon further study, with… [read more]


Regional Accents in the Business Environment Term Paper

… ¶ … Regional Accents in the Business Environment

The way that we speak is directly effected by the place we come from and the people we are raised around. There can be many variations in language and the way it is used, based on social constructs and contexts. Regional accents or dialects are referring to a specific manner in which a person speaks a language. Everyone from a certain area will usually speak a common language (example: English) but the form of speech used of that language will be specific to an individual.

In an official or business setting, a standard to "prestige" dialect is often used especially when spoken in formal or educational setting. These prestige dialects are usually set based on certain forms of grammar, standard use dictionaries and on typical local literature. Usually, a vernacular dialect is used in the home or in more informal settings. For some, the vernacular and the standard dialect are exactly the same thing.

Variations in dialect are usually identified by an "accent" which is usually manifested as differences in pronunciation rather than differences in grammar. As we all use a dialect, we all have an accent although the term is relative to where you live. For example, if you live in Seattle, then a person coming from Florida has an accent. If the Seattle person is moved to Florida, then the Seattle person becomes the one with the accent.

As human beings, we have a tendency to notice and even judge people based on their ways of speaking that may be different from our local norm. It has been the tendency to associate class differences with speech patterns. We like to assume that America is a place of tolerance and justice for all, no matter what the origin or education. However, it is true that there are some accents (for example, southern accents), which in the popular media are generally associated with people who are of lower socioeconomic caste or educations. This stereotypical response has even led to the development of a cottage industry in which businessmen and women are taught dialect reduction. It all depends on whether the dialect and regional accent works well for the person or can be a hindrance.

Certain accents can cause certain people to react in certain ways. Even people who feel that they are free from regional, class or native prejudice may have… [read more]


Character (or the Female Narrator) in Assia Term Paper

… ¶ … character (or the female narrator) in Assia Djebar's Fantasia: An Algerian Cavalcade, examine the relation between language and identity. In particular, analyze how language helps the main character construct her identity as a woman. Highlight how her experience… [read more]


Ruba Bridging the East Term Paper

… I realized that I can utilize optimally my skills and knowledge of the Eastern and Western cultures in helping out with my family's manufacturing business in China. By studying for a degree in Economics, I will be able to apply the cool temperament of the West and the fiery nature of the East in the world of international business. I have the advantage of knowing the proper way of doing business in China, as well as the temperament of individuals who grew up with the Eastern culture and character. I also have the privilege of learning the rudimentaries of American culture, which is an essential tool when conducting international business relations in the world market.

Bridging the gap between the East and the West is perhaps the most difficult task an individual who has interest in both regions has to do. I am proud to say that armed with a degree in Economics, I can accomplish the task of bringing modern business into the East while introducing the West to the Eastern traditional culture, thereby binding both cultures together as one. As a businessman who both has the Chinese and American characteristics in his personality, I can be instrumental in helping Eastern tradition be known to the world and be admired for its uniqueness and admirable qualities of being a collectivist and cooperative society. Similarly, I can bring about into the Eastern culture the individualist, yet self-reliant and independent character of the Western culture, which can be revolutionary in bringing forth the self-development of individuals in the society. Thus, my Eastern and Western heritage have proven to be useful in the achievement of my dream to reconcile and unify the differences that exists in an eternally diversified world that we live in. [read more]


Angels Wear Brassieres? By Olive Term Paper

… Her language fits her image just as much as the corporate mumbo jumbo fits the director who is only looking to cover her a**. The language here totally defines the characters, and becomes an integral part of the understanding of the piece. It also changes from section to section, creating new characterization and further understanding for the reader of the differences between each operational division in ADJ, Inc. Each person plays a different role in the success (or failure) of the company, and so each person has a different voice. Just as language is almost like an additional character in "Do Angels Wear Brassieres?" In this story, it defines the characters and their roles, and without it, the piece would lose much of its impact.

It is simple to derive political beliefs from language, as "Do Angels Wear Brassieres?" clearly illustrates. Underlying the story of a young, inquisitive girl is the story of the colonials who came to Jamaica and changed the way of life. They spoke differently, they acted differently, and they worked to change the culture of the people. The language of this story shows the disparity between the two groups, and how the colonials tried to change the natives to an English way of thinking, rather than retaining their own strong heritage.

The politics of "ADJ, Inc." are far different, but they are still illustrated by the language of the piece. The corporate language hides a dark secret. This could be the story of any number of covert government organizations, couched in the amusing story of a woman who wants to rid herself of the "perfect" man. The bungling and subterfuge is made more apparent by the different departments who handle the case, and the outcome, "SILENCE CLIENT" (Vega 1155). Taken out of context, this story illustrates the political stresses in Puerto Rico, and shows how you cannot trust anyone, from your own husband (who turns out to be the "benefactress," to your own government agencies. Language is the tool both women use to indicate political stress and subterfuge, and language was the best tool for the job. Characters and location are certainly important in any work of fiction, but as these two works clearly show, language can take fiction to another level - much deeper and more meaningful than simple plot, characterization; or setting ever could.

In conclusion, these two stories vividly demonstrate how language plays another role in the story, and how it can change a story from lighthearted to serious from paragraph to paragraph. Language is a powerful tool in storytelling, and these two short stories are excellent examples of the disparity of language, and what an important part it can play in the telling of a tale, especially a regional one. Language is so important; it can almost be considered another character in these two stories.

References

Senior, Olive. "Do Angels Wear Brassieres?" Modern Literature of the Non-Western World: Where the Waters are Born. Jayana Clerk and Ruth Siegel eds. New York: HarperCollins… [read more]


Prescriptive Grammar Are the Rules Term Paper

… " Also, from a prescriptive language perspective, one may learn that the letter C. makes a hard sound. However, there are many variations of this rule. In the word "scintillating" for example, the c is silent. The name Cecilia assumes a silent C.

From a descriptive grammar perspective, a native speaker would recognize for example that the word "ndugu" or "giasou" are not from the English language. Descriptive grammar allows an individual to pronounce sounds and make meaningful sentences, even without understanding the mechanics of language and grammar. Descriptive grammatical usage also allows the speaker to break up words such as compound words to form multiple meanings. Again, falling back on the idea of "linguistic competence" descriptive grammar models usage based on an intuitive understanding of the workings of the native language of English.

