"Latin America / Mexico / Caribbean" Essays

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Trinidad and Tobago and Venezuelan Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,141 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

SAMPLE TEXT:

e. The core) where the necessary trained workers are - and then declare their profits in whatever country has the lowest taxes. This divvying up the world across national lines by multinationals tends to keep those countries that are already poor in the periphery and those already in the core to remain wealthy, and even to grow wealthier.

We see the fall-out from this world economic system in these two nations as they fight over fishing rights, which have disrupted both the relationships between the two nations and affected their internal politics, as in the following description of Trinidad and Tobago:

In March 1996 Robinson was elected president. A series of incidents with Venezuela involving maritime rights -- revolving around oil exploration and fishing rights, and Venezuelan drug interdiction efforts -- dominated the news. Internal divisions within the NAR, resulting from the strain of being the minority member of a governing coalition, threatened to cause the coalition to disappear. More recently, unemployment has fallen to its lowest level in a decade and a half (http://www.freedomhouse.org/research/freeworld/2000/countryratings/trinidad.htm).

The two nations have been working together to create diplomatic means of solving the conflict over maritime rights, and there has in fact been a fair amount of progress made in recent years as a joint commission on such issues as the nationality of vessels, exact territorial markers and fish catches have been agreed to.

However, it is unlikely that such an agreement will end all further conflicts over maritime rights so long as the two nations continue to see themselves as being primarily in conflict with each other. The leaders of each nation have to come to a realization that the major economic (and political) problems in their nation arise not from the fact that each country's fishers want some of the same fish but rather that the two countries both occupy a subservient position in the world economy.

The only way in which they can ultimately resolve this conflict is, as suggested in the following news article, to see themselves as regional allies against larger economic forces:

For its part, Trinidad and Tobago needs to exercise some new initiative with Barbados to get back on track negotiations to resolve the recurring rows over fishing rights.

After the recent unseemly verbal entanglements by both Bridgetown and Port-of-Spain, it may be worthwhile seeking the assistance of the respected former diplomat, Reginald Dumas, in any new engagement with the Barbadians. For one thing, he was the last High Commissioner we had in Barbados for the Eastern Caribbean and is quite respected within Caricom circles.

As it is between Guyana and Suriname, so it must be for Barbados and Trinidad and Tobago, finding creative ways to resolve old problems and build new relationships in the spirit of good neighbourliness (http://www.cgxresources.com/press/other/020114_trinidad_guardian.htm).

References

http://www.cgxresources.com/press/other/020114_trinidad_guardian.htm

http://www.freedomhouse.org/research/freeworld/2000/countryratings/trinidad.htm

http://www.uscubacommission.org/

Kegley, C. & Wittkopft, E. (2000). World politics: Trend and transformation. London: Bedford.

McMichael, Philip. (2000, Fall-Winter). "World-Systems Analysis, Globalization, and Incorporated Comparison," Journal of World Systems Research 1 (3): 668-690.

Munch, R.… [read more]


Shining Path-Terrorist Group in Peru Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (2,232 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

SAMPLE TEXT:

With the organization's current leader Oscar Ramirez Durand, he mapped out the Shining Path's military strategy. In addition, Alberto Ramirez, and the organization's head of operations, Maximo Anosa, were captured.

However, in October 1999, Shining Path surprised the Peruvian government when it managed to ambush a high-ranking military delegation that was stated to be negotiating the surrender of an active… [read more]


Venezuela Is Located Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (527 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

SAMPLE TEXT:

Venezuela is currently a federal republic. Prior to 1959 the country was governed by the military. The country consists of 23 states, 1 federal dependency and 1 federal district. The country's capital is Caracas. (The World Factbook)

Venezuela's constitution was created in December of 1999. The courts in Venezuela operate under an adversarial court system. There are several political parties within the country including; the Democratic Action Party, Movement toward Socialism, Social Christian Policy, Venezuela Project and the National Convergence Party. Groups that have influence in political and governmental affairs include; the Venezuelan Confederation of Workers and a business group called FEDECAMARAS. (The World Factbook) In recent years the political climate in Venezuela has bee very volatile. The election of Hugo Rafael Chavez in 1999 proved to be detrimental to the country and the economy. Chavez became unpopular among his constituents; this led to violent demonstrations and political and economic turmoil. ("Venezuela)

The economy of Venezuela is very dependent upon the petroleum industry. Exports of petroleum make up 80% of all export earnings and earnings for oil provide about half of the government's operating revenue. At the end of 2001 the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of the country was 2.7%. (The World Factbook)

Works Cited

Embasy of the Bolivian Republic of Venezuela in the United States of America." 2002. http://www.embavenez-us.org/

The World Factbook. 2002

http://www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/geos/ve.html

VENEZUELA - A Country Study." 2003. Library of Congress. http://memory.loc.gov/frd/cs/vetoc.html

Venezuela," Microsoft® Encarta® Online Encyclopedia 2003

http://encarta.msn.com© 1997-2003 Microsoft Corporation. All Rights Reserved

Venezuela Watch." 2002. http://www.zmag.org/venezuela_watch.htm… [read more]


Franciscan Beginnings in Early Colonial Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (912 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0

SAMPLE TEXT:

The Franciscans, because they were ideologically devoted to their cause, provided a practical means by which to convert the Indians.

Tibesar analyzes the work of Viceroy Toledo in organizing the Franciscan Order and firmly establishing the Order in the "doctrinas." Before Toledo, the friars were not officially appointed to their doctrinas, nor were they obliged to remain there. Toledo greatly influenced the evolution of the work of cultural and religious conversion. The author illustrates how the Franciscan Order came to be involved with the colonial infrastructure in early Peru, including schools, hospitals, and clothing mills. Tibesar's work is based on primary accounts from the governors of the doctrinas. He analyzes this material by placing it in social and political context. Tibesar recounts the relationships between the Franciscan order and ecclesiastical authority as well as between the Franciscan Order and the Spanish governments in the Old and New Worlds.

Obviously Tibesar is unable to provide the Native perspective of the Franciscan Order. While the Spanish opinion was that the native population embraced the Christian religion and the Spanish language, the truth is probably different. However, Tibesar only attempts to lend insight into the significant role of the Franciscan order in converting the native Peruvians. Tibesar does not draw unnecessary conclusions or make judgments.

The author asserts that based on his investigation of the minimal primary documentary material he uncovered in Peru, that the Franciscan Order was drawn into the Spanish colonization efforts. Basing much of their operations on the example of the Mexican friar's work in Mexico, the Franciscans in early colonial Peru tried to peacefully integrate the Indians into Spanish culture and most importantly, introduce the natives to Christianity. Converting the Indians was essential for a thorough colonization effort. Tibesar concludes that although early efforts by the Franciscans to convert the Indians were disorganized, the implementation of strict rules and regulations solidified their efforts. The Spanish Crown supported the efforts of the Franciscans because their work entailed greater control over the native population. Viceroy Toledo played a significant role in the evolution of the Spanish colonies in Peru by organizing and regulating the Franciscan doctrinas. According to Antonine Tibesar, the Franciscan Order was far more important in the colonization process than was once believed because other Orders played a larger role in the conversion effort. However, Tibesar's research reveals that the Franciscans were successful in converting the natives to Christianity and also with helping them to be socially, intellectually, and economically integrated into Spanish colonial society. Tibesar's book Franciscan Beginnings in Early Colonial Peru lauds the successful conversion efforts of the Franciscan Order in sixteenth century Peru and is integral to any full understanding of the…… [read more]


Aztecs and Andean Civilizations Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (571 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

SAMPLE TEXT:

One of their accomplishments was the domestication of the Lama (PRE-COLUMBIAN ANDEAN CIVILIZATION http://www.emayzine.com/lectures/andean~1.htm).They are also well-known for their lumber abilities and the growth of the tubers and millet grains. The Andeans also are credited with the discovery of cocoa which is a main staple of their diet (PRE-COLUMBIAN ANDEAN CIVILIZATION http://www.emayzine.com/lectures/andean~1.htm).

The social and economic base of ancient Andean civilization was the ayllu, which was a rural social unit or village based on kinship organization (PRE-COLUMBIAN ANDEAN CIVILIZATION http://www.emayzine.com/lectures/andean~1.htm)." The civilization grew their crops on steep hills which forced them to understand the nuances of sunlight and water so that they could plant and harvest the best crops on the best levels they had available to them.

The Aztecs and the Andeans had many similarities including the ability to garden and grow crops. They also had to fight off attacks and they had to migrate to the area that they eventually settled in. The differences however were just as vast including the willingness and refusal to be violent. One of the largest differences between the two include the fact that the Aztecs are no longer in existence and the Andeans still live in parts of the world.

References

Aztec (Accessed 2-2-2003)

http://www.anthro.mankato.msus.edu/cultural/mesoamerica/aztec.html

PRE-COLUMBIAN ANDEAN CIVILIZATION (Accessed 2-2-2003)

http://www.emayzine.com/lectures/andean~1.htm… [read more]


United States and Fidel Castro Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (2,464 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

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Anti-communism had become quite a crucial factor in the success of every administration during the Cold War. J.F. Kennedy was no different in his patriotic hatred for the communist threat. It was at this point, 1961, that Cuba became a major player in the Cold War. Castro derived much of his power from his image as a revolutionary. Kennedy opted… [read more]


Life in and Around Castillo Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (749 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0

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With the security of the fort, people established gardens, raised livestock and created a community. The town firmly supported a strong military presence as a necessity in case of an attack or storm. The fort was built to include a military chapel, which shows that they had strong religious beliefs.

The fort was entirely self-contained. Its central grounds gave people a place for their families and livestock to retreat until danger had passed. During times of need, the fort protected the community.

Life in and around the fort seems to have constantly changed. As there are many signs of Spanish culture in St. Augustine, there are also many traces of British culture. The British took reign of the city in the 1700's and began a trend of trade and commerce. This caused an increase in population, as St. Augustine's culture and economy was heavily influenced by the British well into the 20th century.

Eventually, the British gave the peninsula back to the Spanish, who did not hold it for very long before the United States took the town as its own. This was not the end of the struggle for power in St. Augustine, however.

The Indians felt threatened by increasing American occupation of what had been their land and lashed out at St. Augustine, causing the ruin of the rural economy in the town.

St. Augustine and the fort saw peaceful times in the late 1800's and the town was ready for growth and new economy. Northerners came south to visit the town's history of Spanish years and enjoy its semitropical weather. St. Augustine responded by upgrading its landscape to include streets, waterworks, gas lines and even electricity in the 20th century.

The obvious link between St. Augustine's colorful past and its modern appeal make it an attractive destination for visitors and residents of the town today. Visitors of the town and fort can see how life was in Spanish times.

There is a collection of 18th-century buildings, all restored and furnished to create the aura of 1740s life in the town. Even the staff members of a local museum dress in the clothing worn at the time and reenact period scenes such as wool dying and spinning, and fashioning metal cooking…… [read more]


War for Cuban Conquest Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (580 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0

SAMPLE TEXT:

In 1868, Cuban patriots declared a war of Independence, now known as the Ten Years' War. America, having just recovered from its own Civil War, did not interfere, and the Cubans did not entirely overthrow Spanish power. They did, however, in 1878, find peace and an overthrow of the old system, being assured emancipation of the slaves and representation in the Spanish Parliament. Racial pressures became increasingly less noticeable, and even as increasing numbers of Hispanics arrived from Spain to take their place in the new world.

Cuba became increasingly caught up in trade with the United States, "Sugar estates and mining interests passed from Spanish and Cuban to U.S. hand... Cuban sugar producers were more and more at the mercy of the U.S. refiners" (Hernandez) This economic unity no doubt helped provoke America's eventual conquest. In the meantime, revolutionary spirit continued undimmed by the end of the Ten Years' War, building its foundation of support and respect among the people. "It was a multiracial and multiclass movement...Its leaders were no longer members of the creole elite, but men of modest social origin." (Hernandez) This was a true revolution of the people now, and its prospects for success seemed to grow daily under the leadership of Jose Mart', a middle class poet, journalist, philosopher, and dreamer. In 1895, following a Spain-induced loss of trade with America, and further evidence of Spanish despotism, the revolution began.

The revolution seemed successful at first; then Spain sent the best of its worst men.

General Valeriano Weyler, with his reinforcements, began a war of deprivation, forcing peasants into concentration camps where lack of food, sanitation, and water killed thousands upon thousands of them. The revolution continued in the hills and… [read more]


Race Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,124 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0

SAMPLE TEXT:

" This makes sense to an American, because Indian and black are not the same categories in the United States, but this adds an additional complex dimension to the use of negroness in Nicaragua where the term generally equates to non-white and poor. Indians are both non-white and poor, and yet do not usually possess negroness. Negroness can therefore be seen as (at least in the way that it is not applied to the Indians) as a designation of non-whiteness but also of the inclusion of some whiteness - in fact of mestizo-ness.

Those who are clearly white (like that redhead) or clearly (in their physiognomy, culture and dress) native are not mestizo and so are not subject to designations of negroness most of the time unless such a label is applied in irony or joking or as a unmitigated attempt to designate power. Both of these, from what Lancaster tells us, are relatively rare in contrast to the ways in which negroness is applied to those of mestizo descent.

It should be noted that there are some people in Nicaragua that Americans might consider to be "real" blacks, the Creoles who for the most part live the Caribbean lowland and who are the descendants of African slaves brought to the New World. However, many of these people have negotiated their own statuses to emphasize the European elements of their Creoleness rather than their black ancestors. The Creoles seem, according to Lancaster, to have been better able at constructing their identity to avoid the category of "negroness" than those mestizos of European and Indian heritage.

Constructed identity" is perhaps the most important phrase in coming to understand Nicaraguan society as Lancaster presents it to us, for the world of Nicaraguan cultural norms that he reveals is one in which identity is immensely fluid, changing far more rapidly over time than Americans are used to having their own identities change. The most interesting aspect of this book is how Lancaster describes the ways in which people's sense of self - including their sense of their own negroness - are constantly shifting.

While it is no doubt true that for people in every culture on earth their sense of identity shifts at least slightly given the social milieu that they are in (for identity is of course shaped by those that we are with), the shifts that occur in Nicaraguans seem to be strikingly great.

It is difficult to understand from the outside how such constantly negotiated and renegotiated definitions of self can be maintained without psychological damage, and indeed Lancaster's descriptions of the people in his study suggest that they do suffer from having, time and time again, define who it is that they are in terms of gender identity as well as race - two relatively fixed points of identity for Americans.

