Study "Latin America / Mexico / Caribbean" Essays 166-220

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Globalization of Hybrid Cultures Argentine Term Paper

… The more commercialized and heightened the internet grows in Latin America, the worse the marginality and dependence of this population grow.

The height of enthusiasm for the internet also raised computer sales and internet connectivity in Latin America. While more… [read more]


Machoism Introduction and Biography Matthew Term Paper

… Then presenting a different perspective Gietzelt (1997) takes the concept of machoism as presented by Gutmann as against the feminine role and experience in the past.

Conclusion

Throuhg his book Gutmann degenders the Mexican society and radically changes the conventional image of the Macho man in the nation. It reinvents the conceptions of masculinity and renders the past perceptions invalid. In a way his book opens the way to the Masculine movement providing careful insight to the male thinking.

Yet, Gutmann realizes that his book lacks in certain ways and thus, he wrote early on in his book that there was a need, "of more long-term scholarly and political significance, through investigation of the vagaries of gender identities amid the realities of gender oppression, we may come to better understand the persistence of gender variations and instability amid enduring patterns of inequality" (p. 4)

References

Matthew C. Gutmann 1996 The Meanings of Macho: Being a Man in Mexico City. Berkeley: University of California Press

Schwalbe, Michael, The Meanings of Macho: Being a Man in Mexico City.(book reviews). Vol. 75, Social Forces, 06-01-1997, pp 1488(2).

Bullock, Chris J. The Meanings of Macho: Being a Man in Mexico City by Matthew C. Gutmann (362-364) THE JOURNAL OF MEN'S STUDIES VOLUME 6 NUMBER 3 SPRING 1998

Gietzelt, D, 'Book Review "The meanings of macho: being a man in Mexico city" by Matthew C. Gutmann', The Australian Jouranal of Anthropology, 8, 3, pp 345-347 1997

Levinson, Bradley A. Masculinities and Femininities in the Mexican Secundaria: Notes Toward an Institutional Practice of… [read more]


U.S. State Department Advisor Charged Term Paper

… These children are forced to work long hour in unhealthy conditions. It is estimated that 20 million children in Latin America between the ages of five and fourteen work illegally in full time jobs.

The opinions about the number of street kids that exist vary. The United Nations estimates that there are between 30 and 170 million worldwide. The average age for street children living in Latin America is nine. In certain Latin American countries including Guatemala and Brazil Street Children are rounded up and then tortured beaten and killed, this is referred to as death squads.(Street Children In Latin America) In 1996 Guatemalan police were convicted of murdering street kids, they were fourteen and ten. It took two years and international pressure to bring the case to trial. It is a very rare occurrence for police to be convicted of these crimes in Latin America.(Child Labor)

This issue is crucial for U.S. interests in the region because the education and nurturing of children is the best investment that a government can make if that government wants to insure that there is health and prosperity in the future. If America is interested in the long-term success of the Latin American region it would be persuaded to address all of the human rights issues that exist in Latin America.

What policies would you recommend to protect these interests and further the development of the region?

To protect the economic interests in this region I would policies should be created that would ultimately encourage Latin America's financial independence. I would make sure that the policies introduced are not just policies that American politicians create for the region. I would have a summit involving all the leaders in that region and a selected group of citizens from the region. These citizens would come from every socio-economic level that exists within the country. The summit would encourage Latin America to make their own economic policies that would benefit their citizens and ultimately their economies. Of course there would be American advisors and economists there to aid the region and to make suggestions. But ultimately Latin America would have to create its own policy that fits the needs of its citizens and the culture. America should not try to dictate what Latin America does relative to its economy because what works here doesn't work everywhere.

The issue of human rights is something that needs to be addressed in a more direct manner. My policy on Street Children in particular would be to build trade schools with dormitories in the region as soon as possible. In these schools children would receive a basic education of reading, writing and arithmetic, children under thirteen would stay in school for six hours. Children thirteen and up would stay in school for four hours and learn a trade for four hours and they would be paid for learning. This way they have a place to live, they are earning an education, learning a trade, and aiding in the economic success… [read more]


El Salvador Financing for Development Term Paper

… World Bank loans and technical assistance will be complemented by support from the IFC, aimed at helping Salvadoran industry gain access to finance to improve its competitiveness.

This has been accompanied by structural reform initiatives by the government, including trade liberalization, financial sector strengthening, re-privatization of state-owned financial institutions and other enterprises, pension reform and the improvement of the competitive environment for private investment.

In January 2001, these were complemented by the government's decision to adopt the U.S. dollar as legal tender in a two-currency system.

Addressing Systemic Issues

Although economic recovery has been impressive since 1992, per capita GDP remains below pre-war levels. Economic expansion has been led by the non-tradable sectors, and merchandise exports, although growing, remain substantially below levels in the early 1970s. High growth needs to be sustained but it must also be broad-based to reduce poverty.

The government's strategy is to shift El Salvador's competitive base from low-cost labor to high productivity -- moving from a comparative to a competitive advantage. A priority of the government is to ensure that the financial sector facilitates productivity-based growth.

Improving agricultural growth and productivity remains a priority for El Salvador, but sustained progress in poverty reduction will also require increasing access by the poor to non-agricultural rural activities, which can yield higher and more stable incomes.

Over the past year, however, the economy has suffered several shocks, including two earthquakes which killed 1,260 people, destroyed 194,000 homes, and severely damaged eight hospitals and 113 of 361 health facilities, which represent about 55% of the country's capacity to deliver health services.

The "fast-track" legislation that is on the verge of being passed by the U.S. Congress will carry with it protectionist side agreements gutting some of the incentives for maquila owners granted by the Caribbean Basin Initiative.

In addition, the September 11 terrorist attacks in the U.S. deepened the slowdown in the global economy, which had already resulted in worsening terms of trade and depressed coffee prices.

Bibliography

Jonathan Heller and Sarah McFarlane, Self-Development:Creating Hope in El Salvador, El Platenar, El Salvador & Seattle, Washington

Gasper F. Lo Biondo, S.J. And Rafael A. Pleitez, Woodstock Theological Center, 1997

Karen Hansen-Kuhn, The Development GAP in Tom Barry and Martha Honey (ed.) Free Trade Area of the Americas Volume 6,… [read more]


Hugo Chavez: Buffoon, Autocrat, Television Entertainer Essay

… That was the irony as Chavez used oil money to bolster his power.

How did he treat his subordinates? He rambles on for hours, according to the video and comments by Alberto Barrera, and his ministers and guests "have to put up with his rambling on for six hours…telling the same joke." He has his cabinet doing foolish things like investigating the death of Simon Bolivar -- wasting time and money -- on an assassination that happened 200 years ago. He treats his cabinet like they were children, is the answer to that part of the question. When Nelson Mora, an activist paid by the government, told Chavez on television that most of the people in a barrio that were to be moved to a new "socialist city," and that Chavez had been deceived into believing the people did want to move. On live TV Chavez told Mora that he was an infiltrator, and put Mora down. Freedom of expression is okay as long as it does not come from his supporters who may wish to criticize him.

Does he allow others to criticize him? Yes, in fact the press is free in Venezuela, but the video indicates that Chavez hates to hear people speaking out against him. Since he believes that he is always right, when his supporters criticize him he is furious. In the video a newspaper that had generally been supportive of Chavez ran a story saying that the healthcare in Venezuela was "in a coma," Chavez went on television, waving the article on the front page, attacking the most staunch supporter of the government. He equated the criticism of the healthcare in Venezuela with "Yankee imperialism," and said no one was exempt from his wrath. He called it a "media war" and clearly, Chavez displays neurotic behaviors, which takes away from his otherwise fairly slick propaganda on his Sunday television monologues. [read more]


Panama Canal Controversy Book Report

… Panama Canal Controversy

The book by Paul B. Ryan is a very thorough and very detailed look at how the Panama Canal deal was made -- and built -- by the United States. As the book explains, it was not… [read more]


Media Venezuela President Hugo Chavez Term Paper

… It appears Chavez is pointing a gun at his own head; or, it appears Chavez is making the "crazy" or "loco en la cabeza" signal with his index finger. The same image is used on the front page teaser and accompanies the story itself.

