Study "Latin America / Mexico / Caribbean" Essays 56-110

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Cuba From 1962, Cuba Has Been Politically Term Paper

… Cuba

From 1962, Cuba has been politically aligned with the archetypal Soviet Communist political structure. Under the singular leadership of Fidel Castro, Cuba turned from just another North American / Western European playground of excesses that so much of the… [read more]


Church and State Relations Term Paper

… Spanish Colonial Church and State

Spain and Portugal's Long Lasting Marriage between Church and State

Spanish and Portuguese rule in the New World has been a complicated affair full of tensions and relationships which seem unnatural to the modern American and democratic viewpoint. For generations, the Spanish and Portuguese crowns had intimate ties with the affairs and authority of the Church. However during early American settlement of the state had taken center stage, with undertones. After a reunion of church and state in the New World in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, Spanish and Portuguese lands in the Americas had re-opened the divide between church and state. Throughout rule in the New World, the Church gave justification to the brutal conquest and control over its far away colonies.

Both early Spanish and Portuguese expeditions in the New World had religious undertones, but were forged by members of the state rather than clergy. Early Spanish conquistadors and Portuguese explorers ventured into the Americas in the name of profit and patriotism. The Spanish and Portuguese crowns found an untouched reservoir of goods which brought enormous revenue to the nation's treasuries. Early conquests, headed by explores such as Hernando de Soto, Hernan Cortes, and Vaso Nunez de Balboa, were the main focus during the early portion of the sixteenth century. These military men sought goods and riches. They destroyed the grandeur of the native populations in order to take control of their lands and gold. However, once the two nations had set themselves up in the New World, they returned to their religious obligations. By the end of the sixteenth century, Spain controlled most of the continental United States, the Caribbean, and a massive chunk of the western casts of South America, (Mills 118).

The seventeenth century witnessed a wave of religious settlers to the Americas. As the Puritans invaded New England, Roman Catholic Spanish and Portuguese settled on the Western coasts of the New World. During this century, the Church gained more power and control of the new colonies. The Church actually mandated religious qualifications for those migrating to the New World. The colonies of Spain and Portugal enforced religious conformism; only those who followed the Roman Catholic traditions and beliefs were allowed to resettle in the new lands of the Americas. The seventeenth century saw both radical ideologies as well as the harsh backlash of the Church in response to those new ideologies, (Miller 234). However, the Spanish Inquisition, which began in the late fifteenth century, was still going on strong. The Inquisition had originally been started by Spanish royalty and had tied…… [read more]


Bolivian Cuban and Chilean Revolutions Compared Term Paper

… Revolution Cuba, Bolivia, Chile

The Bolivian, Cuban, and Chilean Revolutions Compared and Contrasted

The purpose of this paper is a comparison of the Bolivian Revolution of 1952, the Cuban Revolution of 1959, and the "attempted revolution" of the Allende presidency in Chile in the early 1970s. The research will include an exploration of the militaries involved, the United States involvement in each country and the economy and positions held by the people of each country. The researcher will conclude with an opinion of how things could have been done differently if the researcher were a woman "revolutionary" in one of the countries provided above. The paper begins with a comprehensive overview of the Bolivian Revolution, and then compares and contrasts the revolution in Bolivia with the revolutions in Cuba and Chile.

Overview

The Bolivian, Cuban and Chilean Revolutions were all similar in that they involved Latin American countries and the unorganized overthrow of governments. Bolivia, Cuba and Chile during these revolutions realized revolts from the people, peasants, militias and governments of their country. In all three revolutions, the United States military influenced the outcome to some extent, although it did not succeed in establishing a democratic environment in any of the countries.

The Bolivian Revolution began in 1952, when the government of Bolivia created "universal suffrage" without requiring literacy or property requirements, under Victor Paz Estenssoro's leadership (LatinAmericanStudies.org, 2007). This increased the number of voters in the country substantially; the government under Estenssoro also offered militant control, increasing its hold of the army, and removed many officers that were associated with more conservative leadership, and replaced them. Shortly thereafter, the Agrarian Reform Law which abolished "forced labor" and instead instituted "expropriation and distribution of rural property," distributing lands with "low productivity" (LatinAmericanStudies.org, 2007). The new "revolutionary" government also inspired an increasingly strong militant group of miners, who founded a federation demanding much change and participation in government affairs. The government complied offering some representation in the cabinet.

During this time peasants living in Bolivia also had more rights and granted land, and militias of peasants were now armed with supplies which they did not have before, so they too became very powerful and political in Bolivia. Economic problems however overcame the country resulting from the radical changes occurring during the new regime. Many mines lost production because individuals working them did not have the money or experience to run them properly. Agricultural production also declined, resulting in "anarchy" among countrymen (LatinAmericanStudies.org, 2007).

Inflation and social spending were problems too affecting the economy and the power of money in the country which affected many members of the middle class causing them to join with the opposition (LatinAmericanStudies.org, 2007). By 1957 the United States intervened and provided aid subsidizing as much as 30% of the government, which helped reduce inflation under President Silez Zuazo. Zuazo emphasized experience and skills training, and helped stabilize the country and armed forces. This is not to say conflict did not increase or continue in the country;… [read more]


Motivations for and Effects of European Colonialism Term Paper

… Motivations for and Effects of European Colonialism in Latin America and Sub-Saharan Africa

From the 15th century onward, European colonization of Latin America and Sub-Saharan Africa, respectively, was motivated by economic greed, and (to a lesser extent) by religious zeal… [read more]


Sarmiento's Vision for Argentina Essay

… Women do all the work and boys spend most of their time harassing goats and calves until they enter puberty, at which time they jump off cliffs and fall off horses "on purpose." These men are "Spanish only in language," he writes, and they eschew proper religious instruction. The men in the countryside have "distain" for any "city dweller" that may have read books but has never pulled down "a fierce bull" to kill it.

What kind of society did Sarmiento believe that Latin Americans were creating?

He believed that in Argentina there were two separate societies in existence. The one, gauchos and others living in the countryside, and the other, civilized men and women living out European lifestyles in the city. He explained that there was "hatred" on the part of the gaucho for the city dweller, because, after all, the city person had never killed a tiger, or tried to prove he was "superior to nature" as the gaucho had done. In fact Sarmiento believed that the gaucho would be an instigator in future conflict because their customs produce "valor and tolerance for war"; they are accustomed to "slaughtering cattle," a necessary cruelty, and hence the gauchos are familiar with the "…spilling of blood that hardens their hearts against the victim's moans."

Still, the skills that the gaucho has learned do not involve intelligence and he is happily ignorant and poor, Sarmiento explains. What did Sarmiento want to happen in Argentina?

By reading between the lines of his narrative -- and by noting particularly poignant passages -- a reader can come to understand that Sarmiento wanted Argentina to become more European and less like the gauchos. Although an alert reader can see that Sarmiento actually admired some of the aspects of the gaucho culture, he insisted that civilized people cannot progress unless they come together in "populous societies"; everything that "characterizes cultured people" is in the city, and that was what he…… [read more]


Human Development in the Dominican Republic Term Paper

… Human Development in the Dominican Republic

Human development is a complex and multifaceted process/phenomenon that can be understood in a variety of ways. According to one view, human development is "a process of enlarging choices" -- ensuring that populations and individuals are given the capabilities and opportunities to make choices that lead to their own growth, fulfillment, and achievement in economic, social, political, cultural and personal spheres (Arab Human Development Report, 2009). According to the United Nations Development Programme, human development can be broken down into three major categories: health, education, and living standards (UNDP, 2012). Both of these perspectives lead to the same basic conclusion: that human development is all about giving human beings opportunities to improve their lives and their outlooks -- something they cannot do without appropriate healthcare, educational opportunities, and living standards that allow for more than mere (and often questionable) subsistence and survivability. Human development requires social and economic progress, therefore.

In the Dominican Republic, with an average life expectancy of 73.4 years, twelve years of expected schooling, yet an estimated per-capita income of only $8,087 (in 2005 dollars), human development is in the middle range -- towards the upper end of the middle range and thus slightly higher than average, but still less than would be desired (UNDP, 2012). This places the nation somewhat higher than some other Latin Americna countries such as El Salvador and Paraguay, both of which have slightly lower life expectancies (72.2 and 72.5 years, respectively) and annual per-capita incomes ($5,925 and $4,727) but with slightly longer periods of expected schooling (12.1 years for both countries) (UNDP, 2012). Uruguay, however, with a life expectancy of 77 years, 15.5 years of expected schooling and an annual per-capita income of $13,242, is much higher…… [read more]


Killing Zone Research Paper

… Killing Zone

Critical Discussion of the Killing Zone

When it comes to Latin American Cold-War policy, the results have been far worse than Roosevelt ever imagined. From a policy of being a good neighbor through trade and peaceful monitoring, to a policy of political overthrow, imperial control, and manipulation, the federal government took a noble action of defending the free world against communism and went too far, resulting in the destruction of many Latin American countries constitutional governments. It is this historical discussion that is at the heart of Stephen Rabe's book, the Killing Zone. In his account Rabe goes into great detail to explore what happened in Latin America. The part where Rabe's discussion ends and the next beings, however, is the "Why."

