"Latin America / Mexico / Caribbean" Essays

1234. . .Last ›
X Filters 

Mexico Religion and Mexican Resistance Essay

Essay  |  6 pages (1,742 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Mexico Religion

Religion and Mexican Resistance

Mexico is a nation which has throughout its history suffered violence, instability and a rapid-fire change of leadership that even to present day leaves it in a deeply afflicted state. Beginning with the ebb and flow of the great Mesoamerican empires and culminating in the conquering of the Aztecs at the hands of the… [read more]

Women and Development in Central America Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,898 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 4


Women in Central America

Social Analysis

Central America is that region between North America and South America, notably the nations linking Mexico and South America. These countries are given the most attention by the American public when there is a perceived threat to peace, as during the era when Nicaragua was a war zone, when Noriega was ruling Panama and… [read more]

Crime and Violence in Mexico Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,675 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Officials have targeted 15 areas and 29 highways hardest hit by crime.

Mexico City, the capital of Mexico, has been identified as the government's number one concern. To combat the increase of crime in Mexico City, including kidnappings, robberies and murders, former New York City Mayor Rudolph Giuliani, who has been praised for successfully reducing crime by more than 65% in New York City, has been hired by Mexico to work as a paid consultant to Mexico City officials for one year (Carl).

According to Mexico City officials, the city, like many areas of Mexico, has seen a rapid increase in crime over the past few decades. The city is no longer safe.

Mexican President Vicente Fox and Mexico City Mayor Andres Manuel Lopez Obrador have enlisted the help of Giuliani to crack down on crime. However Mexico officials are quick to point out that they are not turning over administration of the Mexican capital to U.S. authorities, they are simply requesting recommendations.

According to Mexico Police Chief Marcelo Ebrard, "We aren't going to be importing police. We are interested in the organization, the system" of fighting crime.

Mexico's economic, social and political problems will continue to grow if the country does successfully deal with the roots of crime and violence, including lawlessness, insecurity, grinding poverty, major inequities, pervasive corruption and the lack of accountability of the government. Crime and violence in Mexico has led to the country's deterioration.

Works Cited

Babb, Satrah. Managing Mexico: Economists from Nationalism to Neoliberalism. Princeton University Press, 2001.

Carl, Tracy. Rudy To The Rescue. The Associated Press. Oct. 10, 2002.

Hart, John. Empire and Revolution: The Americans in Mexico since the Civil War.

University of California Press, 2002.

Krauze, Enrique. Mexico: Biography of Power: A History of Modern Mexico, 1810-

1996. HarperCollins Publishers, http://images.barnesandnoble.com/gresources/cleardot.gif

Leiken, Robert. Mexico: The Crisis Next Door. The Commentary Journal. January 2002.

Mexico Transforming. Pacific Council on International Policy. February 2000.

Neto, Paulo. Intergration for the Americas Report. Center for the Study of Violence-

University of Sao Paulo. April 5, 2002.

Ortega, Fernando. Mexico Pays Dearly for Crime. Pacific News…… [read more]

Narrative Analysis of Historical Content Research Paper

Research Paper  |  6 pages (2,101 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10


S. And Mexico, during the initial half of the 19th century.

The second chapter of the book covers the Las Cruces and La Mesilla, demonstrating how each city, developed in the consequences of the U.S.-Mexican War and situated on the opposite areas of the new borders, reflected a certain vision of public belongings.

The third and fourth chapter of the book has a discussion about two features of a routine life in the Mesilla valley: gender and religion.

The last two chapters of the book have a discussion about how Hispanic and Euro-American elites developed conversations of a racially united local New Mexican identity starting in the final decades of the 19th century.

Strengths and Weaknesses

Although it is broad with information and detail, the book is informative and easy to read. It provides significant information, not just for those who have interest in the New Mexico history, United State and the Southwest; however also for those who have interest in multiculturalism, the kind of modern state and the public construction of identity and race. Border Dilemmas is ideal for the common readers.

American Workers, Colonial Power Philippine Seattle and the Transpacific West, 1919-1941

Narrative Analysis

In this book, Fujita-Rony reflects on the borders of American West in a way that the establishment of Seattle is envisaged within the colonization of America, with the Philippines the major part of the empire of America.

Status of Filipinos as nationals of U.S. distinguished them from other immigrants of the Asia, and this uniqueness is considered by Fujita-Rony throughout this book.

Chronological Summary

This is an impressive book that aspires to re-contextualize different standards of the history: American West, settlement of Asia-America, and the experiences of Filipino in the U.S. In the early years of the 19th century. These hypothetical aspirations are attained by considering interviews and archival documents[footnoteRef:6]. [6: Fujita-Rony, Dorothy B. American Workers, Colonial Power Philippine Seattle and the Transpacific West, 1919-1941. (CA: University of California Press, 2003)]

Strengths and Weaknesses

This book is a kind of case study that addresses board speculative debates and large questions, and therefore deserves a large readership. For a large part of the book, this study does the work as its aims, even though the importance of women in building a community is as much stated as showed.

End Notes

1. Gomez, Laura E. Manifest destinies: the making of the Mexican-American race. (New York: New York University, 2007)

2. Jacobson, Matthew Frye. Barbarian virtues: the United States encounters foreign peoples at home and abroad, 1876-1917. (New York: Hill and Wang, 2000).

3. Jose Angel Hernandez. Mexican-American colonization during the nineteenth century: a history of the U.S.-Mexico Borderlands. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2012).

4. Guidotti- Hernandez, Nicole Marie. Unspeakable violence: remapping U.S. And Mexican national imaginaries. (Durham [N.C.]: Duke University Press, 2011).

5. Anthony Mora. Border Dilemmas: Racial and National Uncertainties in New Mexico, 1848-1912. (Duke University Press Books, 2011)

6. Fujita-Rony, Dorothy B. American Workers, Colonial Power Philippine Seattle and the Transpacific West, 1919-1941. (CA:… [read more]

Bartoleme De Las Casas Research Paper

Research Paper  |  12 pages (4,008 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10


Advocate and Radical

Yet, not everyone agrees with his being given such a title. The situation as he described it was not always so utterly black and white. While there were certainly abuses on the part of the conquistadors, they were not always motivated by malice. Oftentimes they were the effect of indifference, ignorance, and lack of consideration. All the… [read more]

Kozloff, Nikolas. Revolution! South America Book Report

Book Report  |  6 pages (1,861 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


Kozloff, Nikolas. Revolution! South America and the Rise of the New Left. Palgrave-Macmillan,

Nikolas Kozloff's book Revolution! South America and the Rise of the New Left (Palgrave-Macmillan, 2008) details the changing political structure of Latin America. The region was once dominated by elites and the legacy of colonization. It has since been transformed in the last twenty years by the… [read more]

Ancient a Brief History Research Paper

Research Paper  |  6 pages (1,990 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


A lot of outside influences are found in Maya art and architecture, which are thought to result from trade and cultural swap rather than direct outside take-over. The Maya civilization never vanished, neither at the time of the Classic era turn down nor with the influx of the Spanish conquistadores and the following Spanish colonization of the Americas. Nowadays, the Maya and their offspring form considerable populations throughout the Maya region and preserve a distinguishing set of customs and attitudes that are the outcome of the combination of pre-Columbian and post-Conquest philosophies (The Civilizations of Ancient Mesoamerica, 2009).

Prior to Christopher Columbus coming to the Americas, a great deal of the area that is now known as Central America was part of Mesoamerica. Numerous Native American cultures flourished there, as well as the superior Maya civilization. The Maya civilization had mostly vanished by the time the Spanish came in the 1520's. Spain governed all of Central America except for British Honduras (Belize) from 1540 until 1821, when Guatemala revolted. Upon liberty from Spain, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, and Nicaragua shaped the Federal Republic of Central America, which was molded after the United States. The republic endured only from 1823 to 1840, when Honduras broke away from the union in a civil war. Later efforts to shape a republic from Central American states were unsuccessful. Belize was a British colony for more than one hundred years, but became self-governing in 1981 (Central America: Connecting Continents, Keeping Oceans Apart, n.d.).

Today the majority of Central Americans are Native American or mixed Native American and Spanish. There are also lesser ethnic collections of African descent in Belize and unmixed Spanish inhabitants in Costa Rica. With the exemption of Belize, the authorized language of the countries is Spanish. In Belize the language is English. A number of Native American languages are still spoken, comprising a lot of that started with the Maya. Central Americans of African ancestry called the Garifuna also speak a distinctive language. These people got there when the ships carrying them as slaves from West Africa wrecked in the Caribbean in 1635. They combined with the Native American inhabitants and ultimately fashioned communities in Belize, Guatemala, Honduras, and Nicaragua (Central America: Connecting Continents, Keeping Oceans Apart, n.d.).


A Brief History of the Mayan Civilization. (2011). Retrieved from http://www.art-poster-


Cecil, Jessica. (2011). The Fall of the Mayan Civilisation. Retrieved from http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/ancient/cultures/maya_01.shtml

Central America: Connecting Continents, Keeping Oceans Apart. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.globio.org/glossopedia/article.aspx?art_id=46#

Mayan History. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.lost-civilizations.net/mayan-history.html

Mayan History. (n.d.). Retreived from http://www.crystalinks.com/mayanhistory.html

Periods in Maya Civilization. (2011). Retrieved from http://www.hanksville.org/yucatan/periods.html

The Civilizations of Ancient Mesoamerica. (2009). Retrieved from http://www.theancientweb.com/explore/content.aspx?content_id=19… [read more]

Latin American History Essay

Essay  |  8 pages (2,979 words)
Bibliography Sources: 8


When Bello was installed as rector of the University of Chile in 1843, he gave an address praising the liberal, humanistic spirit of the Renaissance and Enlightenment. Modernity and progress began when the "intellectual heritage of Greece and Rome" was "reclaimed by the human spirit after a long era of darkness" (Bello 53). After one thousand years of feudalism, science,… [read more]

Immigration Experience From the Dominican Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,448 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


The solid Dominican culture, though good in many ways, creates a type of a ghetto which keeps this population isolated and slows assimilation into American culture, which would then afford this community with a wider range of opportunity. The attitude of separation is perpetuated from within the culture. AU.S. born Dominican, for example, would typically not refer to himself as… [read more]

Doing Business in South America Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  2 pages (601 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3


¶ … Business in South America

Business Prospects in South America

South America can be considered as a continuously developing market for Western companies. In certain Central and South American countries, population's incomes are increasing, and so is consumption. The workforce in South America is becoming more and more specialized in certain areas, providing quality employees in all areas, not just manufacturing and production.

However, this region has always been characterized by certain political matters that kept investors away from South American countries. Oil is probably the most important asset that can be exploited in these regions. But oil companies have found themselves in dangerous situations in South America because of guerilla groups, for example, that tried to use this situation in their advantage in the battle with governments.

The situation seems to change for the better, as some countries in South America present smaller risks for investors. One of these countries is Chile, which is considered as "the freest economy in Latin America" (HKTD, 2008). Chile has the highest per capita GDP, combined with the lowest inflation rate in South America. The country provides a stable macroeconomic environment and stable business prospects for any investors.

As mentioned above, most international reports show that the political instability in South America seems to slow down. Even more, "anti-business populism appears to be waning in Latin America, some experts say" (Latin Business Chronicle, 2008). Experts also consider that Paraguay is the only country in South America where populism will continue to spread, as expected. In the rest of the regions, people seem to have understood the importance of economic development, and also the fact that economic developed can only be sustained with the help of foreign investors.

The reason behind experts' opinion relies on the fact that Chavez' constitutional reform proposition was…… [read more]

Regional Geography Why Could Africa Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (2,680 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


However, so long as the majority of Colombians live without proper nutrition, decent housing, and hope for the future, the possibility remains.


In many ways Brazil has undergone changes analogous to these during the period since the mid-1960s. Focus upon its present problems, which are many and major, often blinds observers to just how far Brazil has already come… [read more]

Revolutionary History of Mexico Interrelationships Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,329 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


310). Vasconcelos was a writer, too, and he wrote "The Cosmic Race" in 1925 that discussed the blending of races in Mexico and Latin America and their hopes for the future. The arts flowered in Mexico during this time as the people hoped for freedom and prosperity.

