Study "Law / Legal / Jurisprudence" Essays 56-110

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Forensic Psychologist's Legal Responsibilities and Rights Research Paper

… Legal Rights and Responsibilities in Forensic Psychology

The forensic field has expanded and broadened during the last fifty years or so. Since forensic psychology differs from conventional psychology, special attention has been given in developing ethical and legal rights and… [read more]

Legal Issues in Cremation Annotated Research Paper

… ____. (2014). Burial Rights, Corpse. Retrieved

This resource is useful in that it sums up common law and statute in general for issues related to the burial, particularly for situations involving negligence of some kind. For instance, it is a misdemeanor to possess a body and refuse or neglect to bury of dispose of a corpse indecently. Permitting a body to be taken from a person who agrees to properly bury a corpse subjects that person to lawsuit. At common law, and often under state statute, it is an offense to neglect to bury or cremate a body within a reasonable period of time after death. Putting several corpses in the same crematorium during a single burn cycle. Results in the commingling of ashes, which is viewed as an act that undermines the respect due a dead person.

Morton v. Maricopa County, 865 P.2d 808 (Ariz App. 1993).


When the remains of a murder victim were incinerated due to space needs, the victim's parents had cause of action against medical examiner, as they had a statutory right to receive body for interment or cremation. This legal summary is useful because it points to the duty of care of the medical examiner, and of workers at the crematoria.

Goldwasser, J.W. (Rabbi (2014). How can a Jewish cemetery permit the burial of cremated ashes on sacred ground?

This is an informative article on cremation under Jewish law. Most traditional authorities forbid the burial of ashes in a Jewish cemetery because it encourages the practice of cremation. Some traditional authorities do allow ashes to be interned because to deny burial would itself be a violation of the command to bury.

[Type text] [read more]

Wills Can Be Invalidated Essay

… ¶ … WILLS can be invalidated using Florida case law.

Invalidating a WILL using Florida Law

The primary objective of this analysis is to establish the ways of invalidating wills, or trust documents as outlined by the Florida case law.… [read more]

Ethics and the Law Term Paper

… It has some of the best businesses, and an eager crop on entrepreneurs. It has the best hospitals and some of the most efficient production faculties in the world. These benefits are not infinite, nor are they permanent. America must… [read more]

Contract Law in Modern Society Term Paper

… This is because these agreements are enforceable for a specific length of time. It is dependent upon both parties fulfilling their obligations. When this happens, it means that they are compelled to meet these conditions. For some people, this is challenging, with their lives are constantly changing. As a result, they need to consider the impact it will have on them and if this is something they are prepared to follow. (Easton, 2007) (Andrews, 2011) (McKendrick, 2012)

Identify ethical issues that exist in your example, if any. If your scenario did not present any ethical issues, provide support to indicate this.

In a life insurance contract there are several ethical issues. For instance, the insured is having their beneficiaries receive a monetary benefit when something happens to them. This is problematic, as the basic concept is enabling them to take advantage of the death of the policy owner. Yet, at the same time, it is also providing the beneficiaries with protection against this kind of uncertainty. In this case, a moral challenge exists, based upon the financial reward from the unexpected death of the policy owner by the beneficiary. While at the same time, the insurance company will realize a profit due to the premiums that were paid each year for coverage. (Easton, 2007) (Andrews, 2011) (McKendrick, 2012)


Clearly, contracts are used to provide some kind of guarantee from one party to the other. It is based upon each side's ability to meet these obligations under specific circumstances. As a result, this is something that they must consider, to determine the other party's capacity to follow these provisions and if this is an agreement they willing to enter into.


Andrews, N. (2011). Contract Law. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.… [read more]

Business Law in 1960 Essay

… The legal bias in this case was the court ruled that the first and fourteen amendments usually require a public official who is suing for defamation to prove that the defamatory comments alleged were made with actual malice (, 2009). This means that with knowledge that it was not true or with reckless disregard of whether it was not true or true. Otherwise the reasoning of the court was that public debates on issues of importance would be made less. Citizens have the right to criticize officials holding public offices. This is without any protection provided for errors arising from public debates; people will get engaged in self-censorship as opposed to speaking out important public issues as they will fear of getting a libel suit.Therefore when this case is considered against a background of profound national commitment to the principle that any debate on public issues should wide-open, robust and uninhibited and that It might include sharp attacks on public officials and government.