Under president Truman American transformed from a defensive nation, whose goal was to simply protect its own borders to an interventionist government with the single goal and purpose of preventing the spread of communism. As can be discerned from Stephen Rabe's book, the Killing Zone, the interventionism of the United States was rooted in fear, desire for control, and imperialism.

The first motive behind the post WWII Latin American policy of the United States was fear. The primary motive of President Truman when the "Containment Policy" emerged was to stop communism swiftly and protect American's beloved freedom. American leaders were very afraid of the damage communism could cause to the many free nations of the world. Even worse, America feared the equivalent of another World War, as the iron curtain quickly expanded forming new alliances. It is this fear that led to the promise of the United States to come to aid of any free country who was fighting off communism (Cottom 76). The unfortunate result of such an intervention, according to Rabe, was a violent uprising in once peaceful countries where labor groups and the government constantly fought each other…… [read more]


Inspired by National Liberation Ideology Essay

… Like both Nicaragua and El Salvador, Guatemala had developed a strong guerilla movement that struggled against tyrannical regimes. Also like Nicaragua and El Salvador, the rebels were up against more than just domestic tyrants; their revolutionary campaigns targeted American imperialism as well. The CIA, in an attempt to squelch the revolution in Guatemala, supported a counterrevolutionary group that "overthrew a reformist regime and the social changes it had instituted," (Keen and Haynes 439). The result of the Guatemalan Revolution ended up being much bloodier and more brutal than those of Nicaragua and El Salvador, given the CIA-sponsored government's pogrom that entailed the genocide of indigenous people.

All three of these Central American revolutions targeted systematic forms of social, economic and political oppression. International corporate conglomerates, bolstered by wealthy nations but especially the United States, held control tightly over the region to keep wages low and prevent upward social mobility among the laboring classes. Each of these three nations were economically indebted to foreign states and corporations. In each of these three countries, but especially in Guatemala, racism was a key component to the tyrannical regimes. Revolutionary spirit drew equally as much from Marxism as from liberation theology. In each of these three cases, the United States intervened, albeit in slightly different ways, to squelch the revolutions. American hegemony ultimately prevented each of these three revolutions to reach their full fruition and accomplish all major social, political, and economic reforms. However, it was especially in Guatemala that the American intervention led to massive humanitarian rights violations.

Reference

Keen, Benjamin and Haynes, Keith. A…… [read more]


Neoliberalism in Latin America Reaction Paper

… Neoliberalism

According to Benjamin Keen, author of A History of Latin America," neoliberalism is the "policies of privatization, austerity, and trade liberalization dictated to dependent countries by the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank as a condition for approval of investment, loans, and debt relief (1996, xi). Neoliberalism stands in opposition to Keynesian economics; one goal is to shrink the size of government and encourage direct investment from foreign countries. This political and economic philosophy has taken hold in many Latin American countries over the past few decades, with mixed results. In his article, "Neoliberalism and Democracy in Latin America: A Mixed Record," author Kurt Weyland explores in detail how neoliberalism took root in Latin America and the positives and negatives for democracy in those nations. He argues that neoliberalism has had a paradoxical effect. On the one hand it has made democracy more sustainable; on the other, it has limited the quality of democracy. Neoliberalism opened up Latin America to participation in the world economy, but this comes with its own pitfalls, including the political pressure that comes along with economic investment. When foreign countries make investments in Latin American countries -- often very large investments -- they also exert tremendous influence over the administrations that benefit from the influx of money. As Weylan writes, "tighter economic constraints limit governments' latitude and thereby restrict the effective range of democratic choice; and the weakening of parties and interest associations has depressed political participation and eroded government accountability" (p. 135).

The end result of neoliberal reform is a free-market system. While this model may seem like the ideal to those in the United States and other first-world nations, in Latin America the changeover required dismantling the established model and is dependent upon a strong leader with a concentrated core of power surrounding him. One of the earliest countries to make the difficult transition was Chile under dictator Augusto Pinochet, who made the transition with brutal force. The lesson learned seemed to be that democracy and neoliberalism didn't mix well, but, as Weylan points out, a "large number of Latin American democracies did enact drastic, painful market reforms from the late 1980s on" (p. 136). In an effort to put a stop to hyperinflation and gain economic stability, these leaders imposed strict budget austerity, cut the government workforce, gave over public entities to privatization and invited investors from around the world to participate in their economies. They also rolled back significant regulations and government controls. These "draconian" measures, as Weylan defines them, led to incredible short-term costs for many sectors of labor and business.

As mentioned earlier, the implementation of neoliberalism produced mixed results in Latin America. Weylan focuses on neoliberalism's effect on democracy in Latin America, pointing out that it has added to the survival of democracy but has eroded its quality, although he admits that his essay doesn't solve the discussion but rather provokes it.

Despite what occurred in Chile, the lesson taken from Pinochet's actions -- that democracy… [read more]


History of the Republic Term Paper

… "

In 1986, the people revolted, and rioting broke out. The Duvaliers were actually flown to safety on a U.S. plane, and they still live in France. This threw the country into turbulence, and numerous presidents took office beginning in 1987, most only lasting a few months in office before they were overthrown. Another elected president, Jean-Bertrand Aristide, only lasted nine months before he was ousted and flown to safety in the United States.

All of this political turmoil only added to the economic woes of the country. Without a stable leader, there was little economic growth and development. Most of the leaders were as corrupt as the Duvaliers had been, and the desperately poor people again attempted to leave the country and find work and solace in other countries. Author Buckman continues, "Of the Haitians who made it to the United States or Guantanamo, only about 11% were admitted as political refugees. Incredibly poor and uneducated, many of them infected with AIDS and other diseases, they were considered undesirables."

In 1993, a movement began in the U.S. To restore Aristide to power, and in 1994, with U.S. intervention, that occurred. Aristide ruled (quite brutally) until elections in 1996, when Rene Preval was elected president.

Preval really attempted to end many of the political, social, and economic ills of the country. He tried to privatize inefficient state-owned businesses, attempted to meet requirements to qualify for International Monetary Funds, and he even gave small plots of land to peasants. However, he faced a political power play from former President Aristide, and most of his attempts at reviving the economy failed. Elections in 2000 were flawed and corrupt, and Aristide "won" reelection in a seriously flawed election. Writer Scott continues, "Though both were tragic, neither the failed legislative and presidential elections of 2000, nor the subsequent coup d'etat in 2004 that resulted in the ouster of President Jean Bertrand-Aristide were particularly unique in Haiti's history."

This of course, is what has led to the continuing economic crisis in Haiti. The country is led by brutal and self-serving dictators, they have yet to reach a full democracy, the government is extremely corrupt, and the economy is largely based on foreign aid that is often withheld because of the corruption and policies of the current leader in power.

Because there are so few jobs in the country, many residents have turned to drug dealing as a way to make a living, and armed gangs of drug dealers roam Haitian slums and while there are multi-national police in the country, it is hard for them to control the violent gangs. As author Buckman notes, "Haiti's economy, based on peasant survival and unbelievably low levels, is almost non-existent."

What little activity there is depends on agriculture, and wages are low, which attracts light industry but does little to help the economy. Ruthless leadership, government and personal corruption, and lack of a democracy and political ideals have led to a country with an economy that has grown… [read more]


Ernesto "Che" Guevara's Identity Throughout the 1960s Term Paper

… ¶ … Ernesto "Che" Guevara's Identity

Throughout the 1960s, self-styled American young "revolutionaries" in the United States, especially college students, were fond of donning tee-shirts emblazoned with the image of Che Guevara based on his identity as being a popular… [read more]


Harvard Admission Qs as I Have Developed Research Proposal

… Harvard Admission Qs

As I have developed both as an individual and as a professional, I have been privileged to receive some remarkable opportunities. I am proud that where these opportunities have emerged, I have seized them and excelled.