Yes, art changed during this time, too. The mural developed as a way to share Mexican history with all the people of the country, rich and poor. In addition, Diego Rivera had learned most of his art in Europe, and had embraced the European styles of modernism and cubism. However, when he returned to Mexico, he simplified his art and returned to the roots of realism -- portraying the people with bright colors and bold lines. Historian Maurice Berger writes, "Rivera [ ... ] undertook the task of producing an art that was completely different from the 'pure' art practiced in contemporary Europe. Rivera conceived of art as an organic, useful human function, as necessary to man as 'bread, meat, fruit, water, and air'" (Berger, 1994, p. 211). Thus, new forms of art did develop, and they created more vivid depictions of Mexican history and events that helped change the country forever.

At the time, photography was really developing into an art form, too. It was not new technology, it had been around since the American Civil War, but it was much more common in the 20th century, and it became much more of an art statement and platform. Photography showed the realities of the revolution and the real people who were behind it. Artists like Rivera showed their own ideas about the Revolution, but photographs did not lie. They showed the reality, from those killed to those who fought diligently. It was a new way for the people to view history and to view other parts of their country they might never see otherwise.

Rivera and several of his contemporaries developed the mural as an important art form in Mexico for a number of reasons. Art historian Berger notes, "Mexican artists turned their attention to the problem of how to convey to a largely illiterate population the history of its own political struggles, as well as how to introduce people to new revolutionary truths" (Berger, 1994, p. 201). They did this by painting large, colorful murals that portrayed events and figures important to Mexican history. Rivera was not the only muralist; Clemente Orozco and David Alfaro Siqueiros were also instrumental in bringing this kind of history to all the people of Mexico.

In addition, photography was available as never before to chronicle the Revolution from beginning to end, and it helped broadcast what was going on in Mexico to the world. . One of the most influential photographers during the Revolution was Tina Modotti, a young Italian woman who made her name photographing Mexico. She worked in Mexico City with renowned photographer Edward Weston, and made a name for herself photographing the Revolution and the people. Writer Hopkinson continues, "She worked there… [read more]

Mexico and North American Free Trade Agreement Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,592 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Mexico and the North American Free Trade Agreement

The North American Free Trade Agreement, known usually as NAFTA, is a comprehensive trade agreement linking Canada, the United States (U.S.), and Mexico in a free trade sphere. NAFTA went into effect on January 1, 1994, and called for immediately eliminating duties on half of all U.S. goods shipped to Mexico and… [read more]

Juan Bosch Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (3,298 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Juan Bosch

When Juan Bosch died on November 1, 2001, Monegro wrote, "Juan Bosch, a former president whose influence in Dominican politics stretched across half a century despite his only seven months in office, died yesterday. He was 92." Monegro's observation is an intriguing one since it is seemingly a contradiction in terms. for, how can a person who effectively… [read more]

Market Vincent Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,917 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


The total area covered will be roughly 5 million sq. Km. This entire area is now covered by rain forest and contains some of the last remaining indigenous communities in the world, including the Yanomami.

The pressure is on Venezuela as this has the highest energy potential in South America and is capable of producing nearly 4 billion barrels a day and there is still a lot of oil left in the ground which has not been developed. Brazil has the largest industrial economy in the continent, but does not have enough oil in its own area to provide the required energy. The deficit is to the extent of 50% of its requirements. This is giving a lot of difficulty to Brazil in the development of the Northwestern part of Brazil. This are is covered by dense jungle and is joined by Venezuela within the same jungle on the north. Within Venezuela, there is presently a production of 29,000 megawatts of hydro-electricity. This is also wanted by Brazil. The required development has started illegal mining in the Amazonas state, and the Carori river basin in Bolivar states of Venezuela. These activities have spoilt the previously unspoiled natural areas and started damaging the tropical rain forest. The rivers are being contaminated and many species of flora and fauna have been eliminated. (Commercial integration in South America initiates the complete destruction of the Amazon area)

We can see that industrial progress has started through a lot of cooperation between the two countries and this is certainly providing international opportunities. The point to be looked at is the international concept of development which requires a lot of energy, and the prime example of high per capita energy consumption is the United States. It is doubtful whether the planet will be able to survive if all countries develop to the level of the U.S.


Development takes place because of economic opportunities and not local cooperation. This is also the situation in Latin America.


Association for Latin America Integration" 8th May, 2002 Retrieved at http://www.fmprc.gov.cn/eng/wjb/zzjg/gjs/gjzzyhy/2616/t15337.htm. Accessed on 03/01/2004

CAF's role in Integration" Retrieved at http://www.caf.com/view/index.asp?ms=0&pageMs=3997Accessed on 03/01/2004

Commercial integration in South America initiates the complete destruction of the Amazon area" Retrieved at http://forests.org/archive/samerica/unconcr.htm. Accessed on 03/01/2004

Eden, Lorraine. Venezuela and Regional Integration in South America Retrieved at http://wehner.tamu.edu/mgmt.www/nafta/spring99/Groups99/pedro/final.htm. Accessed on 03/01/2004… [read more]

NAFTA and Its Affects Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,456 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


This translates to an increased job market as companies move to expand their workforce to meet the need. This goes across the board in what type of products and services are included as they all have to continue to grow for the purpose of providing enough for effective trade ability. This does not confine itself only to the actual manufacturing… [read more]

Hispanic Community Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (2,500 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


This is an unusually rich variety of folk styles.

Hispanic folk Art surrounds us. It is evident in the rural and urban, secular and religious areas of life. The Hispanics have used folk art for hundreds of years to court lovers, amuse children, and honor ancestors. It is an expression of a people's fears and dreams. In modern times, folk… [read more]

Private Property &amp the Commons Essay

Essay  |  6 pages (1,974 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6



Diffuse authority at the local level in 16th-century Spain eroded its capacity to effectively organize across the many jurisdictional levels to achieve a truly liberalized state. As Spain strove to modernize, it pressed to continue a culture of absolutism, while at the same time attempting to reconcile with the liberalism practices in the towns and cities. The conflict was manifested by:

"persistent and sometimes successful efforts to limit the autonomies of noblemen and the reach of its towns' democracies (efforts that were most successfully applied in Castile)…While clearly absolutist measures were applied forcefully in Castile (where they had to overcome the armed resistance of the slighted nobles and burghers of towns with customary privileges)" (Abercrombie, 1996, p. 100).


The civilizing initiatives to privatize land tenure and construct policies aimed at doing away with collective ownership and town council rights were a hallmark of 16th-century to 19th-century Castile and also of colonial Indian society (Abercrombie, XXXX, p. 215). Two parallel systems -- of monarchy and local authority -- were solidified to such a degree that they continuously engaged in an embittered relationship characterized by subversive contention and resistance at the local level and overt central dominance. These contrary dynamics did not achieve the typical course of national revolution that could reasonably be expected, and that this was largely due to the wave of substantive religious and military events that eclipsed the next several centuries in Spain. In fact, those reforms that strike at the heart of collective property traditions and that have been called Liberalism, show a propensity to favor those tenets of the democratic political left, but these reforms eventually migrated to the conservative political right by mid-20th century.


Abercrombie, T.A. (). Colonial relandscaping of Andean social memory.. In Pathways of memory and power: Ethnography and history among an Andean people (pp. ). University of Wisconsin Press.

Abercrombie, T.A. (1996). Q'aqchas and la plebe in "rebellion" -- carnival vs. lent in 18th-century potosi. Journal of Latin American, 2(1), 62-111.

Alban, J.P.V. (1999). Introduction: The decline of propriety. In Propriety and permissiveness in Bourbon Mexico (pp. ). Wilmington, DE: Scholarly Resources, Inc.

Elliott, J.H. (1991, Autumn). Renaissance Quarterly, 44(3) A Review: Nader, H. (1990). Liberty in Absolutist Spain: The Habsburg Sale of Towns, 1516-1700. Baltimore and London, The Johns Hopkins University Press.

Glick, T.F. (1995). From Muslim fortress to Christian castle: Social and cultural change in medieval Spain. New York, NY: Manchester University Press.

Guerrero, A. (). The administration of dominated populations under a regime of customary citizenship: The case of postcolonial Ecuador. In Administration of dominated populations (pp. ) XXXXX.

Herr, R. (2000). Flow and ebb 1700 -- 1833. In Raymond Carr (Ed.), Spain: A history. Oxford University Press. Thompson, I.A.A. (1987). Hidalgo and Pechero in Castile, 37 (1), 23-XX.

Kagan, R.L. (1996, April). Review: Prescott's paradigm:…… [read more]

War on Blackness Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (784 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


War on Blackness

The war, as almost all wars are, was premised on economic reasons. For over a century, between1800 to beyond the 1900s, as the U.S.A. And Western countries entered the industrialized era and demanded more products from Latin America, the price of these products, correspondingly, swelled and the value of these exports almost quintupled from $344 billion in 1870 to $1.6 billion in 1912. This state of affairs was beneficial for the Mexican nation since it introduced a period of stability and contentment to the country. Politically, too, stronger measures were taken to impose central authority and to quell anarchic segments. The workers and the country were content.

Unfortunately, this closer union between the U.S.A. And western countries also had its negative ramification since the U.S.A., at this time, was experiencing sharp internal racist discrimination. The Jim Crow lines were in full swing in the South and to be White and American was the order of the day.

Some of these issues and ways of thinking began to rub off on the Mexican individual.

These racists ideas then, imported from countries such as America, are what the war of blackness is all about.

The War on Blackness

In the 19th century, Mexico was experiencing a period of unremitting prosperity and growth. Part of this development and political quietude was connected to their friendly and prosperous trading with America and Western nations. Unfortunately, Mexico picked up the virus of racist discrimination that was existent in the U.S.A. Of those times, particularly towards Blacks. "In order to become civilized," it was said, "Latin America would have to become White"(118). In response, Latin America attempted to transform themselves from a racially mixed society to one that would be primarily Caucasian representing and disseminating the Westernized manners and cultural milieu.

Revolutions included tearing down slums of the poor and displacing countless poor in order to remodel huge parts of Cuba and Mexico and refashion them into the Western style of architecture.

The government too tried to influence the cultural fashion such as music and dance as well as other folklore and ethnic entertainment, but there they were less successful and only instigated reaction.

Popular music and dance insisted in remaining African based and Bazillion and Cuban ethnicities similarly opposed any attempt to change their African-based culture to that of the alleged European elite.

The…… [read more]

Country Study Research Paper

Research Paper  |  5 pages (1,499 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


¶ … country of Mexico provides a wonderful opportunity for an enterprising entrepreneur to establish himself in the North American market. Mexico is considered to be the gateway to doing business in Latin America and North America and it has, in recent years, demonstrated an economic ascension. The government of Mexico has made a furtive effort to modernize the overall… [read more]

Hispanic-American Diversity: An Overview Soy Latino Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,331 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Hispanic-American Diversity: An Overview

"Soy Latino" seems like an uncontroversial statement for a Hispanic-American to make about his or her heritage. Yet even this simple identity claim is tainted by potential controversy. For many Hispanics, their identity is not defined by the words "soy Latino," but "soy Cubano." The label of 'Hispanic-American' is created by 'America' -- immigrants from Mexico, Cuba, Puerto Rico, and Columbia, as well as Spain and other areas of the Hispanic world come from regions that may be just as culturally distinct as Germany is from France. However, while people do not think of European-Americans as a homogenous group, there may be a temptation to elide the differences between different Hispanic-American identities. It is important to honor the differences of different Hispanic-American groups, as well as similarities (Schaefer, 2005: 238).