Because the use of corpora in grammatical studies is largely used for linguistic analysis, it seems fair to assume that descriptive grammar is a better choice for analysis. Again, linguists are more interested in examining linguistic competence and comprehension, which generally stems from the intuitive ability to speak and read English, put sentences together and recognizes what types of words and usage do and do not go together. This is virtually a description of descriptive grammar. Using prescriptive grammar for corpora studies would merely result in a lack of adequate interpretation of the many variances and subtleties that exist in the English language.

References

Russel. (2003). "Prescriptive vs. Descriptive Grammar." Retrieved March 23, 2003 at http://grove.ufl.edu/~russell/prescriptive.html [read more]


Speech Problems and Psychological Damage Term Paper

… Among these are excessive nasality of speech. Because those with cleft lips and palates lack the normal velopharyngeal (or soft palate-to-pharynx) closure, the voices of such individuals quite often acquire an abnormally nasal quality that is a direct result of… [read more]


Teaching English to Non-English Speaking Term Paper

… Even with an interpreter there is no guarantee that the translation will be smooth or exact. Teaching English to non-English speaking residents will remove the middle person and allow those in conflict to resolve their own issues (Pean, 1999).

Many conflicts arise over misunderstood meaning and assumptions. There are programs at high schools and colleges today that work off the assumption problem. The program has the students verbalize what they think someone is like outside of the classroom based on their classroom behavior. The results are often amazing and completely inaccurate (Ferrechio, 1999). Conflict resolution without a universal language is similar to this problem. If the parties involved in the conflict speak different languages the assumptions are going to be made based on loose and not always accurate translations as well as mistaken body language and social cues. Because different cultures have different body language cues it is important not to depend on those for the purpose of conflict resolution. In some nations getting close to someone physically to speak is considered rude, while in other cultures it is an expected and accepted way to communicate (Vickers, 1998). Regardless of the cues that are non-verbal, if everyone involved used the same words then the conflict could be discussed and resolved (Ferrechio, 1999).

Using English as a universal language for the purpose of conflict resolution will enhance the equality of participants when it comes to gender roles as well. Many western nations treat women equally and they have their right to their opinion in business and other matters (Boel, 1997). However there are other nations in the world who do not view the female as equal. During conflict resolution if all parties speak English it puts the woman on an equal plane with the man and allows her to speak to them with a "neutral" language.

CONCLUSION

The world is globalizing more with each passing month. Businesses are now interfacing with companies around the world and the Internet has opened a whole new frontier when it comes to communicating. Because of this advanced and new way of being able to communicate the ability to resolve conflicts when they arise is becoming extremely important. When one has a conflict with someone around the world and desires to participate in a conflict resolution meeting to resolve the issue, it will be much more difficult if the language spoken by the parties involved is not the same. English is already being taught in many nations because there is a general belief that it is going to become the universal language. It would behoove the world to begin accepting it as such and teaching English to the non-English-speaking residents of this country and others for the purpose of a smoother conflict resolution field.

The ability to effectively handle conflict is a valuable skill to have. It is a field that revolves around the ability to communicate well with all parties involved. If the mediator can start the process ahead of the game with everybody involved… [read more]


African-American Vernacular English Term Paper

… The verb placement and word choice gives AAVE its character. For example, a person who is speaking AAVE may say "I sho nuf had a good time, bro, lata." In Standard English, this phrase means. "I certainly had a good… [read more]


Old French Term Paper

… The poem was a dramatic one, showing the warlike spirit in which Roland took part and met his fate. It shows how military interest using Old French began its popularity (Columbia Encyclopedia).

Different Considerations on The Development of Old French… [read more]


Translation Plagiarism and Detection Software Chapter

… Bailey, J. (2011). The problem with detecting translated plagiarism. Plagiarism Today. Retrieved online: https://www.plagiarismtoday.com/2011/02/24/the-problem-with-detecting-translated-plagiarism/

This is a thorough article related to the difficulties in detecting translation plagiarism. According to Bailey (2011), there is no reliable technology tool that can be… [read more]


Grammar Argument Essay

… These include "ditch periods," and "kill capital letters while we're at it."

The biggest claim there is that grammar is critical to communication. While he takes a few jabs at some of the arcane grammar, his ultimate point is that grammar is critical to communicate. The cliche "garbage in, garbage out" is a supporting point, but it highlights the role that grammar plays. Devoid of grammar, communication becomes a jumbled mess, devoid of the very structure that makes language comprehensible across a broad audience.

This claim is not stated explicitly, but is implied in the way that the argument is framed. Wertheimer proposes new grammar rules that would render written communication entirely unintelligible. The use of tone -- in particular the tongue-in-cheek style of some of the arguments against grammar -- mocks the idea that grammar is no longer relevant.

In making his claim that grammar is a critical element of language because it provides critical structure, Wertheimer makes most of his claims in the subtext. A line like "and its kewl 2 use alt splings + use 2 and 4 instead of the words b/c we all wish we were prince" is so blatantly mocking that the reader should clearly see this is a point in support of the exact opposite of what the words actually say. Style, tone and the choice of words are critical traits of the way Wertheimer crafts his argument. Failure to pick up on these might lead the reader to take Wertheimer seriously, which would lead to confusing over some of the more self-contradictory elements of his post.

References

Wertheimer, D. (2002). 99.9% of proper grammar is obsolete. Digital Web Magazine. Retrieved March 2, 2014 from http://www.digital-web.com/articles/999_of_proper_grammar_is_obsolete/ [read more]


Powerpoint vs. Prezi Essay

… The author posits the notion that saving time is one of the most influential drivers for this method of communication in the following quotation. "Abbreviations make it possible to type short messages for all devices as easily and quickly as just for one. Between the spiraling time commitments of full sentences…online shorthand provides the only approach to online communication that makes…sense" (Wertheimer, 2002). It is interesting to see that the author refers to the length of time to write complete, conventional sentences as "spiraling," and describes the mode of communication facilitated by shorthand as "short."

