Study "Latin America / Mexico / Caribbean" Essays 331-385

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Executive Email Format, Using Bullet Points Thesis

… ¶ … executive email format, using bullet points. Make sure you get right to the point using major facts and problems. It must discuss the status of gang violence on long island in New York for the past 3 years. Has it increases or decreased? Please discuss gang ms13 in detail as well as other gangs on long island. What can police do to help the gang situation?

To the department:

The problems of gangs in Long Island have shown a notable and disturbing increase.

According to New York Police Department (NYPD) statistics compiled in a report entitled "New York/New Jersey high intensity drug trafficking area drug market analysis" by the National Drug Intelligence Center:

Gang-related incidents increased 47.3% and gang-motivated incidents increased 44.4% in the greater New York City Metro area

Gang-affiliated arrests increased to 430 from 246 only a year previously

Furthermore, gangs in the region are "attracting younger members" and "absorbing smaller gangs" which means that gangs are becoming larger, better-organized, and more entrenched in communities

Also, according to the report, in Long Island specifically:

Nassau County (primarily in the towns of in Farmingdale, Freeport, Hempstead, New Cassel, Roosevelt, and Westbury) and Suffolk Counties (in the towns of Brentwood, Copiague, Huntington, and Islip) on Long Island have experienced a particularly notable increase in gang activity and violence.

Of these gangs, MS-13 is the "most violent and…… [read more]


California History US Essay

… Spanish Influence on California From 1542 Through the Early 1800s

In 1542, Juan Rodriguez Cabrillo, a Portuguese navigator sailing for the Spanish Crown, sailed from western Mexico north to San Diego Bay, claiming the "Island of California" (he was mistaken)… [read more]


Texas Identity Essay

… Texas Identity

The Texas Revolution: Remember the Alamo, Remember Santa Anna

Remember the Alamo!" Even people who have never visited Texas have uttered this phrase as a testimony to remembrance -- remembrance of determination, grit, and the quintessential 'Americanness' of those handful of brave men who died during the siege of the Alamo. During the 1950s, little boys all over the nation wore Davy Crockett 'coon caps' mimicking the popular Disney movie of the era that depicted the life of the Alamo hero. Why has Texas captured the popular imagination, despite -- or is it because -- of its curious relationship with America's legacy of slavery and American prejudice against Latino-Americans? And how can Texas be the most American of all states because of its independent attitude, yet also claim a kind of nationhood status apart from the rest of America? Texas has the unique status of being the only state that ever existed, albeit for only a brief period of nine years, as an independent nation recognized by foreign nations, although not by Mexico. It retains some of this national pride even today -- it is the only state to have fought its own war of independence.

Prior to 1824 Texas was a Spanish possession. When Mexico won its independence from Spain, therefore, Texas became part of Mexico. Americans began to settle in Texas beginning in 1821 when Spanish authorities allowed Americans to acquire land in the sparsely settled region. The territories were offered to the largely Protestant American, white settlers with few restrictions and even the enforcement of those restrictions and Mexican laws were lax. This initial American westward migration was not unwelcome as Mexico needed people to manage and farm the under-populated northern state. Mexico's only conditions were that the settlers take an oath of allegiance to Mexico and convert to Catholicism, the state religion. "Thousands of Americans took up the offer and moved, often with slaves, to the Mexican province of Texas" (Lee 2008).

However, when Mexico attempted to exercise more control over these territories, the settler's passions began inflamed. Mexico began to limit the numbers of new settlements, and place limits upon territorial acquisitions, which whites saw as a violation of their freedom. Even worse in the view of the settlers, "when Mexico adopted a new centralist constitution" it "abolished slavery, an institution upon which many Texas settlers depended" thus support for secession from Mexico mounted amongst whites. "Despite U.S. neutrality laws, the movement received considerable support from American citizens in the form of money, arms, and volunteers" ("Texas Revolution," Global Security, 2008). America itself was torn between slave states and free states, and pro-slavery Southerners immediately rallied to Texas' aid in the name of what they saw as freedom -- the freedom to own slaves. The fact that Mexico was viewed as being governed by a dictator, Santa Anna, only sharpened America's sympathies to the Texan side.

The parallels between America's still freshly-won independence from the 'tyranny' King George III of Great Britain seemed… [read more]


Immigration Problems in Spain Essay

… Spanish Immigration

In 2007, nearly one million immigrants arrived in Spain, according to the Spanish National Statistics Institute study in 2007 (Kern, 1). Those immigrants were in addition to the already existing 800,000 that arrived in 2006 and nearly 700,000… [read more]


Santo Domingo Republica Dominicana Thesis

… ¶ … capital of the Dominican Republic is also its largest city and one of the most sizable in North America. The United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) recognizes the historical importance of Santo Domingo's old town, its Colonial Zone by designating it a World Heritage site. Santo Domingo is one of the oldest cities in the Americas and is the oldest continually inhabited European-established city in the New World. The Christopher Columbus first landed in the Americas on the Dominican Republic. His brother Bartholomew found Santo Domingo, which later became "the site of the first cathedral, hospital, customs house and university in the Americas," (UNESCO). The Americas' first monastery, convent, and fortress were also located in Santo Domingo although all are now historical ruins. Moreover, Santo Domingo became a model for future New World city planners with its grid system of roads (UNESCO).

Originally named Santo Domingo after Saint Dominic, the city was first settled in 1496 after two unsuccessful attempts at settlement elsewhere on Hispanola: Navidad and Isabella. Neither site proved tenable due to marauding native peoples and inhospitable geography. Santo Domingo, however, worked. Two years after the Europeans set up camp there the city was officially established in 1498. Santo Domingo quickly became a colonial headquarters used as a base of operations for subsequent waves of explorers and conquistadores. Invasions and explorations into Mexico and Cuba were planned out of Santo Domingo, which was governed by its first mayor Nicolas de Ovando starting in 1502. The golden age of Santo Domingo was short-lived, however. In fact, the ambitious Spanish projects of conquering the New World was exactly what brought about the city's downfall. Successful operations throughout the rest of the Americas meant that new settlers abandoned Santo Domingo for places formerly occupied by the Aztecs and the Incas. With the entire New World effectively under the control of Europeans, Santo Domingo dwindled in importance as a base of operations.

What began as…… [read more]


World Trade Organization Research Proposal

… World Trade Organization

WTO's origins and history

World Trade Organization (WTO) is a trade organization that was created in 1995, being the successor of General Agreement of Tariffs and trade (GATT). The latter provided the rules for the system between… [read more]


Hispanic-americans. Specifically it Will Discuss Mexican Essay

… ¶ … Hispanic-Americans. Specifically it will discuss Mexican-Americans, Puerto Ricans, Cuban Americans, and Central Americans. Hispanics or Latinos are one of the fastest growing ethnic groups in America today, and their presence sparks controversy and hope.

First, Mexican-Americans are the largest Hispanic group in the United States, and although their main strongholds are in California and the Southwest, their presence is felt throughout the country. They speak Spanish, and a large majority report speaking Spanish at home, while using English at work and school. Politically, Hispanics are gaining ground in many areas of the country, serving as governors, state legislators, mayors, and becoming more active politically. It is still difficult for Hispanics to gain a major presence in politics, however, because many are ineligible to vote because they are either illegal immigrants or not citizens of the country. Socially, most Mexican-Americans tend to continue close ties with their homeland, and stay focused in largely Latino neighborhoods and locations. However, the disapproval of much of white society keeps Mexican-Americans isolated and segregated as well, leading to a division socially and economically between many whites and Mexican-Americans. On author notes how Americans view Latinos and their love of homeland. He writes, "For, in their view, if Latinos still retained some sense of emotional commitment to Mexico or other home countries, this might interfere with their loyalties to America" (Hayes-Bautista, 2004, p. 151). Socially, Mexican-Americans seem to live on the edge of both worlds, something white Americans do not seem to understand.

Economically, Mexican-Americans have a great influence on both their homeland of Mexico and their chosen country, the United States. Many send home money to their families in Mexico, helping the Mexican economy, while they fill many blue-collar jobs here that many American would not consider. Religiously, most Mexican-Americans are Catholic, and they continue their beliefs in the United States, supporting Catholic churches and following their belief systems when they immigrate. Mexican-Americans have close family relationships, and often, they bring many family members to the United States as they become more successful. They tend to have large family units, and they tend to remain close throughout their lifetimes - often several family members will reside together in the same house, or nearby.