Supreme Court of the United States

Chief Justice; John Roberts

Associate judges by order of seniority

1. Antonin Scalia

2. Anthony Kennedy

3. Clarence Thomas

4. Ruth Bader Ginsburg

5. Stephen Breyer

6. Samuel Alito

7. Sonia Sotomayor

8. Elena Kagan

Retired Associate Justices

a. John Paul Stevens

b. Sandra Day O'Connor

c. David Souter

New York Court of Appeals

The Chief Judge; Jonathan Lippman

The Associate Judges of the

1. Victoria A.Graffeo

2. Susan Phillips Read

3. Robert S. Smith

4. Eugene F.Pigott Jr.

5. Jenny Rivera

6. Sheila Abdus-Salaam


Pearson Education. (2013). Current U.S. Supreme Court Members. Retrieved September 16, 2013 from

Hall, K. L & Urofsky, M.I.(2011). New York Times v. Sullivan. Retrieved September 16, 2013 from The New York Times v. Sullivan "Actual Malice" Rule. Retrieved September 16, 2013 from [read more]

Volition and Contract Law Research Paper

… Such a person is still under the jurisdiction and care of the guardian, and as such, they may not commit to any action or event that makes them liable for their personal actions. The legal writings refer to the persons… [read more]

Law Tradition Essay


What is the importance of precedent to the judicial decision-making process?

An example of how common law crept into civil law (through precedent) in the United States, the Berkeley article mentions the 1925 Supreme Court case, United States v. Robbins. In that case the concept of "community property" was first adjudicated by the High Court, and the decision was rendered based on precedent from the "…legal customs of Visigothic Spain," which dates all the way back to the fifth century CE ( So California inherited its current law on community property based not on English common law, but on precedents going back thousands of years.

What are equitable and legal remedies? What's the difference?

According to, a legal remedy means the plaintiff -- after arguing his or her case before the court -- seeks compensation for losses. And if the plaintiff wins the case, the judge typically awards "damages" to the plaintiff to reimburse him or her for injury or loss ( In equitable claims, the plaintiff is usually asking for "relief" from certain actions; the plaintiff may be asking the court for an "injunction" preventing the party being sued to refrain from "…doing a certain act." A city council may re-zone an area of the city for adult entertainment but the neighbors may bring litigation asking for an equitable claim -- preventing the city from going through with the rezoning. So the difference is: in legal remedies, the court normally awards in the form of monetary compensation; but in equitable claims the court may order someone or a business to cease what it is doing.

Works Cited (2009). What is the Difference Between a Legal and Equitable Claim? Retrieved

May 12, 2013, from

University of California / Berkeley. (2010). The Common Law and Civil Law Traditions.

Retrieved May 12, 2013, from [read more]

Effects of World Trade Organizations Dispute Settlement System on International Law Research Paper

… WTO Law

WTO and International Law Qs

The World Trade Organization impacts international law in both direct and indirect manners, and strangely it provides strength to international law even in ways that might on the surface appear to weaken it. First, and most directly, the WTO is far more centralized than most other bodies and systems of international law, which adds a great deal of strength to the legal workings of the international community within the WTO (Pauwelyn, 2001). The rules and hierarchies established by the WTO provide clear guidance with direct and transparent means for appeal and redressing grievances, making the organization a far more effective, decisive, and objective body for international arbitration and rule-setting than other international and/or intergovernmental organizations (Pauwelyn, 2001; Pauwelyn, 2003). This has ked to a direct strengthening of international law, as all areas governed by the WTO (though this governance is not sovereign or exclusive) have a centralized authority they can appeal to which wields direct, even, and transparent power in settling disputes and setting rules (Pauwelyn, 2001; Pauwelyn, 2003).

At the same time, the strength of the WTO -- which is, ultimately, a non-governmental body -- could be seen as delegitimizing both international and national governments. An inspection of the WTO's own governing rules belies this notion, however; the construction and wording of the various articles shows the clear deference to international law embedded in the very fabric of the WTO (Pauwelyn, 2003). In this manner, the WTO adds legitimacy to existing governments and intergovernmental partnerships and unions, further strengthening international law by lending its support to bodies of international law and the various organizations that determine and enforce international agreements conduct between nations.


It goes without saying that relationships between states will improve when there is a clear, established, authoritative, and effective body in place to handle disputes, set rules, and otherwise manage interstate relationships, and this is precisely what the WTO provides (Petersmann, 1997; Pauwelyn, 2001; Pauwelyn, 2003). The specific manner in which the WTO goes about influencing and assisting interstate relationships is another substantial strength of the organization, however, and the detailed dispute resolution process the WTO enforces covers all manner of violation-based disputes as well as non-violation-based complaints between states (Petersmann, 1997). Having a dedicated, specific, and detailed means of addressing and resolving conflicts greatly improves relationships between states not only through the concrete instances of dispute resolution but also by more effectively compartmentalizing issues of dispute (Petersmann, 1997). By providing an effective means for resolving trade-related disputes and conflicts, that is, the WTO helps to keep such issues from… [read more]

Tort Law and Trident Diving Term Paper

… In this instance, the materials used were less expensive and were of a lower quality as opposed to the materials used by competing diving equipment manufactures. The lower quality material and substandard craftsmanship employed by Trident's executive management resulted in a faulty product that could easily cause death to users through accidental drowning. Naturally, the manufacturer could defend these claims through proof of testing, proper warning labels and the company's overall due diligence, provided Trident actually engaged in these precautionary practices. However, they must maintain that they did use a reasonable standard of care when producing the product.