My work experience in India is among my most substantial accomplishments. As an intern at a Latin American banking division in Bangalore, I composed and delivered a detailed analysis on the Argentine Banking Industry that was extremely well received. I found that with hard work, dedication and my own personal intuition, it was possible to experience validation through my peers and mentors. This was especially challenging in my newly unfamiliar surroundings. However, immersed in an environment and a culture that were both new to me, I found that I thrived on the stimulation of first-time experiences and the challenges inherent to such change. I was able to adapt to the environment and the necessary shift in lifestyle, completing my report while working within different teams, and more often than not, independently.

A count this as perhaps the most substantive of my accomplishments while in India, as a budgeted my own time, structured my own plan of implementation and succeeded in presenting my findings according to my own framework. Essentially, my experience in India was a revelation with respect to my desire to travel the world and my ability to function as a professional while doing so.

Equally as substantial were my individual contributions to Deutsche Bank, where I served proudly as a financial analyst. First securing the position, and consequently, having the opportunity to help grow an important firm, were milestones in my evolution as a person and an aspiring business leader. During my two-year tenure there, I was fortunate to work with a wide array of interesting and inspiring people, all of whom would leave a lasting impression on my. I do believe that this feeling was mutual through most of my interactions there.

Particularly, the positive nature of my engagement of other team members at Deutsche Bank inspired another substantial accomplishment and a project on which I am still currently working. While serving at Deutsche Bank, I initiated the creation of the Junior Council of Americas. Based in namesake and premise on the Council of the Americas, we have adopted there principals and interests concerning the congregation of bright business minds and ideas. The parent Council prides itself as being one of the premier business associations in Latin America, counting among its ranks many of the most successful businesspersons, public officials and intellectuals from throughout the region.

A founded the Junior Council with the same premise in mind, intending to create interest and awareness of the value in such associations to the next generation of bright business minds. The sons and daughters of Council members as well as a host of young talents have embraced the Junior Council as a way to discuss and potentially resolve some of the most pressing challenges facing Latin America today. The intellectual and… [read more]


Mrner, Magnus With Harold Sims Book Review

… Equilibrium theory suggests that mobile labor forces create a "leveling" or equality of "human well being" and ultimately make the world a more economically equal and diverse place (124). The historical-structuralism perspective examines migration as a product of "structural transformation" and social formations, such as the coming to power of different racial and class groups and the influence of industrialization on the economies of different nations (124). Mrner believes these different theories offers some insight to explain mass migrations but also cautions the reader that non-economic and political influences had a profound influence on the period he chronicles.

This book is rather dry in terms of its presentation of historical information and sociological theory, perhaps because it was originally commissioned as a study by UNESCO, and was not originally intended to be read by the wider public. But learning about immigration to Latin America, and how it affected the racial and class structures within different nations, helps a reader becomes more aware of the social diversity of the region, and gain a better understanding of why some nations are more economically and politically stable at present than other Latin American nations. The book strives to put a human face on a now-often forgotten aspect of Latin American history. Usually, the ability of immigrants to make a positive contribution to the land to which they immigrated ultimately "depended more upon the socioeconomic structure of the receiver country" than upon the personal characteristics of the immigrants (84). The potential of a nation to become stronger because of immigration, Mrner writes, is contingent upon its social permeability and openness to change, not upon the educational or economic status of the migrants -- an important caveat to keep in mind…… [read more]


Violence, History, and Suppression of Memory Term Paper

… Violence, History, And Suppression of Memory as Metaphor in Garcia Marquez's One Hundred Years Of Solitude

Colombian novelist Gabriel Garcia Marquez's fantastical masterpiece of magic realism, One Hundred Years of Solitude (1967) chronicles the long, colorful, violent, repetitive, and ultimately… [read more]


Cold War Rhetoric and American Term Paper

… Any political movement that the United States disagreed with and hated was acceptable, in the name of nationalism. Many ordinary Latin American nationals willingly supported communists, not because they were ardent believers in communism, or because they had such affection for the Soviet Union, but because independence and the right to self-determination were such an integral part of the communist cause. Marxism and nationalism and a positive realignment of the class structure that existed were ideologically fused.

The Soviet Union did support Castro. There is no historical doubt of this fact. But this financial backing did not mean that the United States was justified in seeing Cuba as a mere puppet of the Soviet regime. Furthermore, the paranoia of U.S. policy makers led them to become instrumental in terminating the Guatemalan revolution, where a socialist leader had electoral and democratic support. Instead, the U.S. supported a right wing tyranny, justifying stifling supposedly Soviet-backed socialism that they insisted was extending into the region. ("1954 Terminating a Revolution in Guatemala -- A View from Washington & John C. Dreier's 1954 Terminating a Revolution in Guatemala -- A View from Guatemala cited in Holden and Zolov)

Thus, the defense of U.S. supposed security was never synonymous in terms of the United States supporting democracy in Latin America. The United States was quick to elide popular support of communism with Soviet influence, where for many individuals in the nations in question, socialism and communism was associated with nationalism and liberation and the right to national self-determination. Cold War rhetoric showed little understanding of the inequitable class structure of Latin America, the need for national self-determination in the face of years of dominance by colonial European powers and the United States, nor did the U.S.'s 'domino theory' of communist influence consider the vital role played by the Church in Latin America, contrary to dearly held Soviet ideology. True, the Soviet Union supported communist leaders in Latin America, financially -- but simply because some rebels took 'red' money did not mean that they were under the U.S.S.R.'s control in the fashion conceptualized by U.S. policy makers, whom were intoxicated by their own fear-inducing words.

Works Cited

Longley, Kyle. In the Eagle's Shadow: The U.S. And Latin America. New York, 2002, Chapter 6.

Holden, Robert and Eric Zolov, Editors. Latin America and the United States: A Documentary History. New York: Oxford University Press, 2000, (Documents 60-75).… [read more]


Politics of Memory Term Paper

… What is the connection between the domestic and international dimensions of the politics of memory? In terms of Chile, the situation regarding Pinochet has huge international repercussions, with the CIA releasing documents showing that they had some part in the… [read more]


USA Intervention of Central America Essay

… USA Intervention of Central America

The history of Central America was considered to be a colorful one, though it was a very complicated because of historical events that took place influencing the political, economical and cultural development of the Central… [read more]


Caribbean Art Competing Visions Research Paper

… The Caribbean islands as painted in this portrait of this woman, place all people of Caribbean descent (both on the islands and in the many diasporas) as the providers of "of particular services that cater to "foreign" tastes."

While this commodification of sexuality (as seen in this painting as well as in a thousand ads for the pleasures of the islands) can be seen as "Faustian bargains with apocalyptic consequences." But it also seems to many Caribbean people as the only thing that they have to sell and thus a matter of survival (pp. 8-11). The fact that the subject is a resident of the Caribbean diaspora (as indicated in the painting's title) emphasizes that the way in which Caribbeans are seen by the rest of the world is not diminished even when the people leave the islands. To fall back upon a very-much tried-and-true cliche: It remains the case when considering the ways in which Caribbeans are represented by the world that they take the island with them wherever they go since their "islandness" is a part of their flesh.

Arnaldo Roche Rabell's oil painting We Have to Dream in Blue is very different in style: It trades the post-Impressionist easy-on-the-eye style for a ragged depiction of a "native" that borrows from Expressionism as well as more recent trends in painting. The subject of this painting, whose gender is ambiguous, although more male than female, suggests a depiction of the Caribbean that appears to be more native than outsider. While the subject of Mulatta seems more than anything else to be a critique of the ways in which Caribbeans understand the way in which they are seen by people from other parts of the world, We Have to Dream in Blue is a more aggressive view, one that is far less accepting of the ways in which outsiders view the Caribbean people and the islands themselves. This is not yet an entirely native viewpoint, as the painter suggests by the inclusion of the word "have" in the title. Who is forcing the Caribbeans to dream in a certain way? Could it be the Caribbeans themselves whose most intimate possession, the very expression of their souls and selves at night, who have become the enforcers of their own colonization? Or are those who compel the islanders to assume the burden of specific dreams and visions still those whose representations of the islanders still takes precedence over all others?

The subject of this painting has the blue eyes of a Northern European, suggesting a different kind of interbreeding than is depicted in the portrait of the mulatta. That this subject looks out of the eyes of a white person suggests the ways in which the Caribbean people are the subjects/victims of European desire, pinned by the gaze of these blue eyes like a beautiful butterfly on a collector's wall. However, in this case, the subject is the opposite of the sexually inviting woman of the other painting. Here the subject seems… [read more]


Santa Anna Dictatorship Term Paper

… "[footnoteRef:17] Mary Petite described him as a man of extravagant tastes and outlandish ego, vanity and corruption, who owned a silver chamber pot, a gold-covered saddle and a $7,000 sword -- and enormously expensive item for that time and place.… [read more]


Mexico Globalization Implies Besides the Increased Competition Essay

… Mexico

Globalization implies besides the increased competition at a global level the meeting between different cultures and between individuals that belong to different cultures. The cultural differences can sometimes affect the proper development of a business overseas, which is why it is usually important and preferable to have a good understanding of the culture and country where the business will be exported.

