Study "Language / Linguistics" Essays 331-384

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Ludwig Wittgenstein Thesis

… Wittgenstein

Ludwig Wittgenstein: Logic and Computers

Language is at once one of the most complex and one of the most fundamental aspects of humanity. It is, according to many, what separates us from the rest of the animal kingdom. Yet for all of its essential place in the formation of societies and individuals, it is also one of the most fiercely debated and (perhaps) misunderstood human phenomenon. To complicate matters further, the modern era has brought language out of the realm of a human-only feature. Not only have various other primates and other mammals -- including dolphins and possibly whales -- been observed to use communication methods that closely resemble (if not replicate) true language, but computers are instruments that also use language in order to operate.

It could be argued that this latter example does not truly bring language out of the human realm, as computers are human inventions. This becomes something of a semantic battle, however, and is unimportant in the face of the fact that language is at least as essential to the functioning of a computer as it is to a fully functioning human being. Because of this, many contributions to the understanding of language have been made by computer science and the pure logic involved therein. Viewing the situation in this way is certainly valid, but it also places the cart before the horse to some degree. Many important contributions were made to the logic of language in the decades leading up to the true advent of computers and computer science.

One of the leading philosophers in this area -- and indeed of the twentieth century in general -- was Ludwig Wittgenstein. The title of "philosopher" should not be taken in the wrong way. Like many philosophers, Wittgenstein's contributions to thought applied to mathematics and logic at least as much as they did to more metaphysical aspects of philosophy.

For many thinkers, including philosophers and especially those leaning towards a belief in metaphysics, language was not a system butyl entirely on logic, but subject to the vagaries of individual interpretation. One of Wittgenstein's major contributions to the philosophy of language was his assertion and explanation of language as a system of pure logical construction (Stanford, sec. 2.1). Most important was his belief that grammar was really a philosophical term describing a set of rules by which language behaved (Bagni, 215). In fact, he believed that all previous philosophy (or at least most of it, including the major problems it had dealt with for millennia) came as the result of misunderstanding the logic of our language, which led to a misunderstanding of individual terms and propositions (Richter, sec. 2).

Though Wittgenstein set out speaking directly about human language and grammar -- that is, the words we use and the ways in which we use them to construct complex thoughts -- have direct implications in mathematics,… [read more]


Jean Jacque Rousseau's Emile or on Education Essay

… Philosophy of Education - Rousseau

JEAN-JACQUE ROUSSEAU - EMILE or EDUCATION

Rousseau on Learning Language and Limiting Early Vocabulary:

Let the child's vocabulary, therefore, be limited. It is very undesirable that he should have more words than ideas, that he… [read more]


Idiomatic Phrases Have Been the Foundation Research Proposal

… ¶ … idiomatic phrases have been the foundation upon which civilization was developed, with the evolution of romance, trade and government being directly related to the corresponding availability of words with which to express an individual's unverbalized thoughts. Indeed, words… [read more]


Utterance Length in Children Verses Chimpanzees Thesis

… Utterance Length in Children Verses Chimpanzees

Language is the essential foundation of the human species. Yet, is it completely unique to mankind? Several studies have shown that out closest relatives have a relatively strong grasp on the techniques and methodologies… [read more]


Approaches to English Grammar Term Paper

… ¶ … English Grammar: "Letter from Birmingham Jail" by Martin Luther King Jr.

Martin Luther King Jr. was a very educated man who's passions shine through his prose. Analyzing his words through a grammatical standpoint not only allows us to… [read more]


Introducing to a Student the Academic Discipline of Sociolinguistics Term Paper

… Sociolinguistics

Few students even know what sociolinguistics is, much less its practical applications and relevance to other fields of study. This is unfortunate because sociolinguistics is a very exciting discipline that studies the effect of any and all aspects of society, including cultural norms, expectations, and context on the way language is used. Sociolinguists are interested in the social implications of the use and reception of language (Shuy, 1969). To understand these implications, they research language variation, sensitivity and acquisition of social groups such as ones based on social status, age, race, sex, family, friendship units and other variables. Some of the topics covered by sociolinguistics include dialect geography, bilingualism, linguistic interference, social dialectology (including studies of social stratification and minority group speech), and language situations (language rivalries, standardization language as a means of group identification and functional styles and attitudes toward language) (Shuy, 1969).

Sociolinguistics is important because language is so important. We use language almost every minute to send vital social messages about who we are, where we come from, and who we associate with (Wolfram). Understanding how we use language may sound relatively simple, but in fact it is far more complications for a variety of reasons. The ways in which language reflects behavior can often be complex and subtle and the relationship between language and society affects a wide range of encounters -- from broadly based international relations to narrowly defined interpersonal relationships (Wolfram).

Because the field of sociolinguistics is so broad, sociolinguists often specialize in a particular area. According to Wolfram, specializations are increasingly coinciding with the mergence of more broadly-based social and political issues. For example, specializations in language and nationalism, language and ethnicity, and language and gender have corresponded with the rise of related issues in society at large. Specialists are applying the results of their studies to the… [read more]


Effect of Bilingualism in the U.S Term Paper

… ¶ … BILINGUALISM in the U.S.

Bilingualism

Effect of Bilingualism in America

Sociolinguistics

During 2008 in America, the movement for bilingualism, no matter its intent in theory, in practice, some individuals, as Kimball contends in "Institutionalizing Our Demise: America vs.… [read more]


English Tutor, I Work Term Paper

… ¶ … English tutor, I work with a lot of people from all over the world, and from the United States as well. Not all students who need help with English are learning it as a foreign language - some of them just need help. For those who learn it as a foreign language, though, like John, it takes a lot of hard work and dedication to get it right and to speak the language like a native citizen. John is applying for an MBA in General Management, and there are some people who would be concerned about this. They might say that John is not qualified to do this, or that his English skills are not good enough. This is not true. Speaking as someone who has tutored him, I certainly feel confident in saying that his English ability is enough that he can both understand what is being taught to him and communicate to others effectively. Could his English be better? Perhaps, but this is true of many of us who grew up speaking it, as well. His tutoring will continue, just as his education will continue, and… [read more]


Indian Literature Term Paper

… Speech and the Culture of the Vedic Aryans

Speech was a key component of the Vedic Aryans' culture owing to the fact that theirs was a preliterate society. This means that they had no written language with which to communicate, and had to rely solely on the spoken word in order to carry out the functions of their day-to-day lives. In order to understand why this is so, we must take a look at the history of the Vedic Aryans. In doing so, we will also compare the role that speech played in their culture to the role that speech plays in the United States today.

The Vedic Aryans were semi-nomads who migrated in several series during the second millennium B.C. They spoke an early form of Sanskrit. Their language had a lot of similarities to other Indo-European languages, including ancient Greek and Latin, as well as Avestan in Iran. The term Aryan means "pure." The word was likely chosen to designate the conscious efforts of the invaders to retain their tribal roots and identities, while simultaneously asserting their difference from earlier inhabitants of the region.

While proof of the Vedic Aryans has not yet been established through archaeological means, the evolution and spread of their culture throughout the Indo-Gangetic Plain is indisputable and can be traced back through the evolution of their language. Our current knowledge of their existence stems from several sacred texts. These include the four Vedas - a collection of prayers, liturgy, and hymns; the Brahamanas and the Upanishads - commentaries on Vedic rituals and philosophical treatises; as well as the Puranas, which are traditional works rooted in a combination of myth and history. Were… [read more]


Seven Steps to Non-Sexist Writing the English Term Paper

… Seven Steps to Non-Sexist Writing

The English language a very rich language. It contains thousands of words that can convey different concepts. Language is powerful in the sense that it can be used to convey ideas and emotions and ultimately influence the mind and heart of the reader or listener. However, language can sometimes contain words that can be used to insult, discriminate, or belittle people. We therefore have the responsibility of using language so that we don't inadvertently convey offensive ideas. The English language has long been riddled with terms that are biased towards the male group of society. This might have been due to the culture of past generations. However, we have a new culture now that treats men and women equally. This is the reason why we need to promote non-sexist language. We want to discourage language that emphasizes the superiority of one sex over the other, since this promotes discrimination.