Puerto Ricans tend to immigrate to the eastern United States (most specifically New York), and they are the second largest group of Hispanics in the nation. They tend to speak Puerto Rican Spanish in the home and English at work and school, like other Hispanic groups, and they may blend this into a form of "Spanglish" that blends the two languages. The largest contingent of Puerto Rican Americans lives in New York City. Politically, Puerto Ricans tend to have a lower voter turnout than most other Hispanic groups, and they tend to be more poverty-stricken for longer periods than other Hispanic groups. However, if they are motivated, they can influence local New York politics quite heavily, and have done so in the past (Lassiter, 1998, p. 178). They are primarily… [read more]


Comparison of Social Movements in Guatemala and Bolivia Essay

… Collective Community Action for Social Change in Guatemala as Compared to Two Examples of Different Social Movements in Bolivia

Collective Community Action for Social Change in Guatemala and Bolivia

Today, many of the people of Central and South America share… [read more]


Common Wealth Status of Puerto Rico Term Paper

… ¶ … Commonwealth Status of Puerto Rico

Puerto Rico occupies a unique political position within the United States, because it is a commonwealth. Generally, the political structure of the United States is one of shared powers, wherein the state and… [read more]


Ex Mex Term Paper

… Ex Mex

Not only has the topic of Mexican migration been a major topic over the past several years, it has caused many a disagreement between individuals and political parties on how best to face this challenge. In response Jorge Castaneda, former Mexico secretary of foreign affairs and New York University, wrote Ex-Mex: From Migrants to Immigrants. In an interview when the book was published, he explained its purpose was threefold: to voice the Mexican perspective on the immigration debate, place this debate within a historical context and stress the economic push and pull of Mexican immigration that does not always work in conjunction with the present letter of U.S. law. Putting this important political debate aside, Castaneda has also been said to "give the immigration dilemma a human face."

This last note about making the immigration controversy "human" is what is memorable about this book. Castaneda notes that Mexicans have been crossing the border for well over a hundred years, some legally, some not. Some Americans surprisingly argue that immigration from Mexico is a recent occurrence. Others, with comments verging on racism, suggest that only countries with serious problems migrate -- a difficult consideration based on the fact that the United States was once known as the "melting pot," because of the different nationalities that settled here. As Castaneda recounts, "Between 1846 and 1932, 52 million European immigrants mostly came to the U.S." (2008, p.27) Films and literature have often depicted the Mexicans in this role of poverty, failure, and lack of success.as if "there is something fundamentally flawed about the national character, origin or destiny."

Throughout American history, the Mexicans have been called on, or some would say coerced, to come across the border and help the U.S. As laborers. During the late 1800s, they worked on the railroads with the equally mistreated Chinese. In World War I, recruitment of Mexicans grew significantly.. During World War II, Bracero Mexicans acted as temporary laborers to fill in for servicemen fighting abroad. For over 25 years, from 1942 to 1964, over 4 million Mexicans regularly worked for half a year in the U.S., and then went back to their families. In 1986 President Reagan's immigration reform gave amnesty to about 3 million undocumented Mexicans. In the '90s, every time the economy soared downward in Mexico, and was macthed with economic growth in the U.S., immigration grew steadily. This went until Bill Clinton's administration came down hard on illegal border crossings, even as the quickly growing American businesses desired additional labor. Immigration circularity, the name for this to-and-from pattern, stopped and smuggling continued. In 1998, Mexico backed dual citizenship, which led to…… [read more]


Conquest of New Spain Term Paper

… Conquest of New Spain

Castillo, Bernal Diaz del. The Conquest of New Spain. Translated and Introduction by John M. Cohen. New York: Penguin Classics, 1963.

Immediately upon reading the title of Bernal Diaz del Castillo's the Conquest of New Spain… [read more]


Schmidt, Hans. The U.S. Occupation Term Paper

… Schmidt's book was also written shortly after the victories of the recent American Civil Rights movement. He noted that Americans, rather than liberating the Haitians, instituted Jim Crow racial segregation in the African nation, supposedly because of linguistic and social differences, but really because of fears of Haitians 'mixing' with American white women (137). The racial hostility was especially notable on the part of the U.S. military, which was mostly made up of Southerners. Haitians were barred from the American social clubs, and Americans took the best houses, much to the outrage of Haiti's former upper class. Even American withdrawal was a protracted affair, despite many promises to the contrary, given the U.S.'s difficulty in financially extricating itself from the messy state of Haiti's financial affairs, of which the U.S. had assumed control after the invasion. Today, this book's portrait of an American invasion in a land it does not understand, and America's involvement in a politically divided nation with a foreign culture is just as timely, if not more timely, than when this book was first written.… [read more]


Texas History Sam Houston Term Paper

… Texas History "Sam Houston"

Was the "Texas Revolution" a legitimate response to the tensions between residents of Texas and the government of Mexico? Please make an analysis of Sam Houston's role in the independence movement the focus of your response.… [read more]


Mexican Californians After 1848 Term Paper

… Mexican Californians after 1848

The United States is rightfully considered to be a country of immigrants. Its entire history was marked by continuous flows of people coming from all corners of the world in search for a better world. They came to establish themselves in different parts of the country, depending on the period the immigration took place. In this sense, the first immigrants to arrive in America, the British pilgrims, establish themselves on the East Coast and set the basis for one of the most prosperous areas of America. However, the evolution of the American states was greatly influenced by the coming of Italian, Chinese, or African immigrants who would later on move West in search for gold during the Gold Rush.

The Mexican immigrants are one of the most important groups to be part of the American nation. Their presence in the Californian state in particular however represents the historical result of a series of factors (Jenkins, 1997). On the one hand it was the matter of a historical necessity to move west due to the increasing possibilities available to poor people after the 1849 Gold Rush. On the other hand, the American-Mexican war represented an important challenge for the Mexican population which, following the war, became Mexican-Americans, and in this way the American population in California and in parts of New Mexico came to play an essential role in the structure of the American society.

All these elements had an impact over the structure of the Mexican family, on the new emerging economy, and on the establishment of the ethnic consciousness. However, the migration West and the flow of immigrants from Mexico had a similar effect and influenced the structure and the economics of the American society.

The development of the new American economy was greatly influenced by the flow of immigrants of Mexican descent. In this sense, they represented a source for additional work in the conditions in which there was need of cheap and strong labor force in the gold extraction business. In this sense, the Mexican miners "numbered between two and three thousand and often traveled in entire families. By early 1849, there were an estimated 6,000 Mexicans digging for gold. In California, a region that had so recently been their own, the Mexicans found they were considered foreigners by the legions of Anglo miners from the east" (the Gold Rush, 2006). Therefore, it can be said that the presence of the Mexican workers in California changed the economic structure of the region because they somewhat destabilized the workforce in the region. They came with a work offer which was more attractive for mine owners and the latter often chose to hire immigrants rather than workers of American descent taking into account the positive financial perspectives and the possible additional profit.

The fact that the Mexicans came to be more appreciated in…… [read more]


Teotihuacan Murals Term Paper

… ¶ … balance of power between the parties? What were their sources of power? Was power used by your team / the other team? How? What effect did this have on the negotiation?

As the Teotihuacan Murals are the national artifacts of the Mexican government so they had a chance to get them back. But as these artifacts were bought by Wagner in 1960 the Treaty of Cooperation did not apply as it was introduced in 1970s and it would create retrospectivity if followed. As the national laws were being a conflict in the matter San Francisco had more authority over the matter as they had the artifacts.

Fine Arts Museum of San Francisco (FAMSF) had the possession of Teotihuacan Murals. As the Teotihuacan Murals were of Mexican heritage so the Mexican community had expert opinions and knowledge about preserving and restoring the artifacts. But as compared to Mexico the U.S.A. had more technology and resources to enhance the preserving and restoring process. The negotiation was affected by both of these points as FAMSF used the power of possession to formulate the clauses. But the clauses also considered the expertise of the Mexican people to restore the artifacts. As for three years the FAMSF would keep the Teotihuacan Murals and restore them to its original form with the help of the Mexican people. Keeping all the points in view the San Francisco Museum had an edge of power over the Mexican government as the Teotihuacan Murals were bought into the U.S.A. through legal means and they decided voluntarily to return the artifacts back to them. And this resulted in a successful negotiation and agreement through which FAMSF still benefits.

b. Using the "circle chart describe the three most important factors that affected the negotiation between the parties in Teotihuacan and explain what effect these factors had.

HINT in answering Teotihuacan question, part b, factors from the circle chart...clearly, one of the factors that heavily influenced the negotiation here was "legal pluralism." Hence as part of your answer to part b, you should discuss the effect of multiple laws / evolving international norms / and rules and practices of the profession on the negotiation in the case.

Ans.When the Mexican government came to know that the Teotihuacan Murals were in U.S.A, they asked the U.S. government to handover the Teotihuacan Murals to them according to the Treaty of Cooperation. The treaty had the clause which stated that all stolen archeological historical and cultural properties would be returned from wherever they are stolen. An action was taken by an attorney on behalf of the Mexican government to return the artifacts. But the Treaty of Cooperation did not apply to the case as it was signed in the 1970s while Wagner legally bought the Teotihuacan Murals in the 1960s and thus the treaty did not apply to the past. This caused the Mexican government to go for an out of court settlement. Thus causing a situation of Legal pluralism as the laws did… [read more]


Phillipines Magellan Headed the Sixteenth Century Spanish Term Paper

… Phillipines

Magellan headed the sixteenth century Spanish expedition that first sighted and landed on the Philippine islands. However, aggressive Christian proselytizing led to brutal battles and Magellan was killed in April of 1521. In spite of the skirmishes between indigenous islanders and the Spaniards, the discovery voyages proved lucrative enough for Spain to bolster its exploration regime. Ruy Lopez de Villalobos led the fourth Spanish expedition to the Philippine islands, lending them their name after King Phillip. In 1565, the archipelago officially became a Spanish colony. Miguel Lopez de Legazpi became the first Governor-General appointed by King Philip, and Lagazpi named Manila the capital in 1571. The Spaniards would govern trade relations with the colony not from Europe but from Mexico, directly exchanging Central American silver with Philippine raw materials ("Spanish Colony").