Race is something that we make up. Many Americans would reject this idea, arguing that while racism is terrible race itself is real. Lancaster's description of Nicaraguan society… [read more]


Unified Cultural Need to Establish Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,313 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

SAMPLE TEXT:

) The Mayflower compact established a form of purely local government in which the colonists agreed to abide by majority rule and to cooperate for the general good of the colony. America did not begin as a country founded on religious toleration, true, but this early colony was formed on the basis of shared ideals. This makes it quite distinct from the contrasting efforts by earlier explorers of Dutch and French extraction to establish a colony. (American Mosaic 165-167) The extent of the duration of British settlement gave the settlers a greater knowledge of the terrain as well as a greater sense of unity as a developed nation. Technologically, these settlers were used to the hard work necessary to create a colony and stay alive in the New World. The Southern colonies as well had long established patterns of producing exportable goods, fueled, it must be sadly said, with the African-Americans imported to the New World as slaves.

It might be argued then why did not similarly persecuted people, such as the Scots and the Irish, establish dominance in the land, and why did the religiously unified, Catholic Spanish establish their dominance well? For instance, the French and Dutch did form communities throughout the developing colony. The French explorer LaSalle founded Louisiana in 1682. It is also true that many French citizens fled France after the Edict of Nantes, fearing religious persecution.

Thus is must be conceded that some of the reasons for British and Spanish are technical as well as theological. The British and Spanish fleets were both notable for their dominance of the seas during this period. This mobility gave them access to the world, and although the Spanish did not have a corresponding dissenting religious need to colonize the nation, the importance that the Spanish placed upon exploration and mercantile goods, in contrast to the Germans, for instance, made exploration a priority. The Spanish also had a different but still extant theological need to establish dominance in contrast to other nations -- Spain wished to win land in the name of their holy, Catholic king and in the name of the Catholic Church that other nations were not similarly motivated by. Spain also had more mercantile capital and more far-reaching support in the form of the Vatican. (Gjerde Major Problems in American Immigration and Ethnic History Chapter 1; 3; 4; 31-45)

The reasons for the eventual British domination of the New World can thus be summed up in terms of their greater numbers, their greater military might, and their greater sense of internal unity. All of this was further solidified because of the greater need of the British religious dissenters had experienced. Their greater unity arose from both their long-standing political organization in the region and their greater need to maintain a homogenous culture. Like so many historical events, as a result of a greater cultural unity, developed out of a previous need for success amongst the population, the settlers were thus united, despite their differences, in… [read more]


NAFTA: Two Sides Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (2,077 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

SAMPLE TEXT:

" He reported that in El Paso, Texas, a large number of factories are closing, while across the Rio Grande in Cuidad Juarez, dozens of new factories are opening, and hiring. [Zewe, 2002] El Paso has lost 7,000 jobs in the past year due to plant closings. Jobs in El Paso are going to Mexican workers who will do the same job for lower pay.

NAFTA supporters quickly answer to statements like the above with examples to the contrary. They point out one case where a U.S. plant that produces plastic tubing for Mexican assembly plants saved 75 jobs through NAFTA exchanges. They can point out many more examples like this one. Supporter's say that the extra revenue brought in by new trade is offsetting job losses.[Zewe, 2002]

The only clear conclusion that can be drawn, is that on the issue of whether NAFTA has been good or bad, there is no clear winner of the debate. The issues are complex and no one seems to have developed a good "measure" of NAFTA's effectiveness. In researching the issue, for every supporter who cites favorable statistics concerning major economic indicators as a result of NAFTA, you will find one equally convincing who is opposed to NAFTA. Another consideration in this issue is how much of the good and bad effects attributed to NAFTA are actually an effect of NAFTA. Some will argue that the severe decline of the value of the peso was already in progress long before NAFTA and that NAFTA had little effect on this trend. These same proponents say that NAFTA is being used as a scapegoat, and that other factors are actually responsible for Mexico's financial troubles. The same could be said for the apparent effects on the jobless rate or the Gross Domestic Product of the United States. To propose that one factor is the only thing responsible for these conditions does not take into account other factors such as the boom then bust in the computer sector of the U.S. market. It does not take into account inflation rates, wars, weather conditions and the hundreds of other factors that effect the economic indicators in all countries involved.

Unfortunately, for the researcher interested in this subject, the more research that is done, the more unclear the issues become. In order to clear up this issue, a set of standards will have to be set to measure the effects of NAFTA over time. Until then, everyone is entitled to his or her own opinion.

Works Cited

Dowling, Donald Jr. The pros and cons of business in Mexico: South of the border, many pros are cons. Business Journal . Going Global section. American Business Journals.

November 22, 1996 print edition.

Owner-Operator Independent Drivers Association (OOIDA). Senate quotes: the good, the bad, and the ugly. Quotes from July 27, 2001 Senate floor debate on Mexican border opening.

2002. OOIDA Website. Accessed February, 2002.

http://www.ooida.com/About_Us/overview.htm

Subcommittee on Highways and Transit Hearing on NAFTA (written testimony):

Arbitration Panel Decision and Safety… [read more]


Martha Graham Was Among the Greatest Dancers in History Book Report

Book Report  |  2 pages (753 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1

SAMPLE TEXT:

Blood Memory

A younger reader not familiar with the extraordinary dancing talent and career of Martha Graham finds out in a hurry that she worked with -- and rubbed elbows with -- some high-powered talent. A measure of her fame was that she attracted people skilled in the arts, dance, and music.

In her opening page in which she thanks various individuals, she thanks her editor, Jacqueline Onassis, the late former First Lady of the United States, and a writer and editor of note in her own right. She also thanks Liza Minnelli and Mikhail Baryshnikov, "my loving friends," and drops names of people she knew and liked -- Madonna, Betty Ford, even the Pope This autobiography of Martha Graham goes far beyond name-dropping of course, and in fact is extremely well written, and entertaining as well as informative.

Her reference to when she knew she would be a dancer is sweet. She had been taking piano lessons, but hadn't danced. One Sunday afternoon when her family was having a picnic; "Suddenly, without reason, except for what I was feeling in my body, I stood on the table and began to dance" (Graham, 48). Her mother wasn't watching, but when her mother did turn around from a conversation with Graham's aunt, "she was embarrassed and made me stop." When she first saw iconic ballet artist Ruth St. Denis (while Graham was a student at Santa Barbara High School) Graham knew " ... at that moment I was going to be a dancer ... when I learned (St. Denis) had a school, I made up my mind to attend it" (Graham, 56).

Later, Graham's mother accepted that her daughter was to become a dancer. After all, Graham had obvious talent, and saw herself as " ... beautiful and wild, maybe a creature of another world" (Graham, 58).

The book is 276 pages and filled with fascinating anecdotal, very personal information from Graham. She was born in Pennsylvania and her father was a doctor. It took her awhile to begin dancing, but late in her career when she ran out of energy, she stopped dancing, but " ... it was not a conscious decision. I realized that I did not have the strength or the ability to build…… [read more]


Generation Me Narcissism and Youth Identity Book Report

Book Report  |  8 pages (2,411 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0

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¶ … lens off Baudrillard that there is less and less connectivity between reality and idealization in terms of weight, weight loss and women's figures: "Thus, we all 'know' that Cher and virtually every other female star over the age of twenty-five is the plastic product of numerous cosmetic surgeries on face and body. But in the era of the… [read more]


Identity Brazil Modernism and National Article Review

Article Review  |  2 pages (512 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1

SAMPLE TEXT:

Her turn towards Brazilian themes was concurrent with her experimentation with new Modernist aesthetic trends. In 1922, she was the only woman to exhibit at the Salon Officiel des Artistes Francais; at that time, however, she was painting in an academic style however after her return to Brazil, she formed the Modernist Group of Five (Pilippou, 2005). The reappraisal of the Indian, the African and the popular did not overthrow the colonial and the artists and architects who embraced Modernism turned towards the colonial past in search of their cultural roots (Pilippou, 2005). This eventually led to recognition of a mixture of cultures that were present in the country.

The Brazilian mixture was characterized as a reciprocity between the cultures, and not a domination of one by the other' and Brazilian society and culture were 'hybrid from the beginning'; hybridity was the primordial hallmark of the nation (Pilippou, 2005). The culture of Brazil had a challenge that was presented in the form of trying to develop a culture that incorporated many traditions from both the colonial and the different streams of heritage that could be found in the country. Brazil is a large and diverse nation that encompasses many different regional cultures and even ethnicities. The colonial influences also play a large part in shaping the culture. Therefore, in the path towards modernity, Brazil virtually had no choice but to embrace itself in its hybrid form.

Works Cited

Pilippou, S. (2005). Modernism and National Identity in Brazil, or…… [read more]


Hispanic Culture and Beliefs Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (686 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0

SAMPLE TEXT:

In addition to the beliefs about healthcare specifically, there are independence and interdependence beliefs in Hispanic culture that can affect whether healthcare is sought. The family unit is very strong within the culture, and that interdependence may stop a member of that family from seeking care for a medical issue. This is amplified if the person with the medical problem must work to support the family, or if he or she has other obligations like taking care of children, younger siblings, or elderly relatives. The desire to care for others and the cultural "requirements" that one does so can preclude any other issues and stop a person who really needs to have a medical problems investigated from seeing the doctor or even visiting a clinic to ask about a condition. Unfortunately, that can result in a poor outcome when the person eventually sees the doctor, because he or she will have allowed the problem to go on for some time. The main healthcare risk for the Hispanic culture is different between males and females, as well. Many Hispanic men die of heart problems and diabetes, while women are more likely to have cancer.

Holistic medicine is also worth noting. Hispanic culture in general has opinions about this style of medical treatment, including spiritual beliefs that have to be recognized. There are two schools of thought on holistic medicine within the Hispanic culture. Those who are devoutly Catholic often feel that holistic options are not in line with Christian teachings, and that they may be unsafe from a spiritual standpoint. Hispanic people who believe this way will naturally avoid any holistic choices so they do not risk spiritual problems. For those who are not as devout, there is still a high level of superstition often seen. This may lead these Hispanic people to focus on holistic treatments as a part of that superstition, and they may believe that the "magic" of these kinds of treatments may be successful where modern, Western medicine will not be. This is, however, a cultural generalization.… [read more]


Features &amp Diversity of Ecuador Consists Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (586 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2

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Features & Diversity of Ecuador

Ecuador consists of four regions with each region containing its own features and activities. Popular activities include mountain and water activities, as well as cultural festivals. Ecuador's most salient features include variability of religious beliefs (Raymond, 2003), including the practices of natural healing remedies and symbolism of supernatural beings.

The Galapagos Islands are located 600 miles off shore from the main inland of Ecuador (Regions, 2004). It has tropical weather year round and has been designated as a National Park. Galapagos is popular for water activities of water rafting, surfing, and wildlife watching.

The Coast has a tropical atmosphere with palm trees that act as shading spots. The Coast is made of four parts with Esmeraldas, northern part, being the richest for shrimp, oysters, clams, and lobsters. Manabi, south of Esmeraldas, is known for late night activities of dancing that includes different cultural dancing. Next to Manabi, Guayas handles the majority of Ecuador's imports and exports. The deep south of the Coast is El Oro, known for banana and shrimp production.

The Andes Mountains is the most developed for tourism. It contains villages with their own historical centers with 17th century churches and monasteries (Introducing Ecuador, 2013). The Andean and Kichwa Villages include textile markets. The popular activities in the Andes include hiking, horseback riding, mountain biking, white water rafting, surfing, and wildlife watching. It contains wildlife of tortoises, marine iguanas, doe-eyed sea lions, and blue footed boobies.

The Amazon is the rainforest and contains vast amounts of plant, frog, and natural herb species. Nine tribal groups occupy the area, still live a traditional lifestyle, and still practice natural and spiritual healing practices. The Amazon River contains huge islands and otters. The rainforest produces avocado, black pepper, Brazilian…… [read more]


Tourism Know Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (918 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0

SAMPLE TEXT:

As Faith Popcorn points out, the role and status of women is set to improve exponentially worldwide. The World Cup 2014 will have a net positive impact on women in Brazil. This is true even for sex trade workers, who are taking advantage of the free language courses being offered to help locals be prepared to greet the world in 2014. Learning new languages not only helps to protect the sex trade workers, allowing them to bargain for better prices and get help when they need it, but it also allows the women to transition into other work (Locker, 2013).

Another lifestyle trend that will emerge as a result of the 2014 World Cup is a boost in sale of craft beer as well the globalization of the caipirinha, the iconic drink of Brazil made with the sugar cane-based alcohol cashasa. Brazil's craft beer industry is budding but booming in its infancy, and the local and international market are becoming increasingly interested in small-batch producers of beer, wine, and spirits.

References

Locker, M. (2013). Brazilian Prostitutes Learning English Before 2014 World Cup. Time. Retrieved online: http://newsfeed.time.com/2013/01/10/brazilian-prostitutes-learning-english-before-2014-world-cup/

Lifestylist: http://lifestylist.com/index.php/the-lifestylist-blog/lifestyle/122-faith-popcorn-shares-trends-for-2012

Wish

Using the TRIZ method, illustrated here, it is easy to brainstorm a solution to one of the biggest problems and hindrances to tourism in Brazil. Tourists to Brazil have a difficult time getting money out of their foreign bank accounts from any ATMs in Brazil, even from foreign banks. This is an unacceptable problem, and one that must be solved before the 2014 World Cup begins.

Having established that the general problem is related to the banks being unwilling to grant money to foreign visitors, the specific solution is to modernize the ATM system in Brazil. This will require a private-public partnership between banks and the Brazilian government, which must make it a mandate that the banks improve their ATM infrastructure. The underlying causes and resistances to change can be explored during an initial change phase. Models from other developing nations successful in their banking programs will provide some guidance as to how Brazil can proceed with implementing this pragmatic solution to a problem. If Brazil wants to welcome foreign tourists, it must allow those tourists to access their money at ATMs like they can do in other countries around the world.

Part of the TRIZ method is eliminating contradictions, including technical and physical contradictions. As the ATM technology improves, banks might struggle to keep reserves of cash high enough to meet demands. This will require the government to intervene. Physical contradictions are related to the hardware and/or software upgrades to existing ATM machines and banking systems.

Reference

MindTools: http://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/newCT_92.htm… [read more]


Evolution of Image Identity Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (854 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3

SAMPLE TEXT:

This symbolizes the age and cultural difference between Rosa, who was raised in the old ways and Maria, who has incorporated the freedom offered by urban lifestyles. In addition, Rosa's shyness is an indicator of personality and education differences between her and Maria and women's limited social mobility.