Mexican-Americans "constitute one of the most economically disadvantaged groups in the United States, with an average household income more than 40% below the comparable average for non-Hispanic whites" (Grogger & Trejo 2002, p.1). One of the more troubling aspects of Mexican's place in the American mosaic is the frequent lack of gains between second and third generation groups of Mexican immigrants. While second generation Mexican-Americans obtain an "average of about four years more schooling and more than 35% higher wages than do Mexican immigrants…intergenerational progress for Mexican-Americans appears to stall after the second generation, with the third generation showing only modest improvement in educational attainment and no wage growth (Grogger & Trejo 2002, p.1). Attainment of Mexican-Americans' educational qualifications lags behind that of other historically-discriminated against groups in America, as well as those of demographically similar whites.

The difficulty of attaining parity with whites educationally and economically may be partially due to linguistic differences, given that many Mexican-Americans arrive in the U.S. without full English fluency, but the source is also cultural in nature. There is often a fear of becoming different from one's family. There is a strong emphasis on conformity and honoring family traditions. This is accompanied by a strain of fatalistic Roman Catholicism: one must do "as God wills," rather than try to 'pull one's self up by one's own bootstraps' as is the mentality in much of America (Kraus 1997). But the role of prejudice against Mexicans in American culture cannot be minimized -- stereotypes that classify Mexican-Americans solely as agricultural workers and anti-immigrant prejudice are entrenched.


Like Mexican-Americans, Cuban-Americans have a strong sense of family loyalty. However, because of the circumstances under which many Cuban-Americans immigrated to their new land, there are profound political and cultural divides between these two ethnic groups. In general, although they are socially conservative because of the strong Catholic tradition in the Mexican-American community, Mexican-Americans tend to be liberal on issues such as immigration reform; providing healthcare and other benefits to the poor; and protecting the rights of unionized and nonunionized workers. Cuban-Americans, especially those concentrated in the area of Miami known as 'Little Havana' are often the result of the wave of immigration… [read more]

On Galicia Spain and Chile in South America Thesis

Thesis  |  4 pages (1,065 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 4


Spain & Chile

Chile, South America

Chile is a country in South America. It is officially called the Republic of Chile. According to Wikipedia (2009), Chile occupies "a long and narrow coastal strip between the Andes mountains and the Pacific Ocean." It is bordered by Peru to its north, Bolivia to its northeast, Argentina to its east, and Drake Passage at its south (Wikipedia, 2009). Chile also includes the following islands, Juan Fernandez Islands, Salas y Gomez islands, Desventuradas Islands, and Easter Island. Wikipedia characterized Chile as having a varied climate "ranging from the world's driest desert -- the Atacama -- in the north, through a Mediterranean climate in the centre, to a snow-prone Alpine climate in the south, with glacier fjords and lakes." Its varied climate is attributed to its length.

Chile, said to be one of the most stable and prosperous nations in South America (Wikipedia, 2009), has a rich history. The first inhabitants of central and southern Chile were said to be migrating Native Americans, the Mapuche Indians. They inhabited the "fertile valleys and coastal areas of what is present day Chile" (Wikipedia, 2009). For a brief period of time, Chile was also under the Inca rule. The Incas occupied northern Chile for a period of time. However, the Mapuche Indians -- though lacking in state organization -- were able to successfully resist the Inca Empire from conquering them. In 1541, the Spanish came to Chile and they gradually started their conquest of Chile in 1549 led by Pedro de Valdivia (Wikipedia, 2009). At the time when Chile was part of the Viceroyalty of Peru, it hosted "one of the largest standing armies in the Americas, it was one of the most militarized of the Spanish possessions, as well as a drain on the treasury of Peru" (Wikipedia, 2009). Chile fought for its independence from Spain and in 1818 it was proclaimed an independent republic. More recently, Chile suffered a military dictatorship for 17 years and is said to be "one of the bloodiest in the 20th-century Latin America that left more than 3,000 people dead and missing" (Wikipedia, 2009.).

The food in Chile is influenced by its geographic location as well as its rich history. Because Chile is stretched to cover a variety of geographical landscapes, it boosts a variety of food. According to SouthAmerica.cl (2009), "one of the highlights of Chilean Cuisine is its diversity of seafood due to its 4,270 km (2,647 miles) of coastline." Curanto en Hoyo, Curanto en Olla, Palta Reina, Almejas con Limon, Caldillo de Congrio, Ceviche, Congrio Frito, Chupe de Locos, Empanada de Mariscos, Machas a la Parmesana, Mariscal, Ostiones a la Parmesa, and Piure are all examples of Chilean seafood dishes. Chilean cuisine also has many corn-based dishes that are reflective of Chile's history as corn dishes are used in many Native American dishes (Food by Country, 2007). Humitas and Pastel de Choclo are examples of corn-based dishes. Immigrants also brought with them their cuisine and enriched Chilean cuisine.… [read more]

Pancho Villa's Raid on Columbus New Mexico Thesis

Thesis  |  10 pages (3,299 words)
Style: Chicago  |  Bibliography Sources: 6


Pancho Villa's Raid On Columbus, New Mexico

Pancho Villa remains one of the emblematic characters of the Mexican Revolution, despite the fact that many of his actual achievements have been put into shadow by unsuccessful and somewhat irrational acts, such as the raid on Columbus, New Mexico, which attracted a punitive expedition into Mexico under the U.S. General Pershing. Despite… [read more]

Brazil, the Largest Country in South America Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,385 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 5


Brazil, the largest country in South America, occupying almost half of the continent, is one of the world's largest and most populous countries. Despite a checkered history of colonization, slavery, dictatorship, economic, and political problems, the country has emerged as an important regional power in Latin America and has the potential of becoming a global economic and political powerhouse. This paper presents an analysis of the current political and economic situation in Brazil by focusing on its current President's background and ideology and his administration's policies on economic alliances, globalization, relations with the United States, and the environment.

President Lula's Background and Political Ideology

Luis Inacio Lula da Silva (popularly known as just "Lula") was born on 27 October 1945, in a poor working class family. He started working in factories at a young age as a mechanic and lathe operator and became involved in trade union activities in the late 1960s. He was elected the Head of the Metallurgists' Trade Union in 1975 and became a strike leader and a symbol of opposition to the military dictatorship in the 1970s and early 1980s. Lula founded the Workers Party (PT) in 1980 and contested as his party's candidate in three unsuccesful bids for the Presidency in 1989, 1994 and 1998, on a largely anti-capitalist platform ("Biography").

By the late 1990s, Lula had softened his radical politics, moving to the center of the political spectrum and mending his fences with the Brazilian business community that had reacted negatively to his previous candidacy due to his radical anti-capitalist rhetoric. His choice of industrialist Jose Alencar of the centre-right Liberal Party as his runing mate further established his credentials as a moderate and he was elected as President of the Federative Republic of Brazil in his fourth attempt at the Presidency in October 2002 by a clear margin ("Leftist Lula wins Brazil election").

Election Campaign Platform & Ideology of Lula's Administration

Lula's election campaign in the 2002 elections was based on a platform of opposition to 8 years of neo-liberal policies of the Cordoso government. For over a decade, the United States had encouraged economic policy reforms in Latin America and promoted privatization and the liberalization of trade, finance, capital market liberalization, foreign direct investment, deregulation, and fiscal discipline. By the late 1990s, however, these reforms had started to unravel. Severe economic crisis and political instability had hit a number of countries, including Argentina. The contagion had also been felt in Brazil where the problems of inequality, poverty and unemployment remained unsolved or even worsened (Ribando, 3-4).

The Workers Party promised to reverse the neo-liberal policies and increase state investment in education, health care, and agriculture, besides carrying out land reforms. At the same time, Lula diluted his Socialist agenda by promising to maintain the fiscal and monetary policies associated with Brazil's standing International Monetary Fund (IMF) agreements. After coming to power in January 2003, President Lula surprised many people by maintaining a conservative fiscal policy, surpassed the IMF's fiscal and monetary targets,… [read more]

History of the Chicano in Los Angeles Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,417 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+


History Of the Chicano in Los Angeles

is widely considered to be a country of immigrants and its culture one that was created as a result of the mixture of different other national identities. From this point-of-view, it can be said that the Mexican immigrants have had a strong and consistent contribution to developing the U.S. into the form it… [read more]

Immigration in the United States Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,168 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 10


Immigration in the U.S.

There is no better nation than the United States to analyze for changes and the social impact of immigration, as nearly the whole story of America is one of immigration and the changes caused by it. There are examples throughout history of voluntary, reluctant and forced migration. Though these issues have been lessoned since immigration restrictions have gone into effect, the last 75 years of immigration history in the U.S. is still rich with examples.

Indeed, the significance of immigration in American life and the American economy had been declining for more than forty years. The number of foreign-born persons in the United States in 1970 (9.6 million people) was lower in absolute terms than at any previous (or subsequent) time in the 20th century. (Briggs, 1995, p. 37)

The changes associated with immigration are clearly evident in immigration statistics as well as the varied reasons why individuals chose to immigrate to the United States. Forced immigration, was virtually eliminated, but many WWII refugees immigrated reluctantly, though for the most part the immigration that has taken place during this period has been voluntary. (Hing, 1993)

The top nations of origin for immigration and the numbers that correspond over the period from the 1930s to the 1980s demonstrate diversity as well as significant shifts in immigration patterns and secondarily immigration policy.

1930s [Total] 528,431 Germany 114,058 21.6* Canada and Newfoundland 108,527 20.5 Italy 68,028 12.9 United Kingdom 31,572 6.0

1940s [Total] 1,035,039 Germany 226,578 21.9 Canada and Newfoundland 171,718 16.6 United Kingdom 139,306 13.5 Mexico 60,569 5.9

1950s [Total] 2,515,479 Germany 477,765 19.0 Canada and Newfoundland 377,952 15.0 Mexico 299,811 11.9 United Kingdom 202,824 8.1

1960s 3,321,677 Mexico 453,937 13.7 Canada and Newfoundland 413,310 12.4 Italy 214,111 6.4 United Kingdom 213,822 6.4

1970s [Total] 4,493,314 Mexico 640,294 14.2 Philippines 354,987 7.9 Korea 267,638 6.0 Cuba 264,863 5.9

1980s [Total] 7,328,062b Mexico 1,655,843b 14.0 Philippines 548,764b 4.6 China 346,747b 2.9 Korea 333,746b 2.8

The number following the total for the country of origin is the percentage of immigration from that nation during the decade. b These figures include recipients of legalization under Immigration Reform and Control

Act of 1986 who immigrated to the United States prior to 1982 but are recorded as having entered in year in which they received permanent residence.

Source: U.S. Immigration and Naturalization Service, 1993, tables 1 and 2. (DeSipio & De la Garza, 1998, p. 19)

The most notable shift, though there are other significant changes in the period beginning in the 1930s is the shift from German immigration, being the highest to the 1960s transition where Mexican migration reached the number of 453,937.

A great deal of the German (and other European) immigration, was in part associated with WWII and the preceding and following political and social chaos, that led many German's to seek immigration to America between the two world wars. The war within Germany, when many restrictions and changes made living very difficult, specifically for the Jewish population, created countless… [read more]

Solitude by Gabriel Garcia Marquez Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,571 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3


¶ … Solitude by Gabriel Garcia Marquez. Specifically it will discuss how well the novel summarizes Latin American history from the era of the explorers to the recent present. At first reading, this elegant novel does not seem to encompass Latin American history, but rather the history of a family in a particular town. However, reading with a broader eye… [read more]

U.S. Foreign Affairs Since 1898 Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (3,511 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


U.S. Foreign Affairs Since 1898

Why did the United States go to war in 1898 and what were the consequences of the war?

Following the advice of its founding fathers the United States had, in the first century of its existence, kept well away from foreign entanglements. After the American Civil War (1861-1865) the country experienced rapid industrial growth and… [read more]

Bilateral Relations Term Paper

Term Paper  |  12 pages (3,687 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Bilateral Relations: For the Better or for the Worse?