The Philippines therefore evolved differently from their Southeast Asian and Pacific Rim counterpart colonies. With a poor Spanish presence in the Far East, the Philippines were the only significant Spanish outpost in the region. Spain needed presence in the Pacific to compete with its European rivals like France. Moreover, the archipelago enabled Spain to solidify its colonial outposts and use its Central and South American colonies more strategically.

Spanish rule in the Philippines emphasized universal conversion to Catholicism. However, King Philip eschewed the use of force to convert indigenous islanders. Welcoming a panoply of Christian denominations for missionary purposes, the King and his governors on the islands created large-scale campaigns to introduce Roman Catholicism to the pagan natives. Because of the ban on use of force for conversion, the pagan indigenous religion could not be fully stamped out. One of the most enduring legacies of the Spanish conquest of the Philippine Islands is the emergence of a syncretic religious tradition not unlike those that developed in the Caribbean colonies. Native rituals and cosmological beliefs continue to mingle nearly seamlessly with Roman Catholicism ("Spanish Colony").

Before Spanish conquest, Philippine lands were considered communal ("Spanish…… [read more]


Dominican Republic and Its Debt Term Paper

… Dominican Republic

The Impact of International Debt on Poverty and Development in the Dominican Republic

In Third World countries like the Dominican Republic, there can be no question that poverty is rampant and development is slow in manifesting. Unfortunately, pinpointing… [read more]


Mexican Revolution Term Paper

… Mexican Revolutions

The principal causes of the Maderista revolution of 1910 included dissatisfaction with the President Porfirio Diaz's dictatorship, the unequal distribution of wealth, and widespread injustice. (Gaceto Consular). Not only did the majority of people lack financial resources, they… [read more]


Hispanic Groups Many Commentators Speak Term Paper

… Hispanic Groups

Many commentators speak of the Hispanic population in the United States as if it were monolithic and uniform, which it is not. Several different groups can be identified by country of origin, though all might be lumped together… [read more]


Moche Paleoindians the First Human Settlers Crossed Term Paper

… Moche Paleoindians

The first human settlers crossed from the Old to New World approximately 15,000 to 20,000 years ago. In the hundreds of generations following, they proceeded over the Isthmus of Panama and down to the continent of what is… [read more]


Cartographic Communication Dealing With Maps Term Paper

… Cartographic Communication

Early Maps of the Americas: Tools for Communication & Cultural Understanding

The very early maps that were drawn during the time of the great discoveries in and around the Americas by European explorers served several key purposes. The… [read more]


Carey Mcwilliams Southern California an Island on the Land Term Paper

… Carey McWilliams, Southern California: An Island on the Land

Southern California, Southern California: An Island on the Land

Carey McWilliams' title of his history of Southern California, Southern California: An Island on the Land, suggests that Southern California encapsulates a unique culture, as distinct from the rest of the United States, almost like an island nation. Although tied to the land, the colorful constellation of cultures, political personalities, and economic speculation that influenced the region caused it stand apart from the rest of the nation. McWilliams attempts to explain some of the extraordinary developments that occurred during the region's history, even before it became a state. However, rather than an affectionate tale, or a tale of adventure, or even a tale of history, McWilliams' work has a clear ideological thesis, namely that this golden state of great wealth was built by exploiting individuals who never enjoyed its riches, and were often unjustly denied the name or rights of Americans.

McWilliams concentrates on the period from the 1920s through the 1940s, when his book was written. However, he gives ample discussion of the exploitative origins of California, reminding the reader that California, although Caucasians may associate the territory with freedom, was a land ultimately founded upon eradicating the land's native inhabitants and culture. He calls the early missionary efforts of the Spanish conquistadors cultural genocide in unsparing terms. Later history was to eradicate the terrible cultural destruction and population decimation caused by the efforts to create Christian communities in the Carolinas, as the Franciscans called the Indians "poor, foolish, gentle, and lovable" dehumanizing them and forcing them to labor for a pittance, in exchange for the supposed benefits of having their souls 'saved' (22). The Indians provided the labor for mission enterprises, clearing the ground, building the structures themselves, and making the canals that would prove so critical in later efforts to transport goods across the region but their sacrifice went unremunerated and unrewarded (25).

From the exploitation of the Indians McWilliams moves on to discuss the exploitation of the Mexicans inhabits of Southern California. "I? A Mexican? I am Californo! said I" (49). The idea of a Californian was once a fused Anglo-Hispanic personality, but no more, now that American citizenship held sway over a state-centric identity. The war of cultures, of Anglo and Spanish was rewritten during the 19th century, but while the conquistador's faith and culture reigned supreme over the Indians, now the Anglos triumphed over the Mexican's influence in the region. This rivalry was sharpened by the conquest of Mexico by America, and cultural resentment grew, intensified by the class tensions between upper class and lower class Mexicans themselves, or "native Californians" from Mexicans who would later be derogatorily called wetbacks (53).

Crimes of violence between the Anglos and Mexicans had been unknown prior to the Mexican War, but Mexicans became increasingly disaffected, the result of political and economic discrimination (59). Crime began to rise, but even more pervasive than crime was the myth of the Mexican… [read more]


Sociological Concepts Term Paper

… Sociological Concepts

The Colombians -- the Dillingham Flaw

The term Dillingham Flaw, "coined by social thinker Vincent Parrillo, refers to the erroneous way of comparing people from one time period with people living in the present" ("Dillingham Flaw," 2006, World Prout Assembly). The name originated from the study of Senator William P. Dillingham, who concluded from 1907-1911 data that "immigration from southern, central and eastern Europe was detrimental to the U.S." because of these immigrants' lower IQs ("Dillingham Flaw," 2006, World Prout Assembly). These studies were based on recent immigrants with poor familiarity with English, and who had not yet benefited from the U.S. free public education system. Education beyond a rudimentary level was often not possible in their home nations, and many immigrants were working hard to make a living for their children, rather than getting an education in the United States.

The Dillingham Flaw is still applied to many recent economic immigrant groups in the United States. For example, Latin American immigrants from Colombia may be tarred with the taint of participating in their nation's drug trade, simply because their home nation is associated with drugs. Furthermore, it is usually poorer persons who engage in the planting coco, out of economic desperation, while people who immigrate to the U.S. often do so in search of greater opportunity, not to engage in illegal activities. If anything, they come to the United States to escape the violence and danger associated with such activities and drug production.

Some stereotypes have been used against virtually all recent Latin American immigrants, such as the idea, for example, that they are illegal immigrants or low-wage workers with poor educational backgrounds. But to take just one example, Colombia contains within its borders a wide variety of persons of different socioeconomic and educational levels. To view all Colombians, indeed all Latin American immigrants…… [read more]


At Sea or at Home Different Perspectives on the Voyage to the New World Term Paper

… Colonial America

Christopher Columbus' first voyage raised eyebrows in the world of the monarchs of European countries despite the booming of discoveries of new lands up for grabs of colonizing countries. One of the countries he approached, Spain, was beset with wars and religious instability due to the staunch belief of Queen Isabella that Spain is for Catholics. He was previously rejected by other European countries, as well as Spain, but his strong belief that he would discover new lands made some monarchs reconsider, particularly Spain.

Spain was ruled by the House of Aragon, King Ferdinand and his wife, Queen Isabella, known as Isabella the Catholic, for her great role in the implementation of Spanish Inquisition and her great support for Catholicism. She is hailed as one of the intelligent and strong women in European history. Queen Isabella was at first skeptic of Christopher Columbus and his proposal of an unknown expedition, and exaggerated demands. But Spain was in a race for new discoveries and Queen Isabella wanted so much to overcome Portugal in its quest for colonization, that…… [read more]


Guatemala Colorful, Warm, Lush, and Friendly Term Paper

… Guatemala

Colorful, warm, lush, and friendly, Guatemala remains one of the prime tourist destinations of the Americas. Originally settled thousands of years ago, Guatemala's indigenous Mayan population comprise a sizeable proportion of its modern society, although many Guatemalans have mixed European and Mayan heritage and are known as Mestizo or Ladino. The majority of Ladino Guatemalans have practiced Catholicism since colonization by the Spaniards. However, Guatemalan culture retains a significant amount of indigenous cultural traditions, visible in handicraft, art, food, language, religion, and worldview, especially in rural regions. About sixty percent of the population speaks Spanish as a primary language; the other forty percent speak one of many Mayan languages, often in addition to Spanish as a second language. The nearly two-dozen surviving Mayan languages include Quiche, Cakchiquel, Kekchi, Mam, Garifuna, and Xinca, adding to the cultural and ethnic diversity of the nation.

