Study "Latin America / Mexico / Caribbean" Essays 221-275

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Foreign Policy in the Caribbean Basin Essay

… Foreign Policy in the Caribbean Basin

Was the Early Twentieth-Century U.S. Policy in the Caribbean Motivated by Economic Concerns?

Recent American military interventions in the Middle East revived old debates about core issues that motivate U.S. foreign policy, its drive for dominance, and the question of imperialism. Was the invasion of Iraq motivated by American economic interests in the region (e.g. oil) or was it motivated by security concerns and the willingness to bring democracy to the Middle East? This actually appears to be an old debate by historians who have been debating whether the beginning of U.S. military interventions, especially in the Caribbean at the start of the twentieth century, was also rooted in economic interests.

Professor Walter LaFeber answers this question with an emphatic "yes," while Professor David Healy argues that the United States policy in the region was aimed at eliminating German threat and developing the economies of the region since, Americans believed, people in the Caribbean were racially inferior and incapable of effective self-development. After reading both points, I came to a conclusion that LaFeber has a stronger argument. So, the answer to the question posed in the title of this essay is "yes." Economic concerns were the primary motivation behind U.S. political and military interventions in the region.

LaFeber analyzes U.S. policy in the Caribbean within the context of rising economic power of the United States and the calls by business interests for economic expansion since the dramatic increase of U.S. economic power after the Civil War (thanks primarily to massive industrialization) convinced American leaders that there was too much surplus that needed to be exported and capital that could be used in foreign markets. LaFeber does not say, however, that there were no other reasons behind U.S.… [read more]

Puerto Rico Is a Caribbean Term Paper

… However, when these people move to the U.S., a slightly darker color will be termed as black whereas the person himself may think differently and fall into racial confusion which many Puerto Ricans are subject to. This classification into different colors led to high levels of stress among those who migrated. (Flores)

Puerto Ricans are also considered to be poor and thus are expected to live in the low lying poor areas of the cities that they occupy which have few white/Anglo settlers and majorly black / African-American residents. These areas are places where there are high rent slums and even though they may not always be able to afford a place there, the Puerto Ricans are forced into living in these areas because they are new and outcasts to the society. The racial identity that the Puerto Ricans see themselves with affects them greatly. If they think of themselves as better and equal to the white population of the areas that they occupy, they tend to perform better than those who think otherwise. (Duany)

Apart from racial discrimination, Puerto Ricans also face language barriers. Relatively new migrants who live in less posh neighborhoods where there are few Spanish speaking people face the greatest deal of stress and problem when it comes to their daily chores and activities. Kids who go to school in these areas have teachers who only speak English and therefore their grades drop because of their poor English and sometimes the kids have to be placed in lower classes in order to learn English and get a better grade. (Duany)

During the past year, 2011, the migration of Puerto Ricans from their homeland to America has continued and due to tough economic times there has been a net outflow of almost 20,000 from the island to America. For those who are migrating, it may be seen as an opportunity which shouldn't be missed but the out flux of people is not doing any good for Puerto Rico itself. The island will be legible for much less funding than it previously did and there will be a lesser demand for housing and several other services which will only add to the efforts of trying to revitalize the economy of the area. . (Flores)

It seems as though the Puerto Ricans have lost faith in the future of their state and they are not willing to commit themselves to it in order to better it and make it prosper. . Over the past decade almost 90,000 people have migrated to America in hopes of better opportunities and a better life. Several years ago the population of Puerto Rico was such that it could equal the number of people in 24 states. There are less than four million people remaining on the island and it is estimated that almost 1.5 million plan on someday migration to the mainland whereas the number of Puerto Ricans in the United States is almost 5 million showing that more islanders live on the… [read more]

Latin American Movement Just Research Paper

… C. is all in favor of having a relationship with Panama if, and only if, their labor laws are loosened. "Through the implementation of Law 30's anti-labor provisions, Martinelli has demonstrated that he is more than willing to be flexible… [read more]

Steel Drum, or Steel Pan Term Paper

… Players of the steel drum have adopted the pan as a way of life in many cultures, as well. The steel pan in today's society has come to symbolize social and economic advancement, as well as a symbol of freedom for those in the areas of Trinidad that helped introduce and develop the instrument. Entire areas of Trinidad have grown out of the steel drum industry, and the drum is even used in many orchestras worldwide (Wilson, 2001).

The steel drum arose from the hard work and self-expression of the slaves in Trinidad. Losing their families, and taken from their nations of birth, many of these men and women had nothing but their native music. Determined to keep that relic, in spite of the political struggle between themselves and their colonial government, the men and women of Trinidad formed the basis for a revolution that would see the birth and acceptance of a now world-known instrument. Facing an age-old fear of the upper class that their music would entice riots, the people of Trinidad persevered. Without their efforts, the world would not be blessed with the sounds of the steel drum today.


Averill, G. (1998). Carnival in Trinidad: Steel Drum, Program #1561. Retrieved March 7, 2005 from Pulse of the Planet. Web site:

Blake, F.I. (1995). The Trinidad and Tobago steel pan -- history and evolution. Spain: Grafiques Publishing.

Goddard, G.S. (1991). Forty years in the steelbands: 1919-1979. London: Karia Press.

Maxime, G. (1997). Pan through the years (1952 -- 1996). Port of Spain, Trinidad: Metropolitan Book Supplies Ltd.

National Library and Information System Authority. (2004). Historical Development. Steelband. Retrieved March 7, 2005 from N.A.L.I.S. online database. Web site: tabid=165.

Rouff, A.E. (1972). Authentic facts on the origin of the steelband. St. Augustine, Trinidad: Bowen's Printery.

Stuempfle, S. (1995). The steelband movement: the forging of a national art in Trinidad… [read more]

Mexico in 1908 Term Paper

… ..with nothing to live for except pleasure...drawing revenues from lands their ancestors had conquered or stolen from the Indians." Is that the kind of economic climate an investor would want to pour money into? Not at all.

The political system - under a repressive dictator - in any country is nearly always corrupt, and in Mexico during the early 20th Century it was no exception. "In short," Stearns writes, "Diaz ruled with an iron fist through an effective political machine."

The revolution to overthrow Diaz officially began in 1910, but well before that time, there was a sense of bitterness and rage among the less-fortunate Mexicans. If, for example, the business consultant had visited the city of Cananea, Sonora, in 1906, he or she would have witnessed a violent strike against an American-owned mining company; after the strike got underway, American vigilantes came south across the border to intervene for the owners, and dozens of Mexican workers were killed on June 6, 1906 (Mexican Chronology, 1904-1910).

In 1908, there were "droughts and poor harvests" in Mexico in and around the greater Mexico City area; the economic hardships resulting from those problems affected the economy in a very negative way (Mexican Chronology). "Real wages for Mexican workers..." sunk to about "a third of their level of a century earlier."

Imagine, for a moment, wages - which were already desperately low, compared with the booming industrial economy emerging in the United States - dropping to a third what they were in the 19th Century. If you were a business consultant, would you recommend a client in the states invest in Mexico City in any aspect of business?