Maria's residence is dark and lonely compared to Rosa's whose lobby is lively with staircases outside, decorated with pleasant blue-white tiles. Moreover, Rosa is depicted as lonely, sad and contemplative in her kitchen dotted with peeling ceilings, dirty walls, and windowless bedroom (Zambrano, 1998). The interior setting of her house is a representation of her physical and spiritual collapse; this is a sign of her past alcohol sessions and self-destructive behavior.

As depicted by the director in the film, motherhood is a source of strength and liberation. Thus, this proves to be Maria's only means out of her constant cycle of self-destruction. Moreover, the baby's delivery helps Maria recover her self-esteem and attain inner peace. On the other hand, men are representations of chauvinism in the society oppressing women while making them submissive. As an example, Maria's father is depicted as both verbally abusive and sexually possessive of his wife.

The Holy Innocents

Mario Camus' The Holy Innocents highlights inhumanity and corruption of privilege, class stratification, as well as marginalization in Francoist Spain. In this regard, the film portrays the political connection between Franco's fascism, the Church, and land barons in Spain's countryside in the 1960s. The film revolves around two individuals, Paco and Regula who are poor married peasants working for Pedro, an owner of a large rural estate. These peasants' problems are real as opposed to Pedro whose problems emanate from arrogance and laziness.

However, the family's stay at Pedro's manor is not without problems; they endure Pedro's constant domestic quarrels as well as Ivan's unnecessary demands when out hunting game with Paco (Camus, 1984). As time goes by, the family slowly loses hopes for their children's prosperity in their demoralizing and inhumane dwellings.

Moreover, Ivan constantly exploits the ever yielding Paco by ordering him to undertake tasks which are demanding. Paco is ordered to track the scent of an errant, and thereafter, acclaim the government's literacy campaign by undermining his vague assertions of Spain's exceptional social equality achieved through fascism. This is done by forcing the servant to write out their names in order to prove their literacy.

References

Camus, M. (Director). (1984). The Holy Innocents [Motion Picture].

Erice, V. (Director). (1973). The Spirit of the Beehive; El espiritu de la…… [read more]


Ceremonies of King Louis XIV Research Paper

Research Paper  |  4 pages (1,316 words)
Style: Turabian  |  Bibliography Sources: 3

SAMPLE TEXT:

However, Louis XIV was not yet allowed to meet and interview his fiancee as per the rule of Court but still he sent some very beautiful gems and jewelry to her as a gift by one of his honorable fellow (Fraser, 2006).

Anne of Austria and Philip IV granted permission to bring the stranger in (Fraser, 2006). Anne and the Philip IV were real brother and sister but still they were not allowed to greet each other heartily according to the Spanish Etiquettes. Their meeting was very graceful and quite reserved. However, Anne being a loving sister ignored the rules and etiquettes for a while and gave a quick salute to her brother's cheek. Their Spanish King did not like this demonstration of love at all. By looking at this attitude of the King the bride kneeled down in front of him to get the permission to kiss Anne's hand. Only then their mother came and holds the bride up and hugged her gracefully. After a while Cardinal Mazarin came in the room and informed them after bowing in front of his majesties that a stranger is there on the door and asking for permission to come in. After a short discussion on this, they allowed the stranger to enter in the room.

The stranger was Loius XIV, who then entered in the hall in front of all including his wife to be who was watching him for the very first time. When he approached his fiancee Miss Maria Theresa, she blushed with shyness. After seeing him Philip IV said to Anne loudly that I am proud to have a handsome son-in-law (Fraser, 2006).

The room was divided in two portions, one was decorated as per Spanish style and other was designed in French style. Louis approached the cushion which was placed in between the two portions and made himself comfortable on that. Spanish King also sat down beside him. Bible was brought by Cardinal Mazarin marked with a cross on it and one of the official of Spanish church did the same and settled down on the other side. They both read the treaty of peace aloud once in French then in Spanish for both of them. After that both the King and Louis XIV placed their hands on the Bible and took oath to follow all the rules and regulations present in the sacred book. After the oath taking ceremony they both embraced one another in front of all the people by standing in the front line (Jones, 2002).

After the end of this ceremony several other parties were organized. Some of them were very impressive and enjoyable and some were very boring also. Then both the parties' French and Spanish returned to their courts happily. The bride went with her father. The very next day queen-mother returned to her island palace and met her daughter-in-law again and took her to her home at Saint Jean de Luz. The preparations then started to make the marriage ceremony unforgettable… [read more]


Spain Salud My Family Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (757 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3

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272). I am living proof that various forms of citizenship may assume different appearances in the span of just one generation.

As American poet Henry Wadsworth Longfellow noted centuries ago, "so little changes in the Spanish character," (cited by Kagan). We might not like to admit it but sometimes it does take an outsider looking in to provide a mirror of our glorious society. Another American writer, Washington Irving, pointed out the "Arab look and character" that makes Spaniards -- and especially Andalucians -- indispensible to the culture and nation of Spain (cited by Kagan 426).

As we all know, citizenship in our culture means more than carrying a Spanish passport when we travel abroad. Citizenship is a "historical construction tinted by the semantics of domination and contingent on social conflicts and relations of power," (Guerrero 272). What Guerrero is trying to say is that power structures and social hierarchies are crucial to understanding who we are as individuals and as Spaniards. Now I must move onto a sad subject because it is relevant to why I am speaking to you now. A recent string of suicides has shown that our current economic crisis is untenable in the Spanish soul. Evictions, loss of livelihood, and loss of property strike us at the heart and soul of who we are. Let us join together in mutual condemnation of sorrow and embrace the future of our country together. We can develop a shared vision by focusing on what it means to have a Spanish soul -- and to not get bogged down too much by the superficialities of gender, economic solvency, and political orientations. Muchas Gracias! Now let's get back to what we came here for -- food and drink!

References

Cooper, Liz. "Spain: From "los indignados' and '15 M' to the first strike by society. Open Democracy. Retrieved online: http://www.opendemocracy.net/5050/liz-cooper/spain-from-los-indignados-and-15-m-to-first-strike-by-society

Guerrero, Andres. "The administration of Donated Populations Under a Regime of Customary Citizenship."

Kagan, Richard L. Review: "Prescott's Paradigm: American Historical Scholarship and the Decline of Spain." The American Historical Review, Vol. 101, No. 2. (Apr., 1996), pp. 423-446.

Sommer, Doris. Foundational Fictions. Berkeley: University of…… [read more]


Barn Burning William Faulkner Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (657 words)
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They work for Major de Spain. However, Snopes is belligerent as soon as the family arrives. In anger, Snopes tracks manure on Major de Spain's carpet. Major de Spain asks him to clean it, but the harsh detergent ruins the rug beyond repair. Because of the rug, Major de Spain docks twenty bushels of corn from his pay. This event complicates matters because it puts Snopes on trial once again. Moreover, Sarty is in the terrible position of having to lie and defend his father. The trial builds up to the climax of the story.

When Snopes announces his intention to burn down the barn of Major de Spain, it offers the moment of change that Sarty needs. During most of the story, Sarty remains submissive. He is loyal to his father. Like a child, he obeys his father's orders and is afraid of the consequences of dishonoring his father's wishes. By the end of the story, Sarty changes. He comes of age, as his moral development and character are build through a decisive moment of change when he warns de Spain about his father's intentions. The act represents the boy's leap from childhood to adulthood, because he breaks from his father's unethical clutches.

In "Barn Burning," the central conflict is between father and son; the central complication happens when Satry deliberately ruins the rug of Major de Spain; and the moment of change is when Sarty tells Major de Spain the truth and warns him about the barn. The conflict between father and son is resolved by the son, Sarty, who chooses the path of truth and justice rather than continuing to defend his father's actions. Until the family moved to the de Spain residence, the boy was meek and subservient. However, a moment of change arises at the end of the story, allowing the boy to assert his independence and break…… [read more]


Chilean Mining Re: Correspondence Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,255 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2

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Our thoughts and prayers our with you and your loved ones tonight.

RE: Correspondence to Employees of Compania Minera San Esteban Primera

(To be distributed both via email and print memorandum in the workplace)

As most of you will have already heard by now, our company is facing a crisis of very serious proportions. Earlier today, a collapse in our San Jose copper mining facilities cause a roof to cave in, isolated 33 men an estimated 350 meters below the surface. This occurred in the same San Jose facility where a 2007 explosion resulted in the deaths of several miners. At present, we have no way of stating for certain the conditions of the men below. We have not been able to establish contact with the mining crew and therefore have begun our rescue effort without knowledge of casualties or survivors in the shaft below.

The San Jose facility was properly equipped with an emergency bunker with all provisions currently up-to-inspection. Therefore, we have cause to believe that the miners can have survived the initial collapse and, further, should have the means to maintain survivability for such time as is needed to ultimately establish contact with and access to them. We remain genuinely optimistic and hopeful that all of the trapped miners have survived, that we will be able to access them and that a full rescue will ultimately be made.

Through this duration, our company will be enduring a decidedly difficult time, both in terms of the emotional strain placed on our personnel and in terms of the heightened scrutiny brought to bear by the international spotlight currently being shone upon us. With respect to the latter, we please ask that company personnel use the utmost of discretion and restraint in conducting yourselves with members of the press. We consider it critical that only positive attention and supportive sentiment be expressed through these outlets at a time when so many families are trying to stay hopeful in the face of this great crisis.

As to the emotional strain placed on our personnel, we recognize that this may also be a very difficult time for you and your family, and that today's events may invoke natural anxieties and distress both at the crisis facing your co-workers and at the nature of your occupation. We are aware of the needs that face personnel at such times and remind you that we have psychological counseling resources within the firm. We urge those of you struggling to make sense of these events to reach out to counseling personnel for assistance. In times such as this, it is of course important to think of those who are in a state of crisis and who are likely very frightened. However, we also recognize the importance of sustaining the hope of those still on the ground.

We value all of our employees, those who are trapped a half-mile below the surface and those who remain tasked with the responsibility of assuring our day-to-day affairs. At this… [read more]


Joseph Perez's Spanish Inquisition Book Report

Book Report  |  7 pages (1,973 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

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The author goes on to make the point that only then can people become more confident that such a course of activities are not happening again.

Perez book, compared to others such as Henry Kamen's "The Spanish Inquisition: A Historical Revision" was different. Karmen's (1998) in his book compared to Perez explored a gripping hypothesis, which was strongly stated, and it really had an effect on a whole generation of those that were historians. I found the second edition (Inquisition and Society in Spain, [1985]) perplexing compared to Perez' book. Why? It appeared to be sort of whitewashed that pursued to free the Inquisition rather than condemn it like Perez did in his book. I could not really comprehend what interested the deceptive moral flip-flop between the first and second versions of Karmen's books. On that note, the current, third version compared to Perez's book is more obviously expressed and also more up-and-coming, I think, in measuring and assimilating the massive quantity of Inquisition historiography that has come on the scene over the past forty years. The most significant discovery of the percentage of study that can impartially be branded "revisionist" is that the Inquisition, as an administrative organization, was not the disturbing, all-influential behemoth as characteristically it had been represented but was institutionally defective, merely infrequently operative together temporally and purely, and not just ideologically monumental.

In conclusion, the Perez's book is an educational insight that takes the reader into the brutal historical time period, and establishes how individuals abuse their beliefs and the influences of credence to get what they want. I really did not know a lot concerning the Spanish Inquisition before reading this justly complete but also the brief (221 pages) version. However, it is obvious that Perez does provide sufficiently amount of information on how it functioned, as an influential and ruthless autonomous judicial arrangement that was positioned inside the Spanish state, from 1480 to 1834 (certainly rather devastated of its power in its ultimate decades). On the other hand, it could be said that Perez's book sort of assumes that the reader is more acquainted with Spanish history than what most may be (Kamen 1997). For some reason that appears to be what actually makes the reading of the book a little more interesting, even though slower. It appears to be rather the same sentiment that a person may have when they are reading a fiction book that has really rich backstory and world building.

Works Cited

Homza, Lu Ann. The Spanish Inquisition, 1478 -- 1614, An Anthology of Sources. Boston: Hackett Publishing, 2006.

Kamen, Henry,. The Spanish Inquisition: A Historical Revision. Yale: Yale University Press, 1997.

Parker, Geoffrey. "Some Recent Work on the…… [read more]


Spanish Irish Relations in the Sixteenth Century Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (2,306 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

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Spanish-Irish Relations (17th Century)

To give some historical perspective to the battle / siege at Kinsale in 1601, it should be pointed out that the English pretty well controlled Ireland at that time. Author Paul State explains that Queen Elizabeth had attempted to put a stranglehold on Ireland going back ten years. Indeed by the 1590s, England had succeeded in… [read more]


Sale 50 or Less Tablet to Colombia Called Aakash or Sky in Hindi Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (635 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

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¶ … Tablet

The $50 Aakash tablet was developed by the joint venture of Data Wind and the Indian Institute of Technology Rajasthan. Data Wind is a Canadian company run by a Sikh from Punjab named Suneet Singh Tuli (Kurup, 2011). Although the company has limited experience, it has a global mindset and this will help it when entering the Colombia market with the Aakash.

The company was founded in 2001 in Montreal, but its primary market prior to the launch of the Aakash was with a product called the Pocket Surfer. This was marketed domestically in Canada, in the United States and also in Venezuela (Gregory, 2004). This is not an extensive body of international experience, but the company's presence in the Venezuelan market prepares it for the challenges that it can expect in the Colombia market, which is similar culturally but different politically.

In addition to marketing the Pocket Surfer, Data Wind has been working on the low-cost tablet project with the Indian government for several years. This included extensive work on developing the product. Data Wind won a contract from the Ministry of Human Resource Development to work on this project that will bring many Indians into the 21st century for the first time (Timmons, 2011). The company also manufactures in China, giving it further international experience (Ibid).

What this shows is that Data Wind is an international company, being based in Canada, selling in at least four countries, producing in another and developing projects with the Indian government. This international mindset to some extent offsets the relatively small sample size of international experience for the company. As with any new company, its international experience tends to gain more value as it accumulates. An international mindset is not a substitute for experience. Complicating the issue is that much o Data Wind's international experience is of the "low-hanging fruit" variety. The owners are of Indian…… [read more]


Wall Fire the Irony of Revolution Essay

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Wall Fire

The Irony of Revolution in "A Wall of Rising Fire"

Edwidge Danticat's short story "A Wall of Rising Fire" presents a less-than-optimistic view of life in Haiti during the latter portion of the twentieth century. At times, the story actually appears to be almost hopeful -- the significant role that Little Guy receives in the school play, the success of Guy in his ability to provide his family's basic needs, and even the soaring of the hot air balloon all appear to contain elements of hope. All of these things are actually ironic commentaries on the hopelessness of the situation in Haiti, however, as can be revealed through a close reading. The school play, the means of sustenance for the family, and the trip in the hot air balloon are all used by Danticat to ironically demonstrate the failure of hope and optimism for native Haitians in their own country.

