Study "Latin America / Mexico / Caribbean" Essays 111-165

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Guantanamo Bay Term Paper

… An additional 16 voted for the Cuban independence measure and abstained from the Platt Amendment (Mellen, 2004). These votes from the hypocritical members of the Senate would have defeated the Platt Amendment had they not changed their position so drastically… [read more]

H.B. Fuller Term Paper

… However, I also believe that Fuller cannot be held solely responsible for the addictions. Much of the addiction of street children stems from the social conditions in which they are forced to live. In essence, it is a combination of both the social conditions and the access to such a harmful, addictive inhalant that is to blame. So, Fuller is only responsible for part of the addiction problem. However, I do feel that Fuller is responsible for the actions of its subsidiaries. If Fuller is making money off of the product (which they are), then they can hardly blame someone else for the problem while they are pocketing the proceeds. Furthermore, a subsidiary, by definition, is a company that is completely controlled by another company. In this case, Fuller controls their subsidiaries and is responsible for their actions.

Question #2

Again, H.B. Fuller did not conduct itself in an appropriate manner. First of all, H.B. Fuller blamed the "social conditions" in third world countries for the addiction problem. However, Fuller also knew that their product was relatively easy for Central American street children to get and they were very aware that their product was causing such harm. If this problem had occurred within the United States where the living conditions are much better, H.B. Fuller would not be as morally wrong because there would not be other detrimental factors that would cause such abuse. In the case of Central America, Fuller did nothing to help social conditions. They blamed the abuse on poor social conditions and continued to contribute to the problem instead of fix it.

Question #3

The thing that I feel the company could have done differently was to not manufacture the product in a country where such conditions exist. If they are, in fact, priding themselves on being such a socially responsible company (which they do), Fuller would have considered the social factors involved in manufacturing such toxic chemicals and came up with an alternative solution (or geographical location) to manufacturing the glue. Since this issue has arisen, Fuller has developed a less toxic product. If they were socially responsible, this new product would have been the first one they manufactured, not an alternative to a more deadly one. [read more]

Down These Mean Streets Believe Term Paper

… Their generation questioned Anglo American hegemony over historical interpretation and their domination of the historical research agenda (Sanchez Korrol 2000). Not satisfied with merely creating "knowledge for the sake of knowledge," their goals ranged from charting innovative courses and methods… [read more]

Pyong Min's Mass Migration Term Paper

… It concerned the difference in immigrant populations in New York City neighborhoods between 1910 and 1990. The author recounts a time when "Russians, Italians, and Germans - accounted for half of all foreign born" immigrants in 1910. (Pg. 201) The chapter contains detailed maps showing the locations of immigrants in 1910 and in 1990. According to the author, Manhattan has nearly a million less people than it did in 1910. (Pg. 210) The subways and suburbs were the major culprit of this de-population. Although he addresses segregation and briefly discusses poverty, the author fails to note that almost exactly half of the city's several hundred thousand public housing units are occupied by Blacks, and the other half occupied by Hispanics. His most important observation is that the immigrants to New York City tend to settle in enclaves; for example, West Indians live in Flatbrush, Dominicans live in Washington Heights, Russians live in Brighton Beach, and yuppies live in Hoboken.

Chapter seven, written by Nancy Foner, was all about immigrant women and how immigration patterns have changed over the past hundred years. The language was vaguely feminist: "Wage work has empowered immigrant wives and mothers in late twentieth-century New York in ways that were not possible for Jewish and Italian married women of an earlier era." (Pg. 232) Here she neglects to mention that the elimination of tenement housing has lead to greater scarcity; despite the continued prevalence of women from male-dominated ethnic backgrounds, many must work simply in order so that the family may pay rent.

Chapter eight, by Steven Gold, deals with the difference in Jewish migration between the two immigration periods. He is first to note the obvious similarities: many Jews now, as before, come from Russia. Interestingly, he doesn't mention Ukraine, and as the Nazis killed most Jews in the Baltic region, referring to new Jewish immigrants as being from the "former Soviet Union" isn't specific enough. The article mostly focuses on the family structures of immigrant Jews now vs. At the turn of the century. One point that he seems to mischaracterize is the intra-Jewish conflict between German and Russian Jews that has largely been abandoned by the Jewish community. He portrays the German Jews as having helped out their Eastern neighbors, when in fact many disassociated themselves from the newcomers.

The final chapter compares pre and post-1965 Asian immigrant businesses. Here he notes the climb that Asian immigrants made into the middle class. He contrasts Japanese immigrants from the 30's, who were mostly rural peasants and blue collar, with those today, who come from middle class backgrounds as the Koreans do. He describes them as merging with American culture to a greater extent.

All of the essays in the book tend to address immigration exclusively in the context of civil liberties. This presents a poor picture of immigration, as immigration as a right has little basis for appreciation outside libertarian circles. The book also fails to note the waves of immigration from Spanish-speaking countries and… [read more]

Latino Players in Major League Term Paper

… The fan base for Latino players has been steadily growing, there is even a web site devoted exclusively to Latino players at,where fans can log on and learn all about their favorite players, including lifetime stats, and Donruss, the legendary baseball card company, is creating a series of Spanish-language collectible baseball cards. As more Latino players move into the majors, Latino managers are making their mark, too. Felipe Alou was recently hired by the San Francisco Giants to take over the manager job vacated by Dusty Baker after the World Series. "Alou was also the fourth Latin American manager born in the Caribbean Islands, the other are Mike Gonzalez, Preston G. mez and Cookie Rojas all from Cuba. Later Tany Perez (Cuba)and Tony Pena (Dominican Republic) became the fifth and sixth respectively" (Pi-Gonzalez). Alou was also the first Latino to manage an All-Star game in 1995.