A substantial number of Guatemalans, especially Mayans, live in poverty. The majority of wealthy elite are Ladino or persons of direct European descent rather than Mayan. In addition to the original Spanish colonialists, a small group of Germans settled in Guatemala around the turn of the last century. Other ethnic minorities in Guatemala include the small number of persons from African descent, who live mostly along the country's Caribbean coast. Many of the black Caribs, known as "Garifunas," were descendents of runaway slaves from St. Vincent ("Guatemalan Culture and History").

Guatemalan Mayans are probably best known internationally for their spectacular woven textiles. However, the economy depends on agricultural exports and the peasant farmers see far fewer profits for their labors than the minority of wealthy business owners. Guatemalan's indigenous farmers have been forced into a near-feudalistic system to produce cash crops. As a result of the diminished agricultural diversity and the elimination of community subsistence agriculture, many Mayans have begun to migrate to the nation's urban centers like the capital Guatemala City in search of work.

In addition to poverty, the nation's residents have endured centuries of political turmoil, too. Conquistadores altered the…… [read more]


Che Brief Biography of Che Guevara Communism Essay

… Che

Brief Biography of Che Guevara

Communism has lost its international appeal since the death of the Soviet empire. Fidel Castro is discredited, and Cuba is an island of repression in a sea of capitalist expansion taking place within almost all formerly communist countries. So why does the Cuban revolutionary Che Guevara continue to have such a powerful hold upon the public's imagination? The ideas Guevara died for have become largely discredited, even though the poverty that stimulated his revolutionary fervor and anger remain a fact of life in many Latin American countries.

Part of it may be due to the fact that, unlike his other Latin American revolutionary communist patriots, Guevara was ennobled by an early death. "Shoot, coward, you're only going to kill a man!" he supposedly said before his killers shot him and hacked off his hands. Guevara died at the relatively age of thirty-nine but he lives on, on coffee mugs and posters in student dorms, "jingles at the end of key rings and jewelry" on fashionable young urban revolutionaries, and he has even popped up in the lyrics of rock operas like "Evita." (Dorfman, 2003, p.2)! No lo vamos an olvidar! The Cuban people cried when he died -- he will not be forgotten, after he was assassinated the jungles of Bolivia in October 1967. (Dorfman, 2003, p.1)

Guevara was born into relative privilege in Argentina. Growing up, an asthmatic intellectual, he did not fit the image of a likely champion of the people. As a student at his university, he read Marx and Lenin, but was not overly active in student politics. Shortly after graduating, Guevara rode on his old motorbike around South America and was horrified by the impoverishment of the native people there. This awakened his social conscience. His life would never be the same. ("Ernesto, 'Che' Guevara, Books and Writers, 2003)

After the American intervention in Guatemala in 1954 that overthrew the democratically elected, anti-American leftist president, Guevara become convinced that the only way to bring about change was by violent revolution. "I have sworn before a picture of the old and mourned comrade Stalin that I won't rest until I see these…… [read more]


Organizational Overview of Walmart Term Paper

… Wal-Mart -- the Financial and Accounting Practices of the World's Largest Retailer

This paper provides an overview of the organization and financial practices of the successful discount retailer Wal-Mart, an American company with an international outreach.

Overview of the organization of Wal-Mart: its financial and accounting practices

The company's chief executive officer

According to the investor relations section of the official Wal-Mart company website, entitled "Organizational Leadership," Wal-Mart's current Chief Executive Officer, or is Eduardo Castro-Wright. Wright's current official title is that of the president and chief executive officer of Wal-Mart Stores, USA. Castro-Wright was promoted to this position in September 2005, following his role of executive vice president and chief operating officer for Wal-Mart Stores, USA. ("Organizational Leadership," 2006, Wal-Mart Official Website.) Castro-Wright's appointment seems like a logical progression from his earlier position, although his selection may also have been due to public relations concerns, given that Wal-Mart has been criticized for acting in discriminatory ways towards women and minorities within its corporate leadership organization, despite the dominance of minority customers and workers in Wal-Mart's sales figures and staff of lower-level employees.

Include the location of the home office

Wal-Mart is an international retailer. Its home office is based in Arkansas, the location of its founder Sam Walton's original Bentonville variety store. ("Visitor's Center," 2006, Wal-Mart Official Website.)

Identify the ending date of the latest fiscal year

The latest fiscal year that the corporation provides information for is that of the first quarter of 2006. The company provides full reports on its website from the present year stretching back to the company's first public offerings in 1970. ("Annual Report, 2006, Wal-Mart Official Website)

Describe the principal products or services that the company provides

In the case of Wal-Mart, it is almost easier to detail the types of goods and services the company does NOT provide, rather than the products it sells. It sells everything from food to electronics, to home goods and home improvement materials such as furniture and paint, to tires and pet supplies. Wal-Mart even sells vacation packages, swimming pools, online music downloads and provides an optical center for customer vision care -- as well as access to an on-store pharmacy. As well as selling books and entertainment goods, Wal-Mart also provides DVD rentals. The corporate umbrella of Wal-Mart also comprises Sam's Club, a membership-based warehouse store that sells discount goods in bulk. In short, volume and quantity are the keys to Wal-Mart's ability to sell a diversity of products and services at the lowest prices, all of the time.

Include the main geographic area of activity

Wal-Mart has international operations spanning the expanse of over fifteen countries. The company has locations in Argentina, Brazil, Canada, China, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Germany, Guatemala, Honduras, Japan, Mexico, Nicaragua, Puerto Rico, South Korea and the United Kingdom. Again, it is almost more of a question where Wal-Mart's corporate outreach does NOT reach. However, within the United States, the nation which provides the bulk of its sales, Wal-Mart is more… [read more]


Dutch Invasion of Brazil Term Paper

… .. far surpasses everything the Portuguese managed to produce in the hundred years preceding."

The success of the Dutch colonization was, as has been suggested, largely the result of the good governance of Maurice of Nassau. He was thirty-three years… [read more]


Mexican Miracle After the Era Term Paper

… (Ibid.) The meager sustenance previous available in the countryside was becoming noticeably absent, and young people moved to the cities in search of work, spirit, and livelihood. Soon, noticing the dwindling supply of people in the countryside, others followed. In 1940, manufacturing had already increased by at least 19%; by 1977, that number had continued to boom and took with it population rates. Within thirty-seven years, the cities claimed half of the Mexican population. (Wyman, 109.)

At the same time, politics were on the move. In such a transient society, political spirit might have been stalled in a revolution, but it was by no means static. The remarkable economic surge witnessed in the Mexican Miracle forced a shift between the management and the labor, as income distribution soon illuminated all too clearly. The management controlling the manufacturing forces was padding its pockets while the poor continued to lose out, and very quickly the equitable precepts proffered just years earlier fell victim to the natural hierarchy of the mixed market system. In 1950, the poorest half of families had access to nearly one-fifth of the national income; by 1975, the poor saw only 13% of the income reach their hungry mouths. (Ibid.) While many citizens had migrated to the urban centers for hope and better futures, there they found a destitution that did not allow for self-salvation. No longer was the ground beneath their feet able to be tilled, nor was the backyard garden able to produce a family's small meals. Concrete and filth failed to provide for the needs of the growing poor in increasing financial dearth.

Quite to the contrary, the top 20% of Mexico's wealthiest, who clustered behind Cardenas, would be responsible for nearly 60% of national income between 1950 and 1960. (Wyman, 112.) The polarized concentration of wealth mirrored the flawed Obregonian concept that wealth should be first accumulated then distributed. Sadly, for the Mexicans most in need, this fiduciary relief never came.

Despite hard facts, the new stratus provided an oddly successful marketing tool. Economic growth and political stability led others to perceive a developing nations' model that might be functionally mimed. Yet, the circulation of such positive repute was tempered when, in 1968, large groups of students challenged the porous legitimacy of the system. The bloodshed soon indicated to both the external world and, more importantly, to Mexicans that, despite the successes of the Mexican Miracle, the ISI model of developing industrialization was not stable enough for reliance, nor tenable enough future planning.

Handelman, Howard. Mexican Politics: The Dynamics of Change. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1977.