Mexico is part of the Latin countries, which means that it is bearing some of the characteristics of Latin individuals. One of the important ones, especially in the relationship with a business coming from the United States, is that the perception over time is different. For the U.S., time is money, which shows how important time is. However, in Mexico, the temporal approach is much more flexible and relaxed. A Mexican is likely to be late for a meeting without perceiving this in any way as a negative thing or one that is very likely to affect the business. At the same time, and again related to the perception of time, the meetings may be long and without an actual finality. More meetings may be needed in order to reach a conclusion

This is another important characteristic. The Mexican approach to business is more an individual to individual relationship, which means that all business tends to be more social than in other countries. There needs to be a relationship between the individuals working together, which is why, as mentioned in the previous paragraph, the initial meeting may not necessarily be a conclusive meeting as well.

In the U.S., following on the principle that time is money, there needs to come as much as possible out of a meeting, while in Mexico, as well as in other Latin countries, the meeting itself can also be just an opportunity for the people who will be doing business together to meet and discuss.

It is also about sensitivity that Mexicans find it very hard to separate business and work from personal relationships. With a preference of aesthetics, Mexicans prove very sensitive in their approach of the world and relations between individuals, much different from the business approach that the Americans may have. The importance of relationships even in the world of business is probably also one of the reasons why face saving is important in Mexico.

This is also tied to the etiquette, which is still a very important aspect of the Mexican culture and another important difference with the U.S. The Mexican culture implies the existence of a certain formalism, including in relationship…… [read more]


America's Interests and Involvement in Cuba Term Paper

… Americas interests & Involvement in Cuba

Political

Economic

Social

Sources of the revolution

Nationalism, economic, social, political.

International

The view from the United States

The Revolution and the American intervention

Reactions in Cuba

Reactions around the world

The Cuban Revolution… [read more]


Biodiversity of Mexico Term Paper

… Biodiversity of Mexico

Covering an area approximately 1,978,000 square kilometers, Mexico is the third largest nation in Latin America after Brazil and Argentina. Its northern border with the United States runs 3,326 kilometers from the Pacific Ocean to the Gulf… [read more]


Economic System of Mexico Term Paper

… The president is in charge of assigning the Secretaries of State, which are individuals who are assigned to be in charge of certain areas of the country. These positions include health care, tourism, the environment, education, commerce, social development, energy, peace within the nation, communications, the countryside, tax collection, labor, relations with other countries, and more.

Mexico's future depends on the economic future of the U.S. (Southwest Economy, 2002). The economic recession in the U.S. caused Mexico's exports to the U.S. To drop from $147.7 billion in 2000 to $140.3 billion in 2001. The latest data from the National Statistics Bureau shows that Mexico's exports in the first six months of 2002 dropped 2.8% compared with to last year. In June of 2002, the total exports of Mexico's manufacturing industry to the U.S. dropped by 2.9%. (see appendix a)

Analysts say that Mexico is facing the same problems that have been seen in Argentina, where the economic crisis has resulted in the lack of confidence, outflow of capital, and sharp decline of FDI.

Mexico depends on exports to the U.S., as these exports account for nearly a quarter of the country's GDP. This results in a strong link between the Mexican economy and the U.S. economy. Because of the economic recession in U.S. economy over the past two years, Mexico has seen little growth. Future growth of the Mexican economy depends largely on the future strength of the recovery in the U.S. In the next few years.

Still, investor confidence in the Mexican economy remains high even after the government reduced its growth estimate from 4.5% to between 2.5% and 3% due to the U.S. economy's downfall.

Foreign direct investment is expected to reach a record $17 billion in 2003 as companies build new plants to take advantage of cheap labor and a growing domestic market. However, analysts are concerned that the slower growth rates in Mexico may hurt its ability to meet spending, deficit, and inflation targets that have been key factors in maintaining investor confidence in Mexico. However, the government is taking measures to prevent further decline.

Lower interest rates are also allowing banks to start lending again, with the largest ones beginning to offer mortgages on a large scale for the first time since the peso devaluation in 1994. In addition, Mexican retailers have agreed to cut prices on 55 staple products over the next two months following government pleas to help keep inflation below the 4.5% target this year.

Bibliography

The Concise Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia. Columbia University Press. 2000.

Mexico Economic Survey, OECD Paris, 1999.

Mexico's Historical Figures, http://www.mexconnect.com/mex_/history/mexicopeople.html, Mexico Connect, 1996-2000.

Krauze, E. Mexico: Biography of Power. Rutgers, 1999.

Utley, Robert Marshall. Changing course: The international boundary, United States and Mexico, 1848-1963. Southwest Parks and Monuments Association, 1996.

Southwest Economy. Is Mexico Ready to Roar? September/October, 2002.

Appendix A MEXICO'S ECONOMIC STATISTICS**

Strengths

Weaknesses

Comittment to sound fiscal policy

Dependence U.S. economy

Free floating exchange rate

Lack of credibility in inflation policy

NAFTA shields economy… [read more]


Illicit Arms Trade in South and Central Research Paper

… ¶ … illicit arms trade in South and Central America and how that affects U.S. Foreign Policy regionally and globally. In Central and South America, the drug trade and the arms trade are completely linked. The problems of drug trafficking… [read more]


Mexico: Review of Culture, Religion, Politics Research Proposal

… MEXICO: REVIEW OF CULTURE, RELIGION, POLITICS, HEALTH AND SOCIAL JUSTICE INCLUDING EXAMINATION OF DEPENDENCY vs. MODERNIZAITON THEORY

DEPENDENCY THEORY vs. MODERNIZATION THEORY

The work of Giovanni E. Reyes (2001 entitled: "Four Main Theories of Development: Modernization, Dependency, World-Systems and Globalization"… [read more]


Mexico Religion and Mexican Resistance Essay

… Mexico Religion

Religion and Mexican Resistance

Mexico is a nation which has throughout its history suffered violence, instability and a rapid-fire change of leadership that even to present day leaves it in a deeply afflicted state. Beginning with the ebb… [read more]


Women and Development in Central America Term Paper

… Women in Central America

Social Analysis

Central America is that region between North America and South America, notably the nations linking Mexico and South America. These countries are given the most attention by the American public when there is a… [read more]


Crime and Violence in Mexico Term Paper

… Officials have targeted 15 areas and 29 highways hardest hit by crime.

Mexico City, the capital of Mexico, has been identified as the government's number one concern. To combat the increase of crime in Mexico City, including kidnappings, robberies and murders, former New York City Mayor Rudolph Giuliani, who has been praised for successfully reducing crime by more than 65% in New York City, has been hired by Mexico to work as a paid consultant to Mexico City officials for one year (Carl).

According to Mexico City officials, the city, like many areas of Mexico, has seen a rapid increase in crime over the past few decades. The city is no longer safe.

Mexican President Vicente Fox and Mexico City Mayor Andres Manuel Lopez Obrador have enlisted the help of Giuliani to crack down on crime. However Mexico officials are quick to point out that they are not turning over administration of the Mexican capital to U.S. authorities, they are simply requesting recommendations.

According to Mexico Police Chief Marcelo Ebrard, "We aren't going to be importing police. We are interested in the organization, the system" of fighting crime.

Mexico's economic, social and political problems will continue to grow if the country does successfully deal with the roots of crime and violence, including lawlessness, insecurity, grinding poverty, major inequities, pervasive corruption and the lack of accountability of the government. Crime and violence in Mexico has led to the country's deterioration.

Works Cited

Babb, Satrah. Managing Mexico: Economists from Nationalism to Neoliberalism. Princeton University Press, 2001.

Carl, Tracy. Rudy To The Rescue. The Associated Press. Oct. 10, 2002.

Hart, John. Empire and Revolution: The Americans in Mexico since the Civil War.

University of California Press, 2002.

Krauze, Enrique. Mexico: Biography of Power: A History of Modern Mexico, 1810-

1996. HarperCollins Publishers, http://images.barnesandnoble.com/gresources/cleardot.gif

Leiken, Robert. Mexico: The Crisis Next Door. The Commentary Journal. January 2002.