Irish Examiner

The Irish Examiner uses an image of Chavez in the peak of health, with a full head of hair. He is shown in deep thought or inspired as if he is a priest in church. His neck is back and he gazes upward in peaceful thought, as if he has been inspired by God. This image corresponds with the headline that reads, "Chavez still captivates."

Headline

The text of the headline contains subtexts related to the article's tone and editorial content.

BBC

"Chavez in 'most difficult hours.'" This headline suggests that Chavez only has hours to live. However, images of the Venezuelan people also suggest that the people are contending with a "most difficult hour" of the nation's life because it is uncertain who will lead after Chavez dies.

CNN

"Venezuela accuses enemies of poisoning ailing Chavez." This headline stresses a sensationalistic stance, that Chavez has been sabotaged by his enemies, instead of just having cancer. The headline grabs the reader's attention, but the article is less about the accusation of poisoning than it is about the worsening health of the president.

Miami Herald

"Venezuela: Chavez's health 'very delicate' due to new infection." This is a matter-of-fact and straightforward headline that corresponds with the tone of the article.

Irish Examiner

"Chavez still captivates." The headline takes a tone of sympathy and admiration for the controversial Venezuelan president. Emphasis is on the charisma of the leader, his persona, and his politics.

Tone/Spin

The tone reveals the editorial spin.

BBC

The BBC article stresses the need for the Chavez administration to "reassure" the people, who are "gathered to pray for his health." The article is accompanied by images and a headline that is more about the Venezuelan people than about the president.

CNN

The CNN article mentions the accusation that Chavez was poisoned, which seem outlandish in light of the fact that there is no dispute the president has been receiving chemotherapy for cancer.

Miami Herald

The Miami Herald article dryly focuses on the details of Chavez's health, but also mentions rumors that the president might also be dead. The emphasis is on the fact that Chavez does not have long to live, but no speculation as to the future of the country is being offered.

Irish Examiner

This is an opinion piece that paints Chavez in a more positive light than any of the other English-language sources. His "charm" and his "resolute in hid defense of the poor" are mentioned. The author refers to the negative perceptions of Chavez's policies, but is rather apologetic in tone. It is possible that the Irish Examiner takes a sympathetic approach to the Venezuelan president in light of the nation's own domestic politics and attitudes towards the British. In… [read more]


Mice Would Best Suited Business Proposal

… )

Bogota has a vibrant nightlife and a huge selection of restaurants, bars, clubs and cultural activities. Bogota's cuisine, music, and dancing are renowned.

Technology

The 2005 census shows that 99.5% of households have electricity, 98.7% have water service, whilst 87.9% have telephone service.

Bogota seems to be a technologically-savvy city. It is the center of telecommunications as well as of printing and publishing (Bogota, my city!) and has more than 300 local and satellite TV stations, as well as multiple radio channels.

It has its technology fairs as well as at least one museum devoted to technology -- which shows the focus that he city gives to technology.

Bogota too imports much technology, and houses many of its central firms that specialize in technology, these include companies such as GM Colmotores, Compania Colombiana Automotriz, and Ecopetrol ((Bogota, my city!).

Each of its hotels and resorts are equipped with the latest technology, and technological innovation companies include Zemoga, a digital innovation agency, and RWD Technologies de Colombia. Its universities offer well-attended courses in technology and engineering too.

Colombia in general has ambitious plans including disseminating high-speed Internet throughout the country, giving grants and low-interest loans to tech entrepreneurs, and promoting 4G cell availability. Bogota, in specific, has plans for becoming the next Silicon Valley in the coming 5 years. In the meantime, however, Bogota has 10 million residents with only one in four who have a smartphone and many who have no internet. The reality, says Damon Bron (Nov 16, 2012) is very different than its ideals.

Reference

Bogota, my city! Economics in Bogota

http://bogotathecity8b.blogspot.com/2009/11/economics-in-bogota.html

Bogota my city! Politics in Bogota http://bogotathecity8b.blogspot.com/2009/11/politics-in-bogota.html

Bogota: convention Bureau.

http://www.bogotacvb.com/en/discover-bogota

Comunidad Segura. (14/02/2007)"Bogota's lesson in crime fighting." http://www.comunidadesegura.org/?q=en/node/32000

Damon Bron (Nov 16, 2012) Tech Trek: Bogota, Colombia http://www.techhive.com/article/2014014/tech-trek-bogota-columbia.html

Foreignpolicy.com. "The Global Cities Index 2010."

http://www.foreignpolicy.com/node/373401

Henderson, James D.; Delpar, Helen; Brungardt, Maurice Philip; Richard N. Weldon (2000). A reference guide to Latin American history. M.E. Sharpe.

I love Bogota! Culture in Bogota

http://bogotathecity8b.blogspot.com/2009/11/culture-in-bogota.html lboro.ac.uk GaWC. "The World According to GaWC 2008".. http://www.lboro.ac.uk/gawc/world2008t.html

Rincon, C. (ND) Bogota, Athens of S. America

http://www.javeriana.edu.co/pensar/Prof-Dr.-Rinc%F3n.pdf

Visit Colombia.

http://www.ecotet.com/visitcolombia/economy.htm [read more]


Cuban Embargo American-Cuban Sanctions Implications Thesis

… The entire situation took over five months to resolve and only heightened tensions between the United States and Cuba. It called into question the reasonableness of many existing Cuban sanctions when an orphaned child could become the symbol of long-held… [read more]


Brazil the Economy Essay

… Culture

Brazilian culture is very diverse due to its geography. It is the result of the melting pot of several races that have shaped Brazilian culture. Portuguese are not the only ones who have contributed towards Brazilian culture by components… [read more]


Establishment of a Family Essay

… This ideal, while sought by the woman in this scenario is without doubt something that the present circumstances do not allow. For these reasons it is the belief that the central figure in this scenario would be more profitable to leave the present community and establish the family of the focal figure in this scenario in another community freed from the obligations to the government that are presently forced upon the woman central in this scenario.

Establishment of one's family in a new community can be accomplished through taking part in the community activities and by becoming involved with community initiatives. Involvement in the community includes involvement in charitable organizations, town meetings, and other goal accomplishment set out in the town or city. As noted in the work of Carr "the reforms did not produce the desired effects, for the evidence suggests that the new officials, rather than defend the commoners, were often corrupt or marginalized by the regidores." (2000, p.182) Therefore, the ability of the small farmer to realize a profit under these circumstances has been greatly diminished and for this reason, the woman in the scenario at issue in this study would be better served to relocate her family so that her work resulted in a contribution to her family rather than to tax collectors of the ruling party.

Bibliography

Carr, Raymond (2000) Spain: A History. Oxford University Press. 2000.

Flynn, Maureen M. (1985) Charitable Ritual in Late Medieval and Early Modern Spain. The Sixteenth Century Journal. Vol. 16 No. 3 Autumn 1985.

Laws of the Bourbon Monarchy (nd)

Nader, Helen (nd) Liberty in Abolutionist Spain. LLRU 3910.

