"Latin America / Mexico / Caribbean" Essays

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Theodore Roosevelt's Foreign Policy Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (307 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


American History

Theodore Roosevelt's foreign policies concerning nations in Asia and Latin America has brought only benefits for the United States at the expense of the countries that his administration had taken advantaged of.

During his term, the United States' control of the Philippines in Asia illustrates how Roosevelt sought to control other nations by providing financial and military assistance to poor nations. His administration had been actively involved in providing aid to nations who are struggling to gain independents from their colonizers. Thus, in the Philippines, the U.S. fought with Filipinos against Spain; it assumed a similar role in controlling the Cuba, Puerto Rico, and even China. Furthermore, Roosevelt brokered an agreement with Japan regulating the entry of Japanese immigrants in the country, called the "Gentleman's Agreement."

Specific foreign policy issues Roosevelt had been involved with during his term include his plan to construct the Panama Canal and what was popularly known…… [read more]

Dominican Culture Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (861 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Generally at the top of the social class spectrum are Caucasians with European backgrounds; those at the bottom are generally black, poor and usually decedents of slaves or recent arrivals from Haiti (Kryzanek & Wiarda, 1992).

Much of the middle class of the population comes from a mulatto background (Kryzanek & Wiarda, 1992). Almost 80% of the population lives in poverty (Kryzanek & Wiarda, 1992). This is most evident in cities where poor neighborhoods are evident filled with "naked children, malnutrition, and the unemployed and open sewers" (Kryzanek & Wiarda, 1992, p. 60).

At the heart of traditional Dominican culture is music, dance and art, which reflect a variety of different cultures that have influenced the area over time (Lonely Planet, 2004). Among the more popular forms of music and dance is the meringue, followed by the bachata which is a kind of Dominican country music (Lonely Planet, 2004).

Though Spanish is the official language of the Dominican Language, other languages are spoken frequently including English and some French Dialects (Brown & Standish, 1999).

Within the Dominican Republic primary education is compulsory up to six grades, though generally only 17% of schools in rural areas offer all these grades (U.S.L.C., 2004). Generally the enrollment is low and drop out rate high, in part because poor students generally are required to purchase their own textbooks (U.S.L.C., 2004). Despite this strides have been made to engage more students in higher education and learning and a number of collegiate level institutions have recently opened in the country (U.S.L.C., 2004).

The Dominican Republic is characterized by a rich culture infused with many different Haitian, Indian and Spanish influences. Though a majority of the population is poor, the culture is rich with tradition and heritage, much like any other place. Mealtimes take on special significance, particularly lunchtime where family members of all ages gather for an extended period of time to converse about their day and their experiences. Visitors coming to the country are most likely to make note of the rich artistic, musical and architectural heritage, which is very influenced by Spanish design and native Indian customs among others.


Brown, Isabel K. & Standish, Peter. "Culture and Customs of the Dominican Republic."

Westport, Greenwood Press, 1999.

Kryzanek, Michael J. & Wiarda, Howard J. "The Dominican Republic." Boulder,

Westview Press, 1992.

Lonely Planet. "Dominican Republic Culture." 22, October 2004. Available:

U.S. Library…… [read more]

Revolution of 1958 Inevitable? Cuba Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (2,787 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


They knew who their enemy was and were ready to fight against him and win. It didn't matter who they were: peasants, workers and businessmen were ready to fight together. So the main participants of the future Revolution were: proletarians, peasants, students and small businessmen.

The whole nation hated own government and, sure, some people united in different parties and… [read more]

Geography the African Influence Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (432 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


African language was also introduced to the area, mixing with the Spanish that was also being introduced and altering the pronunciation of many words.

Spanish influence is also (and perhaps primarily) very prominent in Middle and South America. Spanish diseases, completely unknown to the region before the arrival of Europeans, that were brought by the colonists are still present in many areas. Domestic animals unknown to the area were brought and reproduced quickly, populating the lands. The introduction of Christianity, which is highly influential throughout the development of Middle and South American culture, was a result of Spanish influence. The Spanish founded many of the major cities as well, including Havana, Quito, Lima, and Buenos Aires. The Spanish forced the natives to sweat loyalty to a new king and religion, and turned them into a disorganized peasant race; the area is still highly dependent on the master/peasant social structure. Of course, most Middle and South American countries today speak languages that are based largely on Spanish. The Spanish also bred with the native Indians to create the mestizo race of the area.


Bradford, Burns. Latin America, a Concise Interpretative History. New York: Prentice Hall, 1972. Archived online at http://www.mty.itesm.mx/dhcs/deptos/ri/ri-802/lecturas/lecvmx334.html… [read more]

Pepperidge Farm Product Into Costa Term Paper

Term Paper  |  12 pages (4,671 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


It is estimated that there are now 1.5 million hectares of remaining primary forest and of this 400,000 hectares are not in primary protected area and are thus being used for producing timber. It is also estimated that deforestation rates had been decreasing from 50,000 hectares a year in 1980s to 17,000 hectares a year in 1990s. In 1998, the… [read more]

Globalization of Hybrid Cultures Argentine Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (2,811 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


The more commercialized and heightened the internet grows in Latin America, the worse the marginality and dependence of this population grow.

The height of enthusiasm for the internet also raised computer sales and internet connectivity in Latin America. While more and more networks are established and provide connections in Mexico, Central America, Colombia, Brazil, Peru, Argentina and in the rest,… [read more]

Machoism Introduction and Biography Matthew Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,777 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Then presenting a different perspective Gietzelt (1997) takes the concept of machoism as presented by Gutmann as against the feminine role and experience in the past.


Throuhg his book Gutmann degenders the Mexican society and radically changes the conventional image of the Macho man in the nation. It reinvents the conceptions of masculinity and renders the past perceptions invalid. In a way his book opens the way to the Masculine movement providing careful insight to the male thinking.

Yet, Gutmann realizes that his book lacks in certain ways and thus, he wrote early on in his book that there was a need, "of more long-term scholarly and political significance, through investigation of the vagaries of gender identities amid the realities of gender oppression, we may come to better understand the persistence of gender variations and instability amid enduring patterns of inequality" (p. 4)


Matthew C. Gutmann 1996 The Meanings of Macho: Being a Man in Mexico City. Berkeley: University of California Press

Schwalbe, Michael, The Meanings of Macho: Being a Man in Mexico City.(book reviews). Vol. 75, Social Forces, 06-01-1997, pp 1488(2).

Bullock, Chris J. The Meanings of Macho: Being a Man in Mexico City by Matthew C. Gutmann (362-364) THE JOURNAL OF MEN'S STUDIES VOLUME 6 NUMBER 3 SPRING 1998

Gietzelt, D, 'Book Review "The meanings of macho: being a man in Mexico city" by Matthew C. Gutmann', The Australian Jouranal of Anthropology, 8, 3, pp 345-347 1997

Levinson, Bradley A. Masculinities and Femininities in the Mexican Secundaria: Notes Toward an Institutional Practice of…… [read more]

U.S. State Department Advisor Charged Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,304 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


These children are forced to work long hour in unhealthy conditions. It is estimated that 20 million children in Latin America between the ages of five and fourteen work illegally in full time jobs.

The opinions about the number of street kids that exist vary. The United Nations estimates that there are between 30 and 170 million worldwide. The average age for street children living in Latin America is nine. In certain Latin American countries including Guatemala and Brazil Street Children are rounded up and then tortured beaten and killed, this is referred to as death squads.(Street Children In Latin America) In 1996 Guatemalan police were convicted of murdering street kids, they were fourteen and ten. It took two years and international pressure to bring the case to trial. It is a very rare occurrence for police to be convicted of these crimes in Latin America.(Child Labor)

This issue is crucial for U.S. interests in the region because the education and nurturing of children is the best investment that a government can make if that government wants to insure that there is health and prosperity in the future. If America is interested in the long-term success of the Latin American region it would be persuaded to address all of the human rights issues that exist in Latin America.

What policies would you recommend to protect these interests and further the development of the region?

To protect the economic interests in this region I would policies should be created that would ultimately encourage Latin America's financial independence. I would make sure that the policies introduced are not just policies that American politicians create for the region. I would have a summit involving all the leaders in that region and a selected group of citizens from the region. These citizens would come from every socio-economic level that exists within the country. The summit would encourage Latin America to make their own economic policies that would benefit their citizens and ultimately their economies. Of course there would be American advisors and economists there to aid the region and to make suggestions. But ultimately Latin America would have to create its own policy that fits the needs of its citizens and the culture. America should not try to dictate what Latin America does relative to its economy because what works here doesn't work everywhere.

The issue of human rights is something that needs to be addressed in a more direct manner. My policy on Street Children in particular would be to build trade schools with dormitories in the region as soon as possible. In these schools children would receive a basic education of reading, writing and arithmetic, children under thirteen would stay in school for six hours. Children thirteen and up would stay in school for four hours and learn a trade for four hours and they would be paid for learning. This way they have a place to live, they are earning an education, learning a trade, and aiding in the economic success… [read more]

El Salvador Financing for Development Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (770 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


World Bank loans and technical assistance will be complemented by support from the IFC, aimed at helping Salvadoran industry gain access to finance to improve its competitiveness.

This has been accompanied by structural reform initiatives by the government, including trade liberalization, financial sector strengthening, re-privatization of state-owned financial institutions and other enterprises, pension reform and the improvement of the competitive environment for private investment.

In January 2001, these were complemented by the government's decision to adopt the U.S. dollar as legal tender in a two-currency system.

Addressing Systemic Issues

Although economic recovery has been impressive since 1992, per capita GDP remains below pre-war levels. Economic expansion has been led by the non-tradable sectors, and merchandise exports, although growing, remain substantially below levels in the early 1970s. High growth needs to be sustained but it must also be broad-based to reduce poverty.

The government's strategy is to shift El Salvador's competitive base from low-cost labor to high productivity -- moving from a comparative to a competitive advantage. A priority of the government is to ensure that the financial sector facilitates productivity-based growth.

Improving agricultural growth and productivity remains a priority for El Salvador, but sustained progress in poverty reduction will also require increasing access by the poor to non-agricultural rural activities, which can yield higher and more stable incomes.

Over the past year, however, the economy has suffered several shocks, including two earthquakes which killed 1,260 people, destroyed 194,000 homes, and severely damaged eight hospitals and 113 of 361 health facilities, which represent about 55% of the country's capacity to deliver health services.

The "fast-track" legislation that is on the verge of being passed by the U.S. Congress will carry with it protectionist side agreements gutting some of the incentives for maquila owners granted by the Caribbean Basin Initiative.

In addition, the September 11 terrorist attacks in the U.S. deepened the slowdown in the global economy, which had already resulted in worsening terms of trade and depressed coffee prices.


Jonathan Heller and Sarah McFarlane, Self-Development:Creating Hope in El Salvador, El Platenar, El Salvador & Seattle, Washington

Gasper F. Lo Biondo, S.J. And Rafael A. Pleitez, Woodstock Theological Center, 1997

Karen Hansen-Kuhn, The Development GAP in Tom Barry and Martha Honey (ed.) Free Trade Area of the Americas Volume 6,…… [read more]

Hugo Chavez: Buffoon, Autocrat, Television Entertainer Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (652 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


That was the irony as Chavez used oil money to bolster his power.

How did he treat his subordinates? He rambles on for hours, according to the video and comments by Alberto Barrera, and his ministers and guests "have to put up with his rambling on for six hours…telling the same joke." He has his cabinet doing foolish things like investigating the death of Simon Bolivar -- wasting time and money -- on an assassination that happened 200 years ago. He treats his cabinet like they were children, is the answer to that part of the question. When Nelson Mora, an activist paid by the government, told Chavez on television that most of the people in a barrio that were to be moved to a new "socialist city," and that Chavez had been deceived into believing the people did want to move. On live TV Chavez told Mora that he was an infiltrator, and put Mora down. Freedom of expression is okay as long as it does not come from his supporters who may wish to criticize him.

Does he allow others to criticize him? Yes, in fact the press is free in Venezuela, but the video indicates that Chavez hates to hear people speaking out against him. Since he believes that he is always right, when his supporters criticize him he is furious. In the video a newspaper that had generally been supportive of Chavez ran a story saying that the healthcare in Venezuela was "in a coma," Chavez went on television, waving the article on the front page, attacking the most staunch supporter of the government. He equated the criticism of the healthcare in Venezuela with "Yankee imperialism," and said no one was exempt from his wrath. He called it a "media war" and clearly, Chavez displays neurotic behaviors, which takes away from his otherwise fairly slick propaganda on his Sunday television monologues.… [read more]

Panama Canal Controversy Book Report

Book Report  |  5 pages (1,717 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1


Panama Canal Controversy

The book by Paul B. Ryan is a very thorough and very detailed look at how the Panama Canal deal was made -- and built -- by the United States. As the book explains, it was not an easy task for the U.S. To broker a deal to build the canal, and on top of that, many… [read more]

Media Venezuela President Hugo Chavez Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,211 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


It appears Chavez is pointing a gun at his own head; or, it appears Chavez is making the "crazy" or "loco en la cabeza" signal with his index finger. The same image is used on the front page teaser and accompanies the story itself.

Irish Examiner

The Irish Examiner uses an image of Chavez in the peak of health, with a full head of hair. He is shown in deep thought or inspired as if he is a priest in church. His neck is back and he gazes upward in peaceful thought, as if he has been inspired by God. This image corresponds with the headline that reads, "Chavez still captivates."


The text of the headline contains subtexts related to the article's tone and editorial content.


"Chavez in 'most difficult hours.'" This headline suggests that Chavez only has hours to live. However, images of the Venezuelan people also suggest that the people are contending with a "most difficult hour" of the nation's life because it is uncertain who will lead after Chavez dies.


"Venezuela accuses enemies of poisoning ailing Chavez." This headline stresses a sensationalistic stance, that Chavez has been sabotaged by his enemies, instead of just having cancer. The headline grabs the reader's attention, but the article is less about the accusation of poisoning than it is about the worsening health of the president.

Miami Herald

"Venezuela: Chavez's health 'very delicate' due to new infection." This is a matter-of-fact and straightforward headline that corresponds with the tone of the article.