There are several suggestions on how to develop non-sexist writing. This includes using the term "human" instead of "man," using "person" in place of "-man" (ex. chairman -> chairperson), and using a generic pronoun instead of using "he" for unspecified genders. Sometimes, it's difficult to follow these "rules" due to convention. Here… [read more]


Figures and Tropes Term Paper

… Precis Tropes

Monikers like "The King" for Elvis rely on the use of figurative language. Figurative language is used under the assumption that no one would mistake the image for reality. Figures of speech, known as tropes, are usually described as being opposed to common, "literal" or "ordinary language. Thus, figures of speech are portrayed as deviant uses of language even though figures of speech pervade human communication. Some philosophers like Nietzsche suggest that all language is at its essence figurative and that truth cannot be conveyed without the use of figures of speech. Human beings may not be able to interpret or communicate about the world without figurative language. In fact, human perception is mediated by the figures of speech commonly used to describe physical reality.

Figurative language includes tools like hyperbole, metaphor, simile, metonymy, and anthropomorphism. Metaphors are figurative relationships between one thing and another. Similes announce their being figurative through the use of keywords "like" or "as." Metonymy is a figure of association in which one thing is discussed in terms of its relationship to another. Anthropomorphism refers to the figurative attribution of human traits to non-human entities. Hyperbole is figurative exaggeration, including those that apply kingly or godly monikers to rock-and-roll stars. More obscure types of figurative language abound in poetry. For example, paronomasia refers to the use of homophones to evoke each word's nuances or the subtle relationships between them. Poetry like that work of Emily Dickenson reveals the power of figurative language.

Literary studies depends on a fundamental understanding of figurative language. Literary criticism, for example, analyzes the effectiveness and impact of figurative language on a narrative. Figurative language is not simply decorative; it is integral to the telling of a story, integral to conveying the truth. The… [read more]


Cochlear Implants Can Help Children With Hearing Term Paper

… cochlear implants can help children with hearing impairments acquire spoken language skills much more efficiently than with the use of hearing aids alone. Especially in families without any other deaf members, children with hearing impairments start school at a significant disadvantage vs. their peers. The current study examined the effects of early implantation with measured results at 3.5 to 4.5 years of age.

Early implantation may assist neuron development in the auditory system, which proceeds through a period of relative plasticity during the toddler years. Cochlear implants may even offer the possibility of restoring stunted auditory system development. Prior research shows that children under the age of five who receive cochlear implants develop at almost the same rate as their typically developing counterparts and faster than same-age children who only use hearing aids. Moreover, research shows that the younger the age of implant the higher the rate of language development.

The current study focuses on spoken language development. Previous research included overall language acquisition including signing. Some preliminary studies indicate that implants at later ages (up to six years old) result in greater lags in language development. Thus, early implantation may mitigate developmental disabilities in children with hearing loss.

Early implantation (under three years of age) also results in longer use of the implants. The current research also examined the role of pre-implant hearing aid usage on language development. The authors hypothesized that children who were implanted at an earlier age would score better on language assessment tests than children implanted later, regardless of the total duration of implant use. Moreover, the authors predicted that children who received their implants at younger ages would be prepared for age-appropriate… [read more]


Foundations Medical Terms Term Paper

… ¶ … root, suffix and prefix sections of the six following words what the words mean. Be sure to note prefixes and other clues for any changes:

Dermatitis

Hemothorax

Gastroenterology

Cardiac Arrest

Intraosseous Infusion

Non-oncological

As Greek was the language spoken at Universities until the 1900s, many of our scientific and medical terms come from that language. Root words are those basic parts of the body, such as the five major "cavities" of the body which hold internal organs: The cranial cavity (in the head), the Dorsal cavity (the back and head), the Vertebral cavity, the Ventral cavity or trunk of the body, which includes the Thoracic cavity (or chest) and the Abdominopelvic cavity, which is in the lower half of the trunk of the body and involves the pelvis. The suffix is the latter part of a combined word (such as "itis") and the prefix (such as "non") is attached to the beginning of the word (Kluwer, p. 32).

Dermatitis: The Greek word Dermatos means "skin," so Dermatitis is n inflammation of the skin as anything ending with itis means it is inflamed. Another example: colitis is a disease affecting the colon.

2. Hemothorax: A collection of blood in the thorax (interstitial and air spaces of the lungs). "Thorax" is the Greek word for "chest." "Hemo" is the Greek word for "blood" so anything beginning with "Hemo" means it has to do with blood. Given this reasoning, if we look at the word Pneuma, P and n together means this is a word of Greek… [read more]


Chinua Achebe and Ngugi Wa Thiong'o Term Paper

… African Novels

When authors are relating the African experience, must they write the original book in the native language? Does this add to the experience? Better yet, does writing it in English lose its cultural identity? These questions have led… [read more]


Bilingual/Bilingue Research Paper Bilingual/Bilingue by Rhina Espaillat Essay

… BILINGUAL/BILINGUE Research Paper

Bilingual/Bilingue by Rhina Espaillat is a depiction of a girl
growing up in a Spanish speaking household in the United States. Through
excellent language choices and the successful use of literary devices,
Espaillat captures the difficulties of… [read more]


Reciprocal Causation: 5 (the Writer's Overall Description Term Paper

… ¶ … Reciprocal Causation: 5 (the writer's overall description of reciprocal causation is clear, succinct, and thorough. The role of environment, the role of modeling, and especially the role of self-efficacy are all outlined well. One point is deducted for the poor grammar used throughout the paper.)

Differentiating from Behaviorism: 2 (the author supplies an excellent explanation of the differences in the two theories, in spite of bad grammar.)

Using Student as...to elaborate on reciprocal causation: 4 (the example of student as is succinct but clear. The author shows how the teacher could intervene and improve student outcome by intervening. However, the author could have done a better job explaining how the three aspects of the cycle related to student as. For example, demonstrating exactly which stages a teacher should intervene would make this aspect of the paper better.)

Spelling, Grammar, and Clarity of Writing: 3 (the writing is so clear, it makes up for the poor grammar in this paper)

Feedback: The grammar in this paper is deplorable, littered with sentences like: "This 'reciprocal causation' shows the relevance from all issues, and thus impacting each other with mutual respect." However, it is possible to look past the bad grammar and see that ironically the paper itself is well-written. The author explains both behaviorism and social cognition, comparing and contrasting the two theories. One of the strongest aspects of the paper is the author's explanation of self-efficacy using the example of student as. Therefore, it is evident that the writer has a grasp of the subject matter and also knows how to communicate effectively. The author simply needs assistance with the English language. Looking past the… [read more]


Sociology Ebonics Came to Public Attention Term Paper

… Sociology

Ebonics

Ebonics came to public attention in 1996 when the Oakland CA school district allowed teachers to use this form of street slang in the classroom as a tool to reach students. This form of language is usually used by African-Americans as a street dialect. In fact, people who have studied it believe it evolved from black African slave language and Irish slang, among other influences (Stix, 2002, p. 45). Many educators and experts have supported the use of Ebonics in the classroom, but at least one study shows that "children taught using Ebonics readers did worse than their peers who were taught with standard English readers" (Stix, 2002, p. 45). Therefore, educating black children in the language of the streets does not seem to prepare them academically or personally for the challenges they will face as they attempt to gain more education. It may not prepare them for expressing themselves in business and professional situations as well.