In 1908, Diaz made a remark during an interview (on March 3rd), stating that he would retire in 1910 (he didn't need to "run" for office in any event - he was dictator and iron hand ruler in a country where democracy was but a distant dream). The interview was published in Mexico City, and according to Mexican Chronology, it "proves to be a cataclysmic error in judgment" on the part of Diaz. "Public opposition germinates, confusion in the political system rises, and a sense of impending disaster grows."

Again, does that sound like the kind of economic and social climate that a business consultant would give high marks to, when writing a report back to America? Hardly. Later, as a kind of bizarre afterthought, Diaz allows his supporters to talk him into seeking another term.


Beezley, William H. Judas at the Jockey Club and other Episodes of Porfirian Mexico.

Lincoln, Nebraska: University of Nebraska Press, 1987.

Mexican Chronology. "Mexico, 1904-1914: The Twilight of the Diaz Regime."


Street-Porter,… [read more]

Conquest of the Americas Term Paper

… Why is the New World American religious, but socially oriented, why is he also pragmatic or practical, why is he inclined to be scientific and individualistic?

It is presupposed that the American has gone through an experience where respect for the dignity and freedom of the individual and for the equality of all men have been ingrained into his consciousness and the very roots and his being.

Fr. Vitaliam Gorospe, S.J, (American philosophy, 1975) in an article written for student leaders poses four questions which American philosophers have asked time and again - and which I believe could be the explanation of whether one would consider an event as successful or simply a matter of plain defeat:

The first question is: what is the whole meaning of reality? The native Americans probably saw the harsh reality of their existence and given a choice, they would opt for accepting defeat at the hands of the Spaniards because in the ultimate reality, it is not a defeat but a victory for in bowing to the conquerors, they rise above pride and give in to the greater needs and exigencies of life.

The Spaniards or the conquerors on one hand would feel the surge of pride that they have been able to conquer the heathens. The questions that should be basic in this situation are: what do you think of yourself, of others, of the people you've just bested, of God? What do you ultimately think is the consequence of you having brought the natives to their knees? What is the consequence of this victory of the Spaniards.

Remember that Spain which is the bulwark of Catholicism was imbued with the desire to spread Christianity. This could be the basis of their elation in their victory in conquest - that they have been successful in the pursuit of their goal which is the spread of the word of God, which is therefore a virtual spiritual victory.


Schwartz, Stuart B. Victors and Vanquished.

History of the U.S.A. Laidlow Brothers, Inc. 1948.

A http. [read more]

Caribbean Only Michener Term Paper

… Subsequently in the novel, as African captives from Africa are acquainted throughout the islands and develop the one major dominant authority, Michener furnishes us a number of characters from those setting. Still afterward, we become entrap in the backbreaking work of a young East Indian Hindu, as that civilization arrives on the scene.

Numerous more stories are notified over the course of this long novel, entailing both genuine and visualized characters.

A pleasant characteristic of this novel is a "Fact and Fiction" segment in the front, which bestow us a near chapter-by-chapter narration of who was genuine and who is imagined.

" The Caribbean, a name to conjure with, retains an allure that is half hype and half history. Michener's magnificent novel captures the area's magnetic attraction.

He begins his story long before Columbus. From earliest times, the Caribbean has been a crossroads of culture...from the conquest of peaceful Arawaks by their more powerful neighbors, from Columbus's arrival to the bloody revolt on Haiti, from slave trade and sugar plantations to the rise of Castro.

Michener gives us 700 dramatic years in a tale that teems with revolution and romance, slavery and superstition, vivid characters and dramatic destinies.

Remarkable and praiseworthy...he treats his chosen region with immense respect...utterly engaging, deserves our close attention. (The Washington Post)"

Reading Caribbean is an education in regard to the early days of America, buccaneer, the vendetta and hostilities in South America, England, Spain, and the life of islanders who share the blue sea.

It is shown in the novel that Caribbean has become a blanket of colonial states with each one's etiquette's and cultures in unmistakable comparison to its neighbor's. In the case of Hispaniola, one part Haiti fell under French command and the other the Dominican Republic became a Spanish colony.

Both parts of the island flourished to a reasonable degree, but right off its coast lay the island of Tortuga, which became a shelter for pirates surviving under the most severe of surroundings.

The most complex human character in this novel is a great one, Christopher Columbus. In spite of the fact that he is not center stage, the novel dedicates a full chapter inquiring the debates and conflict that swirled about him during his life span.

The character of Columbus was so multi-faceted that others apprehension of him diverse completely from person to person. His self-contradictions became immediately evident when, after Columbus' third voyage, King Ferdinand of Spain dispatched a signified gentleman named Francisco de Bobadilla to check up on how he was doing. Bobadilla was also given commanding authority over the island of Hispanola that overrode that of Columbus.

The most complexly depicted of Michener's fictitious characters is the final major character that he presents. Her tale also shines on the feature about Michener's novels. Therese Vaval is a freshly nominated professor at Wellesley and an offspring of one of the novel's earlier principal characters. The astonishing and remarkable aspect of the novel is Michener's focus to historic and geographic… [read more]

Latin "Coffee Is King Research Paper

… Coffee dropped from fifty percent to a mere seven percent of their legal exports. Thousands of farmers left the country, many more traded coffee for more profitable cash crops such as coca and opium. And now oil has taken the… [read more]

Mexico Question #1 Asks Essay

… Japan could have success in the Mexican market and would find that parts of their organizational cultures are quite similar while other parts are not quite the same.

Question #3 asks: Why might MNCs be interested in studying the organizational culture in Mexican firms before deciding whether to locate there? Explain your logic.

Any MNC who is expanding internationally should study the organizational cultures in the subsidiary market. Each country has a unique culture that could potentially make operations there difficult to manage. Failure to try to understand the culture of a country represents a position of hubris and can lead to catastrophic results. There are many known examples of this but one striking example was illustrated by Wal-Mart's attempt to enter the German market. Germany has a relatively collectivist country and this didn't fit well with Wal-Mart's low cost strategy. Wal-Mart's pays employees as little as it possibly can and Germany's strong labor unions weren't too keen on Wal-Mart's entry into their market. It is always important to consider culture when planning an international expansion to make sure the culture is compatible with the strategy.

Works Cited

Lupina-Wenger, A., Schneider, S., & Dick, V. (2011). Different experiences of socio-cultural integration: a European merger in Mexico. Journal of Organizational Change Management, 24(1),… [read more]

Possible Influence of Latin Migration in the American Way of Life Research Paper

… ¶ … Latin American Migration in the American Way of Life

Latin immigration was not a major problem in the beginning to the United States.