The relationship between the Dominican Republic and the United States between the historical period of 1960 and 2000 is a long-standing relationship like a marriage between humans, which can be reported as mutually symbiotic at some times in history, but more often than not, was sycophantic in nature on the part… [read more]

Latin American History Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,103 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … Butterflies by Julia Alvarez. Specifically, it will contain a reaction to the book as it pertains to Latin American history. Rafael Leonidas Trujillo Molina, or President Trujillo of the Dominican Republic, plays an important role in the novel and in Latin American history. Trujillo's despotic rule set the stage for brutality, murder, and mayhem, and Alvarez captures all this in her novel. Trujillo's reign was a reign of terror, and it was memorable to the world because it was so long, and so depraved. Trujillo will be remembered for ethnic cleansing, hatred, and bitter violence, and this book shows him at his worst. An important part of Dominican Republic history, Trujillo was a cruel, bitter man, full of fear, hatred, and power, and the "butterflies" legacy far outlives his.

President Trujillo is a central character in this novel of the Dominican Republic because of his great influence over the society, and his ultimate decision to murder the Mirabal sisters as "traitors" to his brutal dictatorship. The "butterflies" have become a national and international symbol of freedom from oppression, and the day they were killed, November 25, is now called the International Day against Violence against Women in the Mirabals' honor. This time in history was difficult if not impossible for Dominican's and eventually, Trujillo's hatred came back to him, he was assassinated in 1961.

Author Alvarez weaves the history of the country skillfully into the novel, continually portraying Trujillo as a sneaky man, not to be trusted or liked. In Chapter Two, she writes, "According to Sinita, Trujillo became president in a sneaky way. First, he was in the army, and all the people who were above him kept disappearing until he was the head of the whole armed forces" (Alvarez 17). Thus, the reader is introduced to history as well as fiction, and this blend is easier and more pleasing to read than a straight accounting of history. Other true historical accounts paint an even darker picture of the man and his effect on his country. "In 1937, the Dominican dictator, Trujillo, gave the order for the massacre of over 25,000 Haitians on the Dominican side of the border, as part of his plan to 'lighten' the skin of his country" (Wucker 82). Trujillo took power in the Dominican Republic, and held it as president or otherwise until he was killed in 1961. Throughout that time, he massacred many of his countrymen who he thought were scheming against him, including the three Mirabal sisters, whose husbands were all involved in revolutionary groups created to overthrow Trujillo's government. Anyone was a threat to Trujillo, young or old, male or female.

As his dictatorship continues, the country learns to fear the man who rules with an iron fist. The Mirabals learn to fear him, too. Alvarez notes, "Trujillo is the law,' Papa whispered, as we all did nowadays when we pronounced the dreaded name" (Alvarez 90). While Alvarez's work is fiction, and much of it is conjecture, it captures… [read more]

Guantanamo Bay Term Paper

Term Paper  |  61 pages (16,801 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


An additional 16 voted for the Cuban independence measure and abstained from the Platt Amendment (Mellen, 2004). These votes from the hypocritical members of the Senate would have defeated the Platt Amendment had they not changed their position so drastically (Mellen, 2004).

The U.S. intent to use the Platt amendment as the means to legitimize control over Cuba was not… [read more]

H.B. Fuller Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (788 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


However, I also believe that Fuller cannot be held solely responsible for the addictions. Much of the addiction of street children stems from the social conditions in which they are forced to live. In essence, it is a combination of both the social conditions and the access to such a harmful, addictive inhalant that is to blame. So, Fuller is only responsible for part of the addiction problem. However, I do feel that Fuller is responsible for the actions of its subsidiaries. If Fuller is making money off of the product (which they are), then they can hardly blame someone else for the problem while they are pocketing the proceeds. Furthermore, a subsidiary, by definition, is a company that is completely controlled by another company. In this case, Fuller controls their subsidiaries and is responsible for their actions.

Question #2

Again, H.B. Fuller did not conduct itself in an appropriate manner. First of all, H.B. Fuller blamed the "social conditions" in third world countries for the addiction problem. However, Fuller also knew that their product was relatively easy for Central American street children to get and they were very aware that their product was causing such harm. If this problem had occurred within the United States where the living conditions are much better, H.B. Fuller would not be as morally wrong because there would not be other detrimental factors that would cause such abuse. In the case of Central America, Fuller did nothing to help social conditions. They blamed the abuse on poor social conditions and continued to contribute to the problem instead of fix it.

Question #3

The thing that I feel the company could have done differently was to not manufacture the product in a country where such conditions exist. If they are, in fact, priding themselves on being such a socially responsible company (which they do), Fuller would have considered the social factors involved in manufacturing such toxic chemicals and came up with an alternative solution (or geographical location) to manufacturing the glue. Since this issue has arisen, Fuller has developed a less toxic product. If they were socially responsible, this new product would have been the first one they manufactured, not an alternative to a more deadly one.… [read more]

Down These Mean Streets Believe Term Paper

Term Paper  |  22 pages (6,074 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Their generation questioned Anglo American hegemony over historical interpretation and their domination of the historical research agenda (Sanchez Korrol 2000). Not satisfied with merely creating "knowledge for the sake of knowledge," their goals ranged from charting innovative courses and methods that served to "set the record straight," to reconstructing social histories important in and of themselves (Sanchez Korrol 15).

The… [read more]

Pyong Min's Mass Migration Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,251 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


It concerned the difference in immigrant populations in New York City neighborhoods between 1910 and 1990. The author recounts a time when "Russians, Italians, and Germans - accounted for half of all foreign born" immigrants in 1910. (Pg. 201) The chapter contains detailed maps showing the locations of immigrants in 1910 and in 1990. According to the author, Manhattan has nearly a million less people than it did in 1910. (Pg. 210) The subways and suburbs were the major culprit of this de-population. Although he addresses segregation and briefly discusses poverty, the author fails to note that almost exactly half of the city's several hundred thousand public housing units are occupied by Blacks, and the other half occupied by Hispanics. His most important observation is that the immigrants to New York City tend to settle in enclaves; for example, West Indians live in Flatbrush, Dominicans live in Washington Heights, Russians live in Brighton Beach, and yuppies live in Hoboken.

Chapter seven, written by Nancy Foner, was all about immigrant women and how immigration patterns have changed over the past hundred years. The language was vaguely feminist: "Wage work has empowered immigrant wives and mothers in late twentieth-century New York in ways that were not possible for Jewish and Italian married women of an earlier era." (Pg. 232) Here she neglects to mention that the elimination of tenement housing has lead to greater scarcity; despite the continued prevalence of women from male-dominated ethnic backgrounds, many must work simply in order so that the family may pay rent.

Chapter eight, by Steven Gold, deals with the difference in Jewish migration between the two immigration periods. He is first to note the obvious similarities: many Jews now, as before, come from Russia. Interestingly, he doesn't mention Ukraine, and as the Nazis killed most Jews in the Baltic region, referring to new Jewish immigrants as being from the "former Soviet Union" isn't specific enough. The article mostly focuses on the family structures of immigrant Jews now vs. At the turn of the century. One point that he seems to mischaracterize is the intra-Jewish conflict between German and Russian Jews that has largely been abandoned by the Jewish community. He portrays the German Jews as having helped out their Eastern neighbors, when in fact many disassociated themselves from the newcomers.

The final chapter compares pre and post-1965 Asian immigrant businesses. Here he notes the climb that Asian immigrants made into the middle class. He contrasts Japanese immigrants from the 30's, who were mostly rural peasants and blue collar, with those today, who come from middle class backgrounds as the Koreans do. He describes them as merging with American culture to a greater extent.

All of the essays in the book tend to address immigration exclusively in the context of civil liberties. This presents a poor picture of immigration, as immigration as a right has little basis for appreciation outside libertarian circles. The book also fails to note the waves of immigration from Spanish-speaking countries and… [read more]

Latino Players in Major League Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (952 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


The fan base for Latino players has been steadily growing, there is even a web site devoted exclusively to Latino players at http://www.latinobaseball.com/,where fans can log on and learn all about their favorite players, including lifetime stats, and Donruss, the legendary baseball card company, is creating a series of Spanish-language collectible baseball cards. As more Latino players move into the majors, Latino managers are making their mark, too. Felipe Alou was recently hired by the San Francisco Giants to take over the manager job vacated by Dusty Baker after the World Series. "Alou was also the fourth Latin American manager born in the Caribbean Islands, the other are Mike Gonzalez, Preston G. mez and Cookie Rojas all from Cuba. Later Tany Perez (Cuba)and Tony Pena (Dominican Republic) became the fifth and sixth respectively" (Pi-Gonzalez). Alou was also the first Latino to manage an All-Star game in 1995.

It has not always been easy for Latino players to gain acceptance in baseball as Alou can attest. "In his first season he was assigned to play on a team in Lake Charles, Louisiana, but was forced to leave after only five games due to racial segregation. In 1963 he wrote an article in Sport magazine detailing the prejudice Latin players faced in the United States" (Partin et al. 24).

Like the European ethnic ballplayers who preceded them, the Hispanics have been subject to abuse, ridicule, stereotyping, and prejudice. Many of them struggled to learn the English language and encountered racism that was much more virulent than anything they had experienced in their native lands. But also like their predecessors, they became gate attractions in those cities that numbered large Latino populations, especially New York, Los Angeles, and Miami. Fernando Valenzuela, a native of Mexico, made a sensational debut with the Los Angeles Dodgers in the early 1980s. In 1993 Wayne Huizenga of the Florida Marlins launched his expansion team in the National League with a marketing strategy aimed at Miami's sizable Hispanic community (Singer et al. 51).

It has not always been easy for Latino players in the major leagues, but as their numbers grow and their talent for the game shines, they are an ever-increasing presence in America's pastime.


Partin, Clyde, et al. Encyclopedia of Ethnicity and Sports in the United States. Eds. Kirsch, George B., Othello Harris, and Claire E. Nolte. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 2000. 1-39.

Pi-Gonzalez, Amaury. "2002 World Series: An International Affair." LatinoBaseball.com. 2002. 4 Dec. 2002. http://www.latinobaseball.com/articles/index.php?section=Regular&articleid=90

Felipe Alou Welcomed in San Francisco." LatinoBaseball.com. 2002. 4 Dec. 2002. http://www.latinobaseball.com/articles/index.php?section=Feature&articleid=94

Singer, Marc, et al. Encyclopedia of Ethnicity and Sports in the United States. Eds. Kirsch, George B., Othello Harris, and Claire E. Nolte. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 2000. 40-81.

Wagenheim, Kal. Clemente!. New York: Praeger, 1973.… [read more]

Maya Conquistador Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (978 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Though these incidents have been actually in official Spanish documents but with Restall's translation, they are related through the eyes of the Maya themselves, giving an upturned perception documents thrived in Aztec literature (Project Muse). However, being the first discovery of same accounts from the Maya, it makes a significant contribution to the ethnographic and chronological literature of history (Caribbean and Latin America, April 2000).

This compilation of firsthand Mayan notes represents another point-of-view by enlightening a tale of adaptation and endurance, where the Mayan perspective comes up from an individuality based on strong loyalty of class, family, as well as community by telling the Spanish colonization of the Yucatan peninsula (Reviews). Whereas, the common understanding of the Spanish Conquest was that of foreign defeaters instantly destroying native populations and taking up their culture (Reviews).

The author, however, aimed the title of this revisionist history to be challenging and proving where instead of Spanish conquistadors, his 'Maya conquistadors' were Mayan citizens, belonging mostly to the upper classes adjusting themselves to Spanish rule (Reviews).

Thus, the reproduction of the story in the form of English translation; Mayan accounts of the Conquest community histories, where letters, annals, petitions, municipal records from the late 16th century to the early 19th, that does conflict the primary sources that were written generally by Christianized Maya notables decades after the description of events (Project Muse). These sources, however, often taken as an unstable platform where the author based his claims that the Mayas perceived the Conquest as continuity instead than change, as a continuation of life's routine adversities (Project Muse).

However, few of the sources collected and assembled has not been translated into English gives controvertible Mayan viewpoint on the killing imposed by the Spanish, the imposition of tributes, the presentation of Christianity as well as the survival of native cultures under the rule of Spanish is given (Caribbean and Latin America, April 2000).