One word often used in Eubonics is "untogether," which means the person… [read more]


Phonological and Conceptual Activation in Speech Comprehension Term Paper

… ¶ … Phonological and conceptual activation in speech comprehension

This article focuses on the process of understanding as it relates to separate lexical representations of sound and meaning. The phonological and conceptual representations in language have been separated, as comprehension… [read more]


Tagging and Morphological Disambiguation in Turkish Text Term Paper

… Tagging and Morphological Disambiguation

Kemal Oflazer and ?lker Kuruz describe the results of a text tagging project in their report "Tagging and Morphological Disambiguation of Turkish Text." The authors developed the Turkish text tagger for use within the PC-KIMMO environment and claim that the tagging process applies equally to other agglutinative languages like Finnish. Tagging text facilitates the parsing process, enabling linguists to create extensive databases of morphemes in the overall analysis of natural languages. Linguists will tag words for pertinent information such as part of speech, denoting their usage as well as their lexical form. Because Turkish and other agglutinative languages naturally carry with them ambiguous morphologies, a specialized tagging system can help linguistic analysts minimize error rates. The types of ambiguities in agglutinative languages differ from those in inflective languages. On the one hand, morphotactical rules limit the potential parts of speech of a given lexical form. On the other hand, the same lexical form can have various surface or contextual meanings. If part of the goal of the tagging project is also to include idiomatic constructs, then ambiguities become even harder to resolve.

Prior research indicated that rule-based and statistic-based tagging systems do not completely or reliably disambiguate agglutinative text. Rule-based tagging relies on construction rules to rule out potential errors, whereas statistical-based tagging relies on actual context. In the current study, a rule-based system was used to disambiguate the text. However, the researchers included a broad set of parameters and variables to promote accuracy. For the current study, researchers used 250 constraints, both general and specific, to test the strength of their tagger on the Turkish language. Using constraints is the key difference between Oflazer and Kuruz's tagger and previous efforts. Results showed that the tagger does help resolve morphological ambiguities, up to… [read more]


Etymology of the Word Scum Term Paper

… Etymology of the Word Scum

The word scum, pronounced as http://bartleby.com/images/pronunciation/ubreve.gif m could be use in many forms. As a noun, it could refer to a layer of dirt or froth on the surface of a liquid or, informally, a… [read more]


Morphology Derivational Term Paper

… Morphology and Vocabulary Acquisition

Vocabulary empowers a person when it comes to expressing oneself. The vast and better the vocabulary the more expressive and articulate the person will be, This is the reason why vocabulary acquisition is so important for language learners that different methods are adopted to facilitate and expedite vocabulary learning. Morphology is also one way of facilitating this process. Understanding morphemes and developing morphological skills, the ability to recognize and use morphemes, to comprehend words and the relationships between words (and sentences and paragraphs) are no doubt important for learner as also shown by the researches. However, while analyzing a particular method different aspects like human cognitive, social, and behavioral aspects should be considered. Drawing conclusion just on the basis of cognitive aspect of learning would not validate the results. Most of the researches related to the importance and role of morphology have had their focus on cognitive aspects and other important social aspects were ignored. "Researchers have only begun to unweave a few strands of the complex interplay of constitutional and social environmental factors in accounting for the development of language in children"(Dixon & Smith, 2000).

The age differences also play a very important role in language learning. Adults have a different way of learning than children. Similarly special children may have different needs than normal children. While children's awareness and use of function words may develop early, their ability to process these types of words in the rapid automatic way manifested by adults does not develop until much later. So, use of morphology might be appropriate for a certain age group that uses simple words and sentences than another group the use complex and less frequent words with varying grammatical uses. Sometimes words may be assisting while they also may confuse. For example, the 'ea' in 'heal' and 'health', though pronounced differently, preserves the morpheme 'heal' in both words and so allows the… [read more]


Bilingual Education Is a Method of Teaching Term Paper

… Bilingual Education is a method of teaching that employs more than one language and is designed for students whose native language is not English. There are two different models of Bilingual Education; one uses both languages for instruction, and the other uses mostly English, but will fall back on the students' native language to help clarify points to help them understand the concepts clearly. This kind of teaching model is of particular concern in the southwestern states such as California, Arizona, Texas, and New Mexico because of the larger population of Spanish immigrants.

The main argument against Bilingual Education is that it has the potential to keep non-native speakers from developing their skills in English quickly enough. Consequently, if the non-native speaker is delayed in developing their English language skills then they will continue to fall behind in their education because they will not have the skills to pursue all the educational avenues that are open to native-speakers. Basically, since the majority of these children live and play in environments that speak… [read more]


Multiculturalism and Multilingualism in Classrooms Term Paper

… Second language offerings expanded beyond the European standards: French and Spanish. Furthermore, in some areas with large non-English speaking communities, core curriculum classes were offered in native languages. Finally, schools began to become more culturally sensitive on the issues of religion, striving to balance one student's right to worship with another student's right not to worship.

Given the positive move towards multiculturalism, one would anticipate a continued expansion of multiculturalism and multilingualism in the classroom. However, American society appears to be rejecting the broader notions of multiculturalism. There are several reasons for this phenomenon. The first reason is that the terror attacks of 9-11 have made many people wary of cultures, languages, and religions that they do not understand. However, a more important reason is that multiculturalism has been extremely successful and Americans are guaranteed equal treatment. It simply is not possible for a school to study all of the world's languages and cultures. As pressure increases for schools to expand those programs, there will be an instinctive reining in of the programs, in order to avoid any claims of discrimination or… [read more]


Anzaldua Gloria Essay

… English has become a "neutral language" for people whose first language is something other than English (80). As Anzaldua shows, however, immigrants must also retain their native languages by speaking them with friends and family. Otherwise, we run the risk of obliterating our entire culture. We should not be too general when referring to our backgrounds, either. To simply refer to ourselves as "Spanish" is, as Anzaldua states, "copping out" (84).

Language is one of the ways that subcultures such as Chicano culture create internal cohesion. For example, Anzaldua notes that Chicano Spanish is a "living language" because it is constantly changing (77). Languages are sometimes thought of as static and unchanging but languages do significantly change over time because of patterns of migration and the formation of sub-cultures like Chicanos in America. Living languages are exciting, fascinating expressions of cultural identity especially when a small group of people has to maintain their identity in spite of living within a dominant culture. People who speak "languages of rebellion" like Tex-Mex are powerful people because they are multilingual. They have broken down the barriers between languages by being able to interchange words and create new phrases. They are not restricted to using only formal English or formal Spanish to get their points across. Anzaldua believes that multilingual people should purposely and actively create "new" languages as bold assertions of who they are.

Language is also a meaningful part of personal identity. Anzaldua states, "there is not one Chicano language just as there is no one Chicano experience" (80). Individual differences in both language and identity show how the two are intimately linked. One's gender also impacts language and vice-versa. For example, in Spanish and other Romance languages in which nouns are assigned a gender, some derogatory terms refer to females but not males. "Language is a male discourse," according to Anzaldua. This causes women and men to think and feel certain ways about their gender and personal identities.

