"Latin America / Mexico / Caribbean" Essays 1-70

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What Defines Latin America Term Paper

… Latin America unites all countries of Americas where Romance languages are spoken (languages which derived from Latin language). From geographical perspective Latin America includes territories where Spanish, Portuguese or French dominated during colonization era: Mexico, Central America, South America and… [read more]

Latin America's Problems Owe Term Paper

… Now on to the definitions of the eight terms:

Caudillism. As we have seen, caudillo is the term used to refer to any leader whose power was not necessarily-based within, or on, an institutional framework, but rather on personal charisma,… [read more]

Colonial Latin America Essay

… Colonial Latin America -- 3 Questions

What aspects of Iberian society were transferred to the New World?

Urbanization, bureaucracy, and close ties to the Church were some of the primary aspects of Spanish and Portuguese culture that were immediately transferred from Iberia to the New World. Iberian society was also highly patriarchal, which the Conquistadors imported to the New World as well. By the time the Conquistadors arrived on the Americas, they had become reliant on slave labor to work their Atlantic Island plantations; this same practice was then transferred to and perpetuated in their New World conquests. The practice of plantation farming was, itself, something that the Spaniards introduced to the New World, and they persisted with it, overcoming natural obstacles to its success through the sheer force of slave labor in great numbers.

The most pervasive aspect of Iberian society imposed on the New World was the fundamental belief that the king owned all lands in his kingdom and that the inhabitants and administrators of those lands were obligated to produce revenue for the royal crown. The Spanish conquerors imposed taxes on the indigenous populations and used their established cultural leaders and chiefs to collect those taxes from the local populations.

What was the nature of the exploitation of Indigenous people in the New World?

The indigenous populations of the New World, particularly on the Latin-American Islands, were horribly exploited and mistreated by the European explorers. By today's standards, some of the most famous European explorers in whose honor we still hold parades and name city streets and high schools in the United States were war criminals who committed genocide at the same level as the most notorious of the Nazis who were tried as war criminals in Nuremburg shortly after the end of World War Two.

Practically…… [read more]

Role of the Church in Colonial Latin America Thesis

… Church and Colonial Latin America

The relationship between the Catholic Church and Latin America is one that goes back to the earliest history of European Spain's first explorations of South America. The Church has had an integral role in the… [read more]

Advancing Democracy in Latin America Through the Church Term Paper

… Advancing Democracy in Latin America Through the Church

The whole of Latin America has been weighed down by dictatorial regimes. The age of Human rights and democracy had been met with brute force. Many of these military takeovers had been… [read more]

Economy of Latin America Term Paper

… In addition, the resulting emergency aid that emerged as a result (out of a fear of default on loans rather than any altruistic motive), only underscored its dependence on outside aid, investment, and influence.

Of course, no discussion of the… [read more]

Growth of Latin America vs. East Asia Term Paper

… ¶ … growth of Latin America vs. East Asia (China)

Many researchers have quickly gravitated to the significant differences in per capita incomes between the Latin American and East Asian regions of the world to explain their major economic growth differences and trajectory of economic gains seen today. In fact the most conclusive set of findings comes from a series of regression analysis and econometric analysis completed by De Gregorio (2004) (pgs. 111-113) which shows that while income can explain the significant differences in the history and foreseeable future of economic growth of Latin America vs. East Asia, the far more telling factors are the fact that East Asian nations are much freer to engage in global commerce than their Latin American counterparts. Porter (1990) (et.al.) uses the determinants of competitive advantage to organize these specific attributes of an economy.

This is rooted in the ideological stance of Latin America and their at times extremely ethnocentric attitudes about political philosophies. This is having a major effect on Latin America's ability to successfully manage balance-of-payments and attract foreign direct investment, two areas where East Asia was fortunate enough to set a foundation in the early 1990s. Additional factors that have contributed to the gulf in economic performance between East Asia and Latin America is the former's high fertility rates,…… [read more]

Latin America Term Paper

… Getting the best and the brightest of nations to return home may be an impossible problem to solve. For example, if a new doctor from the Sub-Saharan African region stays in England or the United States because of the advantages seem greater than that same doctor working without facilities back home, there is more of a chance of his staying abroad. In Latin America, the rewards are greater because the nations of South America are better developed and therefore offer more of a reward to return home.

A major concern in Sub-Saharan Africa and the Latin American nations is family planning & sexually transmitted diseases such as HIV and Aids. "The ideal family size of about four children is lower in Rwanda than in most countries of sub-Saharan Africa. However, the annual rate of change observed between the periods of 0-3 and 4-7 years preceding the surveys (-4.2%) is clearly greater than those noted in the first phase of the fertility transition in Botswana, Kenya, and Zimbabwe."(Pillet) The use of contraceptives in Africa has declined as the use of contraceptives increases. The changes can be compared to Latin America in the 1970's. "In Asia and Latin America, the accelerated decline in fertility observed in a few countries in the 1950s and 1960s was repeated in most of the others in the 1970s." (Pillet)

The world will not be able to feed its entire population if the overall birthrate is not slowed. Unfortunately, those having the babies are often the poorest and least capable of providing adequate opportunities to house, cloth and feed their young. The efforts to slow the birthrate in Africa is a positive sign but that is not to say that the problem… [read more]

Latin America/China Term Paper

… Both Latin America and China have been noted for their extremely formalized codes of relations between the genders, as well as their highly contextual relations between social superiors and inferiors. However, Chinese schemas of beauty and female deference may be traced to religious and social codes that evolved within the nation. In contrast, Latin America's specific cultural attitudes towards gender can be largely traced to the influence of the Catholic Church, another example of the extent to which European faith structures permeated Latin American societies.

Of course the church has made its presence felt from time to time in China. However the sense of 'uniqueness' of China in contrast to the West remains, as opposed to Latin America that lacked this, because of the dispersed centralized political control in that nation. Despite the acknowledged depth of provincial divisions within China, China's rigid class system, and its striking linguistic diversity, the level of political cohesion that the Asian nation has enabled it to retain a certain level of integrity. China is, despite its vastness, a nation in the European understanding of statehood, while 'Latin American' as a political and cultural identity has always embraced a far more loosely defined notion of a blurry ethnic and racial heritage.… [read more]

Economic Geographies of Contemporary Brazil Thesis

… The infrastructure and service was provided for and controlled by the state.

However, this economic system has changed by wide and far and Brazil has warmed up to and embraced capitalism as many other countries have done. This is compliance… [read more]

Top Ten Latin American Cities Research Paper

… The following illustration shows the ease of doing business in various categories as noted in the study reviewed.

Figure 1

Ease of Doing Business Variables

Source: The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development / The World Bank (2012)

The ranking of ease of doing business in Latin American countries is shown in the following illustration.

Figure 2

Ease of Doing Business -- Latin American Countries

Source: The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development / The World Bank (2012)

Summary and Conclusion

The research conducted in this study has shown that individuals from Mexico are entering the United States at an unprecedented rate purchasing distressed homes and properties and paying cash for these in major cities such as Mexico and cities in Texas. The ease of doing business in Mexico experiences a great variation as noted in the ease of doing business ratings, for example, the ease in cost of percentage of income per capita in Chile is stated at seven but for Suriname is stated at 694 with a regional average of 71. Construction permit ease in the category of number of procedures in Belize is stated at nine but in Argentina is stated at 169 with 97 procedures required regionally. The likely reason that so many Latin American individuals are leaving Latin America to do business in the United States is the lack of ease associated with doing business in Latin America due to procedural requirements and the cost of starting a business in Mexico. Getting electricity in Uruguay takes 7 days but in Guatemala, it takes 469 days to get electricity with a regional average of 206 days required to get electricity. If Latin America wants to retain its businesses and entrepreneurs then these countries will need to address the costs associated with starting a business and the length of time it takes for those businesses to actually open their doors due to procedural requirements.


Mexico's Well-To-Do Move North (2012) Global Perspectives. April 2012. Retrieved from: http://www.realtor.org/sites/default/files/publications/2012/global-perspectives/global-perspectives-2012-04-mexicos-move-north.pdf

Regional Profile: Latin America (2012) Doing Business. The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development / The World Bank. Retrieved from:…… [read more]

Economic Commission on Latin America Term Paper


The Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC)

The ECLAC was developed in 1948 as a network of many other UN regional commissions. The design was to stimulate the Latin American and Caribbean approaches to economic development… [read more]

Latin America: Political or Apolitical Term Paper

… The movement toward privatization was especially strong within Latin America because state-owned entities had generally been little more efficient than the government bureaucracies themselves. Often they had been subject to cronyism, bloated employment practices to accommodate payback for political or personal support, and corruption. (Vanden & Prevost 167)

Stepping away from the ever-important financial indicators toward social indicators Vanden and Prevost cite the un-attestable urbanization of Latin America. This realization can also be seen as an agreement with Colburn.

Latin America is no longer the land of sleepy peasants and small villages. It has changed dramatically. Some three-quarters of the population now live in urban areas, compared to 41.6% in 1950. (Vanden & Prevost 12)

Though the region boasts a spattering of very large cities, larger than a million it also contains several cities with staggering population statistics.

There are three cities in Latin America that are now larger than New York City. Mexico City alone has more than 20 million people and is the largest city in the world. Sao Paulo, Brazil, has 16 million, and Buenos Aires, the capital of Argentina, has more than 12 million. (Vanden & Prevost 12)

Vanden and Prevost point out that a comparison of the level of urbanization within two regionally close nations, the U.S. And Canada gives startling testament to the level at which Latin America has embraced urbanization. "By 1990 Latin America had forty cities with 1 million of more inhabitants...more than Canada and the United States combined." (Vanden & Prevost 12)

Though there are evident agreements in Vanden and Prevost's work the scholars clearly do not agree with Colburn on all points. Within the Vanden and Prevost text is a very comprehensive assessment of the history of the temperament of Latin American political culture. Though Colburn does point out individual and group disillusion with the results of the many costly and bloody revolutions within the Latin American popular culture, Vanden and Prevost express that the ideologies of the mantras of those same revolutions are still evident in the culture today. Most notably Vanden and Prevost sight the strong history of dependence upon a historical political culture stressing authoritarian rule.