Another claim that Wertheimer makes is that reading and writing standard written English is too difficult for a number of people. Thus, shorthand has an appeal to this audience which is largely ignorant of the grammatical rules in general. Subsequently, they break such rules with impunity, and are not even aware of the fact that they are doing so. The author implies that it is essential for those who do know how to properly write (himself included, grammarians, teachers, etc.) to embrace shorthand because it will help the audience to which they are writing. He also makes a number of statements that imply that those who do write in standard written English are dated, and need to utilize the modern style of abbreviations instead of their arcane, "abstruse" standard writing styles.

The author claims that time constraints and difficulty understanding standard written English contribute to the widespread usage of abbreviations. He also claims that the internet is fueling this trend.

References

Wertheimer, D. (2002). 99.9% of grammar is obsolete. Digital Web Magazine. Retrieved from http://www.digital-web.com/articles/999_of_proper_grammar_is_obsolete/ [read more]


Post as a Team Essay

… This could have adverse implications since more funds would be required for training to enhance consistency in results (Raser & Lemon, 2011). However, there is still no guarantee of attaining measurable benefits after completing the coding process. This makes data coding to be of low quality as compared to the modern methods of integrating data because of its inconsistent outcomes in case of coding similar data by different people.

Patton (2002) reports that the aim of the first reading through data is to develop the coding categories or classification system, followed by a new reading to actually start the formal coding in a systematic way (Patton, 2002). The use of colored highlighting pens is also helpful to some to highlight a different idea or concepts (Patton, 2002). My coding structure and strategies were based on my reading of the data and developing coding categories, followed by a new reading to systematically start a formal coding process. Finally, Patton (2002) reports that a qualitative analyst must first deal with the challenge of convergence in developing codes and categories; yet these categories should be judged by internal homogeneity and external heterogeneity (Patton, 2002). Internal homogeneity is concerned with the extent to which the data that belong in a certain category hold together or 'dovetail' in a meaningful way, while external heterogeneity is concerned with the extent to which differences among categories are bold and clear (Patton, 2002). My coding process involved putting my data into categories and examining similarities and themes found within the data, as well as differences. An example of my coding strategy is found in the coded interview question below of the three interviewee's responses:

Based on these characteristics, what do you admire most about this [read more]


Value of Qualitative vs. Quantitative Research Essay

… ¶ … value of qualitative vs. quantitative research is occasionally debated in the natural and social sciences, both are generally acknowledged to be fundamentally useful constructs, although they are used to answer very different types of research questions. Quantitative research is data-driven and often used to answer an experimental or quasi-experimental question. It may use a comparison between an experimental group and a control group to establish scientifically valid and falsifiable results. "It is commonly asserted that quantitative research is based on positivistic assumptions, whereas the qualitative approach is grounded on anti-positivistic positions, often some sort of phenomenology, constructivism, hermeneutics, or naturalism" although the idea of 'positivism' is not generally thought to be applicable to the social sciences in the same way that it is to the natural sciences (Lund 2005: 118). The research data collected is structured, often in the form of questionnaires or other methods which enable numerical calculations. The sample size is sufficiently large to make assumptions beyond the anecdotal. Because of the generalizable intention of the research, participants are randomly selected to be representative of the general population under study (Qualitative vs. quantitative research, 2012, Snap Surveys).

In contrast, qualitative research takes the form of case studies, ethnographies, and other forms of research which are experiential, hands-on, and focus upon a particular population. The research is not always generalizable to the general population. In fact, it might be designed specifically to only encapsulate the worldview and experiences of a very narrow group, such as Native Americans with diabetes. It is non-experimental and does not begin with a hypothesis. The researcher may simply decide to explore a phenomenon without expecting to draw specific scientific conclusions. The research is open-ended, semi-or unstructured, and involves interviews, observations, and sometimes participant-observation by the researcher (Qualitative vs. quantitative research, 2012, Snap Surveys).

Qualitative research seldom keeps track of results using statistics, and instead reports the results in a narrative form,… [read more]


Translation Studies and Interpretation Essay

… ¶ … translation vs. literary interpretation

Any form of 'pure' translation is effectively impossible -- to translate something by definition is to produce an alternative version, as seen through the eyes of the translator. One debate in the field amongst translators is if oral translations have the character of literary interpretations. According to Peter Newmark: "For non-literary translation, the truth is the factual truth and in literary translation, the truth is the moral and aesthetic truth." A particular word or phrase, for example, could be phrased literally, such as the word 'fat' when translating a literary document. A more literary view of the way 'fat' was used in context might suggest that the writer actually meant someone who was contented, and at the time the author wrote, a word like 'fat' was used to convey this, as opposed to physical corpulence, which the word means today. When this judgment is made, it is argued, a work of 'literary interpretation' has occurred, not literary translation. However, an oral translator, in an 'in the moment' effort to translate what a person said, would not have to contextualize the world in the same literary fashion.

Other authors contend that fundamentally, the aim of translation is not truth. According to Daniel Gile: "if you want to get as close as possible to the 'truth', to what is really essential, I am not even convinced that there is a fundamental difference between literary translators and non-literary translators." No translator translates the text word-for-word, and specific wordings choices that influence both literary and oral content are invariably being made in Gile's view and thus all forms of translation are effectively new works of literature. Both literary and oral translators are effectively performing the same task.

There are clearly many divergent interpretive literary intentions when a reader peruses modern versions of old and new classics. For example, some translations of Homeric epics such as the Odyssey and the Iliad render both books… [read more]


Biological Psychology the Human Ear Essay

… Biological Psychology

The human ear is one of the body's sensory organs that is used for both hearing and balance. The ear seems to have evolutionarily developed based on the need for a more acute sense outside of the water. The range of frequencies that the human ear can both detect and analyze is probably the result of evolutionary pressure to understand complex speech sounds and differentiate between natural sounds in the environment, and speech. For instance, the sound of a predator, rockslide or lightning bolt tend to rise slowly instead of abruptly -- human speech and sounds (music, etc.) is planned, and therefore expected. Too, the frequencies in which humans hear are the most likely to be translated appropriately into a learning function for the brain, and thus an evolutionary advantage.