Anzaldua's essay "How to Tame a Wild Tongue" demonstrates the importance of becoming aware of how language shapes identity; actively changing and implementing language helps change or improve one's sense of self. Because language is such an integral part of being human, it is only logical that language helps form one's cultural identity. In fact, being proud of one's heritage and language can have a positive impact on society at large. As Anzaldua shows, the book I Am Joaquin and other pieces of Chicano literature made a huge impact on the identities of millions of people. It helped Chicanos become proud of their identities and more conscious of… [read more]


Anzaldua Like Our Genes Essay

… Discovering Chicano literature helped the author feel less isolated and alienated.

In fact, the formation of Chicano culture happened largely through the use of language. "Something momentous happened to the Chicano soul -- we became aware of our reality and… [read more]


Dogberry in "Much Term Paper

… When he speaks to Leonato, a noble, about men seen lurking around Leonato's house, he loses all ability to speak plainly. Leonato complains, saying "Neighbours, you are tedious." Dogberry responds that "... If I were as tedious as a king, I could find in my heart to bestow it all of your worship." Dogberry really doesn't grasp that Leonato does not value Dogberry's obsequious and absurdly flowerly language. Dogberry seems to think it is appropriate. With this language, the character of Dogberry allows Shakespeare to poke fun at language that is more ornate than useful or even interesting to listen to.

Leonato responds sarcastically: "All thy tediousness on me! ha?"

Dogberry misses the sarcasm and prattles on: "Yea, an't were a thousand pound more than 'tis ...."

Exasperated, Leonato finally says, "I would fain know what you have to say!" All that talk, and Dogberry has yet to come close to making his point.

Because of Shakespeare's skill with words the viewer has to assume that Dogberry's ridiculous dialogue serves a purpose, and the purpose is to demonstrate that manners taken too far become absurd, a major point of the play and emphasized by Dogberry's appearance in it.

Dogberry also provides humor in serious moments, such as when the treachery against Hero is revealed. As Dogberry is about to interrogate a prisoner, he says, "Is our whole dissembly appeared?" instead of assembly. At important times, Dogberry complicates his language so much that it makes no sense, even asking several times that people record him as "an ass."

Throughout the play, other characters take the style of expansive and elaborate language to the breaking point, but Dogberry's absurd use of language punches the lesson home for the viewer or reader of the… [read more]


English Poetry Term Paper

… ¶ … English poetry, besides its almost foreign appearance, differs from modern forms of the language in its rhythm, tone, and style. Poems from the era of Middle English, such as "The Cuckoo Song," "Western Wind," "I Am of Ireland," and "Sunset on Calvary" are remarkably short; the longest of the four has only thirteen lines. Individual lines are terse too, with no more than five or six words per line. Therefore, these four samples of Middle English poetry denote an almost nursery-rhyme like poetic form.

Similarly, the tone of these poems is light and lilting, like the language itself. Each poem shimmers with an innocent, playful atmosphere. For example, "The Cuckoo Song" starts, "Sumer is ycomen in, / Loude sing cuckou!" The four-line ditty "Western Wind" is likewise lighthearted: "Western wind, when will thou blow / The small rain down can rain? / Christ, if my love were in my arms / And I in my bed again!" Both "The Cuckoo Song" and "Western Wind" contain exclamation points to underscore the excited, playful… [read more]


Cultural Effects Term Paper

… Culture

The Cultural Effects of Translations upon Owen in Brian Friel's play "Translations"

The notion of change, both the change of the Irish nation through colonizing British politics and the character changes of the central protagonist Owen, of Brian Friel's… [read more]


Added to Each Program Term Paper

… 2. Multi-line Comments (/* ... */)

Purpose:

Good for any comment that will cover more than one line, as when you want to go into some detail about what's happening in the code or when you need to embed legal notices in the code. It requires both opening and closing delimiters.

Advantages:

You can put as many lines of discussion or as many pages of boilerplate as you like between this two tags.

You can nest single-line comments inside of the multi-line comments and the compiler will have no trouble with it at all.

Can act as if it were a single line statement, even though it can contain more than one statement.

Disadvantages:

Cannot nest multi-line types of comments of any sort because that will generate a compiler error.

Multi-line comments take up a fair amount of space. This means that they increase the effective line length.

If the programmer forgot the closing delimiter, it might cause either a run-time or syntax error.

Reference

"The Sofia Open Content Initiative - Java Programming." Sofia Open Content Initiative. 2004.

Sofia Open Content Initiative.… [read more]


Slang and Grammar Term Paper

… Slang and Grammar

Slang is the use of words in a non-standard way of a particular social group and sometimes the creation of new words or importation of words from another language (Slang pp). The use of slang is a… [read more]


Communication Practice in a Text: Conversation Term Paper

… ¶ … Communication Practice in a Text: Conversation of Two Female Students

Communication practices within two-person conversations vary depending on (1) context; (2) relationship(s) of speakers; (3) medium (e.g., face-to-face; telephone talk; telephone text messaging; e-mail, etc.); (4) implied knowledge… [read more]


Nobel Prize Lecture by Author Term Paper

… It won her a Nobel Prize, but more than that, it is a medium that she can use to reach large amounts of people with a message she believes is important, even vital to the world. She wants people to use language for good, and not bad, and that is the ultimate message of her lecture. Finally, the old woman learns -- through language -- that she can trust the young people, and she recognizes they have changed their opinion after listening to her for a while. They have made a difference, and when they leave her home, they will continue to make a difference with language.

Morrison's lecture is highly political, because she decries language used to start wars and in bureaucracy and crime. She calls it the "looting of language," and worries that language will suffer and even die because of it. Beautiful, descriptive language is one of the most important gifts the people have, and to lose it would be a tragedy. Morrison sees language evolving into something less than art, and she is frightened by this "looting" and that it will continue. It seems that if people like Morrison continue to manipulate the language so effectively, that language, pure and beautiful language, will always exist, because the words of Morrison and other writers like her will live on long after they themselves are gone. Morrison's lecture is eloquent and thought provoking, and it is not easy to forget it after the reading is done. It is an important look at how the world communicates, and what those communications really mean, and how much power they have.

In conclusion, Morrison's lecture is much more than a look at language and what it can convey, it is a look at the power of language, and who wields that power. Some people use language effectively, and some people do not. If language is to live on, prosper, and grow, then more people like Morrison need to use it and develop it.

References

Morrison, Toni. "Nobel Lecture." NobelPrize.org. 1993. 11 Dec. 2004.

< http://nobelprize.org/literature/laureates/1993/morrison-lecture.html > [read more]


Jean Reynolds, "A New Speech Term Paper

… And by creating Eliza Dolittle's transformation and her dual persona, as well as overseeing Henry Higgins struggle to transform the cockney-accented rather crass flower girl into a mellifluous and well-dressed duchess through the media of performance and costume, Shaw was able to engage in a reinvention of himself as a popular author, one who was entertaining as well as educational, a sensational writer as well as a socialist author of wordy, sprawling plays.

And thus long before Derrida penned his deconstruction, Shaw through the medium of drama deployed Karl Marx's ideas about language in performance art in a radical fashion through populist art. In "Pygmalion," Shaw questioned through satire the binary oppositions of class and language, and as Derrida was later to calls them, the terms that uniquely characterize Western thought of essence vs. appearance, speech vs. writing, authenticity vs. performance. Change Eliza's way of speaking, change Eliza -- for one changes the way people relate to the girl, and also the way the girl moves through the world in a linguistic as well as a physical and social way.