It has not always been easy for Latino players to gain acceptance in baseball as Alou can attest. "In his first season he was assigned to play on a team in Lake Charles, Louisiana, but was forced to leave after only five games due to racial segregation. In 1963 he wrote an article in Sport magazine detailing the prejudice Latin players faced in the United States" (Partin et al. 24).

Like the European ethnic ballplayers who preceded them, the Hispanics have been subject to abuse, ridicule, stereotyping, and prejudice. Many of them struggled to learn the English language and encountered racism that was much more virulent than anything they had experienced in their native lands. But also like their predecessors, they became gate attractions in those cities that numbered large Latino populations, especially New York, Los Angeles, and Miami. Fernando Valenzuela, a native of Mexico, made a sensational debut with the Los Angeles Dodgers in the early 1980s. In 1993 Wayne Huizenga of the Florida Marlins launched his expansion team in the National League with a marketing strategy aimed at Miami's sizable Hispanic community (Singer et al. 51).

It has not always been easy for Latino players in the major leagues, but as their numbers grow and their talent for the game shines, they are an ever-increasing presence in America's pastime.


Partin, Clyde, et al. Encyclopedia of Ethnicity and Sports in the United States. Eds. Kirsch, George B., Othello Harris, and Claire E. Nolte. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 2000. 1-39.

Pi-Gonzalez, Amaury. "2002 World Series: An International Affair." 2002. 4 Dec. 2002.

Felipe Alou Welcomed in San Francisco." 2002. 4 Dec. 2002.

Singer, Marc, et al. Encyclopedia of Ethnicity and Sports in the United States. Eds. Kirsch, George B., Othello Harris, and Claire E. Nolte. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 2000. 40-81.

Wagenheim, Kal. Clemente!. New York: Praeger, 1973. [read more]

Maya Conquistador Term Paper

… Though these incidents have been actually in official Spanish documents but with Restall's translation, they are related through the eyes of the Maya themselves, giving an upturned perception documents thrived in Aztec literature (Project Muse). However, being the first discovery of same accounts from the Maya, it makes a significant contribution to the ethnographic and chronological literature of history (Caribbean and Latin America, April 2000).

This compilation of firsthand Mayan notes represents another point-of-view by enlightening a tale of adaptation and endurance, where the Mayan perspective comes up from an individuality based on strong loyalty of class, family, as well as community by telling the Spanish colonization of the Yucatan peninsula (Reviews). Whereas, the common understanding of the Spanish Conquest was that of foreign defeaters instantly destroying native populations and taking up their culture (Reviews).

The author, however, aimed the title of this revisionist history to be challenging and proving where instead of Spanish conquistadors, his 'Maya conquistadors' were Mayan citizens, belonging mostly to the upper classes adjusting themselves to Spanish rule (Reviews).

Thus, the reproduction of the story in the form of English translation; Mayan accounts of the Conquest community histories, where letters, annals, petitions, municipal records from the late 16th century to the early 19th, that does conflict the primary sources that were written generally by Christianized Maya notables decades after the description of events (Project Muse). These sources, however, often taken as an unstable platform where the author based his claims that the Mayas perceived the Conquest as continuity instead than change, as a continuation of life's routine adversities (Project Muse).

However, few of the sources collected and assembled has not been translated into English gives controvertible Mayan viewpoint on the killing imposed by the Spanish, the imposition of tributes, the presentation of Christianity as well as the survival of native cultures under the rule of Spanish is given (Caribbean and Latin America, April 2000).


Thus, this exceptional new book by Matthew Restall looked at the invasion of the Yucatan peninsula from the point-of-view of late sixteenth to early nineteenth century writings of the "conquered" Mayan (Reviews). His translations of Mayan accounts as well as his examination of Spanish rule offer his reader a new way of thinking about the victory with some larger issues of colonialism (Reviews).

Finally, Restall with a unique understanding of the Mayan viewpoint on their history, their rulers, and their sense of identity; experience in a chronological manner is given through the articles in the book. It is highly recommended for those who have an interest in history. However, a general reader may find it a bit boring (Project Muse).

Works Cited

Caribbean and Latin America. The American Historical Review. Vol; 105, No: 2. April 2000.

Reviews. Seminary Co-Op. Bookstore..


The African Experience in Early Spanish America. Matthew Restall… [read more]

United States Essay

… Conclusion

The current, heavily-politicized approach to immigration policy has not proven effective, as the ongoing market failure that is illegal immigration. It was never going to be easy to find the right alignment between the demand for immigration and the needs of the United States, but there are better approaches. It is much easier to manage immigration when people are in the system than when they are illegal. If pathways are created for economic migrants to work temporarily, but not to have rights to social services, and not to have permanent residence rights, this will address the demand side without causing undue disruption to the United States economy or social structure.


Fahmy, D. (2010). Expensive alients: How much do illegal immigrants really cost? ABC News. Retrieved December 10, 2014 from

Herz, D. (2014). Root causes of current immigration crisis. Journal of Interdisciplinary Feminist Thought. Vol. 8 (1) 5.

Massey, D. (2007). Understanding America's immigration "crisis." Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society Vol. 151 (3) 309-327.

Weiner, M. (1995). The global immigration crisis: Challenge to states and to human rights. Harper Collins: New York.

Welch, M. (1996). The immigration crisis: Detention as… [read more]

Free Trade Agreements: Mostly Good News for Nations Essay

… That potential block between the U.S. And the EU could generate up to $75 billion within two years for the two trading partners (Waterfield, p. 1).

What are the main advantages that the U.S. has realized from NAFTA? From 1993 to 2003, NAFTA enjoyed 38% economic growth; Canada had 30.9% economic growth and Mexico reported 30% growth. That was in the first ten years of NAFTA (Office of the United States Trade Representative).