Part 2 -- Frequency changes are picked up in the human brain based on pressure sensors in the ear. Loudness is determined by the rate at which these sound pulses occur and frequency by which nerves are activated and then need interpreted. It seems that the human brain would distinguish loudness for a high-frequency tone by comparing it with messages in the auditory cortex. In addition, these are localized by means of tone and timbre, which differs from frequency and is analyzed in a different manner than just loudness.

Part 3 -- Hypnosis in humans is really a state of deep relaxation, almost sleep, but not quite. It is a state of mind that allows the subconscious mind to be freer to make associates, articulate memories, and become more readily accessible. To determine whether hypnosis releases endorphins, one could… [read more]


Academic Writing Australian Dictionary Term Paper

… City life offers opportunities to explore new fields and interests. Many different kinds of activities can be found within a large population center for a person with a wide variety of interests. Access to tennis, golf, bowling, and opportunities to take classes in a variety of disciplines add to the ability to enrich one's life and allow individuals to meet people with whom they would not normally come in contact. The rewards of choosing to make ones home in a city are many for individuals who enjoy a wide range of activities.

Paragraph Three: Ownership of a Pet

Studies are inconclusive about the long-term psychological and physical health benefits of owning a pet, however many find pet ownership to be very rewarding. According to a 2008 study by the National Institutes of Health people who had suffered a heart attack were more likely to be alive one year after the event if they owned a dog. Furthermore, dog owners who regularly walked their dogs were more physically active, had greater mobility, and were less likely to be obese, and since walking a dog leads to more conversations, are more apt to stay socially connected. Research indicates that pet ownership may help lower blood pressure, reduce stress, lower health care costs (pet owners visit the doctor less frequently), and fight depression. There is also evidence that children benefit from interaction with a pet. According to Dr. James Griffin when asked who they talk to when they are upset many times a child's first answer is their pet. This is indicative of the value of a pet as a source of comfort and developing empathy. Whether or not these findings can be proven remains to be seen, however, when considering taking on the responsibility of pet ownership you might want to take this evidence into account, it forms a powerful argument in favor of getting a pet. ("Are Pets Good for Your Health?").

Works Cited

"Are Pets Good for Your Health?" Reader's Digest. (ND). Web. 14 November 2012.

Moore, Bruce. "Australian English in… [read more]


Translations by Brian Friel's Play Essay

… ¶ … Translations" by Brian Friel

Brian Friel's play "Translation" is all about the unfortunate and gradual decline of the Irish identity and language as portrayed in O'Donnel family's experience. This issue is what is central to the play. In this paper; I present an in-depth analysis of the central themes in the play "Translation" by Brian Friel.This play documented the sad end of Irish language and its replacement by the English language.

At the very beginning of the play, Maire is note perfect in speaking English. The only thing that she can say are just a few words as well as select English phrases as is seen when she said "In Norfolk we bespot ourselves around the maypole" (Friel 8).We also see Jimmy in almost similar situation even though the Irish Maire is somehow more vocal about her apparent lack of English knowledge. Jimmy on the other hand is only conversant with Irish and he does not known the word "bo-som," a term which he had a lot of difficulty in pronouncing (Friel 9).

The characters in the play are noted to gradually improve their proficiency and skills throughout.At the end of the play, we notice that Maire is making a lot of efforts to learn English. She feels that it is necessary for her to be proficient in spoken and written English for the sake of her future prosperity. She feels that sticking to her first language, Irish would be a total disaster.

Her opinions are in contrast with those of the character Hugh who views English as a very… [read more]


Cardio Author ____ Reviewer Research Paper

… 10-5

VERY POOR: Absence of thesis and/or absence of relevant evidence.

ORGANIZATION

20-18

EXCELLENT TO VERY GOOD: Sequence of ideas (paragraphs) in the paper is clear, logical, and complete; paragraphs have topic sentences, transitions, and are internally coherent.

17-14

GOOD TO AVERAGE: Minor weaknesses in overall organizational pattern and/or paragraph structure (e.g., some irrelevant ideas/paragraphs included; some ideas omitted or not fully developed; some paragraphs with no major point).

13-10

FAIR TO POOR: Major weaknesses in organization and/or paragraph structure (e.g., frequent digressions; few transitions; serious omissions or underdevelopment).

9-7

VERY POOR: lack of overall organization and/or absence of coherent paragraphs (e.g., no explicit relationships among ideas in the paper; many one-sentence paragraphs, etc.).

VOCABULARY

20-18

EXCELLENT TO VERY GOOD: Vocabulary of sophisticated range; effective use of word/idiom choice and usage, word form mastery, appropriate register.

17-14

GOOD TO AVERAGE: Vocabulary shows adequate range; occasional errors of word/idiom form, choice, and usage, but meaning is not obscured.

13-10

FAIR TO POOR: Vocabulary has limited range, frequent errors of word/idiom form, choice, usage; meaning is confused or obscured.

9-7

VERY POOR: Vocabulary is essentially translation; clear projection from English.

LANGUAGE USE

25-22

EXCELLENT TO VERY GOOD: Good construction of sentences, including proper word order, referents, subject-verb agreement, parallel structure, modifier and clause placement; few errors of agreement, tense, number, articles, pronouns, prepositions.

21-18

GOOD TO AVERAGE: Minor weaknesses in grammar; few grammatical errors that, in the context of the essay, cause the reader some distraction; effective but simple constructions; several errors in agreement, tense, number, word order/function, articles, pronouns, prepositions, but meaning seldom obscured.

17-11

FAIR TO POOR: Major weaknesses in grammar that cause the reader significant distraction; frequent errors of negation, agreement, tense, number, word order/function; frequent errors of articles, pronouns, prepositions and/or fragments, run-ons, deletions; meaning is confused or obscured; reads like a translation from English.

10-5

VERY POOR: Poor grammar; virtually no mastery of sentence construction rules; dominated by errors; does not communicate.