There is no essence that is Eliza, and not simply because she is a character in a play. The play itself is a play of a play, the social play of the British class structure of the drawing room, and the fancy dress ball. The participants are so enmeshed in their world that they cannot see they are performing a role, mouthing lines and cliches that Eliza can eventually, with skill and practice learn to mimic. And eventually, by mimicking the superior manners and language of the elite, Eliza herself can acquire the esteem and sustaining psychological concepts that give her a stronger sense of self and allow her to dominate her creator Higgins. [read more]


Seminar in Conflict Resolution Term Paper

… ¶ … Conflict Resolution and their Application

The Manchester school of thought in conflict resolution emphasizes four basic premises of conflict resolution. These four premises are absolutely key in understanding techniques and situations in which conflict resolution skills and theories can and should be used.

The first premise lies in social problems. The students of the Manchester school studied conflict resolution patterns in British Central Africa. The problems in the area resulted from colonialism, and the social problems premise is grounded in the patterns of recovering from and progressing from colonialism: post-colonialism, if you will.

The theory behind the social problems premise is that conflict maintains the stability of a system through establishment and re-establishment of cross-cutting ties among social actors. These cross-cutting ties established a situation in which people formed a variety of allegiances with others that often transcended the different cleavages of the system.

In other words, conflict makes strange bedfellows, and conflict resolution must take that as a given in order to succeed. More precisely, conflict maintains the repetitive creation and destruction of ties ultimately resulting in a situation of social cohesion.

This must be applied to any further study of conflict resolution in that we must understand that conflicts are anything but static; rather, they change with the alliances that people make, and people who are on one side of a conflict one day, may be on entirely the other side a few days later.

The second premise is processes of articulation. This means, who is doing the talking in the conflict? As in, the resolution of the conflict depends not only on viewpoints and migration of viewpoints, but of the point of articulation. How much power does the person have who is attempting to resolve the conflict? As in, at what level… [read more]


Politeness and Females Gender Term Paper

… " (Holmes, 1995:6)

Peter Trudgill (1972) doesn't support the subordinate theory and maintains that women are more polite because they are more status conscious. A polite person is seen as belonging to higher social status than someone impolite and for… [read more]


Exemplify the Importance of Louis Essay

… Describe the four fundamental principles of Gestalt Theory and give examples of their impact on visual images

The sum of the 'whole' of Gestalt Theory, no pun intended, is that the sum of the whole of a composition is greater or may have a different effect than that composition's specific parts. Visually speaking, this relates to the perception of a composition as a whole rather than a series of images, colors, brush strokes, or lines. While each of the individual parts of a picture or a photograph has meaning on its own, when all of the elements of the piece are taken together by the eye and mind as one, the meaning of that piece must and will change. The perception of the gazer of the piece is thus based on the individual's understanding of all the bits and pieces working in unison.

The four principles of Gestalt Theory relating to visual composure are that proximity, similarity, orientation, and closure. The principle of proximity (nearness, or similarity of location) means that the eye is able to focus more closely on smaller shapes if they are near rather than far. If far or close together, small shapes become related as a group. This can be seen in pointillism, where tiny pinpoints of color blend together to create different colors and images than they would if viewed singularly or far from one another, and also simply how by relating two images together, such as a saint and a sinner in a Medieval triptych, the two figures take on a different meaning.

Similarity can simply mean that objects in a visual composition can have a similar form pattern, as well as size, color, and texture. But it also underlines that if objects are alike in one of several ways, the eye will have less difficulty relating them to one another, whether they lie together or at a distance. In Monet's "Water lilies," one does not perceive each lily distinctly, the fact that numerous lilies of similar design are in the picture make it easier to see them as proximate and related, even if the lilies may have slightly different shapes, they still belong to the same form pattern.

Orientation relates to the fact that if points, lines, or shapes fall along a definite path and share the same visual elements that contribute to a sensation, or in film, have a similar sense of kinetic cohesion in their energy and speed, the eye will see or orient them all as moving together. In most basic terms, this orientation can be seen in a child's flip book, whose similar yet slightly different images along the same visual path can be paged through slowly or quickly to give a sense of motion. It can also be seen in highly kinesthetic paintings or photographs that create a sense of motion if they are, for instance, elongated like an El Greco or in trick fun house photography in a way that all the lines are aimed in the… [read more]


History of Egyptian and Mayan Term Paper

… www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5001517610" (Gould) The Spanish Conquerors destroyed most of the Mayan books leaving only four codices intact. The four remaining codices are: the Dresden Codex; the Madrid Codex; the Paris Codex and the Grolier Codex.

Similarly the decline of Egyptian writing is also linked to historical and political developments. Early Egyptian writing was absorbed into Coptic and replaced by Arabic due to complex sociological and cultural changes and movements in the region. After Ramses II, the power of the Egyptian Empire went into decline. The character of the country, as well as its cultural context, was changed due to Invaders such as the Assyrians and Persians. Later, Greek and Roman armies marched into the rich Nile Valley. All of these influences resulted in the decline of Egyptian writing.

Conclusion

Why do we concern ourselves with these ancient languages and forms of writing? The answer lies in the fact that the best understanding of the ancient civilization comes from their written sources. Writing represents invaluable records that have importance not only for that specific time and place. Writing "arose out of the need to store information and transmit information outside of human memory and over time and over space." (Wilford, J.N.)

The Egyptian and Mesoamerican cultures are part of our universal heritage and origins. Understanding ourselves in the contemporary world requires that we also understand our past history. There are many clues and revelations about the development of human civilization that lies hidden within the scripts as well as many mysteries that still need to be deciphered. Both these cultures achieved amazing technical, intellectual and scientific feats that still astound scholars and scientists today.

Bibliography

Ancient Egyptian Writing. May 18, 2004. http://www.dragonstrike.com/egypt/write.htm

The Ancient Maya.

Digital Meesh. May 18, 2004. http://www.digitalmeesh.com/maya/history.htm

Egyptian writing dating to 3300 B.C. discovered. The Japan Times, December 17, 1998. Accessed: May 20, 2004. http://www.trussel.com/prehist/news95.htm

Gelb, I.J. A Study of Writing: The Foundations of Grammatology. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1952.

Gould, Stephen Jay. "Unusual Unity." Natural History Apr. 1997: 20+. Questia. 21 May 2004 http://www.questia.com/.

Hardman, Chris. "Writing at the Start." Americas (English Edition) Sept.-Oct. 2003: 5. Questia. 21 May 2004 http://www.questia.com/.

Mysteries of Egypt.

Civilization. Ca, May 20, 2004. http://www.civilization.ca/civil/egypt/egcw01e.html.

Mattessich, Richard. "The oldest writings, and inventory tags of Egypt. (Interfaces)." Accounting Historians Journal, June 1, 2002.

Parsons, Marie. The History of Ancient Egyptian Writing, Tour Egypt Net. Accessed May 17, 2004, http://www.touregypt.net/featurestories/writing.htm

Realms of the Sacred. University of California. Irvine. May 19, 2004. http://www.lib.uci.edu/libraries/exhibits/meso/sacred.html

Moorhouse, A.C. The Triumph of the Alphabet: A History of Writing. New York: H. Schuman, 1953.

Sanders, William T., and Barbara J. Price. Mesoamerica; the Evolution of a Civilization. New York: Random House, 1968.

Setting the Record Straight. Native Languages of the Americas. May 20, 2004. http://www.native-languages.org/iaq.htm

Smith, Tony. Early Human Civilization. May 19, 2004. http://www.innerx.net/personal/tsmith/oldciv.html

Tomlinson, Sue. History of Writing. May 20, 2004. http://www.delmar.edu/engl/instruct/stomlin/1301int/lessons/language/history.htm

Ullman, B.L. Ancient Writing and Its Influence. New York: Longmans, Green and Co., 1932.