Nineteenth and twentieth century Latin Americans history saw ongoing pendulum swings between periods of democratic and authoritarian rule. Indeed it can be argued that Latin American political culture in most countries is characterized by a nominal commitment to the practice of democracy and a deep-seated reverence for authoritarian rulers with the strength to govern effectively. (Vanden & Prevost 120)

This allusion to cyclical resurgences of authoritarian rule in combination with Colburn's political assessment of the weakness of Latin America's democratic governments could suggest that this recent defeat of authoritarian rule in much of Latin America could simply be a temporary state of political climate.

Colburn has a very colorful and personally gripping argumentative style, especially with his modern use of narrative to explain his compelling theories. Yet, it is clear that this individualized use of narrative examples may be emotionally gripping… [read more]

Domino Theory in Central America Essay

… Domino Theory in Latin America

The NBC reporter Sandy Gilmour interviewed a Guatemalan government official in 1979 who was concerned about the leftist victory in neighboring Nicaragua and how the revolution might flow over the border into his country (Gilmour and Brinkley, 1979). While Nicaraguan government officials had promised not to export their revolution to neighboring dictatorships, such as El Salvador, Honduras, and Guatemala, U.S. officials were unwilling to rest easy based on these assurances. What the U.S. government feared was a domino effect, which would be a series of leftist victories sweeping across Central America that would remove dictatorships friendly to U.S. interests. Given the close ties between the Sandinistas Rebels in Nicaragua and Fidel Castro in Cuba, maybe the U.S. had reason to worry.

The overthrow of the Somoza regime in Nicaragua by the Sandinistas in 1979 was supported by Mexico, Venezuela, Costa Rica, and Panama (Gilmour and Brinkley, 1979), so there was strong regional support for ending dictatorships and installing elected leaders. This fact made the dictatorships in El Salvador, Honduras, and Guatemala even more nervous. Brutal crackdowns were all too common and this eventually undermined public support in the U.S. For supporting these dictators. Under the Carter administration, the U.S. government cut off military aid to Guatemala due to claims of extensive human rights abuses.

The domino theory emerged for the first time shortly after the Cuban revolution, when the U.S. government and Latin American military rulers began to wonder if the same fate awaited other Latin American countries (Green, 2006, p. 59-61). The U.S. response was to provide guns, counter-insurgency training, and other aid to military rulers in Latin America who were willing to take extreme measures to oppress leftist movements.

By 1976, two thirds of Latin American countries were ruled by dictatorships. Even in Cuba, once believed by many Latin Americans to be a guiding light for leftist ideals, the voices of opposition…… [read more]

Poverty in Latin America Research Paper

… 8 billion in 2005, is Mexican." (Poverty in the Developing World, Retrieved 2012). Articles state, however, that these numbers are deceiving in that rising above the official poverty rate by a few cents or even a dollar does not mean you are any better off. People in this situation are still impoverished and are living in a way that they are unable to provide for themselves much less their family, if any.

Certain areas in Latin America are worse than others. Bolivia has the highest poverty and inequality rate. Haiti is just behind Bolivia. Following Haiti are Colombia, Paraguay, Brazil, Panama, Nicaragua, Uruguay and Mexico. Many of these countries have responded to poverty by implementing new or modifying old social assistance programs. Social assistance programs are programs developed to assist the poor. The main aspects of the current social assistance programs are (1) conditional cash transfer, which is where cash is transferred directly into the household based on certain conditions, such as children attending school and doctor visits; (2) the household; (3) targeting the poorest; and (4) being multidimensional in that they are able to assist many dimensions of poverty at once.

The future of Latin America is vague and unknown. Latin America has consistently been impoverished but the percentage fluctuates. Many programs are available to the public in order to help Latin America and the people thereof. I believe the people themselves and the entire dynamic of Latin America will need to change before the poverty levels change significantly. Donations and charities may help but they will only scratch the surface. The issues of Latin America are deep and need to be dug up and dealt with by the people of Latin America.

In conclusion, we see that this is a current problem that is steadily being addressed and researched. Latin America needs help and resources in order to come out of poverty. They also must make changes within their own system so that the help can be well received and utilized to the fullest.


Latin America. (2010, June 7). In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved June 12, 2012, from http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Latin_America&oldid=366711869

Poverty. (2010). In Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary. Retrieved June 12, 2012, from http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/poverty

Poverty in the Developing World -- Latin America and…… [read more]

International Trade the Latin American Economy Research Proposal

… International Trade

The Latin American economy has been following a constantly ascending development trend in the last decades, despite several crisis that took back the past progress on the respective occasions, like the financial crisis in Argentina in 2002. Based… [read more]

Guerillas Latin America Term Paper

… Guerillas

Latin America

Latin America is composed of several communities where most of them are living in urban areas. Terrorism was built here through the use of guerrilla warfares. According to O'Connor, "It's a region of militant and lunatic extremism,… [read more]

U.S. and Latin America Term Paper

… S., so they add little money to the local economy: they therefore do not benefit positively the local economy. It is difficult to see what benefit Panama receives from U.S. troops stationed in the U.S., and it is well-known that… [read more]

Indigenous People Were Conquered Term Paper

… " The social unit, then, was primarily based on cooperation and communality (INCAS (http://www.wsu.edu/~dee/CIVAMRCA/INCAS.HTM)."

The desire by the Incas to rule was strong but it was done by allowing those that they conquered to become part of the Inca "family." The biggest mistake that was made in the Inca existence was the fact that it was centrally run. It all went back to the Inca leader. This was proof of their desire to be "in charge" of all they conquered, and it also provided the Spanish with an easy access to conquer them. All the Spanish had to do was to destroy the leader and the first layer of protectors of the people and they would destroy then entire Inca empire. This is exactly what happened though the Incas' fought long and hard to not allow their conquer.

Another element of evidence that the Incas were power hungry and powerful before the Spanish invasion was the fact that they insisted all lands that they overtook convert to their language which was Quechua. In addition their religious beliefs were imposed on the peoples that they conquered which was a faith that believed in many Gods. When the Spanish took over the Incas were forced to worship one God and give up their former beliefs of several Gods.

At its height, the Inca civilization crashed into the European expansion. In 1521, Herman Cortes conquered the Aztecs; this conquest inspired Francisco Pizzarro to invade the Incas in 1531. He only had two hundred soldiers, barely enough to walk the dog. However, he convinced the ruler of the Incas, Atahualpa, to come to a conference at the city of Cajamarca. When Atahualpa arrived, Pizzarro kidnapped him and killed several hundred of his family and followers. Atahualpa tried to ransom himself, but Pizzarro tried to use him as a puppet ruler. When that failed, Pizzarro simply executed him in 1533(INCAS (http://www.wsu.edu/~dee/CIVAMRCA/INCAS.HTM)."

For the next three decades small Inca resistance fighters tried to maintain their civilization against the Spanish rule but eventually failed (Bakewell PG).

The fact that the Incas were a power hungry people and a powerful regime before the invasion of the Spaniards is proof of the fact that they were conquered and later colonized. The fact that the Incas took over more land and people than anyone ever had in the history of South America lends credibility to the idea that the only way the Spanish won them over was by force. If one studies the Inca cultures and traditions one can easily see that there was only one way for the Spanish to gain power over them, and it was by force. The Incas were conquered and colonized which gave the Spanish power over all that the Incas had built.


Victors and Vanquished: Spanish and Nahua Views of the Conquest of Mexico by Stuart B. Schwartz Hardcover: 272 pages; Dimensions (in inches): 0.77 x 8.58 x 5.77

Publisher: Palgrave Macmillan; (March 2000)

ISBN: 0312228171

INCAS http://www.wsu.edu/~dee/CIVAMRCA/INCAS.htm


SPANISH DEVELOPMENT http://www.econ.org/octlessons/ushistory3,2-3.htm

Bakewell,… [read more]

Post Colonial Latin America Research Proposal

… ¶ … colonialism in the current Latin America

The aspect of colonialism shares a lot of features across the nations where it was practiced be it in Asia, Latin America or in Africa. It is not to claim that colonialism was the same but is a system that shared grounds in terms of the economic effects, the social effects as well as the psychological effects and also the timeline of its emergence and the decline after the World War II. There are several sub-systems that came alongside the colonial systems within the colonized regions that changed the face of those regions and the trends forever like the capitalism systems which are the main focus of this paper. It is therefore the deliberate effort of this paper to look at the post-colonial hangovers and the permanent changes and damages that colonialism dealt on the Latin America region in particular.

One of the evident effects that colonialism had on the Latin American region is the introduction of capitalism as Sartre J.P. (2001: Pp 128-130) indicates. The colonialists came into the region from the fast industrializing regions and offset the economic systems that were in place, establishing the systems where the holder of the capital controls the resources, and once he is able to control the resources, he is able to psychologically control the people as well. The capitalism is still widely practiced within the regions where the communal ownership of resources is no longer upheld, the societal approach to challenges is not as it was before the colonialists. Sartre goes on to emphasize to point out that this kind of foreign system is not beneficial but cause of problem for the colonized regions.

The colonialists had well calculated and targeted approach to areas that they colonized. They went for areas that had some form of natural resources or minerals that would be exploited to help further the industrialization of their home countries. Latin America was highly exploited for its god and silver during the colonial era and there was massive shipment of these resources to build Europe. The end result was deprivation of Latin America of the crucial resources that would help in the development and consequently ingraining underdevelopment in Latin America. The natural resources reserves are often the base of every economy and the absolute exploitation of such within the Latin America region left the area with a weak economy that still haunts the nation to the current times.

The Spanish used language to colonize and control the people, the native Latina-Americans were forced to not only give up their freedom but also their language to adopt the language of the colonialists. This is a fact that is still widely predominant within Latin America, with the official and national language in the region being Spanish and Portuguese, both being foreign colonial language (One World, 2015).

The colonization process also enshrined the current racism that still raises concern in the region. This racial segregation came about by the colonialists fearing the integration… [read more]

Latin American Economy Between Years Reaction Paper

… What was the impact on the development of political systems?

With stronger economies, much of the political dysfunction of Latin American countries was no longer tolerated. Many nations during this period had political coups resulting in the violent overthrow of the government. Sometimes these coups would be violent and other times, but far less often, the newly-formed governments would be founded peaceably.

With increased economic impact, the political structures of the Latin American nations were strengthened.

How did this export oriented pattern of development affect social structures?

With the impact of political growth through economic strength, Latin American nations were opened up to the influences of the countries that the agricultural products were exported to. The industrial revolution and ever-increasing population in European and American nations led to an increasing demand for products. One particularly important change was in terms of racial delineation. Before the 1880s, many Latin American countries were heavily divided socially along lines of ethnic differentiation. This was not immediately modified after the influence of other nations became so prevalent, but the Latin American nations began to alter their stratification to mirror those of the western world, such as the Jim Crow laws of the American South.