MECHANICS

10-9

EXCELLENT TO VERY GOOD: Shows mastery of conventions of spelling, punctuation, capitalization, paragraphing, and accent marks.

8-7

GOOD TO AVERAGE: Occasional errors of spelling, punctuation, capitalization, paragraphing, and accent marks, but meaning is not obscured.

6-5

FAIR TO POOR: Frequent errors of spelling, punctuation, capitalization, paragraphing, and accent marks; meaning is confused or obscured.

4-2

VERY POOR: Shows no mastery of conventions; dominated by errors of spelling, punctuation, capitalization, paragraphing, and accent marks. [read more]


Reckoning Life Has Some Form Essay

… For example, some of that the words of Eva's used in childhood did not hold the same significance for her when she learned the word in a new language. She explains, "River' in Polish was a vital sound, energized with the essence of riverhood, of my rivers, of my being immersed in rivers. 'River' in English is cold -- a word without an aura. It has no accumulated associations for me, and it does not give off the radiating haze of connotation. It does not evoke."

In The Way to Rainy Mountain, Scott Momaday also illustrates a certain type of barrier to memories, but in an entirely different way. As opposed to a language barrier, the author depicts the barriers that are in place when trying to understand the culture of a people from their stories and thus be able to tap into more of a collective memory. In the story, a young man relives his grandmother's life by traveling to the grave of his grandmother along the same route that her people, the Kiowas, took on their journey to a new land.

Another interesting dynamic that also represents something of a barrier is the fact that the young man's grandmother did not actually experience the journey herself. However, she knew the stories so well that it seemed as if she had actually made the journey herself. Though she did not have the firsthand experience of the journey, she was able to effectively recreate it through the memories of others that had been passed down to her. Then she passed down this experience again from one generation to the next in the same way that it was taught to her.

Figure 1 - Portrayal of The Way to Rainy Mountain (Lanigan)

The way to rainy mountain represented a long and hard journey for the Kiowa people. Despite the hardships they experienced all the way, they became stronger, learned new skills, and gaining a new spirituality. Recreating this passage, the young man's way to rainy mountain revealed many insights about the memories his grandmother passed to him. Not only did the journey provide him a greater understanding pilgrimage undertaken by the Kiowa people but it also provided a mental picture of the places described by his grandmother; though she had never actually seen them herself with her eyes. "My grandmother had a reverence for the sun, a holy regard that now is all but gone out of mankind. There was a wariness in her, and an ancient awe. (Momaday)"

The story represents multiple journeys that occur simultaneously which indicates a timeless element to memory. However, all of the journeys ended in some way at Rainy Mountain which represents something of a closing point for the memory. For the young man, his journey ended at his Grandmother's grave. For his grandmother her journey ended where it began, at the Rainy Mountain. She was born there, lived her life with the Kiowa, and died there. The journey of the Kiowa also ended at… [read more]


Dialects the Spanish Dialect: Spain Essay

… It is not like some other languages, where people do not have enough changes in the dialect from one region to another to have any real trouble speaking a language correctly. English, for example, can cause some confusion if a person from the U.S. is exposed to the UK. Many of the phrases and words for common items are different. The same is true for Spanish, with the added confusion of having some differences of grammar and syntax that go beyond what word is being used. When there are different kinds of formal and informal pronouns that are also used, confusion can easily result. Children who learn Spanish from a very young age or as their first language often do better than people who learn Spanish later in life, because younger people tend to learn faster than older people.

Despite the ease of learning something, even younger people can have trouble with other dialects of Spanish as opposed to the one they learn first. Traveling from one region or country to another often overwhelms a person, and assuming that the language spoken in one area will be the same as the language spoken in another area is not a good idea. Spanish is not the same across different countries, and anyone who plans to travel should be aware of that. It will certainly not make communication impossible, but it is very easy for there to be misunderstandings - and a few funny moments - because of the differences in dialect. There can also be some tense moments, and it is important to speak clearly and pay attention when dialects change. That way serious problems can often be avoided, and with a little trial and error a person can figure out what is meant by an unfamiliar word or phrase that is in his or her own language but subject to dialectic differences. [read more]


Philosophy the Difference Essay

… We can say then that universals are more fixed with respect to meaning, while particulars are contingent on time with meanings that are relative and constantly shifting.

Universals, furthermore, depend upon and illustrate the presence of a priori knowledge, a sort of foreknowledge of knowing or a kind of cultural intuition with respect to meaning, knowledge, and truth.

This suggests a proposition which we shall now endeavour to establish: namely, All a priori knowledge deals exclusively with the relations of universals. This proposition is of great importance, and goes a long way towards solving our previous difficulties concerning a priori knowledge. The only case in which it might seem, at first sight, as if our proposition were untrue, is the case in which an a priori proposition states that all of one class of particulars belong to some other class, or (what comes the same thing) that all particulars having some one property also have some other. In this case it might seem as though we were dealing with the particulars that have the property rather than with the property. (Russell, 1997)

We must already have some form of knowledge regarding what is true and what is univeral in order to understand a universal. In the moments of understanding a universal, we illustrate the presence of a priori knowledge. Knowledge regarding particulars can be picked up at any moment in time and do not require a priori knowledge to be understood, nor is it necessarily referenced when one has knowledge of particulars.

References:

Russell, Betrand. The Problems of Philosophy. Chapter 9 --… [read more]


Bilingualism One of the Inevitable Consequences Essay

… ¶ … Bilingualism

One of the inevitable consequences of living in a multicultural society is the plurality of languages spoken by different members of the community. The coexistence of communities speaking different languages in the United States has generated controversy in the realm of public education. One school of thought supports the provision of lessons and learning materials in multiple languages to ensure that all children and young learners have comparable access to educational resources and equal educational opportunities. Another school of thought refutes the benefits of bilingual education. According to that view, providing educational instruction and resources in multiple languages only perpetuates resistance to learning the dominant language and, therefore, is more of a disservice than a benefit to the community in general. In principle, proponents of both positions probably believe that bilingualism is a good thing to the extent that bilingualism means learning the dominant language as a supplement to a foreign language that is native to the family. However, they disagree about the value of bilingual education toward that goal.