Mexico Transforming. Pacific Council on International Policy. February 2000.

Neto, Paulo. Intergration for the Americas Report. Center for the Study of Violence-

University of Sao Paulo. April 5, 2002.

Ortega, Fernando. Mexico Pays Dearly for Crime. Pacific News…… [read more]


Narrative Analysis of Historical Content Research Paper

… S. And Mexico, during the initial half of the 19th century.

The second chapter of the book covers the Las Cruces and La Mesilla, demonstrating how each city, developed in the consequences of the U.S.-Mexican War and situated on the opposite areas of the new borders, reflected a certain vision of public belongings.

The third and fourth chapter of the book has a discussion about two features of a routine life in the Mesilla valley: gender and religion.

The last two chapters of the book have a discussion about how Hispanic and Euro-American elites developed conversations of a racially united local New Mexican identity starting in the final decades of the 19th century.

Strengths and Weaknesses

Although it is broad with information and detail, the book is informative and easy to read. It provides significant information, not just for those who have interest in the New Mexico history, United State and the Southwest; however also for those who have interest in multiculturalism, the kind of modern state and the public construction of identity and race. Border Dilemmas is ideal for the common readers.

American Workers, Colonial Power Philippine Seattle and the Transpacific West, 1919-1941

Narrative Analysis

In this book, Fujita-Rony reflects on the borders of American West in a way that the establishment of Seattle is envisaged within the colonization of America, with the Philippines the major part of the empire of America.

Status of Filipinos as nationals of U.S. distinguished them from other immigrants of the Asia, and this uniqueness is considered by Fujita-Rony throughout this book.

Chronological Summary

This is an impressive book that aspires to re-contextualize different standards of the history: American West, settlement of Asia-America, and the experiences of Filipino in the U.S. In the early years of the 19th century. These hypothetical aspirations are attained by considering interviews and archival documents[footnoteRef:6]. [6: Fujita-Rony, Dorothy B. American Workers, Colonial Power Philippine Seattle and the Transpacific West, 1919-1941. (CA: University of California Press, 2003)]

Strengths and Weaknesses

This book is a kind of case study that addresses board speculative debates and large questions, and therefore deserves a large readership. For a large part of the book, this study does the work as its aims, even though the importance of women in building a community is as much stated as showed.

End Notes

1. Gomez, Laura E. Manifest destinies: the making of the Mexican-American race. (New York: New York University, 2007)

2. Jacobson, Matthew Frye. Barbarian virtues: the United States encounters foreign peoples at home and abroad, 1876-1917. (New York: Hill and Wang, 2000).

3. Jose Angel Hernandez. Mexican-American colonization during the nineteenth century: a history of the U.S.-Mexico Borderlands. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2012).

4. Guidotti- Hernandez, Nicole Marie. Unspeakable violence: remapping U.S. And Mexican national imaginaries. (Durham [N.C.]: Duke University Press, 2011).

5. Anthony Mora. Border Dilemmas: Racial and National Uncertainties in New Mexico, 1848-1912. (Duke University Press Books, 2011)

6. Fujita-Rony, Dorothy B. American Workers, Colonial Power Philippine Seattle and the Transpacific West, 1919-1941. (CA:… [read more]


Bartoleme De Las Casas Research Paper

… Advocate and Radical

Yet, not everyone agrees with his being given such a title. The situation as he described it was not always so utterly black and white. While there were certainly abuses on the part of the conquistadors, they… [read more]


Kozloff, Nikolas. Revolution! South America Book Report

… Kozloff, Nikolas. Revolution! South America and the Rise of the New Left. Palgrave-Macmillan,

Nikolas Kozloff's book Revolution! South America and the Rise of the New Left (Palgrave-Macmillan, 2008) details the changing political structure of Latin America. The region was once… [read more]


Ancient a Brief History Research Paper

… A lot of outside influences are found in Maya art and architecture, which are thought to result from trade and cultural swap rather than direct outside take-over. The Maya civilization never vanished, neither at the time of the Classic era turn down nor with the influx of the Spanish conquistadores and the following Spanish colonization of the Americas. Nowadays, the Maya and their offspring form considerable populations throughout the Maya region and preserve a distinguishing set of customs and attitudes that are the outcome of the combination of pre-Columbian and post-Conquest philosophies (The Civilizations of Ancient Mesoamerica, 2009).

Prior to Christopher Columbus coming to the Americas, a great deal of the area that is now known as Central America was part of Mesoamerica. Numerous Native American cultures flourished there, as well as the superior Maya civilization. The Maya civilization had mostly vanished by the time the Spanish came in the 1520's. Spain governed all of Central America except for British Honduras (Belize) from 1540 until 1821, when Guatemala revolted. Upon liberty from Spain, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, and Nicaragua shaped the Federal Republic of Central America, which was molded after the United States. The republic endured only from 1823 to 1840, when Honduras broke away from the union in a civil war. Later efforts to shape a republic from Central American states were unsuccessful. Belize was a British colony for more than one hundred years, but became self-governing in 1981 (Central America: Connecting Continents, Keeping Oceans Apart, n.d.).

Today the majority of Central Americans are Native American or mixed Native American and Spanish. There are also lesser ethnic collections of African descent in Belize and unmixed Spanish inhabitants in Costa Rica. With the exemption of Belize, the authorized language of the countries is Spanish. In Belize the language is English. A number of Native American languages are still spoken, comprising a lot of that started with the Maya. Central Americans of African ancestry called the Garifuna also speak a distinctive language. These people got there when the ships carrying them as slaves from West Africa wrecked in the Caribbean in 1635. They combined with the Native American inhabitants and ultimately fashioned communities in Belize, Guatemala, Honduras, and Nicaragua (Central America: Connecting Continents, Keeping Oceans Apart, n.d.).

References

A Brief History of the Mayan Civilization. (2011). Retrieved from http://www.art-poster-

online.com/maya.htm

Cecil, Jessica. (2011). The Fall of the Mayan Civilisation. Retrieved from http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/ancient/cultures/maya_01.shtml

Central America: Connecting Continents, Keeping Oceans Apart. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.globio.org/glossopedia/article.aspx?art_id=46#

Mayan History. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.lost-civilizations.net/mayan-history.html

Mayan History. (n.d.). Retreived from http://www.crystalinks.com/mayanhistory.html

Periods in Maya Civilization. (2011). Retrieved from http://www.hanksville.org/yucatan/periods.html

The Civilizations of Ancient Mesoamerica. (2009). Retrieved from http://www.theancientweb.com/explore/content.aspx?content_id=19… [read more]


Latin American History Essay

… When Bello was installed as rector of the University of Chile in 1843, he gave an address praising the liberal, humanistic spirit of the Renaissance and Enlightenment. Modernity and progress began when the "intellectual heritage of Greece and Rome" was… [read more]


Immigration Experience From the Dominican Essay

… The solid Dominican culture, though good in many ways, creates a type of a ghetto which keeps this population isolated and slows assimilation into American culture, which would then afford this community with a wider range of opportunity. The attitude… [read more]


Doing Business in South America Research Proposal

… ¶ … Business in South America

Business Prospects in South America

South America can be considered as a continuously developing market for Western companies. In certain Central and South American countries, population's incomes are increasing, and so is consumption. The workforce in South America is becoming more and more specialized in certain areas, providing quality employees in all areas, not just manufacturing and production.

However, this region has always been characterized by certain political matters that kept investors away from South American countries. Oil is probably the most important asset that can be exploited in these regions. But oil companies have found themselves in dangerous situations in South America because of guerilla groups, for example, that tried to use this situation in their advantage in the battle with governments.

The situation seems to change for the better, as some countries in South America present smaller risks for investors. One of these countries is Chile, which is considered as "the freest economy in Latin America" (HKTD, 2008). Chile has the highest per capita GDP, combined with the lowest inflation rate in South America. The country provides a stable macroeconomic environment and stable business prospects for any investors.

As mentioned above, most international reports show that the political instability in South America seems to slow down. Even more, "anti-business populism appears to be waning in Latin America, some experts say" (Latin Business Chronicle, 2008). Experts also consider that Paraguay is the only country in South America where populism will continue to spread, as expected. In the rest of the regions, people seem to have understood the importance of economic development, and also the fact that economic developed can only be sustained with the help of foreign investors.

The reason behind experts' opinion relies on the fact that Chavez' constitutional reform proposition was…… [read more]


Regional Geography Why Could Africa Term Paper

… However, so long as the majority of Colombians live without proper nutrition, decent housing, and hope for the future, the possibility remains.