Works Cited:

Andrews, George Reid. "Black Workers in the Export Years: Latin America, 1880-1930."

Pittsburgh, PA. 1997. Print.

Skidmore, Thomas E., and Peter H. Smith. Modern…… [read more]

U.S. Latin America Relations State Departments Leading Essay

… U.S. Latin America Relations

State Departments leading expert on the Soviet Union, George F. Kennan, sent his famous "long telegram" to the state department from his post in the U.S. embassy in Moscow in February 1946, wherein he enunciated his… [read more]

History of Film in Latin America Thesis

… History Of Film In Latin America

The countries of Latin America have experienced a constant fall with the coming of the second half of the twentieth century when concerning their economy. Things had gotten worse and people steadily began to… [read more]

Forgotten Continent: The Battle for Latin America Term Paper

… Forgotten Continent: The Battle for Latin America's Soul

Latin American used to be considered a non-entity in terms of economic opportunity. When some one said, "Latin America" it typically conjured up images of primitive tribes, jungles, and ancient long lost… [read more]

Cockfighting in Latin America Term Paper

… Cockfighting is a sport that exists in many different regions of the world. However, the sport of cockfighting is prevalent in Latin America. Although there are many who believe that cockfighting is immoral and constitutes cruelty to animals, it is… [read more]

Colonization of Latin America Research Paper

… Latin America has seen the rise of colonialism in recent times. This has brought on some problems. Colonialism brought to Latin America the quick spread and influence of Christianity into the land, replacing traditional religions. European languages like Spanish, English,… [read more]

Definition of Latin America Essay

… Latin America is a geo-cultural region that loosely incorporates the Hispanophone and Lusophone nations within North and South America. The U.S. And Canada are typically excluded, as are Caribbean nations that do not speak Spanish. Even though the U.S. is not considered to be part of Latin America, Miami is nevertheless said to be the capital of Latin America, as a city with immigrants from all over the region, and the hub of trade between Latin America and the northern markets (Booth, 2001). The sobriquet is not a stretch either. Latin America is defined by its relations with the Spanish during their conquest of the Americas (and the Portuguese in Brazil). Spanish is the predominant language, Catholicism the religion, and all areas have colonial Spanish architecture as well as legal and political traditions. It is for these reasons that countries that were not colonized by Spain or Portugal are specifically excluded from the definition of Latin America.

While linked by a common history, the countries that comprise Latin America are incredibly diverse. All of these countries hosted indigenous populations, some wealthy and powerful, others less so, but they were all subsumed after the Spanish invaded, creating mestizo cultures. In some countries, the cultural and social influences are predominantly Spanish (such as in Argentina), while in others the native populations still dominate (such as in Bolivia, or Guatemala). Socially, there are class differences that often cut along racial lines, with people of European descent holding higher status in most countries than people of native descent, something that reflects the traditional colonial social power structures. People of African descent live in several countries in Latin America -- Brazil, Cuba, the DR, PR, and Colombia -- but their status is often related to the fact that their ancestors were brought over as slaves.

Latin America as a region is defined by the commonalities. Thus while there are some differences, at times significant ones, between the countries, the common bonds are what make them Latin American. The differences may arise from indigenous traditions, or from modern day outlooks, but the commonalities between these countries arise from the ways that they were colonized, and by whom, and how that has manifested in the modern-day culture.

Social Issues

There are a number of social issues in Peru, and these are found in many Latin American countries. The indigenous people often face a certain amount of social injustice. In Peru, many indigenous people do not speak Spanish, which inherently excludes them from the corridors of power. The Spanish colonizers set up the power structures of Peru, and its institutions, and power has been maintained by those of Spanish descent ever since. A result of this is that most of the country's wealth has been concentrated among a Spanish-descended elite. Among the indigenous, 78% live in poverty, compared with 40% for the Spanish, something that reflects differential access to power, resources, and opportunity within the society. Indigenous Peruvians are typically excluded from government, even today, and this is… [read more]

Open Veins of Latin America Book Report

… Latin America

In Open Veins of Latin America, Galeano analyzes the root causes of poverty, despair, and environmental degradation in Central and South America. Tracing the problems to colonization, Galeano shows how centuries of pillage and plunder have simply morphed into different forms, culminating with the farce of free trade. As Galeano (1997) writes, "the rich countries that preach free trade apply stern protectionist policies against the poor countries: they turn everything the touch- including the underdeveloped countries' own production-into gold for themselves and rubbish for others," (p. 101). Latin America's greatest weakness also happens to be its greatest strength: a wealth and diversity of natural resources. The "open veins" Galeano refers to in the book's title refer to the threads of ore and specialty raw materials providing streams of revenue for exploitative enterprises. Latin America is not, however, condemned to humiliation and poverty. Neither God nor nature is against Latin American progress, success, and self-determination. The climate is not oppressive; only people have that unique capacity for creating generational conflict. A combination of methods, ranging from liberation theology to political reform to the arts can provide the diverse people of Latin America with the tools for self-empowerment.

However, Galeano remains focused on describing the condemnation of the people of Latin America in Open Veins. First, he describes the presumed racial superiority of Europeans over the indigenous peoples of Latin America. Racism also prompted the trans-Atlantic slave trade, which epitomizes the sociopathic dimension of imperialism and colonization in the Americas. Moreover, racism led to the decimation of innumerable indigenous civilizations, many of them rich with not just resources but also wisdom and knowledge of the land, of human relations, and the stars. Their wealth was their greatest downfall, as it was that which made their land too attractive and too easily attainable by the bully cultures of Europe. This was the "drama" of all Latin America that has caused its people to suffer tremendously (Galeano, 1997, p. 47). Racism continues to impact social relations and political institutions, as well as socioeconomic class differentiation in Latin America, notes Galeano. Only by discarding the outmoded beliefs of colonialism and imperialism can Latin America achieve liberation.

The natural wealth of the land could be framed as a source of oppression, as the people of Latin America did not realize its power over the Europeans. "Our defeat was always implicit in their victory of others; our wealth has always generated our poverty by nourishing the prosperity of others," (Galeano, 1997, p. 2). Yet Latin American people do have the power and potential to wrest back the means of production, and take back their land. What was a means to oppress can become the means…… [read more]

Latin America Both Social Essay

… In this instance, as the compounding of these advantages occurs, the gap widens and people are subsequently burdened by financial pressures. This is what is occurring in Latin America. Further, inequalities exist when populations of people are dependent on one resource for financial wealth, and that resource is controlled primarily by a small amount of people. We see this in America as the top 20% of Americas wealthiest families own nearly 80% of the nation's wealth. The same can be applied to Latin America in the oil industry. Brazil in particular has oil reserves that are controlled by only a small handful of individuals. This has extreme implications on society as a select few control a disproportionate amount of the wealth. By controlling much of the oil, agriculture, and mineral operations within the country, a small amount of people have a profound effect on the rest of society (Blanke, 2011).

Oil and agriculture, much like gold in America is a financial resource that indicates prosperity. Like in America, the more of this resource one possesses, the more financial stability that individual has. As such, there is a constant desire to accumulate financial assets, which in this example would be the materials listed above. In many instances however, some individuals are more adept at acquiring these financial assets than others. This not due to individual ability but rather certain inherent characteristics or advantages certain people have over others. For example, education, social economic status, passion, and ambition all contribute to the inequality present within Latin America. In regards to education, research has proven those… [read more]

Imperialism Research Paper

… Extraterritoriality extends to foreign states or international organizations as entities and to their heads, legations, troops in passage, war vessels, mission premises, and other assets. It exempts them, while within the territory of a foreign sovereign, from local judicial process, police interference, and other measures of constraint ("Extraterritoriality")."

Was the United States involvement beneficial or harmful or both to the local people

New Imperialism-first adopted by European powers- has forever altered the relationship been the United States and Latin American nations. The actions of the United States were harmful to the local people. In many instances various Latin American nations have been forced to spend a great deal of money defending themselves from Americas Imperialism. As a result many Latin American countries suffer with high profit rated and substantial unemployment.

The strategies used by the United States are problematic because the highest form of capitalism is imperialism according to V.I. Lenin. Lenin explains that "In the backward colonial peoples, argued Lenin, capitalism had found a new proletariat to exploit? And from the enhanced profits of such imperialism it was able to bribe at least the more skilled workers at home into renouncing revolutionary fervor and collaborating with the bourgeoisie ("The New Imperialism")." In other words imperialism allowed for the proliferation of capitalism into new regions and populations. As a result nations such as the United States could convince highly skilled workers not to revolt. This tactic was beneficial to the United Sates but detrimental to the local people of various Latin American countries.

What lasting impact United State involvement had in Latin America

Many Latin American countries have difficulty maintaining a high quality of life for citizens. This is due in part from Americas influence and ability to exploit these nations economically. In addition in places such as Cuba, American sanctions have been extremely detrimental to the people of the country because it limits trade with the United States. As a result many Cubans attempt to leave the country each year. As a result of Americas Wet Foot Dry Foot policy, Cubans who can get to American territory can gain amnesty and will not be deported back to Cuba. Conditions that exist in Cuba are also present in other places throughout Latin America and the major outcome of imperialism is the instability of various Latin American governments.

Works Cited

Ebeling, R. M. (1990) Panama and the Canal: Children of American Imperialism and Socialism Retrieved from: http://www.fff.org/freedom/0590b.asp extraterritoriality. (2011). In Encyclopaedia Britannica. Retrieved from http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/199129/extraterritoriality

Lotta, R.U.S. Imperialism, the Cuban Revolution, and Fidel Castro. Retrieved from: http://revcom.us/a/056/cubahist-en.html

"The New Imperialism" Retrieved from: http://www.suu.edu/faculty/ping/pdf/TheNewImperialism.pdf… [read more]

U.S. Latin America International Affairs Thesis

… U.S. -- Latin America International Affairs

The three articles each address a different aspect of the relationship between the United States and Latin America. Interestingly, these aspects appear quite divergent, with some being openly negative in nature, while others are more lenient in their opinion of U.S. policy and the reasons for this policy regarding Latin American countries. In this way, the three aspects provide an objective perspective of the issues under consideration.