There are a number of advantages that have been realized by NAFTA. The elimination of tariffs helps to reduce inflation because the cost of imports is lower, and the small businesses benefit from the reduced cost of trade (Amadeo, 2013). From 1993 to 2009, the trade between Mexico, Canada and the United States increased from $142 billion to $1.6 trillion (Amadeo, p. 1). And as for agricultural exports to Canada and to Mexico from the U.S. farming community, these increased from 22% "of total U.S. farm exports in 1993," to 30% by 2007 (Amadeo, p. 1).

Moreover, NAFTA has created a surplus in financial services and in healthcare, according to Amadeo on page 1 and 2. NAFTA boosted U.S. service exports to Mexico and to Canada from $25 billion in 1993 to $106.8 billion in 2007; the imports of those services into the United States were only $35 billion, hence, a surplus was achieved.

America imported $116.2 billion worth of oil products from Mexico and Canada, mostly as shale oil, Amadeo writes (p. 2). This reduces America's dependence on oil from the Middle East, and from Venezuela.

What are the disadvantages of NAFTA? Amadeo writes that NAFTA has "made it possible for many U.S. manufacturers to move jobs to lower-cost Mexico." Also, many Mexican farmers were basically wiped out of business because of "U.S.-subsidized farm products" (because American farmers get government subsidies, they can produce crops cheaper than Mexican farmers can) (Amadeo, 2013, p. 1).

As to the movement of manufacturers to Mexico, Amadeo explains that between 1994 and 2010, the U.S. trade deficits with Mexico were $97.2 billion, which "displaced 682,900 jobs" (p. 1). Amadeo explains further though that about 116,400 jobs were lost after the year 2007, which could be attributed to the financial crisis and recession in America.

Another disadvantage was that wage growth was suppressed in the U.S. -- because some companies in America used the threat of moving to Mexico as a tactic to thwart union organizers. Hence, the workers had to decide between having a union or closing the factory, and they generally chose jobs, which hurt wages because union workers are generally better paid than non-union workers (Amadeo, p. 1).

Works Cited

Amadeo, K. (2013). Advantages of NAFTA. Retrieved August 9, 2014, from

Amadeo, K. (2013). Disadvantages of NAFTA. Retrieved August 9, 2014, from

Eiras, A.I. (2004). Why America Needs… [read more]

Pope John Paul II'S 1983 Case Study

… Instead, the Pope preached upon his arrival at the airport against subjecting school children of Catholic parents to an atheist ideology. Nicaraguan Catholics were likewise disappointed when the Pope's sermon admonished Nicaraguans to abandon "unacceptable ideological commitments."

At the Plaza speech, Hoyt (1983) and her daughter ended up mingling with farmers and other simple people who she believed had lost loved ones in the revolution and counterrevolution. The reform-minded citizens of Nicaragua had hoped for some mention of their suffering and rights, but these hopes were dashed when the Pope ignored the crowd's chants for "A prayer for our dead," "We want peace," and "We want a church on the side of the poor." The Pope's silence instead encouraged militant conservative elements to escalate counterrevolution violence; just what the reform-minded Catholics feared would happen if the Pope took sides.


Ellman, Paul. (1983, Mar. 2). A pilgrimage peppered with minefields. The Guardian, 15.

Hoyt, Katharine. (1983, Mar.). The 1983 visit of Pope John Paul… [read more]

Mexican Immigration Essay

… Mexican Immigration

Today, a significant portion of the U.S. population is made up of Mexican immigrants and their descendants and for this reason; this remains one of the country's most influential cultural and social groups. It is however important to… [read more]

Soviet Perspective of the Cuban Research Paper

… Marshal Sergei Biryuzov, who was the Soviet Rocket Forces Chief at the time, brought a market research team that arrived within Cuba. He told Khrushchev the missiles could be hidden and camouflaged through the palms (Correll, 2005).

The Cuban leadership… [read more]

Bloodlines and Race Moslem Communities Essay

… What is browning and blacking?

George Reid Andrews is the chairperson and professor in the department of history, University of Pittsburgh. He did his PhD from University of Wisconsin in 1978, with specialization in racial changes, society and culture of Latin America. His famous publication, Afro-Latin America 1800-2000, discusses the descent of black Africans into the countries of Latin America and the throughout phase of the rise and abolition of slavery in these particular areas. Andrews also discussed the economic, social, political and cultural impacts of such events shaped by the African slaves who tried hard to get rid themselves out of this misery. They brought a racial change by indulging themselves into social activities and organizations, federal government services, politics and in other such activities which can entitle them a respectful and equal citizen of the society. He discussed 1930-2000 as an era of browning and blackening, by describing that by this time, there have been too much number of Africans in Latin America that the racial heritage get mixed. Countries like Venezuela, Cuba and Brazil were trying to cope with this problem by infusing whites so that the inheritance would not get transferred to someone inferior, blacks. But when this approach entirely failed out due to lack of systematic modernization, the new national identities of Latin America started treating the existing heritage and racial mixing as "the essence of being Latin American." This phenomenon was termed as cultural browning by Andrews. During this time, the mixing of blacks in Afro-Latin American culture as a part of social circle and professionals which was initially disregarded and condemned was now nationally accepted and this provoked the emergence of several new black social movements which eventually led the continent towards blackening. The movements were mostly led by socially inferior poor blacks, who were deprived of a respectable social position despite of their skills and professionalism. Such movements were not only useful for them, as they achieved the goal by achieving dignity and identification for them, but also led towards the milestone for the racial changes in the continent and finally for the independence and abolition of slavery (Andrews 2004).