Hellman, Judith Adler. Mexican…… [read more]


Why the Spanish Civil War Became a Cause for Many American Term Paper

… ¶ … Spanish Civil War

When viewed from a historical perspective, the Spanish Civil War was basically the opening battle of World War II, and perhaps "the only time in living memory when the world confronted, in fascism and Nazism,… [read more]


Mexican Political System Term Paper

… Politics

Mexican Government

The Zapatistas are a group of rebels fighting for property rights, land reforms, and cultural acceptance in Mexico. They took their name from the legendary Mexican freedom fighter, Emiliano Zapata. They have made the diachronic transition from a dissident movement to a legitimate political force entirely because of the Mexican government, who made martyrs of forty-five peasants in a massacre in 1997. These were Zapatistas and their supporters, and it enraged the country. This legitimized the Zapatistas and their cause, and showed the government to be inflexible and devious because they had promised to work on the problems of land reform that the Zapatistas asked for. From a diachronic perspective, the group has grown and matured, and in doing so, has become a legitimate political force in Mexico.

B. 1. Mexico-U.S. migration has several causes. Mexicans come to the U.S. To better themselves. Most young men in Mexico have little chance of employment, and they see life in the U.S. As a chance they do not have in Mexico. This…… [read more]


Civil Wars it Is Estimated Term Paper

… During the late 1960's, rightist groups were using the same terrorist tactics as the communists to attack the government, which slowly began to implement programs to improve the lives of the Indian peasants (Guerrilla pp). In 1968, communist guerrillas killed… [read more]


Haitian Revolution Term Paper

… Haitian Revolution of 1791-1804 occupies a distinct position in the history of humanity. Riding on the tail of the French Revolution, in which the Declaration of the Rights of Man paved the way for a new paradigm of social and… [read more]


Juan Antonio Corretjer Was Born Term Paper

… Instead, Corretjer specifically acknowledges the contributions made by blacks and whites, as well as Native Americans ("Oubua-moin"). In fact, in speaking of whips and broken flesh and broken backs, Corretjer does not shy away from the history of slavery in Puerto Rico; instead he uses the idea of slavery as an illustration to show the dangers of imperialism and foreign occupation ("Oubua-moin"). In fact, Corretjer uses the comparison between slavery and colonization to show that the exploitation of Puerto Rico has not only been similar to the exploitation of humans by slavery, but has depended on the blood of slaves ("Oubua-moin"). In this way, even though slavery has ended, Corretjer can show how Puerto Ricans will continue to be enslaved as long as another country remains in control of Puerto Rico. In addition, in Oubua-moin, Corretjer speaks about the idea of a mother country ("Oubua-moin"). Initially, one comes to understand that the mother country was Spain, and even history is honest about the horrors perpetrated by the Spanish when conquering the new world. However, by the poems end, Corretjer has transformed the idea of the mother country to represent America, thereby highlighting his belief that American possession and occupation of Puerto Rico is just as threatening, dangerous, and damaging, as Spanish occupation was.

Finally, in Yerba bruja, Corretjer contrasts the magic of Puerto Rico with the realities of a colonial governmental system. In the poem, a man is walking through witch grass, or bewitching grass, which makes him return to the religious ceremonies practiced by his ancestors ("Yerba bruja"). The poem is mainly about this experience, however, Corretjer contrasts the idea of a timeless religious experience with the presence of a sugar refinery and the idea of men in uniform, which conveys a totalitarian-type government ("Yerba bruja"). By contrasting the absolute freedom of a spiritual experience with the restrictions given by uniforms and factories, Corretjer demonstrates, albeit subtly, how Americanization has altered and scarred the landscape and the people of Puerto Rico.

As is demonstrated in his poetry, Corretjer's political message and his infatuation with the beauty of Puerto Rico were inseperable; it was his perception that U.S. occupation threatened the very essence of Puerto Rico that spurred Corretjer's political activism. Furthermore, Corretjer recognized that Americanization posed a physical threat to Puerto Rico, as well as a philosophical one. One of the most dramatic examples of the physical threat that came with progress and with the American occupation was the horrible decline in Puerto Rico's environment. In fact, along with the fellow authors Enrique Laguerre, Abelardo Diz Alfrao, and Luis Llorens Torres, Corretjer denounced the destruction of the rainforest (Marrero). Corretjer expressed the most concern about damage being done to his home region of Ciales. In fact, Don Tato, a friend of Corretjer and the former owner of a coffee plantation, used Correjters poetry to establish the Corretjer forest in Ciales, where the trees, flowers, and landscapes Correjter wrote about in his poetry are now being allowed to reclaim land… [read more]


Neoliberalism in Chile Term Paper

… Neoliberalism in Chile -- the Miracle of the Marketplace and Milton Friedman?

It is called "The Chilean Miracle," namely the ability of Chile to escape the hyperinflation and stagnation of many of that nation's Latin American neighbors. (Bidstrup, 2005) However, the neoliberal economic reforms that took root in Chile during the dictatorship of Pinochet and continued into the nation's present have their roots in America, namely the economists of the University of Chicago, led by Milton Friedman. The term "neoliberal" derives from the original "liberal" economics of Adam Smith, who published the capitalist Bible the Wealth of Nations in 1776. Adam Smith argued that markets work best when there is minimal interference from government, and that government should not interfere with the unseen hand of the free market. This term was later radicalized to encompass an agenda of total government deregulation of controlled industries. This idea was initially considered heterodox to most Latin American nations, which were by and large characterized by large bureaucracies and tight social safety nets designed to protect the large numbers of urban poor, a product of a highly stratified society.

Chile's experimentation with neoliberal ideas started as early the 1960s, under the "Chicago Boys," a group of Chileans who had studied economics in Chicago and returned to implement some of these "economic truths" in Chile. Although they met with little success during that era, the neoliberal model was thus introduced to the Chilean academic elite's ways of thinking and approaching economics early on. This sowed the seeds for neoliberalism within the structures of the Chilean university and government, enabling the later Chilean military regime to have a scientific as well as self-interested approach. (Bansal, 2005, p.16)

This early introduction has since proved to have reaped many positive rewards. For instance, because Chile embraced the possibility neoliberalism fairly early compared to its Latin American neighbors, it was more insulated from the debt crisis that afflicted other Latin American countries in the 1990s. (O'Neil, 2005) Yet the methods by which the Chilean economic reform was implemented call forth the question -- is it possible to implement such reforms in a stratified Latin American nation, as was Chile, in a political democracy? Although Augusto Pinochet may have embraced capitalism in his economic policies, he was surely not a democratic leader. He only conceded to institute democratic reforms in the 1990's.

When Augusto Pinochet came to power, he was determined to embrace the five cardinal points of neoliberal economics in Chile. The market was to rule supreme, unrestrained by the intervention of government or labor unions. To reduce government interference in the market and reduce government debt, the government of Chile withdrew itself from many social welfare programs. Deregulation, privatization, and the philosophy of rugged individualism were all-important. (Bidstrup, 2005) However, one of the less salutary effects of the miracle under Pinochet was that any organizer or activist who questioned the wisdom implemented by the Pinochet regime was often never…… [read more]


Portes and Stepick Feel 1980 Term Paper

… ¶ … Portes and Stepick feel 1980 was such a critical turning point for the city of Miami?

An exodus of one Cuban community leads to another community's self-examination: a book overview:

Portes, Alejandro and Alex Stepick. (1994) City on the Edge: The Transformation of Miami. California: University of California Press.

Alejandro Portes and Alex Stepick call the Miami of 1980 a City on the Edge, racially and socially. The city's formerly secure Cuban community, secure in its sense of American identity, underwent a profound disruption with the influx of new Cuban immigrants to its shores. The community underwent a demographic composition comparable to the exodus experienced by the city of Miami in the late 1950's and early 1960's, when the first influx of Cuban immigrants came to Floridian shores. Many of the later, 1980's immigrants, however, rather than coming from the aristocratic and middle class of Cuba, like the largely light-skinned aficionados of the Baptista regime, were of lower classes, and/or mulattos, or Blacks. This upset the Cuban sense f self-identity as a people in Miami, confronting them with the uncomfortable truth of the racial and social diversity of the Cuban people and nation.

Why did the Castro regime change its policy so suddenly on immigration in the first place? Answering this question helps provide clues as to why the next wave of immigration was so diverse. The reasoning begins, oddly enough, to an incident when a Havana bus driver drove through the Peruvian embassy and publicly embarrassed Castro. The driver demanded political asylum. This set off an international crisis. In 1980, the world was at the height of the second wave of the 'cold war,' in a state of international tension unprecedented since the Cuban Missile crisis. Castro sensed this and within days of the highly publicized incident, he allowed thousands of Cubans to leave his nation, as more and more disenchanted Cuban citizens stormed the Cuban embassy to claim refuge.

Thus, the embarrassed Castro regime opened the port of Mariel to all Cubans who wished to leave Cuba. Naturally, most went to the largest Cuban community in the most prosperous nation of the world, that of Miami. Many of these Cuban exiles had Floridian relatives. According to the authors, before long, the so-called Freedom Flotilla first ferried 125,000 Cubans to Florida, a huge number of individuals for a relatively small community to assimilate at one time. But because many of these individuals were relations, with the Latin spirit of hospitality and communality, the anti-Castro, anti-communist Miami Cubans felt compelled to respond with open arms.