There is no conceivable objective justification to oppose bilingualism to the extent bilingualism means learning to speak multiple languages. American-born children of parents whose native language is not English should (obviously) learn English because English is the primary language in the country and English illiteracy or inability to communicate in English only has disadvantages socially, culturally, and professionally and there is absolutely no conceivable advantage to refusing to teach English to anybody who lives in the U.S. Nor is there any conceivable advantage to limiting children to learning only English to the exclusion of other languages, especially the native languages of their parents' heritage.… [read more]


Grammar for Me Is the Area Essay

… Grammar for me is the area in which I need most improvement. It is not something like spelling in which the computer program will invariably help correct it. It is rather far more complex and escapes correction by a program or when I speak.

More so, there are all these things that don't make sense that trip me up such to 'whom' or 'who' or 'I' or 'me';, and then there are all the grammar errors that shouldn't be errors and that just don't make sense.

Grammar is important because it helps the style flow and is simply one of the distinguishing marks of a well-written piece of work and of course a grammatically sound piece of work. A good grasp of grammar will, therefore, help me in innumerable ways from sounding more credible in the regular business format to publishing were I to enter the academic field.

Perhaps one of the thorniest areas of grammar is the all these notations that are connected with speech: The apostrophe, the exclamation point, the quotation mark, the semi-apostrophe. And exceeding all that ubiquitous comma that insists on coming everywhere and yet on falling out everywhere, too. Grammar manuals simply swim with directions about the comma and yet I find that they often omit certain aspects or make them too complex.

Lay/lie, comma splices, -ie or -ei, subjunctive mood are other challenges. As well as that dreaded dangling modifier .

I often err too with starting paragraphs when I should not have.

By far, though -- and I'm not sure whether this is a part of grammar -- are problems with my style. It often simply sounds awkward and stilting, not like that smooth, delicious, seamless writing that so many others, excluding me, seem to possess.

Running the risk of falling into dejection and frustration, I must add that there have been at least two books that have helped me over the years. One of these is 'Style' by J.M. Williams. It runs into several formats and editions. Some of these are rather abstruse and complex. I prefer the handbook with exercises: ..

Strunk and White's renowned 'elements of style' I like too, although I find it hugely incomplete.

Another… [read more]


Resumptive Pronouns Research Proposal

… Resumptive Pronouns

Simply put, resumptive pronouns are those syntactical elements that refer back to the primary antecedent or, in some cases, another previously presented element within the same sentence. Uncommon in English except in certain cases where a complex series of clauses leads to a deep embedding of the original antecedent (the referent of the resumptive pronoun), many other languages contain resumptive pronouns as a means of clarifying or reaffirming the subject or object referred to by the pronoun. In the sentence, "This is the girl who, when the storm is coming, she hides," she is a resumptive pronoun, referring back to "the girl," the subject of the sentence. In English, "This is the girl who, when the storm is coming, hides" is also correct, and in many other cases a resumptive pronoun would be entirely incorrect ("This is the girl who she hides when the storm comes" is clearly incorrect when "she" refers to the same individual as "the girl" and thus is resumptive; "This is the girl who hides when the storm comes" -- the same clause less the resumptive pronoun -- would be the proper way to construct this in English). In other languages, however, the resumptive pronoun is not only allowable but required in many more circumstances. This can cause certain problems for foreign (non-native) learners of English.

There is some controversy as to whether or not primary languages serve as models that lead to errors when it comes to resumptive pronouns; though this definitely occurs for other types of errors, researchers have observed that resumptive pronoun errors are committed by small children that are native… [read more]


Median, and the Mode Essay

… ¶ … median, and the mode. The mean is impacted by data points that are far out in the distribution. The further out on the tail that outlier data points are, the more the mean will be pulled in that direction (toward the tail extremes). This results in a mean that does not represent the majority of the data points (the central tendency) very well. The median represents the point at which half of the data points fall below a certain point and half of the data points fall above that point. The mode is useful for distributions that are nominal (the mean and the median do not apply to nominal data) and to distributions that are bi-modal.

Central tendency is one of the most useful descriptive statistic measures because of it functions as a general purpose "snap-shot" of distribution. The human mind looks for patterns in data, and central tendency measures cater to that aspect of human understanding by providing labels for data sets that represent patterns. Using central tendency measures permits researchers to employ a common language and specific methods to derive at the data labels that are collectively known as measures of central tendency.

Variability is an important measure of distributions because it reflects the spread of the data. Distribution variability is fundamentally a measure of distance, and the terms for describing this distance include standard deviation, range, and inter-quartile range. The range refers to the entire distribution but the inter-quartile range refers to the center two of four quartiles. Standard deviation refers to the standard distance of particular data points from the mean.

A combination of measures of central tendency and measures of variability can be used to construct a generalized visual display of the data… [read more]


Business English and Implications on TESOL Essay

… Business English and Implications on TESOL

Throughout the recent period, the United States of America has emerged as the greatest global power at both economic as well as political levels. Today, the largest economic construction is represented by the European… [read more]


On the Unaccusativity of the Existential Dissertation

… ¶ … theoretical issues about Existential Constructions (ECs) in regards to the Copy Theory of Movement (CTM) and Pronouncing the Lower Copies (PLC).

We put forward four main propo sals.

It is first proposed that the existential-be has the properties of an unaccusative verb both syntactically and semantically.

Although unnaccusatives features largely in the syntax, its nature is determined by the semantic.

It is firstly argued that the existential-be has the primary semantic properties of an unnaccusative verb.

Then it is also argued that the existential-be has a ?- grid of an unaccusative verb. It appears to be a copula (or, as most researchers have noticed, informationally light) because of the formation of a monadic predicate with the PP. The detailed reason is that the formation of the monadic predicate will effect the dominant position of the verbal predicate to some extent.

It is then proposed that the existential verb and the PP form a monadic predicate via the movement of DP. The forming of such a monadic predicate can cause unergative verbs to be allowed in Ecs, whereas other unaccusative s cannot.