Irish Examiner

"Chavez still captivates." The headline takes a tone of sympathy and admiration for the controversial Venezuelan president. Emphasis is on the charisma of the leader, his persona, and his politics.


The tone reveals the editorial spin.


The BBC article stresses the need for the Chavez administration to "reassure" the people, who are "gathered to pray for his health." The article is accompanied by images and a headline that is more about the Venezuelan people than about the president.


The CNN article mentions the accusation that Chavez was poisoned, which seem outlandish in light of the fact that there is no dispute the president has been receiving chemotherapy for cancer.

Miami Herald

The Miami Herald article dryly focuses on the details of Chavez's health, but also mentions rumors that the president might also be dead. The emphasis is on the fact that Chavez does not have long to live, but no speculation as to the future of the country is being offered.

Irish Examiner

This is an opinion piece that paints Chavez in a more positive light than any of the other English-language sources. His "charm" and his "resolute in hid defense of the poor" are mentioned. The author refers to the negative perceptions of Chavez's policies, but is rather apologetic in tone. It is possible that the Irish Examiner takes a sympathetic approach to the Venezuelan president in light of the nation's own domestic politics and attitudes towards the British. In… [read more]

Mice Would Best Suited Business Proposal

Business Proposal  |  4 pages (1,927 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4



Bogota has a vibrant nightlife and a huge selection of restaurants, bars, clubs and cultural activities. Bogota's cuisine, music, and dancing are renowned.


The 2005 census shows that 99.5% of households have electricity, 98.7% have water service, whilst 87.9% have telephone service.

Bogota seems to be a technologically-savvy city. It is the center of telecommunications as well as of printing and publishing (Bogota, my city!) and has more than 300 local and satellite TV stations, as well as multiple radio channels.

It has its technology fairs as well as at least one museum devoted to technology -- which shows the focus that he city gives to technology.

Bogota too imports much technology, and houses many of its central firms that specialize in technology, these include companies such as GM Colmotores, Compania Colombiana Automotriz, and Ecopetrol ((Bogota, my city!).

Each of its hotels and resorts are equipped with the latest technology, and technological innovation companies include Zemoga, a digital innovation agency, and RWD Technologies de Colombia. Its universities offer well-attended courses in technology and engineering too.

Colombia in general has ambitious plans including disseminating high-speed Internet throughout the country, giving grants and low-interest loans to tech entrepreneurs, and promoting 4G cell availability. Bogota, in specific, has plans for becoming the next Silicon Valley in the coming 5 years. In the meantime, however, Bogota has 10 million residents with only one in four who have a smartphone and many who have no internet. The reality, says Damon Bron (Nov 16, 2012) is very different than its ideals.


Bogota, my city! Economics in Bogota


Bogota my city! Politics in Bogota http://bogotathecity8b.blogspot.com/2009/11/politics-in-bogota.html

Bogota: convention Bureau.


Comunidad Segura. (14/02/2007)"Bogota's lesson in crime fighting." http://www.comunidadesegura.org/?q=en/node/32000

Damon Bron (Nov 16, 2012) Tech Trek: Bogota, Colombia http://www.techhive.com/article/2014014/tech-trek-bogota-columbia.html

Foreignpolicy.com. "The Global Cities Index 2010."


Henderson, James D.; Delpar, Helen; Brungardt, Maurice Philip; Richard N. Weldon (2000). A reference guide to Latin American history. M.E. Sharpe.

I love Bogota! Culture in Bogota

http://bogotathecity8b.blogspot.com/2009/11/culture-in-bogota.html lboro.ac.uk GaWC. "The World According to GaWC 2008".. http://www.lboro.ac.uk/gawc/world2008t.html

Rincon, C. (ND) Bogota, Athens of S. America


Visit Colombia.

http://www.ecotet.com/visitcolombia/economy.htm… [read more]

Cuban Embargo American-Cuban Sanctions Implications Thesis

Thesis  |  8 pages (2,776 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10


The entire situation took over five months to resolve and only heightened tensions between the United States and Cuba. It called into question the reasonableness of many existing Cuban sanctions when an orphaned child could become the symbol of long-held hostilities and dissension between two countries. Many reflect on the incident as a yet another example of how the existing… [read more]

Brazil the Economy Essay

Essay  |  8 pages (2,240 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+



Brazilian culture is very diverse due to its geography. It is the result of the melting pot of several races that have shaped Brazilian culture. Portuguese are not the only ones who have contributed towards Brazilian culture by components like religion and language. Other populations like native Indians, some Africans, Europeans, and people of Asia and Middle East who… [read more]

Establishment of a Family Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (702 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


This ideal, while sought by the woman in this scenario is without doubt something that the present circumstances do not allow. For these reasons it is the belief that the central figure in this scenario would be more profitable to leave the present community and establish the family of the focal figure in this scenario in another community freed from the obligations to the government that are presently forced upon the woman central in this scenario.

Establishment of one's family in a new community can be accomplished through taking part in the community activities and by becoming involved with community initiatives. Involvement in the community includes involvement in charitable organizations, town meetings, and other goal accomplishment set out in the town or city. As noted in the work of Carr "the reforms did not produce the desired effects, for the evidence suggests that the new officials, rather than defend the commoners, were often corrupt or marginalized by the regidores." (2000, p.182) Therefore, the ability of the small farmer to realize a profit under these circumstances has been greatly diminished and for this reason, the woman in the scenario at issue in this study would be better served to relocate her family so that her work resulted in a contribution to her family rather than to tax collectors of the ruling party.


Carr, Raymond (2000) Spain: A History. Oxford University Press. 2000.

Flynn, Maureen M. (1985) Charitable Ritual in Late Medieval and Early Modern Spain. The Sixteenth Century Journal. Vol. 16 No. 3 Autumn 1985.

Laws of the Bourbon Monarchy (nd)

Nader, Helen (nd) Liberty in Abolutionist Spain. LLRU 3910.

Penry, S. Elizabeth (2000) The Collective and the Public in Latin America. Sussex, 2000.

qaqchas and to…… [read more]

Corruption in Venezuela Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (786 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


(Niam, 2001, p.1) The multinational corporations closed in Venezuela in large numbers and many are reported to have shrunken their subsidiaries in Venezuela and as well new foreign investment in sectors and energy was "very limited and the number of foreign tourists" fell during the latter part of the 1990s. (Niam, 2001, p.1)

III. The Present

It is reported in the work of Gates (2009) to be such that Venezuelans "once again view corruption as a nuisance, much like they did during the early decades of the two-party democracy." (p.5) Reports state that New York Times reporter, Simon Romero "has marveled at the 'quietitude that has greeted Venezuela's latest corruption scandals' in contrast to the 'rollicking reactions to the alcohol ban' during the week before Easter in 2007." (Gates, 2009, p.5) In a survey conducted in 2007 it is reported that corruption is not held by Venezuelans to be their primary problem with only 4.5% stating that corruption was the country's primary problem in 2007, which was only down slightly from 6% in 2004." (Gates, 2009, p.5) Unemployment is stated as being "presently ranked as the problem of significant importance in Venezuela presently. In fact, the view of Venezuelans on corruption's effect on politics is reported as being "considerably better than the rest of the region. Latin Americans on average rate corruption's effect on political life much higher at 3.3 out of 5. Furthermore, as noted above, unlike the rest of Latin Americans, Venezuelans believe the police, not political parties, are the actors most affected by corruption. In contrast, Latin Americans as a whole believed political parties were the most affected agencies." (Gates, 2009, p.5)

Summary and Conclusion

The view of Venezuelans prior to the 1990s of corruption was that it was merely a nuisance however this changed during the 1990s with the changing economic environment in the country. This belief resulted in changes to the political system. However, the present view of corruption in Venezuela is a return to the belief that corruption is just a nuisance and one that little affect the everyday life of the people of Venezuela.


Gates, Leslie (2009) The Politics of Corruption in Venezuela. Retrieved from: http://lasa.international.pitt.edu/members/congress-papers/lasa2009/files/GatesLeslie.pdf

Niam, Moises (2001) The…… [read more]

Water Privatization in Bolivia: Assessment Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (993 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


(Bakker, 2003) From the perspective of the private investors, they continue to contend that when a government cannot effectively and efficiently handle the treatment, financing, and distribution of water, privatization is a beneficial option to consumers. (Budds & Gordon, 2003) The proponents of water privatization in Bolivia continue to make similar arguments despite the riots, chaos, and violence.


Assies, Willem. "David vs. Goliath in Cochabamba: Water, Rights, Neoliberalism, and the Revival of Social Protest in Bolivia." Latin American Perspectives, Vol. 30, No. 3, 14 -- 36, 2003.

Bakker, Karen. "A Political Ecology of Water Privatization." Studies in Political Economy, Vol. 70, 35 -- 58, 2003.

Bakker, Karen. "The 'Commons' Versus the 'Commodity': Alter-globalization, Anti-privatization and the Human Right to Water in the Global South." Antipode, 2007. Available from http://aguabolivia.org/wp-content/uploads/2010/07/1er_04_documento_-Bakker2007.pdf.

Budds, Jessica, & McGranahan, Gordon. "Are the debates on water privatization missing the point? Experiences from Africa, Asia and Latin America." Environment and Urbanization, Vol. 15, No. 2, 87 -- 114, 2003.

Budds, Jessica, & McGranahan, Gordon. "Privatization and the Provision of Urban Water and Sanitation in Africa, Asia, and Latin America." International Institute for Environment and Development, London, 2003. Available from http://www.acquaevita.info/pag/pdf/Water_dp1.pdf.

Israel, Debra K. "Impact of Increase Access and Price on Household Water Use in Urban Bolivia." The Journal of Environment Development, Vol. 16, No. 1, 58 -- 83, 2007.

Kohl, Benjamin. "Privatization Bolivian Style: A Cautionary Tale." International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, Vol. 28, No. 4, 2004.

Kohl, Benjamin. "Stabilizing neoliberalism in Bolivia: popular participation and privatization." Political Geography, Vol. 21, 449 -- 472, 2002.

Mulreany, John P., Calikoglu, Sule, Ruiz, Sonia, & Sapsin, Jason W. "Water privatization and public health in Latin America (La privatizacion del abastecimiento de agua y la salud publica en America Latina)" Rev Panam Salud Publica, Vol. 19, No. 1, 2006. Available from http://www.scielosp.org/scielo.php?pid=S1020-49892006000100004&script=sci_arttext.

Nickson, Andrew, & Vargas, Claudia. "The Limitation of Water Regulation: The Failure of the Cochabamba Concession in Bolivia." Bulletin of Latin American Research, Vol. 21, No. 1, 99 -- 120, 2002.

Perreault, Thomas. "Custom and Contradiction: Rural Water Governance and the Politics of Usos y Costumbres in Bolivia's Irrigator's Movement." Annals of the Association of American Geographers, Vol. 98, No. 4, 834 -- 854, 2008.

Perreault, Thomas. "State restructuring and the scale politics of rural water governance in Bolivia." Environment and Planning, Vol. 37, No. 2, 263 -- 284, 2005.

Shiva, Vandana. WATER WARS: Privatization, Pollution and Profit. Sound End Press, Cambridge, 2002.

Shultz, Jim. "Bolivia's War Over Water." We are Everywhere. Verso Press, 2003. Available from http://devhector.uchastings.edu/faculty-administration/faculty/roht-arriaza/class-website/docs/law-and-development/law-and-development09-bolivias-war-over-water.pdf.

Shultz, Jim. "Bolivia: The Water War Widens." NACLA Report on the Americas: Privatization in the Americas, 24 -- 30, 2003. Available from http://www2.fiu.edu/~hudsonv/Shultz.pdf.

Spronk, Susan. "Struggles against Accumulation by Dispossession in Bolivia: The Political Economy of Nature Resource." Latin American Perspectives, Vol. 34, No. 2, 31 -- 47, 2007.

Swyngedouw, Erik. "Dispossessing H20: The Contested Terrain of Water Privatization." Capitalism Nature Socialism, Vol. 16, No. 1, 2005.

Trawick, Paul. "Against the Privatization of Water:…… [read more]

Bringing Amazon.com to Chile Research Paper

Research Paper  |  4 pages (1,663 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


Bringing Amazon.com to Chile

Sizing up Amazon:

The present expansion possibilities of Amazon.com can be studied with relation to the current competition the company faces from various other book marketing companies and the need to expand into new markets. The question is if expanding services to Chile will give the company a competitive advantage. The future demand for eBooks and… [read more]

International Marketing Western Hoteliers Owning Property Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (640 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


International Marketing

Western hoteliers owning property in Venezuela should consider selling those properties. There is a high degree of political risk in Venezuela, and this relates to the Chavez government's positioning itself as a champion of socialism. Several industries and companies have been nationalized in recent years, and the rhetoric from the regime is staunchly anti-capitalist. The greatest political risk is to assets that have strategic and visible value to the regime's political ambitions. This may mean that Western hotels are not in the government's sightlines as of now, but there remains a high degree of political risk associated with having a presence in Venezuela.

The risk of nationalization is significant in Venezuela. There are two components to this risk. Downside risk is high, in that a lost property not only involves a loss on the original investment, but also on the revenue streams provided by that hotel. However, it is also worth noting that even if the company retains the property, there could be a loss of revenue as the political climate reduces the amount of business travelers and tourists to Venezuela. Selling the properties may allow the company to retain at least some value from the properties in question.