Wilford, J.N. Who Began Writing?, The New York Times on the Web,… [read more]


Successful Writing Term Paper

… However, this alone will not teach me the formal use of proper grammar and punctuation in a technical way. To truly learn how to write well myself, I must practice, practice, practice, as well as read, read, read. I must write compositions and to have an English teacher grade them for correct usage. Also, I must formally study the structure of the language.

Perhaps the best way to do this is to study a foreign language. By understanding the structure of verbs, nouns, adjectives, and adverbs in a different linguistic context, I think I can better understand the way English is 'put together' as an expressive language. Combined with learning more about English grammar in a fun way through writing and reading many well-written books, I will become more aware of how I can deploy the correct usage of English grammar and punctuation in my daily written life. [read more]


Grammar Presentation the Hook Term Paper

… In either case, the sentence only contains one independent clause. Dangling participles can occur in simple sentences. For example: Lingering there, the street came alive.

A complex sentence contains one independent clause and at least one dependent clause. For example: After the game is over, we will go out to dinner. An example of a dangling participle in a complex sentence could be the following: Crying all night, the television show failed to cheer me up because I felt so bad.

A compound sentence contains two or more independent clauses and a compound-complex sentence, as the name suggests, contains both. Dangling participles can occur in all these types of sentences.

Stage Two: Learn to Identify a Participle

Technically, a participle is a word or phrase that is derived from a verb but used as an adjective in a sentence. In the following example, the participle is italicized: Finished with his work, the insurance agent left the office. The word "finished" is a verb that can also be used as an adjective; therefore, it is participating as both verb and adjective.

Try to identify the participles in the following sentences:

1. Leaving the office early, I ran into my friend Wendy.

Protected from the sun, the old woman took a nap on the beach.

Disposing the body in the river, the murderer thought he could easily get away.

Stage Three: Learn to Recognize a Dangling Participle

Now that you understand what a participle is and how it acts in a sentence, let's learn how to recognize a dangling participle. In fact, let's rearrange the three sentences I just mentioned so that their participles dangle:

1. Leaving the office early, Wendy suddenly showed up in the lobby.

In this case, the sentence actually makes sense and could be grammatically correct, had we not known what the writer actually intended to say. It wasn't actually Wendy who got off early, but the narrator of the sentence. Therefore, dangling participles can create a great deal of confusion and misunderstanding.

2. Protected from the sun, the trees shaded the old woman as she took a nap on the beach.

Obviously the trees aren't protected from the sun; the old woman is.

3. Disposing the body in the river, getting away became easier for the murderer.

In this case, the phrase "getting away" serves as a noun. However, the participle "disposing the body in the river" is supposed to modify the murderer, not the act of getting away.

Note that dangling participles usually occur in introductory phrases at the beginnings of sentences.

Quiz

Try to recognize the dangling participles in the following sentences and provide a corrected version.

1. Having already eaten, the mashed potatoes did not jump out at me.

2. Pouring the water absent-mindedly, a puddle formed on the carpet.

3. Melted from the heat, I put the chocolate bar back in the refrigerator.

4. Supervising the employees, an angry look crept over John's face.

5. Jaded from a botched relationship, his bourbon was… [read more]


Translation -- Art or Science? Term Paper

… '

It could be argued that to render Homer in vernacular English, or more vernacular poetry, is a truer example of how Greeks of the day experienced these legendary works of literature. However, to simply 'translate' Shakespearean English into modern slang would not be a true translation, either, if one were grappling with that particular project of translation, because even though the Elizabethans used a different vocabulary than us and were more comfortable with the iambic form by and large, the poetry of these plays was still 'heightened' to their ear. Individuals value the vernacular more today, and poetry less than either the Greeks or Elizabethan English, and thus any encounter with these texts will be different than theirs, will be a translation even if one is from an ancient alternative language and the other text is still in recognizable but different English.

If it is so difficult to tread a fine line between 'dumbing down' and rendering a work entirely into one's own cultural understanding to the point that its initial milieu is lost, one is best to stick with a literal mode of translation, a scientific advocate might argue. However, the creativity that is generated by individuals such as Ezra Pound, for instance, producing translations of ancient Chinese verse that are themselves both original works of art yet render the works more accessible when read in more strict translations seem to fly in the face of such a rigid assertion.

Ideally, variety seems to be the best medium by which to grasp a translation. However, the laborious even if delightful process of reading a work in translation, of a modern and a literal rendering, can never quite give one the original accessibility of the work's first audience. One must accept that translation is always that, a filtration rather than a primary apprehension of the original, however one contemplates the original work. Ultimately, one can only hope to learn through its very difficulty, rather than to avoid the difficulties inherent in the translation process… [read more]


David Mamet From the Perspective Term Paper

… Indeed, this below quotation, which was applied originally to the works of Walter Benjamin, could well be applied to Mamet as well:

In the constellation, the oblique links between words that break out of the linear path of communication are… [read more]


Appalachian Dialect Term Paper

… Further, some meanings of words and phrases can vary between regions.

In conclusion, the unique American Appalachian dialect is often greatly misunderstood. Many modern Americans would characterize the Appalachian dialect as a corruption of the English language that is spoken by uneducated and unintelligent hillbillies. Instead, the Appalachian dialect is more aptly characterized as an archaic type of English that resembles the English spoken in the time of the first Queen Elizabeth.

Geographical, cultural, and social isolation have kept the Appalachian dialect essentially pure over the past 200 years of America's history. Today, the Appalachian dialect continues to thrive, preserving one of America's great linguistic traditions.

Works Cited

Appalachian Dialect. 01 November 2003. Google cache of http://mcweb.martin.k12.ky.us/hillsweb/history/dialect.htm. http://www.google.com/search?q=cache:Dllb1lcywE4J:mcweb.martin.k12.ky.us/hillsweb/history/dialect.htm+Appalachian+dialect+&hl=en&ie=UTF-8

Burke, Henry. Notes from the Underground. Appalachian dialect unusual to non-natives. 01 November 2003. http://www.mariettaleader.com/100400/notesfromtheunderground.htm

Crafton, Michael, Dr. Present Day English. Excerpts from the works of Dr. Micheal Crafton. Department of English, State University of West Georgia, Carrollton, Georgia. 01 November 2003. http://www.tutorpal.com/Our_English/present_day_english/dchn_pde.html

Dial, Wylene P. The Dialect of the Appalachian People. West Virginia History, volume 30, no. 2, (January 1969), pp. 463-71. 02 November 2003. Available online at http://www.wvculture.org/history/journal_wvh/wvh30-2.html

Kephart, Horace, Nicholas, J. Karl, and Farwell, Herold F.

Smoky Mountain Voices: A Lexicon of Southern Appalachian Speech Based on the Research of Horace Kephart.

Virgin English. Dickenson County Gal. 01 November 2003. http://www.dickensoncounty.net/dialect.html [read more]


Machine Translation, and the Future Dissertation

… Machine Translation: History and Current Issues

Champollion (2001) addresses the issue that is the main subject of this research, the ability of machines to replace human translators. Champollion agrees that the field of machine translation is still very young. He… [read more]


Bhagavad-Gita Is a Conversation Term Paper

… The inability of the Bhavagdad-Gita to be translated in a straight forward manner of which all can agree places it in the category of mythological work, with the Lord Krishna and Arjuna as the heroes of the tale. The Bhavagdad-Gita stands the test of time as a classical work. The Bhavagdad-Gita has a different meaning for each and every person who reads it.

Annotated Bibliography

Beck, Sanderson. "Wisdom Bible From Ancient China, India, Greece, the Middle East, and Rome." 2001. http://san.beck.org/Gita.html. Accessed June 2002.