The most relevant consumer protection statute that relates to the above case is the Fair Packaging and Labeling Act of 1967, which was enacted to provide comprehensive federal regulation of product labeling procedures. This legislation directs the CPSC to issue regulatory statutes requiring that all consumer commodities disclose net contents, identity of commodity, and name and place of business of the product's manufacturer, packer, or distributor. In addition, the Act authorizes additional regulations when necessary to prevent cases of outright consumer deception. In the instance of the above recall, as the manufacturer of a product previously known to be faulty in its design and construction, Trident Diving Equipment must have in place adequate labeling in order to educate the consumer regarding the product's safety, where it came from, and its proper use and application. The justification for the strict labeling regulations mandated by the Act can be found in the CPSC's recall order. By informing the public of the danger posed by Triden's faulty hoses, the CPSC was able to provide a detailed description of the labeling on the hoses in question. By announcing that all scuba hoses with a label reading "Scuba Diving High Pressure hose I.D. 3/16 (4.76 mm) W.P. 5000 PSI Exceeds SAE 100RT braid with Kevlar fiber from Dupont" printed in white lettering on the hose's outer covering, the CPSC ensures that there can be no confusion regarding the product being recalled. Simply announcing that Trident scuba hoses have been recalled is an insufficient motivator of consumer action, because many thousands of divers own hoses and gear manufactured by Trident. By referencing this specific label, however, regulators can target only those consumers who may be diving with the specific make and model of hose known to leak. The nationwide recall of Trident Diving Equipment's line of faulty High-Pressure Scuba Diving Air Hoses demonstrates the effectiveness of the Fair Packaging and Labeling Act, which was enacted more than half a century ago.


CPSC. U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission, (2013). Trident diving equipment recalls high-pressure scuba diving air hoses due to drowning hazard (Recall date: APRIL 18, 2013 Recall number: 13-174). Retrieved from Government Printing Office website: Scuba-Diving-Air-Hoses/ [read more]

Statutory Interpretation Is Indeed Essay

… In this case, a greater amount of illumination was rained down on the Employment Rights Act and was done so in a way which better protected workers.

"Another important development with respect to statutory interpretation in the UK is to… [read more]

Law Term Paper

… Indiana v. Edwards, 554 U.S. 164 (2008), was a United States Supreme Court case which added to this precedent where the Court rules that the standard for competency to stand trial was not linked to the standard for competency to represent oneself.

Edwards suffers from schizophrenia and tried to steal a pair of shoes from a store. In defending himself he shot and wounded an innocent bystander. In 2000, he was deemed not competent to stand trial and was hospitalized. In 2002, his lawyers asked for another competency evaluation and in June 2005, Edwards finally stood trial. He asked for the right to represent himself, and this originally refused, was ultimately agreed with the U.S. Supreme Court dividing between issue of competency to stand trial and issue of competency to represent oneself. (Indiana v. Edwards | The Oyez Project at IIT Chicago-Kent College )

Procedural laws deal with the way that criminal laws (or laws in general) are carried out. Substantive laws deal with discussion of the substance of the law, such as in criminal law, discussion of how well rules deter, rehabilitate, or exact retribution.

A case involving a substantive criminal law issue is that of the 1970s case where they arrested Soliah who belonged to the Symbionese Liberation Army, a radical San Francisco group that kidnapped Patricia Hearst and tried to kill government officials. The case involves the controversial Alford pleas issues where defendants are allowed to plead guilty while simultaneously protesting their innocence

Soliah had changed her name to Sara Jane Olson, and her court procedure turned out to messy with some judges in some states allowing the nolo contendere plea (which is where individual may refuse to admit guilt but accept punishment as if guilty). And judges in other states allowing her to use the Alford system. In each case, the outcome was different and judges were confused finally prescribing her psychologically incompetent to stand trial. It was only then that Soliah admitted and announced that she was sorry for hurting others.

This case, bringing us back to the beginning, shows how the entire criminal justice system is premised on the legal recognition / theory that people are responsible for their acts and that, consequently, they cannot be penalized until they stand trial for their actions. The Edwards procedural act shows the debate on when a person is competent to reason for himself. The substantive case highlights the controversy of indeterminate sentencing where the statutory laws fall short and conviction finally depended on discretion of individual judge. In Soliah's case, law of Alfred varied from state to state.

Understanding of the statutory and case law is important to a criminal justice professional since it helps us see how the two are related and helps us better understand the reasons for specific cases and the history behind certain criminal justice actions.


Cliff's Notes Sentencing Statutes and Guidelines,articleId-10042.html

Schlatz, B. Classical Theories in Criminal Justice

Indiana v. Edwards | The Oyez Project at IIT Chicago-Kent… [read more]

Constitutionality of a Postcard-Only Mail Essay

… Despite the lack of challenge to this policy, Judge Simon felt compelled to note that issues of Prison Legal News and a child's report card could not be considered disruptive. Regarding easy alternatives to a restrictive mail policy, Judge Simon… [read more]

Legislative Ethical and Legal Regulatory Compliance Term Paper

… Computer Science

Legislative, Ethical, and Legal Regulatory Compliance

Personal identifying information is frequently gathered by businesses and governments and is stored in a variety of formats such as digital and paper. Protecting this data has become a mounting issue for… [read more]

Antitrust Laws Are Case Study

… Such competitors allocate specific customers, product, or territories among themselves. Competitors may decide to sell to, or bid on contracts let by certain customers. Such competitors will not be expected to sell to, or bid contracts let by customers allocated to other competitors. Under certain circumstances, competitors can agree to sell only to customers that come from specific geographic locations and deliberately refuse to sell or quote exorbitant prices to customers that come from locations where their conspirator companies are situated (Anonymous, 2010).