With respect to the risk of nationalization, the Venezuelan government has indicated that it does not respect the property rights of foreign firms in Venezuela. However, the hotel industry does not typically affect the average Venezuelan, so is not valuable as a political tool. Also, the high degree of fragmentation in the industry also means that a nationalization program would need to be widespread. Thus, it would be difficult for the Venezuelan government to target the hotel industry, and such a move would have low political value. However, if revenues are reduced as a result of decreased travel to Venezuela, then certainly this particular type of political risk can be hedged through higher prices. Only if the company believes…… [read more]

Angola, as Many of the African Countries Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (2,586 words)
Bibliography Sources: 8


Angola, as many of the African countries was the result of colonial pressures up to its declaration of independence from Portugal in 1975. The United Nations recognized this event a year later; however, to this day, Angola can hardly be considered a success story in terms of colonial positive results such as India for instance. The tumultuous history and background… [read more]

El Mozote American Complicity in the Massacre Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,969 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


El Mozote

American Complicity in the Massacre at El Mozote

Today, Latin America is seen as a continent very much distinguished by its divisive political violence, an approach toward democracy beset by resistance, an ethnic makeup rife with historical tensions and a vulnerability to the incursion of foreign invasion. Such conditions have created a precarious part of the world, where… [read more]

Cuban Americans Research Paper

Research Paper  |  4 pages (1,160 words)
Bibliography Sources: 8


Cuban Americans

The relationship between Cuba and the U.S. involves a history of tension, and, in the recent decades, a history of Cubans struggling to leave their country for the states. The presence of a dictatorship in Cuba and the promise of a dream life in the U.S. are both reasons for Cubans wanting to leave their native country. While it had initially been difficult for Cubans to have financial success in the U.S. because of racial issues, discrimination has ameliorated in the last few years. Cubans gained thus more and more chances of achieving something in the American society.

People in Cuba did not express a passionate desire to immigrate into the U.S. previous to 1959, the time of the Cuban Revolution. The Basista regime, the one previously leading the country, had also been dictatorial. However, in spite of its corrupt character, it did not present a real threat to its citizens. Before 1959, the only reasons strong enough to lead to mass emigrations had been related to economic deficiencies, such as the ones experienced during the Great Depression.

Although the new regime seemed to be showing potential, its affiliation to the Soviets did not appear to be hopeful for the futures of Cubans. It is not that Cubans left because they were afraid of the flawed government of Fidel Castro, but because they were terrified of its power, and of the fact that it seemed certain that the new leader would not use his abilities and new gained power for the general good of his people.

At the half of the twentieth century, Cuba had been a rather rapidly developing country, as the number of people belonging to the middle class had been impressive for that time and place. It had been amazing how Cubans had developed a strong economy within a few decades. Some believe that its financial success had been owed to the fact that it had developed closer relations to the U.S. than it had to the rest of Latin America. The middle and the upper classes expressed a fondness for the American system and for the U.S. community in general.

Castro's regime appeared as the perfect solution for the lower-class and for those willing to make use of a fraudulent system for their own purposes. In contrast, the rest of the Cubans felt that they would not thrive in a communist system where they and their children would have to subject to the arbitrary and often subjective laws of a dictatorship. Castro took action immediately and ruthlessly murdered most of the country's former officials. "Photographs of the mutilated bodies of those executed were circulated throughout the island, with the dual purpose of satisfying the public's bloodlust and sending a veiled message to those who opposed -- or who might oppose -- the Castro government" (Victor Andres Triay, pp. xii). It had virtually been impossible for someone to express themselves freely in Cuba with Castro being the country's leader.

Given the strong connection that people… [read more]

Author Gilderhus' View of History Discussion and Results Chapter

Discussion and Results Chapter  |  2 pages (609 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


¶ … Gilderhus's view of history

Coming from a scholar focused on the subject of history, Mark Gilderhus's studies are mainly intended to provide the world with collegiate level materials. His texts relate to history lasting from the ancient times and until the present day. The author has a tendency to write from a perspective associated to Western thinking, instead of approaching the topic from a more general point-of-view.

In spite of the fact that Gilderhus's writings are intended for those attending college, they are not difficult to digest by the masses, as they are reachable to virtually anyone interested in history.

Gilderhus provides important narratives relating to international relations, also giving a fascinating set of political insights. His center of attention is the U.S. And mostly everything related to the country's history. He is proficient in domains such as U.S. military history and historiography.

Being the previous head of the Society for Historians of American Foreign Relations, it is only natural for him to be experienced in the line of work. In addition to that, Gilderhus is one of America's top historians when regarding affairs between the U.S. And Latin America.

"The second century: U.S. -- Latin American relations since 1889" is focused on the relationships between the U.S. And Latin America during a period lasting from the late nineteenth century and the end of the Cold War.

The author goes across subjects such as politics and economy, concentrating on two aspects. The first feature is connected to the division of power in the Western world. The other relates to the fact that countries in Latin America have generally expressed less consenting attitude to the concept of them having to depend on world superpowers. Gilderhus does not hesitate to mention the detail that while most states in Latin America have accepted their fate,…… [read more]

Cuba Presented in This Summary Thesis

Thesis  |  3 pages (870 words)
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¶ … Cuba

Presented in this summary are four documents that could very well inform possibilities of policy shifts of the United States of America (U.S.) with respect the highly controversial small Communist state of Cuba. The first document entitled, With Castro Stepping Down, What is Next for Cuba and the Western Hemisphere, documents the hearing of the Subcommittee on the Western Hemisphere, Committee on Foreign Affairs, House of Representatives, Second Session of the 110th Congress. Attended by members of the subcommittee as well as representatives from the academe and policy think-tanks on the Western Hemisphere/the Americas with the proceedings presided by subcommittee chair, Honorable Eliot L. Engel. The report included eight prepared statements and a letter from the Organization of American States dated March 3, 2008 regarding the crisis in the Andean region involving Colombia, Ecuador, and Venezuela on the killing of FARC leader, Raul Reyes; how this changes how the U.S. deals with these countries in light of the regional security agreement to cut off support for states that are found to be cuddling or providing support for identified terrorist organizations. One of the key points raised in the document is the consensus that the decision of Fidel Castro to relinquish power to his younger brother, Raul Castro, as an open door for Cuba to become a democracy. However, there is an apparent distrust that Raul may be no different from Fidel. The main issue of the hearing was how to best achieve democracy in Cuba in light of the change in administration. Key issues raised include: Will there be changes in U.S. policy toward Cuba with Fidel Castro relinquishing his rule to his younger brother? Second, what are the repercussions of the different scenarios of changing, not changing, or a policy somewhere in between these two? Third, should the U.S. reach out to the new administration or should it wait for Raul Castro's administration to act on changing the course of its relations with the U.S.

In light of what is viewed as a positive development under the administration of Raul Castro

, most of the speakers, whether for or against the U.S. embargo, expressed that U.S. policy in Cuba needs to be viewed not only in light of the internal political developments but should also take into account the reconfiguration of alliances among the different governments in Latin America, as well as the accompanying dynamics in the region. It also takes into consideration other developments in U.S. relations with other nations in Latin America based on the main strategy of dialogue and engagement with the fourfold focus of democratic consolidation; prosperity…… [read more]

Bolivia the History of Bolivia Is Characterized Thesis

Thesis  |  3 pages (901 words)
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The history of Bolivia is characterized by instability and political turmoil. Modern-day Bolivia gained independence in 1820. However, because the country was carved from three distinct regions, each with its own people, it was never able to gain any measure of stability. The country maintained a strong indigenous population of Quechua and Aymara peoples, as they were insulated from European diseases by the Andean highlands. However, the native population was enslaved, beginning a pattern of colonialism and wealth inequality that into the 21st century (Infoplease, 2009). Recently, however, the country has been governed by an Aymara named Evo Morales, who has promised to establish social justice in the country.

Morales was elected on a landslide majority, one of the few leaders in Bolivian history to do so. Bolivia retains its status as a democratic republic, as Morales has attained his power by democratic means. However, he is establishing socialism and aligning the country with dictatorships such Cuba and Venezuela. Morales has nationalized the railway and has his eye on other industries as well (Ibid).

Under Morales, Bolivia's foreign relations policies have become decidedly anti-American. This trend began when he aligned himself with Hugo Chavez and Fidel Castro. Further actions have included accepting financing from Venezuela, legalizing coca production, kicking the U.S. ambassador out of the country, and suspending DEA agents (Ibid). Bolivia's policy of antagonizing the United States plays well domestically, and so it is likely to continue into the future.

Demographically, Bolivia is a relatively small country. It has just under 10 million people. They are split among a variety of ethnic groups. The largest group is the Quechua, who make up 30% of the population. Those of mixed native and European ancestry (mestizo) account for another 30%. Morales' tribe, the Aymara, account for 25%. (CIA World FactBook, 2009) the population is only 15% white, and these live mostly in the Santa Cruz province. The main religion is Catholicism. The main language is Spanish, but many of the native peoples do not speak it. They only speak their Quechua or Aymara tongue. Bolivia has relatively strong population growth, a result of their high birth rate (22.1 / 1000) and moderate death rate (7.35 / 1000) (Ibid).

Bolivia's economy is gradually being nationalized by the Evo Morales government. The main industries are mining and natural gas. There is a moderate agricultural sector. Private sector investment is the lowest in Latin America, a function of the rampant nationalization. The GDP per capita is only $4,500, one of the lowest levels in the Americas. There is widespread underemployment (Ibid). The inflation rate of 11.5% is evidence that the economy lacks stability, despite a positive balance of payments. Bolivia does, however, have…… [read more]

Spain the Modern History of Spain's Economy Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,186 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+



The modern history of Spain's economy began with the end of Franco's reign in 1975. Since that time, Spain has embarked on a long modernization process that has resulted in the country becoming the world's 8th largest economy, and 5th largest in Europe. The nation's progress accelerated rapidly, beginning with its ascension to the European Union in 1986. By 1999, Spain was in the lead group in terms of euro adoption. While the company's economy has seen some short-term slowdown in the recent years, the banking system is well-equipped to whether the liquidity crisis due to high reserve requirements. However, unemployment has risen sharply and is expected to continue to rise, bringing about concern for Spain's long-term economic growth prospects (the Economist, 2009)

This paper will examine Spain's ascension to the EU and to world prominence from an economic perspective. The paper will begin with a brief explanation of economics and its role in the study of international relations. Then, an examination of Spain's economic integration into the EU will be conducted. It will be demonstrated that Spain's rise to prominence in the European Union has been driven by its successful economic integration with Europe in the decades following the downfall of the Franco dictatorship.

Economics and International Relations

Economics is the discipline of studying the ways in which economic actors interact. Economic actors range from simple units such as individuals to large, complex entities such as nations. With the possible exception of national security, economics is the most important determinant of international relations. Global trade provides nations an opportunity not only to enhance their wealth but also their political power. This is because the same underlying principles that drive economic power (control of valuable resources) control political power as well. The two types of power therefore share an inexorable relationship.

The nature of this relationship demands that the field of economics play an important role in the study of international relations. At the end of the Franco regime, Spain was economically and politically weak. The country's rise to political power has coincided with its rise as an economic power. This growth was facilitated by Spain's entry into the European Union and the European economic system.

The Economics of Spain's Ascension to the EU

At the time that Spain entered the EU, the economy was still underdeveloped. Unemployment was around 23%, all strategic industries were controlled by the government, and infrastructure was poor. Ascension to the EU forced Spain's leadership to adopt European-style business policies. Spain adopted Europe's trade agreements, taxes, and policies regarding fisheries and agriculture. Economic integration was essential forced upon Spain as a result of EU membership, making it the highest priority (Royo, 2006).

Since entering the EU, Spain's reforms were more rapid. The country now stands with a GDP almost equal to those of the largest European economies. Spain's economy grew rapidly from 1994 to 2008, including an eleven-year string of 3%+ growth (CIA World Factbook, 2009).

With Spain's ascension into the EU and subsequent… [read more]

Standardization and Customization Thesis

Thesis  |  2 pages (891 words)
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Apple in Brazil: Always Apple, In Any Language

Controversies still rage regarding the efficacy of Apple's branding and service in Latin America, but observers could never have guessed this from the warm reception Apple received when it opened its first store in Brazil in 2008. When the Apple Corporation opened its flagship store, the normally sleek, cool, edgy brand took a slightly different tone, in keeping with the spirit of the Brazilian nation. At the reception Apple customers were "served Champagne and canapes, and a few blond, long haired, tall girls dressed in Apple Black guaranteed that eyes had something to look at other than Apple's product line that was presented on the usual wooden tables with all devices functional for people to play with" (Apple Brazil: Apple Shop Paulista opens officially, 2008, Visual Media). The store looked familiar, only with a few Brazilian beauties added for spice.

Thus Brazil's fun sense of sexuality and indulgence made itself manifest, along with the sleek technology and always-helpful Apple consultants that are part of the Apple brand around the globe, wherever its stores may be found. Apple's trademark ethos in the U.S. is that of a customer-friendly, customized company. When the brand goes abroad, it tries to be a chameleon, all the while keeping true to Apple's core (no pun intended) image. Apple's website for Brazil has the company's trademark white background, but the color scheme is warmer, less sleek and metallic, and boasts more smiling faces. This is in contrast with the more conceptually designed American site. Instead of the new MacBook Pro and the simulated images of various Apple product screens, Apple in Brazil uses the white, clean space that is Apple to use a slightly more traditional marketing strategy stressing happy people having fun, superposed upon Apple slogans and images. Both the American and Brazilian websites offer iPhone and iTunes support, and support for all company products -- but the Brazilian layout design is consistent for all Latin American countries.

Apple's success as a company is rooted in the fact that it is always 'Apple,' no matter what, no matter where. However, it does try to tailor itself to the needs of the individual marketplace, at least in terms of slight alterations of image. The design for the product in both America and Brazil is similar, stressing slenderness and ease of use. Young professionals who are tech-savvy are the target consumers, and they are likely to be affluent, given that the cutting-edge technology in both regions is pricy. This is particularly true of Brazil, given the high mark-up of prices: a 2 gigabyte iPod nano costs $328 in Brazil and $323 in its neighboring…… [read more]

Isolation There Are Two Different Levels Thesis

Thesis  |  6 pages (1,671 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 4



There are two different levels of the Philoctetes play and its parallelism with Cuba, as these two relate to isolation. First, one needs to discuss the causes and events leading to isolation, as they appear in both the play and the historical reality. Second, one will need to see what can bring an escape from isolation, as well as… [read more]

Operation Condor Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (984 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3


Operation Condor is considered to be one of the most important actions directed towards the subversive forces in Latin America. A plan which took place during the Cold War, more precisely in 1975 aimed at eliminating the opposition of Latin American dictators from power. However, the leaders of the countries involved soon came to be associated with a circle of death, taking into account the way in which they acted against the so called resistance, and the results their actions had on the population.