The role that Little Guy receives in the play, that of a revolutionary hero from Haiti's history, seems to symbolize hope and a new revolution on the surface. In reality, however, the revolution that took place in Haiti ultimately resulted in the destitution that Little Guy's family and the rest of Haiti must live in. The revolution might have succeeded in freeing the native population from slavery and colonial rule, but it failed to establish a better life. In this way, the revolution and the hope it brought were ultimately pointless.

Little Guy's father, Guy, feels despondent because he is not able to provide a better life for his family, but Guy's mother reassures him that his child never goes to be hungry, which is a testament of what a good man Guy is. There is definite irony found in the fact that Guy's mother sees this bare level of subsistence as a means to be happy and to…… [read more]


Touch of Evil Film Review

Film Review  |  2 pages (646 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2

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¶ … Evil

An Analysis of Mestizo and Mestizaje in Touch of Evil

As Luz Calvo states, Touch of Evil from the very beginning establishes itself as a film which, with its "famous opening sequence…sets up interlocking anxieties about crossing the border, racial mixture, and (hetero)sexuality" (76). The very essence of the border town evokes ambiguity -- because it is populated by inhabitants who are of two worlds: one local and indigenous and the other European and foreign. Not only do these two populations coexist, they also co-habitate and produce a new breed of offspring known as the mestizo -- a cross of indigenous and European blood. Crossing these two elements becomes known as mestizaje -- a concept which "expresses the tensions, contradictions, and ambiguities of its birth in the New World" ("Lecture Notes: Touch of Evil"). This paper will analyze the film Touch of Evil from the aspect of the mestizo and mestizaje, and show how the film presents these concepts throughout the unfolding of its plot.

Touch of Evil, as Calvo, insists, "is structured by a primal scene fantasy that signals ambivalence…[and implies] the question of origin: 'Where did I come from?'" (74). The most literal expression of this question of origin is found in the mestizo -- the case of Mexican identity in the border town riddled by corruption and run by an overweight and corrupt police chief who has no problem framing the Mexican element which he despises. Here, the mestizo in the form of Vargas (played by Charlton Heston) steps in to set things right and restore order in a world where ambiguity has given way to license and corruption.

Yet mestizaje as a rule is not depicted with glowing lights. Vargas' wife, for example, played by Janet Leigh, becomes an object of desire for the Mexican gangs employed by Quinlan (the corrupt chief) to harass the mestizo couple. The gangs hint at rape and use scare tactics…… [read more]


Opportunity Cost Wds) in 1914 Essay

Essay  |  1 pages (347 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1

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OPPORTUNITY COST (300 wds)

In 1914, a Viennese economist named Friedrich von Wieser introduced the concept of opportunity costs, to help provide a conceptual mechanism to help calculate the truest and most meaningful costs of business-related and other economic decisions (Mankiw, 2008). In principle, the term opportunity cost refers to the amount of money that is lost (or not earned) when one makes a choice between two options. For example, if one decides to spend the summer vacation in school instead of working at a job earning "X" amount of dollars per week for eight weeks, the cost of going to school would be the amount of money actually spent on tuition, transportation, and books (etc.) plus the opportunity costs of $8X because that is the amount of money that the person would have earned during the same eight-week period if he or she had chosen the other option of working during summer vacation (Mankiw, 2008).

Therefore, in the example of making the choice to spend five days of spring break working at…… [read more]


Portugal Influence in Africa in 16th Century Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (589 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 2

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Portuguese Presence in Africa in the 16th Century

On June 18, 1452 Pope Nicholas V issued Dum Diversas, a papal bull that opened the way for the West African Slave trade by authorizing Afonso V of Portugal the authority to enslave non-Christians indefinitely. In part this document says, "…we grant to you full and free power, through the Apostolic authority by this edict, to invade, conquer, fight, subjugate the Saracens and pagans, and other infidels and other enemies of Christ…" This approval of slavery was reaffirmed and extended in his Romanus Pontifex bull of 1455. These papal bulls came to serve as a justification for the subsequent era of slave trade and European colonialism.

Discussion

The Portuguese exploration along the coasts of Africa had an underlying purpose, to sail around the continent to the spice markets of the east. It was during this endeavor that they developed a trading interest and established a lasting presence in Africa. Early explorers up the east Africa coast have left Portugal with bases in Mozambique and Zanzibar. These outposts helped to establish the sea route around the Cape of Good Hope to the east. Because of this Portugal was able to corner the profitable trade in eastern spices, and undercut the Venetian trade which until then had a monopoly on these valuable commodities. Until the establishment of a sea route, trade had been conducted overland, through India and Arabia, and then across the Mediterranean for distribution in Western Europe. Throughout the 16th century the Portuguese had no European rivals on the long sea route round Africa ("History of Africa").

On the west coast of the continent the Portuguese developed settlements in both Guinea and Angola to expand their interests in slave trade. The Portuguese expeditions of the 15th…… [read more]


Spanish Film Mise-En-Scene: Spirit of the Beehive Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (988 words)
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El Espiritu de La Colmena is a stark representation of post-War Spain and the internal and external conflicts faced by the survivors of the war. El Espiritu de la Colmena is considered one of the first significant Spanish films to come out of Spain and help to drive the Spanish filmmaking industry. El Espiritu de la Colmena by Victor Erice was released in 1973 towards the end of Franco's dictatorship and provides sentimental and political commentary on the effects of the Civil War and subsequent government. Strikingly beautiful and powerful, the mise-en-scene of the film helps to drive the story forward and provides insight into character, familial, and communal conflicts.

The film's cinematography captures the isolation felt by the community and Ana, a young girl enraptured by Tod Browning's Frankenstein. The film's titular opening sequence feature hand drawn pictures that portray Ana's experiences throughout the film and set the story up much like a fairy tale. The opening shot helps to reinforce the isolated nature of the quiet community. Furthermore, the use of exterior long shots appear set a calm tone in which the community appears to dwell in tranquility, yet is haunted by the tragedy of war. The openness of the fields also enhances the solitary feeling in the movie. Close up shots of the characters are utilized to show the intimacy within their relationship, as though an unspoken bond or knowledge is implied.

It is also important to note the symbolic structure of Ana's home; the honeycombed windows and overall yellow tint contribute to the madness felt within the home. Ana's father is obsessed with caring for his bees, her mother, Teresa, corresponds with a far off lover, and her sister enjoys tormenting her. The house feels empty, much like the open fields, and is scarcely decorated. The only furniture shown includes a piano, the sister's bedroom, and the dining table. Fernando's, Ana's father, study is kept mostly dark when he is working, with a dimly lit candle the only source of light; it appears as though Fernando is kept mostly in the dark about his family due to his work that keeps him busy with his bees. The use of chiaroscuro helps to emphasize the internal turmoil within the relationships between Fernando and Teresa, and Ana's inner turmoil.

The costuming in the film also contributes to the general mood of El Espiritu de la Colmena. The colors remain mostly muted and the designs are kept fairly simple. There is a vast difference between those in power and those that have rebelled against the government, as shown with the military uniform and with the fugitive which Ana tries to help. The costuming helps to provide the historical backdrop of the film, and emphasizes the simple lives led by the inhabitants of the village.

It is important to note the role of Tod Browning's Frankenstein in the film. At the beginning of the film, there is much excitement at the prospect of being…… [read more]


Spanish Women and Values Within the Turn Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (3,379 words)
Bibliography Sources: 9

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Spanish Women and Values

Within the turn of the twentieth century, Spanish women have spread to the fields that were greatly overrun by men. Cinematography, authorship, and activism have welcomed women in their embrace -- though not without some hardship on the way. This can be owed to the changing and non-changing class and social values of Spanish families after… [read more]


People's History of the United States Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (628 words)
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PEOPLE'S HISTORY of the UNITED STATES

In his book, historian Howard Zinn presents accounts of conduct of the Spanish explorers, most notably, Columbus and his armies, that matches the retrospective presented by Stannard. However, much of Zinn's account is based on the first-hand, eyewitness, Las Casas, a missionary who actually had the misfortune of watching some of the atrocities committed by the Spaniards on the peaceful people inhabiting some of the lands that Columbus "discovered." From the moment Columbus landed on the Bahamas, they returned generosity and goodwill with brutality, oppression, enslavement, cruelty, and murder perpetrated against the peaceful Arawak Indians, among other native peoples. Columbus's first descriptions recount his realization that he could (and would soon) overpower the entire native population of the Bahamas with fifty armed men.

Having exaggerated the resources supposedly available on those distant shores in order to secure financing in Spain, Columbus was under pressure to produce them, especially gold. Unfortunately (especially for the innocent native populations), gold was extremely scarce and buried deep in the mountains where only perpetual back-breaking labor could possible succeed in extracting it. Columbus, who is still referred to as a "hero" in contemporary educational literature, immediately enslaved the native populations, forcing them to dig for gold and shipping them back to Spain in chains in conditions that caused approximately half of them to die en route. According to the notes from Las Casas, they may have been some of the luckier ones.

On the islands themselves, Columbus's men routinely slaughtered men, women, and children senselessly, and often for mere amusement and relief from their boredom as for any other reason. They conducted contests to see who could kill people more quickly; they tested the sharpness of their swords on human beings, and they hunted people down with trained hunting dogs like animals if they tried to flee from their tormentors. More specifically, Columbus's…… [read more]


Colombia Gold Colombian Gold Mining: Economic Imperatives Literature Review Chapter

Literature Review Chapter  |  6 pages (1,956 words)
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Colombia Gold

Colombian Gold Mining:

Economic Imperatives, Environmental Consequences and Human Rights Violations

Conceptual Discussion:

Environmental management

Harris (2006) reports that after decades of revolutionary instability, cartel wars and government tyranny, Colombia is reopening to the world economy. Harris notes that the country is distinguished by a relatively unrealized richness of gold that is seen as increasingly desirable to global… [read more]


Political and Legal Forces Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (640 words)
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International

Legal and Political Forces in Spain

The ideological forces in Spain include parliamentary democracy and constitutional democracy. Spain is a democracy that is organized in the form of a parliamentary government beneath a constitutional monarchy. It is an industrialized country with the ninth largest economy in the world by nominal GD. It has very high living standards. As of 2005, it had the 15th highest Human Development Index including the tenth-highest quality of life index rating in the world. It is also an affiliate of the United Nations, European Union, NATO, OECD, and WTO (Spain, 2009).

The Spanish nation is governmentally made up of a form known as State of Autonomies. It is one of the most decentralized countries in Europe. All Autonomous Communities have their own elected parliaments, governments, public administrations, budgets, and resources; therefore, health and education systems among others are managed regionally, besides, the Basque Country and Navarre also manage their own public finances based on foral provisions (Spain, 2009).

In terms of personal characteristics, individualism is highly respected in Spain, along with stress on character and social status. Spanish culture is made up of the importance of self and one's family. Influenced by its history, family values, a sense of individuality and belonging to a group, are also crucial parts of society in Spain. As a result personal traits, appearance, image and personal associations are very important components in contemporary Spanish culture. In a business circumstance, personal attributes and character are regularly valued as much as technical aptitude, experience or professional ability. When doing business in Spain, one will frequently find that individualism is mainly predominant in management, where Spanish managers are less disposed to favor group decision making and team orientation (Doing Business in Spain, 2007).

Legislation in Spain establishes mechanisms in order to solve disputes if they arise. The judicial system is open and usually obvious, although it moves very slowly at times.…… [read more]


Company Expansion Into Spain or France Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,565 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5

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France vs. Spain

France makes for the better investment option, when compared with Spain. There are several reasons for this. The first is that the French economy is larger and more diverse than the Spanish economy. The second is that the French economy is trending upward, given the government's attitude towards private enterprise as a cornerstone of the economy. The… [read more]


Company Infrastructure in a Foreign Country Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (770 words)
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Company Infrastructure in a foreign country

Infrastructure: Scottish and Southern Energy (SSE) and Spain

Scottish and Southern Energy (SSE) is a United Kingdom-based energy company specializing in sustainable energy. At present, SSE "owns around 10,700MW of electricity generation capacity, including its share of joint ventures and associates. This makes it the second largest electricity generator across the UK and Ireland. The capacity comprises 4,500MW of gas- and oil-fired capacity, 4,000MW of coal-fired capacity (with biomass 'co-firing' capability), and over 2,200MW of renewable capacity" (About us, 2010, SSE). Like many energy companies, SSE has been considering expanding into other nations. Spain has long been a source of potential interest for foreign enterprises. SSE could create a partnership with one of Spain's main energy companies, or buy parts of Span's massive, behemoth energy corporations Endesa and Iberdrola.

Both Endesa and Iberdrola are national companies and collectively control 80% of the Spanish market. Foreign investors have often made bids to buy parts of these two companies, most recently in the case of a failed attempt of a German electricity company to buy Iberdrola (Spain, 2010, Encyclopedia of the Nations). Today, "almost half of Spanish electricity is based on fossil fuels (48.23%), 31.23% on nuclear power, 19.16% on hydroelectricity, and 1.38% by other means (1998). In 1998 Spain produced 179.468 billion kWh of electricity and of that consumed only 170.306 billion kWh. National shortage of petroleum and gas is compensated with nuclear energy" (Spain, 2010, Encyclopedia of the Nations). This is a possible argument against a joint venture -- there has been little opposition to the use of nuclear energy in Spain, and to increase the nation's energy independence, Spain might simply shift more of its energy policy focus to this self-sustaining means of providing its citizens with power, rather than address the national gas and petroleum shortage with an agreement with SSE.

From a British company's perspective, Spain has one important attraction: it is part of the economic 'free zone' of the EU, like Great Britain. This reduces the onerous regulatory barriers between the new nations. However, the UK chose to 'opt out' of the euro. The pound has been steadily weakening: "While the pound is probably a big enough currency to be able to survive, it has weakened by 25% in the last four months against the…… [read more]


Civilizations in the Amazon Essay

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Civilizations in the Amazon

Until as recently as the 1970s, the possibility of significantly sized ancient civilizations in the Amazon Basin has not been acknowledged. The reason for this is the fact that the area's ecology is unsuitable to support large civilizations, being low in land animal populations and fertile soil. However, authors such as Michael J. Heckenberger and Charles C. Mann are beginning to change widely accepted paradigms regarding populations in the Amazon Basin by means of new discoveries. These discoveries suggest that the Amazon Basin once housed not only considerably sophisticated civilization, but also such civilizations of significant size.