The first article being considered is "U.S. Policy toward Cuban the 1980s and 1990s" by Jorge I. Dominguez. This is the most focused article in terms of the specific Latin American region being addressed. Dominguez is somewhat critical of U.S. policy in the country, but does not suggest that related problems do not have a solution. Indeed, he highlights the problem as he sees it, very specifically, being of the opinion that an undervaluation of negotiation and an overvaluation of penalties lie at the basis of American problems in their relationship with Cuba. According to the author, Cuba responds better to open, mutual negotiation than to penalties and threats.

What is most interesting about this article is the sense that it relates to humanity as a whole. It is generally easier to accomplish one's wishes with negotiation than with threat. With negotiation, both parties can reach an agreement that is relatively satisfactory. There is the sense of voluntarily engaging in action to satisfy the agreement. This is true in many sectors of society, including education, and all areas of the professional sector where superiors and their inferiors negotiate to reach a satisfactory end.

This appears to be the premise of the article, and the author's research seems to substantiate it. Dominguez cites examples of both threat and negotiation in U.S. policy in its relationship with Cuba. In almost all cases where force and threat are used, much less is accomplished than with negotiation.

The article creates a good impression of being both well-researched and well-argued. Although the author maintains that the United States tends towards force instead of negotiation, he does not suggest that this problem cannot be overcome. Instead, he suggests that the future could hold a mutually beneficial relationship between the countries, where both can negotiate to reach an optimal agreement to satisfy both parties.

The second article, written by Victor Bulmer-Thomas and James Dunkerley, is "The United States and Latin America: The New Agenda." This article leans to a somewhat more negative view of U.S. policy in Latin America. It is also more general than the piece by Dominguez, in that it addresses a larger time span and Latin America in general rather than one country specifically. The era being addressed is the Cold War and the effects and legacy of American policy regarding Latin America during this time.

The premise of the article is that the United States employs policies that…… [read more]

Paul Sigmund's ) Latin America: Change Reaction Paper

… Paul Sigmund's (1981) Latin America: Change or Continuity? does not actually introduce new data. The article is constructed in a manner which captures the attention of the reader, but the reader remains aware of the fact that, with the change of each political regime, the country's national and international policies will change alongside. As such, it was only natural for U.S.' approach of the relationships with Latin America to suffer alterations as presidential cabinets changed.

Similarly, regardless of the actual presidential administration ruling a country, it is natural for there to be advocates as well as disclaimers. It is then understandable that some people, generally the more traditional and conservative ones, militated for the continuation of Carter's international agenda, and an incremental emphasis placed on the importance of the growing powers of the Soviet Union. On the other hand, the people supporting Regan desired a greater emphasis to be placed on the improvement of the relations with Latin America, neglected by the previous administration. The opposing views created an ideological conflict regarding the most adequate steps to be taken in setting the international relations policies.

Stanley Hoffmann (1968) looks at the international relations established by the United States throughout the years through the lenses of national style and national identity. While it is generally accepted that the notion could raise challenges in explaining the global political context, I hold Hoffmann's beliefs true. In this instance, I tend to believe that each country, not just the United States, perceives itself in a certain manner. This also means that it perceives its history in a manner which might be slightly different from the actual events. While the outcomes are generally documented and verifiable, it is still true that an element of subjectivity interferes.

With humans for instance, the part of the brain holding the…… [read more]

Military as an Institution in Latin America and Its Role in Chile Term Paper

… Military as an Institution in Latin America and Its Role in Chile

Latin America today is known not only for its unique, culture-based, Spanish legacy, but it's also known for political instability, military coups and political adventurism. It's enough to… [read more]

Defends a Definition of Populism Term Paper

… The next section of the paper will discuss this idea further, with particular reference to two books, Wickham-Crowley's Guerrillas and Revolution in Latin America, and Radu and Tismaneau's Latin American Revolutionaries: Groups, Goals and Methods.

When non-specialists think of Latin America, most people think 'dictators', others think 'guerrillas, and revolutions." As we will see, dictators are often confused with populist leaders, and populist leaders, according to some definitions, share some of the same characteristics of those generally attributed to guerrilla leaders, for example, they fulfil three conditions: I) their personal style is paternalistic, personal and charismatic; ii) they are able to mobilize, from the top down, a heterogeneous coalition that includes urban workers and middle sectors; iii) their political program is reformist (Coslovsky, 2002).

These characteristics can be applied to many guerrilla leaders: Castro is said to be extremely personable, and charismatic, and he also appeals to a wide base of supporters; the Colombian M19 leader, nicknamed 'El Papito" is said to have been loved by women Colombia-wide for his kindness, and popularity. Other guerrilla groups, such as Sendero Luminoso in Peru, and Castro's revolutionary band of guerrillas, including Che Guevara, have revolutionary policies in mind when planning their policies and actions, as do populist leaders, as we have seen, through the case of Huge Chavez.

Thus, we can see that there is not that much difference between populist leaders and true revolutionary guerrilla leaders, as both come from a perspective of wishing to effect real change, and both are highly personable, charismatic, effective leaders. This argument is put forward strongly in Radu and Tismaneau's Latin American Revolutionaries: Groups, Goals and Methods.

Wickham-Crowley's Guerrillas and Revolution in Latin America takes a more detailed, statistical look at the phenomena of guerrilla warfare, showing how guerrillas emerge in certain countries and not others, through analysis of their personal stories, and the political and social context of the countries at the time (Wickham-Crowley, 1992).

The dual phenomena of populism and guerrilleros are commonplace in Latin America, and as we have seen, both can be characterized as extreme movements caused by the failure of democratic institutions within the region: populist leaders try to stay on the right side of dictatorship, by keeping just enough political framework around them not to be labelled dictators (although with Chavez, this is arguable), whilst fighting for change; guerrilleros, who argue for revolution, argue from much the same standpoint i.e., effecting beneficial changes within the country, for the people, through pro-active policies. It seems to me that the difference between them can only be seen as a difference in the level of their extremism.


Buxton, J. (2000). Hugo Chavez and Populist Contunuity in Venezuela. To be found at http://www.psa.ac.uk/cps/2000/Buxton%20Julia.pdf. Accessed on 3rd December 2003.

Canovan, Margaret. "Democracies and the Populist Challenge" Chapter 2 (Taking Politics to the People: Populism as the Ideology of Democracy. (1999).

Coslovsky, S.V. (2002). Neoliberalism, populism and presidential impeachment in Latin America. To be found at http://nils.lib.tufts.edu/Fletcher/SaloCoslovsky.pdf. Accessed on 3rd December 2003.

De la… [read more]

Export Companies in Mexico Research Paper

… Export Companies in Mexico

By the size of its gross domestic product, Mexico is currently the 12th largest economy of the globe. The economic success of Mexico is due to the liberalization of trade and the large portion of private investors in the economic sector. Intense support is also provided by the state institutions, which strive to increase the country's competitiveness through investments in seaports, telecommunications, railroads, generation of electricity, airports and distribution of natural gas.

Mexico generates a large portion of its economic growth on exports, meaning as such that it is sensitive to internal demands. As the economic crisis manifested its tremendous impacts, the global demand for items decreased and the Mexican economy was severely impacted as demand for its production decreased. Aside from the decreased level of exports due to the crisis, the Mexican economy also remains sensitive to several internal issues, such as a weak educational sector, weak infrastructure, outdated labor laws and decreased private investment in the energy sector (Central Intelligence Agency, 2012).

At the level of exports, Mexico and the general Latin America have focused on the development of free trade agreements, under which the partner countries would be able to exchange products in a free manner, without barriers and additional costs. The most important such agreement is the NAFTA (the North American Free Trade Agreement), through which Mexico developed free trade policies with Canada and the United States. The scope of the agreement was to increase exports to these regions, but imports have increased nonetheless. After the signing of NAFTA, imports from Canada increased from 2.5 to 5 per cent and the imports from the United States increased from 7 to 12% (Central Intelligence Agency, 2012).

Aside from the trade agreements with the U.S. And Canada, Mexico also signed free trade agreements with other states, such as Honduras, Japan, the European Free Trade Area, Guatemala and so on. In effect, 90 per cent of all Mexican exports are traded under free trade agreements. The primary destinations of the Mexican exports remain however the U.S. And Canada, the first receiving 71.7 per cent of Mexican exports and the latter being the recipient of 7.4 per cent of all Mexican exports. At the level of specific items exported, these include mainly "manufactured goods, oil and oil products, silver, fruits, vegetables, coffee [and] cotton" (Central Intelligence Agency, 2012).

The export rate is increasing in Mexico, following the same trend in the entire Latin America. The exports increase in relationship to countries outside the Latin America, while the exports within the region tend to decrease. The Latin American states increased exports at different rates, the variances being given by state specific features. Throughout 2010 and 2011, a revival has been observed as the export rate…… [read more]

Latin American Studies (by Philip Swanson) Essay

… ¶ … Latin American Studies" (by Philip Swanson) by answering questions 1-12.

Travel writing in Latin America was imagined in such a way to create certain stereotypes of both the inhabitants and physical geography when it was reported back to readers in Europe. Latin America was imagined to be more dangerous and less productive and civilized than Europe. These travel writings helped Europeans distance themselves from Latin America, and make it an even more "foreign" and "exotic" location, without even a true understanding of the realities of each country. As for consumption from Latin America, there is no doubt that Latin America has impacted the way people in North America consume and think about products. The book gives the example of just looking at one's local supermarket to see the large amount of food products that are derived from Latin America (assortments of fruits, vegetables, grain products, and even coffee from Mexico, Peru, Guatemala, and Colombia, to name a few). One argument for this occurrence of an "international food space economy" is that our domestic economy has become accustomed and even dependent upon the production of products in Latin America for our consumption. Another argument is that the particular goods from Latin America is what fuels our consumption of them. In other words, we crave what is "exotic" and "new." It is through these consumer goods that yet another "imaginative geography" is created. We can guess about where our food comes from, but the reality is that we don't have a clear idea of its starting point and how it came to be on our shelves. Overall, imagined geographies prevalent in both travel writing and in our consumption help fuel the Western world's mistaken belief that we are superior to…… [read more]

Latin America Revolutions Essay

… Half of General Jose de San Martin's army consisted of slaves "recruited from Buenos Aires and the provinces of Western Argentina," often offered as substitutes by upper class whites reluctant to share the burdens of military service.[footnoteRef:3] They fought in every battle to liberate Peru, Chile and Ecuador from the Spanish in 1816-23, and only a handful returned home, but usually not to the freedom that they had been promised. Some Argentine historians even commented anonymously that the whites were eager to put blacks in the forefront of battle in hopes of reducing the Afro-Argentine population, which is quite minimal today. Women also had no real role in political life after the revolutions, and the new governments assumed that their primary role would continue to be wives and mothers. Upper class women had a duty to "nurture republican virtues in members of their families,," inspire the troops in battle and donate their jewelry to the cause, but almost no women actually participated in the fighting.[footnoteRef:4] They did not receive voting or citizenship rights after independence and republican authorities were "hesitant to interfere with a male citizen's patriarchal rights."[footnoteRef:5] For the overwhelming majority of the population of Latin America, including lower class whites, women, slaves, Africans and indigenous peoples, the wars meant a change of masters rather than equal rights and citizenship. Gender and racial caste systems did not disappear and may even have been strengthened, and those who had always been at the bottom of the social and economic pyramid remained there. Indeed, in most cases their descendants today are still there. [3: G. Reid Andrews, "Argentina's Black Legions" in Wood and Chasteen, p. 13.] [4: Sarah C. Chambers, What Independence Meant for Women" in Wood and Chasteen, p.20.] [5: Chambers, p. 23.]