The Operation Condor "represented a striking new level of coordinated repression among the anticommunist militaries in the region, and its existence was suspected, but undocumented, until fairly recently. Condor enabled the Latin American military states to share intelligence and to hunt down, seize, and execute political opponents in combined operations across borders. Refugees fleeing military coups and repression in their own countries who sought safe havens in neighboring countries were "disappeared" in combined transnational operations" (Mcsherry, 1999) the historical background of the operations was thus the Cold War and it represented one of the traditional means through which authority could be expressed in the region.

The operations included several aspects and set in motion all the state apparatus in the countries involved. In this sense, "Operation Condor was a secret intelligence and operations system created in the 1970s through which the South American military regimes coordinated intelligence information and seized, tortured, and executed political opponents in combined cross-border operations. Condor's key members were Argentina, Chile, Uruguay, Paraguay, Bolivia, and Brazil, later joined by Ecuador and Peru. In Condor operations, combined military and paramilitary commandos "disappeared refugees who had fled coups and repression their own countries and subjected them to barbaric tortures and death. Security forces in the region classified and targeted persons on the basis of their political ideas rather than illegal acts. The regimes hunted down dissidents and leftists, union and peasant leaders, priests and nuns, intellectuals, students, and teachers as well as suspected guerrilla" (McSherry, 2002). This particular aspect is important because it underlines the actual extent of the measures taken in order to suppress the opposition forces and the elements which tried to interfere in the authoritarian regimes in Latin America. The means used to deal with these subversive forces were traditional for the communist regime as well. In this sense, the Stalinist regime applied the same techniques during the Great Purges of the late 30s.

The operation was conducted in such a manner as to include political leaders as well as regular people. Thus, foreign ministers, political leaders, important public figures who voiced their concerns against the regime of Allende, of the Argentinean regime, as well of the entire political spectrum in the countries which underwent this operation. At the same time though, the common people were also targeted. Thus "estimates say some 13,000 people died in the 1976-83 "dirty war" (Gotkine, 2004). The atrocities committed included kidnappings of children, of pregnant women, as…… [read more]

Che Guevara Social Inequalities, Great Discrepancies Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (392 words)
Style: Turabian  |  Bibliography Sources: 2


Che Guevara

Social inequalities, great discrepancies between the very wealthy and the incredibly poor are as present in today's society as they were 50 years ago. Che Guevara's revolutionary ideal of eliminating "man's exploitation of man" is still relevant today even though communist parties have been outlawed in most former communist states in Europe. Nevertheless, social equality and the profound revolutionary spirit of Che Guevara are very much alive in Latin America, a continent which is defined by great social segregation and turmoil. Che Guevara's ideal was a Cuban revolution that would resemble and continue other communist revolutions of the 20th century, i.e. The Chinese and the Russian which he had studied in detail.

Ernesto 'Che' Guevara de la Serna was born in 1928 in Argentina in a financially secure family with aristocratic roots but devout to socialist values. From the early years, Ernesto was keen on reading and closely follows the Spanish Civil War. His favorite readings included Sartre, Marx, Lenin and Engels which he would later re-discover and discuss with his friend and member of the Argentine Communist Youth, Tita. His admission into the University of Buenos Aires where he would study Medicine did…… [read more]

Country Report: Spain Term Paper

Term Paper  |  9 pages (2,642 words)
Bibliography Sources: 11


Country Report: Spain

This report will describe Spain's international competitiveness level according to different criterions which will be presented above. First of all, Spain is a member country of the European Union - one of the promoters of free trade and capital movements around the world. The macroeconomic objective of Spain is to converge to the high levels of economic,… [read more]

State of Siege Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,878 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 4


¶ … Siege is a 1972 film by Costa-Gavras, the famous Greek-French film-maker, about the interrogation and assassination of a CIA case officer by unnamed South American urban revolutionaries. Although it is not clearly acknowledged in the film, its story is based on the real-life events that actually took place in Uruguay when a U.S. Agency for International Development (AID)… [read more]

Imperial Spain 1469-1716 by Jh Elliott Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,208 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Imperial Spain 1469-1716 by J.H. Elliot (New York: Penguin, 2002)

Contemporary Spain is not one of the dominant European powers of the current European Union, politically or economically. Yet Spanish is spoken all over the world, and Spain's former influence as a world, colonial power continues to be felt, not simply, in Spanish-speaking Latin America, but in the United States. The very existence of the United States, at least partially, can be traced back to the European explorations funded by the Spanish king and queen Ferdinand and Isabella. How did a nation become so mighty, yet so quickly lose its influence, asks J.H. Elliot in his work on Imperial Spain 1469-1716? The book paints a portrait of Spain's meteoric rise and equally abrupt collapse during this period.

Spain's initial dominance comes as a revelation, not simply to a modern reader, but also took many contemporary observers by surprise, given Spain's poverty at the time. The rapid rise and fall of Spanish influence occurred during a relatively discrete period of time, thus the short frame of the temporal marking points of Elliot's text. Spain began the 15th century as a small, economically struggling, relatively obscure state and rose to a major colonial and imperial power. It did so, not because of inspiring, democratic, or humanistic ideals -- quite the opposite. It was a society characterized by intolerance, fanatical religion, autocratic rule, militarism, and inquisitorial justice. But it could not be ignored by the other European nations. Spain's power over the seas allowed it to control virtually the entire New World, spanning across the Americas, and it dominated the seas, famously, but also the land with its army. Part of its power lay in the fact that it had such a substantial gold supply to fund this army. "With its long seaboard and influential mercantile community," Spain was well placed, geographically and politically, to embark upon a quest for gold, as well as to undertake exploration for commodities like spices. (Elliot, p.57)

Another reason for Spain's rise can be traced to the powerful monarchy of Isabella and Ferdinand. "The wisdom of Isabella's choice soon became very apparent." (Elliot, p.22) These two devoutly Catholic monarchs solidified Spain under singular control by driving the Muslim Moors from the nation. They appealed to the "devout Catholicism" of the Christian populace, and "impresse[ed] upon them their divinely appointed mission" to free Spain of Moorish influence. (Elliot, p.32) This created an upsurge of positive "national" energy in support of Isabella and Ferdinand's cause. (Elliot, p.42) In this case, Elliot notes, the peace treaty between victors and vanquished was almost charitable. "The terms of surrender were relatively liberal. The Moors were left in possession of their arms and property. And were guaranteed in their use of laws and religion." (Elliot, p.49)

However, these two monarch's religious fervor did not only have positive effects upon Spain's development as a nation. As well as the far-seeking aspects of their reign, such as funding expeditions like Columbus' to the New World,… [read more]

International Business Plan Business Plan

Business Plan  |  3 pages (962 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Business Plan: Marketing to Brazil

In recent years, the economy of the Latin American, Portuguese-speaking nation of Brazil has been booming. Brazil's government has grown more democratic and friendly to doing business with the United States, partly because of the increased value of its own currency, and Brazil's domestic economy has grown and diversified in the range of the products that it exports to other lands. Today, "Brazil has one of the most advanced industrial sectors in Latin America. Accounting for one-third of GDP, Brazil's diverse industries range from automobiles and parts, other machinery and equipment, steel, textiles, shoes, cement, lumber, iron ore, tin, and petrochemicals, to computers, aircraft, and consumer durables. Most major automobile producers have established production facilities in Brazil...the country has become increasingly involved in international economic and trade policy discussions." ("Brazil," 2006, The Office of Electronic Information, Bureau of Public Affairs)

As Brazil grows increasingly international in its focus, particularly amongst its wealthy elites, but also in its middle-class population, it will face one possible conflict -- it must deal with nations, particularly America, where its native language of Portuguese is not spoken. There is a great desire in Brazil for businesspeople to sharpen their English language skills, for learning the language with an academic approach in school is very different from deploying the language in commerce, especially in technologically related fields like computers and telecommunications. Thus, a United States firm could capitalize upon a potentially expanding market and export to Brazil a series of English-language learning devices, such as CD-ROMs and DVDs that were specifically designed to orient Brazilian businesspeople in English in the language of technology and commerce.

No matter how extensive Brazil's current range exports and imports, America has an invaluable resource that cannot be replicated in Brazil. America has English-speaking native speakers of its own language and the intellectual resources to make language learning fun and accessible. While it is true that there are already well-known international language instruction programs such as Berlitz, many of these are general programs in language learning, not suited to the specific needs of the Portuguese speaker. Consider how successful a French language learning series was called "French in Action" that specifically targeted the needs and problem areas of English speakers learning French many years ago. Also, this series of English learning aides would not simply be targeted towards Brazilian speakers, but Brazilian speakers wishing to hone their English business vocabulary and cultural fluency in the ways of the United States.

To gain further fluency (no pun intended) in the English-language learning needs of Brazilians, a joint venture with a local company, or with a Brazilian university might be advisable. "Joint ventures are very common in Brazil, particularly as a way for foreign firms to compete for government contracts or in heavily regulated sectors."("Brazil: CS Market of the Month," 2006, Export.gov) The potential for joint ventures to sell…… [read more]

20th Century U.S Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (378 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


20th Century U.S.

The development of capitalism in the U.S.A. At the second half of the nineteenth century made country of the most dynamically developing industrial states. The expansion to the West, success in Mexican war and abolition of slavery contributed to transformation of the U.S.A. into regional leader in the Western Hemisphere. In late 1890's American companies started their expansion on Latin American markets so that by the first decade of the twentieth century such companies as "United Fruit Company" and others controlled nearly all agricultural exports of Latin America, paving way for penetration of other corporations on Latin American market. Such strategy of economical expansion, supported by official American government allowed the U.S.A. not only to become the richest and the most influential country in the Western hemisphere, but it also gave it the potential to influence world politics in future. Growth of mutual economic and trade ties with major European countries: Great Britain, Germany and France, still did not give the U.S.A. A chance to be treated as equal. Such relationship to the U.S.A. was much resulted by its geographical and political isolation from geopolitical processes…… [read more]

U.S. Foreign Affairs Since 1898 Editorial Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,021 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


U.S. Foreign Affairs Since 1898

1898 Editorial: "Do not just remember the U.S.S. Maine -- remember your obligations as human beings and Americans" -- Regarding Senator Proctor's March 17th speech on conditions in Cuba

One of the driving goals of 19th century U.S. foreign policy has been to eradicate the oppressive influence of the European powers from the Western Hemisphere. This has been the objective of the United States not simply because of American security concerns. True, geography and proximity explains some of our understandable interest in the region. As President McKinley said in 1898, the United States has a special interest in the fate of the nations of Latin America, such as Cuba, because they are "right at our door." (Paterson, 1998, p.6) What affects and oppresses these nations may soon impact our own lives within our borders. As the world has become increasingly interconnected economically, the European powers have become more and more hungry to acquire colonial territories near to the shores of the United States. Although the United States strives to stand somewhat aloof in this quest for blind conquest, it cannot ignore its economic interests in the region, if Europe's quest for dominance grows overly strident and strives to smother the liberties of the nations Americans are in sympathy with, and in close proximity to, geographically. The U.S. is right to fear such vehement and blind European desires to threaten the liberties of other nations, for fear they may threaten our own liberties.

It is also in sympathy with the emerging movements for independence in the nations of this region that Cuba cries out for our aid. America supports the liberty and national self-determination of the nations of all of the Americas, as it too was once a colonial power, withering under the tyrannical policies of a European monarchical government. In light of its longstanding policy, its history, and the love of liberty in the "Spirit of 1776" within the hearts of its populace, the United States has been at the forefront of the Pan-American movement whose objective is to ensure that the European powers do not transgress the right of self-determination of other, independent nations or nations seeking their independence such as Cuba. (Paterson, 1998, p.6)

Cuba has suffered under the thumb of Spain for too long, much as America suffered under the heavy hand of the British. Like America during its colonial oppression, Cuban economic and political growth has been stifled by the unrepresentative Spanish adminstration and its blind insistence upon Cuban trade restrictions. Ever since the death of the Cuban patriot and advocate of independence Marti, Spain has been herding the indigenous Cuban population like cattle into towns where innocent persons are crushed together, in areas with little food, proper sanitation, or health care. While the Cuban populace cries out for democracy, Spain responds only with more harsh administration and a determination to erradicate the liberty of others.

Recent accusations of human rights abuses in Cuba have been derided as fabrications of the… [read more]

How the Hilton Might Expand Into Chile Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,697 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+



Chile -- The world's longest country offers a long list of potential investment opportunities for the Hilton Hotels Corporation

Because of the general global instability gripping the world, embarking upon a new venture by any company dependant upon tourism, even a company as large and as durable as the Hilton Hotels Corporation, must be viewed with caution. The Latin… [read more]

Brazil the Federal Republic Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (885 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+



The Federal Republic of Brazil is the largest country in Latin America and has experienced great political and economic change like many of its neighbors. Originally a colony of Portugal, Brazil has been independent for almost two centuries. The nation has endured political dictators and military regimes, but has been a democracy since 1985 and is working toward fulfilling the goals of its 1988 Constitution. Friendly relations, politically and economically, with other nations and a progressive policy to try to end the social and ethnic problems that plague Brazil are positive steps the country has taken toward improvement.

The government of Brazil has followed a similar path to many other nations. The European nation of Portugal claimed Brazil in 1500 and ruled it until Brazil's independence in 1822. Despite its independence, Brazil was still ruled by Portuguese emperors until 1889 when a federal republic was established. A constitutional republic ruled from 1889-1930 until a military coup established Getulio Vargas as dictator until 1945. A string of presidents ensued until the early 1960s when it was apparent that major change was necessary. The country struggled with "high inflation, economic stagnation, and the increasing influence of radical political elements" (Pearson 3). A military coup from the armed forces in 1964 began a string of leaders including Humberto Branco, Arthur da Costa e Silva, Emilio Medici, Ernesto Geisel, and General Joao Baptista de Oliveria Figueiredo. Figueiredo opened the door to democratic principles by allowing former political exiles to return and run for office. At the end of his rule in 1985, the nation was ready for democracy. The first popular election in years ensued in 1989. The current president, Luiz Inacio da Silva (Lula) was elected in 2002 and will face the polls in October of 2006. Presidents can be elected to a maximum of two 4-year terms. President Lula has "taken a prudent fiscal path, warning that social reforms would take years and that Brazil had no alternative but to maintain tight fiscal austerity policies. Economic growth in 2004 and the first half of 2005 was strong with increases in employment and real wages. Growth slowed somewhat in the second half of 2005, but is expected to accelerate in 2006" (Pearson 4). Like many other nations, the fate of the upcoming presidential elections may rest largely on the economy.