Penry, S. Elizabeth (2000) The Collective and the Public in Latin America. Sussex, 2000.

qaqchas and to… [read more]


Corruption in Venezuela Essay

… (Niam, 2001, p.1) The multinational corporations closed in Venezuela in large numbers and many are reported to have shrunken their subsidiaries in Venezuela and as well new foreign investment in sectors and energy was "very limited and the number of foreign tourists" fell during the latter part of the 1990s. (Niam, 2001, p.1)

III. The Present

It is reported in the work of Gates (2009) to be such that Venezuelans "once again view corruption as a nuisance, much like they did during the early decades of the two-party democracy." (p.5) Reports state that New York Times reporter, Simon Romero "has marveled at the 'quietitude that has greeted Venezuela's latest corruption scandals' in contrast to the 'rollicking reactions to the alcohol ban' during the week before Easter in 2007." (Gates, 2009, p.5) In a survey conducted in 2007 it is reported that corruption is not held by Venezuelans to be their primary problem with only 4.5% stating that corruption was the country's primary problem in 2007, which was only down slightly from 6% in 2004." (Gates, 2009, p.5) Unemployment is stated as being "presently ranked as the problem of significant importance in Venezuela presently. In fact, the view of Venezuelans on corruption's effect on politics is reported as being "considerably better than the rest of the region. Latin Americans on average rate corruption's effect on political life much higher at 3.3 out of 5. Furthermore, as noted above, unlike the rest of Latin Americans, Venezuelans believe the police, not political parties, are the actors most affected by corruption. In contrast, Latin Americans as a whole believed political parties were the most affected agencies." (Gates, 2009, p.5)

Summary and Conclusion

The view of Venezuelans prior to the 1990s of corruption was that it was merely a nuisance however this changed during the 1990s with the changing economic environment in the country. This belief resulted in changes to the political system. However, the present view of corruption in Venezuela is a return to the belief that corruption is just a nuisance and one that little affect the everyday life of the people of Venezuela.

Bibliography

Gates, Leslie (2009) The Politics of Corruption in Venezuela. Retrieved from: http://lasa.international.pitt.edu/members/congress-papers/lasa2009/files/GatesLeslie.pdf

Niam, Moises (2001) The… [read more]


Water Privatization in Bolivia: Assessment Essay

… (Bakker, 2003) From the perspective of the private investors, they continue to contend that when a government cannot effectively and efficiently handle the treatment, financing, and distribution of water, privatization is a beneficial option to consumers. (Budds & Gordon, 2003) The proponents of water privatization in Bolivia continue to make similar arguments despite the riots, chaos, and violence.

References:

Assies, Willem. "David vs. Goliath in Cochabamba: Water, Rights, Neoliberalism, and the Revival of Social Protest in Bolivia." Latin American Perspectives, Vol. 30, No. 3, 14 -- 36, 2003.

Bakker, Karen. "A Political Ecology of Water Privatization." Studies in Political Economy, Vol. 70, 35 -- 58, 2003.

Bakker, Karen. "The 'Commons' Versus the 'Commodity': Alter-globalization, Anti-privatization and the Human Right to Water in the Global South." Antipode, 2007. Available from http://aguabolivia.org/wp-content/uploads/2010/07/1er_04_documento_-Bakker2007.pdf.

Budds, Jessica, & McGranahan, Gordon. "Are the debates on water privatization missing the point? Experiences from Africa, Asia and Latin America." Environment and Urbanization, Vol. 15, No. 2, 87 -- 114, 2003.

Budds, Jessica, & McGranahan, Gordon. "Privatization and the Provision of Urban Water and Sanitation in Africa, Asia, and Latin America." International Institute for Environment and Development, London, 2003. Available from http://www.acquaevita.info/pag/pdf/Water_dp1.pdf.

Israel, Debra K. "Impact of Increase Access and Price on Household Water Use in Urban Bolivia." The Journal of Environment Development, Vol. 16, No. 1, 58 -- 83, 2007.

Kohl, Benjamin. "Privatization Bolivian Style: A Cautionary Tale." International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, Vol. 28, No. 4, 2004.

Kohl, Benjamin. "Stabilizing neoliberalism in Bolivia: popular participation and privatization." Political Geography, Vol. 21, 449 -- 472, 2002.

Mulreany, John P., Calikoglu, Sule, Ruiz, Sonia, & Sapsin, Jason W. "Water privatization and public health in Latin America (La privatizacion del abastecimiento de agua y la salud publica en America Latina)" Rev Panam Salud Publica, Vol. 19, No. 1, 2006. Available from http://www.scielosp.org/scielo.php?pid=S1020-49892006000100004&script=sci_arttext.

Nickson, Andrew, & Vargas, Claudia. "The Limitation of Water Regulation: The Failure of the Cochabamba Concession in Bolivia." Bulletin of Latin American Research, Vol. 21, No. 1, 99 -- 120, 2002.

Perreault, Thomas. "Custom and Contradiction: Rural Water Governance and the Politics of Usos y Costumbres in Bolivia's Irrigator's Movement." Annals of the Association of American Geographers, Vol. 98, No. 4, 834 -- 854, 2008.

Perreault, Thomas. "State restructuring and the scale politics of rural water governance in Bolivia." Environment and Planning, Vol. 37, No. 2, 263 -- 284, 2005.

Shiva, Vandana. WATER WARS: Privatization, Pollution and Profit. Sound End Press, Cambridge, 2002.

Shultz, Jim. "Bolivia's War Over Water." We are Everywhere. Verso Press, 2003. Available from http://devhector.uchastings.edu/faculty-administration/faculty/roht-arriaza/class-website/docs/law-and-development/law-and-development09-bolivias-war-over-water.pdf.

Shultz, Jim. "Bolivia: The Water War Widens." NACLA Report on the Americas: Privatization in the Americas, 24 -- 30, 2003. Available from http://www2.fiu.edu/~hudsonv/Shultz.pdf.

Spronk, Susan. "Struggles against Accumulation by Dispossession in Bolivia: The Political Economy of Nature Resource." Latin American Perspectives, Vol. 34, No. 2, 31 -- 47, 2007.

Swyngedouw, Erik. "Dispossessing H20: The Contested Terrain of Water Privatization." Capitalism Nature Socialism, Vol. 16, No. 1, 2005.

Trawick, Paul. "Against the Privatization of Water:… [read more]


Bringing Amazon.com to Chile Research Paper

… Bringing Amazon.com to Chile

Sizing up Amazon:

The present expansion possibilities of Amazon.com can be studied with relation to the current competition the company faces from various other book marketing companies and the need to expand into new markets. The… [read more]


International Marketing Western Hoteliers Owning Property Term Paper

… International Marketing

Western hoteliers owning property in Venezuela should consider selling those properties. There is a high degree of political risk in Venezuela, and this relates to the Chavez government's positioning itself as a champion of socialism. Several industries and companies have been nationalized in recent years, and the rhetoric from the regime is staunchly anti-capitalist. The greatest political risk is to assets that have strategic and visible value to the regime's political ambitions. This may mean that Western hotels are not in the government's sightlines as of now, but there remains a high degree of political risk associated with having a presence in Venezuela.

The risk of nationalization is significant in Venezuela. There are two components to this risk. Downside risk is high, in that a lost property not only involves a loss on the original investment, but also on the revenue streams provided by that hotel. However, it is also worth noting that even if the company retains the property, there could be a loss of revenue as the political climate reduces the amount of business travelers and tourists to Venezuela. Selling the properties may allow the company to retain at least some value from the properties in question.