Andrews, G. Reid. "Argentina's Black Legions" in James A. Wood and John Charles Chasteen (eds), Problems in Latin American History: Sources and Methods, 3rd Edition. Rowman and Littlefield, 2009, pp. 10-14.

Chambers, Sarah C. "What Independence Meant for Women" in Wood and Chasteen, pp. 18-24.

Chasteen, John Charles, "The Brazilian Path to Independence" in Wood and Chasteen, pp. 15-17.

Krause, Enrique. "The Vision…… [read more]

Latin American Politics United States Term Paper

… The corporatist system is one that can be beneficial to commercial farmers, while detrimental to rural farmers. Commercial farmers can remain in control of agriculture under this system, monopolizing the industry.

Over the years, many changes have occurred recently concerning… [read more]

Comparative Politics Development in Emerging Economies of Latin American Countries Term Paper

… ¶ … Economies of Latin American countries

Comparative Politics

Latin America includes conceptually Central America, Mexico, the Caribbean and South American countries. In this culture is home to around 500 million people who speak mainly Spanish and Portuguese. The largest… [read more]

Latin American Culture Essay

… Latin American Culture

What has the use of the Development Model meant to Latin America? According to an article in Social Policy & Administration (Draibe, et al., 2009, p. 333) some "foreign multinational" companies benefited "considerably" [from the Development Model] by acquiring "privatized state companies at a bargain." However, especially in Chile, the middle sectors of the population were left "largely unprotected" and jobs / livelihoods became "precarious… in the fact of globalization" (Draibe, 334). This paper peers deeper into the issues that were manifest due to the Development Model in Latin America.

The Literature on Latin American and the Development Model

In his 1990 book The Politics of Latin American Development, author Gary Wynia asserts that "Dissatisfaction runs deep in Latin America" due to the fact that Latin Americans are denied "…justice, wealth, security [and] liberty" (Wynia, 1990, p. 3). Why such misery in Latin America in that era? Wynia uses a "fictional president" to portray the problems the development model has brought to Latin America. Five percent of this president's people are in the "upper stratum"; 15% are in the "upper middle stratum"; another 30% are in the "lower middle stratum"; and 50% are in the "lowest stratum" (Wynia, 4). The richest 5% own 50% of arable land, Wynia continues, and the average income per capita is $2,000 annually. Foreign capital is "heavily" relied upon and yet the lower class has been ignored and "violent rebellion" from the masses of poor people has been averted, at lease temporarily, Wynia writes.

After World War II the government of this fictional Latin American country (based on real world Latin American economic circumstances) tried to finance development by raising taxes on "incomes, business, sales, and imports" but citizens are "very adept at avoiding taxes" and the bureaucracy has been incompetent to collect taxes. Hence, there are two sources of revenue available to finance investments: a) "multinational corporations" that will build factories in the country; and b) "multinational banks that will loan money to our government and private businesses" (Wynia, 12). Both of those sources leave Latin Americans beholding to outsiders. Hence, a great portion of the economic demise reflected in the above-mentioned scenario can be attributed to the development model in place during that era.

Margarita Cervantes-Rodriguez explains that Nicaragua's developmentalism in the 1960s and 1970s under Somoza was manipulated by the United States, which was butting into Nicaraguan politics simply to deter the socialist influences of Cuba and the Soviet Union. But what happened as a result of U.S. meddling is that the Somoza family's dictatorial government was kept in power until "…the escalation of violent scenarios… as the authority of the Somozas was challenged" by the Sandinistas (Cervantes-Rodriguez, 2009, p. 198). When the rebel Sandinistas overthrew the Somoza dictatorship, hostile relations with the U.S. resulted in "economic sanctions" against Nicaragua. Moreover, Cervantes-Rodriguez explains that the "macroeconomic and social engineering" efforts of the Sandinistas led to a worsening of the population's…… [read more]

Cultural Awareness for Mexico Essay

… Cultural Awareness of Mexico

Mexico is the United States' neighbor to its south. However, cultural misunderstandings have existed between the two nations almost since their beginnings as independent nations. The United States' acquisition of Texas and other formerly Mexican territories… [read more]

Inquisitions Research Paper

… Legally, it was required that there be at least two witnesses available as to the alleged heresy but in most cases the tribunal demanded far more. In the early days of the Inquisition the testimony of witnesses who had previously… [read more]

Earth, as the People of the Old Thesis

… ¶ … earth, as the people of the old world had come to meet the ones from the new one on the American continent. The island of Hispaniola had been the place to host the meeting between the natives and… [read more]

Art Violence and Social Engagement in Colombia Research Proposal

… ¶ … Colombia is the third-largest recipient of military aid from the United States and is at a critical juncture in its turbulent history. More than three million people have been displaced in Colombia during the past decade alone, and… [read more]

Latin American History as in Other Nations Term Paper

… Latin American History

As in other nations around the world, economic development and social justice tend to go hand in Latin America, as is evidenced by recent events in three countries.

With the recent transference of power in Cuba from Fidel Castro to his brother Raul, there are signs that restrictions that previously limited the freedom of Cubans under Fidel's autocratic regime will be lifted. Cubans are now able to purchase such items as mobile phones, DVD players, and computers. It remains to be seen whether Raul will manage to open up new economic possibilities for his country, which continues to struggle with poverty on a massive scale.

In recent years, Brazil's Growth Acceleration Program has led to positive growth in the country's economy. Whereas a decade ago, the economic situation was a lot more delicate and contingent on the global market, today, the country seems nearly immune from fluctuations generated by the economic crisis in the United States. As one of the largest nations in the Latin American world, it also has one of the most democratic forms of government.

In Argentina, rising inflation has been a major problem in recent years. In the 1990s, the country's currency - the peso - had been trading at nearly one to one with the dollar. A major economic crisis hit the country in the year 2001. The government's response to this problem has been to deprecate the peso - as a means of maintaining the competitiveness of the country's economy while simultaneously discouraging imports. As a result of this problem, inflation continues to rise. At the same time, the country, like Brazil, is experiencing economic growth.

Part II, Question a the Escola Tropicalista Bahiana began in the year 1865 when about a dozen doctors in northeastern Brazil began to meet in order to discuss pertinent medical issues of the era. At the meetings, the doctors would discuss not only their own significant cases, but flesh out their own plans for research and the latest advances in medical science. This led to the formation of the Escola Tropicalista Bahiana, which would come to signify one of the most successful scientific enterprises in 19th century Latin America. Every two weeks, the doctors would meet to speak about unusual cases they had come across, pertinent medical texts that had recently been published, the latest advances in such emerging fields as microscopy and parasitology, and how all of these topics might be of particular interest to the Brazilian nation. The point of the doctors' meetings was to generate original…… [read more]

Income Disparity and Development Term Paper

… The idea of the positive correlation between greater democracy and lower levels of income inequality is also suggested by Li et al. (1998) However, the presumed connections between democracy and income disparities are not ubiquitous. From another perspective the contention… [read more]

Economic Development in Honduras Term Paper

… "The results are grim" (Mander 2001:34). An unresolved dispute over bananas could also trigger a subsequent chain reaction of punitive sanctions in this area as well as another dispute over tax rules that could reach as high as $4 billion, according to international trade officials (Dougherty 2001). Chiquita subsequently filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy protection and blamed European policies for its economic failures because the European banana system allocated import licenses through a complex formula that reduced Chiquita's shipments. When Europe refused to change the system in 1998, the United States imposed $191 million in trade sanctions; however, the dispute assumed more ominous levels in 2001 as Europe completed a new system that Chiquita continued to oppose (Mander 2001).

Economic Indicators in Honduras Today. According to the World Bank's basic economic scorecard, Honduras ranks below the Latin American average across the board as shown in the tables and figures below.



Econ. Incentive Regime



Information Infrastructure

Latin America














Latin America

Average Annual GDP growth (%)





Latin America

GDP per capita



Latin America

Poverty Index





Latin America

Unemployment rate, % of total labor force





Latin America

Gross Capital Formation





Latin America

Soundness of banks





Latin America

Adult literacy rate (% age 15 and above)




The research showed that the historic constraints to economic development that have plagued many Latin American countries are even more pronounced in the Republic of Honduras. The country continues to languish in many economic areas, even compared to its neighbors in Latin America, with only its average annual GDP growth and gross capital formation indicators slightly edging out its other Latin American counterparts. In the final analysis, it may well be several more decades before Honduras is able to shake off the lingering effects of its former status as a "banana republic" and the impact of natural disasters such as Hurricane Mitch to join the international community as a competitive trade partner.

Works Cited

Bates, Stephen. (January 8, 1999). Good friends slip on a banana skin. New Statesman,


Befus, David R., Debbie L. Mescon, Timothy S. Mescon and George S. Vozikis. (1988).

International Investment of Expatriate Entrepreneurs: The Case of Honduras. Journal of Small Business Management, 26(3):40.

Dougherty, Carter. (March 10, 2001). Zoellick, Lamy seek banana accord. The Washington

Times, 9.

Euraque, Daraio A. Reinterpreting the Banana Republic: Region and State in Honduras, 1870-

1972. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1996.

Honduras. (2004). U.S. Government: CIA World Factbook. Available: http://www.cia.