Economically, the country has goals similar to that of their neighboring nations. Stabilization, independence from foreign oil, and free trade are all goals of the Brazilian administration. In the past few years, Brazil has enjoyed "sustained growth, coupled with booming exports, healthy external accounts, moderate inflation, decreasing unemployment, and reductions in the debt-to-GDP ratio.…… [read more]

Mercosur: Regional Integration, World Markets Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (517 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Mercosur: Regional Integration, World Markets

In his work Mercosur: Regional Integration, World Markets the author discusses important components of Latin America's strategy for "achieving economic and political consolidation."

The author discusses the Mercosur agreement, the primary focus of the book, as a sign that Latin America is progressing toward consolidation economically and politically.

In Chapter 1 the author discusses the origins of the common market of the South (Mercosur). Here the goal of implementing Mercosur is discussed, including plans for integrating Latin America and sharing interregional trade with more exports and greater cooperation among firms. The chapter discusses multiple free trade agreements with Mercosur and the agenda for implementing the common market, which according to the author is still pending.

In Chapter 2 the author talks about Brazil's involvement in Mercosur as well as the integration process that this country will play in facilitating the goals of Mercosur.

Factors that shape Brazil's relationship with Mercosur are covered as well as Brazil's negotiating position with Mercosur. The author suggests that the economic benefits Brazil will derive from Mercosur are limited but vital nonetheless to the economies well being.

Chapter 3 focuses on the motivation for Mercosur, including economic integration. Specifically the author discusses the relationships among countries in Latin America before Mercosur. The author points out fragmentary and integrative forces affecting the politics of Mercosur including interregional trade, investment and spillover effects from integration.

Chapter 4 focuses on the ability of Mercosur to strike balance in Latin America. Particularly the author concentrates on defining the point of balance between…… [read more]

Twentieth Century, the Brazilian National Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,967 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0



Neither hex nor war could stop his victory, and by the time he won three World Cups, he had even put a war on hiatus, where in Nigeria, the Biafran Civil War was officially paused with a three day truce to watch Pele play in two exhibition games.

Pele was a hero. Not only was he a stellar athlete, he was a good man whose intentions were honest and successes visible. He overcame poverty, racial discrimination, and physical stresses to succeed, providing a great role model for the millions of Brazilians for whom national identity was muddied. While race and poverty confused the social context of post-colonial Brazil, soccer became part of its ability to redefine itself on its own terms. Soccer, the national pastime, became a measure of success, international standing, and, above all, a very real local hope.

Arbena, Joseph L. Sport and Society in Latin America: Diffusion, Dependency, and the Rise of Mass Culture. New York: Greenwood Press. 1988.

Associated Press dispatch from Sao Paolo, Brazil, to the Denver Post, 8 December, 1968.

Booker, R. Michael Jr. Soccer, Race, Politics, and National Identity in Brazil During the Pele Era: 1958-1970. Colorado Springs: University of Colorado.

Da Matta, Roberto. Carnivals, Rogues, and Heroes: An Interpretation of the Brazilian Dilemma. Notre Dame: University of Notre Dame Press. 1991.

Krotee, March L. "The Rise and Demise of Sport." Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science. Vol. 445, Contemporary Issues in Sport. (Sep., 1979.)

Lever, Janet. Soccer Madness. Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press, 1983.

Mason, Tony. Passion of the People? Football in South America. New York: Verso, 1995.

Pele & Fish, R. Pele, My Life and the Beautiful Game New York: Doubleday, 1977.

Skidmore, Thomas E. Black Into White: Race and Nationality in Brazilian Thought. Durham: Duke University, 1993.

Pele & Fish, R. Pele, My Life and the Beautiful Game New York: Doubleday, 1977. P. 12.

Arbena, Joseph L. Sport and Society in Latin America: Diffusion, Dependency, and the Rise of Mass Culture. New York: Greenwood Press, 1988. P. 27.

Mason, Tony. Passion of the People? Football in South America. New York: Verso, 1995. P. 16.

Lever, Janet. Soccer Madness. Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press, 1983.

Lever, p. 6.

Krotee, March L. "The Rise and Demise of Sport." Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science. Vol. 445, Contemporary Issues in Sport. (Sep., 1979.) p. 141.

Krotee, p. 142.

Krotee, p. 143.

Skidmore, Thomas E. Black Into White: Race and Nationality in Brazilian Thought. Durham: Duke University, 1993.

Booker, Michael R. "Soccer, Race, Politics and National Identity in Brazil During the Pele Era: 1958-1970." Colorado Springs: University of Colorado at Colorado…… [read more]

European Colonies Across the World Term Paper

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European colonization across the world, from the 15th century on, was dominated by economic self-interest, and competitive desires for power, wealth, and influence. Nowhere is this more evident than in the work of Spanish missionaries who founded missions throughout California, from San Diego to the Oregon border, where they housed and taught numerous Native Americans, while also forcibly converting them to Catholicism and using them for slave labor. Payoffs, for the Spanish, were both religious and economic, with economic interests likely being first and foremost, not only for Spain but for other European nations as well. Economically-motivated aggressive actions of the Spanish included the use of forced Native American labor for their own purposes, and their claiming of lands occupied for centuries by others. Though they would have been reluctant to admit it, the economic ambitions of Spanish explorers in California and other areas of what is now the American west were far more economically than religiously motivated. The same could be said of the motivations of the Dutch, the French, and the British in Africa; the Russians in Alaska; and the Portuguese in Africa and the Americas.

Most European colonizers had relationships of domination over those they conquered. Among competing European explorers within the same region, e.g., Africa; Latin America, it was largely a question of who arrived first, and who had the most staying power (e.g., manpower, might, and economic support from the European ruler(s) who had sent them. All in all, European colonization of territories outside Europe itself led to more of the same, by competing European nations, which in turn almost always led to extreme domination and exploitation of indigenous peoples.… [read more]

Civilization and Barbarism and Cruelty Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (3,169 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


His moral character is affected by his custom of triumphing over obstacles and the power of nature. Although like Echeverria, Sarmiento did describe the gaucho as strong, haughty, vigorous and admirable, he could not condone the gaucho's lack of instruction. Worse yet, the gaucho also saw himself as without need of higher education and modernization, either, and thus, rather than… [read more]

Brazilian Economy When Giving Scholarly Term Paper

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Bibliography Sources: 1+


And the sour taste of the economy in the mouths of 100 million Brazilian voters meant the end for Cardoso, and a new president, Lula, who is in office trying to push the right buttons and make the right calls to jumpstart the Brazilian economy.

One reason for Cardoso's ouster, de Onis continues, is that local businesses in the private sector are "full of complaints over high taxes, costly credit, and government regulations." Another unanswered question then, and now, is, "what role Brazil's big private banks will play"; albeit they are "very profitable," they invest far less in private enterprise than they do in financing government debts. The Brazilian capital market "must be reformed," de Onis asserts, "in order to make buying stocks more attractive."

Meanwhile, some of the lowest-paid workers in Brazil, landless farmers, who have traditionally been just a notch higher on the economic ladder than the native Indians (some landless farmers are Indians) and blacks (whose ancestors were slaves) are making noise. To wit, in a recent article called "Brazil's Landless Hold Their Ground" (Vanden, 2005), the author reports that as recently as 1996 "one percent of landowners" in Brazil owned 45% of the land. And yet, in 2001, the article continues, there were 4.5 million landless rural workers in Brazil. "Land, wealth and power" has been divided up in Brazil in "extremely unequal ways" since the 1500s, Vanden writes.

As for the beginnings of the MST, the author of this article says the first landless workers to get organized in Brazil lived and worked in the Brazilian state of Rio Grande do Sul in the early 1980s. They demanded that the government give them land to farm, land that was not being used for any other purpose. And when the government did not give them land, they just moved onto land that was vacant and produced crops for their families. As the movement grew, more and more landless people in other states followed the example of the MST, joined the MST, and the landless began moving onto land in 23 of the 26 states, the article explains.


De Onis, Juan. "Brazil's New Capitalism." Foreign Affairs 79.3…… [read more]

IPE News Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (654 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


¶ … tension that can often exist between multi-national corporations (MNC's) and their host countries. The actors involved in this story include the government of Bolivia, whose current president is Carlos Mesa, the Movement to Socialism Party, an indigenous group mainly responsible for pressuring the government to get tough with the MNC's, and the foreign gas companies that came to the country because of its large gas deposits. These major corporations include Petrobras of Brazil, Repsol of Spain, Total of France and British Gas.

The story of what occurred in Bolivia was that President Mesa recently approved a bill that would drastically raise the taxes incurred by the foreign gas companies. It was passed on Tuesday May 17, 2005 and took place in the city of La Paz and within the Bolivian Congress. The companies would have to now pay a 32% tax in addition to the 18% fee they already pay. They are also required to form more partnerships with the Bolivian government.

In terms of why this happened, this bill was made in response to pressures from groups like the Movement to Socialism Party, which consists mainly of Bolivia's peasants and laborers, who believe that MNC's are robbing their country of its natural resources. While it was hoped that the bill would placate these groups, it was instead hailed as too soft a measure against the MNC's and now Bolivia's anti-globalization movement is promising more protests. The MNC's meanwhile have become alarmed at the government's actions and are now admonishing it that any further anti-MNC bills would force the corporations to flee the country, leaving many abandoned and unexplored gas fields behind.

The concepts discussed in class that can be related to this story are those regarding what multi-national corporations are, why they often invest abroad, and why they may experience tensions with their host countries. A multi-national corporation is composed of businesses that control production assets in various countries, but maintain their headquarters in…… [read more]

Intercultural Communication Norms of Physical Contact Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (328 words)
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Intercultural Communication

Norms of physical contact are dictated by culture. Americans tend to touch less and guard more closely their personal space than those from other cultures. Nearly all can recall a situation when another got too close for comfort. A subway train during rush hour is a perfect example where passengers at times must stand should to shoulder within a sea of people.

Touching is more common and accepted among family and friends. Social situations tend to be more 'touch friendly' as well. With the public at large, however, Americans are more distant and less likely to show emotion through physical contact. Many times when there is touching it is again, of a more distant manner, like a handshake or pat on the back.

Conversely, Latin American cultures regard physical contact as an integral aspect of communication. As an illustration, take the custom of cheek kissing during salutations and farewells. It is considered rude should this practice be absent from an encounter. In…… [read more]

Ecuador Is a Country Full Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (2,262 words)
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The authors also explain that the culture diversity that exists has caused some conflict between the indigenous people groups and the African population (Handelsman and Standish, 2000). The author asserts that most of the conflict concerns land rights (Handelsman and Standish, 2000). In addition, the authors explain that since 1985 activists have forcefully rejected what they call the mestizo… [read more]

Peruvian Literature History Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (2,283 words)
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Peruvian Literature/History

Peru, one of the biggest countries of Latin America, still remains to be one of the poorest in the region. Prolonged poverty, inability of government to solve urgent problems in economics, land owning and determine with the status of international monopolies that control mining, brought to social, political and public crisis in 1980's. But the premises for such… [read more]

Inca and Spaniard: A Battle Term Paper

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Bibliography Sources: 1+


Many generations after the Inca Empire had crumbled, and generations too, after the last viable Inca Revivalist rebellion, ordinary Peruvians could still look back to the days of their ancestors as a kind of golden age. Such sentiments are probably the most telling possible testaments to the endurance of Indian beliefs. To look back to the days before the Spaniards had arrived, and to use those times as a model for the very different world of the Nineteenth Century was more than anything else a rejection of almost everything for which the Spaniards stood. It was a proud reaffirmation of Inca values, traditions, social and religious beliefs; beliefs so imbued with meaning that the wish, the dream, remained that the hated Spanish could be simply erased from the memory of the people. Nothing speaks so strongly of resistance, both passive and active, as the persistence of many Inca life ways in the Andean Highlands even today, at the dawn of the New Millennium. The Spaniards may have tried to re-shape an entire people, and to manufacture a New World in both name and fact, but so long as millions of Native American citizens of Peru and other South American nations continue to hold to their own beliefs, and continue to adapt these beliefs to changing circumstances, the Spanish conquerors will never have been successful in their aim to tame and "domesticate" the "heathen." For the Inca survive

Works Cited

De Leon, Pedro. The Discovery and Conquest of Peru: Chronicles of the New World Encounter. Edited by Alexandra Parma Cook and Noble David Cook. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1998.

Keen, Benjamin. Essays in the Intellectual History of Colonial Latin America. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1998.

Sowell, Thomas. Conquests and Cultures: An International History. 1st ed. New York: Basic Books, 1998.

Walker, Charles F. Smoldering Ashes: Cuzco and the Creation of Republican Peru, 1780-1840. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1999.