Thus, this exceptional new book by Matthew Restall looked at the invasion of the Yucatan peninsula from the point-of-view of late sixteenth to early nineteenth century writings of the "conquered" Mayan (Reviews). His translations of Mayan accounts as well as his examination of Spanish rule offer his reader a new way of thinking about the victory with some larger issues of colonialism (Reviews).

Finally, Restall with a unique understanding of the Mayan viewpoint on their history, their rulers, and their sense of identity; experience in a chronological manner is given through the articles in the book. It is highly recommended for those who have an interest in history. However, a general reader may find it a bit boring (Project Muse).

Works Cited

Caribbean and Latin America. The American Historical Review. Vol; 105, No: 2. April 2000. www.historycooperative.org

Reviews. Seminary Co-Op. Bookstore..

A www.semcoop.com

The African Experience in Early Spanish America. Matthew Restall…… [read more]

United States Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,501 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 5



The current, heavily-politicized approach to immigration policy has not proven effective, as the ongoing market failure that is illegal immigration. It was never going to be easy to find the right alignment between the demand for immigration and the needs of the United States, but there are better approaches. It is much easier to manage immigration when people are in the system than when they are illegal. If pathways are created for economic migrants to work temporarily, but not to have rights to social services, and not to have permanent residence rights, this will address the demand side without causing undue disruption to the United States economy or social structure.


Fahmy, D. (2010). Expensive alients: How much do illegal immigrants really cost? ABC News. Retrieved December 10, 2014 from http://abcnews.go.com/Business/illegal-immigrants-cost-us-100-billion-year-group/story?id=10699317

Herz, D. (2014). Root causes of current immigration crisis. Journal of Interdisciplinary Feminist Thought. Vol. 8 (1) 5.

Massey, D. (2007). Understanding America's immigration "crisis." Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society Vol. 151 (3) 309-327.

Weiner, M. (1995). The global immigration crisis: Challenge to states and to human rights. Harper Collins: New York.

Welch, M. (1996). The immigration crisis: Detention as…… [read more]

Free Trade Agreements: Mostly Good News for Nations Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (1,048 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


That potential block between the U.S. And the EU could generate up to $75 billion within two years for the two trading partners (Waterfield, p. 1).

What are the main advantages that the U.S. has realized from NAFTA? From 1993 to 2003, NAFTA enjoyed 38% economic growth; Canada had 30.9% economic growth and Mexico reported 30% growth. That was in the first ten years of NAFTA (Office of the United States Trade Representative).

There are a number of advantages that have been realized by NAFTA. The elimination of tariffs helps to reduce inflation because the cost of imports is lower, and the small businesses benefit from the reduced cost of trade (Amadeo, 2013). From 1993 to 2009, the trade between Mexico, Canada and the United States increased from $142 billion to $1.6 trillion (Amadeo, p. 1). And as for agricultural exports to Canada and to Mexico from the U.S. farming community, these increased from 22% "of total U.S. farm exports in 1993," to 30% by 2007 (Amadeo, p. 1).

Moreover, NAFTA has created a surplus in financial services and in healthcare, according to Amadeo on page 1 and 2. NAFTA boosted U.S. service exports to Mexico and to Canada from $25 billion in 1993 to $106.8 billion in 2007; the imports of those services into the United States were only $35 billion, hence, a surplus was achieved.

America imported $116.2 billion worth of oil products from Mexico and Canada, mostly as shale oil, Amadeo writes (p. 2). This reduces America's dependence on oil from the Middle East, and from Venezuela.

What are the disadvantages of NAFTA? Amadeo writes that NAFTA has "made it possible for many U.S. manufacturers to move jobs to lower-cost Mexico." Also, many Mexican farmers were basically wiped out of business because of "U.S.-subsidized farm products" (because American farmers get government subsidies, they can produce crops cheaper than Mexican farmers can) (Amadeo, 2013, p. 1).

As to the movement of manufacturers to Mexico, Amadeo explains that between 1994 and 2010, the U.S. trade deficits with Mexico were $97.2 billion, which "displaced 682,900 jobs" (p. 1). Amadeo explains further though that about 116,400 jobs were lost after the year 2007, which could be attributed to the financial crisis and recession in America.

Another disadvantage was that wage growth was suppressed in the U.S. -- because some companies in America used the threat of moving to Mexico as a tactic to thwart union organizers. Hence, the workers had to decide between having a union or closing the factory, and they generally chose jobs, which hurt wages because union workers are generally better paid than non-union workers (Amadeo, p. 1).

Works Cited

Amadeo, K. (2013). Advantages of NAFTA. About.com. Retrieved August 9, 2014, from http://useconomy.about.com.

Amadeo, K. (2013). Disadvantages of NAFTA. About.com. Retrieved August 9, 2014, from http://useconomy.about.com.

Eiras, A.I. (2004). Why America Needs…… [read more]

Pope John Paul II'S 1983 Case Study

Case Study  |  2 pages (424 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Instead, the Pope preached upon his arrival at the airport against subjecting school children of Catholic parents to an atheist ideology. Nicaraguan Catholics were likewise disappointed when the Pope's sermon admonished Nicaraguans to abandon "unacceptable ideological commitments."

At the Plaza speech, Hoyt (1983) and her daughter ended up mingling with farmers and other simple people who she believed had lost loved ones in the revolution and counterrevolution. The reform-minded citizens of Nicaragua had hoped for some mention of their suffering and rights, but these hopes were dashed when the Pope ignored the crowd's chants for "A prayer for our dead," "We want peace," and "We want a church on the side of the poor." The Pope's silence instead encouraged militant conservative elements to escalate counterrevolution violence; just what the reform-minded Catholics feared would happen if the Pope took sides.


Ellman, Paul. (1983, Mar. 2). A pilgrimage peppered with minefields. The Guardian, 15.

Hoyt, Katharine. (1983, Mar.). The 1983 visit of Pope John Paul…… [read more]

Mexican Immigration Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,667 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Mexican Immigration

Today, a significant portion of the U.S. population is made up of Mexican immigrants and their descendants and for this reason; this remains one of the country's most influential cultural and social groups. It is however important to note that the said immigration has had an impact on not only the GDP of the U.S. But also its… [read more]

Soviet Perspective of the Cuban Research Paper

Research Paper  |  20 pages (6,530 words)
Bibliography Sources: 18


Marshal Sergei Biryuzov, who was the Soviet Rocket Forces Chief at the time, brought a market research team that arrived within Cuba. He told Khrushchev the missiles could be hidden and camouflaged through the palms (Correll, 2005).

The Cuban leadership was further upset as September came along as the U.S. States Congress accepted the U.S. Joint Resolution 230. This resolution… [read more]

Bloodlines and Race Moslem Communities Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (788 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


What is browning and blacking?

George Reid Andrews is the chairperson and professor in the department of history, University of Pittsburgh. He did his PhD from University of Wisconsin in 1978, with specialization in racial changes, society and culture of Latin America. His famous publication, Afro-Latin America 1800-2000, discusses the descent of black Africans into the countries of Latin America and the throughout phase of the rise and abolition of slavery in these particular areas. Andrews also discussed the economic, social, political and cultural impacts of such events shaped by the African slaves who tried hard to get rid themselves out of this misery. They brought a racial change by indulging themselves into social activities and organizations, federal government services, politics and in other such activities which can entitle them a respectful and equal citizen of the society. He discussed 1930-2000 as an era of browning and blackening, by describing that by this time, there have been too much number of Africans in Latin America that the racial heritage get mixed. Countries like Venezuela, Cuba and Brazil were trying to cope with this problem by infusing whites so that the inheritance would not get transferred to someone inferior, blacks. But when this approach entirely failed out due to lack of systematic modernization, the new national identities of Latin America started treating the existing heritage and racial mixing as "the essence of being Latin American." This phenomenon was termed as cultural browning by Andrews. During this time, the mixing of blacks in Afro-Latin American culture as a part of social circle and professionals which was initially disregarded and condemned was now nationally accepted and this provoked the emergence of several new black social movements which eventually led the continent towards blackening. The movements were mostly led by socially inferior poor blacks, who were deprived of a respectable social position despite of their skills and professionalism. Such movements were not only useful for them, as they achieved the goal by achieving dignity and identification for them, but also led towards the milestone for the racial changes in the continent and finally for the independence and abolition of slavery (Andrews 2004).


Andrews, George Reid. 2004. Afro-Latin America, 1800-2000. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Lewis, Bernard. 1990. Race and slavery in the Middle East: an historical enquiry.…… [read more]

Lizard Who Had the Habit Research Paper

Research Paper  |  7 pages (2,337 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


). It's a pretty scary version of the relationship between men and women but that reviewer seems to think that because Galeano is a man, he is writing about men's feelings about being vulnerable to women and how dangerous it is because women will eat vulnerable men. That might be a theme because the lizard is male, eats women, then… [read more]

Counterterrorism: MS-13 and Gangs in American Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (2,227 words)
Bibliography Sources: 7


Counterterrorism: MS-13 and Gangs in American

Counterterrorism has always been a top importance for the FBI, but nowadays, it is the Bureau's superseding mission to prevent acts of terrorism before they happen. This determination is achieved by the Counterterrorism Division at Headquarters and transported out by every single separate field office, resident agency, and legat. The Headquarters are usually providing… [read more]

Public Policy Tourism Public Policy Orientation Essay

Essay  |  10 pages (2,941 words)
Style: Harvard  |  Bibliography Sources: 10


Public Policy Tourism

Public Policy Orientation and Tourism in Costa Rica

Just 20 years ago, Costa Rica scarcely registered in a discussion on global tourism. A small republic most noted for its agriculture and its production of tropical export goods such as coffee, pineapple, bananas and palm oil, Costa Rica's appeal was largely to natural history enthusiasts and science tourists.… [read more]

Comparison of Benito Juarez and Domingo Sarmiento Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (542 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


¶ … Juarez and Sarmiento

Benito Juarez was the president of Mexico for five different terms in between 1858 and 1872. A lawyer and career politician by trade, Juarez was unique for a Mexican president of his era in that he had no military background. Nevertheless, he successfully led Mexican resistance against the occupying French forces and was responsible for the achievement of Mexican independence. In political philosophy, Juarez was a liberal. He opposed the dominance of both the military authorities and of the Catholic Church on Mexican society and he worked to promote a liberal society based on a capitalist economic structure modeled after the United States. Juarez also promoted the fundamental principle of the equality of all persons under the law, and at time when that equality was recognized in law in the U.S. But largely violated throughout the nation in actual practice for almost another full century. When Maximilian von Habsburg was crowned Emperor of Mexico in 1864, Juarez was offered the position of Prime Minister of Mexico. Juarez, as a nationalist, declined the offer based on his absolute opposition to monarchical rule by the Habsburgs (or any other foreign monarchy) over Mexico.

Domingo F. Sarmiento

Domingo Sarmiento was the President of Argentina from 1868 to 1874. His political philosophy was based on promoting the intellectual and social ideals of Europe since the Enlightenment. He was, by comparison to other political leaders of his era, far advanced in his thinking about the equality of persons, equal rights, and equality of social opportunity, such as in connection with the education and rights of women in society. Sarmiento was especially…… [read more]

Politics - Country Case Study

Case Study  |  4 pages (1,362 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


In spite of Brazil's series of crises, bloodshed was generally absent from the country's recent history. Whether it was ruled by a monarchy, a military junta, or a democracy, the country managed to get over its dark days rapidly and with as little damage as possible. Decentralization primarily happened because military leaders started to depend on local administrators and acknowledged that it was important for them to cooperate. It was all about power at a municipal level in the 1980s and 1990s, with most influential individuals in Brazil being aware that they had to collaborate with locals in order to achieve success in their enterprises.

Excessive inflation is one of the most important factors that needed to be addressed in the recent years in Brazil. The economic and structural reform experienced by Brazil during the first years of the Cardoso Administration did not last for long and conditions in the country rapidly changed as the poor economy and the small wages emphasized the fact that the country was, in point of fact, far from escaping some of its most significant problems. Competing markets contributed to Brazil's issues by preventing local investors from being able to successfully expand. The 2008 Economic Depression was devastating in the context of Brazil's economy. Brazil practically depends on stability present in international capital markets and its well-being relies on how economies evolve worldwide.