Sanderson Beck gives a highly symbolic representation of the concepts found in the Bhavagdad-Gita. He considers representation of the earthly elements of earth, fire, water, wind and other earthly things as representative of man and the cosmos as representative of God.

Judge, William Quan. "Essays on the Gita." Theosophical University Press Electronic version.

1969. http://www.theosociety.org/pasadena/gita/bg1.htm. Accessed June 2002.

This translation and commentary presented here give a contrast to the other commentaries presented in this work. It gives a very Western version of the Bhavagdad-Gita. It is a good illustration of how the background of the commentator can influence the translation and interpretation.

Prasad, Ramanand The Bhavagdad Gita. American Gita Society 1988. http://home.talkcity.com/GaiaWay/infinite_freedom/BHAGAVAD_GITA.htm. Accessed June 2002.

This translation is a softened version of the Judge translation. It is not as dramatically presented the judge commentary, but still seems to miss the deeper inspirational meaning conveyed by Maharashi, Beck, and Row. It is a Western perspective written for a different audience than the Judge translation. It is included here to serve as a contrast to the Judge translation.

Row, T. Subba B.A., B.L., F.T.S. "Notes on the Bhagavad Gita." Theosophical University Press

Online Edition First printing 1934, second printing 1978. Accessed online at URL: http://www.theosociety.org/pasadena/gita-sr/nbg-hp.htm. Accessed June, 2002.

T. Subba Row proposes the hypothesis the symbolism of evolution in the Bhavagdad-Gita is that to ascertain the highest level of which a man is capable is determined by examining the forces that are inside him and those that are outside him. Row uses symbolism in the Bhavagdad-Gita to support his hypothesis that man is a dichotomy of his inner thoughts and strengths and his interactions with the rest of the universe.

Wells, Geofrey and Samuel Y. Boothby. "Absolute Principles of Society in Maharishi's

Commentary on the Bhagavad-Gita." Maharishi University of Management. Fairfield,

Iowa, U.S.A. (Originally published in Modern Science and Vedic Science Volume 6, NO. 1, p. 3-30) http://www.mum.edu/msvs/6195WellsIntro.html. Accessed June 2002.

Geofrey Wells and Samuel Boothby discuss the absolute principles of society as found in Maharashi's commentary. Maharashi argues that the evolutionary principle is representative of an individual within a society and that the cosmos is representative of the larger society acting on the actions of an individual. [read more]


Pros and Cons of Polygamy Essay

… ¶ … Polygamy

Today, polygamy is outlawed in most countries around the world, but a handful of countries still allow the practice at the government level, including Afghanistan. Proponents of polygamy in Afghanistan argue that both religious and pragmatic factors influence their decisions concerning the practice. For instance, Tayler cites the example of Shah Mohammed, described as a "chivalrous man" whose decision to take a second wife was based on one of compelling need. From Mohammed's perspective, "It is ethical and virtuous to marry a second time. Because so many men were killed or left the country during the war, we have families with three, four, even five girls who can't find a good husband. Their parents are suffering because they have so many daughters to support" (cited in Tayler at 3).

Moreover, the Koran authorizes Muslim men to marry as many as four wives provided they have the economic means to support them, and under Muslim laws and traditions, the groom must provide the bride's family with a hefty dowry that is regarded as a more-than-fair price. For instance, Tayler quotes an elderly Afghan man, Dadullah, who reports that for his second wife, "I gave them 10,000 Afghanis, as well as 210 kilos of rice, 70 kilos of meat, 70 kilos of flour, 21 kilos of potatoes, 21 kilos of onions, 5 gallons of gas and 700 kilos of firewood" (cited in Tayler at 6). In a country where poverty is endemic and employment opportunities for women are virtually nonexistent, such polygamous arrangements would appear to represent a superior alternative to allowing unmarried Afghan women to languish with no viable hopes for the future. Indeed, some Afghani women welcome new wives to the family because it means less work for… [read more]


Why Marriages Fail and Others Succeed Chapter

… Marriage

The couple I know who has the most successful relationship of anyone else in my life has seven children (and counting). There is always a ton of activity happening in their house, which is not large (and is actually small considering the number of children they have). By normal standards it would be considered a modest home. The kids are all under the age of 12 and the couple is in their mid-30s. They have a strong devotion to one another that they have nursed since they were together in high school. They enjoy being in each other's company, laugh at one another's jokes, and love to tell stories about one another, their family and their experiences. They are very social and active in the community. He works full-time and she is a stay-at-home mom who sends the kids to the local school at the parish church where they go for Mass.

I think this couple is happy and successful because they accept what they are given in life and do not make any complaints about it. I have never seen either one complain about anything, whether it is the house, bills, or sickness. They take everything in stride, often able to make a joke about it to lighten the effect. This is not to say that they do not have their trying times. They face a lot of stress because his job is not the best and they would like to move to a bigger house in a better neighborhood, but they are able to support each other in the sense that they do not place demands on one or other. Part of the reason for this is that they are on the same page when it comes to what is most important in their lives. They view their children being healthy and happy and able to attend a good school in their neighborhood as a great blessing and they love being able to go for walks with the kids around the neighborhood and visit with other couples in the neighborhood and talk about life. From the looks of it, you would think they did not have a care in the world. This is… [read more]


Clarity Readers Prefer Book Review

… ¶ … Clarity

Readers prefer clear and concise writing because it is easy to understand. Whether readers are highly or lowly educated, they do not want to struggle searching for the meaning of a sentence because of wordiness or complexity. Concise writing is not only comprehensive but also easy to locate certain information. Therefore, when writing any information, the writer should avoid unnecessary words in a sentence. This is the foundation of achieving concise and clearly written sentences (May and May 51).

A good writer must peruse the required text to verify the absence of errors. While doing this, all unnecessary words should be eliminated. This can be done by crossing out all words that are not required in a sentence. Long sentences complicate one's piece and create room for grammatical errors. According Claire and Gordon May (2012), a sentence should not be more than twenty words (p. 53). From the limitation of words, the writer should ensure that every word used is expressing the intended information.

Another way of being concise is capitalizing on simplicity. This means that apart from writing short sentences, the words must also be familiar. Using everyday words is convenient for most readers. It will mainly help those who cannot understand jargon or other difficult words in English. However, in some circumstances, it is not possible to avoid a difficult word. The meaning of the word should follow wherever possible. Using short sentences and simple words are successful ways of explaining complex ideas to a general audience.

Verbs and nouns in writing have always made a text concise. They are a preferred compared to adverbs and adjectives. Verbs and nouns will result to short sentences while using adverbs and adjective encourages wordiness (Sundem 55). A major cause of wordiness is hidden verbs. For instance, people commonly write, "we came to a conclusion," while the correct thing is, "we concluded." In most cases,… [read more]


Jumps Out Regarding the Privatization Report Seminar Paper

… ¶ … jumps out regarding the privatization report is how many to most of the pages are quite empty on the bottom third and it's perhaps a bit distracting depending on who is reading the paper. The paper has a… [read more]


Basic Rules of Coding Research Paper

… ¶ … Rules of Coding

Qualitative Analysis: The Basic Rules of Coding

Qualitative analysis is definitely much more abstract than its quantitative counterparts. The methodologies used in qualitative analysis must be fluid and flexible to examine social phenomenon, which is often much too complicated and diverse to study in a typical quantitative format. Thus, various methods of qualitative analysis aim to explore the more abstract realm of social phenomenon, with content analysis and grounded theory being two popular methods which utilize the process of coding to provide a strong foundation for systematic analysis of abstract concepts.