Wightman, Ann M. Indigenous Migration and Social Change: The Forasteros of Cuzco, 1570-1720. Durham: Duke University Press, 1990.

http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o& d=14189446?Benjamin Keen, Essays in the Intellectual History of Colonial Latin America (Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1998), 60.

http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o& d=14189446?Benjamin Keen, Essays in the Intellectual History of Colonial Latin America (Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1998), 60.

http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o& d=30537019?Thomas Sowell, Conquests and Cultures: An International History, 1st ed. (New York: Basic Books, 1998), 286.

http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o& d=30537017?Thomas Sowell, Conquests and Cultures: An International History, 1st ed. (New York: Basic Books, 1998), 284.

http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o& d=100611042?Pedro De Leon, The Discovery and Conquest of Peru: Chronicles of the New World Encounter, ed. Cook, Alexandra Parma andNoble David Cook (Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1998), 314.

http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o& d=54301428?Ann M. Wightman, Indigenous Migration and Social Change: The Forasteros of Cuzco, 1570-1720 (Durham: Duke University Press, 1990), 87.

http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o& d=54301428?Ann M. Wightman, Indigenous Migration and Social Change: The Forasteros of Cuzco, 1570-1720 (Durham: Duke University Press, 1990), 87.

http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o& d=15228323?Charles F. Walker, Smoldering Ashes: Cuzco and the Creation of Republican Peru, 1780-1840 (Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1999), 16.

http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o& d=15228477?Charles… [read more]

Cuba's Future After Fidel Castro Term Paper

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Bibliography Sources: 1+


6). Even so, it is likely that "Castro's disappearance could touch off an internal power struggle. No totalitarian regime has been able to devise a smooth system of transition" (Suchlicki, par. 7). Still the regime's strength remains in Castro's military organization despite "opposition and unhappiness [..] growing in Cuba, the dissident groups are weak" (Suchlicki, par. 12). It remains clear… [read more]

Economics Politics Trade Term Paper

Term Paper  |  22 pages (7,721 words)
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Economics, Politics, Trade

Geopolitical base


Political Systems

Monetary, trade and economic backgrounds



Economics, Politics, Trade

This paper shall be a comparison of two countries of the world-one which is a developed country and another developing country. The developed country chosen for the study is Germany and the developing country is Peru. The paper shall deal with the… [read more]

Brazil Sustainable Development in Amazon Term Paper

Term Paper  |  20 pages (5,100 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Brazil: Sustainable Development in the Amazon

While it is generally regarded as true that developing countries offer more biodiversity than developed ones, and that the developed countries are not particularly receptive to 'native' products, there are exceptions. Two of these, pharmaceuticals especially and also ecotourism, are potentially lucrative avenues for Brazil to explore in order to minimize the disparity in… [read more]

Cuban Revolution: Will it Lead to Capitalism Term Paper

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¶ … Cuban Revolution: Will it lead to capitalism, after Castro's assumed and expected demise?

Despite what a casual observer might assume, there has been opposition as well as approval from notable sectors within Cuban society, regarding the retraction of the Cuban communist revolution and an expansion of capitalist reform after Fidel Castro's much-anticipated death. Environmentally, because Castro attempted to divert land from sugar production into the production of food crops, making Cuba initially less reliant on food imports, there still is a great deal of loyalty to the collective farming ideal within Cuban society. (Proyect, 2004) Capitalist farming techniques are associated with oppressive schemas of class stratification, rather than with providing potential benefits to the Cuban population. Moreover, because Cuba has been insulated from global agricultural competition as the result of the embargo and long-standing subsidizes from the communist world, there is an additional fear that economic liberalization could prove troubling and even famine inducing to the agricultural sector of Cuba.

From a feminist perspective, it is also feared that capitalist economic liberalism will result in an infusion of 'machismo' into social as well economic sectors. Cuban feminists have noted that after the communist revolution of the 1950's, many formerly closed sectors of industry now see the highest percentage of female employment, including textiles, beverages, tobacco, chemicals, food and graphic arts. (Max Azicri, "International Journal of Women's Studies," Vol. 2, No. 1, 1981).

Additionally, Cuba's agricultural peasant and urban labor sectors fear the competition of the international capitalist marketplace will result in encroachments upon their benefits and lower wages, and cause them to suffer most harshly from any setbacks the Cuban economy faces in a transition to a more capitalist form of governance. The minority population of Cuba also fears the racism of the white, more American-connected and thus potentially more affluent Caucasian population. In Cuba today, more blacks as a percentage of the population own their homes in Cuba than in any country in the world according to Lourdes Casal ("The Position of Blacks…… [read more]

Coffee Industry: Economics and Investment Term Paper

Term Paper  |  12 pages (3,641 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Related to this tragedy is the rise and fall of The Colombia Coffee Federation (FNC), a labor union reminiscent of the Aldea Global Federation in Nicaragua, mentioned above. The Colombian Federation began its existence in 1928, and acted on a representative basis on behalf of small coffee farmers who had little influence in the political world (Frank, 2001). These were… [read more]

Peru in Comparison to Uganda Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (2,281 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Businesses and communities in the heart of Cali have been destroyed by coca dollars, and again through their withdrawal from the local economy.

In terms of deforestation, this is a problem common to all developing countries, as people without access to our (developed world) privileges clear land to feed their families. Deforestation in Peru stands at 290,000 hectares per year;… [read more]

Eyes of the Heart: Seeking Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,596 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


His book is intended as a manifesto for change, as a strength-giving sermon for those people. The book is also aimed at those people who hold the power to change the developing countries- developed countries imbalance that he writes about so powerfully. The book basically says 'this is what is wrong with Haiti, with many developing countries around the world, and these are the factors that are causing these millions of people these problems. This, that I have written here, is a prescription for change'. In typical Aristide fashion, he ends the book by saying, see [for the children of Haiti a future] country with 85% literacy, rather than 85% illiteracy. Cooperatives flourish in villages and in the informal sectors of the cities. Water is flowing through the fields of the countryside-where food enough for all of Haiti's people is growing. Creole pigs are seen more and more in the countryside, the descendants of those few that the peasants hid away and saved from extermination. Seedlings are beginning to take root on the mountainsides. The seedlings have a chance at survival because the people are no longer in misery, but are already on the road to poverty with dignity. There are primary schools and health clinics in every municipality of Haiti. The schoolbooks are not just half-price-they are free, in accordance with Article 32.1 of our constitution which promises a free education to every Haitian child." (page 79).

It is to be hoped that, one day, the world is as Aristide envisions it. With more people like Aristide, with more readers…… [read more]

Cultural Differences With Spain Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (946 words)
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However, Spain also has numerous environmental problems of its own, such as growing air pollution, deforestation and the pollution of the Mediterranean Sea from raw sewage and effluents produced by offshore oil and gas rigs (CIA Factbook).

Spain has a market-based economy, with a high reliance on private business.

The influx of United States businesses and investments is generally accepted, particularly because of its large Spanish-speaking population (Country Report on Spain). Many American analysts also see trade with Spain as a key route towards a greater business presence in Latin America.

As with any country, an understanding of these key cultural differences will help American businesses in their dealings with Spanish businesses and the government. First, Americans need to recognize the importance of Catholicism in the lives of Spaniards. There are more Catholic holidays in Spain than in the United States and during those days, the country effectively shuts down.

Americans may also be surprised at the overtness of practices which would be considered discriminatory in the United States. For example, it is not uncommon for Spanish businesses to ask questions about marital status during interviews. Many firms also use gender-specific job titles such as "secretaria" to denote a female secretary, an important distinction considering how, in the food manufacturing industry, for example, a secretaria get paid an average of 30% less than a secretario (Country Report on Spain). In addition, physically challenged Americans may be surprised at the lack of access in many public places and transportation, despite laws mandating their creation. In addition, African-Americans and other darker-skinned minorities may encounter discriminatory practices in daily life.

To deal with such practices, people already doing business in Spain suggest that foreigners recognize the more personal way Spaniards do business. Asking about home, family and interests outside work is common and the best way to deal with uncomfortable questions is to be "overpolite" (Levitt).

In conclusion, American business entrepreneurs need to take into account key cultural differences between their home country and Spain. The importance of religion, for example, means that Sundays and holidays will often take precedence over any business activity. In addition, activities which would be considered forms of discrimination back here, such as asking about marital status, are tolerated as part of establishing business relations.

Works Cited

Central Intelligence Agency (January 1, 2002). The World Factbook 2002 - Spain. Retrieved January 23, 2003 at http://www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/geos/sp.html

Levitt, Joshua (September 2002). "Spain: Getting Through Customs." Director.

Spanish-U.S. Chamber of Commerce (2002). U.S. Companies in Spain. Retrieved January 23, 2003 at http://www.spainuscc.org/eng/publications/index.html

U.S. Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights and Labor (March 2002). Country Reports on Human Rights Practices for 2001: Spain. Retrieved January 23, 2003 at http://www.usis.usemb.se/human/2001/europe/spain.html… [read more]

Chile Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (2,263 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


However, the United States grants Chile leeway and flexibility in its policies, perhaps more than it gives other South American countries.

American support of the Pinochet military regime dwindled when President Carter was elected in 1976. Hostile to the regime because of its blatant human rights abuses, the Carter administration initiated a turnaround in American policy toward Chile. However, Reagan… [read more]

New Spain, Mexico the Culture Thesis

Thesis  |  8 pages (2,446 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 6


She was speaking in his own native language, Nahuatl -- not the language of the conquering Spanish. What she said astonished him: she wanted a church built on that site -- and it was then that Juan Diego recognized her as the Virgin Queen Mary, Mother of Christ. Juan Diego ran to the local Spanish Archbishop, Juan de Zumarraga, and… [read more]

Mexican Political System Mexico Research Paper

Research Paper  |  8 pages (2,559 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10


Money has always been the oil which makes Mexican politics turn, and there does not exist as many opportunities for fair wages in the majority of Mexico. Unions also do not have the kind of power they do in the United States. This is a primary problem of the NAFTA agreement, which gives strong powers in favor of international business… [read more]

Foreign Policy in the Caribbean Basin Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (587 words)
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Foreign Policy in the Caribbean Basin

Was the Early Twentieth-Century U.S. Policy in the Caribbean Motivated by Economic Concerns?

Recent American military interventions in the Middle East revived old debates about core issues that motivate U.S. foreign policy, its drive for dominance, and the question of imperialism. Was the invasion of Iraq motivated by American economic interests in the region (e.g. oil) or was it motivated by security concerns and the willingness to bring democracy to the Middle East? This actually appears to be an old debate by historians who have been debating whether the beginning of U.S. military interventions, especially in the Caribbean at the start of the twentieth century, was also rooted in economic interests.

Professor Walter LaFeber answers this question with an emphatic "yes," while Professor David Healy argues that the United States policy in the region was aimed at eliminating German threat and developing the economies of the region since, Americans believed, people in the Caribbean were racially inferior and incapable of effective self-development. After reading both points, I came to a conclusion that LaFeber has a stronger argument. So, the answer to the question posed in the title of this essay is "yes." Economic concerns were the primary motivation behind U.S. political and military interventions in the region.

LaFeber analyzes U.S. policy in the Caribbean within the context of rising economic power of the United States and the calls by business interests for economic expansion since the dramatic increase of U.S. economic power after the Civil War (thanks primarily to massive industrialization) convinced American leaders that there was too much surplus that needed to be exported and capital that could be used in foreign markets. LaFeber does not say, however, that there were no other reasons behind U.S.…… [read more]

Puerto Rico Is a Caribbean Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (2,138 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


However, when these people move to the U.S., a slightly darker color will be termed as black whereas the person himself may think differently and fall into racial confusion which many Puerto Ricans are subject to. This classification into different colors led to high levels of stress among those who migrated. (Flores)

Puerto Ricans are also considered to be poor and thus are expected to live in the low lying poor areas of the cities that they occupy which have few white/Anglo settlers and majorly black / African-American residents. These areas are places where there are high rent slums and even though they may not always be able to afford a place there, the Puerto Ricans are forced into living in these areas because they are new and outcasts to the society. The racial identity that the Puerto Ricans see themselves with affects them greatly. If they think of themselves as better and equal to the white population of the areas that they occupy, they tend to perform better than those who think otherwise. (Duany)

Apart from racial discrimination, Puerto Ricans also face language barriers. Relatively new migrants who live in less posh neighborhoods where there are few Spanish speaking people face the greatest deal of stress and problem when it comes to their daily chores and activities. Kids who go to school in these areas have teachers who only speak English and therefore their grades drop because of their poor English and sometimes the kids have to be placed in lower classes in order to learn English and get a better grade. (Duany)

During the past year, 2011, the migration of Puerto Ricans from their homeland to America has continued and due to tough economic times there has been a net outflow of almost 20,000 from the island to America. For those who are migrating, it may be seen as an opportunity which shouldn't be missed but the out flux of people is not doing any good for Puerto Rico itself. The island will be legible for much less funding than it previously did and there will be a lesser demand for housing and several other services which will only add to the efforts of trying to revitalize the economy of the area. . (Flores)

It seems as though the Puerto Ricans have lost faith in the future of their state and they are not willing to commit themselves to it in order to better it and make it prosper. . Over the past decade almost 90,000 people have migrated to America in hopes of better opportunities and a better life. Several years ago the population of Puerto Rico was such that it could equal the number of people in 24 states. There are less than four million people remaining on the island and it is estimated that almost 1.5 million plan on someday migration to the mainland whereas the number of Puerto Ricans in the United States is almost 5 million showing that more islanders live on the… [read more]

Latin American Movement Just Research Paper

Research Paper  |  10 pages (3,139 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10


C. is all in favor of having a relationship with Panama if, and only if, their labor laws are loosened. "Through the implementation of Law 30's anti-labor provisions, Martinelli has demonstrated that he is more than willing to be flexible when it comes to accommodating Washington and has confirmed that he is bent on ensuring ratification of the FTA with… [read more]

Steel Drum, or Steel Pan Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,618 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Players of the steel drum have adopted the pan as a way of life in many cultures, as well. The steel pan in today's society has come to symbolize social and economic advancement, as well as a symbol of freedom for those in the areas of Trinidad that helped introduce and develop the instrument. Entire areas of Trinidad have grown out of the steel drum industry, and the drum is even used in many orchestras worldwide (Wilson, 2001).

The steel drum arose from the hard work and self-expression of the slaves in Trinidad. Losing their families, and taken from their nations of birth, many of these men and women had nothing but their native music. Determined to keep that relic, in spite of the political struggle between themselves and their colonial government, the men and women of Trinidad formed the basis for a revolution that would see the birth and acceptance of a now world-known instrument. Facing an age-old fear of the upper class that their music would entice riots, the people of Trinidad persevered. Without their efforts, the world would not be blessed with the sounds of the steel drum today.


Averill, G. (1998). Carnival in Trinidad: Steel Drum, Program #1561. Retrieved March 7, 2005 from Pulse of the Planet. Web site: http://www.pulseplanet.com/archive/Feb98/1561.html.