Ever since it became a democracy, Brazil has appointed its presidents through voting, with every adult citizen in the state being obliged to vote. Dilma Vana Rouseff is the current President of Brazil and she serves "both as head of the State and Chief of the Executive branch of government" (Brazil). The National Congress of Brazil is the governmental body of the federal government. The Congress is divided into two rooms, the Federal state and the Chamber of Deputies, with the former representing the upper house and the latter representing the lower house. There are a series of political parties in Brazil, but the country's Senate and Chamber of deputies mainly consist out of individuals belonging to the Worker's Party, the Brazilian Democratic Movement Party, the Brazilian Social Democracy Party, and the Democrats. President Rouseff is a part of the Worker's Party.

Although Brazil has had success in privatizing several domains, it is currently experiencing distress as a result of being unable to perfectly control its industries. With energy and transport related areas being controlled by the government, it is very likely for the country to continue to experience economic downfall.

The fact that Brazil is presently a global economic power is unfortunately not reflected by the corruption seen in its government, the unparalleled levels of poverty, and the violence that is seen all across the country. When all's said and done, Brazil is a land of extremes, a land where one factor contrasts another, and a land where successful western concepts can be seen alongside of poverty, hunger, and a complete lack of authority.

Works cited:

Arsenault, Phillip, "Which Way? The… [read more]

Cultural Heritage Brief History Research Paper

Research Paper  |  8 pages (2,409 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


It is important to point out that "Dominicanese" (the local way of speaking Spanish, interspersed with Dominican elements) is the everyday life experience of the peasant's soul and wisdom, expressed with a rustic accent and with inland flavor (Kwintessential 2008).

I. Religion and Attitudes towards It

Roman Catholicism is the dominant religion in the Dominican Republic with over 90% of… [read more]

Cuba High Successful Education in a Communist Research Paper

Research Paper  |  15 pages (4,248 words)
Bibliography Sources: 30


Cuba High

Successful Education in a Communist Regime: A Comparison of Cuban and United States' High Schools

Few issues are more important when it comes to individual and national success in the modern era than education. It is in the fields of science and technology that new wealth and opportunities are being created in the developed world, and there is… [read more]

Image Versus Text Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (1,849 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


¶ … Political Environment

The Impact of the Art

The Artwork

Historiography -- Felix Rene Mederos Pazos

Felix Rene Mederos Pazos was an artist born in Cuba. He was a self-taught artist with no formal art training. Pazos spent much of his life working as a graphic designer in a print plant and also in television. This paper will look… [read more]

New World Order Thesis

Thesis  |  7 pages (2,289 words)
Bibliography Sources: 7


Globalization expands and accelerates the exchange of ideas and commodities over vast distances…[and] often appears to be a force of nature, a phenomenon without bounds or alternatives. But peoples' movements have shown that it is neither unalterable or inevitable."

-- Global Policy, 2009

The old cliche "It's a small world…" has never been more true than today. Because of the… [read more]

Bi-Directional Foreign Direct Investment in Panama Thesis

Thesis  |  4 pages (1,161 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 4


Bi-Directional Foreign Direct Investment in Panama

It is now without any doubt that the Panamanian economy is met with sustainable growth. It is known that the services sector contributes mostly to the growth, which is concomitantly attributed to services offered by the Panama Canal. In this context however, it would be interesting to see what impact have foreign direct investments had on Panama's economy. Otherwise put, did FDIs to Panama play a bi-directional role in the meaning of generating economic growth? The following paragraphs strive to answer this question.

Unlike most global regions, Panama does not possess its own central bank, nor does it control the exchange system. This basically materializes in the lack of command within the financial sector. Given this context, foreign investments are encouraged and welcomed. Nevertheless, an interesting feature is that foreign investors are seldom legally obliged to finish an investment project, and the sums they invested can easily be withdrawn and sent back to the native country.

The Panamanian government convinces wealthy foreigners to invest in the development of the Central American country by presenting them with a wide series of incentives. Some of the most notable enticements are succinctly revealed below:

Companies which manufactured and processed products and commodities and exported all, or the large majority, of their output, were entirely exempt from direct taxes

These companies were also allowed to not pay import taxes on the machineries and equipments they had brought in from other states, and which would be used in their organizational operations

The income generated from export activities would not be subjected to income taxes

The import fares to be paid on imported commodities, capitals or semi-processed components were set in the form of fixed rates

Companies investing in technological advancements, and not already subjected to tax exemptions, would be deducted 25 per cent of their annual taxes

Investments in tourism operations exempt the investor from import fares and real estate taxes for 20 years

Investors in petroleum operations are subjected to fewer restrictions, such as the elimination of the necessity for 50 per cent of the investment to be guaranteed by a financial institution (Low Tax, 2009).

The above list is only a mere depiction of some of the incentives offered to foreign direct investors in Panama. What these efforts have managed to do is to attract numerous wealthy individuals, who, on the one hand, significantly increased their revenues, but on the other hand, also supported the development of the country. These investments were generally efficiently distributed throughout the totality of the Panamanian sectors; and this was achieved through the ability of the local authorities. When these recognized the challenges facing the touristy industry for instance, they developed incentives to attract investors within this field.

Panama has indeed been a phenomenon in terms of foreign direct investments throughout the past recent years. In the first half of 2007, FDIs to Panama registered a 19 per cent increase; the growth was generically associated with the improvement and enlargement projects of… [read more]

Peru's Economy Thesis

Thesis  |  10 pages (2,640 words)
Bibliography Sources: 12


Peru is the fifth most populous nation in South America. The country lived under military rule form 1968-1980. While under military rule Perus fishmeal industry and some of its mining companies, banks and petroleum companies were nationalized. Even after Peru returned to civilian rule, the country experienced a great deal of economic turmoil.

"Nagging economic problems left over from the… [read more]

Che Guevara Thesis

Thesis  |  11 pages (3,453 words)
Style: Chicago  |  Bibliography Sources: 8


Che Guevara

Ernesto "Che" Guevara, more popularly known simply as Che Guevara was born on June 14, 1928. He is perhaps the most controversial Argentine Marxist Rebel and Revolutionary in the books of history. His controversial stance does not diminish his popularity as an individual thinker, a politician, physician, military strategist and guerilla chief. He passed away on October 9,… [read more]

Regional Economic Integration Thesis

Thesis  |  2 pages (800 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3


Regional Economic Integration

In which regional or multilateral trade blocs does Brazil participate?

Brazil is a founding member of the regional Latin American common market Mercosur.

Which is the most important one?

Brazil, often called a 'middle income country,' has proved to be a defining voice of leadership in Mercosur. Mercosur was created to advance regional middle-income Latin and Central American interests in the 1990s. Unlike low-income countries like China and India, and high-income trading blocks and countries like the European Union (EU) nations and the United States, middle-income nations like Brazil "have not fared very well in the last twenty years, and the ones that have opened the most to the international economy have done even worse" (Trade blocs, neoliberalism, and the quality of life in Latin America, 2004, UCLA).

What other countries are involved in this (most important) organization?

Mercosur was formed in 1991 as an agreement between Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay, and Uruguay, all of which were deemed to have similar regional interests and levels of economic development (Trade blocs, neoliberalism, and the quality of life in Latin America, 2004, UCLA).

What role does this organization play? Does it only relate to trade?

The major emphasis of Mercosur's advocacy surrounds trade, but also pertains to issues of poverty eradication and cultural integrity. Especially after the creation of NAFTA, the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) that exists between the U.S., Mexico and Canada, the organization has attempted to voice a contrarian perspective of free trade in the hemisphere. It attempts to critique the 'neoliberal' agenda in favor of free trade that it believes has harmed the emerging middle-income countries of the region (Trade blocs, neoliberalism, and the quality of life in Latin America, 2004, UCLA).

To what extent does this organization make rules and enforce them?

The countries of Mercosur mainly act as a collective pressure-point against more powerful international actors such as the United States. The organization has applied pressure to the U.S. To agree to lower its subsidies on its agricultural goods although, according to Washington these subsides should be contested within the framework of the World Trade Organization alone (Trade blocs, neoliberalism, and the quality of life in Latin America, 2004, UCLA).

How might this organization influence the marketing and business strategies of Apple computer (iPod) and web marketing?

Because of the difficulty in securing funding for higher education and the need for a college…… [read more]

U.S. Immigration Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (699 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 0


¶ … immigration in the United States. Specifically it will discuss the best way to address immigration in the U.S. Immigration is a huge issue for the United States, not because there is no room for the immigrants who want to come here to build a better life, but because so many of these immigrants are not here legally, they are clogging the social services in many states, and many of them commit crimes and other atrocities. Thus, immigration is not the problem, illegal immigration is the real problem, and the solution to this problem is not building a border fence or increasing border security. When people want to get into the country they will, at just about any cost. The real solution is improving conditions in Mexico so they do not want to migrate to this area illegally, they can remain in their country and make a decent living, without coming into the U.S.

Immigration has been an issue in America ever since its inception. The English colonists were the first immigrants, usurping land from the Native Americans and changing the face of the country forever. Ever since then, the poor, the downtrodden, and the hungry have come to America for the chance to live the "American dream," and to make better lives for themselves and their families. The Irish, the Chinese, the Vietnamese, the Italians, the Puerto Ricans, and just about any other peoples on the Earth have come here for the opportunities that exist, and the current crop of immigrants, many Hispanic, come for many of the same reasons. They come to make better lives and to give their families hope for the future. The problem is that in many Latin American countries, they cannot do this in their own country, there is simply no way for them to make a decent living with their skills, and so, they turn to the United States, with all its opportunities, to create a better life. This is understandable, but the people who come here illegally are clogging the welfare and healthcare systems, along with the educational system, and…… [read more]

20th Century US Foreign Policy Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  19 pages (5,310 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 12


Truman in Hypothetical Crisis

As President Harry Truman faces the Russian missile crisis in Venezuela, the situation in the states is one of cautious alert. President Truman is known for his hard line position when it comes to the Russians (Brown, Seyom, 1994, p. 17). Truman believes in flexing his American Military muscle, and will stand up to the threat… [read more]

Magical Reels Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,544 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1


Magical Reels

King, John. Magical Reels: A History of Cinema in Latin America. Critical Studies in Latin American and Iberian Cultures. London: Verso, 2000.

Increasingly, scholars are focused on analyzing art, including cinematic art, not in the abstract, but as a cultural product or artifact. However, in doing so, an interesting question is raised: is the culture of a society… [read more]

Bolivarian Revolution in Venezuela Term Paper

Term Paper  |  9 pages (2,746 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 8


Bolivarian Revolution in Venezuela

The Bolivarian Revolution refers to an accumulated social association as well as political development in Venezuela. Its most well-known leader is Hugo Chavez, the originator of the Fifth Republic Movement plus the current President of Venezuela. In addition the Bolivarian Revolution looks for the execution of Bolivarian-ism in Venezuela. Proponents of Bolivarian map out its roots… [read more]

U.S. Slave Population Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,144 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 4


Slave Population in the U.S.

Slave Populations in the U.S.

When it comes to the issue of the importation of slaves into the Western Hemisphere from Africa, it may come as a surprise to some students and novices that the great majority of those slaves were brought to what is now South America, not to the United States. By 1808, when slavery officially was ended in America only about 6% of slaves who had been forcibly removed from their homes in from Africa over a period of 350 years had arrived in the United States. As was stated, the great majority of African slaves had gone elsewhere.

But by 1825, according to researcher and journalist Jenny B. Wahl of Carleton College (http:/ / the.net.encyclopedia),about 36% of all slaves living in the Western Hemisphere. And so given that only six percent of all slaves out of Africa came to the U.S., how is it that the U.S. was home to 36% of the slaves? Indeed in the years between 1810 and 1860, the slave population in the U.S. increased "fourfold," Wahl writes. There are several reasons for this rapid growth in the number of slaves in the U.S.