Content analysis is a methodology that is often used within the qualitative field. It is a methodology which aims to systematically analyze open ended interviews through a series of coding processes that help extrapolate important concepts and build relationships among such concepts in a meaningful manner. According to the research, "content analysis has its own approach to analyzing data that stems largely from how the object of analysis, content, is conceived" (Krippendorff 2004 p 18). Content analysis uses coding as a way to uncover patterns within communicative applications, such as open ended interviews, political speeches, and a plethora of other linguistic sources. This style of coding is very flexible and fluid, focusing on frequently used words, meanings, and phrases in a multi-layered analysis covering semantics and syntax coding processes. Different layers of analysis focus on different concepts within the given data source. According to Krippendorff (2004), frequencies are pulled out of the data set, and then priorities are set to those frequencies, with a final examination of the values and meanings behind such frequencies.

Grounded theory is a tangent methodology that grew out of content analysis as it continued to gain popularity in qualitative applications. This methodology goes even further to provide… [read more]


Glimpse Your Reader Sees Term Paper

… The Body of the report should discuss the methodology used in obtaining the data, discussing in detail how the data have been collected. It should be indicated whether the collection methods were qualitative or quantitative, and collected methods should be discussed in detail.

The data should be presented in an organized format. Quantitative data should be organized in tables or charts that give the reader an overview of the results. This should be followed by an explanation of the findings, including a synthesis of the data and an analysis of the findings. It is important to report and analyze data in an objective and organized manner. If more than one conclusion has been reached, each conclusion should be related to the data on which it is based. That data should then be interpreted and analyzed accordingly.

Conclusion

Rather than merely echoing what is said in the Introduction, the Conclusion should draw together the premise of the problem and the conclusions indicated in the Body of the report from the Collected Data. The resulted analysis and interpretation should be the focus of the Conclusion. Other areas of content would be recommendations made on the basis of the Collected Data. In longer reports, these recommendations may be in list format, with brief descriptions presented under appropriate subheadings. Areas for further study should also be indicated in this section of the report.

Glossary

As indicated above, a Glossary may be included in longer reports as necessary, such as when there are an extended number of terms that need to be defined. The Glossary should be in alphabetical order to allow for easy access.

Works Cited

If quotations, paraphrases, or summaries are included in any part of the report, a Works Cited page should be included. This page should list in alphabetical order the names of all authors whose works have been used in compiling the report. If authors' names are not available, the works may be listed by title. All essential information about the source, such as date and place of publication and URL if applicable, should also be included in this section.

Final Step: Proofreading

All sections of the paper should be proofread carefully before submission. Using a grammar review program such as Spell-Check is one way of catching errors. However, not all mistakes can be detected by using such software, so a final review is essential to avoid unnecessary and embarrassing errors and typos. Superficial mistakes indicate a lack of attention to detail. They also distract the reader from the content of the report. Finally, they undermine the writer's credibility. Therefore, taking this final step to ensure a well-written, error free report is well worth… [read more]


Security Public or Private Good Analysis Using Commercial Satellite Article Critique

… ¶ … illuminative and educational. I learned something new and I read perhaps 5000 journal articles a year and probably 500 books, many on economics and I have never seen anything on the public / private management of interorbital communications. I found the content accessible, not overly technical, and the figures helped illustrate the concepts effectively and clearly. The figures enhanced, rather than simply repeated or obscured the discussion. Minor specific note in text points out one opportunity for increased consistency in one of the figures.

You should see specific comments inserted in the text. You may have to adjust 'turn markup on' or 'view normal' etc. But you should see a line of comments down the right-hand margin. If not, let me know and I will try to re-format although that will take some time. 'Track changes' should also display the comments.

In general, my top four recommendations are,

Take a deliberate scan for repetition one more time;

Will need to harmonize citation styles prior to submission. This depends on the publication of course but as is here, references do not match throughout.

I would personally revise every single passive verb construction into active voice. You will see specific examples in notes in text. Why?

More direct; tighter; stronger.

Active voice = clearer; less internal switching of direction, reference.

This does not mean shorter sentences and some passive is ok but ~95% active is "better writing," and what I read here is perhaps 60% passive verb constructions.

Likewise pronouns: In several places I have to stop and go back to verify exactly whom or what "they" or "it" or "them" referred to. Again this does not suggest get rid of every pronoun but pronouns introduce danger of incorrect reference… [read more]


Organizing My Thoughts Sometimes, I Have Trouble Essay

… ¶ … Organizing my Thoughts

Sometimes, I have trouble getting started because it is hard for me to organize the ideas that I need to present in my writing. I have made the mistake of starting to write before having a clear idea of what I want to say in the rest of the assignment and then having to start over again. I have tried to change that by writing outlines to lay out my points in the order that I want to make them before I start writing. That has helped me very much to write without having to change what I have already written later in the assignment. In that respect, twenty minutes spent thinking and outlining my points before starting to write has saved me much more time spent rewriting after the fact.

Repetitive Vocabulary

I have noticed that I tend to use some of the same words too often within the same paragraph or within consecutive sentences. Unless I look for it afterwards while proofreading, I may completely miss the redundancy completely.

Proofreading Long Complex Sentences

Sometimes, I write complex sentences that seem to change direction halfway through. Unless I proofread them carefully, I may not notice this because both the beginnings and the ends of those sentences make sense; they just do not go together logically. Proofreading has also allowed me to fix this problem, but I have also learned that it is much harder for me to proofread my work shortly after writing it because I tend to overlook the mistakes in my writing. By giving myself enough time to wait at least a few hours between writing and proofreading, I have managed to improve the accuracy of my proofreading to catch those (and other) types of mistakes in my writing.

Questionnaire

1. What types of writing do you and your colleagues have to do most often on the job?

Generally, most of the writing we do consists of formal status reports and project update reports. We also write quite a few emails to communicate with one another and with our supervisors.

2. When you receive written communication from other employees, what features of the writing make you likely to… [read more]


Grammar Is a Cornerstone of Communication Research Proposal

… Grammar is a cornerstone of communication, the skeleton of every sentence. Grammatical rules may be occasionally broken for poetic impact, but only when the writer understands the rule and why it may be effective to break it. Re-reading a grammar book two or three times a year reinforces the rules of grammar. Because bad grammar is commonplace, we can easily slip into bad writing habits.

Proofreading documents for spelling also prevents miscommunications. Having another person proofread is important because readers often notice what writers miss. Passive verb constructions often signal weak writing.

Punctuation is a drum set, creating rhythm in a piece of prose or poetry. Writers should not forget semicolons and colons; they can link together clauses in meaningful ways. Writing too many words is like talking too much; at some point the audience will stop listening. Superfluous words in a sentence are anathema to good writing. A good writer takes care crafting each sentence and choosing each word. Brevity makes pieces pleasurable to read.

A writer is like any other artist who communicates abstract concepts to an audience. The best way for a writer to remain mindful of the audience is to be the audience as much as possible. In other words, writers should read a lot. The higher the quality of the reading material, the better writing habits the reader will pick up. Readers glean tone, style, grammar, pacing, and vocabulary from writers. No matter what the genre of writing, research is crucial. Even a poet requires an in-depth understanding of an image or other subject matter. Research enables a multisensory, multifaceted, and multilayered piece of writing. Intimate knowledge of a subject matter allows a writer to connect with the reader's senses in ways a superficial writer could not do. For example, a piece of pizza is a triangular-shaped wedge of dough topped with bright red tomato sauce… [read more]


English Grammar Grammatical Analysis of UNICEF Essay

… English Grammar

Grammatical Analysis of UNICEF - supported soap opera raises awareness about HIV / AIDS in Niger

It is often said that today's generations tend to learn less than the older ones have learned in the past. The children… [read more]


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