With respect to the risk of nationalization, the Venezuelan government has indicated that it does not respect the property rights of foreign firms in Venezuela. However, the hotel industry does not typically affect the average Venezuelan, so is not valuable as a political tool. Also, the high degree of fragmentation in the industry also means that a nationalization program would need to be widespread. Thus, it would be difficult for the Venezuelan government to target the hotel industry, and such a move would have low political value. However, if revenues are reduced as a result of decreased travel to Venezuela, then certainly this particular type of political risk can be hedged through higher prices. Only if the company believes… [read more]


Angola, as Many of the African Countries Term Paper

… Angola, as many of the African countries was the result of colonial pressures up to its declaration of independence from Portugal in 1975. The United Nations recognized this event a year later; however, to this day, Angola can hardly be… [read more]


El Mozote American Complicity in the Massacre Term Paper

… El Mozote

American Complicity in the Massacre at El Mozote

Today, Latin America is seen as a continent very much distinguished by its divisive political violence, an approach toward democracy beset by resistance, an ethnic makeup rife with historical tensions… [read more]


Cuban Americans Research Paper

… Cuban Americans

The relationship between Cuba and the U.S. involves a history of tension, and, in the recent decades, a history of Cubans struggling to leave their country for the states. The presence of a dictatorship in Cuba and the… [read more]


Author Gilderhus' View of History Discussion Chapter

… ¶ … Gilderhus's view of history

Coming from a scholar focused on the subject of history, Mark Gilderhus's studies are mainly intended to provide the world with collegiate level materials. His texts relate to history lasting from the ancient times and until the present day. The author has a tendency to write from a perspective associated to Western thinking, instead of approaching the topic from a more general point-of-view.

In spite of the fact that Gilderhus's writings are intended for those attending college, they are not difficult to digest by the masses, as they are reachable to virtually anyone interested in history.

Gilderhus provides important narratives relating to international relations, also giving a fascinating set of political insights. His center of attention is the U.S. And mostly everything related to the country's history. He is proficient in domains such as U.S. military history and historiography.

Being the previous head of the Society for Historians of American Foreign Relations, it is only natural for him to be experienced in the line of work. In addition to that, Gilderhus is one of America's top historians when regarding affairs between the U.S. And Latin America.

"The second century: U.S. -- Latin American relations since 1889" is focused on the relationships between the U.S. And Latin America during a period lasting from the late nineteenth century and the end of the Cold War.

The author goes across subjects such as politics and economy, concentrating on two aspects. The first feature is connected to the division of power in the Western world. The other relates to the fact that countries in Latin America have generally expressed less consenting attitude to the concept of them having to depend on world superpowers. Gilderhus does not hesitate to mention the detail that while most states in Latin America have accepted their fate,… [read more]


Cuba Presented in This Summary Thesis

… ¶ … Cuba

Presented in this summary are four documents that could very well inform possibilities of policy shifts of the United States of America (U.S.) with respect the highly controversial small Communist state of Cuba. The first document entitled, With Castro Stepping Down, What is Next for Cuba and the Western Hemisphere, documents the hearing of the Subcommittee on the Western Hemisphere, Committee on Foreign Affairs, House of Representatives, Second Session of the 110th Congress. Attended by members of the subcommittee as well as representatives from the academe and policy think-tanks on the Western Hemisphere/the Americas with the proceedings presided by subcommittee chair, Honorable Eliot L. Engel. The report included eight prepared statements and a letter from the Organization of American States dated March 3, 2008 regarding the crisis in the Andean region involving Colombia, Ecuador, and Venezuela on the killing of FARC leader, Raul Reyes; how this changes how the U.S. deals with these countries in light of the regional security agreement to cut off support for states that are found to be cuddling or providing support for identified terrorist organizations. One of the key points raised in the document is the consensus that the decision of Fidel Castro to relinquish power to his younger brother, Raul Castro, as an open door for Cuba to become a democracy. However, there is an apparent distrust that Raul may be no different from Fidel. The main issue of the hearing was how to best achieve democracy in Cuba in light of the change in administration. Key issues raised include: Will there be changes in U.S. policy toward Cuba with Fidel Castro relinquishing his rule to his younger brother? Second, what are the repercussions of the different scenarios of changing, not changing, or a policy somewhere in between these two? Third, should the U.S. reach out to the new administration or should it wait for Raul Castro's administration to act on changing the course of its relations with the U.S.

In light of what is viewed as a positive development under the administration of Raul Castro

, most of the speakers, whether for or against the U.S. embargo, expressed that U.S. policy in Cuba needs to be viewed not only in light of the internal political developments but should also take into account the reconfiguration of alliances among the different governments in Latin America, as well as the accompanying dynamics in the region. It also takes into consideration other developments in U.S. relations with other nations in Latin America based on the main strategy of dialogue and engagement with the fourfold focus of democratic consolidation; prosperity… [read more]


Bolivia the History of Bolivia Is Characterized Thesis

… Bolivia

The history of Bolivia is characterized by instability and political turmoil. Modern-day Bolivia gained independence in 1820. However, because the country was carved from three distinct regions, each with its own people, it was never able to gain any measure of stability. The country maintained a strong indigenous population of Quechua and Aymara peoples, as they were insulated from European diseases by the Andean highlands. However, the native population was enslaved, beginning a pattern of colonialism and wealth inequality that into the 21st century (Infoplease, 2009). Recently, however, the country has been governed by an Aymara named Evo Morales, who has promised to establish social justice in the country.

Morales was elected on a landslide majority, one of the few leaders in Bolivian history to do so. Bolivia retains its status as a democratic republic, as Morales has attained his power by democratic means. However, he is establishing socialism and aligning the country with dictatorships such Cuba and Venezuela. Morales has nationalized the railway and has his eye on other industries as well (Ibid).

Under Morales, Bolivia's foreign relations policies have become decidedly anti-American. This trend began when he aligned himself with Hugo Chavez and Fidel Castro. Further actions have included accepting financing from Venezuela, legalizing coca production, kicking the U.S. ambassador out of the country, and suspending DEA agents (Ibid). Bolivia's policy of antagonizing the United States plays well domestically, and so it is likely to continue into the future.

Demographically, Bolivia is a relatively small country. It has just under 10 million people. They are split among a variety of ethnic groups. The largest group is the Quechua, who make up 30% of the population. Those of mixed native and European ancestry (mestizo) account for another 30%. Morales' tribe, the Aymara, account for 25%. (CIA World FactBook, 2009) the population is only 15% white, and these live mostly in the Santa Cruz province. The main religion is Catholicism. The main language is Spanish, but many of the native peoples do not speak it. They only speak their Quechua or Aymara tongue. Bolivia has relatively strong population growth, a result of their high birth rate (22.1 / 1000) and moderate death rate (7.35 / 1000) (Ibid).

Bolivia's economy is gradually being nationalized by the Evo Morales government. The main industries are mining and natural gas. There is a moderate agricultural sector. Private sector investment is the lowest in Latin America, a function of the rampant nationalization. The GDP per capita is only $4,500, one of the lowest levels in the Americas. There is widespread underemployment (Ibid). The inflation rate of 11.5% is evidence that the economy lacks stability, despite a positive balance of payments. Bolivia does, however, have… [read more]


Spain the Modern History of Spain's Economy Term Paper

… Spain

The modern history of Spain's economy began with the end of Franco's reign in 1975. Since that time, Spain has embarked on a long modernization process that has resulted in the country becoming the world's 8th largest economy, and… [read more]


Standardization and Customization Thesis

… Apple in Brazil: Always Apple, In Any Language

Controversies still rage regarding the efficacy of Apple's branding and service in Latin America, but observers could never have guessed this from the warm reception Apple received when it opened its first store in Brazil in 2008. When the Apple Corporation opened its flagship store, the normally sleek, cool, edgy brand took a slightly different tone, in keeping with the spirit of the Brazilian nation. At the reception Apple customers were "served Champagne and canapes, and a few blond, long haired, tall girls dressed in Apple Black guaranteed that eyes had something to look at other than Apple's product line that was presented on the usual wooden tables with all devices functional for people to play with" (Apple Brazil: Apple Shop Paulista opens officially, 2008, Visual Media). The store looked familiar, only with a few Brazilian beauties added for spice.