Brazil

In many ways Brazil has undergone changes analogous to these during the period since the mid-1960s. Focus… [read more]


Revolutionary History of Mexico Interrelationships Term Paper

… 310). Vasconcelos was a writer, too, and he wrote "The Cosmic Race" in 1925 that discussed the blending of races in Mexico and Latin America and their hopes for the future. The arts flowered in Mexico during this time as the people hoped for freedom and prosperity.

Yes, art changed during this time, too. The mural developed as a way to share Mexican history with all the people of the country, rich and poor. In addition, Diego Rivera had learned most of his art in Europe, and had embraced the European styles of modernism and cubism. However, when he returned to Mexico, he simplified his art and returned to the roots of realism -- portraying the people with bright colors and bold lines. Historian Maurice Berger writes, "Rivera [ ... ] undertook the task of producing an art that was completely different from the 'pure' art practiced in contemporary Europe. Rivera conceived of art as an organic, useful human function, as necessary to man as 'bread, meat, fruit, water, and air'" (Berger, 1994, p. 211). Thus, new forms of art did develop, and they created more vivid depictions of Mexican history and events that helped change the country forever.

At the time, photography was really developing into an art form, too. It was not new technology, it had been around since the American Civil War, but it was much more common in the 20th century, and it became much more of an art statement and platform. Photography showed the realities of the revolution and the real people who were behind it. Artists like Rivera showed their own ideas about the Revolution, but photographs did not lie. They showed the reality, from those killed to those who fought diligently. It was a new way for the people to view history and to view other parts of their country they might never see otherwise.

Rivera and several of his contemporaries developed the mural as an important art form in Mexico for a number of reasons. Art historian Berger notes, "Mexican artists turned their attention to the problem of how to convey to a largely illiterate population the history of its own political struggles, as well as how to introduce people to new revolutionary truths" (Berger, 1994, p. 201). They did this by painting large, colorful murals that portrayed events and figures important to Mexican history. Rivera was not the only muralist; Clemente Orozco and David Alfaro Siqueiros were also instrumental in bringing this kind of history to all the people of Mexico.

In addition, photography was available as never before to chronicle the Revolution from beginning to end, and it helped broadcast what was going on in Mexico to the world. . One of the most influential photographers during the Revolution was Tina Modotti, a young Italian woman who made her name photographing Mexico. She worked in Mexico City with renowned photographer Edward Weston, and made a name for herself photographing the Revolution and the people. Writer Hopkinson continues, "She worked there… [read more]


Mexico and North American Free Trade Agreement Term Paper

… Mexico and the North American Free Trade Agreement

The North American Free Trade Agreement, known usually as NAFTA, is a comprehensive trade agreement linking Canada, the United States (U.S.), and Mexico in a free trade sphere. NAFTA went into effect… [read more]


Juan Bosch Term Paper

… Juan Bosch

When Juan Bosch died on November 1, 2001, Monegro wrote, "Juan Bosch, a former president whose influence in Dominican politics stretched across half a century despite his only seven months in office, died yesterday. He was 92." Monegro's… [read more]


Market Vincent Term Paper

… The total area covered will be roughly 5 million sq. Km. This entire area is now covered by rain forest and contains some of the last remaining indigenous communities in the world, including the Yanomami.

The pressure is on Venezuela as this has the highest energy potential in South America and is capable of producing nearly 4 billion barrels a day and there is still a lot of oil left in the ground which has not been developed. Brazil has the largest industrial economy in the continent, but does not have enough oil in its own area to provide the required energy. The deficit is to the extent of 50% of its requirements. This is giving a lot of difficulty to Brazil in the development of the Northwestern part of Brazil. This are is covered by dense jungle and is joined by Venezuela within the same jungle on the north. Within Venezuela, there is presently a production of 29,000 megawatts of hydro-electricity. This is also wanted by Brazil. The required development has started illegal mining in the Amazonas state, and the Carori river basin in Bolivar states of Venezuela. These activities have spoilt the previously unspoiled natural areas and started damaging the tropical rain forest. The rivers are being contaminated and many species of flora and fauna have been eliminated. (Commercial integration in South America initiates the complete destruction of the Amazon area)

We can see that industrial progress has started through a lot of cooperation between the two countries and this is certainly providing international opportunities. The point to be looked at is the international concept of development which requires a lot of energy, and the prime example of high per capita energy consumption is the United States. It is doubtful whether the planet will be able to survive if all countries develop to the level of the U.S.

Summary:

Development takes place because of economic opportunities and not local cooperation. This is also the situation in Latin America.

References

Association for Latin America Integration" 8th May, 2002 Retrieved at http://www.fmprc.gov.cn/eng/wjb/zzjg/gjs/gjzzyhy/2616/t15337.htm. Accessed on 03/01/2004

CAF's role in Integration" Retrieved at http://www.caf.com/view/index.asp?ms=0&pageMs=3997Accessed on 03/01/2004

Commercial integration in South America initiates the complete destruction of the Amazon area" Retrieved at http://forests.org/archive/samerica/unconcr.htm. Accessed on 03/01/2004

Eden, Lorraine. Venezuela and Regional Integration in South America Retrieved at http://wehner.tamu.edu/mgmt.www/nafta/spring99/Groups99/pedro/final.htm. Accessed on 03/01/2004… [read more]


NAFTA and Its Affects Term Paper

… This translates to an increased job market as companies move to expand their workforce to meet the need. This goes across the board in what type of products and services are included as they all have to continue to grow… [read more]


Hispanic Community Term Paper

… This is an unusually rich variety of folk styles.

Hispanic folk Art surrounds us. It is evident in the rural and urban, secular and religious areas of life. The Hispanics have used folk art for hundreds of years to court… [read more]


Private Property and the Commons Essay

… 175).

Diffuse authority at the local level in 16th-century Spain eroded its capacity to effectively organize across the many jurisdictional levels to achieve a truly liberalized state. As Spain strove to modernize, it pressed to continue a culture of absolutism, while at the same time attempting to reconcile with the liberalism practices in the towns and cities. The conflict was manifested by:

"persistent and sometimes successful efforts to limit the autonomies of noblemen and the reach of its towns' democracies (efforts that were most successfully applied in Castile)…While clearly absolutist measures were applied forcefully in Castile (where they had to overcome the armed resistance of the slighted nobles and burghers of towns with customary privileges)" (Abercrombie, 1996, p. 100).

Conclusion

The civilizing initiatives to privatize land tenure and construct policies aimed at doing away with collective ownership and town council rights were a hallmark of 16th-century to 19th-century Castile and also of colonial Indian society (Abercrombie, XXXX, p. 215). Two parallel systems -- of monarchy and local authority -- were solidified to such a degree that they continuously engaged in an embittered relationship characterized by subversive contention and resistance at the local level and overt central dominance. These contrary dynamics did not achieve the typical course of national revolution that could reasonably be expected, and that this was largely due to the wave of substantive religious and military events that eclipsed the next several centuries in Spain. In fact, those reforms that strike at the heart of collective property traditions and that have been called Liberalism, show a propensity to favor those tenets of the democratic political left, but these reforms eventually migrated to the conservative political right by mid-20th century.

References

Abercrombie, T.A. (). Colonial relandscaping of Andean social memory.. In Pathways of memory and power: Ethnography and history among an Andean people (pp. ). University of Wisconsin Press.

Abercrombie, T.A. (1996). Q'aqchas and la plebe in "rebellion" -- carnival vs. lent in 18th-century potosi. Journal of Latin American, 2(1), 62-111.

Alban, J.P.V. (1999). Introduction: The decline of propriety. In Propriety and permissiveness in Bourbon Mexico (pp. ). Wilmington, DE: Scholarly Resources, Inc.

Elliott, J.H. (1991, Autumn). Renaissance Quarterly, 44(3) A Review: Nader, H. (1990). Liberty in Absolutist Spain: The Habsburg Sale of Towns, 1516-1700. Baltimore and London, The Johns Hopkins University Press.

Glick, T.F. (1995). From Muslim fortress to Christian castle: Social and cultural change in medieval Spain. New York, NY: Manchester University Press.

Guerrero, A. (). The administration of dominated populations under a regime of customary citizenship: The case of postcolonial Ecuador. In Administration of dominated populations (pp. ) XXXXX.

Herr, R. (2000). Flow and ebb 1700 -- 1833. In Raymond Carr (Ed.), Spain: A history. Oxford University Press. Thompson, I.A.A. (1987). Hidalgo and Pechero in Castile, 37 (1), 23-XX.