Decisions that are made before court of law regarding whether a business organization has violated federal antitrust laws, four elements have to be taken into consideration namely: an agreement to concerted action, unreasonable restraint of trade by the agreement, interstate trade restraint, and a show of general intent. The court has to prove that the competitors actually conspired to unreasonably restraint trade. All that the courts want to establish is that there was some illegal agreement between the competitors to restraint trade. Courts hold competitors liable for having engaged in restraint of trade when they knowingly create monopoly, artificially maintain prices, restrict output, refuse to deal, or interfere with free play of market forces. The courts rely on three analytical approaches namely "per se" rule, "rule reason," and the intermediate "quick look" to determine whether an activity constitute an unreasonable restraint of trade (Lechter, Posner & Morris, 2002).

Intermediate quick look rule is at times abbreviated rule of reason standard. Quick look analysis is only applicable in agreements that are naked restrictions but having pro-competitive justifications. After the courts have established existence of a restriction the onus shifts to the defendant to assert pro-competitive justifications. After successful rebuttal of the presumption of anti-competitive effects by the defendant, the court then applies the rule of reason analysis to balance the costs of the restraint of trade against its benefits. Quick look analysis just like per se analysis heavily relies on the experience of the court. Courts that try antitrust law violators must have jurisdiction under the Act. Violators can only be charged if their activities stand to affect interstate commerce (Lechter, Posner & Morris, 2002). The activities of the competitors must involve a substantial volume of interstate activity. The activity has to also be an essential part of transaction. A defendant is found to be criminally liable for anti-trust violation if there is an agreement and that the defendant knowingly entered into the alleged conspiracy. This calls for no further inquiry to prove intent (Lechter, Posner & Morris, 2002).

Selling gasoline for less than cost does violate Sales-Below-Cost (SBC) laws that seek to protect small independent firms from predation by larger firms. Such an activity violates SBC laws because it injures other competitors as well as destroying competition. After rival companies have been driven out of business and potential entrants scared away, the company that lowered the gasoline prices below its costs will definitely raise the price of the gasoline to recoup the losses it initially incurred. This… [read more]

Corporate Civil Procedure and Constitutional Law Term Paper

… Gilbert Law Summaries: Constitutional Law by Jesse Choper

The United States Constitution is the foremost legal authority for laws created in the United States. Though the Constitution is a federal document, it applies to all laws at every level in… [read more]

Hotel Sent the Security Guard Research Paper

… The court also found that the security staff had legal justification to detain the defendant for purposes of investigating the incident.

The presiding judge found that the plaintiff, Borgata, under the facts and circumstances of this case, owed no duty of care to the defendant. Moreover, the judge found a preponderance of the evidence clearly indicated that the plaintiff, Shannon Niland was subjected to non-consensual touching, and the defendant himself confirmed that. The judge further rejected the defendant's claim of negligence in failing to make a complete investigation before taking action. In addition, the presiding judge rejected Michael's claims of invasion of privacy by Borgata.

In conclusion, this case presents many factual disputes including the defendant's detention and his alleged touching of Ms. Niland. In essence, the judge's decision was in order .The statements of Ms. Niland to her co-employees were not actionable and hotel and that the security officers acted appropriately in response to Ms. Niland's report.

Defendants Actions

In Gonzalez's case, by having an altercation with the officers, he was handcuffed and arrested for criminal mischief as well as resisting arrest. Prior to this, he had failed to answer his hotel door after the hotel staff heard some commotion, which caused the police to take action. Once the police officers forcefully broke into Gonzalez's room, he became aggressive. Thus, the police officers had probable cause to arrest Gonzalez.

In the second case, regarding the defendants' claim of Intentional Infliction of Emotional Distress (IIED), the judge granted summary judgment partly because none of the plaintiffs had committed any intentional outrageous conduct. The plaintiff, Ms. Niland, was entitled to judgment as a matter of law on the defendant's false arrest and false imprisonment claims. The hotel's security staff had legal justification to detain the defendant for purposes of investigating the complaint of the plaintiff, non-consensual touching by the defendant.

Court Ruling

In both cases, no sufficient evidence was presented and this, largely, influenced the judges' decisions. In addition to this, especially in the first case, there was no legal basis for a criminal offence. Gonzalez had done nothing wrong other than resisting arrest, which was as a result of the police breaking into his room. In the second case, Niland seemed to have influenced her colleagues. She had no burden of proof; however, Michael presented a strong case against her.