Heckenberger for example has conducted in-depth study with the Kuikuro tribe in the Amazon Basin. Here he found significant evidence to suggest a complex pre-Columbian society (Heckenberger 64). This society lived in a network of towns, villages and roads to suggest a population size significantly larger than the current numbers of Kuikuro. The author notes that the population could have been as much as 20 times in number of what it is today. He also sees evidence of this in the biodiversity in the region, which indicates human intervention in ancient times.

The author further hypothesizes that these large numbers of people succumbed to European invasion by means of disease, colonization, and other forms of violence, after which the forest simply overgrew the settlements. This hypothesis is confirmed by the journals of early explorers and colonizers, which report large populations of native people along the Amazon River. According to Heckenberger (67), these populations were organized in an interactive system of trade. Specifically, the author's investigations led him to believe that areas such as Marajo Island at the mouth of the river, as well as less well-known areas such as Llanos de Mojos in Bolivian and Acre in Brazil probably supported complex and sophisticated societies.

In the Upper Xingu Basin, excavations have revealed ancient towns and interconnected roads across the region (Heckenberger 70). This indicates a large amount of sophisticated regional planning and…… [read more]


Haiti Is Not Katrina Custom Research Material Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  2 pages (636 words)
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Haiti Is Not Katrina

Custom research material provided by:

Kathleen Tierney, the author of "Haiti is not Katrina," is a professor of sociology and behavioral science director of the Natural Hazards Center at the University of Colorado at Boulder. Many media outlets have made comparisons between Hurricane Katrina and the earthquake in Haiti. Tierney, however, draws attention to a number of distinct differences between the two natural disasters and suggests that they are not as similar as the media suggests.

To give readers an idea of the scope of the disaster, Tierney expresses the situation in Haiti by comparing it to a similar but imaginary event in the United States. She urges her readers to imagine the scenario if "all of the U.S. west of the Mississippi was extensively damaged by some immense catastrophe in one minute, with absolutely no warning." She indicates that this is the situation currently faced by Haiti. She then compares the situation in Haiti to the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina and notes that although Hurricane Katrina was devastating, it was a regional disaster, whereas the damage in Haiti is on a national level. The earthquake in Haiti and Hurricane Katrina differ from one another in the scope of the destruction.

Katrina was not as disastrous as the earthquake in Haiti because the national structure was left intact and federal government buildings were not affected. In Haiti, however, the capital city of Port-au-Prince was severely damaged. Thirty percent of Haiti's population is concentrated in Port-au-Prince. Consequently, a third of the Haiti's population was killed, wounded, or lost their homes or means of livelihood. In addition, although the devastation caused by Hurricane Katrina caused problems in the national supply chain, it did not demolish the basic social structure. In Haiti, even the hospitals, clinics and the UN headquarters are unable to function. Katrina and Haiti are different in that the nation's infrastructure was not destroyed…… [read more]


Mountains Beyond Mountains: Farmer's Dilemma Tracy Kidder Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,084 words)
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MOUNTAINS BEYOND MOUNTAINS: FARMER'S DILEMMA

Tracy Kidder's "Mountains Beyond Mountains: The Quest of Dr. Paul Farmer, A Man Who Would Cure the World" is a true story of one man's crusade against infectious diseases in some of the poorest nations in the world- most prominently Haiti. The story revolves around many philosophical, ethical and political issues concerning healthcare to highlight the inequalities and disparities in healthcare access and distribution of wealth around the world. Dr. Farmer goes into the depth of some of the very modern but highly puzzling political issues such as role of the U.S. In Haiti and inadequate healthcare situation that U.S. has not been able to improve. Farmer notices that despite their best intentions, the peacekeeping forces of the U.S. In Haiti have not been able to bring about any real change in the social condition of people in Haiti. The soldiers have failed to go to the depth of cultural beliefs and traditions that heavily affect Haitians and their thoughts on healthcare. He understands the cynicism of soldiers as he believes that "had done their best" and felt that they "would not cry over things beyond their control" in Haiti (p. 8).

Farmer's work in Haiti focused on more than simply offering medical cures. He tried to get to the very roots of people's beliefs and noticed that Voodoo played a major role in their belief system and accounted for many healthcare issues. People did not always believe that they were sick. They would attribute it to Voodoo and hence Farmer had to get more involved in their belief system to offer them better treatments for infectious diseases like tuberculosis. "In one of his books, Farmer had written that there was a distinction, in the Haitian countryside, between belief in sorcery and the theories and practices called voodoo but virtually everyone including Catholics and Protestants and Voodooists, believed in the reality of maji, of sorcery. From many people around Cange, magic spells sent by enemies were the deep cause of many illnesses. And many people around Cange believed that Farmer like all good Voodoo priests, knew how to contend with maji" (p. 28) Thus sorcery was deeply embedded in the psyche of Haitian people and Farmer was clever enough to learn various beliefs in order to contend them successfully and offer better healthcare options to these poor and uneducated people.

Farmer would work with both science and magic to understand people better and to actually cure them. He was compassionate enough to realize that there was a much deeper political reason why poor people in some of the most downtrodden places still believed in the power of sorcery. The politics dictated their lives because in the absence of modern education and modern medical practices, they had come to rely on the old practice of magic which still held meaning for them. He explains: "Haitians believe in sorcery because their culture has evolved in the absence of effective medicine. So of course they believe in sorcery,… [read more]


Sustainable Development Each of the Emirates Thesis

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Sustainable Development

Each of the emirates that comprise the United Arab Emirates is subject to rule from its own sheiks. The largest emirate, Abu Dhabi, has set forth a sustainable development plan known as Masdar. The emirate has the stated goal of leading the world in sustainable development, with a goal of completion by 2030.

Masdar has no plan for fiscal problems -- funded with oil revenue, the emirate does not anticipate having financial difficulty for the next several decades. No external sources from international agencies will be required. One of the major issues with respect to poverty and employment that Masdar hopes to address is that of youth unemployment. Abu Dhabi youth suffer high unemployment because they are unwilling to do bottom-end jobs but there are not enough high-end jobs for them. Part of Masdar involves the creation of new universities, including the Masdar Institute of Science and Technology, in order to better educate the Abu Dhabi youth so that they can become more engaged in their own careers and job creation strategies.

Masdar addresses resource needs in two ways. The program is designed to transition Abu Dhabi from fossil fuel dependence to use of alternate forms of power, especially the region's abundant solar and wind power. Water resources are a critical issue for the emirate already. Current water resources come from underground reservoirs, and there are no plans to change this. It should be noted, however, that unlike neighboring Dubai, Abu Dhabi is not focusing its development on golf courses, indoor ski hills and other unsustainable, water-wasting tourism ventures.

Another emerging nation with a strong sustainability plan is Costa Rica. The Central American nation has long incorporated sustainable development principles in its decision-making. Costa Rica's strategy for land use has included the creation of multiple parks to help build an ecotourism industry. The nation still has issues, however, with land use with respect…… [read more]


Spain in World War II (WWII) Essay

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Spain in World War II (WWII)

When the subject of World War II comes up students, scholars and historians tend to think of Nazi Germany's influence in Europe, or the Pacific Theater and Japan's aggression. But Spain played a substantial role in WWII as well, and this paper will review and analyze Spain's involvement through scholarly articles on the subject.

Was Spain neutral during WWII? There is conflicting information regarding that question. Although Franco, the fascist dictator in Spain at that time, proclaimed Spain's neutrality, British intelligence revealed "...numerous examples of Spanish cooperation" in WWII, cooperation with both the Germans and Italians in order to carry out "espionage activities" and acts of "sabotage" against the British and their interests in Gibraltar (Cokely, 2007). According to Megan E. Cokely of the London School of Economics, writing in the International Journal of Iberian Studies, when the British discovered that the Spanish government was indeed involved in a cooperative effort with the Germans and Italians - Italy was part of the "Axis" (Germany, Italy and Japan) - British diplomats vigorously protested to the Franco regime. Franco had not honored his word to be neutral, and although the British did not root out this activity in Gibraltar, they proved that Franco was fabricating his public neutrality.

Cokely writes that at the outset of WWII, Britain feared that the Germans would attack Gibraltar, which was a key strategic point right at the entrance and exit of the Mediterranean Sea. There was good reason to fear that the Nazis might attack Gibraltar, because the Germans invaded Poland on September 1, 1939. Three days after that, Spanish dictator Francisco Franco declared that Spain's "strict neutrality" in the emerging war, although Cokely explains that Franco was to modify his official position on the war "several times" (Cokely, p. 130). Franco went from strict neutrality to "non-belligerency" to "moral belligerency" and then in October 1943 he went back neutrality, the author said. In fact, the puzzle surrounding Franco's official position has been investigated by many scholars and historians, Cokely writes; she references several historians who believe Franco's aim was to "avoid participation in the war at all costs" (Cokely, p. 130). Still other historians believed that there is "visible evidence" including a "wealth of clandestine" activities that went on in Spain that indicated Spain did indeed collaborate with the Axis (in particular Italy and Germany) in hopes perhaps of enjoying some of the spoils of the war should the Germans prevail.

Author Wayne H. Bowen has written a book titled Spain in World War II in which he asserts that Franco gave strong consideration to entering - e.g., sending Spanish armies and providing munitions - on the side of Germany and Italy. Franco even engaged in "serious" negotiations with the Nazis prior to deciding not to take that step; and yet Spain did support Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy with "workers, soldiers, and economic agreements" (Bowen, 2006, p. 17). Franco was the kind of power broker who supported whichever… [read more]


Henry the Navigator Though Prince Thesis

Thesis  |  2 pages (590 words)
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Henry the Navigator

Though Prince Henry of the House of Aviz of Portugal is often known as the Navigator, this title is something of a misnomer. Though Henry sponsored many expeditions of discovery and funded a lot of chart and map making, he never actually went on any of these voyages himself. Still, in no way does this diminish from his accomplishments. He was among the first Europeans to truly recognize the importance of the Atlantic Ocean and trade with Africa. Though all of the results of this might not be looked on too kindly by history, his (or rather, his fleet's) discovery and charting of various African lands proved substantially significant to the history of Europe and the rest of the world.

Henry's sponsorship pushed expeditions farther along the coast of Africa -- indeed, farther in general -- than any other prior expeditions, but that is not where the significance of his achievements ends. His expeditions were so successful, at least in terms of distance, because Henry had ships designed for this specific purpose. It was Henry's desire to have the world explored in the name of Portugal that led to these brand new boats; boats which propelled Portugal to the forefront of world exploration. The caravel, as the ship developed under Henry's patronage was called, was lighter and faster than all previous long-distance sailing vessels, and faster speeds meant shorter traveling times, making supplying long journeys more feasible. Finding a sea route that would enable faster and more profitable trade with the Indies became a paramount goal during this period, and Portugal's lead in this arena led to something of almost unparalleled historical significance -- the crossing of the Atlantic by three ships under the command of Christopher Columbus.

Key Points:

Henry was…… [read more]


Aragon, Spain the Region Thesis

Thesis  |  2 pages (673 words)
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Aragon, Spain

The region of Aragon can be found in the north-eastern part of Spain. This history-rich place is composed of three principal cities: Huesca, Teruel, and the region's capital, Zaragoza ("Guide to Aragon in Spain," n.d., par. 1).

Brief History of Aragon

As early as the 9th century, there were already recognized inhabitants of the area which gave rise to the Country of Arago. For a time, it was under the Kingdom of Pamplona, but was emancipated in the 11th century. The region acted against Phillip V during the War of Spanish Succession. After the battle of Almansa in 1707, Aragon became a province and its Council was absorbed into the Council of Castile (SiSpain Website, n.d.).

Zaragoza, Aragon's capital boasts a long history of battles, conquests, and re-conquests. Zaragoza settlement started in 5th century BC as an Iberian settlement. Nine centuries later it was claimed as a Roman territory. Zaragoza, as a territory, was later captured by the Muslims form the Roman empire. Zaragoza's rule was taken away from the Muslims by a Christian king, Alfonso I in 1118. He also renamed the city to Kingdom of Aragon. The city expanded significantly during 16-17th centuries. In the 20th century, Zaragoza gained its democracy and became an Autonomous Community (Zaragoza City Guide, n.d.).

The Iberian settlement of Osca functioned as the headquarters of Quintus Sertorius, a rebel who maintained his independence from Rome from almost a decade. After the expulsion of Moors, Huesca became the capital of Aragon from 1096 to 1118. Huesca was later conquered by French troops during the Napoleonic war while it experienced two years of bitter fights during the Spanish Civil War (Planetware Website, n.d.).

Teruel was also significant during the Spanish Civil War as it was a key battleground. The famous Battle of Teruel during the 1937 can be considered one of the harshest characterized by massive bombings and counterattacks (SiSpain Website, n.d.).

Aragon Culture

Aragon is known for its beautiful architecture, particularly the Mudejar architecture which was extended in…… [read more]


Brazilian Informatics and the United States Defending Infant Industry Versus Opening Foreign Markets Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  6 pages (1,517 words)
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BRAZILIAN INFORMATICS and the UNITED STATES: DEFENDING INFANT INDUSTRY vs. OPENING FOREIGN MARKETS

SCENARIO

The writer of this work is assuming the position of a team member on a team of advisors to the Brazilian Ambassador Flecha de Lima. The goal specified within this scenario is to decide if the Ambassador should seek or protect more than one value and… [read more]


Barbie Growing Pains as the American Girls Goes Global Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (580 words)
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Barbie: Growing Pains as the American Girl Goes Global

Barbie is one of the most common toys in all of the United States. but, as she bean to go global, Mattel was forced to change its strategy and try new ways to sell the famous doll in brand new worldwide markets. In its attempt to capture these new markets, Mattel thought global but began to act local, saw cultural difficulties with the American version of the doll, while at the same time continuing Barbie's reign as a complete American icon. However, in order to further capture new, less affluent markets, Mattel should reconsider price structures which have been threatening sales in particular areas.

60% of all of Mattel's income comes from the United States, (AUTHOR, 143). This means that the American market is essentially the chunk of Mattel's Barbie sales. However, with a growing market available to them, Mattel is beginning to change its marketing strategies to fit a global market. Today, Barbie is sold in over 150 countries all over the globe, making the doll the most famous toy in the world, generating the most revenue, (143). The manufacturer of al Barbie dolls is Mattel, and has since become the largest toy manufacturer in the world. In fact, the sales of the dolls alone make up about 20% of Mattel's entire gross income.