Andrews, George Reid. 2004. Afro-Latin America, 1800-2000. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Lewis, Bernard. 1990. Race and slavery in the Middle East: an historical enquiry.… [read more]

Lizard Who Had the Habit Research Paper

… ). It's a pretty scary version of the relationship between men and women but that reviewer seems to think that because Galeano is a man, he is writing about men's feelings about being vulnerable to women and how dangerous it… [read more]

Counterterrorism: MS-13 and Gangs in American Term Paper

… Counterterrorism: MS-13 and Gangs in American

Counterterrorism has always been a top importance for the FBI, but nowadays, it is the Bureau's superseding mission to prevent acts of terrorism before they happen. This determination is achieved by the Counterterrorism Division… [read more]

Public Policy Tourism Public Policy Orientation Essay

… Public Policy Tourism

Public Policy Orientation and Tourism in Costa Rica

Just 20 years ago, Costa Rica scarcely registered in a discussion on global tourism. A small republic most noted for its agriculture and its production of tropical export goods… [read more]

Comparison of Benito Juarez and Domingo Sarmiento Essay

… ¶ … Juarez and Sarmiento

Benito Juarez was the president of Mexico for five different terms in between 1858 and 1872. A lawyer and career politician by trade, Juarez was unique for a Mexican president of his era in that he had no military background. Nevertheless, he successfully led Mexican resistance against the occupying French forces and was responsible for the achievement of Mexican independence. In political philosophy, Juarez was a liberal. He opposed the dominance of both the military authorities and of the Catholic Church on Mexican society and he worked to promote a liberal society based on a capitalist economic structure modeled after the United States. Juarez also promoted the fundamental principle of the equality of all persons under the law, and at time when that equality was recognized in law in the U.S. But largely violated throughout the nation in actual practice for almost another full century. When Maximilian von Habsburg was crowned Emperor of Mexico in 1864, Juarez was offered the position of Prime Minister of Mexico. Juarez, as a nationalist, declined the offer based on his absolute opposition to monarchical rule by the Habsburgs (or any other foreign monarchy) over Mexico.

Domingo F. Sarmiento

Domingo Sarmiento was the President of Argentina from 1868 to 1874. His political philosophy was based on promoting the intellectual and social ideals of Europe since the Enlightenment. He was, by comparison to other political leaders of his era, far advanced in his thinking about the equality of persons, equal rights, and equality of social opportunity, such as in connection with the education and rights of women in society. Sarmiento was especially… [read more]

Politics - Country Case Study

… In spite of Brazil's series of crises, bloodshed was generally absent from the country's recent history. Whether it was ruled by a monarchy, a military junta, or a democracy, the country managed to get over its dark days rapidly and… [read more]

Cultural Heritage Brief History Research Paper

… It is important to point out that "Dominicanese" (the local way of speaking Spanish, interspersed with Dominican elements) is the everyday life experience of the peasant's soul and wisdom, expressed with a rustic accent and with inland flavor (Kwintessential 2008).… [read more]

Cuba High Successful Education in a Communist Research Paper

… Cuba High

Successful Education in a Communist Regime: A Comparison of Cuban and United States' High Schools

Few issues are more important when it comes to individual and national success in the modern era than education. It is in the… [read more]

Image Versus Text Term Paper

… ¶ … Political Environment

The Impact of the Art

The Artwork

Historiography -- Felix Rene Mederos Pazos

Felix Rene Mederos Pazos was an artist born in Cuba. He was a self-taught artist with no formal art training. Pazos spent much… [read more]

New World Order Thesis

… Globalization expands and accelerates the exchange of ideas and commodities over vast distances…[and] often appears to be a force of nature, a phenomenon without bounds or alternatives. But peoples' movements have shown that it is neither unalterable or inevitable."

--… [read more]

Bi-Directional Foreign Direct Investment in Panama Thesis

… Bi-Directional Foreign Direct Investment in Panama

It is now without any doubt that the Panamanian economy is met with sustainable growth. It is known that the services sector contributes mostly to the growth, which is concomitantly attributed to services offered… [read more]

Peru's Economy Thesis

… Peru is the fifth most populous nation in South America. The country lived under military rule form 1968-1980. While under military rule Perus fishmeal industry and some of its mining companies, banks and petroleum companies were nationalized. Even after Peru… [read more]

Che Guevara Thesis

… Che Guevara

Ernesto "Che" Guevara, more popularly known simply as Che Guevara was born on June 14, 1928. He is perhaps the most controversial Argentine Marxist Rebel and Revolutionary in the books of history. His controversial stance does not diminish… [read more]

Regional Economic Integration Thesis

… Regional Economic Integration

In which regional or multilateral trade blocs does Brazil participate?

Brazil is a founding member of the regional Latin American common market Mercosur.

Which is the most important one?

Brazil, often called a 'middle income country,' has proved to be a defining voice of leadership in Mercosur. Mercosur was created to advance regional middle-income Latin and Central American interests in the 1990s. Unlike low-income countries like China and India, and high-income trading blocks and countries like the European Union (EU) nations and the United States, middle-income nations like Brazil "have not fared very well in the last twenty years, and the ones that have opened the most to the international economy have done even worse" (Trade blocs, neoliberalism, and the quality of life in Latin America, 2004, UCLA).

What other countries are involved in this (most important) organization?

Mercosur was formed in 1991 as an agreement between Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay, and Uruguay, all of which were deemed to have similar regional interests and levels of economic development (Trade blocs, neoliberalism, and the quality of life in Latin America, 2004, UCLA).

What role does this organization play? Does it only relate to trade?