Defendant Actions

The motivation behind both defendants action prior to arrest is unclear. However, during their encounter with the police, there could be some deduction. In the Gonzalez case, it appears as though, he least expected the police to break into his room. In addition, evidence suggests that there were broken beer bottles. The conclusion could be that he was caught unawares and most likely after a few drinks. The police action further provoked him to act that way. In the second case, the defendant most likely acted that way out of the belief that he was innocent and that he had been wrongly accused.

The only action from both… [read more]

Hla Hart and Modern Legal Case Study

… Austin said that the coincidence between the law that is and the law that ought to be happens so often that people get confused and believe that law and morality are connected. Austin also said that there is human law and there is divine law and that if a human law conflicts with divine law, then the human law is not really a law and does not need to be obeyed. Austin believed that divine law was shown in utilitarian principles, which were about liberalism, reform and control of power. Using the example of the master's rights over his slaves, the rule of law that gives the master rights over his slaves conflicts with divine law (that we know by Utilitarian principles) and therefore it is not really a law and does not have to be obeyed. Bentham said basically the same thing with two large differences: Bentham used "utility" instead of God or the divine law; and Bentham believed that even a supreme legislative power can be legally restrained by a Constitution.

Hart seems to admire the simplicity of Austin and Bentham. For example, Hart mentions that Bentham claims that the issue in question is not whether slaves can reason but simply whether they suffer. In this way, Bentham does not fall into the trap of talking about the issue of whether a slave is naturally meant to serve other people. Even so, Hart criticizes Austin and Bentham because they are so severe about separating the law that is from the law that ought to be. Hart says that sometimes there is an intersection between laws and morals. Hart also criticizes their belief that law is essentially a command from a sovereign that is habitually obeyed because they can command obedience but do not need to obey. Hart says that the law does not work that way: legislators do not hold office long enough to be habitually obeyed sovereigns; and the laws passed by the legislature must still obey fundamental rules.

3. Conclusion

H.L.A. Hart is a famous legal thinker who examined Positivism and Utilitarianism. Hart is noted for thoughts that modernized the thinking of positivists and specifically utilitarians. The key concept of "Positivism and the Separation of Law and Morals" is that sometimes law intersects with morality. For example, until people become like giant land crabs with shells that cannot be penetrated and who can get their food from the air and not be harmed by others, there must be laws against violence and setting basic property rights. Hart believes that those laws "intersect" with morality and every legal system has laws like that. Hart believes that the old positivists, who saw law that is completely separate from law that ought to be, were mistaken.

Hart also specifically examined the Utilitarianism of Austin and Bentham. Austin and Bentham were both Utilitarians. They believed in no connection between the law that is and the law that ought to be and that it is only a coincidence if legal rights… [read more]

Law and Society the Nature Term Paper

… Same-sex adoption is a matter of civic and possibly constitutional but not criminal law.

Social Control and Social Change -- Abortion

Abortion is one of those issues that is clearly related to social control, but which is rarely framed that way. The presentation raises the important question of "Should a parent be able to force a child to have an abortion?" Yet the presentation did not present the converse question, which is just as important if not more so: "Should a parent be able to prevent a child from having an abortion?" The answer to the latter question is more important because some states do have restrictions on abortion; some teenagers need parental consent. If the parents are opposed to abortion, they are essentially forcing their child to carry an unwanted child to term. An unwanted teen pregnancy dramatically alters a person's life in terms of access to education and career. Because the issue impacts females more than males, abortion is a matter of patriarchal social control of women: perpetuating the problems that plague women such as income disparity with men and other injustices. Changes to abortion law have led to social changes, and have also reflected those social changes.

The Law and Diversity -- Sharia Law

It is easy to take for granted the supremacy of one's own legal system. In fact, each country has a unique legal system that works in accordance with its political institutions, infrastructures, and social norms. Most modern and industrialized nations have a similar style of legal system, in which a suspect in a criminal case is presumed innocent. It is up to the state to prove the guilt of the suspect. However, the opposite is true in other nations. The diversity of the law, its interpretations, and its procedures needs to be understood in order to have a better understanding for the role that the law plays in human social and political affairs.

In some Muslim countries, there are two legal systems that overlap with one another. One will be the realm of civic law and the other: Sharia law. Sharia law may be used as the primary means of settling disputes and criminal cases as well, especially in theocratic societies. The presentation focusing on Saudi Arabia outlines how Sharia law works: who its magistrates are, what jurisdiction they have (which is extensive in Saudi Arabia), and what legal topics they address. Learning about Sharia law and other types of legal system raises fundamental questions about the assumptions, values, and beliefs that underlie both legislation and the procedures used to enforce it. Disputes are settled in ways that would be considered unconventional outside of their culture: often outside of the courtroom. [read more]

Liability the Case With Virginia Pollard Case Study

… Liability

The case with Virginia Pollard is showing how Teddy's Supplies is facing major legal challenges from the sexual harassment lawsuit. This is in spite of the New Jersey Supreme Court overturning the award. To fully understand the firm's legal… [read more]

Resolution of Legal Dispute Essay

… BSI promised to ship the equipment that included a 1000-Kilo Watts FM stereo transmitter and a 50-meter RF cable as soon as it received payment from Touch FM. The agreed amount was 3500 Euros for the transmitter, 500 Euros for the RF cable and additional 1000 Euros for insurance and shipping from Nice, France to Nairobi Kenya; Touch FM made the payment promptly. The payments were done electronically to BSI Electronics bank account and receipt of payment was confirmed.