However, many newer toys are beginning to take some of the massive percentages away from the long reigning champion Mattel. In the United States the new Bratz doll has gained a percentage of market control. In many other nations around the world, smaller more ethnic dolls are becoming more popular at the behalf of Mattel's previous rule of the market. The general appearance of Mattel's famous…… [read more]


Bilbao and Its Basque Culture Term Paper

Term Paper  |  13 pages (3,563 words)
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Basque Culture of Bilbao and the Regeneration of the Villa of Bilbao in Contemporary Times

The objective of this work is to report on Bilbao and its history and culture, with an emphasis on Basque influences.

The work of Robert Lawrence Trask states that the Basque-speaking region extends from just outside the cathedral city of Bayonne (Basque Baiona) in the… [read more]


Ponce De Leon Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,154 words)
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Juan Ponce de Leon was an explorer that was in search of riches and youth. On this exploration of youth and riches, he discovers Florida. He was descended from an ancient and noble family; the surname of Le n was acquired through the marriage of one of the Ponces to Dona Aldonza de Le n, a daughter of Alfonso IX. As a lad Ponce de Le n served as page to Pedro Nunuz de Guzman, later the tutor of the brother of Charles V, the Infante Don Fernando. In 1493, Ponce sailed to Hispaniola (San Domingo) with Columbus on his second voyage, an expedition which included many aristocratic young men, and adventurous noblemen who had been left without occupation after the fall of Granada. When Nicolas Ovando came to Hispaniola in 1502 as governor, he found the natives in a state of revolt, and in the war which followed Ponce rendered such valuable services that he was appointed Ovando's lieutenant with headquarters in a town in the eastern part of the island. While here, he heard from the Indians that there was much wealth in the neighbouring Island of Buriquien (Porto Rico), and he asked and obtained permission to visit it in 1508, where he discovered many rich treasures; for his work in this expedition he was appointed Adelantado or Governor of Boriquien. Having reduced the natives, he was soon afterward removed from office, but not until he had amassed a considerable fortune. At this time stories of Eastern Asia were prevalent which told of a famous spring the waters of which had the marvellous virtue of restoring to youth and vigour those who drank them. Probably the Spaniards heard from the Indians tales that reminded them of this Fons Juventutis, and they got the idea that this fountain was situated on an island called Bimini which lay to the north of Hispaniola" (Juan Ponce de Le n).. From there, he was a great explorer that discovered a peaceful land, which continues to be that in today's world.

Discussion

Due to his background, he was given the right to find and take the island of Bimini, which in his exploration he found Florida. This gave him even more riches since Florida feels youthful to those who are on the land. With having teamwork on his ships, he was able to be successful in discovering the land.

Working on a team can be very rewarding and exciting, but also frustrating if some of the team member are not committed to the team. Building a high performance team requires time, collaboration and most importantly communication. A team is described as a small number of people with complementary skills who are committed to a common purpose and approach for which they hold themselves mutually accountable. Group thinking and conformity focuses on the interpersonal transaction between managers and employee. Leaders are seen as engaging in behaviors that maintain a quality interaction between themselves and followers Ponce de Leon used leadership and teamwork to discover… [read more]


Art of Portugal Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (868 words)
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Portuguese Art of the 1970s and 1980s

It is difficult to speak of truly contemporary art in Portugal before the Democratic Revolution of 1974. The dictatorship that was in place in Portugal up to this point had effectively prevented Modernity from spreading throughout the country; thus art in Portugal for much of the 20th century was derivative of other national models and periods. Perhaps the sole exception was the work of Rene Bertholo and Lourdes Castro, both of whom were able to emigrate in the 1950s and integrate themselves into the international vanguard art scene. Seeing as how contemporary art really begins in Portugal in the mid-70s, this essay will analyze the early evolution of contemporary art in Portugal by focusing on the first two decades - the 1970s and 1980s. We hope to show how the emergence of a Portuguese avant-garde could be considered on a par with similar trends happening elsewhere in the art world during this same period.

At the time of Portugal's liberation from an oppressive dictatorship, conceptual practices were all the rage in the Western art world. Such practices immediately piqued the interest of Portuguese artists upon exposure, and many Portuguese artists of the 1970s began to integrate such an approach into their own work. Helena Almeida was chief among these for whom older models were no longer valid; she imbued her work of this period with a confrontational strand that often served to question the very medium in which she was working. One startling example of this is the photographic work Tela Habitada of 1976, in which the artist covered a photograph of her head with a line of blue paint, effectively erasing her own image while disrupting the alleged purity of the photographic medium.

Another important artist to have emerged during the 1970s was Juliao Sarmento. While he would eventually find fame in the 1980s as a painter, his work in the 1970s was more in the conceptual vein and included performances, installations, and interventions. In the words of Pedro Lapa, "Ever since his first conceptual works desire has been his central theme. Desire seen as a circular movement with no end, preceding social codes underlying any representational concept and becoming his very production" (Lapa 15).

It was in the 1980s that profound changes began to take place in the Portuguese art scene. This had a lot to do with the major economic crisis that hit the country in the first half of the decade. As a result, much of the revolutionary fervor of the 1970s was lost. Instead, artists began to return to the art object…… [read more]


Cuban Cigar Industry Is a Microcosm Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,679 words)
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Cuban cigar industry is a microcosm of how industries become weakened when communist regimes cripple free enterprise with the intention of keeping specific industries more nationalistic, free of outside investment and control. The revolution that led to a communist take-over of the economy also led to the disbanding of entire companies and brands. The dissolution of entire brands hurled the… [read more]


Memoirs of Bernardo Vega Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (990 words)
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Memoirs of Bernardo Vega

The book Memoirs of Bernardo Vega is an autobiography with the subtitle a Contribution to the History of the Puerto Rican Community in New York. The time of the book is the end of the nineteenth and the beginning of the twentieth centuries. While the book is called an autobiography, it has little about Vega's life in it and is instead a collection of observations the man made of life in his corner of New York City. The book is timely today because it has so much information in it about the immigration system, then in place, and many of the issues facing the city then are similar to those raised about immigration today.

Vega himself was an immigrant and arrived in the city in 1916, first working in a cigar factory. At the time, there were readers who worked in the factories to red to the working men. The readers were of a higher social class than the workers because they were literate, and the image in the book is much like the recent play Anna in the Tropics about a factory where the reader would read Anna Karenina to the women working there.

As depicted by Vega, these factories had a more complex social structure than an outsider might assume was true. The factory had a committee that raised funds for supplying the revolution in the Antilles. The factory had a press representative whose job was to pass out the workers newspapers from different parts of the country. The workers had lengthy conversations about the issues of the day, which for them centered primarily on revolution in Cuba. Vega was also taken with the life of one of the primary leaders of the revolution, Jose Marti, who raised a great deal of money for the revolution.

Vega shows how the Puerto Rican population increased in the United States at the time of World War I, for the large population in Puerto Rico could gain some relief if a larg enumber of people emigrated, while those people could found work in New York and elsewhere in the United States because of the labor shortage occasioned by the war. The reasons why many Puerto Ricans came to the U.S. was similar to why many Mexicans do today, to find economic opportunity when there as little opportunity in their homeland. However, the Puerto Ricans found themselves with only second-class status in their new home, and Vega recognizes the reason for this and tries to explain it to a teacher, noting how Puerto Ricans are following a route taken by other ethnic groups in the U.S. At the time, but in their own way:

responded by pointing out that, unlike our Hungarian and German classmates, Puerto Ricans do not really have any citizenship. Outside of Puerto Rico our natural citizenship is not recognized. Without any citizenship to give up, it would seem pretty hard for us to become American. (Vega 27)

Puerto Ricans…… [read more]


Puerto Rico a Four-Storeyed Country Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (943 words)
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Puerto Rico

Gonzalez, Jose Luis. Puerto Rico: The Four Storied Country. M. Wiener Pub., 1993.

When Jose Luis Gonzalez calls Puerto Rico the Four Storied Country, he is creating an implied critique of how the story of the island is usually told, a singular, narrow tale of the ascent of European, Spanish-speaking nationals who strove to win independence for the nation, who spoke with one voice for the entire Hispanic population of Puerto Rico. Gonzalez says this storyline undervalues the more significant contribution of Indian-African, mestizo natives in formulating a unique Puerto Rican identity and culture. These individuals made up the majority of the island's population during its formative years of development; they were the first true residents and cultural founders of the land.

Of course, the very first national inhabitants, the indigenous peoples, as a 'pure' culture and nation were wiped out during the 16th century. They were eradicated by disease and the brutality of the Spanish conquistadors. Those natives that did survive formed a new culture with Afro-Antilleans, the descendents of African slaves who were brought in by the Spanish colonists to do the work the conquistadors required to make money from the colonized territory. Up to the 19th century, Africans dominated the creation of Puerto Rican culture. Their intermixture of blood and culture with the native residents created the first story of Puerto Rico.

This story exhibited a great deal of cultural intermixture as well as intermarriage, except for the few, white residents who dominated the political life of the island. Blacks, mulattos, and poor whites had no say in the government or church as members of the working classes and despised races, but they influenced the island's development in other ways. There is a long-standing myth that the white j'baros, these working class people, were the first 'pure' Puerto Ricans. However really if there were ever substantial numbers of white jibaros, their culture was a mix of slave and native cultures, not a direct descendent Hispanic or European culture. The fact remains first true Puerto Rican culture, regardless of the exact racial composition of the individual, was at least partially made up of the cultures of the enslaved, runaway, or formerly enslaved Africans who had been owned by early Spanish colonists. The first jibaros, whether mulatto or African, wore the same clothes, ate the same food, and tended to live in the same areas -- the center of the island, to hide from those who would enslave them, or make them work for a mere pittance.

The coffee plantations that made Puerto Rico famous began to be organized in the 19th century after the next wave of immigration. The Spanish governing authorities had encouraged more European immigration, for fear of the colony revolting and becoming independent like Haiti. The falling price of sugar, then Puerto Rico's cash…… [read more]


Moya, Jose C. Cousins Book Review

Book Review  |  2 pages (618 words)
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Moya's book is not merely historical; it is also sociological in the sense that he wishes to discover why individuals migrate. He examines the 'push-pull' theory of migration, which suggests that human migration occurs when social, political and economic forces push masses of individuals out of an origin country. These forces include poverty, economic and political oppression, or wars. Certain nations have pull factors that draw these groups into their borders, like economic opportunities, a common language, and an apparently similar culture or history, as occurred with the Spanish in Argentina. The European revolutions of the 19th century and the early wars of the 20th century are the most extreme examples of push factors, hence the sheer size of the migration.

Although the shared pull of a perceived past created an appearance that the Spanish and the Argentinean residents were cousins, really they were strangers, much like the Americans and the British share a common language, but a culture and a way of using that language that has profoundly separated because of geographical distance over time. But overall, Moya views the result of the initial culture class between residents and immigrants as having very positive results because he believed they conspired to create a more dynamic society in Argentina. Migration can create new opportunities for positive forms of capitalism to take root, for wealth to be spread more equitably across the globe, and to free various social groups from being tied to the land. However, migration can also result in greater social instability and the alienation of different groups, such as Creoles, who were now viewed as even less desirable residents than before. Migration can also intensify conflicts between different socioeconomic groups, such as the tensions between residents of the country and the port city capital.… [read more]


Death in Spanish Literature While the Renaissance Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (3,683 words)
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Death in Spanish Literature

While the Renaissance in Europe bred abundant literature on every lively intellectual subject, the Baroque period was filled the Spanish nation with disappointment. In Europe in 1567, the Netherlands revolted against the rule of Spain under Philip II, and a costly war began. England gave their support to the Netherlands, and Philip sent the Spanish Armada… [read more]


Cuban Embargo Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (320 words)
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Cuban Embargo

The Failure of the Cuban Embargo

Despite a longstanding history of economic and political ties, the United States and Cuba fell into a period of adversity, largely due to the rise to power of Fidel Castro's communist government in 1958. In an effort to catalyze a regime change, the United States levied economic sanctions against Cuba in the form of a partial embargo, the scope of which was widened on January 3, 1961, after Cuba aligned itself with the Soviet Union. The embargo was imposed on Cuba in an effort to destabilize Castro's authoritarian government, which was seen as politically dangerous, given its proximity to the United States, as well as its close ties to the Soviet Union during the Cold War.

Unsurprisingly, widespread economic sanctions have failed to transition Castro's communist government toward democracy, which is a result that is consistent with similar measures enacted against other governments around the globe. As a policy tool, it seems…… [read more]


World of Its Own: Chapter 7 Analysis Term Paper

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¶ … encircles around the idea that there is a continued problems between Mexican-Americans, African-Americans, and White Activists. They report that no matter what is done there will not be a way to bring the three groups together, it also appears through the writing that this statement is support with continued excerpts that prove that the three groups individual continue to function as separate units without any hopes of becoming a combined functioning unit. On the other hand, I do not agree with this thesis statement. First, I think that a population as small as the one discussed in the writing should not be as global as much as it appears to be throughout the writing. It is cause for concern that needs to be addressed and is as much a problem as displayed in the writing.

Struggles to remedy discrimination among the Mexican & African-American population

Formation of specific organizations and groups compiled to "combat" discriminatory acts

Participation of whites in the struggle against discrimination during the 40's to the 50's give insight into the role they played during that time period

The use of bilingual papers aided in "getting the word out" regarding discrimination occurring against Mexican-Americans and young African-Americans

The actions of activists in the citrus belt show the shift in the amount of segregation after World War II

The creation of new industries in the citrus belt brought higher paying much needed jobs, as well as the best situation for Segregation and discrimination kept most Mexican-Americans from education and higher paying jobs

Mexican-Americans put pressure on…… [read more]


1588 Spanish Armada Term Paper

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Spanish Armada

It is reported that Pope Sixtus remarked, "It is curious that the emperor of half of the world should be defied by a woman who is queen of half an island" (Conan). He was referring to Philip II of Spain and Queen Elizabeth of England, and the "stunning defeat of the Spanish Armada in 1588" (Conan).

During the… [read more]


Spanish Armada Against England in 1588 Term Paper

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Spanish Armada

What did Philip 11 launch the Spanish Armanda against England in 1588?

What were the results of his defeat for Spain and England?

In 1588, King Philip II of Spain launched a fleet of ships that are set to Sail and invade the crown country of England. La Felicissima armada consists of 150 ships manned by both Spanish and some Portuguese and Naple sailors. This Spanish Armada is known to be the biggest number of fleet to set sail in European naval history. The fleet was positioned to link its forces in alliance with the Duke of Parma along the English Channel.