Kagan, R.L. (1996, April). Review: Prescott's paradigm:…… [read more]


War on Blackness Essay

… War on Blackness

The war, as almost all wars are, was premised on economic reasons. For over a century, between1800 to beyond the 1900s, as the U.S.A. And Western countries entered the industrialized era and demanded more products from Latin America, the price of these products, correspondingly, swelled and the value of these exports almost quintupled from $344 billion in 1870 to $1.6 billion in 1912. This state of affairs was beneficial for the Mexican nation since it introduced a period of stability and contentment to the country. Politically, too, stronger measures were taken to impose central authority and to quell anarchic segments. The workers and the country were content.

Unfortunately, this closer union between the U.S.A. And western countries also had its negative ramification since the U.S.A., at this time, was experiencing sharp internal racist discrimination. The Jim Crow lines were in full swing in the South and to be White and American was the order of the day.

Some of these issues and ways of thinking began to rub off on the Mexican individual.

These racists ideas then, imported from countries such as America, are what the war of blackness is all about.

The War on Blackness

In the 19th century, Mexico was experiencing a period of unremitting prosperity and growth. Part of this development and political quietude was connected to their friendly and prosperous trading with America and Western nations. Unfortunately, Mexico picked up the virus of racist discrimination that was existent in the U.S.A. Of those times, particularly towards Blacks. "In order to become civilized," it was said, "Latin America would have to become White"(118). In response, Latin America attempted to transform themselves from a racially mixed society to one that would be primarily Caucasian representing and disseminating the Westernized manners and cultural milieu.

Revolutions included tearing down slums of the poor and displacing countless poor in order to remodel huge parts of Cuba and Mexico and refashion them into the Western style of architecture.

The government too tried to influence the cultural fashion such as music and dance as well as other folklore and ethnic entertainment, but there they were less successful and only instigated reaction.

Popular music and dance insisted in remaining African based and Bazillion and Cuban ethnicities similarly opposed any attempt to change their African-based culture to that of the alleged European elite.

The…… [read more]


Country Study Research Paper

… ¶ … country of Mexico provides a wonderful opportunity for an enterprising entrepreneur to establish himself in the North American market. Mexico is considered to be the gateway to doing business in Latin America and North America and it has,… [read more]


Hispanic-American Diversity: An Overview Soy Latino Essay

… Hispanic-American Diversity: An Overview

"Soy Latino" seems like an uncontroversial statement for a Hispanic-American to make about his or her heritage. Yet even this simple identity claim is tainted by potential controversy. For many Hispanics, their identity is not defined by the words "soy Latino," but "soy Cubano." The label of 'Hispanic-American' is created by 'America' -- immigrants from Mexico, Cuba, Puerto Rico, and Columbia, as well as Spain and other areas of the Hispanic world come from regions that may be just as culturally distinct as Germany is from France. However, while people do not think of European-Americans as a homogenous group, there may be a temptation to elide the differences between different Hispanic-American identities. It is important to honor the differences of different Hispanic-American groups, as well as similarities (Schaefer, 2005: 238).

Mexican-Americans

Mexican-Americans "constitute one of the most economically disadvantaged groups in the United States, with an average household income more than 40% below the comparable average for non-Hispanic whites" (Grogger & Trejo 2002, p.1). One of the more troubling aspects of Mexican's place in the American mosaic is the frequent lack of gains between second and third generation groups of Mexican immigrants. While second generation Mexican-Americans obtain an "average of about four years more schooling and more than 35% higher wages than do Mexican immigrants…intergenerational progress for Mexican-Americans appears to stall after the second generation, with the third generation showing only modest improvement in educational attainment and no wage growth (Grogger & Trejo 2002, p.1). Attainment of Mexican-Americans' educational qualifications lags behind that of other historically-discriminated against groups in America, as well as those of demographically similar whites.

The difficulty of attaining parity with whites educationally and economically may be partially due to linguistic differences, given that many Mexican-Americans arrive in the U.S. without full English fluency, but the source is also cultural in nature. There is often a fear of becoming different from one's family. There is a strong emphasis on conformity and honoring family traditions. This is accompanied by a strain of fatalistic Roman Catholicism: one must do "as God wills," rather than try to 'pull one's self up by one's own bootstraps' as is the mentality in much of America (Kraus 1997). But the role of prejudice against Mexicans in American culture cannot be minimized -- stereotypes that classify Mexican-Americans solely as agricultural workers and anti-immigrant prejudice are entrenched.

Cuban-Americans

Like Mexican-Americans, Cuban-Americans have a strong sense of family loyalty. However, because of the circumstances under which many Cuban-Americans immigrated to their new land, there are profound political and cultural divides between these two ethnic groups. In general, although they are socially conservative because of the strong Catholic tradition in the Mexican-American community, Mexican-Americans tend to be liberal on issues such as immigration reform; providing healthcare and other benefits to the poor; and protecting the rights of unionized and nonunionized workers. Cuban-Americans, especially those concentrated in the area of Miami known as 'Little Havana' are often the result of the wave of immigration… [read more]


On Galicia Spain and Chile in South America Thesis

… Spain & Chile

Chile, South America

Chile is a country in South America. It is officially called the Republic of Chile. According to Wikipedia (2009), Chile occupies "a long and narrow coastal strip between the Andes mountains and the Pacific Ocean." It is bordered by Peru to its north, Bolivia to its northeast, Argentina to its east, and Drake Passage at its south (Wikipedia, 2009). Chile also includes the following islands, Juan Fernandez Islands, Salas y Gomez islands, Desventuradas Islands, and Easter Island. Wikipedia characterized Chile as having a varied climate "ranging from the world's driest desert -- the Atacama -- in the north, through a Mediterranean climate in the centre, to a snow-prone Alpine climate in the south, with glacier fjords and lakes." Its varied climate is attributed to its length.

Chile, said to be one of the most stable and prosperous nations in South America (Wikipedia, 2009), has a rich history. The first inhabitants of central and southern Chile were said to be migrating Native Americans, the Mapuche Indians. They inhabited the "fertile valleys and coastal areas of what is present day Chile" (Wikipedia, 2009). For a brief period of time, Chile was also under the Inca rule. The Incas occupied northern Chile for a period of time. However, the Mapuche Indians -- though lacking in state organization -- were able to successfully resist the Inca Empire from conquering them. In 1541, the Spanish came to Chile and they gradually started their conquest of Chile in 1549 led by Pedro de Valdivia (Wikipedia, 2009). At the time when Chile was part of the Viceroyalty of Peru, it hosted "one of the largest standing armies in the Americas, it was one of the most militarized of the Spanish possessions, as well as a drain on the treasury of Peru" (Wikipedia, 2009). Chile fought for its independence from Spain and in 1818 it was proclaimed an independent republic. More recently, Chile suffered a military dictatorship for 17 years and is said to be "one of the bloodiest in the 20th-century Latin America that left more than 3,000 people dead and missing" (Wikipedia, 2009.).

The food in Chile is influenced by its geographic location as well as its rich history. Because Chile is stretched to cover a variety of geographical landscapes, it boosts a variety of food. According to SouthAmerica.cl (2009), "one of the highlights of Chilean Cuisine is its diversity of seafood due to its 4,270 km (2,647 miles) of coastline." Curanto en Hoyo, Curanto en Olla, Palta Reina, Almejas con Limon, Caldillo de Congrio, Ceviche, Congrio Frito, Chupe de Locos, Empanada de Mariscos, Machas a la Parmesana, Mariscal, Ostiones a la Parmesa, and Piure are all examples of Chilean seafood dishes. Chilean cuisine also has many corn-based dishes that are reflective of Chile's history as corn dishes are used in many Native American dishes (Food by Country, 2007). Humitas and Pastel de Choclo are examples of corn-based dishes. Immigrants also brought with them their cuisine and enriched Chilean cuisine.… [read more]


Pancho Villa's Raid on Columbus New Mexico Thesis

… Pancho Villa's Raid On Columbus, New Mexico

Pancho Villa remains one of the emblematic characters of the Mexican Revolution, despite the fact that many of his actual achievements have been put into shadow by unsuccessful and somewhat irrational acts, such… [read more]


Brazil, the Largest Country in South America Term Paper

… Brazil, the largest country in South America, occupying almost half of the continent, is one of the world's largest and most populous countries. Despite a checkered history of colonization, slavery, dictatorship, economic, and political problems, the country has emerged as an important regional power in Latin America and has the potential of becoming a global economic and political powerhouse. This paper presents an analysis of the current political and economic situation in Brazil by focusing on its current President's background and ideology and his administration's policies on economic alliances, globalization, relations with the United States, and the environment.