It was even encouraged for the construction of the railroad system across the borders. Mexican… [read more]

Efforts to Establish a Mexican Monarchy French Intervention in Mexico 1860's Area Research Paper

… ¶ … Mexican Monarchy (French intervention in Mexico-1860's area)

The French attempt to establish a monarchy in democratic Mexico

The French attempt to establish a monarchy in democratic Mexico

Every year, Mexicans -- and many Americans -- celebrate Cinco de… [read more]

Structure and Role of the Governmental Systems as They Existed in the Caribbean Essay

… Caribbean Government

The Structure of Spanish Rule in the Caribbean

The history of colonization and the methods of government-from-afar during the expansion of Europe's power into the New World was not as simple and direct an affair as might be believed. Countries like Spain did not simply set up offices and maintain direct home rule through military force, though military force was certainly a part of the overall governing plan. Instead, the colonial powers et up more complex system by which to subdivide the rule of their various colonies, and to make decisions at several different levels with varying spheres of influence and political power in what was truly a decentralized manner. This was not intended to remove the authority over these colonies from the central powers in the European countries, nor was this ultimately the effect of these governments, but colonial governing bodies were definitely not as centralized as domestic governments of the period. Spain's rule in the Caribbean is an excellent example of this fact.

The overarching government body that Spain put into place to handle its affairs in the Caribbean was the Royal and Supreme Council of the Indies, which handled major judicial affairs and was also the major administrative body for the colony, effectively passing down and where necessary carrying out the will of the Spanish crown in the region's colonies and in the region as a whole (Stearns & Langer 2001). This was not the only governmental body that was created by the crown to administer to the needs of its far-flung colonies, however, nor was it even the first. At the time of its creation, however, it was the supreme government body in the Caribbean and took charge of other existing departments (Stearns & Langer 2001).

The Casa de Contratcion had been established for some time before the creation of the Council of the Indies, and was in charge of controlling immigration from Spain and other areas of the world under Spanish control to the Caribbean (Stearns & Langer 2001). The Council of the Indies also had direct oversight over the audiencias that were created in various locations throughout Spain's colonies in the new world (Stearns & Langer 2001). These audiencias consisted of a president, judges, a fiscal officer that controlled the flow of money from and to the crown, as well as other officials, and these bodies of government basically held complete authority over their individual districts, though they themselves were run under the auspices of the Council of the… [read more]

Central Caribbean Research Proposal

… ¶ … Caribbean

Banana Republics

This chapter outlines the history of Central America in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. The history comprises a couple of main parts - the advent of the banana economy and the opening of… [read more]

Cafta the Central America Free Trade Agreement Term Paper


The Central America Free Trade Agreement was a free trade agreement made between the United States of America and Costa Rica, Guatemala, Nicaragua, Honduras, El Salvador and the Dominican Republic. It was the first agreement of this type to… [read more]

Mexico or Mesoamerica Term Paper

… Mesoamerica

The history of Mexico can be extended back at least 20,000 years based on archaeological evidence showing signs of human habitation north of the Valley of Mexico. The people of Northern Mexico then and later were hunters and gatherers… [read more]

Southwest History Susan Shelby Magoffin Term Paper

… Santa Fe was quiet at the time, with only the sound of marching heard at the time. The new Mexicans could have welcomed the American forces for promise of protection they offered against the Texans. But only few of them… [read more]

History of Mexico Term Paper

… Bullfighting in Mexico

At ten minutes before 4 p.m. local time on Sunday afternoon, matadors in bullrings all over Spain and Mexico kneel in arena chapels and to La Virgen de la Macarena to protect them, then at exactly 4… [read more]

Global Business Strategies Vincent Term Paper

… The necessity of economic integration in Venezuela, one of the world's largest producers and exporters of petroleum is visualized from the fact that the performance of the economy is directly affected by and vulnerable to the changes in volatile oil business. The oil industry with heavy inflow of foreign exchange gives little scope for other manufacturing industries to sustain. During the 80's, the falling oil exports and radical collapse of the Bolivar from 4.3 per dollar in 1983 to 14.5 in 1988 worsened the situation. In 1989 a policy package based on liberalization of economy, lowering of external tariff, floating exchange rate was launched to obviate the situation During 1990s the oil sector was opened for foreign investment. There was no success. [Venezuela and Regional Integration in South America]

In the early 2000 it is seen that economic integration Brazil and Argentina joining Mercosur is the only way out. Being the member of Andean Group it is not possible on the part of Venezuela to join the Mercosur with the rigid laws of Andean Pact. The integration with Brazil is crucial for Venezuela. It will have direct impact on the Venezelan Oil industry, since Brazil is an importer of Oil. In order to strengthen the mechanism of regional integration of northern states of Brazil incorporating the dynamics of Mercosur, Brazil also agrees for preferential treatment to Venezuela. By joining the Mercousr, the sectors in which Venezuela has comparative advantage like energy, textiles, some agricultural products, and mine will find a great market support in Brazil. The mine reserves in southern part of Venezuela are yet to be developed and the hydraulic resources concentrated in southern part are yet to be exploited. [Venezuela and Regional Integration in South America]

The on going program "Conquest of the South" aiming at development of resources of in the southern part are inhibited by financial and technological resources. Since Venezuela has already opened its market to Colombia, U.S. And Mexico the entry of Brazil in the Venezuelan market would not have any adverse impact in the domestic industry. The investors of international arena are much attracted by the FDI flowing from Brazil. With the cheaper labor, cheap and abundant energy and a weaker monetary unit especially with the advantageous geographic location of Venezuela i.e. The gateway to South America from European and U.S. costs Venezuela will be the crucial part of the integration in America. [Venezuela and Regional Integration in South America]

The history of humanity is exhibiting integration of different peoples and cultures in one way or the other. Since the time immemorial cultural and economic integration is taking place between neighbor tribes and clans, out of the curiosity of exchange of goods. The territorial occupation and domination also caused integration. The economic integration is association of nations for harmonious economic pursuits with a view to flattening differences among nations, preserved by the age-old cultural barriers and tensions. In addition to the economic pursuits the integration among nations results in dynamic growth of the… [read more]

Wars of Principle Research Paper

… This event provided the catalyst for nearly 150 years of simmering international tensions between Argentina and the United Kingdom, as the former asserted that its rightfully held territory had been usurped, while the latter remained steadfast in its insistence that a rightful claim of sovereignty had been made. As modern scholars note of the 1833 disputed claim, "the islands were not res nullius, but they were not yet clearly recognized by the international community as being under one nation's sovereignty & #8230; (and) Britain hoped to use this fluid situation to finally solidify its claim,"3 and this distinction is perhaps the most

2. Ibid.

3. Lowell S. Gustafson. The sovereignty dispute over the Falkland (Malvinas) Islands, (Oxford University Press, 1988), 25.

important clue in ascertaining whether or not the United Kingdom's use of force in 1982 was morally or lawfully justifiable.

Whenever two nations engage in armed combat to decide control over a disputed territory, the loss of human life, destruction of property and societal upheaval which is the inevitable result must be carefully balanced against clear strategic objectives. In the case of the Falklands War, Argentina's decision to invade the islands and defy British claims of sovereignty -- a gamble which ultimately caused thousands of casualties on both sides -- was weighed against the concern that Europeans may attempt a second effort at imperialism in the Southern Hemisphere by claiming Antarctica as their own. Research on the geopolitical strategies underpinning Argentina's move to invade the Falklands indicates that, "according to the Argentine geopolitical school, and indeed that of Brazil and Chile, control of the South Atlantic and a firm presence in the Antarctic region was bound up with the 'strategic triangle' of the Southern Cone -- the Falklands, Tierra Del Fuego (The Drake Passage) and the periphery of the Antarctic peninsula."4 Indeed, the United Kingdom's choice to launch such a spirited defense of the Falklands, which resulted in the Argentinians surrendering just two months after the conflict began, was premised largely in its leaders' belief that Antarctica represented a new frontier in terms of economic exploration. When the totality of the situation is examined objectively, it becomes clear that the British quashing of Argentina's invasion of the Falkland Islands was not an act of unjustified aggression, or imperialistic stubbornness, but rather one part of a larger strategic agenda based on a legitimate claim of title.