Because of the religious reforms that occurred in the era, England converted to Protestanism headed by Queen Elizabeth. King Philip II decided to invade England and was determined to return Catholicism to the roots of the English religion and beliefs. Also, the invasion served as King Philip's primary recourse to even out trade competition of Spain with England which is a fierce competitor in trading with the New World. The naval assault of England was also seen as a result of a personal grudge of King Philip II with Queen Elizabeth who rejected King Philip's offer of marriage.

The Duke of Medina…… [read more]


President of Argentina Has Been Nestor Kirchner Term Paper

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¶ … President of Argentina has been Nestor Kirchner and the Vice President has been Daniel Scioli. In Argentina the chief of state and the head of the government are both the same person; ie. The president. One of the advantages realized by becoming president is that the cabinet is appointed by that person. In the last Argentina presidential election held on April 27, 2003 there was a virtual dead heat amongst the two main contenders which led to a runoff election. Those two contenders were Nestor Kirchner (who received 22%) and a gentleman named Carlos Saul Menem who received 24.3% of the total vote. A runoff was supposed to be held May 25, 2003.

"The subsequent runoff election slated for 25 May 2003 was awarded to Kirchner by default after Menem withdrew his candidacy on the eve of the election" (https://www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/geos/ar.html#Govt).

Since taking office Kirchner has had to implement a policy that would assist the country in recovering from a very real recession during 2001-2002. "Poverty and unemployment rates soared during Argentina's 2001-2002 economic crisis but have eased as the economy recovered to grow nine percent on average over the last three years" (Reuters 2006). Kirchner's policies have helped the country to recover from a severe economic crisis since he has taken office, but the unemployment rate is still very high. At the height of the crisis the unemployment rate was as high as 21.5% and the number of impoverished Argentines was 57.5%. "Argentina's unemployment rate fell to 10.4% in the second quarter from 12.1% in the same period last year" (Reuters 2006).

Other Argentine presidents have also had to cope with severe economies and high unemployment as well as social disorder. One of those presidents was Juan Domingo Peron. This individual was elected to three different terms as president of Argentina. His first term was 1946-1952, after which he was immediately re-elected and served from 1952 through 1955 when he was overthrown in a military coup. "On September 16, 1955 a facist-Catholic group of both the Army and Navy made a definitive coup d'etat, taking power under the name of "Revolucion Libertadora" (Juan 2006). His third term was short-lived as well. He was voted into office in October 1973 and died July 1, 1974.

Peron was known for being very pro-union and establishing a labor party that still has major influence in Argentina. Many of Argentine's political parties have included as part of their respective platforms "Peronisms" and Peron himself touted the fact that their was a third way to govern a people. Instead of capitalism or communism, he promoted laborism.

Peron was also married to Eva Duarte. "On October 21, 1945 Peron married Eva Duarte (1919-1952), who became hugely popular. Known as Evita, she helped her…… [read more]


Henry VIII of England Term Paper

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Henry VIII

King Henry VIII of England fundamentally altered the course of English and, indeed, European history. It is difficult to imagine, had another individual ascended to the English throne, that they could have set the nation on a path so distinct from that of their forbearers, or with such lasting and widespread ramifications. In short, it was Henry VIII's… [read more]


Country Entry Risk Assessment Term Paper

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Country Entry Risk Assessment

Alba Organics has a unique product offering, of high quality, herbal based, cruelty free skincare products. They have been committed to the development of what they deem to be Consciousness Cosmetics for more than a decade. Entry into the Portuguese market offers certain benefits, such as the Portuguese people's commitment to high moral standards, which would… [read more]


Shores, Coasts, and Then Hinterlands Term Paper

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The laborers of Cidade Nova and those of the Morres de Rio established Samba as a common musical language, no longer limited just to those of the Condomble cultures. Samba was soon the natural flavor of Carnival music.

While Samba became the national musical language in Brazil itself, it also increased in rapid esteem outside of Brazil. In 1928, Parisian… [read more]


Venezuelan President Hugo Chavez, and His Staunch Term Paper

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¶ … Venezuelan President Hugo Chavez, and his staunch anti-American stance. Ultimately, the article is a statement of why Chavez will eventually fail, and fail his country, too.

Critically, this is a very interesting and well-written piece that concisely delves into Venezuela's current difficulties and why Chavez has become so outspoken against Americans and President Bush. It is interesting, and keeps the reader involved throughout the short article, because the writer consistently adds new information while weaving his own opinion clearly through the piece. He covers a very short history of Marxism but sums it up nicely, showing how concise some pieces of history can really be. It would not be surprising to someday see this article in an archive of Venezuelan history, especially after Chavez' fall, and from this article's common sense approach, it is clear the dictator will fall. Most do eventually, even if Castro has proved to be the exception. The writer makes Chavez'…… [read more]


Moved to Puerto Rico Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (786 words)
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The studies are often difficult, but they are also very rewarding, and medicine means so much to me that I do not want to jeopardize my learning by facing depression and heartache during my studies by remaining isolated in a foreign land. Unfortunately, I already feel that this is happening to me, and I see only one way of improving my situation, getting on with my schooling, and making myself feel whole again.

I am often sad now, and the prospect of spending four years of my life like this only makes that sadness much deeper. I am well aware that transfers are not often granted, but I humbly ask that you make an exception in my case. Medicine is what I have always wanted to be involved in, for as long as I can remember, and it is still something that I have a deep desire to do. What I learn during the next four years will lay the groundwork for a career that will be rewarding to both myself and my future patients, and I do not want anything to jeopardize that or cause me to fail. I also believe that my learning would be enhanced by the social support of familiar surroundings, family, and friends. Without these things I feel that I am somewhat lost and I have trouble completing even the simplest task because my despair over this matter is so great. I am hoping that I will be allowed to transfer and return to my home to complete my studies. I know that I can get through them and do well if I have the support of those that love and care for me, and if I can be near them so that they can help me when I feel down about my lost love or when I struggle with the work that I must do to get through the medical program. I am very dedicated to medicine, and will not turn away from it, but what I learn in the next four years would be greatly enhanced by happiness and the support of family. I hope that you will be able to approve my transfer and allow me to return home to continue my studies, and I thank you in advance for…… [read more]


Play-Within-the-Play: Developing a Cultural Understanding Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (1,829 words)
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"Prospero is a man who is contained and careful. He does not reveal himself to the audience. He can barely reveal himself to himself. He is controlled. His passion for revenge is not emotional but puritanical. " (Orgel 86)

The Spanish tragedy has an equal investment in revenge as revenge is the basis for the work, of coarse culminating within the play motif. "The hero of The Spanish Tragedy, Jeronimo, to bring about his revenge, has a play on the story of Soliman and Perseda performed," (Kyd xix) The older work represents the use of history and of the allegory in the dramatic period and once again reaffirms the transitional state of man, struggling between the right of the individual and the right of society.

So many things can change while the core of the human condition, based upon desires and fears remains largely the same. The loss of love, wealth and honor will forever plague the individual, not matter the social mores of the right personal response to betrayal of self or society. The works were written at a time of social upheaval, with war as a backdrop and loss and personal revenge as a very real forefront of the tragedy as a whole. Kyd and Shakespeare ask of their audience the right to influence them to gain greater knowledge of self and humanity through the literary tool of the play-within -- the play, leaving the viewer wondering about the influence of the binomial works upon their mind.

Works Cited

Coursen, H.R. The Tempest A Guide to the Play. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 2000.

Frankardolino. Apocalypse & Armada in Kyd's Spanish Tragedy. Kirksville, MO: Truman State University Press, 1995.

Kyd, Thomas. The Spanish Tragedy: A Play. Ed. J. Schick. London: J.M. Dent and Co., 1898.

Orgel, Stephen, ed. The Tempest. Oxford:…… [read more]


Adorno's Theories on Mass Culture Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (2,747 words)
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After it was brought back to Argentina, the middle class and upper middle class began to successfully practice it.

In this sense, we can enumerate some of the characteristics of tango in this period that make it similar to the characteristics of any other product on the market. First of all, it had a well defined segment of consumers to… [read more]


Public Administration Locomotive Parts Contract Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (632 words)
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The firm must understand that just because a subsidiary is currently facing financial challenges doesn't mean it qualifies for more work in this project. The subsidiary must have an impeccable past record and amazing performance to prove that its current financial situation is not because of its own inefficiency or poor performance but some other reasons led to financial crisis.

Apart from past performance, the firm also needs to evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of each subsidiary. For example if Argentina subsidiary is known for its quality electric parts but has received complaints about its wheel sets then it must be considered for the former only.

Conclusion/Recommendations

Worldwide can easily solve the allocation problem if it follows the recommendations given below:

Worldwide must first ask all the subsidiaries to submit their financial data and their performance records.

The firm should also carefully evaluate the weak areas and discuss the reasons with the subsidiaries.

Strengths of each subsidiary should be assessed properly.

Each subsidiary's current performance level must be checked to find out if it has the capacity to work on this major project or not with its current resources and expertise.

The work should be divided so that one area is completely handed over to one subsidiary so there are so major differences in quality or design. For example since American subsidiary has latest technology, it should be assigned the task of structure manufacturing. Argentina for example can handle electric components like Contactors, relays and switches etc. Spanish subsidiary can be assigned the task of manufacturing peripherals like wheel-sets, air brake components, worm gear, drive spring etc.

If work is assigned according to the capacity, potential and performance of each subsidiary then Worldwide can easily solve the problem and produce its best work. It will not have to compromise on quality or hurt its relationship with the subsidiaries.… [read more]


Angola Portugal Treated the People Term Paper

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They also wanted the product from our rich gold mines. Development of the interior began after the Berlin Conference in 1885 delineated the colony's borders, and European investment fostered mining, railways, and agriculture.

During the 1900s, the Portuguese continued to suppress African nationalism. When Antonio Salazar came into power in Portugal, he exploited our agricultural and mineral wealth by encouraging more countrymen to come to Angola to manage the mines and plantations. He also wrote and enforced strict labor laws.

After World War II, things became even worse, because our own people began to fight one another. The three most important liberation movements, the Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola (MPLA), the National Front for the Liberation of Angola (FNLA) and National Union for the Total Independence of Angola (UNITA) were divided among ethnic and political lines.

Even in 1975, when Portugal finally gave us our freedom, Civil War, as well as involvement by other nations such as the United States and USSR, killed millions of people. Everyone has wanted our offshore oil, but have not been willing to give us needed support services in return.

One of the books that best describes our horrible plight is called South of Nowhere by Antunes. As he noted, there have been so many countries and political factions involved with Angola that no one ever can tell the good guy from the bad. A paragraph from this book sums up this terrible world we have had:

Forbidden to fish and hunt, dispossessed, hemmed in by barbed-wire fences and fed handouts of dried fish, spied on by the PIDE, tyrannized by the black bodyguards of the officers, the tribesmen fled to the bush, where the MPLA, the movement for the liberation of Angola, our invisible enemy, was hiding, forcing us to fight a hallucinatory war. With every wound from an ambush or a mine, the same distressing question occurred to me [...]: Who is killing us? The guerillas or Lisbon - Lisbon, the Americans, the Russians, the Chinese, the whole *****ing lot?"

Is it no wonder that the main character of South of Nowhere cannot sleep, is drinking himself to death and cannot love anyone including himself because of the atrocities he has seen by humans on all sides of this war?

A ceasefire and peace accord went into effect in 1991 and lead to elections, which the UN declared as free and fair in 1992. The MPLA won control of the parliament in those elections, but the presidential vote was so close that a runoff was needed. UNITA would not accept the results of the elections and returned to war. The worst fighting of the 22-year civil war was between November 1992 and November 1994. A fragile ceasefire signed in November 1994 is still precariously in effect. We all hope that someday our country will go back to its peaceful days of long ago.

References

Antunes, Anonio Lobo. South of NoWhere. New York: Random House, 1983.

Bender, Gerald. Angola under…… [read more]


Spanish History Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (2,130 words)
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S.S.R. And yet it comes as a surprise each time it occurs. We as general students of the present believe that the arbitrary divisions of borders are as fixed as they are to the paper on which the map is printed. Yet, this is clearly not the case. Though each regional area in Spain that demands greater self-efficacy and recognizes themselves as different from the whole is probably better served economically and politically by a continued union with Spain the history of the violence and chaos that has been inflicted upon them serves as a constant reminder that they are what most would call second class citizens in their own homelands.

The challenges that Spain has overcome, historically are often associated with the various factional cultures within the nation, yet recently it has become more competitive within the European Union and also was one of the first group of countries to help in the launch of the 1999 European Currency known as the Euro. The challenged economic climate, that recovered only after years of work post the civil war is still precarious and a factional war among the homogenous population and the cultural minorities would clearly create a large crack in the Spanish position among the elite of the European countries.

Works Cited

Astrain, Luis Nui±ez. The Basques: Their Struggle for Independence. Cardiff, Wales: Welsh Academic Press, 1997.

Fine, Elizabeth C. And Jean Speer Haskell, eds. Performance, Culture, and Identity. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers, 1992.

Hakli, Jouni The Politics of Belonging: Complexities of Identity in the Catalan

Borderlands Department of Regional Studies and Environmental Policy,

Finland retrieved April 10, 2004 at: http://www.ut.ee/SOPL/english/border/jh.htm.

Kagay, Donald J. The Usatges of Barcelona: The Fundamental Law of Catalonia.

Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1994.

Languages of Spain retrieved April 12, 2004 at http://www.ethnologue.com/show_map.asp?name=Spain&seq=1.

Polk, William R. Neighbors & Strangers: The Fundamentals of Foreign Affairs. Chicago: University Of Chicago Press, 1997.

Shafir, Gershon. Immigrants and Nationalists: Ethnic Conflict and Accommodation in Catalonia, the Basque Country, Latvia, and Estonia. Albany: State University of New York, 1995.

Shneidman, J. Lee. The Rise of the Aragonese-Catalan Empire, 1200-1350. Vol.

New York: New York University Press, 1970.

La vos de Asturias Retrieved April 10, 2004 at http://translate.google.com/translate?hl=en&sl=es&u=http://www.lavozdeasturias.com/&prev=/search%3Fq%3Dasturias%26hl%3Den%26lr%3D%26ie%3DUTF-8%26oe%3DUTF-8.

Languages of Spain http://www.ethnologue.com/show_map.asp?name=Spain&seq=1

Gershon Shafir, Immigrants and Nationalists: Ethnic Conflict and Accommodation in Catalonia, the Basque Country, Latvia, and Estonia (Albany: State University of New York, 1995), 25.