Yet before long, the reaction of the community was not entirely pleased. According to a Cuban-American official quoted in Portes, the Mariel boatlift "destroyed the image of Cubans in the United States and, in passing, destroyed the image of Miami itself for tourism."(21) at first quietly, and then not so quietly, the Cuban longtime residents…… [read more]


Brazil Is a Hot Country With Terrible Term Paper

… Brazil is a hot country with terrible water and 140 million thirsty people. Therefore, there is nothing strange, perhaps, in the fact that a vicious war has broken out to persuade Brazilians to drink one kind of cola over another.… [read more]


Cocks Fight: Dominicans, Haitians Term Paper

… Analysis of the Book

This book, along with the island's gruesome and horrid past and the constant sadness, has more to it, as Wucker neither idealizes nor fiends Haitians and Dominicans. She shows the other side of the island, that fashioned Papa Doc and Baby Doc, also as the fostering ground for the thorough Catholic mystic and ex-president Jean Baptiste Aristide, or the melody of Boukman Eksperyans and Jean Luis Guerra, or Sammy Sosa, the previous shoeshine boy who triumphed baseball and America's compassion last summer (3).

Wucker's expression grips you in taking you into the world of its characters making them real e.g. In the miniature rooms of Haitian traders behind the bazaar in Santo Domingo, prepared to disappear at the sounds of the arrival of the authorities; or in the cockfighting grounds on either parts of the island as birds slash at each other while men hysterically gamble, the probability always shifting during the match (3), expertly using it as a metaphor for the changing and complex dynamics of the two estranged societies; or in the bamboo pastures where Haitian men yield bamboo under an unremitting sun for a few dollars per day (3).

Not only that, she also expertly depicts the people that influenced her life on the island creating solicitous and challenging environment for their lives, delving the often-conflicting facts that these amalgamated societies present (3).

Most of the matter particularly the political facts about Haiti in this book, coming almost wholly from the history manuscripts, is in reality about Haitians residing in the Dominican Republic. But even though Wucker had toured widely in the Dominican Republic, it seems from the context that she may have had a couple of daytime drives athwart the limit into Haiti, only.

Verily this book is about how the Haitians live under the constant but struggling domination of the Dominican Republic and how the Dominicans scrutinize the civilization or quite, the less than creature grade of the Haitians (3).

The approach that the Haitians took against the Dominicans was not discussed at all in this book as it only centered on the connection between the two cultures presenting the Dominican Republic as oppressors, even possible executioners of the Haitians.

Conclusion

The name is attractive, but does not justify the matter of the book entirely. Michele Wucker uses her expert journalistic abilities to the best and provides a very readable and insightful look at the Dominican Republic and how it treats the Haitians there. She has stringed together a few journalistic analyses, some more important while others irrelevant, concerning the relationship of the dominant Dominican Republic and the subservient Haitians within their borders (3).

The book "Why the Cocks Fight" is a must read for those who are interested in Hispaniola, as well as for those who would like to know the effects of immigration in the United States and the changes of societies and cultures whose inhabitants have been uncovered.

References

1. Bob Corbett. Why The Cocks Fight: Dominicans, Haitians… [read more]


Father Eusebio Kino Term Paper

… The area at the time was under a constant threat from the powerful Apache Indian tribes so Padre Kino's used his ability to speak to the various Piman groups to bring them together in an act of unity against a… [read more]


Chicano/Mexican Culture History Term Paper

… Douglas (1990) explicitly studies the dynamics of Mexican society during the conflict phase, with post-war America as its social landscape: "Labor and production persistently defined the history of Mexicans in the United States, at least through World War II. Itinerant gang labor in agriculture and on the railroads of the Southwest was always essential. Mexicans worked in urban service industries as well, though not in great numbers. What some have called a secondary labor market of dead-end, low-paying jobs defined the work lives of Mexicans north of the border. Mexicans responded with a variety of adjustments, resignation, and resistance" (284). Evidently, Mexican society, which includes Chicanos and Mexican-Americans, is defined with a sense of territoriality for Americans. Because society sees Mexican society as a society of displaced people, marginalization became prevalent, whether these people are original inhabitants and citizens of the country or not, resulting to discrimination and poverty.

The second phase of the development of Mexican society in the U.S. is the assimilation phase. This phase is descriptive of the current social dynamics occurring within Mexican society in the country. In this phase, Chicanos and Mexican-Americans create a balance between maintaining Mexican and American cultures. Thus, the collectivist and high-context Mexican society is preserved as Chicanos/Mexicans try to achieve economic, social, even political statuses and roles in the American society. Similarly, American society is learning to cope with the presence of a diversified society in their country, and the rising prominence of the Mexican heritage is manifested not only in the society, but in both American and Mexican legislation as well. In 1997, a law providing Mexican-Americans the rights to have dual citizenship, and privileges for Mexicans to vote both in the U.S. And Mexico.

As the Mexican society is gradually assimilated into the contemporary American society, its future can be traced or patterned right after the history of African-Americans in the U.S. The emergence of the Mexican-American and Chicano movements fighting for equality and recognition of their rights in the American society is reminiscent of the civil rights movement of the African-Americans during the 1960s (in fact, Mexicans are also included in this protest movement, along with black Americans) (Tatum, 2001). In essence, Mexican society and culture of the present and for the future is described as "people between cultures," where "... 'culture in the borderlands'... 'human cultures'... (metropolitan typifications) are neither necessarily coherent nor always homogeneous" (Saldivar, 1997:24). This means that Mexican society and culture is and will be a balance between the traditional and modern cultures, creating a hybrid form of culture and society that is distinctly characteristic of the Mexican and American heritage. In sum, Mexican society, the "people between cultures," is an illustration of the development of Mexican society and culture in United States territory throughout history, dating back from as early as 16th century up to the 20th century American society.

Bibliography

Douglas, M. (1990). Thrown among strangers: The Making of Mexican culture in frontier California. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Saldivar, J.… [read more]


Northern European Power Shift Term Paper

… Spain lost many of its possessions in the New World, specifically, in the Caribbean and North America. These two countries were forced to consolidate their holdings; unfortunately, rather than strengthening their positions, this only made them more vulnerable to attack.

Another component of Spain's and Portugal's losses can be explained by the fact that their plans for colonization changed so many times. Portugal and Spain's original plan for exploration was to find trading partners, acquire power and wealth, convert any "pagans" they found (natives who had not been exposed to Christianity), and subdue or eliminate the "infidels" and Muslims. However, each new monarch, whether in Spain or in Portugal, changed this plan with his or her succession to the throne. The result was a chaotic mess that left the field open to the Northern European countries.

One of these countries, England, was particularly well-primed to take over power. Henry VIII was the king at this time, and under his reign England experienced a tremendous surge in production and wealth. There was relative peace in the world at this time, at least in England, so "Henry VIII attempted to act as a mediator between France and Spain, playing the countries against each other in hopes of gaining power in Europe." (Encarta) But there was more to England's success than Henry's political machinations. Part of this was also attributable to the exceptionally good weather England had at this time. This enabled farmers, especially those who raised sheep, to produce crops and livestock in record numbers. Flanders, in what is now present-day Belgium, had a very successful wool trade with England, which added to the country's power and wealth.

Henry VIII did away with the Catholic Church as well. In order to divorce Anne Boleyn, Henry simply removed the Catholic Church from England, replacing it with his own Church of England. Henry refused to pay tithes to the church, so the money that previously went to Rome now stayed in England.

With an increase in England's wealth came an increase in England's power. This is not unlike what took place in France and the Netherlands. Unfortunately, Spain and Portugal were too mired in their own political happenings and trying to hold on to what was left of their empires to be all that effective against the Northern European countries rise to power.

Bibliography

Goldman, Steve. "Defeat of the Spanish Armada." 2003. The History Buff. http://www.historybuff.com/library/refspain.html.

Microsoft® Encarta® Online Encyclopedia 2003. © 1997-2003 Microsoft Corporation. http://encarta.msn.com.… [read more]


Mexican Immigrants the Effects Term Paper

… As in the case of Rodriguez they can quickly get connected to a life of crime as well.

For example, among Mexicans who arrived in Los Angeles during the 1990s, the typical man had only six years of schooling, but eight of 10 such men were holding down jobs. Among the city's blacks by contrast, the average man had obtained at least some college education. Even so, employment rates for this group did not match the level achieved by the most recently arrived immigrants from Mexico. Unskilled immigrants with far less education than the east schooled among the urban blacks, find jobs that according to conventional wisdom either should not or do not exist. Yet the poverty still exists.

But Los Angeles newcomers were much less successful in finding adequate employment or earnings at least 50% above the federal poverty limit. Among the most recent Mexican immigrants, the typical man has roughly a five in 10 chance of holding a job that pays a living wage. Odds improve with time spent in the United States, but only to a limited extent. Looking at those Mexican men who have lived in the United States for 20 years or longer only seven out of 10 were earning a living wage. Education proved more important for earning a living wage than time spent in the United States. So if employed, the typical black man had a nine in 10 chance of earning a living wage. The same social networks that help these immigrants find work, also appear to tunnel them in a narrow tier of economy where newcomers quickly saturate demand and compete with each other, further driving down wages.