4. Lawrence Freedman and Virginia Gamba-Stonehouse. Signals of war: the Falklands conflict of 1982. (Princeton: Faber & Faber, 1990), 5.


Coll, Alberto R., and Anthony C. Arend, eds. The Falklands war: lessons for strategy, diplomacy, and international law. Allen & Unwin, 1985.

Freedman, Lawrence, and Virginia Gamba-Stonehouse. Signals of war: the… [read more]

Mexico Is a Country With a Long Research Paper

… Mexico is a country with a long and rich cultural heritage and history. Mexico has been a country for much longer than the United States has been a country, and as those with some knowledge of American history know, part of the United States formerly was a part of Mexico, lost in wars and treaties. In my web exploration of Mexico, I learned things about the country of which I was not aware. There are many vibrant colors and beautiful cities and small towns across the land. The geography of the country is also fascinating. It is a country with a rich tradition of agriculture -- there are a lot of delicious fruits and vegetables that grow there into which the people make delicious cuisine. There is a much richer indigenous food culture in Mexico than in the United States, which has adopted the cuisines of several other cultures into/as its own. I find that one of the best aspects of traveling is being able to taste and eat many of the native dishes of the country. In learning about Mexico, I became very interested in the kinds of foods that are traditional as compared to the few foods from Mexico that most people outside of the country know about.

There are many beautiful beaches, as much of the country is on a coast, as well as many interesting places to dive. As compared with the United States, there are less beaches and coastline of the U.S., as most of the continental U.S. lies between two coasts, whereas more of Mexico is on the water. There are underwater caves or caves that begin on the surface and lead to water within them. This seems like a country where there is a lot for visitors to explore. This is a country where visitors and inhabitants have many options of how to explore the country -- of course one can travel by car or bus, but also by boat, by foot, and by bicycle.

There is a balance between large cities, and rural towns in Mexico as well. So there is the opportunity to experience urban culture and nightlife as well as the chance to escape the big city, and retreat to the simple life of the Mexican countryside. There are elements of modern culture and development… [read more]

Tourism Nobel Prize Laureate Derek Essay

… Rather than seeing the culture for what it is, the visitor perceives nothing more than a botanical garden with caricatured natives walking in it.

Then, Walcott lists some notable literary interpretations of the Caribbean to show how impressions and caricatures are formed. He begins with Graham Greene and At Last by Charles Kingsley. Walcott claims that At Last was the first English book to be set in the Caribbean. While its tone was "benign," the overall impression is like that of most visitors who see what they want to see and move on without a deeper or more penetrating look. Walcott asks that the islands unfold themselves as living poetry, and that the visitor does more than sail right on by without realizing that the islands are "writing themselves" in the trees. The multicultural streets of Port of Spain are a "writer's dream," claims Walcott. Indeed, Walcott's own writerly sensibilities were formed from his understanding and perceptions of his native Caribbean.

Walcott also mentions Alexis Saint-Leger Leger, who writes as Saint-John Perse, a Caribbean from Guadeloupe and the "first Antillean to win a prize for his poetry." As much as Perse can be celebrated for his writing, Walcott also describes the plantation system with a strange idealism. As Walcott puts it, "Caribbean genius is condemned to contradict itself." The colonial past of the Caribbean leaves its indelible mark on the landscape and its crumbling plantation houses. Those plantation houses are the ruins, the Caribbean counterparts to the acropolis of ancient Greece. What the Caribbean is today is an extension of its past.

The natives of the Caribbean, like Walcott himself, are caught between two worlds. Unlike the tourists, the natives do not see in their island some perfect piece of paradise. Their life is not lived inside a postcard. The tourist brings a dangerous misperception that could ultimately erase the cultures that thrive in places like Felicity. When "the benign blight" of tourism projects what it wants to see onto the Caribbean, the risk is that the Caribbean starts to live up to that false imagery. The real cultures and real people that live there and make the islands what they are could vanish or blend into the cartoon version.

History is imprinted on the Caribbean land and its people. The people are from Africa, India, the Middle East. The culture of Trinidad, Tobago, and all of the Antilles is permeated with the vibrancy of multiculturalism and the daily struggle of hard work. Walcott wants his listeners to appreciate not just the lovely weather and their cocktails, sipped while their skin turns "mahogany." Instead, Walcott urges a more enlightened form of tourism that begets future generations with deep respect for the people and their history.

The Caribbean is not a place that was created by the Europeans, even though the European story has owned and reshaped Caribbean identities. With writers like Walcott, the Caribbean is forming its own identity and expressing that identity independently, even while owning the stamp of… [read more]

Population and Urbanization Essay

… The historical evidences reveal that the urban growth in Brazil is an amalgamation of the economic, social, political and demographic transformations that have been experienced by the country especially in the 19th century. Currently, Brazil is going through its late… [read more]

Pancho Villa -- Mexican Revolutionary Term Paper

… He took up the trade of a butcher, but soon his new career ended and his career as a fighter and revolutionary resumed.

But on February 22, 1913 President Madero was killed in office and General Victoriano Huerta was the… [read more]

MS-13 Gang and How it Related to Terrorism Research Paper

… M-13 Gang and How it Relates to Terrorism

The M-13 gang, otherwise called Mara Salvatrucha (MS-13) is one of the most dangerous gangs in the world. Originating in the U.S., Los Angeles, it spread to other parts of the world,… [read more]

Cultural Awareness for Mexico Essay

… Mexico is an extremely diverse country that defines its cultural differences in a number of ways. Sharing a northern border with the United States and a Southern border with Guatemala, it is uniquely positioned between one of the world's Super… [read more]

Spanish Conquest of Mexico -- the Racial Book Report

… ¶ … Spanish Conquest of Mexico -- the Racial Order

Chapter 2 was a very informative chapter for me because I had not been aware of the Spanish conquerors' specific strategic plan; they were smart to reward Aztec loyalty (creating "middlemen" -- Aztec kings -- to retain some governing power) to "placate the masses" (p. 50). And yet they were viciously brutal in discriminating against native Indians in Mexico.

Indian slavery: The government of Spain imposed the "encomienda" system, basically making native Indians "wards of the crown" that would then labor under the command of the Spaniards. The "Laws of Burgos" basically put the native Indians into slavery at the whim of the Spaniards serving the King of Spain. The encomienda system put forward the notion that the Indians were "savages without souls" (emphasized through opinions expressed in Gines de Sepulveda's books); but the Catholic Church believed that Indians did have souls, were humans, should be "Christianized" humanely and (according to Father Francisco de Vitirua) had the right to pursue happiness.