Thus Brazil's fun sense of sexuality and indulgence made itself manifest, along with the sleek technology and always-helpful Apple consultants that are part of the Apple brand around the globe, wherever its stores may be found. Apple's trademark ethos in the U.S. is that of a customer-friendly, customized company. When the brand goes abroad, it tries to be a chameleon, all the while keeping true to Apple's core (no pun intended) image. Apple's website for Brazil has the company's trademark white background, but the color scheme is warmer, less sleek and metallic, and boasts more smiling faces. This is in contrast with the more conceptually designed American site. Instead of the new MacBook Pro and the simulated images of various Apple product screens, Apple in Brazil uses the white, clean space that is Apple to use a slightly more traditional marketing strategy stressing happy people having fun, superposed upon Apple slogans and images. Both the American and Brazilian websites offer iPhone and iTunes support, and support for all company products -- but the Brazilian layout design is consistent for all Latin American countries.

Apple's success as a company is rooted in the fact that it is always 'Apple,' no matter what, no matter where. However, it does try to tailor itself to the needs of the individual marketplace, at least in terms of slight alterations of image. The design for the product in both America and Brazil is similar, stressing slenderness and ease of use. Young professionals who are tech-savvy are the target consumers, and they are likely to be affluent, given that the cutting-edge technology in both regions is pricy. This is particularly true of Brazil, given the high mark-up of prices: a 2 gigabyte iPod nano costs $328 in Brazil and $323 in its neighboring… [read more]


Isolation There Are Two Different Levels Thesis

… Isolation

There are two different levels of the Philoctetes play and its parallelism with Cuba, as these two relate to isolation. First, one needs to discuss the causes and events leading to isolation, as they appear in both the play… [read more]


Operation Condor Term Paper

… Operation Condor is considered to be one of the most important actions directed towards the subversive forces in Latin America. A plan which took place during the Cold War, more precisely in 1975 aimed at eliminating the opposition of Latin American dictators from power. However, the leaders of the countries involved soon came to be associated with a circle of death, taking into account the way in which they acted against the so called resistance, and the results their actions had on the population.

The Operation Condor "represented a striking new level of coordinated repression among the anticommunist militaries in the region, and its existence was suspected, but undocumented, until fairly recently. Condor enabled the Latin American military states to share intelligence and to hunt down, seize, and execute political opponents in combined operations across borders. Refugees fleeing military coups and repression in their own countries who sought safe havens in neighboring countries were "disappeared" in combined transnational operations" (Mcsherry, 1999) the historical background of the operations was thus the Cold War and it represented one of the traditional means through which authority could be expressed in the region.

The operations included several aspects and set in motion all the state apparatus in the countries involved. In this sense, "Operation Condor was a secret intelligence and operations system created in the 1970s through which the South American military regimes coordinated intelligence information and seized, tortured, and executed political opponents in combined cross-border operations. Condor's key members were Argentina, Chile, Uruguay, Paraguay, Bolivia, and Brazil, later joined by Ecuador and Peru. In Condor operations, combined military and paramilitary commandos "disappeared refugees who had fled coups and repression their own countries and subjected them to barbaric tortures and death. Security forces in the region classified and targeted persons on the basis of their political ideas rather than illegal acts. The regimes hunted down dissidents and leftists, union and peasant leaders, priests and nuns, intellectuals, students, and teachers as well as suspected guerrilla" (McSherry, 2002). This particular aspect is important because it underlines the actual extent of the measures taken in order to suppress the opposition forces and the elements which tried to interfere in the authoritarian regimes in Latin America. The means used to deal with these subversive forces were traditional for the communist regime as well. In this sense, the Stalinist regime applied the same techniques during the Great Purges of the late 30s.

The operation was conducted in such a manner as to include political leaders as well as regular people. Thus, foreign ministers, political leaders, important public figures who voiced their concerns against the regime of Allende, of the Argentinean regime, as well of the entire political spectrum in the countries which underwent this operation. At the same time though, the common people were also targeted. Thus "estimates say some 13,000 people died in the 1976-83 "dirty war" (Gotkine, 2004). The atrocities committed included kidnappings of children, of pregnant women, as… [read more]


Che Guevara Social Inequalities, Great Discrepancies Term Paper

… Che Guevara

Social inequalities, great discrepancies between the very wealthy and the incredibly poor are as present in today's society as they were 50 years ago. Che Guevara's revolutionary ideal of eliminating "man's exploitation of man" is still relevant today even though communist parties have been outlawed in most former communist states in Europe. Nevertheless, social equality and the profound revolutionary spirit of Che Guevara are very much alive in Latin America, a continent which is defined by great social segregation and turmoil. Che Guevara's ideal was a Cuban revolution that would resemble and continue other communist revolutions of the 20th century, i.e. The Chinese and the Russian which he had studied in detail.

Ernesto 'Che' Guevara de la Serna was born in 1928 in Argentina in a financially secure family with aristocratic roots but devout to socialist values. From the early years, Ernesto was keen on reading and closely follows the Spanish Civil War. His favorite readings included Sartre, Marx, Lenin and Engels which he would later re-discover and discuss with his friend and member of the Argentine Communist Youth, Tita. His admission into the University of Buenos Aires where he would study Medicine did… [read more]


Country Report: Spain Term Paper

… Country Report: Spain

This report will describe Spain's international competitiveness level according to different criterions which will be presented above. First of all, Spain is a member country of the European Union - one of the promoters of free trade… [read more]


State of Siege Term Paper

… ¶ … Siege is a 1972 film by Costa-Gavras, the famous Greek-French film-maker, about the interrogation and assassination of a CIA case officer by unnamed South American urban revolutionaries. Although it is not clearly acknowledged in the film, its story… [read more]


Imperial Spain 1469-1716 by Jh Elliott Term Paper

… Imperial Spain 1469-1716 by J.H. Elliot (New York: Penguin, 2002)

Contemporary Spain is not one of the dominant European powers of the current European Union, politically or economically. Yet Spanish is spoken all over the world, and Spain's former influence… [read more]


International Business Plan Business Plan

… Business Plan: Marketing to Brazil

In recent years, the economy of the Latin American, Portuguese-speaking nation of Brazil has been booming. Brazil's government has grown more democratic and friendly to doing business with the United States, partly because of the increased value of its own currency, and Brazil's domestic economy has grown and diversified in the range of the products that it exports to other lands. Today, "Brazil has one of the most advanced industrial sectors in Latin America. Accounting for one-third of GDP, Brazil's diverse industries range from automobiles and parts, other machinery and equipment, steel, textiles, shoes, cement, lumber, iron ore, tin, and petrochemicals, to computers, aircraft, and consumer durables. Most major automobile producers have established production facilities in Brazil...the country has become increasingly involved in international economic and trade policy discussions." ("Brazil," 2006, The Office of Electronic Information, Bureau of Public Affairs)

As Brazil grows increasingly international in its focus, particularly amongst its wealthy elites, but also in its middle-class population, it will face one possible conflict -- it must deal with nations, particularly America, where its native language of Portuguese is not spoken. There is a great desire in Brazil for businesspeople to sharpen their English language skills, for learning the language with an academic approach in school is very different from deploying the language in commerce, especially in technologically related fields like computers and telecommunications. Thus, a United States firm could capitalize upon a potentially expanding market and export to Brazil a series of English-language learning devices, such as CD-ROMs and DVDs that were specifically designed to orient Brazilian businesspeople in English in the language of technology and commerce.