We argue that the process of forming such a monadic predicate in the EC is as follows: DP base generated at the spec position of pP. Then, pP is taken as the complement of the unnaccusative verb. DP is the external argument of p and its ?-role is THEME. It cannot get case at [Spec, Pp], so it moves to [Spec, VP], where it also cannot get Case checked. So it moves further to [Spec, ?P], becoming the external argument of the verb and receives its second ?-role, w hich is AGENT. T

he lowest copy is that on [Spec, pP]. As

it is a position that receives the presentational focus, if it is not pronounced, there will be a PF violation which causes PF crash. So PLC applies, an d it rescued such a violation. The lower copy is also realized in LF instead of the highest copy, since the convergence in LF of a sentence requires the linking of presentational focus to a designated 'constructional focus' position.

An Outline, the Unaccusativity of Existential-Be

In earlier forms of the verb "to be" in English, unaccusative verbs were used that slightly changed the meaning of the sentence from more modern constructions. Sentence construction is a lyrical interplay of various "parts" of the sentence that reflect the spirit of the time, and ways in which people think. "For example, many… [read more]


Sociology- Social Work Ethics Term Paper

… Qualitative researchers highlight the socially erected nature of reality, the close association between researcher and what is being examined, and the situational restraints that form the question (Hill, 1997).

There are three major qualitative methods that are frequently used. The first is phenomenology. This theory basically attempts to comprehend the nature of the being, the lived understanding by way of language. In this framework, the vital task of language is to communicate information and to explain reality. A researcher utilizing this theory has to be familiar with the subjectivity of human understanding and try to uncover and explain the spirit of being as represented by the informant's language and behavior. The second theory is that of grounded theory. This is a kind of naturalistic inquiry. This strategy shares the data gathering methods of other qualitative research models. The main difference though is its stress upon theory development. The third theory is ethnography. The central aim of ethnography is to understand another way of life from the indigenous point-of-view. Unstructured interviews and participant surveillance are two of the most common tools utilized in the qualitative methodology (Hill, 1997).

Sometimes it is necessary to look at things from many different angles. Triangulation is the procedure of surveillance from different viewpoints. Triangulation entails multiple measures of the same occurrence. Measuring something in more than one way one is probable to see all aspects of it. Triangulation of theory is multiple theoretical perspectives utilized during planning or analysis of an occurrence. Triangulation of methods is the mixing of multiple styles that may be qualitative and quantitative, making both of these types of research very important (Neuman, 2006).

References

Hill, B.P. (1997). Finding your way around qualitative methods in nursing research. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 25(1), p18-22.

Neuman, W.L. (2006). Chapter 6 Qualitative and Quantitative Research Designs. Social work research methods: Qualitative and quantitative approaches… [read more]


Authors Michael Samuel Ofori-Duodu and Luke Humphries Essay

… Authors Michael Samuel Ofori-Duodu and Luke Humphries both attempt to achieve the same goal: to define what research is and to explain the different methods of research commonly used in the physical and social sciences. In this reviewer's opinion, Humphries' article is the more successful of the two.

Ofori-Duodu's article suffers from a number of faults related to organization, content, and mechanics. Firstly, at one-and-a-half pages, the abstract is much too long and unwieldy. An abstract should summarize the contents of the article in a concise, focused manner. In his abstract, Ofori-Duodu not only to tells his reader what concepts are found in the article, he also attempts to define them, which bloats this section of his manuscript all out of portion. He identifies and defines three types of research methods the article will address and also gives the same detailed treatment to six characteristics of research. Oddly, however, those characteristics are not examined in the body the article (Ofori-Duodu, 2011).

Following so long an abstract, the "Introduction" section of the article strikes the reader as blatantly redundant. It does not much information beyond what was already presented in the abstract, nor does it add much in the way of context for the information to come in the body of the paper. Context can help situate an article's message within a larger frame of reference in some interesting, meaning, relevant manner. Here again, Ofori-Duodu is long on words, but in light of the redundant information here, short on substance.

The body of Ofori-Duodu's article explains in more detail the three research methods under examination. The examples he uses to illustrate the different methods are a good feature of his manuscript and do serve their purpose well. The body is hurt, however, by poor grammar and mechanical inconsistencies such as shifting back and forth from the more common term "research" to the odd construction "a research" (Ofori-Duodu, 2011). Grammatical problems plague not only the body but also the abstract and the introduction of the paper. This article cries out for careful proofreading.

The best part of the paper is the conclusion.… [read more]


Letters Evaluating Writing Dear Student Peer-Reviewed Journal

… ¶ … Letters Evaluating Writing

Dear Student #1:

I have read your essay and I am trying my best to find something positive to say about it, but that is difficult. It is obvious to me that English is not… [read more]


Comparisons Between Two Translation Theories Equivalence and Skopos Term Paper

… Equivalence and Skopos

Translation is a profession that has been increasingly in the spotlight, not least because technology has developed to such an extent that even contemporary computers can translate texts. Often, these make somewhat more sense than the first… [read more]


Future of Intimacy "I Have Been Article Review

… ¶ … Future of Intimacy

"I have been away from home a lot lately," states Mark Kingwell, giving his essay on the future of intimacy an immediate and 'intimate' quality. The reader is suddenly taken into the process of writing, and is made to feel as if he or she is sitting on Kingwell's shoulder, observing the writer, as Kingwell muses upon the issues outlined in the essay while traveling from Toronto to Ottawa to Montreal, Vancouver, Edmonton, and Calgary. The places where the essay was penned span the "vastness of variety of Canada" as well as Boston and upstate New York (Kingwell 267). Kingwell uses specific locations and specific cities to stress the reality of his journey while writing, as well as Canada's diversity, a place where "cool kids" are different in Quebec than on the West Coast (Kingwell 267). How can true intimacy be possible, he suggests, when the world has grown so large and diverse?