The consignment arrived in Nairobi a week later, but the RF cable was missing. Dispute arose between BSI Electronics, Touch FM and the shipping company. Touch FM claimed that the full shipment did not arrive; BSI Electronics was firm and reiterated that they shipped the full package, while the shipping company maintained that the cable was not submitted for shipping. In addition, Touch FM claimed that they ordered for a stereo transmitter, but what they got was a mono transmitter. Touch FM felt short changed and established grounds for compensation from BSI Electronics. The firm took legal action by engaging lawyers to take legal action. However, BSI Electronics went quiet over the issue and did not respond to calls or emails from the lawyers, it totally disregarded the calls to attend to the issue.

Touch FM later approached the French Economic Mission (FEM) based in Nairobi Kenya, to help in resolving the dispute. The FEM established contacts, but failed to negotiate successfully with BSI Electronics leading to blacklisting of BSI Electronics. BSI Electronic stood their ground blaming Touch FM of mischief and remained quiet over the issue. None of the parties involved has ever resolved the issue.


Barlow, J.P. (1996, Feb 9). A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace. Retrieved March

19, 2012, from

Federal Communications Commission. (1996). The Telecommunications Act of 1996. Retrieved

March 19, 2012, from

International Chamber of Commerce. (2001, June 6). Jurisdiction and Applicable Law in Electronic Commerce. Retrieved March 19, 2012, from [read more]

Employment Law and ADA Discrimination Term Paper

… [footnoteRef:18] Anecdotally, friends from Korea often state that eyelid surgery in Asia has become incredibly popular and widely adapted as a competitive edge in the workplace. Those Asians who do not receive the surgery often find themselves discriminated against on… [read more]

Law and Legal Significance of Brad Meltzer's the Tenth Justice Book Report

… Tenth Justice

Influence of the Law in the Tenth Justice

Brad Melzer's debut novel the Tenth Justice is a fast-paced legal thriller that follows the misadventures of recent Yale Law School graduate Ben Addison during his year -- or part of a year, ultimately -- as a United States Supreme Court law clerk. As Addison and the reader learns right at the start of the novel, law clerks in the Supreme Court (at least in Melzer's fictional world) have an inordinate amount of power in the shaping of Supreme Court decisions and thus the establishment and development of law at the federal level, and on a very lasting basis. While it is far from certain that the situation as presented and described by Melzer is truly representative of reality, the position of influence that Addison finds himself provides the impetus for the action of the book, when he accidentally leaks a decision he is working on to someone with plans for underhanded financial gain. The fix is in, the blackmail begins, and Addison must spend the rest of the novel trying to beat his new nemesis at his own game, out-conning the con and staying ahead of the authority of the Court, who suspects he has been leaking information, and his roommates, one of whom might be in league with the unsavory investor now blackmailing Ben.

Many of the characters in the novel seem to be motivated not by the law, which the Supreme Court and the "tenth justice" are supposed to uphold, but rather by the ability to bend or break the law. That is, it is in the complexities and intricacies of the legal system and the ability to which these complexities can be manipulated that the characters and the reader ultimately finds enjoyment. Addison breaks the spirit of the law if not the letter, whether intentionally or not, when he leaks information to the shady investor Rick, and he continues to talk to his roommates about goings-on at the Court in a manner that is far more loose and open than is wise or warranted -- he is motivated by his involvement with and manipulation of the law, and indeed by his status outside the law, not by the law itself. If he were truly interested in upholding the law, the novel would have progress with Addison admitting his mistake early on and working with authorities to correct the problem and bring the more purposeful wrongdoers to justice (and the novel likely wouldn't have been publishable). The same basic motivation can be applied to Rick, as well. Though there is definitely an element of greed driving Rick's actions, there is also the sense that derives real pleasure from his status above or outside the law, where he is able make decisions based on information he is not supposed to have, and to pull strings in order to… [read more]

International Labour Law Term Paper

… ¶ … Professor Alston on the 'core labor standards' of the International Labour Organization (ILO), a review of how the Declaration goes against the original intent of the 1919 ILO tradition ( 2012). Pointing out that the intent of the… [read more]

Obtaining a Degree in Jurisprudence Term Paper

… ¶ … obtaining a degree in jurisprudence and becoming a practicing international attorney are longtime dreams of mine. To attain this goal, I intend to begin studying law by next year. Becoming a paralegal is, in my view, a tool to learn the intricacies and practical applications of the law, thereby affording me a greater understanding than the average law student and, thus placing me at an advantage in a highly competitive field of study.