The major emphasis of Mercosur's advocacy surrounds trade, but also pertains to issues of poverty eradication and cultural integrity. Especially after the creation of NAFTA, the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) that exists between the U.S., Mexico and Canada, the organization has attempted to voice a contrarian perspective of free trade in the hemisphere. It attempts to critique the 'neoliberal' agenda in favor of free trade that it believes has harmed the emerging middle-income countries of the region (Trade blocs, neoliberalism, and the quality of life in Latin America, 2004, UCLA).

To what extent does this organization make rules and enforce them?

The countries of Mercosur mainly act as a collective pressure-point against more powerful international actors such as the United States. The organization has applied pressure to the U.S. To agree to lower its subsidies on its agricultural goods although, according to Washington these subsides should be contested within the framework of the World Trade Organization alone (Trade blocs, neoliberalism, and the quality of life in Latin America, 2004, UCLA).

How might this organization influence the marketing and business strategies of Apple computer (iPod) and web marketing?

Because of the difficulty in securing funding for higher education and the need for a college… [read more]

U.S. Immigration Essay

… ¶ … immigration in the United States. Specifically it will discuss the best way to address immigration in the U.S. Immigration is a huge issue for the United States, not because there is no room for the immigrants who want to come here to build a better life, but because so many of these immigrants are not here legally, they are clogging the social services in many states, and many of them commit crimes and other atrocities. Thus, immigration is not the problem, illegal immigration is the real problem, and the solution to this problem is not building a border fence or increasing border security. When people want to get into the country they will, at just about any cost. The real solution is improving conditions in Mexico so they do not want to migrate to this area illegally, they can remain in their country and make a decent living, without coming into the U.S.

Immigration has been an issue in America ever since its inception. The English colonists were the first immigrants, usurping land from the Native Americans and changing the face of the country forever. Ever since then, the poor, the downtrodden, and the hungry have come to America for the chance to live the "American dream," and to make better lives for themselves and their families. The Irish, the Chinese, the Vietnamese, the Italians, the Puerto Ricans, and just about any other peoples on the Earth have come here for the opportunities that exist, and the current crop of immigrants, many Hispanic, come for many of the same reasons. They come to make better lives and to give their families hope for the future. The problem is that in many Latin American countries, they cannot do this in their own country, there is simply no way for them to make a decent living with their skills, and so, they turn to the United States, with all its opportunities, to create a better life. This is understandable, but the people who come here illegally are clogging the welfare and healthcare systems, along with the educational system, and… [read more]

20th Century US Foreign Policy Research Proposal

… Truman in Hypothetical Crisis

As President Harry Truman faces the Russian missile crisis in Venezuela, the situation in the states is one of cautious alert. President Truman is known for his hard line position when it comes to the Russians… [read more]

Magical Reels Term Paper

… Magical Reels

King, John. Magical Reels: A History of Cinema in Latin America. Critical Studies in Latin American and Iberian Cultures. London: Verso, 2000.

Increasingly, scholars are focused on analyzing art, including cinematic art, not in the abstract, but as… [read more]

Bolivarian Revolution in Venezuela Term Paper

… Bolivarian Revolution in Venezuela

The Bolivarian Revolution refers to an accumulated social association as well as political development in Venezuela. Its most well-known leader is Hugo Chavez, the originator of the Fifth Republic Movement plus the current President of Venezuela.… [read more]

U.S. Slave Population Term Paper

… Slave Population in the U.S.

Slave Populations in the U.S.

When it comes to the issue of the importation of slaves into the Western Hemisphere from Africa, it may come as a surprise to some students and novices that the… [read more]

Facilitating a Geographical Corporate Environment Research Paper

… During these years, it was possible to argue that no specific social agenda for poverty reduction or increased social benefits was needed, since the benefits of economic growth would eventually spread out to the population as a whole. [13] In fact, economic growth led to improvements in income for all social sectors, but income inequality also increased, lending credence to the mistaken notion that economic development is based on increased exploitation of the working class (Schwartzman, p. 29)."

Recommmendations to TNGY

The information contained in this report should serve as a working tool by which the company might set goals for establishing its business in the country of Brazil. There is opportunity to demonstrate environmental humanitarianism, and to meld the business of TNGY with the goals of the people of Brazil and its government in a way that TNGY becomes an integral part of the life and business of Brazil. This can be while at the same time taking advantage of the opportunities doing business in Brazil affords the company to realize certain economic gains of its own, and to expand its operations throughout South America.

The political ally in Brazil is an aspect of TNGY's position in the country that much work should be put into cultivating, but it is cautioned that TNGY remain politically non-committed, and instead focus on assisting in the social development and technological advancement of the country, which will serve TNGY well. Brazil has had a historic unstable political situation in the country, and so long as TNGY remains focused on the business, affording Brazil the opportunity to experience the mutual benefit of TNGY's humanitarian philanthropy and technological advancement, then the current government and any subsequent administration will be welcoming of TNGY in Brazil.

The ways in which TNGY can support Brazilian infrastructure is to education, express a desire to see Brazil's urban areas renewed in ways that are environmentally and socially healthy and productive. TNGY should be a good employer, paying the Brazilians a reasonable living wage, and should contribute to either a group medical plan, or support a healthcare agenda that will benefit TNGY's workers.

TNGY must practice ecologically sound business practices, and embrace Brazil's natural in a way that demonstrates an understanding of the importance of Brazil's natural resources to the rest of the world.

Reference List

Balderston, Daniel, Mike Gonzalez, and Ana M.L pez, eds. Encyclopedia of Contemporary Latin American and Caribbean Cultures. London: Routledge, 2000.


Moreno, Albrecht. "Bossa Nova::Novo Brasil the Significance of Bossa Nova as a Brazilian Popular Music." Latin American Research Review 17, no. 2 (1982): 129-141.