No matter how extensive Brazil's current range exports and imports, America has an invaluable resource that cannot be replicated in Brazil. America has English-speaking native speakers of its own language and the intellectual resources to make language learning fun and accessible. While it is true that there are already well-known international language instruction programs such as Berlitz, many of these are general programs in language learning, not suited to the specific needs of the Portuguese speaker. Consider how successful a French language learning series was called "French in Action" that specifically targeted the needs and problem areas of English speakers learning French many years ago. Also, this series of English learning aides would not simply be targeted towards Brazilian speakers, but Brazilian speakers wishing to hone their English business vocabulary and cultural fluency in the ways of the United States.

To gain further fluency (no pun intended) in the English-language learning needs of Brazilians, a joint venture with a local company, or with a Brazilian university might be advisable. "Joint ventures are very common in Brazil, particularly as a way for foreign firms to compete for government contracts or in heavily regulated sectors."("Brazil: CS Market of the Month," 2006, Export.gov) The potential for joint ventures to sell… [read more]


20th Century U.S Term Paper

… 20th Century U.S.

The development of capitalism in the U.S.A. At the second half of the nineteenth century made country of the most dynamically developing industrial states. The expansion to the West, success in Mexican war and abolition of slavery contributed to transformation of the U.S.A. into regional leader in the Western Hemisphere. In late 1890's American companies started their expansion on Latin American markets so that by the first decade of the twentieth century such companies as "United Fruit Company" and others controlled nearly all agricultural exports of Latin America, paving way for penetration of other corporations on Latin American market. Such strategy of economical expansion, supported by official American government allowed the U.S.A. not only to become the richest and the most influential country in the Western hemisphere, but it also gave it the potential to influence world politics in future. Growth of mutual economic and trade ties with major European countries: Great Britain, Germany and France, still did not give the U.S.A. A chance to be treated as equal. Such relationship to the U.S.A. was much resulted by its geographical and political isolation from geopolitical processes… [read more]


U.S. Foreign Affairs Since 1898 Editorial Term Paper

… U.S. Foreign Affairs Since 1898

1898 Editorial: "Do not just remember the U.S.S. Maine -- remember your obligations as human beings and Americans" -- Regarding Senator Proctor's March 17th speech on conditions in Cuba

One of the driving goals of… [read more]


How the Hilton Might Expand Into Chile Term Paper

… Hilton/Chile

Chile -- The world's longest country offers a long list of potential investment opportunities for the Hilton Hotels Corporation

Because of the general global instability gripping the world, embarking upon a new venture by any company dependant upon tourism,… [read more]


Brazil the Federal Republic Term Paper

… Brazil

The Federal Republic of Brazil is the largest country in Latin America and has experienced great political and economic change like many of its neighbors. Originally a colony of Portugal, Brazil has been independent for almost two centuries. The nation has endured political dictators and military regimes, but has been a democracy since 1985 and is working toward fulfilling the goals of its 1988 Constitution. Friendly relations, politically and economically, with other nations and a progressive policy to try to end the social and ethnic problems that plague Brazil are positive steps the country has taken toward improvement.

The government of Brazil has followed a similar path to many other nations. The European nation of Portugal claimed Brazil in 1500 and ruled it until Brazil's independence in 1822. Despite its independence, Brazil was still ruled by Portuguese emperors until 1889 when a federal republic was established. A constitutional republic ruled from 1889-1930 until a military coup established Getulio Vargas as dictator until 1945. A string of presidents ensued until the early 1960s when it was apparent that major change was necessary. The country struggled with "high inflation, economic stagnation, and the increasing influence of radical political elements" (Pearson 3). A military coup from the armed forces in 1964 began a string of leaders including Humberto Branco, Arthur da Costa e Silva, Emilio Medici, Ernesto Geisel, and General Joao Baptista de Oliveria Figueiredo. Figueiredo opened the door to democratic principles by allowing former political exiles to return and run for office. At the end of his rule in 1985, the nation was ready for democracy. The first popular election in years ensued in 1989. The current president, Luiz Inacio da Silva (Lula) was elected in 2002 and will face the polls in October of 2006. Presidents can be elected to a maximum of two 4-year terms. President Lula has "taken a prudent fiscal path, warning that social reforms would take years and that Brazil had no alternative but to maintain tight fiscal austerity policies. Economic growth in 2004 and the first half of 2005 was strong with increases in employment and real wages. Growth slowed somewhat in the second half of 2005, but is expected to accelerate in 2006" (Pearson 4). Like many other nations, the fate of the upcoming presidential elections may rest largely on the economy.

Economically, the country has goals similar to that of their neighboring nations. Stabilization, independence from foreign oil, and free trade are all goals of the Brazilian administration. In the past few years, Brazil has enjoyed "sustained growth, coupled with booming exports, healthy external accounts, moderate inflation, decreasing unemployment, and reductions in the debt-to-GDP ratio.… [read more]


Mercosur: Regional Integration, World Markets Term Paper

… Mercosur: Regional Integration, World Markets

In his work Mercosur: Regional Integration, World Markets the author discusses important components of Latin America's strategy for "achieving economic and political consolidation."

The author discusses the Mercosur agreement, the primary focus of the book, as a sign that Latin America is progressing toward consolidation economically and politically.

In Chapter 1 the author discusses the origins of the common market of the South (Mercosur). Here the goal of implementing Mercosur is discussed, including plans for integrating Latin America and sharing interregional trade with more exports and greater cooperation among firms. The chapter discusses multiple free trade agreements with Mercosur and the agenda for implementing the common market, which according to the author is still pending.

In Chapter 2 the author talks about Brazil's involvement in Mercosur as well as the integration process that this country will play in facilitating the goals of Mercosur.

Factors that shape Brazil's relationship with Mercosur are covered as well as Brazil's negotiating position with Mercosur. The author suggests that the economic benefits Brazil will derive from Mercosur are limited but vital nonetheless to the economies well being.

Chapter 3 focuses on the motivation for Mercosur, including economic integration. Specifically the author discusses the relationships among countries in Latin America before Mercosur. The author points out fragmentary and integrative forces affecting the politics of Mercosur including interregional trade, investment and spillover effects from integration.

Chapter 4 focuses on the ability of Mercosur to strike balance in Latin America. Particularly the author concentrates on defining the point of balance between… [read more]


Twentieth Century, the Brazilian National Term Paper

… "

Neither hex nor war could stop his victory, and by the time he won three World Cups, he had even put a war on hiatus, where in Nigeria, the Biafran Civil War was officially paused with a three day truce to watch Pele play in two exhibition games.

Pele was a hero. Not only was he a stellar athlete, he was a good man whose intentions were honest and successes visible. He overcame poverty, racial discrimination, and physical stresses to succeed, providing a great role model for the millions of Brazilians for whom national identity was muddied. While race and poverty confused the social context of post-colonial Brazil, soccer became part of its ability to redefine itself on its own terms. Soccer, the national pastime, became a measure of success, international standing, and, above all, a very real local hope.

Arbena, Joseph L. Sport and Society in Latin America: Diffusion, Dependency, and the Rise of Mass Culture. New York: Greenwood Press. 1988.

Associated Press dispatch from Sao Paolo, Brazil, to the Denver Post, 8 December, 1968.

Booker, R. Michael Jr. Soccer, Race, Politics, and National Identity in Brazil During the Pele Era: 1958-1970. Colorado Springs: University of Colorado.