Intermarriage: The King of Spain initially encouraged his soldiers and others who moved to Mexico to marry native Indians. For the soldiers (officers) who married native Indian women, they were granted more land then non-married officers. However, having more than one woman (a concubine) was declared a sin by the Catholic Church. The Church urged soldiers to marry their concubines. The intermarriage strategy was also based on economic needs; the Laws of Burgos had declared that Spain would take care of orphaned children, but through the intermarriage system many of those orphaned children were housed and fed, taking some of the burden off the Spanish Crown financially. By 1575 the Spanish Crown changed it's rules and prohibited any more "…Spaniards of high social standing" to marry Indians. So, lower-ranking soldiers were encouraged to marry Indians but higher-ranking personnel were not allowed to marry Indians in order to form "…an elite ruling class" to "ensure racial purity" (p. 56).

African Slaves: The first few Black slaves from Africa arrived in Mexico 1527 and in total between 150,000 to 200,000 Black African slaves were brought into Mexico. By the year 1738 the last… [read more]

Move Frida and the Mexican Research Paper

… S. The political and cultural divergences between the two countries are portrayed in the mural, as Americans were not willing to accept paying for a painting with Lenin in it. While communism was favored by Mexicans, it was harshly criticized… [read more]

Faculty Profile Interview of a Faculty Member Research Paper

… Faculty Profile

She may not walk around barefoot, but Anna Mahler does like to hold classes outside on sunny days. The second-year Spanish professor comes to Emory from Alabama via the University of Pittsburgh. With a background in Latin American literature, she aims to inspire students the same way that she was inspired by Southern and Caribbean writers growing up.

Anna Garland Mahler brings a unique perspective to Emory. She was raised in Birmingham, Alabama, and that city's segregation had a profound influence on her outlook on the world. She drew parallels between the struggles against authority in Southern literature and themes from Latin and Caribbean literature. This led her to pursue an undergraduate degree in Hispanic Literature from the University of Pittsburgh.

Mahler was drawn to Emory because of its PhD program and in part because of its proximity to her family. She has extensive experience traveling abroad in order to supplement her education in Hispanic Literature, including trips to Uruguay, the Dominican Republic and three trips to Chile. "The people there are brutally honest," she remarks about the Dominican, noting a time when a grandfather called the home where she was staying with another student and asked "Are you the skinny one or the fat one?"

Her upbringing reveals itself not only in a thick southern accent and a bevy of sundresses, but also in her attitudes toward the world. Growing up in a segregated society, she determined "to break out of the bubble I was in," which resulted in her spending a lot of time on the poor side of town. "As a white woman in the South, if you want to break out, you have to do-it-yourself."

As a result, she was drawn to southern, Latin and Caribbean literature. She loves the way that the literature is used to break down inequalities. She was attracted to the common themes of dealing with the approach to hierarchical powers and breaking down colonial and Western concepts.

This desire to break from social norms led to her being the only white woman in the gospel choir of 70 people at the University of Pittsburgh. "I didn't know everyone's name, but everyone knew who I was because I was the white girl," she remarked. People in Pittsburgh were often curious about the Alabama native. "Everyone always asked me such off the wall questions like do you walk around barefoot in Alabama." For the record, she does not.

She does, however, have big plans… [read more]

How Spanish Influence the English Language Thesis

… ¶ … language and linguistics can often be rather perplexing. The age-old question of what came first, the chicken or the egg? The English language is filled with words and phrases that derived their meanings in less than crystal clear… [read more]

Spain's and America's History Thesis

… Spains and Americas History

The Matador

Because I could never understand the bull fights and Spaniards' delight and fascination to watch them, I chose to watch first the Matador. I knew the chances I would become a fan after that… [read more]

Conquest and Colonization of Mexico Essay

… Colonization and Mexico

The Conquest and Colonization of Mexico

Historians of colonial Mexico are continually faced with the dilemma of what to emphasize; the resilience of indigenous culture or the disruption and exploitation that the conquest represented. While it is… [read more]

El Palacio Nacional in Mexico City Thesis

… El Palacio Nacional in Mexico City

The National Palace - Palacio Nacional - was commissioned by Hernan Cortes, a Spanish conquistador who led the expedition that caused the fall of the Aztec empire in the early 16th century. In fact, the Palace is thought to have been built on the remains of the Moctezuma palace. In fact, one very interesting aspect related to the building is the fact that much of the materials used in its construction come from the former Aztec palace. At present, the National Palace houses the Mexican federal executive including the offices of the president. The building does not only have functional purposes; it is also a place of celebration. Every year, on September 15, the president of Mexico rings a bell from the central balcony of the Palacio, and shouts "Viva Mexico" to the crowd that gathers in the Plaza de la Constitucion - commonly known as the Zocalo - to celebrate Mexican independence on the country's national day. The interior of the Palace is remarkable. Diego Rivera painted the murals which adorn the walls of the Palace in the period between 1929 and 1952. The murals are colorful depictions of Mexico City's history. The episodes depicted… [read more]

Ponce De Leon Term Paper

… ¶ … Dreams and the Legacy of Ponce de Leon

Juan Ponce de Leon lived during a pivotal time in human history. European explorers and adventurers were discovering a new world in the Americas. In the wake of Columbus' voyages,… [read more]

Historical Event Term Paper

… ¶ … Borderlands and Chicano Culture

Mexican-Americans are an integral part of American society at large. Chicanos continue to be engulfed in an age-old struggle to retain their cultural heritage and identity, while at the same time fit into mainstream American culture. The borderlands and the city of Los Angeles are significant places in the study of the development of Chicano culture. Historical events in the borderlands have played a significant role in shaping Chicano culture into its present form. The following will explore the effects of the Cotton Strike of 1933 on thecurrent tensions regarding Mexican-American migrant workers today.

Mexicans crossed the borderlands to seek jobs in the United States, primarily filling low-wage labor jobs. Most migrants remained in the border states of California, New Mexico, Arizona, and Texas. They were the perfect employee and posed no threat to the native population according to the Arizona Cotton Grower's Association (Sanchez, p. 96).

Cotton production is labor intensive and difficult without a sufficient supply of unskilled labor. Cotton production requires a long growing season and warm temperatures. Production has the potential for small profit margins. Therefore a producer must seek to cut costs anywhere possible. The loss of slave labor in the Southeastern United States meant the downfall of the cotton industry in that region. However, the availability of low-wage Mexican labor in the borderlands meant the ability to fill the gap left by the old Southern Cotton empire (Hamilton, p. 103). Mexican migrant workers allowed for the development of the cotton industry in the southwestern United States.

The cotton industry provided one of the highest income sources for migrant workers from the turn of the century until the great depression. The cotton picker could expect to earn a salary of $60.75 U.S. dollars per month prior to the great depression (Guerin-Gonzales, p. 121). That wage dropped to $30.12 in 1930 (Guerin-Gonzales, p. 121). Migrant workers were not the only ones to experience a drastic drop in wages. Like many other unskilled laborers across America, these workers began to organize labor unions in an attempt to maintain their economic position.

When Mexican migrant workers began to organize, it was rejected as legitimate by many owners and government agencies. They threatened with intimidation, violence and expulsion from the country (Guerin-Gonzales, p. 121).