For one, slave masters encouraged the birthrate, because obviously if they allowed and offered incentives for their females to mate with the males, babies would be born and slave owners would have more hands to put to work. For another reason, according to Wahl's article, there was a "more equal ratio of female to male slaves in the U.S. relative to other parts of the Americas." And the living conditions in the U.S., the environment, was far better for slaves than the living conditions were in Brazil, and other places in South America. "Lower mortality rates figured prominently" Wahl writes, because of the better climate in America, and because the work slaves were required to do in the U.S. was not as back-breaking - not as "grueling" in Wahl's words - as the work was in South America. In South America and in the West Indies slaves worked in mines and on sugar plantations. In the mines slaves were subjected to very harsh conditions, and accidents were frequent.

In the book, the Lost Continent (Joseph Cooper 32) the author discusses the drastic decrease in the slave population in relation to the terrible conditions slaves were subjected to in Brazil. He estimates that perhaps a half a million to two million slaves had died or disappeared in a year's time ending June 30, 1830. "There can be no doubt that a rate of mortality exists which cannot be accounted for on the score of the climate of the country," which is reasonably similar to the climate in Africa, the author explains. No "known satisfactory cause" can account for this huge drop off in slave populations, he continued on page 32.

In regard to such "an appalling decrease in the labouring population of the country," Cooper writes, Brazilian statesmen should try to attract immigrants from… [read more]

Facilitating a Geographical Corporate Environment Research Paper

Research Paper  |  7 pages (1,979 words)
Style: Harvard  |  Bibliography Sources: 20


During these years, it was possible to argue that no specific social agenda for poverty reduction or increased social benefits was needed, since the benefits of economic growth would eventually spread out to the population as a whole. [13] In fact, economic growth led to improvements in income for all social sectors, but income inequality also increased, lending credence to the mistaken notion that economic development is based on increased exploitation of the working class (Schwartzman, p. 29)."

Recommmendations to TNGY

The information contained in this report should serve as a working tool by which the company might set goals for establishing its business in the country of Brazil. There is opportunity to demonstrate environmental humanitarianism, and to meld the business of TNGY with the goals of the people of Brazil and its government in a way that TNGY becomes an integral part of the life and business of Brazil. This can be while at the same time taking advantage of the opportunities doing business in Brazil affords the company to realize certain economic gains of its own, and to expand its operations throughout South America.

The political ally in Brazil is an aspect of TNGY's position in the country that much work should be put into cultivating, but it is cautioned that TNGY remain politically non-committed, and instead focus on assisting in the social development and technological advancement of the country, which will serve TNGY well. Brazil has had a historic unstable political situation in the country, and so long as TNGY remains focused on the business, affording Brazil the opportunity to experience the mutual benefit of TNGY's humanitarian philanthropy and technological advancement, then the current government and any subsequent administration will be welcoming of TNGY in Brazil.

The ways in which TNGY can support Brazilian infrastructure is to education, express a desire to see Brazil's urban areas renewed in ways that are environmentally and socially healthy and productive. TNGY should be a good employer, paying the Brazilians a reasonable living wage, and should contribute to either a group medical plan, or support a healthcare agenda that will benefit TNGY's workers.

TNGY must practice ecologically sound business practices, and embrace Brazil's natural in a way that demonstrates an understanding of the importance of Brazil's natural resources to the rest of the world.

Reference List www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=108125967

Balderston, Daniel, Mike Gonzalez, and Ana M.L pez, eds. Encyclopedia of Contemporary Latin American and Caribbean Cultures. London: Routledge, 2000. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=108126074.

A www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=95812157

Moreno, Albrecht. "Bossa Nova::Novo Brasil the Significance of Bossa Nova as a Brazilian Popular Music." Latin American Research Review 17, no. 2 (1982): 129-141. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=95812158.

A www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5001760348

Schwartzman, Simon. "Brazil: The Social Agenda." Daedalus 129, no. 2 (2000): 29. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5001760348.… [read more]

Capoeira as With Any Style of Dance Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (708 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 2



As with any style of dance that stems back a century or more in time, controversy exists about the exact origination of the Afro-Brazilian dance and martial arts called capoeira. However, scholars do agree that it is a "strategic blend of fight and dance" (Delgado & Munoz 21), which combines "a game, a fight, and a dance, composed of kicks, acrobatics, and traditional Kongo dance movements." One does not call it "dancing" or "fighting" but rather "playing." Most, when asked to define it in a word, call it an art.

According to the Encyclopedia of Contemporary Latin and Caribbean Cultures, capoeira arose during the colonial period of the sixteenth century along with the slaves who came from Africa. As a form of self-defense and resistance, the art developed especially among the lower social classes, criminals and vagrants of the Afro-Brazilian community. It combines martial art and dance with extremely graceful flowing moves and almost choreographed sequences. The music and beat is a critical component, either in the form of songs, clapping or one or several instruments -- berimbau, pandeiro, agogo, reco-reco and atabaque. Because the slaves were forbidden to practice any of their African self-defense arts, they disguised it as a dance, and "played" the round, fluid, low-to-the-ground movements to musical beats.

To prepare for a secret attack, cover power and strength with a show of weakness and anticipate the opponent's moves were all necessary in a society of slavery and subjugation. In the quilombos, mountain settlements of escaped slaves from different parts of Africa, the residents shared cultural forms. For example, the settlement of Palmares, Brazil, eventually expanded to a community of over 20,000. These settlements were not immune to attack from the outside and thus the residents began to practice capoeira as a means to prepare for the inevitable (Rauschart 8). Some say the moves -- in which only head, hands, and feet touch the ground -- were developed to avoid dirtying the white religious clothes (Balderston, Gonzalez & Lopez). When slavery was abolished in Brazil in 1888, all written records of the martial art were eliminated. However, the oral tradition…… [read more]

Age of Discovery Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,857 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3


¶ … Age of Discovery:

The so-called "Age of Discovery" occurred between 1450 and 1650, roughly beginning during the early years of the Renaissance Period in Europe and ending with the "Age of Reason." During this two hundred year span, European explorers from countries like Great Britain, Spain, France and Portugal extensively traveled to the "New World" or North America… [read more]

Spain Mercantilist Policies Were the Ruling Economic Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (616 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1



Mercantilist policies were the ruling economic trend in most European nations including Spain. This type of economy happens when a country exports more good than import goods to provide a prosperous economic standard of living to its citizens, high tax revenues and more funds to finance wars and armaments. Because of this, countries raced to find colonies and to make use of these countries resources and raw materials for the benefit of the motherland (Patria). Spain was one of the leading European countries that discovered most of Asian lands and Latin America, establishing colonies and making them profitable for Spain.

However, Spain experienced economic decline during the 16th century due to a lot of factors that included loss of the middle class, emerging number of privileged people who did not want to work, emigration that showed decline in the population and left no manpower in most of Spain's agricultural lands making them dependent on imported foodstuffs, exaggerated taxation and inflation, corruption in their government and the plagues that disturbed Europe. Political unrest also stemmed up from Spain's loss in the Thirty-Years War, religion overshadowing politics, and the Treaty of Pyranees that ended the reign of Spain as a great power. To add, that the biggest expenditure of Spain, which refers to maintenance of troops and maintenance of forces in different European countries, was also one of the major reasons why Spain acquired a lot of debts and inability to pay them.

Because of the decline in the condition of the motherland, the Bourbon kings of the 18th Century Spain made economic and political changes, not only in Spain, but also in their colonies as well. These Bourbon reforms started with Philip V, the first Bourbon king of Spain and reached its peak with Charles III. The band-aid solution of the Bourbon reforms aimed to address economic problems…… [read more]

Cuba and Eisenhower Term Paper

Term Paper  |  22 pages (5,783 words)
Style: Chicago  |  Bibliography Sources: 5


¶ … Eisenhower Administration & Cuba


The objective of this work is to research the political developments in Cuba during the Eisenhower administration relating to how the Eisenhower administration viewed and reacted to political developments in Cuba during the presidency of Dwight Eisenhower.

There are those who state that the Eisenhower Administration… [read more]

Costa Rica Because of Its Political Stability Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (535 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Costa Rica because of its political stability and neutrality is often called "Latin America Switzerland" as it didn't experience any considerable civil conflicts, which are typical nearly for all countries of Latin America since its foundation in 1821. Like most of Latin American countries Costa Rica is predominantly agricultural country and its economy is mainly based on agricultural exports. But in recent years country's government makes considerable steps in order to attract investments in the country mainly in industrial sector and high tech sector of industry. By the end of 2005 Costa Rica showed progress in tourist business growth (19%), export increase (12.8%) and stable economic growth of 5%, which is predicted for current year.

Till nowadays politics of Costa Rica was the most predictable and steady in the region, compared to political conflicts and crisis of other Latin American countries and Caribbean. Such phenomenon is mainly explained by absence of populist ideas, developed middle class and educated politicians. Costa Rica has a democratic tradition based on constitutional democracy. After the victory of Don Pepe Figueres coalition in short civil war of 1948 Costa Rica took a course on stable development with protection of national interests. Figueres nationalized banking system and abolished army and started permanent investments in social sector. Educative opportunities in the country promote growth of middle class and what is more important make people politically literate, which is not often common for other countries of the region. A characteristic feature of the country is that it had constitutionally abolished army substituting it by Police and National Guard. In many ways absence of state army…… [read more]

Bush Government Policy in Haiti Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,716 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Bush Government Policy in Haiti

During the winter of 2003, even as war loomed in Iraq and terrorist suspects were thought to be concealed behind every nook and corner, one would have imagined that the last thing on the minds of American diplomats would be the little impoverished country of Haiti, which is actually a mere third of an island… [read more]

Diaz vs. Montaigne Barbarism' According to Bernal Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,481 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Diaz vs. Montaigne

Barbarism' According to Bernal Diaz and Michel de Montaigne

In his famous essay "Of Cannibals," the French Renaissance philosopher Michel de Montaigne (1533-1592) observes that in general, humanity tends to criticize or degrade that which it does not understand, or that which feels or appears foreign. Nowhere is that more apparent than in various historical writings of… [read more]

International Marketing Plan Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (2,008 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


S. They placed it in the appropriate containers and filled out the necessary documents and forms, following all export standards and procedures for inspection, etc. It was to shipped via barge form Costa Rica to the U.S. After the cargo wen through customs, meetinga lall the shipping procedurs and requirements, OOCL arranged for truck delivery. Because of the relationship between Costa Rica imports and OOCL, my cartons were mailed to my warehouse and all the prices were given by Costa Rica Imports on one itemized invoice.

The tables brlow are inclusive of costs oin manufacturing and shipping to my warehouse. This system is in place in order to help expedit my orders. After much research on independent transporation and delivery, I was satisfied that I choose this manufacturer with its pre-established distibution system.

The following costs through joint agreemtn include all cots incurred from manufacturing to delivery in N.Y. The company made that the delivery schedules were on time. They sent to a nearby port.

Cost Unit Breakdown -- Wholesale



Total Cost


Total Unit Cost

Total Cost













204, 000 PRODUCT ()









276, 000



330, 000



339, 000

Cost Unit Breakdown -- Reatail

Wholesale Cost

Retail costs

Retail Selling Price




Then, I took my prototype and cost structure to the buyers of Shoe Barn, Playless Shoes, Wal-Mart, and CVC -- Home Shopping Network. After I have met with above mentioned parties, the following companies gave me letters with intent to purchase

Orders and Revenues from Retailers



Retail Cost

My Revenue

Shoe Barn


210, 000

Statement of cash flows

Cash flows from operating activitites

Net Incone


Net Cash flows form operations


Less cash flows form operating activities


Less net cash flow used for financing activities


Increase in cash


Line of Credit

With the pre-order letter of intent tht I received from the retail companies and the manufacturers, I went to Washington Mutual to obtain a line of credit. I have done business with Washington Mutual for 15 years. Since my wareshouse receipts were not enough to assure them that they would get their money back, the bank told me that I could use my 401(k) of $300,000 as collateral towards obtaining a line of credit for my business. The bank agreed to lend me $50,000 to use for my business. Because this is a new small business and I have a good credit rating and relationship with them as a personal customer, they agreed to low rate of interest.