Da Matta, Roberto. Carnivals, Rogues, and Heroes: An Interpretation of the Brazilian Dilemma. Notre Dame: University of Notre Dame Press. 1991.

Krotee, March L. "The Rise and Demise of Sport." Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science. Vol. 445, Contemporary Issues in Sport. (Sep., 1979.)

Lever, Janet. Soccer Madness. Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press, 1983.

Mason, Tony. Passion of the People? Football in South America. New York: Verso, 1995.

Pele & Fish, R. Pele, My Life and the Beautiful Game New York: Doubleday, 1977.

Skidmore, Thomas E. Black Into White: Race and Nationality in Brazilian Thought. Durham: Duke University, 1993.

Pele & Fish, R. Pele, My Life and the Beautiful Game New York: Doubleday, 1977. P. 12.

Arbena, Joseph L. Sport and Society in Latin America: Diffusion, Dependency, and the Rise of Mass Culture. New York: Greenwood Press, 1988. P. 27.

Mason, Tony. Passion of the People? Football in South America. New York: Verso, 1995. P. 16.

Lever, Janet. Soccer Madness. Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press, 1983.

Lever, p. 6.

Krotee, March L. "The Rise and Demise of Sport." Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science. Vol. 445, Contemporary Issues in Sport. (Sep., 1979.) p. 141.

Krotee, p. 142.

Krotee, p. 143.

Skidmore, Thomas E. Black Into White: Race and Nationality in Brazilian Thought. Durham: Duke University, 1993.

Booker, Michael R. "Soccer, Race, Politics and National Identity in Brazil During the Pele Era: 1958-1970." Colorado Springs: University of Colorado at Colorado… [read more]


European Colonies Across the World Term Paper

… European colonization across the world, from the 15th century on, was dominated by economic self-interest, and competitive desires for power, wealth, and influence. Nowhere is this more evident than in the work of Spanish missionaries who founded missions throughout California, from San Diego to the Oregon border, where they housed and taught numerous Native Americans, while also forcibly converting them to Catholicism and using them for slave labor. Payoffs, for the Spanish, were both religious and economic, with economic interests likely being first and foremost, not only for Spain but for other European nations as well. Economically-motivated aggressive actions of the Spanish included the use of forced Native American labor for their own purposes, and their claiming of lands occupied for centuries by others. Though they would have been reluctant to admit it, the economic ambitions of Spanish explorers in California and other areas of what is now the American west were far more economically than religiously motivated. The same could be said of the motivations of the Dutch, the French, and the British in Africa; the Russians in Alaska; and the Portuguese in Africa and the Americas.

Most European colonizers had relationships of domination over those they conquered. Among competing European explorers within the same region, e.g., Africa; Latin America, it was largely a question of who arrived first, and who had the most staying power (e.g., manpower, might, and economic support from the European ruler(s) who had sent them. All in all, European colonization of territories outside Europe itself led to more of the same, by competing European nations, which in turn almost always led to extreme domination and exploitation of indigenous peoples. [read more]


Civilization and Barbarism and Cruelty Term Paper

… His moral character is affected by his custom of triumphing over obstacles and the power of nature. Although like Echeverria, Sarmiento did describe the gaucho as strong, haughty, vigorous and admirable, he could not condone the gaucho's lack of instruction.… [read more]


Brazilian Economy When Giving Scholarly Term Paper

… And the sour taste of the economy in the mouths of 100 million Brazilian voters meant the end for Cardoso, and a new president, Lula, who is in office trying to push the right buttons and make the right calls to jumpstart the Brazilian economy.

One reason for Cardoso's ouster, de Onis continues, is that local businesses in the private sector are "full of complaints over high taxes, costly credit, and government regulations." Another unanswered question then, and now, is, "what role Brazil's big private banks will play"; albeit they are "very profitable," they invest far less in private enterprise than they do in financing government debts. The Brazilian capital market "must be reformed," de Onis asserts, "in order to make buying stocks more attractive."

Meanwhile, some of the lowest-paid workers in Brazil, landless farmers, who have traditionally been just a notch higher on the economic ladder than the native Indians (some landless farmers are Indians) and blacks (whose ancestors were slaves) are making noise. To wit, in a recent article called "Brazil's Landless Hold Their Ground" (Vanden, 2005), the author reports that as recently as 1996 "one percent of landowners" in Brazil owned 45% of the land. And yet, in 2001, the article continues, there were 4.5 million landless rural workers in Brazil. "Land, wealth and power" has been divided up in Brazil in "extremely unequal ways" since the 1500s, Vanden writes.

As for the beginnings of the MST, the author of this article says the first landless workers to get organized in Brazil lived and worked in the Brazilian state of Rio Grande do Sul in the early 1980s. They demanded that the government give them land to farm, land that was not being used for any other purpose. And when the government did not give them land, they just moved onto land that was vacant and produced crops for their families. As the movement grew, more and more landless people in other states followed the example of the MST, joined the MST, and the landless began moving onto land in 23 of the 26 states, the article explains.

References

De Onis, Juan. "Brazil's New Capitalism." Foreign Affairs 79.3… [read more]


IPE News Term Paper

… ¶ … tension that can often exist between multi-national corporations (MNC's) and their host countries. The actors involved in this story include the government of Bolivia, whose current president is Carlos Mesa, the Movement to Socialism Party, an indigenous group mainly responsible for pressuring the government to get tough with the MNC's, and the foreign gas companies that came to the country because of its large gas deposits. These major corporations include Petrobras of Brazil, Repsol of Spain, Total of France and British Gas.

The story of what occurred in Bolivia was that President Mesa recently approved a bill that would drastically raise the taxes incurred by the foreign gas companies. It was passed on Tuesday May 17, 2005 and took place in the city of La Paz and within the Bolivian Congress. The companies would have to now pay a 32% tax in addition to the 18% fee they already pay. They are also required to form more partnerships with the Bolivian government.

In terms of why this happened, this bill was made in response to pressures from groups like the Movement to Socialism Party, which consists mainly of Bolivia's peasants and laborers, who believe that MNC's are robbing their country of its natural resources. While it was hoped that the bill would placate these groups, it was instead hailed as too soft a measure against the MNC's and now Bolivia's anti-globalization movement is promising more protests. The MNC's meanwhile have become alarmed at the government's actions and are now admonishing it that any further anti-MNC bills would force the corporations to flee the country, leaving many abandoned and unexplored gas fields behind.

The concepts discussed in class that can be related to this story are those regarding what multi-national corporations are, why they often invest abroad, and why they may experience tensions with their host countries. A multi-national corporation is composed of businesses that control production assets in various countries, but maintain their headquarters in… [read more]


Intercultural Communication Norms of Physical Contact Term Paper

… Intercultural Communication

Norms of physical contact are dictated by culture. Americans tend to touch less and guard more closely their personal space than those from other cultures. Nearly all can recall a situation when another got too close for comfort. A subway train during rush hour is a perfect example where passengers at times must stand should to shoulder within a sea of people.

Touching is more common and accepted among family and friends. Social situations tend to be more 'touch friendly' as well. With the public at large, however, Americans are more distant and less likely to show emotion through physical contact. Many times when there is touching it is again, of a more distant manner, like a handshake or pat on the back.