Tensions built and in 1933 Mexican-Americans and Mexican migrants organized a strike. In the fall of 1933, for nearly three weeks almost 12,000 cotton workers in Kern, Kings, and Tulare counties in the San Joaquin Valley refused to work (Guerin-Gonzales, p. 121).… [read more]

Revolutionary History of Mexico Term Paper

… When Diaz toppled, there were several different governments that tried for control. Finally, General Victoriano Huerta gained control of the government and helped create a democratic constitution, but he was overthrown by forces supporting Venustiano Carranza, but another entire faction… [read more]

Account for Cuba's Loyalty to Spain During the Wars for Independence in Spanish America Term Paper

… ¶ … Cuba's loyalty to Spain during the wars for independence in Spanish America

The Spanish empire had a stronghold in Cuba. However, the Cubans were not very satisfied with the rule and small instances of rebellion had started to… [read more]

Social and Economic History Term Paper

… " If the records accessed for this book are being interpreted correctly, the priests came with an organized plan to disrupt the cultures they found and they used the Pueblo people's culture to do it. They replaced cultural aspects with… [read more]

Cuban Americans of All Ethnic Term Paper

… Additionally, the greater educational achievement of Cuban Americans further contributed to their growing economic power in the 1980s. Given the aging of the Castro regime and Cuba's growing openness towards capitalism, the economic and political might of the Cuban American population can only increase.

Works Cited

Alvarez, Carlos et al. "Cuban Identity: A Preliminary Study." Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association (Seattle, WA, April 10-14, 2001). Available from ERIC database.

Anton, Alex and Hernandez, Roger E. Cubans in America: A Vibrant History of a People in Exile. New York: Kensington, 2002

Azicri, Max. Reinventing Socialism. Gainesville: University of Florida Press, 2000.

Eckstein, Susan and Barberia, Lorena. "Grounding Immigrant Generations in History: Cuban Americans and Their Transnational Ties." International Migration Review 36(3): 799-837

Garcia, Maria Cristina. Havana USA: Cuban Exiles and Cuban Americans in South Florida, 1959-1994. Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1997

Glick-Schiller, Nina. "Postscript: Haitian Transnational Practice and National Discourse." In Caribbean Life in New York City: Sociological Discourses. Constance Sutton and Elsa Chaney, eds. New York: Center for Migration Studies, 1992.

Gonzales-Pando, Manuel. The Cuban… [read more]

History of Central America Term Paper

… " (p. 24)

Resistance to Liberalism grew in 1940s, which led to some political and economic reforms in the region. However each country responded to the resistance differently. While Costa Rica managed to break free of military rule and democracy was established, in El Salvador, Liberals themselves became democratic rulers after killing tens of hundreds of peasants who had participated in internal uprising. For economic development of the region, the governments of all five nations joined hands to form Central American Common Market (CACM) in 1960. This program was designed to boost economic development and attract more foreign investment to the region. With the help of U.S. Alliance for Progress, CACM worked well for the region and per capita GDP increased significantly during 1960 to 1980. But uneven distribution of wealth and reduction in production led to economic trouble in 1970s, which led to massive increase in foreign debt. Political turmoil ensued and the following decade brought economic and political instability to the region. Costa Rica and El Salvador managed to recover by the end of 1990s while other nations continued to suffer extreme economic depression with Nicaragua presenting the worst picture of economic failure. This in short, "...the rapid but inequitable economic growth of the 1960s and 1970s caused economic policies and class conflict that transformed Central America both politically and economically in the 1980s and 1990s. It is ironic, indeed, that the resulting political change was toward democracy and civilian rule while the economic change was a dramatic decline from which recovery is still far from certain. By and large, Central Americans today enjoy more freedom and democracy than in 1980, but most of them are also poorer."… [read more]

Caribbean History According to Orlando Term Paper

… " (Naipaul).

Naipaul draws honestly from the margins of society and addresses the growing sense of displacement experienced by newly dependent Third World nations. Naipaul is a writer who examines newly free nations and is concerned with them. Naipaul feels Third World Nations are doomed. Not surprisingly his pessimistic opinion is not very popular. However, most critics tend to agree with Naipaul's outlook. He tells the truth, no matter how much it hurts though. Although Naipaul obviously loves the Caribbean and its culture he feels to develop, as a nation may very well be a very slow process if not impossible. Patterson and Naipaul do not have optimistic forecasts however they are truthful and realistic. Both Patterson and Naipaul are viewed by many to be controversial yet the development of the Caribbean financially may be difficult. Naipaul and Patterson are concerned with the effects to the existing Caribbean cultures if the nation changes and develops. They fear something may be lost in the effort to gain. [read more]

New England Town Term Paper

… These colonies were thus far more similar in social impetus to that of the Spanish settlements. As distinct from the Portuguese settlements, the settlers of the British Caribbean did make at least some effort to establish long-standing colonial ties to the area, rather than simply mine the area for wealth. However, like the Spanish, they were not interested in providing a reformist example to other lands. They also wished to make as much money from the territory as they possibly could by exploiting the land's unique facets. In the case of the British Caribbean settlements, as with the Spanish settlements, this required the use of slave labor to make maximum capital use of the region's potential to produce warm weather products for the continent, including sugar cane. They settlers intended to remain like the Spanish on the land for an extended period of time, and did not leave frequently for the homeland, as did the Portuguese. But though they did create a new society because of their permanence, the British Caribbean settlers remained relatively unconflicted about the moral tenor of their life in contrast with the life they had known in their home land, in distinct contrast to the settlers of… [read more]

Trade in Mexico Term Paper

… "

Mexico's efforts to measure itself by trade association standards are paying off in its building trade power and the respect that it is gaining worldwide for its efforts.

NAFTA has adopted a mandate that will eliminate all tariffs on Mexican, U.S. And Canadian goods by 2008(Canada, 1995). This is a motivator for Mexico to further develop its trade relationship with Canada. In addition to Canada it is going to be important in the future for Mexico to develop its trade business with South America nations. The South American nations are close enough in proximity to easily export and import Mexico's products. In addition the trade relationship will encourage growth for all parties involved, which will take some of the power from the U.S. And reduce the U.S. ability to set policy for others.

The European market is also developing ties with Mexico for many of its products and services. The changes seen in the Mexican government of late are encouraging signs to the process of international trade according to experts (Sees, 2001).

One of the most prominent things that warrants attention regarding the Mexico trade dependence on the U.S. is the continued work with Europe in the implementation of a Europe-Mexico trade agreement. This opens the door for many European countries to trade with Mexico and Mexico can more fairly distribute its products and not be dependent solely on the United States (Pact, 2001).

Mexico's two-way trade with Europe has risen to $11.3 billion. But Mexico's trade with the United States has increased so much faster during the same period -- rising 151% to more than $113 billion in 1996 -- that Europe's share of Mexican international trade has fallen from 11% to 6% (Pact, 2001). "


Mexico's strong and steady recovery from its peso crisis in 1994 has left it a position to bargain for trade agreements. In addition the recent exposure for being one of the world's biggest trade powers has given it a foundation for development. The future for Mexico is promising. The most important thing it must do is developing trade relationships with Europe as well as South America. It will provide bargaining clout for Mexico when it comes to dealing with the United States. Spreading its trade business over many nations will also insure its continued growth and success even if the United States goes into a recession or other economic slumps.