Kingwell's use of specific anecdotes to persuade the reader also is evident in his use of statistics. He notes that despite the ease of travel conveyed by telephone, Internet, and airplane, ae of the world will die before making a telephone call (Kingwell 268). We take the small miracles of our technological lives for granted and fail to recognize the needs of the wider world community with whom we are not closely 'intimate.' Upon more careful reflection, even photographs of the past are miraculous, Kingwell suggests. He uses a reference to his father's Harry Connick haircut in an old photograph to suggest how the past and present are made one with technology, just as he can speak with Calgary and England while doing his laundry via email (Kingwell 268). We have come to take technology for granted. Technology can create intimacy through the generations and across geographical boundaries but can also shut technological 'have-nots' out of our world because our private, intimate bubbles makes things like email seem universally ubiquitous.

Kingwell even parses the word 'intimacy' for better understanding of what it signifies. 'Intimacy'… [read more]


Bourdieu's Concepts of Cultural Capital and Linguistic Markets Essay

… Bourdieu -- Cultural Capital and Linguistic Markets

Introduction to the Concept of Cultural Capital

Bourdieu originally outlined three forms of capital: economic, social, and cultural capital; subsequently, he added symbolic capital to the list (Webb, Schirato & Danaher, 2002). Briefly, economic capital relates to economic resources; social capital denotes the "aggregate of the actual or potential resources which are linked to possession of a durable network of more or less institutionalized relationships of mutual acquaintance and recognition" (King, 2005); cultural capital is a function of acquired knowledge, education, and learned skills; and symbolic capital describes resources derived from notoriety, prestige, and public recognition (Webb, Schirato & Danaher, 2002).

Bourdieu further distinguishes three subtypes of cultural capital: embodied, objectified, and institutionalized capital (Webb, Schirato & Danaher, 2002). Embodied cultural capital includes those forms of attitudinal capital that the individual acquires passively and over time, generally through socialization (especially) from the family. Objectified capital relates primarily to ownership of physical resources with tangible value in society; Institutionalized capital consists of formal credentials and recognized qualifications such as educational degrees and professional expertise (Emirbayer & Williams, 2005).

Linguistic Capital and its Influence over Interpersonal Communications

Bourdieu's embodied capital includes another subtype: linguistic capital (Webb, Schirato, & Danaher, 2002). Linguistic capital is that part of embodied capital that specifically relates to the use of language as an expression of the embodied capital that is generally acquired by virtue of social class, community and family economic status, and education. The individual elements of linguistic capital include sentence structure, grammar, idiomatic expression, vocabulary, and choice of substantive references (King, 2005). In some respects, the expression of linguistic capital is automatic and unconscious; in other respects, the expression of linguistic capital can also be manipulated deliberately in connection with the conscious desire to influence the perception of the audience (King, 2005).

For example, while conversing with a fellow college student, one might speak very naturally without… [read more]


Communication for Information and Systems Technology Term Paper

… Communication for Information and Systems Technology

Analysis of Article by Christopher Bantick

It has become all too commonplace for educators and academics to decry the quality of contemporary education. The loss of respect for standards and quality in favor of a more relativist and "progressive" approach is often cited as evidence of cultural decline. The article by Christopher Bantick, "Poor Show in Classrooms When Grammar's Tossed Out the Door," stands as an example this sort of cultural jeremiad.

In a general sense Bantick seeks to criticize the de-emphasizing of grammar studies as signaling an abandonment of scholastic rigor in favor of an more reticent and lackadaisical approach to the education of, in his case, Australian youths. As a sign of the horrific state of grammar in Australia, Bantick mentions the case of the English Teachers Association of Queensland failing to fix some 65 errors in one of its own manuals. He says that since the teaching of grammar was abandoned in the 1960's, "…two generations of teachers…do not understand grammar because they were not taught it. This should be a concern to all parents, employers, and educators" (Bantick 2010). Thus the deficit of understanding of grammar on the part of many Australians is as much the consequence of not teaching it as it is the result of most teachers not even knowing it. He balks at the claim, often made today in the age of communications technology, that computers (specifically spelling and grammar checkers) have "done away with the need for… [read more]


Midwife Biblio Annotated Bibliography Entry Annotated Bibliography

… Midwife Biblio

Annotated Bibliography Entry: "What is Midwifery? Role and Types of Midwives"

This information in this article relates to midwife generally and in the United States specifically, incorporating its medical, legal, and spiritual/philosophical elements in a comprehensive and brief overview. The comprehensiveness of the article is, of course, necessarily in inverse proportion to its brevity, but despite working against this logical paradox the author does an adequate job of summing up the history and practice of midwifery in a relatively short space. This is perhaps the only elements of the article that can be deemed wholly successful, however, and many of the other issues present in the article make it of questionable value to anyone attempting to truly educate themselves about midwifery. This value is decreased further if the article is to be considered for research purposes due to serious questions concerning the reliability and validity of the information.

The first and highly consistent indicator that this article is not of first-rate (or really even of second-rate) quality is the poor sentence structure (the last sentence of the first paragraph is a subject fragment without a verb), the use of cliched and almost meaningless phrases ("fast forward to today" and "Midwives were the first...holistic practitioners of the past" are examples that immediate leap out; though there intended meanings are clear, they are rather vaguer meanings and poorly worded sentences), and simple mistakes in spelling and grammar (such as the use of "through out" as two separate words). Though scholarly writing need not be the most eloquent or well formed, it should at least adhere to the basic rules of the language in which it is being published, and this article fails to meet this criteria despite maintaining… [read more]


Truth Ways of Knowing the Truth Human Thesis

… ¶ … Truth

Ways of Knowing the Truth

Human knowledge can at times seem a very fickle thing. This is not necessarily because empirical and objective truth does not exist (though this has long been a highly debated and important… [read more]


Tipping Point Advertising and the Tailoring Thesis

… Tipping Point

Advertising and the Tailoring of Message: The Insidious Underside of Gladwell's Translation

In Tipping Point, Malcolm Gladwell examines the nature of trends in all of their forms, form political ideas to rumors to manners of dress and social… [read more]


Grammar Instruction Research Proposal

… Grammar Instruction

Hybrid Grammar Instruction

"It is generally posited in the literature that tasks should be structured in reference to desirable goals"

Maria J. de la Fuente, Vanderbilt University, USA (2006, p. 266).

Work Plan

Intensive explicit grammar instruction does… [read more]


NOTE:  We can write a brand new paper on your exact topic!  More info.