President Lula's Background and Political Ideology

Luis Inacio Lula da Silva (popularly known as just "Lula") was born on 27 October 1945, in a poor working class family. He started working in factories at a young age as a mechanic and lathe operator and became involved in trade union activities in the late 1960s. He was elected the Head of the Metallurgists' Trade Union in 1975 and became a strike leader and a symbol of opposition to the military dictatorship in the 1970s and early 1980s. Lula founded the Workers Party (PT) in 1980 and contested as his party's candidate in three unsuccesful bids for the Presidency in 1989, 1994 and 1998, on a largely anti-capitalist platform ("Biography").

By the late 1990s, Lula had softened his radical politics, moving to the center of the political spectrum and mending his fences with the Brazilian business community that had reacted negatively to his previous candidacy due to his radical anti-capitalist rhetoric. His choice of industrialist Jose Alencar of the centre-right Liberal Party as his runing mate further established his credentials as a moderate and he was elected as President of the Federative Republic of Brazil in his fourth attempt at the Presidency in October 2002 by a clear margin ("Leftist Lula wins Brazil election").

Election Campaign Platform & Ideology of Lula's Administration

Lula's election campaign in the 2002 elections was based on a platform of opposition to 8 years of neo-liberal policies of the Cordoso government. For over a decade, the United States had encouraged economic policy reforms in Latin America and promoted privatization and the liberalization of trade, finance, capital market liberalization, foreign direct investment, deregulation, and fiscal discipline. By the late 1990s, however, these reforms had started to unravel. Severe economic crisis and political instability had hit a number of countries, including Argentina. The contagion had also been felt in Brazil where the problems of inequality, poverty and unemployment remained unsolved or even worsened (Ribando, 3-4).

The Workers Party promised to reverse the neo-liberal policies and increase state investment in education, health care, and agriculture, besides carrying out land reforms. At the same time, Lula diluted his Socialist agenda by promising to maintain the fiscal and monetary policies associated with Brazil's standing International Monetary Fund (IMF) agreements. After coming to power in January 2003, President Lula surprised many people by maintaining a conservative fiscal policy, surpassed the IMF's fiscal and monetary targets,… [read more]


History of the Chicano in Los Angeles Term Paper

… History Of the Chicano in Los Angeles

is widely considered to be a country of immigrants and its culture one that was created as a result of the mixture of different other national identities. From this point-of-view, it can be… [read more]


Immigration in the United States Term Paper

… Immigration in the U.S.

There is no better nation than the United States to analyze for changes and the social impact of immigration, as nearly the whole story of America is one of immigration and the changes caused by it. There are examples throughout history of voluntary, reluctant and forced migration. Though these issues have been lessoned since immigration restrictions have gone into effect, the last 75 years of immigration history in the U.S. is still rich with examples.

Indeed, the significance of immigration in American life and the American economy had been declining for more than forty years. The number of foreign-born persons in the United States in 1970 (9.6 million people) was lower in absolute terms than at any previous (or subsequent) time in the 20th century. (Briggs, 1995, p. 37)

The changes associated with immigration are clearly evident in immigration statistics as well as the varied reasons why individuals chose to immigrate to the United States. Forced immigration, was virtually eliminated, but many WWII refugees immigrated reluctantly, though for the most part the immigration that has taken place during this period has been voluntary. (Hing, 1993)

The top nations of origin for immigration and the numbers that correspond over the period from the 1930s to the 1980s demonstrate diversity as well as significant shifts in immigration patterns and secondarily immigration policy.

1930s [Total] 528,431 Germany 114,058 21.6* Canada and Newfoundland 108,527 20.5 Italy 68,028 12.9 United Kingdom 31,572 6.0

1940s [Total] 1,035,039 Germany 226,578 21.9 Canada and Newfoundland 171,718 16.6 United Kingdom 139,306 13.5 Mexico 60,569 5.9

1950s [Total] 2,515,479 Germany 477,765 19.0 Canada and Newfoundland 377,952 15.0 Mexico 299,811 11.9 United Kingdom 202,824 8.1

1960s 3,321,677 Mexico 453,937 13.7 Canada and Newfoundland 413,310 12.4 Italy 214,111 6.4 United Kingdom 213,822 6.4

1970s [Total] 4,493,314 Mexico 640,294 14.2 Philippines 354,987 7.9 Korea 267,638 6.0 Cuba 264,863 5.9

1980s [Total] 7,328,062b Mexico 1,655,843b 14.0 Philippines 548,764b 4.6 China 346,747b 2.9 Korea 333,746b 2.8

The number following the total for the country of origin is the percentage of immigration from that nation during the decade. b These figures include recipients of legalization under Immigration Reform and Control

Act of 1986 who immigrated to the United States prior to 1982 but are recorded as having entered in year in which they received permanent residence.

Source: U.S. Immigration and Naturalization Service, 1993, tables 1 and 2. (DeSipio & De la Garza, 1998, p. 19)

The most notable shift, though there are other significant changes in the period beginning in the 1930s is the shift from German immigration, being the highest to the 1960s transition where Mexican migration reached the number of 453,937.

A great deal of the German (and other European) immigration, was in part associated with WWII and the preceding and following political and social chaos, that led many German's to seek immigration to America between the two world wars. The war within Germany, when many restrictions and changes made living very difficult, specifically for the Jewish population, created countless… [read more]


Solitude by Gabriel Garcia Marquez Term Paper

… ¶ … Solitude by Gabriel Garcia Marquez. Specifically it will discuss how well the novel summarizes Latin American history from the era of the explorers to the recent present. At first reading, this elegant novel does not seem to encompass… [read more]


U.S. Foreign Affairs Since 1898 Term Paper

… U.S. Foreign Affairs Since 1898

Why did the United States go to war in 1898 and what were the consequences of the war?

Following the advice of its founding fathers the United States had, in the first century of its… [read more]


Bilateral Relations Term Paper

… Bilateral Relations: For the Better or for the Worse?

The relationship between the Dominican Republic and the United States between the historical period of 1960 and 2000 is a long-standing relationship like a marriage between humans, which can be reported… [read more]


Latin American History Term Paper

… ¶ … Butterflies by Julia Alvarez. Specifically, it will contain a reaction to the book as it pertains to Latin American history. Rafael Leonidas Trujillo Molina, or President Trujillo of the Dominican Republic, plays an important role in the novel and in Latin American history. Trujillo's despotic rule set the stage for brutality, murder, and mayhem, and Alvarez captures all this in her novel. Trujillo's reign was a reign of terror, and it was memorable to the world because it was so long, and so depraved. Trujillo will be remembered for ethnic cleansing, hatred, and bitter violence, and this book shows him at his worst. An important part of Dominican Republic history, Trujillo was a cruel, bitter man, full of fear, hatred, and power, and the "butterflies" legacy far outlives his.

President Trujillo is a central character in this novel of the Dominican Republic because of his great influence over the society, and his ultimate decision to murder the Mirabal sisters as "traitors" to his brutal dictatorship. The "butterflies" have become a national and international symbol of freedom from oppression, and the day they were killed, November 25, is now called the International Day against Violence against Women in the Mirabals' honor. This time in history was difficult if not impossible for Dominican's and eventually, Trujillo's hatred came back to him, he was assassinated in 1961.

Author Alvarez weaves the history of the country skillfully into the novel, continually portraying Trujillo as a sneaky man, not to be trusted or liked. In Chapter Two, she writes, "According to Sinita, Trujillo became president in a sneaky way. First, he was in the army, and all the people who were above him kept disappearing until he was the head of the whole armed forces" (Alvarez 17). Thus, the reader is introduced to history as well as fiction, and this blend is easier and more pleasing to read than a straight accounting of history. Other true historical accounts paint an even darker picture of the man and his effect on his country. "In 1937, the Dominican dictator, Trujillo, gave the order for the massacre of over 25,000 Haitians on the Dominican side of the border, as part of his plan to 'lighten' the skin of his country" (Wucker 82). Trujillo took power in the Dominican Republic, and held it as president or otherwise until he was killed in 1961. Throughout that time, he massacred many of his countrymen who he thought were scheming against him, including the three Mirabal sisters, whose husbands were all involved in revolutionary groups created to overthrow Trujillo's government. Anyone was a threat to Trujillo, young or old, male or female.

As his dictatorship continues, the country learns to fear the man who rules with an iron fist. The Mirabals learn to fear him, too. Alvarez notes, "Trujillo is the law,' Papa whispered, as we all did nowadays when we pronounced the dreaded name" (Alvarez 90). While Alvarez's work is fiction, and much of it is conjecture, it captures… [read more]

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