Even if it were possible to turn the tide n this surge of immigration, Los Angeles would be loath to take he step. The metropolis's economy haws become addicted to the low-income labor that only thee newcomers tend to provide. While the regions established residents are at best ambivalent about the immigrants, its employers know a good deal when they see one, an incessant flow of job seekers willing to do any job at bargain-basement rates.

In fact Los Angeles responded to the nation's largest surge of immigration over the period in question by nearly doubling the positions in such immigrant absorbing, low skilled occupations, as janitors, gardeners and domestics.

While the children of Mexican immigrants do much better than their parents, they still fall behind the children of other immigrants on most ever socioeconomic measure. High school graduation, college attendance, finding adequate employment and entry info professional occupations. Unfortunately just as Rodriguez did many become criminals and may financially make more than their parents, socially they fail. As well this dangerous lifestyle results in murders of the delinquent Mexicans or jail.

Los Angeles has the highest dropout rate for second-generation immigrants. By contrast, San Francisco buoyed by immigration of much higher skilled and better-educated Asians claims the strongest high school graduation rates. Los Angeles also lags behind every region but Chicago in… [read more]


Florida History Florida Was Ruled Term Paper

… Most Florida voters -- who were white males, ages twenty-one years or older -- did not oppose slavery. However, they were concerned about the growing feeling against it in the North, and during the 1850s they viewed the new anti-slavery Republican Party with suspicion. (Slavery in Florida: Territorial Days to Emancipation" by Larry Eugene Rivers.)

In the 1860 presidential election, no Floridians voted for Abraham Lincoln, although this Illinois Republican won at the national level. Shortly after his election, a special convention drew up an ordinance that allowed Florida to secede from the Union on January 10, 1861. Within several weeks, Florida joined other southern states to form the Confederate States of America.(The New History of Florida by Michael V. Gannon (University Press of Florida, c 1996).)

Bibliography

Florida's past: People and events that shaped the state, V. 1, 2, 3 by Gene M. Burnett (Pineapple Press, c1988).

Slavery in Florida: Territorial Days to Emancipation" by Larry Eugene Rivers.

The New History of Florida by Michael V. Gannon (University Press of Florida, c 1996)

History of Florida by Charlton W. Tebeau (University of Miami Press, 1980).

Florida Indians and the Invasion from Europe" by Jerald T. Milanich.

Concise Description of…… [read more]


Dominican Republic (Dr) Demographic Profile Term Paper

… However, in recent years, the country has transformed into the most popular tourist destination in the Caribbean. Tourism is now one of the country's most important sources of foreign exchange.

These social, economic and political changes have had a tremendous impact in shaping the DR's modern society. While most of the DR's residents are people of mixed European and African origins, Western influence is strong force in the area and is evident the colonial buildings of the capital, Santo Domingo, as well as in the country's art and literature. The African heritage dominates the music.

While the DR remains one of the most economically challenged countries in the Caribbean, there is a tremendous gap between the rich and the poor. The richest people are the white descendants of Spanish settlers, owning the majority of the land, while the poorest are the people of African descent. In between, the mixed race majority dominates most of the DR's commerce.

Major Change in the DR's Society

As a result of tourism, remittances, construction, telecommunications, and the free-zone assembly plants, the DR is becoming largely influenced by globalization, leading to incredible economic growth rates.

The DR's capital, once a sleepy rural town, is now a booming metropolis with middle-class suburbs (McMillan, 2002). The Caribbean's largest shopping mall is being developed in the working-class neighborhoods, east of the Ozama River. Several major new construction projects are bringing new apartments, office complexes, and manufacturing plants to the DR. And tourism is booming.

These changes are consequently changing the lives of Dominicans throughout the country. Rather than sewing articles of clothes, which is costly and time consuming, the village seamstresses are buying clothes at the Haitian border to resell at a higher profit. Peasant farms are being sold to wealthy horse-farmers or to large corporations for larger-scale farming. Small farms are unable to compete with these mass-production farms that use machinery. Many small farmers have given up on farming and gone to work in the factories. Others have opened businesses in the cities and villages.

In addition, many restaurants have been put out of business because of the growth of fast food. The traditional siesta hour is no longer a necessity because it is easier and more efficient to grab some fast food rather than taking the lengthy siesta break for lunch and a quick nap.

On the positive side, Dominicans now have access to technology and greater amounts of information. Telephone lines have extended across the DR, expanding communication. Computers with Internet access are now seen in many private houses, schools and public libraries.

More and more people can afford cars, and the quality of highways and driving conditions has vastly improved. Entertainment now includes more movie theaters, movie rentals, bowling alleys, and concerts.

Globalization has transformed the Dr. And is continuing to do so every day. The rest of the world is influencing the culture and the new economy is building a name for the DR in the global environment.

Bibliography

Connolly, Joyce, Doggett, Scott.… [read more]


Policy Should the United States Term Paper

… Such was the state of affairs in much of Eastern Europe not much more than a decade ago. The Czech Republic is a shining example of a country whose rich culture, and ebullient lifestyle were kept under wraps by a… [read more]


Southern California Frederick Jackson Turner Term Paper

… Russia, Britain, and the U.S. all laid claim to parts of California and wanted to claim it for themselves. In the 1840s, Britain had the strongest claim "because of its sea powers and firm foothold in Oregon, and because British… [read more]


Hernando Cortez the Story Term Paper

… They attacked the city almost daily for months. On August 13, 1521, Cuauhtemoc, the new Aztec emperor, surrendered, after 40,000 Aztecs had been killed, and the Aztec empire came to a formal end.

The Indians began to serve the Spanish, and in a short time their culture was decimated. Cortez spent the next seven years establishing peace among the Indians and developing mines and farmlands. In 1528 he returned home and was received with honor by King Charles V. However, Cortez did not fit in with the regal court lifestyle, and he left again to return to Mexico. He explored lower California from 1534 to 1535 and then fought the pirates of Algiers in 1541. He later led an expedition against the Mayas of Yucatan. He died near Seville on December 2, 1547. History has accorded him a place of honor, as the conqueror of the Aztecs.

Bibliography

Soustelle, Jacques. Daily Life of the Aztecs, on the Eve of the Spanish Conquest

Stanford University Press, 1970

Leon-Portilla, Miguel; Davis, Jack Emory. Aztec Thought and Culture: A Study of the Ancient Nahuatl Mind (Civilization of the American Indian Series, Vol 67. University of Oklahoma Press, 1990

Carrasco, David. City of Sacrifice: Violence From…… [read more]


Zapatistas the Essence Term Paper

… The conditions of the Mayans and the Zapatista communities mirror the conditions of other people and individuals worldwide, especially as the world seems to shrink. Zapatista sociological imagination reflects the collective consciousness of all indigenous cultures, as subcommandante Marcos recognizes the universal application of Zapatista ideology. The Zapatistas of Southern Mexico serve as a symbol for freedom: political, economic, social, and cultural freedom for all people. Astonishingly, the Zapatistas do not seek to overthrow the Mexican government (despite any attempt to link the Zapatistas with similar rebel movements). Rather, the aims and objectives of the EZLN are simple: humanity over capital, human rights over consumption, common sense and dignity over oppression. The Chiapas problem represents the problems each person on the planet faces: the plague of indifference and alienation that threaten to erase whole cultures and species from the planet. The Zapatistas, and those who champion their push for reform, recognize the potential for positive change in Mexican and global politics and economics. They remain a thorn in the side of the Mexican government, a persistent reminder that all is not well in the world. From one of the poorest regions in Mexico and in the entire continent arose one of the most admirable, formidable, and hopeful forces for humanitarian and environmental concerns.

Works Cited

De Angelis, Massimo. "Globalization, New Internationalism and the Zapatistas." Capital and Class 70 (2000): 9-35.

Mills, C. Wright. "The Sociological Imagination." The Sociological Imagination. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1959.

Harvey, Neil. "Globalisation and resistance in post-cold…… [read more]


Wet Foot Dry Foot Policy Term Paper

… Miami-Dade County has an estimated 650,000 Cubans." ("U.S. Policy Favors Cuban Refugees") Cubans also have greater political clout, three Cuban republicans are in congress including; Ileana Ros-Lehtinen, Lincoln Diaz-Balart, and Diaz-Balart's. In addition the mayor of Miami Dade is a… [read more]


Student Term Paper

… S. government estimated that 120,000 American workers lost their jobs to cheap Mexican labor, a number that jumps right out at one, even though an equal number of skilled jobs were also created. Critics have claimed that in the first… [read more]


Spanish Missions in California Term Paper

… "Over the following seventy years, Franciscan missionaries founded twenty-one mission communities and numerous satellite settlements in Alta California" (Jackson 37). Once built, the missions lured the natives in the area into the mission area with gifts, such as food, tobacco, and clothing. The natives who converted and the missionaries were the only inhabitants of the mission itself, along with a few Spanish soldiers left to guard the area. "No Spaniards other than the missionaries, the mission guard, and an occasional civilian official could stop at the mission or reside there" (Chapman 151). They called this "congregaci n, the resettlement of Indian populations in nucleated settlements" (Jackson 13).