GuruNet Questia Edition

Donald J. Kagay, The Usatges of Barcelona: The Fundamental Law of Catalonia (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1994), 5.

Jouni Hakli, The Politics of Belonging: Complexities of Identity in the Catalan Borderlands Department of Regional Studies and Environmental Policy, Finland at http://www.ut.ee/SOPL/english/border/jh.htm.

William R. Polk, Neighbors & Strangers: The Fundamentals of Foreign Affairs (Chicago: University Of Chicago Press, 1997), 299.

La vos de Asturias

http://translate.google.com/translate?hl=en&sl=es&u=http://www.lavozdeasturias.com/&prev=/search%3Fq%3Dasturias%26hl%3Den%26lr%3D%26ie%3DUTF-8%26oe%3DUTF-8 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=27420355

Elizabeth C. Fine and Jean Speer Haskell, eds., Performance, Culture, and Identity (Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers, 1992) 182.

A www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=97675960

Luis Nunez Astrain, The Basques: Their Struggle for Independence (Cardiff, Wales: Welsh Academic Press,… [read more]


Colonization of the Philippines Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,631 words)
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S. The initial desire to colonize the Philippines was described as a means to thwart oppressive Spanish rule, but the U.S. profited by joining with the Philippines in free trade, enjoying military advantages of installation procurement in an Asian country, expanding into the Asian markets, spreading Christianity, and demonstrating itself as a major national power. Political pressures eventually led the U.S. To grant political independence to the Philippines in 1946, but with the request for free military space and equal commercial rights as the Filipinos, maintaining the U.S. demonstration of self-interest in the region.

While the colonization of the Philippines could be considered imperialistic, the altruistic values did prove to benefit the Filipinos. Like their European counterparts such as the Dutch, the U.S. pursuit of expansion into Asian territories promised to be profitable socially, economically, and militarily. While the U.S. did benefit in these areas, the Filipino experience was two-fold: they suffered from war but were given the opportunity to develop a modern government that built the framework of a future state of autonomy. Today, Filipino's have successful educational, communication, transportation, agricultural, and political systems, and actively engage in the Asian markets. The U.S. presence, whether altruistic or imperialistic, did have a positive impact on the overall welfare of the Philippine nation.

Bibliography

Reyes JM & Perez RS. "An Online Guide About the Philippine History." American Era. Retrieved 23 Feb. 2004. http://www.geocities.com/CollegePark/Pool/1644 / americanera.html

Siler MJ. "U.S. / Philippine Economic and Trading Relations in the Post-Cold War Period."

ASPAC Regional Conference. June 1997. Dept. Political Science, California State University, Los Angeles. Retrieved 23 Feb. 2004. http://mcel.pacificu.edu/aspac/

Aspac%20%C6%92/Aspac/scholars/Siler/siler.html

The Philippine-American War: 1899-1902." Filipino-Americans.com. 2001. Retrieved 23 Feb. 2004. http://www.filipino-americans.com/cgi-bin/redirect.cgi?url=filamwar.html

The Rise of Imperialism in the Netherlands." Netherlands' History. 1998. Retrieved 23 Feb. 2004. http://www.geocities.com/Athens/Academy/9601/HollandImper.htm… [read more]


Walked Out One Midsummer Morning Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (405 words)
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It is clear he had fallen in love with the people and the country.

The writing in this book is quite beautiful and poetic, and Lee can make the reader really see what he was seeing. The cities where he traveled have certainly changed since he visited them, but the way he writes about them, it makes the reader want to see them when he saw them in the 1930s - unspoiled and not crowded. Lee wrote about his time in Spain as a story about a young man who was trying to find himself, and who turned into a man as he traveled around this foreign country. He learned that the perfect countryside still faced problems, and the people had to stand up against a frightening dictator. Laurie Lee grew up in Spain, and his story makes his time there still seem real today.

References

Lee, Laurie. As I Walked Out One Midsummer…… [read more]


Spain and Portugal Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (994 words)
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To overcome this problem, Henry introduced the magnetic compass to his sailors. The magnetic compass was actually invented by the Chinese long before, but Henry made it "popular," so to speak. A magnetic compass works as follows: A piece of naturally occurring magnetite (usually in the form of a lodestone) is attached to one end of a wooden stick and floated in a pool of water. The magnetized stick will orient itself to Earth's magnetic field, rotating until the end with the lodestone on it points north. "The magnetic compass, therefore, provided navigators with a fixed reference point regardless of their location, the boat's heading, the wind direction, or the state of visibility (Encarta)."

Another significant invention that Henry introduced to his sailors was the astrolabe. As with the magnetic compass, the astrolabe was not a brand new invention; the Greeks had used it long before the Portuguese did, but its effect on sailing was just as profound. An astrolabe measures the positions of heavenly bodies. A source (Encarta) describes the astrolabe as follows:

It consists of a circle or section of a circle, marked off in degrees, with a movable arm pivoted at the center of the circle. When the zero point on the circle has been oriented with the horizon, the altitude of any celestial object can be measured by sighting along the arm.

Henry didn't just introduce concepts attached with the science of sailing. Other changes were introduced to the actual design of ships and how they were sailed. One example of this is the caravel. A caravel is a ship that has broad bows (the forward part of a ship), a high narrow poop (an enclosed structure at the rear of a ship above the main deck), and three masts. The masts held another significant invention: the square sail. The design of the caravels made them fast and agile, and the square sails meant that the ships could be sailed deeply into the wind without losing speed. Caravels were suitable for coastal as well as ocean travel and could even be rowed, if necessary.

Prince Henry may not have actually gone on any of the voyages that he sent his sailors on, but he wasn't called "The Navigator" for nothing. Henry used his finances, his position, and his power to create not just a sailing power in the world, but a power to be reckoned with. Spain, upon seeing Portugal's success, soon funded an expedition of their own: a Portuguese sailor by the name of Christopher Columbus.

Bibliography

European Age of Exploration and Early Empires. 2003. .

Microsoft® Encarta® Online Encyclopedia 2003. © 1997-2003 Microsoft Corporation. .

Pickering, Keith A. "Columbus and Dead Reckoning Navigation." 2000. .

The Mariner's Museum. Newport News. 1997. .… [read more]


Eyes of the Heart: Seeking Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,590 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

SAMPLE TEXT:

As Aristide notes, "As once a person tastes the salt, she will never willingly be a slave again."

Chapter eight, "Material Questions, Theological Answers?" talks of God, of faith, and how they all play a part in the success of a country and its people. Aristide believes faith is the bedrock of civilization, and of the success of society. A majority of Haitians have this faith, and so Aristide believes they have a solid foundation to build a great society.

Finally, the last chapter, "The Challenge of 2004" sums up this book which takes a long look at the politics, economy, and social climate of Haiti. Aristide realizes there are many challenges facing his country, but he also believes part of the challenge rests on the rest of the world. He writes, "Part of this challenge involves dramatically changing global spending priorities, which are so grotesquely skewed. It is estimated that only 10% of development aid goes towards meeting primary human needs (education, health care, clean water, and sanitation).

Clearly, Haiti must change, but so must the world. We must change the way we see others, and it will change the way we see ourselves.

Bibliography

Aristide, Jean-Bertrand. 2000. Eyes of the heart: Seeking a path for the poor in the age of globalization. Monroe, ME: Common Courage Press.

Profile of H.E. Mr. Jean-Bertrand Aristide. [online]. 2003. Washington D.C.: The Embassy of the Republic of Haiti; available at http://www.haiti.org/aristide-bio.htm;Internet, accessed 13 May 2003.

Aristide, Jean-Bertrand. 2000. Eyes of the heart: Seeking a path for the…… [read more]


Change One's Life. They Happen Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (1,004 words)
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After a few months, everything turned out well. I was getting along great in the United States. Miami was a great city to learn about and grow in. My senior year in high school in Miami was much easier than the year before. I knew my surroundings and I knew people and also made friends. I accomplished so much in this year. My hard work was starting to pay off. As a matter of fact, I received several awards. During my senior year I won the Excellence in ESOL Award (Southwest Senior High School). I also received a scholarship for 2 years of full tuition to Miami-Dade Community College. I received this award for being in the top 20% of my senior class. This was a great award for me to get. It helped me tremendously. It was rewarding for me to get this because I got this in only 2 years of being at this particular high school. To top this all off, I met my fiancee at this high school.

These two events affected my life in various ways. Certain times were hard and certain times were very sweet to know that I got through them with hard work and perseverance. If I had the chance to go back and do it all over again I would more than likely do the very same things. I do regret that my mother and father were divorced. This really hurt. Me moving taught me that you have to adapt and you have to learn new things and meet new people. Me moving to all these places opened up my mind and taught me to see things in a new light. I was truly blessed throughout the whole ordeal. At times, I thought that there was no way out of the tough situations. However, with faith and from help with my family, I got through all the tough times. It was definitely something that I did not do alone. I had help from friends. Some were old friends and some were new friends. I had help from my parents and also from my grandmother. She really was a major source of inspiration to me. She was very special in my life. She always was there for me during these tough and crazy times. Without her I doubt I would have been able to handle the trials and tribulations of the moves and transitions. Whenever I needed help she was there. These events made my life better and made me stronger. I am glad that they took place and I am very happy the way my life turned out. I wouldn't change it for anything in this world. The whole experience has made me think about life and why things happen the way they do. It is amazing to think back and look at how these events have changed me and my views on life. It really makes me smile when I think about where I came from and where I have… [read more]


Goya: Man and Myth Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,160 words)
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..his children, by crushing free thought and turning back the clock. And Saturn is also like Goya himself, who in choosing to depict the horrors of the regime, cuts himself off from his patrons and from his world. He devours his own children -- the successful career he has built up at the Spanish court. In his last years in exile in France, Goya is like a man cut off from his family. He is Saturn destroying his offspring to save himself.

Saturn is a far cry from the dreams of Goya's youth. The myths that sustained them seem lost in another time and place. The bright colors and soft forms of The Parasol speak to a world of simple pleasures and few cares. It is the never-changing world of the Spanish aristocracy. The bright yellow of the girl's dress, the blue of her bodice, are warm and gentle colors that give to the scene a luminous quality. The girl is the focus of the picture, the center of her world. With arm outstretched, and an enigmatic yet inviting expression, she welcomes the viewer into the scene. This combination of mystery and invitation is created by Goya's careful use of light and shadow. Just as in Saturn, he employs light to represent or conceal emotion. The girl's face and arm are shaded by the parasol held by the young man. Are they lovers out for a pleasant afternoon? Or, is the young man a gallant squire holding an umbrella over his queen? We do not know. But then this is all a part of the game...the myth of courtly society. While the two figures themselves are carefully delineated, the background is vague and indistinct -- a tree behind the young man, a rough splash of green beyond. Nature is but a prop, a stage set to be changed at will. The King, the Queen, all of Goya's royal and noble patrons are actors in a drama of their own creation. Yet even here in this idyllic scene, there is a certain foreboding. The dark, almost formless wall to the girl's left is strangely ominous. (Buchholz p.21) She seems to point towards it. Is it an obstacle? Is there something on the other side of that wall that threatens to intrude on this sunlit world? Perhaps even then, Goya saw that the aristocracy lived in a place cut off, or maybe he is telling us of his own demons lurking somewhere beyond that wall, beyond the wall we all erect to separate our inner selves from the selves we wish to project. Even in the realm of light, the dark passions of Saturn are never far behind.

Goya's fascination with the interplay of myth and reality appeared early in his work. He was a great lover of children and often depicted their play. (Buchholz p.32) Of course children's games are often reflections of the adult world. In Children's Games rough-clad peasant children romp and play at being adults. They are soldiers… [read more]


Silvio A. Bedini's Book Term Paper

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Bedini expertly interlaces an enthralling account of Portugal's ambitious political and economic investments in the early 1500s with reports of the dazzling cultural ambience of Rome under Pope Leo X. Amid this cultural ambience in Rome, Hanno is transformed into a glorified circus-performer (conditioned to genuflect, dance, cry and trumpet at will). The elephant fronted processions and partook in carnivals, amongst old ruins and Renaissance pageantry. Hanno even had his portrait painted by Raphael, finally dying of constipation in 1516. On a positive note, Hanno likeness echoes through Renaissance-European art we can appreciate today. (Rowland, 1999, http://www.britannica.com/magazine/print-content_id=237957)

However, Leo X ignored the hidden intentions of King Manuel and persisted in throwing his money away on celebrations, festivals and concerts in Rome rather than funding Portuguese troops. Inevitably, the money gradually trickled away. Also, by 1517, Martin Luther was posing more of a threat to Pope Leo's Papacy than the Moors. Martin Luther spoke against the apparent excess and privilege enjoyed by the Papacy. When Pope Leo and King Manuel died in 1521, their deaths heralded the end of the "Golden Age." Manuel's Golden Age was one of discovery and colonialism and Leo's was one of Renaissance-inspired culture, a giddy backdrop in which Catholic fervour and contemporary technology merged with scientific inquisitiveness and sophisticated culture to create a bizarre and exceptional concoction. (Rowland, 1999, http://www.britannica.com/magazine/print-content_id=237957) While Hanno manifests the link between these two leaders, the pachyderm also embodies the greed and intended collusion on the part of the Portuguese king as well as the greed, power and authority of Pope Leo X.

In the book, Hanno symbolizes anything and everything of the period. Just to name a few, Hanno is the symbol of the East finally opening up to the West in all its exotic strangeness. Hanno is also an icon of the golden age and everything of marvel. The symbolism of Hanno is even manifested in the similarity of appearance between Leo and the elephant. Pope Leo developed a comical resemblance to his favorite pet; both were quite big and endured bouts of constipation. "Immediately upon the elephant's arrival in Rome, it became the particular pet of the pope, and the papal court, and of the people of Rome as well. The pontiff often visited the elephant in its enclosure, intrigued by the young beast, and its playful antics never ceased to delight him. It must also have amused those bystanders who observed the ungainly, corpulent, nearsighted pontiff clumsily playing with the equally rotund pachyderm." (Bedini, 2000, p.78)

Leo's profound affection for Hanno, as portrayed in Bedini's book "The Pope's Elephant" successfully depicted the greatness of his position as well as the frailty of the man. As Hanno became the centerpiece of Leo's menagerie of gifts of the animal variety, he also became the centerpiece of Leo's world, surrounded by Leo's opulence and power. Inevitably, Hanno became the symbol for how both factors were exercised, providing a great deal of insight into the corruption, lavish wastage and power Pope Leo… [read more]