Schwartzman, Simon. "Brazil: The Social Agenda." Daedalus 129, no. 2 (2000): 29. [read more]

Capoeira as With Any Style of Dance Term Paper

… Capoeira

As with any style of dance that stems back a century or more in time, controversy exists about the exact origination of the Afro-Brazilian dance and martial arts called capoeira. However, scholars do agree that it is a "strategic blend of fight and dance" (Delgado & Munoz 21), which combines "a game, a fight, and a dance, composed of kicks, acrobatics, and traditional Kongo dance movements." One does not call it "dancing" or "fighting" but rather "playing." Most, when asked to define it in a word, call it an art.

According to the Encyclopedia of Contemporary Latin and Caribbean Cultures, capoeira arose during the colonial period of the sixteenth century along with the slaves who came from Africa. As a form of self-defense and resistance, the art developed especially among the lower social classes, criminals and vagrants of the Afro-Brazilian community. It combines martial art and dance with extremely graceful flowing moves and almost choreographed sequences. The music and beat is a critical component, either in the form of songs, clapping or one or several instruments -- berimbau, pandeiro, agogo, reco-reco and atabaque. Because the slaves were forbidden to practice any of their African self-defense arts, they disguised it as a dance, and "played" the round, fluid, low-to-the-ground movements to musical beats.

To prepare for a secret attack, cover power and strength with a show of weakness and anticipate the opponent's moves were all necessary in a society of slavery and subjugation. In the quilombos, mountain settlements of escaped slaves from different parts of Africa, the residents shared cultural forms. For example, the settlement of Palmares, Brazil, eventually expanded to a community of over 20,000. These settlements were not immune to attack from the outside and thus the residents began to practice capoeira as a means to prepare for the inevitable (Rauschart 8). Some say the moves -- in which only head, hands, and feet touch the ground -- were developed to avoid dirtying the white religious clothes (Balderston, Gonzalez & Lopez). When slavery was abolished in Brazil in 1888, all written records of the martial art were eliminated. However, the oral tradition… [read more]

Age of Discovery Term Paper

… ¶ … Age of Discovery:

The so-called "Age of Discovery" occurred between 1450 and 1650, roughly beginning during the early years of the Renaissance Period in Europe and ending with the "Age of Reason." During this two hundred year span,… [read more]

Spain Mercantilist Policies Were the Ruling Economic Term Paper

… Spain

Mercantilist policies were the ruling economic trend in most European nations including Spain. This type of economy happens when a country exports more good than import goods to provide a prosperous economic standard of living to its citizens, high tax revenues and more funds to finance wars and armaments. Because of this, countries raced to find colonies and to make use of these countries resources and raw materials for the benefit of the motherland (Patria). Spain was one of the leading European countries that discovered most of Asian lands and Latin America, establishing colonies and making them profitable for Spain.

However, Spain experienced economic decline during the 16th century due to a lot of factors that included loss of the middle class, emerging number of privileged people who did not want to work, emigration that showed decline in the population and left no manpower in most of Spain's agricultural lands making them dependent on imported foodstuffs, exaggerated taxation and inflation, corruption in their government and the plagues that disturbed Europe. Political unrest also stemmed up from Spain's loss in the Thirty-Years War, religion overshadowing politics, and the Treaty of Pyranees that ended the reign of Spain as a great power. To add, that the biggest expenditure of Spain, which refers to maintenance of troops and maintenance of forces in different European countries, was also one of the major reasons why Spain acquired a lot of debts and inability to pay them.

Because of the decline in the condition of the motherland, the Bourbon kings of the 18th Century Spain made economic and political changes, not only in Spain, but also in their colonies as well. These Bourbon reforms started with Philip V, the first Bourbon king of Spain and reached its peak with Charles III. The band-aid solution of the Bourbon reforms aimed to address economic problems… [read more]

Cuba and Eisenhower Term Paper

… ¶ … Eisenhower Administration & Cuba


The objective of this work is to research the political developments in Cuba during the Eisenhower administration relating to how the Eisenhower administration viewed and reacted… [read more]

Costa Rica Because of Its Political Stability Term Paper

… Costa Rica because of its political stability and neutrality is often called "Latin America Switzerland" as it didn't experience any considerable civil conflicts, which are typical nearly for all countries of Latin America since its foundation in 1821. Like most of Latin American countries Costa Rica is predominantly agricultural country and its economy is mainly based on agricultural exports. But in recent years country's government makes considerable steps in order to attract investments in the country mainly in industrial sector and high tech sector of industry. By the end of 2005 Costa Rica showed progress in tourist business growth (19%), export increase (12.8%) and stable economic growth of 5%, which is predicted for current year.

Till nowadays politics of Costa Rica was the most predictable and steady in the region, compared to political conflicts and crisis of other Latin American countries and Caribbean. Such phenomenon is mainly explained by absence of populist ideas, developed middle class and educated politicians. Costa Rica has a democratic tradition based on constitutional democracy. After the victory of Don Pepe Figueres coalition in short civil war of 1948 Costa Rica took a course on stable development with protection of national interests. Figueres nationalized banking system and abolished army and started permanent investments in social sector. Educative opportunities in the country promote growth of middle class and what is more important make people politically literate, which is not often common for other countries of the region. A characteristic feature of the country is that it had constitutionally abolished army substituting it by Police and National Guard. In many ways absence of state army… [read more]

Bush Government Policy in Haiti Term Paper

… Bush Government Policy in Haiti

During the winter of 2003, even as war loomed in Iraq and terrorist suspects were thought to be concealed behind every nook and corner, one would have imagined that the last thing on the minds… [read more]