____ (1999). Attacking free trade growing pains., La Prensa de San Antonio, 02-28-1999, pp 2A.


____able (1995). Fact sheets: Canada.(includes a country profile). Vol. 6, U.S. Department of State Dispatch, 03-06-1995, pp 165(7).

____(2000). MEXICO BECOMES TRADE GIANT, SAYS WTO., Infolatina, 04-16-2000

____(1997). Mexico, Europe agree to explore free-trade pact., The Dallas Morning News, 12-09-1997, pp 1D.

Sandoval, Ricardo (2002). Mexico Bureau, Made in Mexico?: Competition from China… [read more]

Nature of U.S.-mexican Trade Relations Term Paper

… This means in turn that goods that require a great deal of labor (such as the production of clothing) will be relatively more expensive to produce in countries with high levels of capitalization. Thus clothing produced entirely within the United… [read more]

Spain's Missionary Efforts in North American on Public Policy Towards Volatile Movements Term Paper

… Skills in weaving were needed to assist the Indians. They also were skilled in carpentry which was done under the direction of the craftsmen who was hired by the Spanish missionaries.

In the closing managing area of the mission, most… [read more]

European Voyages of Exploration Essay

… De la Casa estimated that there were originally 3 million people under Columbus's authority and contemporary historians differ in their estimate of how many people they exterminated after arriving in the new world, but it is almost certainly more than 1 million and as many as 7 million or 8 million people (Stennard, 1993; Zinn, 2003). In the Bahamas alone, they killed more than 100,000 (approximately half the population) just on the Island of Haiti within a few years (Zinn, 2003). Twenty or thirty years later, their number had been halved again; and by the time de las Casas published his accounts, there were no Arawak Indians left on Haiti (Zinn, 2003). Even without the rivers of gold sought by the early explorers, Spain eventually reaped the benefit of as much as $1,000,000,000 just in silver (Hayes & Clark, 1966).


Contemporary beliefs about Christopher Columbus belie a notorious reality that rivals the atrocities of the most infamous murderous dictators of the 20th Century. Notwithstanding the difficulty of matching the cold indifference to human rights and suffering of the Nazis during Word War II, what Columbus and his fellow Spanish explorers did to the native peoples of South and Central America may actually be comparable, certainly in brutality if not necessarily quite in numbers. What the Europeans did to the indigenous populations of the new territories they conquered certainly qualifies as genocide. It is, therefore, as ironic and as inappropriate that most contemporary accounts of their exploits still emphasize their heroism and achievement.

Sources Cited

Cohen, John M. (1969). Christopher Columbus. The Four Voyages of Christopher

Columbus; Being His Own Log-book, Letters and Dispatches with Connecting

Narrative Drawn from the Life of the Admiral by His Son Hernando Colon and Other Contemporary Historians (1492-1504).… [read more]

Developing a Sitcom Worksheet Term Paper

… ¶ … Sitcom: Running Water

Main characters: Martha and Ivette

Secondary characters: Martha's sons Rene and Eduardo

Ages of the women: Martha 35; Ivette

Ages of the sons: Rene 11; Eduardo

Relationship to other characters: Martha is the mother of… [read more]

Globalization Has Determined a Wide Increase Research Paper

… Globalization has determined a wide increase in the numbers of international organizations that provide aid, assistance, and cooperation frameworks around the world. Among the many organizations of this type, the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) has become an important player on the international scene given its nature of advisory body. Mexico is among the countries that benefited from the policy advice provided by the OECD and continues to receive support in terms of improving economic and social well being.

Following the 2008-9 recession that affected states around the world Mexico was severely hit largely due to its dependency on exports and at the same time on the commercial ties with the United States. More precisely, it is considered that "80% of exports go to the U.S." (Schwellnus, 2011, p6) therefore, regardless of the efforts conducted that far by Mexico, the recession clearly affected the country especially from the point-of-view of dependency on the foreign market, be it through exports or direct trade ties with the United States.

Given the fact that during the 2008-9 crisis the economy of Mexico proved relatively sensitive to the economic downturn in the neighboring country the United States, it can be said that further action needs to be taken in order to ensure a greater sustainability of the Mexican economy (Schwellnus, 2011). However, measures need to be taken at the political, economic, and social levels at the same time.

One of the most important aspects in the well being of a society is the political environment. Despite the fact that there have been series of political unrest in Mexico, one of the main strategies to maintain political stability is the trust of the citizens in the political class. However, according to OECD statistics, "In Mexico, only 38% of people say they trust their political institutions, much lower than the OECD average of 56% and the lowest rate in the OECD area."(OECD, n.d.) This comes to point out the fact that there is clear mistrust in the political representatives. Therefore, at the political level there is clear need for a political strategy that would ensure a greater trust in the state authorities. Moreover, the mistrust in the state structures is also reflected in the low performance in terms of enforcement of the rule of law. Therefore, a need for more transparency and an increased degree of enforcement of present laws is essential for building citizen confidence.

Unlike other countries of the OECD the younger generation in Mexico is more and more interested to play an active role in the society by exercising the right to vote. In this sense, according to OECD statistics, the younger generation is more engaged in actively influencing the political structure through elections. Although this is a good momentum, it should be built upon for structuring a stronger civil society.

In terms of economic strategies to be followed, it is essential that Mexico becomes less dependent on the… [read more]

Macroeconomic Analysis and Comparative Stock Exchange Exercise Research Paper

… Macroeconomic Analysis and Comparative Stock Exchange Exercise

In the world of globalization and market liberalization, the countries and economies across the world become more intertwined and come to base their evolutions and decisions on international affairs. One important place where the governments can meet to exchange information and set the basis for future collaborations and partnerships is represented by the G20 Summit. This meeting takes place each year and it is attended by the governmental leaders of the twenty most developed regions, namely 19 countries and the European Union.

The most recent G20 Summit was held in Los Cabos, Mexico, under the patronage and improvement commitment of the Mexican president and government. At the specific level of the United States, emphasis was placed on the shy signs of economic revival and the possibility of the U.S. To drive up economic growth in other regions as well. Emphasis was placed on the provision of support to the strengthening of the European Union and its currency, and this could weaken the strength of the U.S. dollar within the international market place.

Other decisions that were made included improvements in market regulations, which could improve the quality of financial reporting as well as the stability of the fiscal system in the U.S. Emphasis also fell on the need to create more sustainable food sources and to integrate research in agriculture.

These measures could then increase the agricultural production in the North American country, as well as increasing the quality of the agricultural activities in the meaning of making them more environmentally sustainable.

Some issues that were left insufficiently discussed included the state and subsidies in the fossil fuel sector, the lack of support provision for young and female entrepreneurship, as well as the state of health care. Within the U.S., all these dimensions constitute important problems, which are likely to further deepen in the future, in the absence of organized support from the international community.

Another important aspect to be assessed in the context of the international community is represented by the stock exchanges. These are generically understood as organized market places where securities are bought and sold between investors.