Blake, F.I. (1995). The Trinidad and Tobago steel pan -- history and evolution. Spain: Grafiques Publishing.

Goddard, G.S. (1991). Forty years in the steelbands: 1919-1979. London: Karia Press.

Maxime, G. (1997). Pan through the years (1952 -- 1996). Port of Spain, Trinidad: Metropolitan Book Supplies Ltd.

National Library and Information System Authority. (2004). Historical Development. Steelband. Retrieved March 7, 2005 from N.A.L.I.S. online database. Web site: http://library2.nalis.gov.tt/Default.aspx?PageContentMode=1& tabid=165.

Rouff, A.E. (1972). Authentic facts on the origin of the steelband. St. Augustine, Trinidad: Bowen's Printery.

Stuempfle, S. (1995). The steelband movement: the forging of a national art in Trinidad…… [read more]

Mexico in 1908 Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (929 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


..with nothing to live for except pleasure...drawing revenues from lands their ancestors had conquered or stolen from the Indians." Is that the kind of economic climate an investor would want to pour money into? Not at all.

The political system - under a repressive dictator - in any country is nearly always corrupt, and in Mexico during the early 20th Century it was no exception. "In short," Stearns writes, "Diaz ruled with an iron fist through an effective political machine."

The revolution to overthrow Diaz officially began in 1910, but well before that time, there was a sense of bitterness and rage among the less-fortunate Mexicans. If, for example, the business consultant had visited the city of Cananea, Sonora, in 1906, he or she would have witnessed a violent strike against an American-owned mining company; after the strike got underway, American vigilantes came south across the border to intervene for the owners, and dozens of Mexican workers were killed on June 6, 1906 (Mexican Chronology, 1904-1910).

In 1908, there were "droughts and poor harvests" in Mexico in and around the greater Mexico City area; the economic hardships resulting from those problems affected the economy in a very negative way (Mexican Chronology). "Real wages for Mexican workers..." sunk to about "a third of their level of a century earlier."

Imagine, for a moment, wages - which were already desperately low, compared with the booming industrial economy emerging in the United States - dropping to a third what they were in the 19th Century. If you were a business consultant, would you recommend a client in the states invest in Mexico City in any aspect of business?

In 1908, Diaz made a remark during an interview (on March 3rd), stating that he would retire in 1910 (he didn't need to "run" for office in any event - he was dictator and iron hand ruler in a country where democracy was but a distant dream). The interview was published in Mexico City, and according to Mexican Chronology, it "proves to be a cataclysmic error in judgment" on the part of Diaz. "Public opposition germinates, confusion in the political system rises, and a sense of impending disaster grows."

Again, does that sound like the kind of economic and social climate that a business consultant would give high marks to, when writing a report back to America? Hardly. Later, as a kind of bizarre afterthought, Diaz allows his supporters to talk him into seeking another term.


Beezley, William H. Judas at the Jockey Club and other Episodes of Porfirian Mexico.

Lincoln, Nebraska: University of Nebraska Press, 1987.

Mexican Chronology. "Mexico, 1904-1914: The Twilight of the Diaz Regime."



Street-Porter,…… [read more]

Conquest of the Americas Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,654 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Why is the New World American religious, but socially oriented, why is he also pragmatic or practical, why is he inclined to be scientific and individualistic?

It is presupposed that the American has gone through an experience where respect for the dignity and freedom of the individual and for the equality of all men have been ingrained into his consciousness and the very roots and his being.

Fr. Vitaliam Gorospe, S.J, (American philosophy, 1975) in an article written for student leaders poses four questions which American philosophers have asked time and again - and which I believe could be the explanation of whether one would consider an event as successful or simply a matter of plain defeat:

The first question is: what is the whole meaning of reality? The native Americans probably saw the harsh reality of their existence and given a choice, they would opt for accepting defeat at the hands of the Spaniards because in the ultimate reality, it is not a defeat but a victory for in bowing to the conquerors, they rise above pride and give in to the greater needs and exigencies of life.

The Spaniards or the conquerors on one hand would feel the surge of pride that they have been able to conquer the heathens. The questions that should be basic in this situation are: what do you think of yourself, of others, of the people you've just bested, of God? What do you ultimately think is the consequence of you having brought the natives to their knees? What is the consequence of this victory of the Spaniards.

Remember that Spain which is the bulwark of Catholicism was imbued with the desire to spread Christianity. This could be the basis of their elation in their victory in conquest - that they have been successful in the pursuit of their goal which is the spread of the word of God, which is therefore a virtual spiritual victory.


Schwartz, Stuart B. Victors and Vanquished.

History of the U.S.A. Laidlow Brothers, Inc. 1948.

A http. www.bedfordstmartins.com/usingseries/hovey/Schwartz.htm… [read more]

Caribbean Only Michener Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,052 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Subsequently in the novel, as African captives from Africa are acquainted throughout the islands and develop the one major dominant authority, Michener furnishes us a number of characters from those setting. Still afterward, we become entrap in the backbreaking work of a young East Indian Hindu, as that civilization arrives on the scene.

Numerous more stories are notified over the course of this long novel, entailing both genuine and visualized characters.

A pleasant characteristic of this novel is a "Fact and Fiction" segment in the front, which bestow us a near chapter-by-chapter narration of who was genuine and who is imagined.

" The Caribbean, a name to conjure with, retains an allure that is half hype and half history. Michener's magnificent novel captures the area's magnetic attraction.

He begins his story long before Columbus. From earliest times, the Caribbean has been a crossroads of culture...from the conquest of peaceful Arawaks by their more powerful neighbors, from Columbus's arrival to the bloody revolt on Haiti, from slave trade and sugar plantations to the rise of Castro.

Michener gives us 700 dramatic years in a tale that teems with revolution and romance, slavery and superstition, vivid characters and dramatic destinies.

Remarkable and praiseworthy...he treats his chosen region with immense respect...utterly engaging, deserves our close attention. (The Washington Post)"

Reading Caribbean is an education in regard to the early days of America, buccaneer, the vendetta and hostilities in South America, England, Spain, and the life of islanders who share the blue sea.

It is shown in the novel that Caribbean has become a blanket of colonial states with each one's etiquette's and cultures in unmistakable comparison to its neighbor's. In the case of Hispaniola, one part Haiti fell under French command and the other the Dominican Republic became a Spanish colony.

Both parts of the island flourished to a reasonable degree, but right off its coast lay the island of Tortuga, which became a shelter for pirates surviving under the most severe of surroundings.

The most complex human character in this novel is a great one, Christopher Columbus. In spite of the fact that he is not center stage, the novel dedicates a full chapter inquiring the debates and conflict that swirled about him during his life span.

The character of Columbus was so multi-faceted that others apprehension of him diverse completely from person to person. His self-contradictions became immediately evident when, after Columbus' third voyage, King Ferdinand of Spain dispatched a signified gentleman named Francisco de Bobadilla to check up on how he was doing. Bobadilla was also given commanding authority over the island of Hispanola that overrode that of Columbus.

The most complexly depicted of Michener's fictitious characters is the final major character that he presents. Her tale also shines on the feature about Michener's novels. Therese Vaval is a freshly nominated professor at Wellesley and an offspring of one of the novel's earlier principal characters. The astonishing and remarkable aspect of the novel is Michener's focus to historic and geographic… [read more]

Latin "Coffee Is King Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (1,053 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


Coffee dropped from fifty percent to a mere seven percent of their legal exports. Thousands of farmers left the country, many more traded coffee for more profitable cash crops such as coca and opium. And now oil has taken the place of coffee as the number one legal export, even though coffee farmers persist to employ the most workers of any industry in Columbia (Frank, 2004).

"Coffee prices in South America peaked during the late 1960s to 1970s, a pound of coffee from the fields of Columbia sold at an average of $3 per pound. But by October 2001, the price of coffee per pound had dropped to $0.62 per pound. The Columbian market at the time was regulated by The Columbia Coffee Federation (FNC); a quasi-labor union that represented coffee producers. The organization itself was founded in 1928, and quickly became the political voice for rural farmers who had little clout and minimal access to policy makers" (Frank, 2004). Almost all coffee farmers were profiting during these rewarding years. Agriculture was the business to be in if one wanted to make a good legal living in Columbia. However, the golden years didn't last long and things took a turn for the worse (Frank, 2004).

As of 2000, coffee made up almost four percent Colombian GDP and fourteen percent of Colombian exports. The coffee industry offers employment for over eight hundred thousand people, representing almost a third of entire rural employment. For more than one century coffee produced the preponderance of the country's overseas income, and today its greatest financial and social significance lies in its ability to create employment, reallocate income, and encourage area development, sustaining the social stability of the coffee zones (Ramirez-Vallejo, 2003).

Today almost ninety percent of the coffee manufacturers are very small farmers, with less than three hectares planted in coffee. These producers rely heavily upon family work in order to sustain their crops. Social, cultural, and environmental distinctiveness further augment the variety of coffee growers and production systems. "Currently, around 560,000 families are small and medium farmers who depend directly on coffee production. Most are located in the central region of Colombia. An estimated three million people depend, in one way or another, on the different stages of the coffee industry (production and harvesting, transformation, marketing, etc.)" (Ramirez-Vallejo, 2003). In addition, the country's coffee regions have attained a faster, more combined height of development first and foremost because of the long custom of growing coffee with a competitive advantage and also by the significant role that the institutional arrangement of the coffee growers has played in the past (Ramirez-Vallejo, 2003). But despite this the coffee industry as a whole in Columbia is nowhere what it used to be and the future does not look to be any brighter.

Works Cited

"Colombia -- Economy." Mongabay. Library of Congress, n.d. Web. 3 May 2012.

"Colombia History." Mongabay. Library of Congress, n.d. Web. 3 May 2012.

Frank, J. "Counter currents: Coffee in the times of… [read more]

Mexico Question #1 Asks Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (457 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Japan could have success in the Mexican market and would find that parts of their organizational cultures are quite similar while other parts are not quite the same.

Question #3 asks: Why might MNCs be interested in studying the organizational culture in Mexican firms before deciding whether to locate there? Explain your logic.

Any MNC who is expanding internationally should study the organizational cultures in the subsidiary market. Each country has a unique culture that could potentially make operations there difficult to manage. Failure to try to understand the culture of a country represents a position of hubris and can lead to catastrophic results. There are many known examples of this but one striking example was illustrated by Wal-Mart's attempt to enter the German market. Germany has a relatively collectivist country and this didn't fit well with Wal-Mart's low cost strategy. Wal-Mart's pays employees as little as it possibly can and Germany's strong labor unions weren't too keen on Wal-Mart's entry into their market. It is always important to consider culture when planning an international expansion to make sure the culture is compatible with the strategy.

Works Cited

Lupina-Wenger, A., Schneider, S., & Dick, V. (2011). Different experiences of socio-cultural integration: a European merger in Mexico. Journal of Organizational Change Management, 24(1),…… [read more]

Possible Influence of Latin Migration in the American Way of Life Research Paper

Research Paper  |  12 pages (3,079 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


¶ … Latin American Migration in the American Way of Life

Latin immigration was not a major problem in the beginning to the United States.

It was even encouraged for the construction of the railroad system across the borders. Mexican workers were also recruited to fill labor force shortages under the Bracero Accord. But when the labor supply stabilized, immigration… [read more]

Efforts to Establish a Mexican Monarchy French Intervention in Mexico 1860's Area Research Paper

Research Paper  |  4 pages (1,245 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


¶ … Mexican Monarchy (French intervention in Mexico-1860's area)

The French attempt to establish a monarchy in democratic Mexico

The French attempt to establish a monarchy in democratic Mexico

Every year, Mexicans -- and many Americans -- celebrate Cinco de Mayo. Yet celebrants outside of Mexico often have little idea of what event they are honoring. Cinco de Mayo is not, as is often mistakenly assumed, Mexico's independence day. Instead it honors the real but improbable feat of the Mexican conquest of the French forces at Puebla, Mexico, 100 miles east of Mexico City on the morning of May 5, 1862. 4,000 loyal Mexican government forces triumphed over a French army twice that size composed some of the most elite French units, including members of the French Foreign Legion (Cinco de Mayo, 2010, Think Quest).

The immediate cause justifying the French invasion was Mexico's nonpayment of its debts to creditor European nations. Originally, the French came to Mexico as part of a joint Spanish and English force, ostensibly to collect what was owed to the French by the democratically-elected government of Mexico. Mexico was heavily indebted to Europe, as a result of financing its recent conflicts with the United States and its own civil wars. In 1861, the democratically-elected president of Mexico Benito Juarez officially terminated Mexico's debt repayments for two years, to help his nation become more financially stable (Cinco de Mayo, 2010, Think Quest). The Mexican treasury was bankrupt.

As a result of this announcement, Mexico's creditor nations of Spain, Great Britain and France sent troops to Mexico to demand repayment. Spain and Great Britain were merely interested in their money, and were able to negotiate a modified schedule of repayments (Cinco history, 2006, Viva Cinco de Mayo). But France remained. Unwittingly, Juarez's action had given the French forces a perfect excuse to wage war upon the fragile Mexican government. Juarez had just fought a civil war to assert his right to govern Mexico. Juarez was a liberal and the first Mexican leader ever to be unaffiliated with the Mexican army. He was still opposed by Mexican aristocratic forces and powerful landowners, whom he had only barely defeated in the Mexican Civil War (Cinco history, 2006, Viva Cinco de Mayo).

France knew that Juarez's hold upon power was tenuous. France believed that because his control of is nation was so shaky, and the fact that Juarez was democratically elected meant that it could easily dominate the Mexican nation. In the eyes of the devout monarchist Emperor Napoleon III, Juarez's base of power in the majority of the populace, rather than in the military (the latter of which Juarez had substantially weakened by withdrawing many of its constitutional privileges) only made him easier to defeat, not stronger (Tuck 2008).