Finding a manufacturer to produce my product was not an easy task. After eveluating foreign manufacturers, in order to save on labor costs and get the benefits of a literate workforce, I decided to use Costa Rica. Further research about Costa Rica's geographical, political, economic, and…… [read more]

Political Science - International Relations Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (3,157 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Political Science - International Relations

The paper discusses the rationality of creating a social institution for Latin American countries, resembling the mechanisms of the European Union. This is because Brazil, Argentina and other Latin American countries recently met in a conference to discuss such a possibility.

Paper starts by discussing the role of international institutions and organizations in the present… [read more]

Peace Freedom Is the Foundation Term Paper

Term Paper  |  22 pages (7,104 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Borno ruled without the benefit of a legislature, which had been dissolved in 1917 under Dartiguenave, until elections were again permitted in 1930. The legislature, after several ballots, elected mulatto Stenio Vincent to the presidency.

The occupation of Haiti continued after World War I, despite the embarrassment that it caused Woodrow Wilson at the Paris peace conference in 1919, and… [read more]

Garcia Girls Lost Their Accents Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (804 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … Garcia Girls Lost Their Accents and the Tortilla Curtain

The fictional protagonists of How the Garcia Girls Lost Their Accents and The Tortilla Curtain, coupled with real-life historical studies of immigrants such as the case studies of the immigrants from Farmingvile show that there is no universal Latin American experience of immigration in the United States. Individuals of different genders, class backgrounds, who come from different Latin American regions and who have different reasons for immigrating to the United States have completely different experiences of their new nation. The individuals who have answered economic or political freedom's 'call,' to different degrees, all experience struggles with their identities, and are all dwellers on the 'borders' of their new American identities -- but these borders may be psychological rather than physical, for some immigrants.

The Garcia girls come to the United States because of political reasons. They are forced to leave the Dominican Republic because their father got in trouble with the Dominican secret police for protesting the nation's ruling military dictatorship. In contrast, the immigrants of The Tortilla Curtain immigrate illegally, rather than with the help of the CIA like the Garcia girls. The immigrants from Mexico of The Tortilla Curtain do so to better their way of life, economically, rater than for political reasons, when they flee their nation to make their way to Southern California via Mexico.

The Garcia girls come from a privileged background. They had enjoyed many, if not more of the toys and luxuries of their American counterparts. True, they still have trouble fitting in, when they come to America. The sexual mores of their parent's generation in Latin America were profoundly different than that of the girl's American experiences. Because of her conservative upbringing, Carla in particular has trouble fitting into her American school settings because of her perceived prudishness. American boys harass her. Later, she is nearly molested a man in a car who can see her only as an over sexualized Latina. However, Yolanda begins to write in English to express her 'voice,' finding the more equitable conditions between men and women in the United States to suit her developing sense of a writer's self. T. Coraghessan Boyle, in contrast, shows the blatant and oppressive physical conditions of racism that immigrants face on a daily basis, in a more concentrated narrative format, but with more immediacy -- the Mexicans fleeing poverty experience some…… [read more]

Dominican Republic Term Paper

Term Paper  |  18 pages (6,941 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Dominican Republic

Taino Indians used to inhabit the island, which was named by Christopher Columbus Hispaniola for at least 5,000 years prior to his discovery of America for the Europeans. The inhabitants of Taino were very gentle, liberal, and accommodating with the Europeans, due to which, they became soft targets to rule over them. Apart from that, the Europeans also… [read more]

Company International Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,645 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Soong also points out that there is a "fun" factor. To upwardly mobile Latin Americans, cell phones are seen as a status symbol. Soong concludes that "This, in conjunction with the other factors described above, has contributed to the explosion of cellular phone use" It is also a good reason to enter the market now, while it is on its upswing.


Of all the nations in Latin America that could become markets for our products and services, Chile seems to be the soundest choice for reasons of its projected internal cellular phone market growth, its current financial rating globally, its relatively stable government, and the ease of reaching the market from the United States, both physically and culturally.

In addition, the market itself seems to offer the best possible conditions: receptivity, sufficient maturity that one is not having to 'educate' one's customers, and a long way to go before the market becomes saturated.

Works Cited

CIA World Factbook. (April 21, 2005). CIA. 17 May 2005 http://www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/geos/ci.html

Howell, Llewelyn D. "Human Rights and International Business. USA Today 126.2630 (November 1997), 35. Questia. 17 May 2005 www.questia.com.

James, Harvey S., Jr. And Murray Weidenbaum. When Businesses Cross International Borders: Strategic Alliances and Their Alternatives. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers, 1993.

Kogut, Bruce. "International Business: The New Bottom Line. Foreign Policy (Spring 1998) 152+. Questia. 17 May 2005 www.questia.com.

Soong, Roland. "Cellular Telephony in Chile." (April 20, 2003) Zonalatina. 17 May 2005. http://www.zonalatina.com/Zldata294.htm

Urso, Nicole. "Overseeing new opportunities: The DR industry depends on domestic and international teleservices companies to provide a smorgasbord of marketing options." Response (2005). Highbeam. 17 May 2005. www.highbeam.com.

Appendix A

Chilean Cell Phone Usage Facts

89% of users rent their cellular phones

58% are the sole users, 18% share between two people, 12% share among three people, and 12% share among four or more people

9% use it for business reasons only, 47% use it for personal reasons only and 44% use it for both…… [read more]

Brazil Early History and Discover Term Paper

Term Paper  |  15 pages (4,442 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Coffee and rubber reached peaking heights towards the end of the 19th century. The bustling rubber in the Amazon region somehow suffered some wound and a halt with the establishment of rubber plantations in Southeast Asia after 1912.

Brazil joined the Allies in World War I and in the peace settlement but withdrew from the League of Nations in 1926.… [read more]

Globalization and Labor Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (2,641 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Just as their counterparts on the line in Sunnyvale, California, Malaysian electronics workers have a difficult time organizing unions, in fact there are zero unions in both places (Bacon Pp). G. Rajasekaran, secretary general of the Malaysian Trades Union Congress, says although the law says they can unionize, in practice they cannot, "The governments of Asia seem to have been… [read more]

Cross-Cultural Analysis of the Republic Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (2,665 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


political unrest and civil strife reappeared constantly. Strong parties developed along conservative and liberal lines; the conservatives favored centralism and participation by the church in government and education, and the liberals supported federalism, anticlericalism, and some measure of social legislation and fiscal reforms. Civil war frequently erupted between the factions. ("Colombia," Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia 6th ed., 2003)

All of the… [read more]

Growth for Chiquita, the 90s Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,121 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


So, the first cause of the financial problems that the company faced was related to the restrictions the European Community imposed on banana imports from Latin America and to the changes the company needed to make in order to adapt to this. The second cause of the problem was the way Chiquita thought to react.

Indeed, while it filed Section 301 Petition in order to protect its interests, it also sought Senator Bob Dole's help. The way he did this was neither moral nor very ethical and it implied pressures, not necessarily on the European Union, too big and powerful to fall to blackmail, but to smaller countries in the Latin America area that had signed agreements with the European Union. These included threats to cut off financial aids to Columbia or Costa Rica, for example. As such, as the case study mentions, negative attention was brought on the company, a company that was more and more seen by the public as an economic player that brought little or no benefit to the United States.

Alternative Solutions

The alternative solutions that the company may use in order to regain parts of the lost market share and boost up its profits are quite restrictive. Because the main problem relates to the presence on the European market, the first alternative solution would imply gaining more both of the import quotas and of the number of licenses that that Europe gives out.

Chiquita's competitors thought and applied several different methods in this sense (unfortunately, Chiquita was busy lobbying its cause instead of taking full action). The first one related to buying several small EC distributors, with the distinct goal of having more import licenses at hand. The second would imply a shift towards the advantaged ACP region. However, this second method had a significant disadvantage in Chiquita's case: the company had invested heavily in infrastructure and equipment in Latin America and a change of policy towards other countries could have had high operational costs.

The second alternative solution implies a shift in the output market. North America and Asia, as well as Eastern Europe and Russia, provided less regulated and restricted markets, but the problem was that the purchasing power was lower in these areas and that the markets (with the exception of North America) were less developed to absorb Chiquita production.

Optimal Solution and Implementation

In my opinion, diversification should be a key strategic word for Chiquita. Diversification would refer in this sense, both to the production markets and to the output markets. Indeed, the fact that Latin America is almost the sole producers of Chiquita bananas was an extremely risky act in the first place and a gradual, smooth relocation is more than necessary. This would not necessarily mean abandoning Latin America production altogether, but finding different alternative centers of production, especially in the ACP markets.

Finding an alternative to the difficult European business environment is also necessary. Chiquita is relying too much on a single large market for its products.… [read more]

Southern Cone Common Market: Mercosur Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,158 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Industry contains only processing and small-scale type manufacturing. Import: chemical, petroleum and consumer goods Tin mines are closing due to competition from Southeast Asia. Bolivia became an associate member of Southern cone Common Market 1996.

Paraguay's workers are by more than 1/2 employed in agriculture and forestry. Less than 15% employed in industry/mining. Paraguay's crops are cotton, sugarcane, soybeans, corn, wheat, tobacco, cassava and fruits, with cattle being important to the economy. . Paraguay has underground smuggling, money laundering and trafficking of Bolivian cocaine market sector. There are only minimal modes of travel due to the lack in road and rail systems. The river is used as the only real method of moving goods from place to place. Leading exports for Paraguay are soybeans, meat, feed, cotton, oils, vehicles, consumer goods, tobacco, petroleum products, and electrical machinery. Customs duties furnish an important part of the country's revenues, but are significantly under-collected due to smuggling.

Argentina's economic troubles caused a drop in tourism to by the rate of 90%. Argentina which has suffered more restrictions in trade than other areas detected a link between foreign ownership, process industry affiliation and intensity of restrictions. Argentina complaints are as follows: plastics 71.4%, footwear 66.7%, other food products 63.6%, machinery and tractors 52.5%, freight and insurance 201 out of 412, custom expenses 197 out of 412, labeling requirements 196 cumbersome or excessive custom procedures 145, prior inspection 132, testing and inspection requisites 129, and lastly complaining about the Brazil: non-tariff barriers.

Attempts to Improve of Conditions:

Paraguay, Bolivia, Argentina, Brazil and Uruguay have proposed to straighten and deepened the Parana waterway to improve conditions in the region however there were no other noted attempts at correcting some of the problems at this time.


The problems in the different countries in Mercosur are noted and particularly noted in the work of Kwan Kim and Seok-Hyeon Kim in their 2003 work entitled "Financial Cooperation in East Asia; Possibilities and Prospects with reference to Other Regional Experiences where stated is that:

Full integration of Mercosur's internal market would increase the efficiency of the firms as a consequence of the increased size of the market and more intense competition. The benefits of deep integration would become widespread when tariff and non-tariff restrictions are removed and investments in infrastructure would reduce the costs of natural frontiers Regarding the internal borders of Mercosur, the removal of tariffs already accomplished brought along an asymmetrical distribution of benefits. The impacts on different regions were different given their heterogeneous factor endowments and geographical characteristics.

Although Argentina, Bolivia, Uruguay, Paraguay, with certain aspects of the Mercosur trade agreement still these countries did not make the list of the "least" livable conditions in the UN Development Index, 2004 "Most and Least Livable Countries which can be located online at: http://www.infoplease.com/ipa/A0778562.html. However, neither did any of the countries make the "most" livable conditions list. It is concluded that these countries in Mercosur have much to do to realize their dream in marketing and trade for… [read more]

Fidel Castro Was a Communist Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (2,288 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Still further, when the Soviet Union's policies diverged from the Castro beliefs for internationalist behavior, he did not hesitate to criticize them. Castro was willing to stake even the relationship with the U.S.S.R. On his belief in developing Cuba (Robbins, 44).

It is obvious that Castro was, at least in the beginning of his revolution in 1959, only playing to… [read more]

1234. . .Last ›
NOTE:  We can write a brand new paper on your exact topic!  More info.