The mission system worked well for Spain, and helped them establish strongholds throughout California. "Once rooted, the missionary holdings spread rapidly. Within half a century each station's pasture lands sprawled across territory once ranged by several tribelets -- a total area, eventually, of some 9 million desirable acres" (Lavender 13). At first, the Indians flocked to the missions, and the system worked well. However, there was resistance by some natives, and the populations in the missions began to decrease. Finally, they became more of a burden to Spain, and they decided to make changes.

In 1834, Mexico implemented the "1834 secularization decree, which removed control of the missions from the hands of the Franciscans" (Jackson 38). This decree meant that the mission lands were no longer associated with any religion. The natives had been leaving the missions at rapid rates, and new converts were putting up resistance. "The Indian population living in the missions rose from 2,403 in three establishments, in 1790, to 5,936 in seven establishments fifteen years later. The mean population of the seven missions was 848 in 1805" (Jackson 39). Spain realized they needed another means to keep the land and economy under their control. Mexico had become independent by this time, and Cortez discussed secularization as early as 1813. There was much anti-Spanish sentiment in Mexico, and the government was expelling many of the missionaries. It made sense to secularize the missions, and give their lands back to the people.

A then the missions were secularized. This meant turning the Indian village at the mission into a pueblo, or town. The king or the local governor granted each pueblo four square leagues of land, about 17,500 acres. Within this area each resident was given a house lot and a farm plot and rights to graze his cattle in the communal pasture. The converted Indians were also given part of the tools and livestock of the erstwhile mission, which simultaneously became a regular parish church run by secular clergy (Lavender 31).

The missions of California served a vital purpose for Spain's colonization efforts, even for a few short years. They still stand as a monument to the varied histories of the people that make up the population of the Golden State.

Bibliography

Chapman, Charles E. A History of California: the Spanish Period. St. Clair Shores, MI: Scholarly Press, 1971.

Jackson,… [read more]


Unlike the Way the 'Race Term Paper

… Spain's protectionist economic policies hindered the development of the colonies. Those living in the Spanish controlled colonies suffered on a personal level in ways that colonists in the English colonies did not. The English colonists were often religious dissidents, resulting in their greater determination to succeed in the New World, as they had no where to go back to.

Furthermore, Spain's policies also led to a series of expensive wars with England, France and the Netherlands. The infamous defeat of the Spanish Armada by England was only one of the crushing defeats Spain suffered during this period of time. Protectionism, combined with a lack of commitment of both the settlers and the government of Spain to establishing a permanent colonial government and infrastructure in the New World, as opposed to a mere trade route, is one of the reasons that England may have been said to have 'won' the war of exploration against Span. Of course, England too ultimately lost its share in the New World to the revolting American colonists.

One clear loser in the Age of Discovery was the indigenous people 'discovered' by the explorer's efforts. Diseases brought to the Americas and Australia by Europeans decimated the inhabitants. European intervention in the West Indies expanded the already thriving slave trade. The aboriginal peoples often viewed the presence of explorers as an encroachment, inevitably leading to war, repression, and dislocation. (Learning Network: Exploration -- The European 'Age of Discovery')

The discoveries of the Age of Discovery can thus best be summed up as beginning with the navigational and sailing advances developed by the tiny nation Portugal. Spain as well as other nations to extended trade routes into the Indies and established colonies in the Americas. Spain was able to make more effective use of Portugal of exploration and technological advances, although its economic foothold in the colonies was upset by its protectionist greed, nor was it able or willing to make long-term efforts to solidify settlements in the Americas. However, although Spain did not establish long-term colonies, clearly its wealth and international prestige were expanded by these efforts, and Europe as a whole, particularly the English and Dutch, reaped the benefits of the wealth of trade and expansion into colonial endeavors. The English finally surmounted Spain because of their effective hold over the seas and their establishment of colonies in the New World. The only permanent, unequivocal losers were those native peoples 'discovered' by the Europeans, whose goods and livelihoods were exploited, and whose original possession of the land was not respected.

Works Cited

The Age of Discovery. http://www.geocities.com/Tokyo/Flats/3795/port2.htm. Website Accessed June 20, 2002.

American Spice Trade Organization -- The Age of Discovery. http://www.astaspice.org/history/history_04.htm. Web site Accessed June 20, 2002.

Learning Network: Exploration -- The European 'Age of Discovery'

http://ad.doubleclick.net/adi/ln.infoplease/;!category=xmain;ch=world;site=www.infoplease.com;test=no;pos=pop;slot=1;sz=1x1;tile=1;ord=1024585600. Website Accessed June 20, 2002.

The Lonely Planet's Guide to Spain: History" http://aolsvc.travel.aol.com/travel/lonely_planet/europe/spain/history.html. Website Accessed June 20, 2002.… [read more]


Exploitation of Immigrants Research Paper

… SEX TRAFFICKING IN ECADOR VS. COLOMBIANS DISPLACED

Introduction & Thesis Statement

Colombian refugees that flee to Ecuador become susceptible to being used as sex workers or worse and that is thus making the human trafficking problem in Ecuador much worse despite strong efforts

Problem Summary in Ecuador

Refugees live among the people -- not in camps

Refugees are very vulnerable to being victimized

Efforts made by Ecuador

Offering of healthcare and other benefits for those that come forward

Crackdowns on human trafficking

Problems that Still Persist in Ecuador

Not every refugee is coming forward to receive benefits

Poverty for the refugees

Anti-immigrant feedback from some

Analysis of the Above

Personal review of the thesis and situation based on the literature reviewed

Conclusion

Bibliography

2013. "CIA: The World Factbook: Ecuador." CIA World Fact Book 51, 209-212. History

Reference Center, EBSCOhost (accessed April 18, 2015).

Arnold-Fernandez, Emily E., and Stewart Pollock. 2013. "Refugees' rights to work."

Forced Migration Review no. 44: 92-93. Academic Search Premier, EBSCOhost

(accessed April 18, 2015).

Barajas S., Luz Cristina, and Francoise Barten. 2011. "A Grey Area of Rights and Knowledge: Displacement in Colombia, South-South Migration and Health

Equity." Desafios 23,…… [read more]


Martin Espada's Poem "Bully" Challenges the Image Research Paper

… Martin Espada's poem "Bully" challenges the image of the conventional American hero, by championing the subjugated peoples of the world like those of Puerto Rico.

"Bully" is about changes taking place in American history and culture.

Specifically, "Bully" is about the way Puerto Ricans have been subjugated by colonial powers.

The title of the poem, "Bully," refers to the aggressive way white European-Americans (including the Spaniards) have been bullies, and have believed in their own superiority.

A statue of Theodore Roosevelt is a central motif, and by having the students destroy it, the poet shows how Roosevelt's methods are outmoded.

Comment on significance of work

Focusing on Theodore Roosevelt in particular, Espada specifically draws the reader's attention to the Spanish-American War, an era in which the United States embarked on its first real imperialistic program

The poem shows how the ordinary, and the "brown" people, of the world, can rise above oppression nonviolently.

II. Background on the author and/or literary work: Espada as Puerto-Rican and American.

A. Major influences on development of the work (either on the author or the work): Espada's father.

1. Espada's father was a political activist in Puerto Rico.

2. Espada came of age during the Civil Rights movement in the United States.

B. Critical reception of the work: Espada's work is hailed as being emblematic as the poetry of the politically marginalized in America.

1. Critics in academia accept Espada's work as being representative of a certain era.

2. Even popular culture, such as Nike, recognizes the value and merit of Espada's work.

III. Commentaries from specific critics

A. Critic #1

1. According to Christiansen, "Espada's poetry is a weapon for justice in a society that oppresses people who aren't white, who don't speak English, whose work…is exploited," (138).

2. Espada's poetry reclaims dignity and respect for "the commonplace subject" and those who have…… [read more]


Political Science Theory Research Proposal

… Costa Rica Sustainability

Costa Rica Poli Sci

Costa Rica is a country that is very much different than its direct neighbors or any other country that is supposed similar. Indeed, Costa Rica is one of many countries that at one time was only inhabited by indigenous people like the American Indians in North America. It was colonized by the Spaniards but eventually broke free and has been on its own for quite a while. While its direct neighbors Nicaragua and Panama and the other nearby countries do not do all that well, Costa Rica is a shining beacon in terms of limiting inequality, creating a civilized society and diversification of employment and economic opportunities. Like most countries in its situation, they used to be mostly agrarian in nature but have since branched out into several high-dollar industries. What truly sets apart Costa Rica is that they are deemed by many to be the most self-sustaining and self-subsisting on the planet. They even beat out the economic giants of the world like China, the United States and all of Europe. They are aiming…… [read more]

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