I first became interested in the law upon joining the military. It is not a stretch to have a strong desire to defend our country turn into a passion for the laws that govern our freedoms, rights, and obligations. Further, it is imperative that our country be represented internationally by professionals who have had the opportunity to engage with diverse cultures and backgrounds. Although everyday law may be simply finding the rule and applying it, overall the law is subject to change and interpretation both intra and internationally. Rules and laws may be interpreted differently based upon ones cultural norms, therefore it is important to have a fundamental understanding of legal principles.

Although my background has primarily consisted of administrative duties and not the law, I feel that a great deal of the paralegals' responsibilities center around the administrative aspects of the law. By becoming a paralegal, I will be utilizing both my organizational and administrative background and skills. And, it is precisely these skills which make me an ideal candidate as a… [read more]

Fire Service Law Research Paper

… Fire Service Law

Consensus standards are developed by specific industries in order to set forth broadly accepted standards of care and operations for certain practices. Standards are an effort by the industry or profession to self-regulate by setting up minimal… [read more]

Legal Memo Marshal Mathers Term Paper

… " For this reason the firm must conduct research as to whether Mr. Witwicky was on his front lawn or if he had ventured off of his front lawn into a right-of-way near the street on which he resides.


Mr. Witwicky was in his own yard mowing the yard and indicated to the officers that he was clearing out brush in the back yard. The neighbor of Mr. Witwicky stated in her statement to the police that she had seen Mr. Witwicky mowing his lawn. She did not state that she has witnessed him at any other location that day with the hatchet.


If the research finds that Mr. Witwicky never left his property then this firm will file a motion that the case be dismissed for lack of evidence.


The client, if found to have never left his property on the day of his arrest is not guilty of this charge and it should be dismissed.



Michigan Penal Code Act 238 of 1931 750.227 Concealed weapons; carrying; penalty Section 227


This rule of law states that the person shall not carry "a dagger, dirk, stiletto, a double-edged nonfolding stabbing instrument of any length, or any other dangerous weapon, except a hunting knife adapted and carried as such, concealed on or about his or her person, or whether concealed or otherwise in any vehicle operated or occupied by the person, except in his or her dwelling house, place of business or on other land possessed by the person."


The machete which Mr. Witwicky was carrying in a shoulder holster on his side was not a double edged instrument but had just the one single edge. Furthermore, the machete was not the type of instrument described in the rule of law stated above as it was not a stabbing instrument although it could be considered an adapted hunting knife.


Because the hatchet does not constitute a 'dangerous weapon' within the scope of applied meaning in this rule of law the charge against the client should be dismissed.



Michigan Penal Code Act 238 of 1931 750.227 Concealed weapons; carrying; penalty Section 227


The rule of law stated above requires that the person be carrying the instrument in a 'concealed' manner.


Statements given by both the arresting officers and the client's neighbor show that the hatchet was not concealed but in fact that they had seen the hatchet on the side of the client.


Because the hatchet was not concealed this charge should be dismissed.


The client was charged with carrying a concealed weapon in Detroit, Michigan pursuant to Michigan Penal Code Act 238 of 1931 750.227 Concealed weapons; carrying; penalty Section 227. The initial facts in this case indicate that the client was not carrying a concealed weapon, was in fact, not carrying a dangerous weapon at all but instead was carrying a yard… [read more]

Briefing Case Law Term Paper

… ¶ … Briefing Case Law

Case Brief

Case name and citation

1996 WL 681971 (VABCA), 97-1 BCA 28, 642, VABCA No.4661, November 25, 1996

Key Facts

The University of California San Francisco medical center appealed a lower court decision that had validated a claim made by the Veteran's Administration. The VA wished to be reimbursed for the excessive costs of anesthesiology services the VA had already paid. The VA claimed that the increase in costs at the medical center was not justified because the contractor (the UC medical center) failed to provide supporting certified cost and pricing information for its 27% increase in services. The VA sought to recover the difference between what was paid and UC's payroll records, stating that the original payment for the services had been mistakenly authorized.

Legal Issue(s) Presented before Court

The VA alleged that the amount they were charged was far more than the actual costs of the procedures could possibly be and the VA is prohibited by law as a government entity from paying for administrative or indirect costs. The VA believed these costs the source of the exorbitant fees. When the VA officer did pay the costs, he was acting inappropriately, thus the VA demanded restitution. The contract did require the hospital to submit certified cost and pricing information, which it did not. UCSF, the contracting entity, said that it… [read more]

Legal Research Research Paper

… Legal Research

There is a tendency in today's legal environment to over-emphasize the value of computer research and to ignore the traditional advantages offered by case books, legal journals, and legal treatises. Some in the profession are advocating the abandonment of all written materials and adopting computers and the internet as the exclusive source of legal research. Doing so, however, fails to recognize the inherent frailties of internet and computer research: the researcher must still be capable of developing concepts and analogies (Turley, 2010). Computers are incapable of developing either and it is still imperative that the person doing the research possess both abilities.