Conversely, Latin American cultures regard physical contact as an integral aspect of communication. As an illustration, take the custom of cheek kissing during salutations and farewells. It is considered rude should this practice be absent from an encounter. In… [read more]


Ecuador Is a Country Full Term Paper

… "

The authors also explain that the culture diversity that exists has caused some conflict between the indigenous people groups and the African population (Handelsman and Standish, 2000). The author asserts that most of the conflict concerns land rights (Handelsman… [read more]


Peruvian Literature History Term Paper

… Peruvian Literature/History

Peru, one of the biggest countries of Latin America, still remains to be one of the poorest in the region. Prolonged poverty, inability of government to solve urgent problems in economics, land owning and determine with the status… [read more]


Inca and Spaniard: A Battle Term Paper

… Many generations after the Inca Empire had crumbled, and generations too, after the last viable Inca Revivalist rebellion, ordinary Peruvians could still look back to the days of their ancestors as a kind of golden age. Such sentiments are probably… [read more]


Cuba's Future After Fidel Castro Term Paper

… 6). Even so, it is likely that "Castro's disappearance could touch off an internal power struggle. No totalitarian regime has been able to devise a smooth system of transition" (Suchlicki, par. 7). Still the regime's strength remains in Castro's military… [read more]


Economics Politics Trade Term Paper

… Economics, Politics, Trade

Geopolitical base

Geography

Political Systems

Monetary, trade and economic backgrounds

Germany

Peru

Economics, Politics, Trade

This paper shall be a comparison of two countries of the world-one which is a developed country and another developing country. The… [read more]


Brazil Sustainable Development in Amazon Term Paper

… Brazil: Sustainable Development in the Amazon

While it is generally regarded as true that developing countries offer more biodiversity than developed ones, and that the developed countries are not particularly receptive to 'native' products, there are exceptions. Two of these,… [read more]


Cuban Revolution: Will it Lead to Capitalism Term Paper

… ¶ … Cuban Revolution: Will it lead to capitalism, after Castro's assumed and expected demise?

Despite what a casual observer might assume, there has been opposition as well as approval from notable sectors within Cuban society, regarding the retraction of the Cuban communist revolution and an expansion of capitalist reform after Fidel Castro's much-anticipated death. Environmentally, because Castro attempted to divert land from sugar production into the production of food crops, making Cuba initially less reliant on food imports, there still is a great deal of loyalty to the collective farming ideal within Cuban society. (Proyect, 2004) Capitalist farming techniques are associated with oppressive schemas of class stratification, rather than with providing potential benefits to the Cuban population. Moreover, because Cuba has been insulated from global agricultural competition as the result of the embargo and long-standing subsidizes from the communist world, there is an additional fear that economic liberalization could prove troubling and even famine inducing to the agricultural sector of Cuba.

From a feminist perspective, it is also feared that capitalist economic liberalism will result in an infusion of 'machismo' into social as well economic sectors. Cuban feminists have noted that after the communist revolution of the 1950's, many formerly closed sectors of industry now see the highest percentage of female employment, including textiles, beverages, tobacco, chemicals, food and graphic arts. (Max Azicri, "International Journal of Women's Studies," Vol. 2, No. 1, 1981).

Additionally, Cuba's agricultural peasant and urban labor sectors fear the competition of the international capitalist marketplace will result in encroachments upon their benefits and lower wages, and cause them to suffer most harshly from any setbacks the Cuban economy faces in a transition to a more capitalist form of governance. The minority population of Cuba also fears the racism of the white, more American-connected and thus potentially more affluent Caucasian population. In Cuba today, more blacks as a percentage of the population own their homes in Cuba than in any country in the world according to Lourdes Casal ("The Position of Blacks… [read more]


Coffee Industry: Economics and Investment Term Paper

… Related to this tragedy is the rise and fall of The Colombia Coffee Federation (FNC), a labor union reminiscent of the Aldea Global Federation in Nicaragua, mentioned above. The Colombian Federation began its existence in 1928, and acted on a… [read more]


Peru in Comparison to Uganda Term Paper

… Businesses and communities in the heart of Cali have been destroyed by coca dollars, and again through their withdrawal from the local economy.

In terms of deforestation, this is a problem common to all developing countries, as people without access… [read more]


Eyes of the Heart: Seeking Term Paper

… His book is intended as a manifesto for change, as a strength-giving sermon for those people. The book is also aimed at those people who hold the power to change the developing countries- developed countries imbalance that he writes about so powerfully. The book basically says 'this is what is wrong with Haiti, with many developing countries around the world, and these are the factors that are causing these millions of people these problems. This, that I have written here, is a prescription for change'. In typical Aristide fashion, he ends the book by saying, see [for the children of Haiti a future] country with 85% literacy, rather than 85% illiteracy. Cooperatives flourish in villages and in the informal sectors of the cities. Water is flowing through the fields of the countryside-where food enough for all of Haiti's people is growing. Creole pigs are seen more and more in the countryside, the descendants of those few that the peasants hid away and saved from extermination. Seedlings are beginning to take root on the mountainsides. The seedlings have a chance at survival because the people are no longer in misery, but are already on the road to poverty with dignity. There are primary schools and health clinics in every municipality of Haiti. The schoolbooks are not just half-price-they are free, in accordance with Article 32.1 of our constitution which promises a free education to every Haitian child." (page 79).

It is to be hoped that, one day, the world is as Aristide envisions it. With more people like Aristide, with more readers… [read more]


Cultural Differences With Spain Term Paper

… However, Spain also has numerous environmental problems of its own, such as growing air pollution, deforestation and the pollution of the Mediterranean Sea from raw sewage and effluents produced by offshore oil and gas rigs (CIA Factbook).

Spain has a market-based economy, with a high reliance on private business.

The influx of United States businesses and investments is generally accepted, particularly because of its large Spanish-speaking population (Country Report on Spain). Many American analysts also see trade with Spain as a key route towards a greater business presence in Latin America.

As with any country, an understanding of these key cultural differences will help American businesses in their dealings with Spanish businesses and the government. First, Americans need to recognize the importance of Catholicism in the lives of Spaniards. There are more Catholic holidays in Spain than in the United States and during those days, the country effectively shuts down.

Americans may also be surprised at the overtness of practices which would be considered discriminatory in the United States. For example, it is not uncommon for Spanish businesses to ask questions about marital status during interviews. Many firms also use gender-specific job titles such as "secretaria" to denote a female secretary, an important distinction considering how, in the food manufacturing industry, for example, a secretaria get paid an average of 30% less than a secretario (Country Report on Spain). In addition, physically challenged Americans may be surprised at the lack of access in many public places and transportation, despite laws mandating their creation. In addition, African-Americans and other darker-skinned minorities may encounter discriminatory practices in daily life.

To deal with such practices, people already doing business in Spain suggest that foreigners recognize the more personal way Spaniards do business. Asking about home, family and interests outside work is common and the best way to deal with uncomfortable questions is to be "overpolite" (Levitt).

In conclusion, American business entrepreneurs need to take into account key cultural differences between their home country and Spain. The importance of religion, for example, means that Sundays and holidays will often take precedence over any business activity. In addition, activities which would be considered forms of discrimination back here, such as asking about marital status, are tolerated as part of establishing business relations.

Works Cited

Central Intelligence Agency (January 1, 2002). The World Factbook 2002 - Spain. Retrieved January 23, 2003 at http://www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/geos/sp.html

Levitt, Joshua (September 2002). "Spain: Getting Through Customs." Director.

Spanish-U.S. Chamber of Commerce (2002). U.S. Companies in Spain. Retrieved January 23, 2003 at http://www.spainuscc.org/eng/publications/index.html

U.S. Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights and Labor (March 2002). Country Reports on Human Rights Practices for 2001: Spain. Retrieved January 23, 2003 at http://www.usis.usemb.se/human/2001/europe/spain.html [read more]


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… However, the United States grants Chile leeway and flexibility in its policies, perhaps more than it gives other South American countries.

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… Money has always been the oil which makes Mexican politics turn, and there does not exist as many opportunities for fair wages in the majority of Mexico. Unions also do not have the kind of power they do in the… [read more]


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