The French Emperor Napoleon was determined to colonize the democratic Latin American nation of Mexico and establish a new French Empire in the hemisphere. More so than any of the other European powers, Napoleon III hated and feared the United… [read more]

Structure and Role of the Governmental Systems as They Existed in the Caribbean Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (835 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Caribbean Government

The Structure of Spanish Rule in the Caribbean

The history of colonization and the methods of government-from-afar during the expansion of Europe's power into the New World was not as simple and direct an affair as might be believed. Countries like Spain did not simply set up offices and maintain direct home rule through military force, though military force was certainly a part of the overall governing plan. Instead, the colonial powers et up more complex system by which to subdivide the rule of their various colonies, and to make decisions at several different levels with varying spheres of influence and political power in what was truly a decentralized manner. This was not intended to remove the authority over these colonies from the central powers in the European countries, nor was this ultimately the effect of these governments, but colonial governing bodies were definitely not as centralized as domestic governments of the period. Spain's rule in the Caribbean is an excellent example of this fact.

The overarching government body that Spain put into place to handle its affairs in the Caribbean was the Royal and Supreme Council of the Indies, which handled major judicial affairs and was also the major administrative body for the colony, effectively passing down and where necessary carrying out the will of the Spanish crown in the region's colonies and in the region as a whole (Stearns & Langer 2001). This was not the only governmental body that was created by the crown to administer to the needs of its far-flung colonies, however, nor was it even the first. At the time of its creation, however, it was the supreme government body in the Caribbean and took charge of other existing departments (Stearns & Langer 2001).

The Casa de Contratcion had been established for some time before the creation of the Council of the Indies, and was in charge of controlling immigration from Spain and other areas of the world under Spanish control to the Caribbean (Stearns & Langer 2001). The Council of the Indies also had direct oversight over the audiencias that were created in various locations throughout Spain's colonies in the new world (Stearns & Langer 2001). These audiencias consisted of a president, judges, a fiscal officer that controlled the flow of money from and to the crown, as well as other officials, and these bodies of government basically held complete authority over their individual districts, though they themselves were run under the auspices of the Council of the…… [read more]

Central Caribbean Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  5 pages (1,392 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


¶ … Caribbean

Banana Republics

This chapter outlines the history of Central America in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. The history comprises a couple of main parts - the advent of the banana economy and the opening of the Panama Canal.

Banana plantations became the first major industry in Central America, and brought about the development of some key infrastructure.

The most important infrastructure development, however, was the building of the Panama Canal, linking the Atlantic to the Pacific.

Both of these events account for the rapidly growing U.S. influence in the area. The reading shows how fruit traders from the U.S. were responsible for much of the development of trade in Central America. Eventually, the United States succeeded in building the canal, something other powers such as the French had failed to do.

The events of this era have left a long legacy on the region. Before the banana plantations, the United States was not a major player in Central America. However, as the nation became bolder it began to exert a greater influence in the region. The British began to withdraw, setting the stage for a 20th century in which the United States played an active role in the politics of the region. The U.S. has routinely taken sides in various disputes, right up to the overthrow of Manuel Noriega in the 1990s.

We also see how some of the unique demographic features of the region emerged. The laborers who worked on the Panama Canal, for example, would go on to shape that nation's diverse populace. The influx of black laborers into the Caribbean coast of Honduras and Nicaragua has also resulted in a population diversity that ultimately has caused problems for the governments of those nations.

Invading Guatemala

This reading presents three distinct views of the Spanish conquest of Guatemala. It is an interesting juxtaposition. We see the Spanish conquistador Pedro de Alvarado, who wraps up his warfare as religious duty. His righteousness, he feels, gives him justification for the conquest. Yet he is viewed by the natives as only happy with war and precious metal. He has, to them, no love of their land or any desire to govern that land with justice and equity in mind.

Perhaps the most surprising part of this account is that from the Nahua veteran. That Alvarado would display contempt for those who opposed him is understandable, but he clearly displayed contempt even for his allies. The infidels, as he termed them, were apparently not worth of God's grace.

From this conquest flows some of the problems in the region today. Many of the natives are originally from Mexico, and are not indigenous to the area. They bought into the dream of the conquistador only to be left out of any rewards. As a result, they were forced to stay. This also resulted in a severe distrust of the Europeans. The waging of war had not resulted in distrust as that was a common activity in the region… [read more]

Cafta the Central America Free Trade Agreement Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (2,671 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+



The Central America Free Trade Agreement was a free trade agreement made between the United States of America and Costa Rica, Guatemala, Nicaragua, Honduras, El Salvador and the Dominican Republic. It was the first agreement of this type to take place between the U.S.A. And countries under development. Agreements are made in order to allow countries to work together… [read more]

Mexico or Mesoamerica Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (2,707 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2



The history of Mexico can be extended back at least 20,000 years based on archaeological evidence showing signs of human habitation north of the Valley of Mexico. The people of Northern Mexico then and later were hunters and gatherers in a semi-desert area. Agriculture began in the region around 3,000 B.C. A number of related civilizations emerged in the… [read more]

Southwest History Susan Shelby Magoffin Term Paper

Term Paper  |  20 pages (5,912 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Santa Fe was quiet at the time, with only the sound of marching heard at the time. The new Mexicans could have welcomed the American forces for promise of protection they offered against the Texans. But only few of them quietly received the arriving American troops and the suspicion was that resistance was silenced by Governor Manuel Armijo who was… [read more]

History of Mexico Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,136 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Bullfighting in Mexico

At ten minutes before 4 p.m. local time on Sunday afternoon, matadors in bullrings all over Spain and Mexico kneel in arena chapels and to La Virgen de la Macarena to protect them, then at exactly 4 p.m. A bugle sounds and the matadors go forth to meet their destiny. A gate swings open moments later and a two-thousand pound bull bred to kill charges into the arena as the matadors stare either straight ahead or down at the ground, many continuing to pray silently. Preceding the matadors and the banderillos, are the picadors on padded horses, lances pointing skyward, and as they draw close to the barrear, they tip their hats to the dignitaries, then slide behind the shoulder-high protective barricades that shield them from the arena. The matadors confer with their managers while swinging their capes to test the wind, and the banderilleros, who will be the first to test the bull, move to the opposite side of the ring and wait with the senior matador for the first bull. When the bull enters, the capeadores wave their capes at him in an effort to incite a charge, however they must never pass the bull, that is for the matador only. Having watch how the bull charges, the matador enters the ring and the corrida begins.

William Beezley demonstrates the cultural evolution in Mexico by using sporting events and activities to show how the society changed from an agricultural economy in the early 1800's to one of industrial in the 1900's. According to Beezley, the adoption of various sports reflect the developmental stages and attitudes of the separate sectors of society, as each sport was adapted to blend into the local customs.

Bullfighting was introduced to the Mexican culture by the Spanish during the 1500's, and has not only become a national symbol of Mexican society, but has come to reflect the social structure of the country as well, regarding seating and program structure. The social elite and foreigners are generally dressed in modern fashions of foreign origin and sit in the shade of the grandstand, while the lower class audience are dressed in more traditional fashion and sit in the sunny areas. This order was established by the middle of the nineteenth century, during which time the country was being ruled by a succession of powerful dictators who often presided over the ceremonies, awarding matadors for exceptional performances and/or allowing certain bulls to live if they had shown particular bravery. The hierarchy of president, matador, banderilleros, picadores, elite spectators and the common masses, all demonstrate the necessary dependence of each group to ensure a successful conclusion.

Mexicans view bullfighting as an exciting display of skill and bravery, and regard it as a celebration of traditional cultural ideals concerning machismo.

Bullfights, called "Corrida de Toros" in Mexico, generally begin on December 25th and continue every Sunday until April. At each bullfighting event, six bulls are fought by three matadors, and the spectacle begins with a… [read more]

Global Business Strategies Vincent Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,374 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


The necessity of economic integration in Venezuela, one of the world's largest producers and exporters of petroleum is visualized from the fact that the performance of the economy is directly affected by and vulnerable to the changes in volatile oil business. The oil industry with heavy inflow of foreign exchange gives little scope for other manufacturing industries to sustain. During the 80's, the falling oil exports and radical collapse of the Bolivar from 4.3 per dollar in 1983 to 14.5 in 1988 worsened the situation. In 1989 a policy package based on liberalization of economy, lowering of external tariff, floating exchange rate was launched to obviate the situation During 1990s the oil sector was opened for foreign investment. There was no success. [Venezuela and Regional Integration in South America]

In the early 2000 it is seen that economic integration Brazil and Argentina joining Mercosur is the only way out. Being the member of Andean Group it is not possible on the part of Venezuela to join the Mercosur with the rigid laws of Andean Pact. The integration with Brazil is crucial for Venezuela. It will have direct impact on the Venezelan Oil industry, since Brazil is an importer of Oil. In order to strengthen the mechanism of regional integration of northern states of Brazil incorporating the dynamics of Mercosur, Brazil also agrees for preferential treatment to Venezuela. By joining the Mercousr, the sectors in which Venezuela has comparative advantage like energy, textiles, some agricultural products, and mine will find a great market support in Brazil. The mine reserves in southern part of Venezuela are yet to be developed and the hydraulic resources concentrated in southern part are yet to be exploited. [Venezuela and Regional Integration in South America]

The on going program "Conquest of the South" aiming at development of resources of in the southern part are inhibited by financial and technological resources. Since Venezuela has already opened its market to Colombia, U.S. And Mexico the entry of Brazil in the Venezuelan market would not have any adverse impact in the domestic industry. The investors of international arena are much attracted by the FDI flowing from Brazil. With the cheaper labor, cheap and abundant energy and a weaker monetary unit especially with the advantageous geographic location of Venezuela i.e. The gateway to South America from European and U.S. costs Venezuela will be the crucial part of the integration in America. [Venezuela and Regional Integration in South America]

The history of humanity is exhibiting integration of different peoples and cultures in one way or the other. Since the time immemorial cultural and economic integration is taking place between neighbor tribes and clans, out of the curiosity of exchange of goods. The territorial occupation and domination also caused integration. The economic integration is association of nations for harmonious economic pursuits with a view to flattening differences among nations, preserved by the age-old cultural barriers and tensions. In addition to the economic pursuits the integration among nations results in dynamic growth of the… [read more]

Wars of Principle Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (896 words)
Style: Chicago  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+


This event provided the catalyst for nearly 150 years of simmering international tensions between Argentina and the United Kingdom, as the former asserted that its rightfully held territory had been usurped, while the latter remained steadfast in its insistence that a rightful claim of sovereignty had been made. As modern scholars note of the 1833 disputed claim, "the islands were not res nullius, but they were not yet clearly recognized by the international community as being under one nation's sovereignty & #8230; (and) Britain hoped to use this fluid situation to finally solidify its claim,"3 and this distinction is perhaps the most

2. Ibid.

3. Lowell S. Gustafson. The sovereignty dispute over the Falkland (Malvinas) Islands, (Oxford University Press, 1988), 25.

important clue in ascertaining whether or not the United Kingdom's use of force in 1982 was morally or lawfully justifiable.

Whenever two nations engage in armed combat to decide control over a disputed territory, the loss of human life, destruction of property and societal upheaval which is the inevitable result must be carefully balanced against clear strategic objectives. In the case of the Falklands War, Argentina's decision to invade the islands and defy British claims of sovereignty -- a gamble which ultimately caused thousands of casualties on both sides -- was weighed against the concern that Europeans may attempt a second effort at imperialism in the Southern Hemisphere by claiming Antarctica as their own. Research on the geopolitical strategies underpinning Argentina's move to invade the Falklands indicates that, "according to the Argentine geopolitical school, and indeed that of Brazil and Chile, control of the South Atlantic and a firm presence in the Antarctic region was bound up with the 'strategic triangle' of the Southern Cone -- the Falklands, Tierra Del Fuego (The Drake Passage) and the periphery of the Antarctic peninsula."4 Indeed, the United Kingdom's choice to launch such a spirited defense of the Falklands, which resulted in the Argentinians surrendering just two months after the conflict began, was premised largely in its leaders' belief that Antarctica represented a new frontier in terms of economic exploration. When the totality of the situation is examined objectively, it becomes clear that the British quashing of Argentina's invasion of the Falkland Islands was not an act of unjustified aggression, or imperialistic stubbornness, but rather one part of a larger strategic agenda based on a legitimate claim of title.

4. Lawrence Freedman and Virginia Gamba-Stonehouse. Signals of war: the Falklands conflict of 1982. (Princeton: Faber & Faber, 1990), 5.


Coll, Alberto R., and Anthony C. Arend, eds. The Falklands war: lessons for strategy, diplomacy, and international law. Allen & Unwin, 1985.

Freedman, Lawrence, and Virginia Gamba-Stonehouse. Signals of war: the…… [read more]

Mexico Is a Country With a Long Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (770 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Mexico is a country with a long and rich cultural heritage and history. Mexico has been a country for much longer than the United States has been a country, and as those with some knowledge of American history know, part of the United States formerly was a part of Mexico, lost in wars and treaties. In my web exploration of Mexico, I learned things about the country of which I was not aware. There are many vibrant colors and beautiful cities and small towns across the land. The geography of the country is also fascinating. It is a country with a rich tradition of agriculture -- there are a lot of delicious fruits and vegetables that grow there into which the people make delicious cuisine. There is a much richer indigenous food culture in Mexico than in the United States, which has adopted the cuisines of several other cultures into/as its own. I find that one of the best aspects of traveling is being able to taste and eat many of the native dishes of the country. In learning about Mexico, I became very interested in the kinds of foods that are traditional as compared to the few foods from Mexico that most people outside of the country know about.

There are many beautiful beaches, as much of the country is on a coast, as well as many interesting places to dive. As compared with the United States, there are less beaches and coastline of the U.S., as most of the continental U.S. lies between two coasts, whereas more of Mexico is on the water. There are underwater caves or caves that begin on the surface and lead to water within them. This seems like a country where there is a lot for visitors to explore. This is a country where visitors and inhabitants have many options of how to explore the country -- of course one can travel by car or bus, but also by boat, by foot, and by bicycle.

There is a balance between large cities, and rural towns in Mexico as well. So there is the opportunity to experience urban culture and nightlife as well as the chance to escape the big city, and retreat to the simple life of the Mexican countryside. There are elements of modern culture and development…… [read more]

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