Study "Language / Linguistics" Essays 386-387

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Speech Production the Formation Essay

… Speech Production

The formation of speech actually begins in the brain as described by Fernando Trujillo. After the creation of a message and the lexico-grammatical structure (a combination of vocabulary and grammar) in our mind, we need a representation of a sound sequence and a number of commands which will be executed by our speech organs to produce speech. These are referred to as a phonetic plan and a motor plan, respectively. Next, speech is produced through four processes: 1) initiation, 2) phonation, 3) oro-nasal process and 4) articulation.

Giegerich (1992) describes the initiation phase. In this phase, air is exhaled from the lungs. This air stream serves as the source of energy for speech. For speaking in English, the air stream moves out of the lungs and through the trachea. The air stream then passes through the larynx at the upper end of the trachea which contains folds of tissue called vocal folds.

Between these folds lies the glottis.

The glottis, according to Giegerich (1992), is where the phonation phase occurs. Speakers manipulate their vocal folds and thus, the glottis into different positions to make sounds. There are three significant positions, closed, narrow and open:

Closed where the vocal folds are brought close together to prevent air from passing between them. This produces what is called a glottal stop heard in English before a forcefully pronounced vowel; an example is 'Out!'

Narrow where there is an only a small gap for the air stream to pass through so that the passage of air makes them vibrate. This vibration of the vocal folds causes the air column above the glottis to vibrate. This produces what is known as voiced…… [read more]


Land of "Whatisit?" Was Very Upset Term Paper

… ¶ … land of "Whatisit?" was very upset. The more they tried to become the smartest and most knowledgeable nation in all of Googleland, the more that other states jumped ahead of them. They did not know what to do. Already, their children could memorize 300 books by the time they were five. They could recite all the rules of grammar in 500-page grammar book, spell every word in the 15-pound wikidictionary, and count forward and backwards to 100,000.

Yet still the other nation states were ahead of them in all the tests. They said it was because they knew how to enjoy the books, write stories and use the numbers to compute math problems. "What a waste of time" said "Whatisit?" And they made their children make a list of everything they saw every day in alphabetical order, learn how to spell every word backwards as well as forwards.

Yet still the other nation states were more educated. They said it was because the used what they learned to make their lives better, to do their jobs and take care of their families. "What a waste…… [read more]

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