James, Steve. (January 20, 1999). Banana war threatens jobs and heralds wider trade conflicts.

World Socialist Web Site. Available: http://www.wsws.org/articles/1999/jan1999/ban-


Lewis, Megan. (April 2002). Challenge in the Tropics: Before 1998, Central America…… [read more]

Coffee Industry According to Legend Term Paper

… While the plan was initiated in the best interest of the economy, the bottom line was that, without incentive to produce quality, most of Brazil's farmers focused their energies on producing volume instead of taste." (ibid) The IBC was dissolved… [read more]

Anthropology Andean Indigenous Interest Term Paper

… The largest concentrations of native peoples are found in Mesoamerica and the Andean region. The greatest territorial dispersion is found in the Amazon Basin. They speak more than 400 different languages, display a wide range of lifestyles, and have achieved… [read more]

Simon Bolivar Term Paper

… He believed he could get its independence and then work for a way to consolidate it with Venezuela in the future. Once New Granada had been liberated, Bolivar once again turned his attention to Venezuela and also to Ecuador (Bushnell… [read more]

Spain and the Christianization Essay

… Here again, Gonzalez and Cardoza-Orlandi suggest that this policy was likewise intended to benefit the natives to which it was applied, but it is reasonable to suggest that this method was also used to exploit rather than benefit.

Other events followed in the 19th century that would serve to Christianize America is far different ways than the Spanish sought. For instance, Gonzalez and Cardoza-Orlandi report that with independence from Spain "came the Protestants" and their religious dogma which "brought new ideas, not only about the meaning of Christianity, but also about how the church and society ought to be organized" (p. 95). In addition, the mid-19th century witnessed some important political events that would serve to shape the manner in which America was Christianized in later years. For example, in 1845, the same year that Texas was made a part of the United States, the concept of "Manifest Destiny" emerged that held that is was America's foretold future to conquer the remaining frontier, all the way to the Atlantic Ocean.

The Pentecostal wave that washed over the United States during the early 20th century also had a profound effect on the Christianization of America. For instance, Gonzalez and Cardoza-Orlandi report that, "Pentecostalism clearly has hit a nerve among Latino/a-Hispanics. Today, Pentecostals form the second-largest religious group among Hispanics in the United States, after Roman Catholics" (p. 96). Despite these substantial inroads by Pentecostalists into the well-established Roman Catholic faith among Hispanics, Roman Catholicism has received a number of reinforcements over the years that makes it difficult to dissuade adherents as to its legitimacy.

Indeed, the miraculous episode of the Virgin of Guadalupe wherein the veracity of a Mexican peasant's claims to have witnessed the Virgin Mary were reinforced by tangible evidence makes this religion a hard act to follow, especially when combined with popular celebrations such as posadas that provide opportunities for the faithful to mutually share in the blessings of Christianity as embraced and adapted by Hispanics today in ways that transcend national boundaries and immigration laws. For instance, according to Gonzalez and Cardoza-Orlandi, "The posadas are lots of fun. But more than that, they have become very important for people who have had to move repeatedly looking for work, many of whom do not have legal papers for residence in the United States" (p. 97). Taken together, posadas represent an important source of socialization and reaffirmation of religious faith among…… [read more]

Government of Chile Essay

… ¶ … government of Chile reduces one of its key interest rates. In this way, the values of several other Latin American currencies can be expected to alter substantially against the Chilean peso in response to the news. Based upon this, we will explain why the other Latin American currencies can be affected by a cut in Chile's interest rates. Additionally, we will see how the central banks of other Latin American countries be would likely to adjust their interest rates and how the currencies of these countries would respond to the central bank intervention. Finally, we will examine how a U.S. firm that exports its products to Latin American countries would be affected by the central bank intervention, assuming that the exports are denominated in the corresponding Latin American currency for each country. The glue that binds all of this together is the interweaving economic policies of the IMF and the World Bank that links economic policies of countries such as interest rates to each other in all of the Americas.


Chile is an example of neoliberalism. Neoliberalism is a modern political movement that advocates economic liberalization, open markets and free trade. This theory supports the privatization of industries that have been nationalized, deregulation and the enhancement of the role of the private sector in the modern society. This is commonly based upon neoclassical or Austrian economics. The term neoliberal is often used as a blanket condemnation of economic liberalization policies and their advocates ("Neoliberalism: origins, theory,," 2005).

Chile and Latin America

In Chile, it can be considered that neoliberalism happened under what can be considered a military dictatorship with severe social repression. Chile now has the highest rate of GDP per capita in all of Latin America. This lends a strong credence to the claim that economic freedom is more conducive to prosperity than democratic institutions are. Also, the increased economic freedom put pressure upon the dictatorship over the course of…… [read more]

Kein and Haynes ) Draw Essay

… Kein and Haynes (2008) draw on the vigor and power of popular social movements in regulating social inequities that happened in the various times of history therefore propelling movement of history onwards between the various social periods.

In turn, the characterization of these regulations and the way they played out were shaped by historical incidents as seen below.

The era of intervention 1898-1933

The USA practiced an interventionist stance dedicated to protecting and defending its interest in the area from European interference. The whole was particularized by Roosevelt's maxim of his 'big stick' approach. The U.S.A. signed the Platt Amendment in 1902 with Cuba, which allowed the U.S.A. To intervene in Cuban affairs when the U.S.A. thought necessary. In Colombia, the U.S.A. proceeded with building a canal across the isthmus despite Columbian opposition, by backing a Panama insurrection and the new nation permitting construction of the canal. The U.S.A. perpetrated various other interventions in the area up until roughly 1933 and mostly for the excuse of defending their political and commercial interests. These became known as the "Banana Wars." The greatest political intervention, however, may have been U.S. involvement in the Mexican Revolution.

The Good Neighbor Policy 1933-45

The Great Depression forced different relations between Mexico and the U.S. The economies of Latin America, as were that of many other countries were undermined by the Great Depression, which caused little demand for their imports. They therefore adopted a new approach of import substitution industrialization where they aimed to create self-sufficient economies that would have their own industrial sectors and large middle classes and be invulnerable to the external environment of the fluctuating global economy. Roosevelt fostered a Good Neighbor policy where business interests of both U.S. And Latin America could import goods to their respective countries and launch business in their respective countries, so for instance, Mexican president Cardenas was allowed to nationalize some American oil…… [read more]

Growth and Development Essay

… ¶ … nation's economic development can depend on many things. One school of thought has argued that geographical factors -- meaning temperate or tropical location, supply of ready labor, level of available natural resources -- are key considerations (Sachs, 2001).… [read more]

Muslim Jewish Relations Research Proposal

… Latin America

During the second half of the twentieth century, the Latin American countries were shaken by numerous violent acts in their political life. There were revolutions, coups d'etat, civil war, terrorism and other forms of violence that affected the life of Latin Americans since the Second World War. Social inequity, economic power concentrated in the hands of a few oligarchs, thirst for power and corruption were all causing deep distress in the societies of the Latin American countries.

The rising of the masses against their suppressors was one of the results of the above mentions factors. Nationalism and ethnic differences were two other causes for political violence in the region. The Latin American countries knew all the forms of political violence known in the human history: domestic conflicts, conflicts among the countries.

While the first decade after the Second World War brought an improvement in the industries of the Latin American countries, the following decade, especially after the Korean War ended, produced imbalance in the import-export relationship. This proved that relying on the export of raw goods was no longer viable in the context of world economy. The countries in this part f the American continent started to fight with inflation and high levels of national debt. Social instability was doubled by political instability, thus leading to all sorts of conflict sources.

Dictators were overthrown by opportunist leaders that rapidly grew in influence over the whole nation. The revolution in Cuba and Fidel Castro's the take over in power was followed by a series of movements in other countries in Latina America. Fidel Castro saw his chance to mark the world history by entering the cold war on the side of the Soviet Union.

Brazil and Argentina closely followed. Authoritarian regimes formed by the military forces were gradually replacing civilian ones. The shaky economies in countries like Peru and Ecuador opened the way to the authoritarian military forces to intervene and take over on the grounds that free economic trade had to be replaced by a tightly controlled economy that was more suitable for the national interests.

In some extreme cases, like Nicaragua, a single family controlled the whole state by the means of armed forces. Popular uprisings were inevitable in such cases. The Sandinista guerilla forces succeeded to overthrow the regime formed exclusively of those who were loyal to the Somoza family.

Some parts of Mexico, Columbia and Peru were confronted with rural unrest. Terrorism was rising and developing in Chile, Argentina and Uruguay. Civil wars, dictatorships and interstate conflicts were adding their…… [read more]

Cuba From 1962, Cuba Has Been Politically Term Paper

… Cuba

From 1962, Cuba has been politically aligned with the archetypal Soviet Communist political structure. Under the singular leadership of Fidel Castro, Cuba turned from just another North American / Western European playground of excesses that so much of the… [read more]

Church and State Relations Term Paper

… Spanish Colonial Church and State

Spain and Portugal's Long Lasting Marriage between Church and State

Spanish and Portuguese rule in the New World has been a complicated affair full of tensions and relationships which seem unnatural to the modern American and democratic viewpoint. For generations, the Spanish and Portuguese crowns had intimate ties with the affairs and authority of the Church. However during early American settlement of the state had taken center stage, with undertones. After a reunion of church and state in the New World in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, Spanish and Portuguese lands in the Americas had re-opened the divide between church and state. Throughout rule in the New World, the Church gave justification to the brutal conquest and control over its far away colonies.

Both early Spanish and Portuguese expeditions in the New World had religious undertones, but were forged by members of the state rather than clergy. Early Spanish conquistadors and Portuguese explorers ventured into the Americas in the name of profit and patriotism. The Spanish and Portuguese crowns found an untouched reservoir of goods which brought enormous revenue to the nation's treasuries. Early conquests, headed by explores such as Hernando de Soto, Hernan Cortes, and Vaso Nunez de Balboa, were the main focus during the early portion of the sixteenth century. These military men sought goods and riches. They destroyed the grandeur of the native populations in order to take control of their lands and gold. However, once the two nations had set themselves up in the New World, they returned to their religious obligations. By the end of the sixteenth century, Spain controlled most of the continental United States, the Caribbean, and a massive chunk of the western casts of South America, (Mills 118).