The stock markets across the globe reveal a series of differences, such as their size, the number of investors and companies served, the diversity of the industries they serve and so on. Still, the stock markets also reveal the more notable commonality of reflecting the status of the global economy. In such a context, the stock exchange markets are essential within the global financial sector.

At this level then, the analysis would be conducted between the New York Stock Exchange, the Mexico Stock Exchange (Bolsa Mexicana de Valores) and the Brazilian… [read more]

Cuban Exodus of the 1960s Research Paper

… " The economic potency of Miami Cubans and their political clout at the local and national levels received considerable attention. (McHugh et al., The Magnetism of Miami, 1997)

So much of the cultural and the vivacious energy of Miami comes from the Cuban culture and the sharing of the Cuban culture. Florida would be different, as would America. There are many Cubans that have influenced American culture such as Cameron Diaz, Eva Mendes, Gloria Estefan, and more. Whether people side with the revolutionaries or decided to leave for America, all Cubans and humans can agree that the consequences for political strife and military conflict have many after effects. The Cuban Exodus of the 1960s is an effect of the tensions in Cuba that have affected my entire life and the lives of other people in my life. This is one way history stays alive and why studying history is useful.


Clark, J.M. (1975) The Exodus from Revolutionary Cuba (1959 -- 1974): A Sociological Analysis. University of Florida, Miami.

McHugh, K.E., Miyares, I.M., & Skop, E.H. (1997) The Magnetism of Miami: Segmented Path in Cuban Migration. The Geographical Review, 87(4), 504 -- 519.

Pedraza, S. (1995) Cuba's Refugees: Manifold Migrations. Cuba in Transition -- ASCE, 311 -- 329.

Pedraza, S. (2002) Democratization and Migration: Cuba's Exodus and the Development of Civil Society -- Hindrance or Help? Cuba in Transition - ASCE, 247 -- 261.

Pedraza-Bailey, S. (1983) Cuba's Exiles:… [read more]

Global Marketing Term Paper

… Global Marketing - Mexico

Mexico has been plagued with brutal drug-related violence over the past few decades, so that is the main story that gets into the newspapers and on television, but there is another Mexico, and in this paper economic and cultural aspects of Mexico will be reviewed.

Mexican Cultural Analysis: There are about 114,975,406 residents in Mexico, and 60% of the Mexican population is "mestizo" (Amerindian-Spanish, meaning, some Spanish blood and some native Indian blood); 30% of the population is Amerindian or "predominantly Amerindian"; 9% of the population is "white"; and 1% is "other" (CIA World Factbook). About 92.7% of Mexicans speak Spanish "only"; 5.7% speak Spanish along with "indigenous languages" (Mayan, Nahuatl, and other regional languages).

As to religion, 76.5% of Mexicans a members of the Roman Catholic faith; 5.2% are Protestant (and within the Protestant grouping are Pentecostals -- 1.4% and "other" 3.8%); 1.1% are Jehovah's Witnesses and the "unspecified" and "none" categories make up about 17% (CIA). Mexico is a relatively young nation in terms of its people, as only 6.6% of the country is 65 years of age or older; 65.2% of the population is between 15 and 64 years of age; and 28.2% of the Mexican population is 14 years of age or under (CIA).

Seventy-eight percent of the Mexican population live in urban areas, and in fact Mexico City is the second-largest urban population in the Western Hemisphere (the largest is Sao Paulo, Brazil). The life expectancy of a Mexican male is 73.84 years, and a female is expected to live 79.63 years. The major infectious diseases that strike Mexicans include food and waterborne diseases (bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis a, and typhoid fever), and the obesity rate for adults is 23.6%, compared with an obesity rate of 13% for the world's population.

As to literacy, 86.1% of males and 85.3% of females over 15 can read and write; moreover, the average male… [read more]

Mexican Independence the Story Essay

… The Spaniards fought the invader; and the Mexicans, who no longer felt themselves to be Spanish, tried to take advantage of this crisis to become independent, as may be seen in the verses that one morning appeared on the walls of the capital: 'Open your eyes, Mexican people, and use this opportunity. Beloved compatriots, fate has placed freedom in your hands; if you do not shake off the Spanish yoke, you will be wretched indeed'." (Mexico 2010, 1).

This paper has described the events leading to the declaration of Mexican independence from two viewpoints. The first stressed a local movement steeped in religion and led by priests. The second source gave a much more political account, presented in the form of 17 individuals who either led, took part in, or contributed to the movement in some way, but did not provide a story for the beginnings of the movement. The second source, as opposed to the first, also spoke at length about the causes of the revolution, especially the socio-economic and political discontents, whereas the first source spoke about these as understood and manipulated by those insurgent priests who led the revolution. As can be seen from these varied descriptions, the Mexican fight for independence can be presented from various viewpoints. In fact, just as with any such fight, there are many sources which one must consult to get a clear picture of just what happened. Whereas the Mexico 2010 website is very practical, it is important to also read the story behind the foundations of modern Mexico, for it is only through this research that one can truly understand the country as it is today.… [read more]

Chinese Japanese Mexicans Immigration Term Paper

… Chinese, Japanese and Mexican Immigration

This paper discusses a number of different historical events that had an impact on Mexican-Americans and the Irish. As we are talking about: specific incidents and the effect on immigration. In the second part, we… [read more]

Portuguese Is a Language That Proves Term Paper

… Portuguese is a language that proves its longevity and strict rules and regulations through the research that has been conducted over the years. This is a language that is strong in culture and dialect, while maintaining its individuality throughout its… [read more]

Respect for Human Rights and Human Dignity Term Paper

… ¶ … respect for human rights and human dignity is the "foundation of freedom, justice and peace in the world"

However, in India, as well as in other parts of the world such as in South America, vulnerable communities have been exploited by one of the wealthiest and most recognised global corporations in the world, Coca-Cola. On one hand, Coca-Cola claims to adhere to the "highest ethical standards"

On the other hand, many of its activities around the world are completely inconsistent with that proposition, raising the question: Is it fair that ones right to consume the latest and cheapest product often mean that someone else's basic rights have been reduced or removed?

According to reports by The Global Exchange Organisation,

parts of India's district of agricultural land have dried up as a direct result of the Coca-Cola plant that drains water from local wells. While the giant corporation fills bottles for sparkling, exotic-sounding drinks that it calls Dasani and BonAqua, it does so at the tremendous expense of local farmers who must suffer the consequences of the resulting water shortages that interfere with crop irrigation and that make their farm lands infertile.

Community drinking water is depleted and major sanitation problems trigger diseases like gastroenteritis and eye infections among the local populations that depend on the same water supply. Compounding the problem is the fact that the Coca Cola Company has also been selling its industrial waste products to the local farmers as fertilizer. This fertilizer is unsafe by virtue of its high levels of toxic wastes such as lead and cadmium, both of which are known as destructive environmental pollutants

This is hardly the only ethical violation being… [read more]

Central America and the Caribbean Research Proposal

… ¶ … Educating Citizens in Postwar Guatemala." This reading made the recent history of Guatemala seem much more real and violent, and it showed the tension that exists in many countries even long after hostilities have ended. The human rights… [read more]

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