Diaz vs. Montaigne Barbarism' According to Bernal Term Paper

… Diaz vs. Montaigne

Barbarism' According to Bernal Diaz and Michel de Montaigne

In his famous essay "Of Cannibals," the French Renaissance philosopher Michel de Montaigne (1533-1592) observes that in general, humanity tends to criticize or degrade that which it does… [read more]

International Marketing Plan Term Paper

… S. They placed it in the appropriate containers and filled out the necessary documents and forms, following all export standards and procedures for inspection, etc. It was to shipped via barge form Costa Rica to the U.S. After the cargo… [read more]

Political Science - International Relations Term Paper

… Political Science - International Relations

The paper discusses the rationality of creating a social institution for Latin American countries, resembling the mechanisms of the European Union. This is because Brazil, Argentina and other Latin American countries recently met in a… [read more]

Peace Freedom Is the Foundation Term Paper

… Borno ruled without the benefit of a legislature, which had been dissolved in 1917 under Dartiguenave, until elections were again permitted in 1930. The legislature, after several ballots, elected mulatto Stenio Vincent to the presidency.

The occupation of Haiti continued… [read more]

Garcia Girls Lost Their Accents Term Paper

… ¶ … Garcia Girls Lost Their Accents and the Tortilla Curtain

The fictional protagonists of How the Garcia Girls Lost Their Accents and The Tortilla Curtain, coupled with real-life historical studies of immigrants such as the case studies of the immigrants from Farmingvile show that there is no universal Latin American experience of immigration in the United States. Individuals of different genders, class backgrounds, who come from different Latin American regions and who have different reasons for immigrating to the United States have completely different experiences of their new nation. The individuals who have answered economic or political freedom's 'call,' to different degrees, all experience struggles with their identities, and are all dwellers on the 'borders' of their new American identities -- but these borders may be psychological rather than physical, for some immigrants.

The Garcia girls come to the United States because of political reasons. They are forced to leave the Dominican Republic because their father got in trouble with the Dominican secret police for protesting the nation's ruling military dictatorship. In contrast, the immigrants of The Tortilla Curtain immigrate illegally, rather than with the help of the CIA like the Garcia girls. The immigrants from Mexico of The Tortilla Curtain do so to better their way of life, economically, rater than for political reasons, when they flee their nation to make their way to Southern California via Mexico.

The Garcia girls come from a privileged background. They had enjoyed many, if not more of the toys and luxuries of their American counterparts. True, they still have trouble fitting in, when they come to America. The sexual mores of their parent's generation in Latin America were profoundly different than that of the girl's American experiences. Because of her conservative upbringing, Carla in particular has trouble fitting into her American school settings because of her perceived prudishness. American boys harass her. Later, she is nearly molested a man in a car who can see her only as an over sexualized Latina. However, Yolanda begins to write in English to express her 'voice,' finding the more equitable conditions between men and women in the United States to suit her developing sense of a writer's self. T. Coraghessan Boyle, in contrast, shows the blatant and oppressive physical conditions of racism that immigrants face on a daily basis, in a more concentrated narrative format, but with more immediacy -- the Mexicans fleeing poverty experience some… [read more]

Dominican Republic Term Paper

… Dominican Republic

Taino Indians used to inhabit the island, which was named by Christopher Columbus Hispaniola for at least 5,000 years prior to his discovery of America for the Europeans. The inhabitants of Taino were very gentle, liberal, and accommodating… [read more]

Company International Term Paper

… Soong also points out that there is a "fun" factor. To upwardly mobile Latin Americans, cell phones are seen as a status symbol. Soong concludes that "This, in conjunction with the other factors described above, has contributed to the explosion of cellular phone use" It is also a good reason to enter the market now, while it is on its upswing.


Of all the nations in Latin America that could become markets for our products and services, Chile seems to be the soundest choice for reasons of its projected internal cellular phone market growth, its current financial rating globally, its relatively stable government, and the ease of reaching the market from the United States, both physically and culturally.

In addition, the market itself seems to offer the best possible conditions: receptivity, sufficient maturity that one is not having to 'educate' one's customers, and a long way to go before the market becomes saturated.

Works Cited

CIA World Factbook. (April 21, 2005). CIA. 17 May 2005

Howell, Llewelyn D. "Human Rights and International Business. USA Today 126.2630 (November 1997), 35. Questia. 17 May 2005

James, Harvey S., Jr. And Murray Weidenbaum. When Businesses Cross International Borders: Strategic Alliances and Their Alternatives. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers, 1993.

Kogut, Bruce. "International Business: The New Bottom Line. Foreign Policy (Spring 1998) 152+. Questia. 17 May 2005

Soong, Roland. "Cellular Telephony in Chile." (April 20, 2003) Zonalatina. 17 May 2005.

Urso, Nicole. "Overseeing new opportunities: The DR industry depends on domestic and international teleservices companies to provide a smorgasbord of marketing options." Response (2005). Highbeam. 17 May 2005.

Appendix A

Chilean Cell Phone Usage Facts

89% of users rent their cellular phones

58% are the sole users, 18% share between two people, 12% share among three people, and 12% share among four or more people

9% use it for business reasons only, 47% use it for personal reasons only and 44% use it for both… [read more]

Brazil Early History and Discover Term Paper

… Coffee and rubber reached peaking heights towards the end of the 19th century. The bustling rubber in the Amazon region somehow suffered some wound and a halt with the establishment of rubber plantations in Southeast Asia after 1912.