The seventeenth century witnessed a wave of religious settlers to the Americas. As the Puritans invaded New England, Roman Catholic Spanish and Portuguese settled on the Western coasts of the New World. During this century, the Church gained more power and control of the new colonies. The Church actually mandated religious qualifications for those migrating to the New World. The colonies of Spain and Portugal enforced religious conformism; only those who followed the Roman Catholic traditions and beliefs were allowed to resettle in the new lands of the Americas. The seventeenth century saw both radical ideologies as well as the harsh backlash of the Church in response to those new ideologies, (Miller 234). However, the Spanish Inquisition, which began in the late fifteenth century, was still going on strong. The Inquisition had originally been started by Spanish royalty and had tied…… [read more]

Bolivian Cuban and Chilean Revolutions Compared Term Paper

… Revolution Cuba, Bolivia, Chile

The Bolivian, Cuban, and Chilean Revolutions Compared and Contrasted

The purpose of this paper is a comparison of the Bolivian Revolution of 1952, the Cuban Revolution of 1959, and the "attempted revolution" of the Allende presidency in Chile in the early 1970s. The research will include an exploration of the militaries involved, the United States involvement in each country and the economy and positions held by the people of each country. The researcher will conclude with an opinion of how things could have been done differently if the researcher were a woman "revolutionary" in one of the countries provided above. The paper begins with a comprehensive overview of the Bolivian Revolution, and then compares and contrasts the revolution in Bolivia with the revolutions in Cuba and Chile.


The Bolivian, Cuban and Chilean Revolutions were all similar in that they involved Latin American countries and the unorganized overthrow of governments. Bolivia, Cuba and Chile during these revolutions realized revolts from the people, peasants, militias and governments of their country. In all three revolutions, the United States military influenced the outcome to some extent, although it did not succeed in establishing a democratic environment in any of the countries.

The Bolivian Revolution began in 1952, when the government of Bolivia created "universal suffrage" without requiring literacy or property requirements, under Victor Paz Estenssoro's leadership (LatinAmericanStudies.org, 2007). This increased the number of voters in the country substantially; the government under Estenssoro also offered militant control, increasing its hold of the army, and removed many officers that were associated with more conservative leadership, and replaced them. Shortly thereafter, the Agrarian Reform Law which abolished "forced labor" and instead instituted "expropriation and distribution of rural property," distributing lands with "low productivity" (LatinAmericanStudies.org, 2007). The new "revolutionary" government also inspired an increasingly strong militant group of miners, who founded a federation demanding much change and participation in government affairs. The government complied offering some representation in the cabinet.

During this time peasants living in Bolivia also had more rights and granted land, and militias of peasants were now armed with supplies which they did not have before, so they too became very powerful and political in Bolivia. Economic problems however overcame the country resulting from the radical changes occurring during the new regime. Many mines lost production because individuals working them did not have the money or experience to run them properly. Agricultural production also declined, resulting in "anarchy" among countrymen (LatinAmericanStudies.org, 2007).

Inflation and social spending were problems too affecting the economy and the power of money in the country which affected many members of the middle class causing them to join with the opposition (LatinAmericanStudies.org, 2007). By 1957 the United States intervened and provided aid subsidizing as much as 30% of the government, which helped reduce inflation under President Silez Zuazo. Zuazo emphasized experience and skills training, and helped stabilize the country and armed forces. This is not to say conflict did not increase or continue in the country;… [read more]

Motivations for and Effects of European Colonialism Term Paper

… Motivations for and Effects of European Colonialism in Latin America and Sub-Saharan Africa

From the 15th century onward, European colonization of Latin America and Sub-Saharan Africa, respectively, was motivated by economic greed, and (to a lesser extent) by religious zeal… [read more]

Sarmiento's Vision for Argentina Essay

… Women do all the work and boys spend most of their time harassing goats and calves until they enter puberty, at which time they jump off cliffs and fall off horses "on purpose." These men are "Spanish only in language," he writes, and they eschew proper religious instruction. The men in the countryside have "distain" for any "city dweller" that may have read books but has never pulled down "a fierce bull" to kill it.

What kind of society did Sarmiento believe that Latin Americans were creating?

He believed that in Argentina there were two separate societies in existence. The one, gauchos and others living in the countryside, and the other, civilized men and women living out European lifestyles in the city. He explained that there was "hatred" on the part of the gaucho for the city dweller, because, after all, the city person had never killed a tiger, or tried to prove he was "superior to nature" as the gaucho had done. In fact Sarmiento believed that the gaucho would be an instigator in future conflict because their customs produce "valor and tolerance for war"; they are accustomed to "slaughtering cattle," a necessary cruelty, and hence the gauchos are familiar with the "…spilling of blood that hardens their hearts against the victim's moans."

Still, the skills that the gaucho has learned do not involve intelligence and he is happily ignorant and poor, Sarmiento explains. What did Sarmiento want to happen in Argentina?

By reading between the lines of his narrative -- and by noting particularly poignant passages -- a reader can come to understand that Sarmiento wanted Argentina to become more European and less like the gauchos. Although an alert reader can see that Sarmiento actually admired some of the aspects of the gaucho culture, he insisted that civilized people cannot progress unless they come together in "populous societies"; everything that "characterizes cultured people" is in the city, and that was what he…… [read more]

Human Development in the Dominican Republic Term Paper

… Human Development in the Dominican Republic

Human development is a complex and multifaceted process/phenomenon that can be understood in a variety of ways. According to one view, human development is "a process of enlarging choices" -- ensuring that populations and individuals are given the capabilities and opportunities to make choices that lead to their own growth, fulfillment, and achievement in economic, social, political, cultural and personal spheres (Arab Human Development Report, 2009). According to the United Nations Development Programme, human development can be broken down into three major categories: health, education, and living standards (UNDP, 2012). Both of these perspectives lead to the same basic conclusion: that human development is all about giving human beings opportunities to improve their lives and their outlooks -- something they cannot do without appropriate healthcare, educational opportunities, and living standards that allow for more than mere (and often questionable) subsistence and survivability. Human development requires social and economic progress, therefore.

In the Dominican Republic, with an average life expectancy of 73.4 years, twelve years of expected schooling, yet an estimated per-capita income of only $8,087 (in 2005 dollars), human development is in the middle range -- towards the upper end of the middle range and thus slightly higher than average, but still less than would be desired (UNDP, 2012). This places the nation somewhat higher than some other Latin Americna countries such as El Salvador and Paraguay, both of which have slightly lower life expectancies (72.2 and 72.5 years, respectively) and annual per-capita incomes ($5,925 and $4,727) but with slightly longer periods of expected schooling (12.1 years for both countries) (UNDP, 2012). Uruguay, however, with a life expectancy of 77 years, 15.5 years of expected schooling and an annual per-capita income of $13,242, is much higher…… [read more]

Killing Zone Research Paper

… Killing Zone

Critical Discussion of the Killing Zone

When it comes to Latin American Cold-War policy, the results have been far worse than Roosevelt ever imagined. From a policy of being a good neighbor through trade and peaceful monitoring, to a policy of political overthrow, imperial control, and manipulation, the federal government took a noble action of defending the free world against communism and went too far, resulting in the destruction of many Latin American countries constitutional governments. It is this historical discussion that is at the heart of Stephen Rabe's book, the Killing Zone. In his account Rabe goes into great detail to explore what happened in Latin America. The part where Rabe's discussion ends and the next beings, however, is the "Why."

Under president Truman American transformed from a defensive nation, whose goal was to simply protect its own borders to an interventionist government with the single goal and purpose of preventing the spread of communism. As can be discerned from Stephen Rabe's book, the Killing Zone, the interventionism of the United States was rooted in fear, desire for control, and imperialism.

The first motive behind the post WWII Latin American policy of the United States was fear. The primary motive of President Truman when the "Containment Policy" emerged was to stop communism swiftly and protect American's beloved freedom. American leaders were very afraid of the damage communism could cause to the many free nations of the world. Even worse, America feared the equivalent of another World War, as the iron curtain quickly expanded forming new alliances. It is this fear that led to the promise of the United States to come to aid of any free country who was fighting off communism (Cottom 76). The unfortunate result of such an intervention, according to Rabe, was a violent uprising in once peaceful countries where labor groups and the government constantly fought each other…… [read more]

Inspired by National Liberation Ideology Essay

… Like both Nicaragua and El Salvador, Guatemala had developed a strong guerilla movement that struggled against tyrannical regimes. Also like Nicaragua and El Salvador, the rebels were up against more than just domestic tyrants; their revolutionary campaigns targeted American imperialism as well. The CIA, in an attempt to squelch the revolution in Guatemala, supported a counterrevolutionary group that "overthrew a reformist regime and the social changes it had instituted," (Keen and Haynes 439). The result of the Guatemalan Revolution ended up being much bloodier and more brutal than those of Nicaragua and El Salvador, given the CIA-sponsored government's pogrom that entailed the genocide of indigenous people.

All three of these Central American revolutions targeted systematic forms of social, economic and political oppression. International corporate conglomerates, bolstered by wealthy nations but especially the United States, held control tightly over the region to keep wages low and prevent upward social mobility among the laboring classes. Each of these three nations were economically indebted to foreign states and corporations. In each of these three countries, but especially in Guatemala, racism was a key component to the tyrannical regimes. Revolutionary spirit drew equally as much from Marxism as from liberation theology. In each of these three cases, the United States intervened, albeit in slightly different ways, to squelch the revolutions. American hegemony ultimately prevented each of these three revolutions to reach their full fruition and accomplish all major social, political, and economic reforms. However, it was especially in Guatemala that the American intervention led to massive humanitarian rights violations.


Keen, Benjamin and Haynes, Keith. A…… [read more]

Neoliberalism in Latin America Reaction Paper

… Neoliberalism

According to Benjamin Keen, author of A History of Latin America," neoliberalism is the "policies of privatization, austerity, and trade liberalization dictated to dependent countries by the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank as a condition for approval of investment, loans, and debt relief (1996, xi). Neoliberalism stands in opposition to Keynesian economics; one goal is to shrink the size of government and encourage direct investment from foreign countries. This political and economic philosophy has taken hold in many Latin American countries over the past few decades, with mixed results. In his article, "Neoliberalism and Democracy in Latin America: A Mixed Record," author Kurt Weyland explores in detail how neoliberalism took root in Latin America and the positives and negatives for democracy in those nations. He argues that neoliberalism has had a paradoxical effect. On the one hand it has made democracy more sustainable; on the other, it has limited the quality of democracy. Neoliberalism opened up Latin America to participation in the world economy, but this comes with its own pitfalls, including the political pressure that comes along with economic investment. When foreign countries make investments in Latin American countries -- often very large investments -- they also exert tremendous influence over the administrations that benefit from the influx of money. As Weylan writes, "tighter economic constraints limit governments' latitude and thereby restrict the effective range of democratic choice; and the weakening of parties and interest associations has depressed political participation and eroded government accountability" (p. 135).

The end result of neoliberal reform is a free-market system. While this model may seem like the ideal to those in the United States and other first-world nations, in Latin America the changeover required dismantling the established model and is dependent upon a strong leader with a concentrated core of power surrounding him. One of the earliest countries to make the difficult transition was Chile under dictator Augusto Pinochet, who made the transition with brutal force. The lesson learned seemed to be that democracy and neoliberalism didn't mix well, but, as Weylan points out, a "large number of Latin American democracies did enact drastic, painful market reforms from the late 1980s on" (p. 136). In an effort to put a stop to hyperinflation and gain economic stability, these leaders imposed strict budget austerity, cut the government workforce, gave over public entities to privatization and invited investors from around the world to participate in their economies. They also rolled back significant regulations and government controls. These "draconian" measures, as Weylan defines them, led to incredible short-term costs for many sectors of labor and business.

As mentioned earlier, the implementation of neoliberalism produced mixed results in Latin America. Weylan focuses on neoliberalism's effect on democracy in Latin America, pointing out that it has added to the survival of democracy but has eroded its quality, although he admits that his essay doesn't solve the discussion but rather provokes it.

Despite what occurred in Chile, the lesson taken from Pinochet's actions -- that democracy… [read more]

History of the Republic Term Paper

… "

In 1986, the people revolted, and rioting broke out. The Duvaliers were actually flown to safety on a U.S. plane, and they still live in France. This threw the country into turbulence, and numerous presidents took office beginning in 1987, most only lasting a few months in office before they were overthrown. Another elected president, Jean-Bertrand Aristide, only lasted nine months before he was ousted and flown to safety in the United States.

All of this political turmoil only added to the economic woes of the country. Without a stable leader, there was little economic growth and development. Most of the leaders were as corrupt as the Duvaliers had been, and the desperately poor people again attempted to leave the country and find work and solace in other countries. Author Buckman continues, "Of the Haitians who made it to the United States or Guantanamo, only about 11% were admitted as political refugees. Incredibly poor and uneducated, many of them infected with AIDS and other diseases, they were considered undesirables."

In 1993, a movement began in the U.S. To restore Aristide to power, and in 1994, with U.S. intervention, that occurred. Aristide ruled (quite brutally) until elections in 1996, when Rene Preval was elected president.

Preval really attempted to end many of the political, social, and economic ills of the country. He tried to privatize inefficient state-owned businesses, attempted to meet requirements to qualify for International Monetary Funds, and he even gave small plots of land to peasants. However, he faced a political power play from former President Aristide, and most of his attempts at reviving the economy failed. Elections in 2000 were flawed and corrupt, and Aristide "won" reelection in a seriously flawed election. Writer Scott continues, "Though both were tragic, neither the failed legislative and presidential elections of 2000, nor the subsequent coup d'etat in 2004 that resulted in the ouster of President Jean Bertrand-Aristide were particularly unique in Haiti's history."

This of course, is what has led to the continuing economic crisis in Haiti. The country is led by brutal and self-serving dictators, they have yet to reach a full democracy, the government is extremely corrupt, and the economy is largely based on foreign aid that is often withheld because of the corruption and policies of the current leader in power.

Because there are so few jobs in the country, many residents have turned to drug dealing as a way to make a living, and armed gangs of drug dealers roam Haitian slums and while there are multi-national police in the country, it is hard for them to control the violent gangs. As author Buckman notes, "Haiti's economy, based on peasant survival and unbelievably low levels, is almost non-existent."

What little activity there is depends on agriculture, and wages are low, which attracts light industry but does little to help the economy. Ruthless leadership, government and personal corruption, and lack of a democracy and political ideals have led to a country with an economy that has grown… [read more]

Ernesto "Che" Guevara's Identity Throughout the 1960s Term Paper

… ¶ … Ernesto "Che" Guevara's Identity

Throughout the 1960s, self-styled American young "revolutionaries" in the United States, especially college students, were fond of donning tee-shirts emblazoned with the image of Che Guevara based on his identity as being a popular… [read more]

Harvard Admission Qs as I Have Developed Research Proposal

… Harvard Admission Qs

As I have developed both as an individual and as a professional, I have been privileged to receive some remarkable opportunities. I am proud that where these opportunities have emerged, I have seized them and excelled.

My work experience in India is among my most substantial accomplishments. As an intern at a Latin American banking division in Bangalore, I composed and delivered a detailed analysis on the Argentine Banking Industry that was extremely well received. I found that with hard work, dedication and my own personal intuition, it was possible to experience validation through my peers and mentors. This was especially challenging in my newly unfamiliar surroundings. However, immersed in an environment and a culture that were both new to me, I found that I thrived on the stimulation of first-time experiences and the challenges inherent to such change. I was able to adapt to the environment and the necessary shift in lifestyle, completing my report while working within different teams, and more often than not, independently.

A count this as perhaps the most substantive of my accomplishments while in India, as a budgeted my own time, structured my own plan of implementation and succeeded in presenting my findings according to my own framework. Essentially, my experience in India was a revelation with respect to my desire to travel the world and my ability to function as a professional while doing so.

Equally as substantial were my individual contributions to Deutsche Bank, where I served proudly as a financial analyst. First securing the position, and consequently, having the opportunity to help grow an important firm, were milestones in my evolution as a person and an aspiring business leader. During my two-year tenure there, I was fortunate to work with a wide array of interesting and inspiring people, all of whom would leave a lasting impression on my. I do believe that this feeling was mutual through most of my interactions there.

Particularly, the positive nature of my engagement of other team members at Deutsche Bank inspired another substantial accomplishment and a project on which I am still currently working. While serving at Deutsche Bank, I initiated the creation of the Junior Council of Americas. Based in namesake and premise on the Council of the Americas, we have adopted there principals and interests concerning the congregation of bright business minds and ideas. The parent Council prides itself as being one of the premier business associations in Latin America, counting among its ranks many of the most successful businesspersons, public officials and intellectuals from throughout the region.

A founded the Junior Council with the same premise in mind, intending to create interest and awareness of the value in such associations to the next generation of bright business minds. The sons and daughters of Council members as well as a host of young talents have embraced the Junior Council as a way to discuss and potentially resolve some of the most pressing challenges facing Latin America today. The intellectual and… [read more]

Mrner, Magnus With Harold Sims Book Review

… Equilibrium theory suggests that mobile labor forces create a "leveling" or equality of "human well being" and ultimately make the world a more economically equal and diverse place (124). The historical-structuralism perspective examines migration as a product of "structural transformation" and social formations, such as the coming to power of different racial and class groups and the influence of industrialization on the economies of different nations (124). Mrner believes these different theories offers some insight to explain mass migrations but also cautions the reader that non-economic and political influences had a profound influence on the period he chronicles.

This book is rather dry in terms of its presentation of historical information and sociological theory, perhaps because it was originally commissioned as a study by UNESCO, and was not originally intended to be read by the wider public. But learning about immigration to Latin America, and how it affected the racial and class structures within different nations, helps a reader becomes more aware of the social diversity of the region, and gain a better understanding of why some nations are more economically and politically stable at present than other Latin American nations. The book strives to put a human face on a now-often forgotten aspect of Latin American history. Usually, the ability of immigrants to make a positive contribution to the land to which they immigrated ultimately "depended more upon the socioeconomic structure of the receiver country" than upon the personal characteristics of the immigrants (84). The potential of a nation to become stronger because of immigration, Mrner writes, is contingent upon its social permeability and openness to change, not upon the educational or economic status of the migrants -- an important caveat to keep in mind…… [read more]

Violence, History, and Suppression of Memory Term Paper

… Violence, History, And Suppression of Memory as Metaphor in Garcia Marquez's One Hundred Years Of Solitude

Colombian novelist Gabriel Garcia Marquez's fantastical masterpiece of magic realism, One Hundred Years of Solitude (1967) chronicles the long, colorful, violent, repetitive, and ultimately… [read more]

Cold War Rhetoric and American Term Paper

… Any political movement that the United States disagreed with and hated was acceptable, in the name of nationalism. Many ordinary Latin American nationals willingly supported communists, not because they were ardent believers in communism, or because they had such affection for the Soviet Union, but because independence and the right to self-determination were such an integral part of the communist cause. Marxism and nationalism and a positive realignment of the class structure that existed were ideologically fused.

The Soviet Union did support Castro. There is no historical doubt of this fact. But this financial backing did not mean that the United States was justified in seeing Cuba as a mere puppet of the Soviet regime. Furthermore, the paranoia of U.S. policy makers led them to become instrumental in terminating the Guatemalan revolution, where a socialist leader had electoral and democratic support. Instead, the U.S. supported a right wing tyranny, justifying stifling supposedly Soviet-backed socialism that they insisted was extending into the region. ("1954 Terminating a Revolution in Guatemala -- A View from Washington & John C. Dreier's 1954 Terminating a Revolution in Guatemala -- A View from Guatemala cited in Holden and Zolov)

Thus, the defense of U.S. supposed security was never synonymous in terms of the United States supporting democracy in Latin America. The United States was quick to elide popular support of communism with Soviet influence, where for many individuals in the nations in question, socialism and communism was associated with nationalism and liberation and the right to national self-determination. Cold War rhetoric showed little understanding of the inequitable class structure of Latin America, the need for national self-determination in the face of years of dominance by colonial European powers and the United States, nor did the U.S.'s 'domino theory' of communist influence consider the vital role played by the Church in Latin America, contrary to dearly held Soviet ideology. True, the Soviet Union supported communist leaders in Latin America, financially -- but simply because some rebels took 'red' money did not mean that they were under the U.S.S.R.'s control in the fashion conceptualized by U.S. policy makers, whom were intoxicated by their own fear-inducing words.

Works Cited

Longley, Kyle. In the Eagle's Shadow: The U.S. And Latin America. New York, 2002, Chapter 6.

Holden, Robert and Eric Zolov, Editors. Latin America and the United States: A Documentary History. New York: Oxford University Press, 2000, (Documents 60-75).… [read more]

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