Brazil joined… [read more]

Globalization and Labor Term Paper

… Just as their counterparts on the line in Sunnyvale, California, Malaysian electronics workers have a difficult time organizing unions, in fact there are zero unions in both places (Bacon Pp). G. Rajasekaran, secretary general of the Malaysian Trades Union Congress,… [read more]

Cross-Cultural Analysis of the Republic Term Paper

… political unrest and civil strife reappeared constantly. Strong parties developed along conservative and liberal lines; the conservatives favored centralism and participation by the church in government and education, and the liberals supported federalism, anticlericalism, and some measure of social legislation… [read more]

Growth for Chiquita, the 90s Term Paper

… So, the first cause of the financial problems that the company faced was related to the restrictions the European Community imposed on banana imports from Latin America and to the changes the company needed to make in order to adapt… [read more]

Southern Cone Common Market: Mercosur Term Paper

… Industry contains only processing and small-scale type manufacturing. Import: chemical, petroleum and consumer goods Tin mines are closing due to competition from Southeast Asia. Bolivia became an associate member of Southern cone Common Market 1996.

Paraguay's workers are by more… [read more]

Fidel Castro Was a Communist Term Paper

… Still further, when the Soviet Union's policies diverged from the Castro beliefs for internationalist behavior, he did not hesitate to criticize them. Castro was willing to stake even the relationship with the U.S.S.R. On his belief in developing Cuba (Robbins,… [read more]

Theodore Roosevelt's Foreign Policy Term Paper

… American History

Theodore Roosevelt's foreign policies concerning nations in Asia and Latin America has brought only benefits for the United States at the expense of the countries that his administration had taken advantaged of.

During his term, the United States' control of the Philippines in Asia illustrates how Roosevelt sought to control other nations by providing financial and military assistance to poor nations. His administration had been actively involved in providing aid to nations who are struggling to gain independents from their colonizers. Thus, in the Philippines, the U.S. fought with Filipinos against Spain; it assumed a similar role in controlling the Cuba, Puerto Rico, and even China. Furthermore, Roosevelt brokered an agreement with Japan regulating the entry of Japanese immigrants in the country, called the "Gentleman's Agreement."

Specific foreign policy issues Roosevelt had been involved with during his term include his plan to construct the Panama Canal and what was popularly known… [read more]

Dominican Culture Term Paper

… Generally at the top of the social class spectrum are Caucasians with European backgrounds; those at the bottom are generally black, poor and usually decedents of slaves or recent arrivals from Haiti (Kryzanek & Wiarda, 1992).

Much of the middle class of the population comes from a mulatto background (Kryzanek & Wiarda, 1992). Almost 80% of the population lives in poverty (Kryzanek & Wiarda, 1992). This is most evident in cities where poor neighborhoods are evident filled with "naked children, malnutrition, and the unemployed and open sewers" (Kryzanek & Wiarda, 1992, p. 60).

At the heart of traditional Dominican culture is music, dance and art, which reflect a variety of different cultures that have influenced the area over time (Lonely Planet, 2004). Among the more popular forms of music and dance is the meringue, followed by the bachata which is a kind of Dominican country music (Lonely Planet, 2004).

Though Spanish is the official language of the Dominican Language, other languages are spoken frequently including English and some French Dialects (Brown & Standish, 1999).

Within the Dominican Republic primary education is compulsory up to six grades, though generally only 17% of schools in rural areas offer all these grades (U.S.L.C., 2004). Generally the enrollment is low and drop out rate high, in part because poor students generally are required to purchase their own textbooks (U.S.L.C., 2004). Despite this strides have been made to engage more students in higher education and learning and a number of collegiate level institutions have recently opened in the country (U.S.L.C., 2004).

The Dominican Republic is characterized by a rich culture infused with many different Haitian, Indian and Spanish influences. Though a majority of the population is poor, the culture is rich with tradition and heritage, much like any other place. Mealtimes take on special significance, particularly lunchtime where family members of all ages gather for an extended period of time to converse about their day and their experiences. Visitors coming to the country are most likely to make note of the rich artistic, musical and architectural heritage, which is very influenced by Spanish design and native Indian customs among others.


Brown, Isabel K. & Standish, Peter. "Culture and Customs of the Dominican Republic."

Westport, Greenwood Press, 1999.

Kryzanek, Michael J. & Wiarda, Howard J. "The Dominican Republic." Boulder,

Westview Press, 1992.

Lonely Planet. "Dominican Republic Culture." 22, October 2004. Available:

U.S. Library… [read more]

Revolution of 1958 Inevitable? Cuba Term Paper

… They knew who their enemy was and were ready to fight against him and win. It didn't matter who they were: peasants, workers and businessmen were ready to fight together. So the main participants of the future Revolution were: proletarians,… [read more]

Geography the African Influence Term Paper

… African language was also introduced to the area, mixing with the Spanish that was also being introduced and altering the pronunciation of many words.

Spanish influence is also (and perhaps primarily) very prominent in Middle and South America. Spanish diseases, completely unknown to the region before the arrival of Europeans, that were brought by the colonists are still present in many areas. Domestic animals unknown to the area were brought and reproduced quickly, populating the lands. The introduction of Christianity, which is highly influential throughout the development of Middle and South American culture, was a result of Spanish influence. The Spanish founded many of the major cities as well, including Havana, Quito, Lima, and Buenos Aires. The Spanish forced the natives to sweat loyalty to a new king and religion, and turned them into a disorganized peasant race; the area is still highly dependent on the master/peasant social structure. Of course, most Middle and South American countries today speak languages that are based largely on Spanish. The Spanish also bred with the native Indians to create the mestizo race of the area.


Bradford, Burns. Latin America, a Concise Interpretative History. New York: Prentice Hall, 1972. Archived online at [read more]

Pepperidge Farm Product Into Costa Term Paper

… It is estimated that there are now 1.5 million hectares of remaining primary forest and of this 400,000 hectares are not in primary protected area and are thus being used for producing timber. It is also estimated that deforestation rates… [read more]

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