That being said the value of computers and the internet in the process of doing legal research cannot be overstated (Nolasco, 2010). For hundreds of years, legal research meant locking oneself in a library and meticulously working your way through volumes of case books using West key words until finding the legal support for the propositions of law that applied to the legal issue that you were researching. The nature of the law and its attendant ambiguities made this process laborious and the prevailing party in litigation too often became the party who was most patient or fortunate enough to find the needle in the haystack that was able to make the difference in a close case.

The beauty of a computer research is the speed at which results can be generated. Through the use of either Westlaw or Lexis a legal researcher with developed skills in the use of key words can avoid hours of paging through heavy piles of books. Lexis and Westlaw have both done an excellent job of preparing and uploading years of case history and made it available to the legal community. Today's modern law student has been raised using computers and is adept at utilizing key words to find the legal concepts and controlling law that supports the positions that they are attempting to defend. As indicated earlier, however, the ability to effectively use key words… [read more]

Neo-Liberalistic Legal Concepts on Nations Literature Review

… 1 (2002).] [26: Anita Chan, and Jonathan Unger, "A Chinese State Enterprise Under the Reforms: What Model of Capitalism?," The China Journal 62 (2009).] [27: Ross Cranston, "Theorizing Transnational Commercial Law," Texas International Law Journal 42, no. 3 (2007).]

Impact… [read more]

Compare and Contrast Two Law Cases Essay

… ¶ … rules of law established in the following cases: The Slaughterhouse Cases and the Civil Rights Cases. What legal rights did the United States Supreme Court recognize in these cases? In your analysis be sure to include the relevant facts, issues, arguments, and reasons discussed in each case. Do you agree or disagree with the outcome of these cases?

The Slaughterhouse Cases and the Civil Rights cases, resolved by the U.S. Supreme Court in 1873 and 1883, respectively, are important cases in U.S. legal history, but both have proved controversial. The Slaughterhouse issue began in New Orleans over the filth and dirt in the city and the state attempts to enforce hygienic procedures. In 1869, the Louisiana legislature passed a law "to protect the health of the City of New Orleans" (Ross, 1998, p. 653). The law also granted a virtual monopoly to the Crescent City Livestock Landing & Slaughterhouse Company to slaughter animals in the vicinity. The legislative decision in exchange required that the Crescent City Company complied with the state provisions governing the hygienic procedures in the vicinity, including the "quality of facilities and products, output volume, and price of livestock" (the Slaughterhouse Cases, n.d.). The company was also obliged to allow independent butchers to work in the Company's facilities at a set rate. The butchers were not allowed to own independent slaughterhouses. Angered by the new law, a group of butchers in New Orleans sued Louisiana in a state court, claiming that their right to "privileges and immunities" clause had been violated.

The state courts decided that the Slaughterhouse Act was constitutional. The Butchers in response took the case to the Supreme Court which resolved it in 1873. The Supreme Court ruling, written by Justice Samuel Taylor Miller, stated that the law did not violate the "privileges and immunities" clause of the Fourteenth Amendment. The Court ruled that the Fourteenth Amendment empowered the Federal government to overrule state violation of rights belonging to American citizenship, but not to state citizenship. The ruling also stated that the Fifteenth Amendment prohibited discrimination based on "the slave race" but "did not guarantee that all citizens, regardless of their race, should receive equal economic privileges by the state" (Slaughterhouse Cases). The Crescent City Company was allowed to continue its operations as mandated by the Louisiana law.

The Civil Rights Cases involved five similar cases initially resolved by state courts. All five cases involved some form of institutionalized discrimination against African-Americans and were then reviewed… [read more]

Business Law Products Liability and Negligence Research Paper

… Business Law

Products Liability and Negligence: With the evidence that Vioxx leads to an increased heart risk of heart attack and stroke, Merck is facing the issue of product liability. Product liability, a tort of negligence, holds manufacturers liable for… [read more]

Business Knowledge of the Law Term Paper

… Business

Knowledge of the Law Is a Business Asset

Relationship between Ethics and the Law in Business

Why is knowledge of the law considered to be a business asset?

Whatever the power and influence of the lawyers prior to the… [read more]

Canadian Business and the Law Term Paper

… Financial ethics is Canada advocate for ethical behaviors in trading practices, sales practices, tax payment, consultancy services, trading conditions, financial contracting, auditing and executive compensation among others.

Ethics of human resource management advocate for ethical practices by employers in Canada… [read more]

Legal Implications of Being a Nutritional Consultant in California Essay

… ¶ … legal implications of being a nutritional consultant in the state of California. While being a nutritional consultant is not a profession that most would equate with being related to problems with the law, there are times when the recommendations that nutritional consultants give their clients can result in adverse effects, making the nutritional consultant liable. Wilson's () book, Legal guidelines for unlicensed practitioners, discusses how one may practice holistic therapies without any type of legal implications. It is replete with an overview of how the legal system works, disclaimer forms and consent forms, as well as a discussion of problems related to licensing.

In the state of California, a nutritional consultant can assess signs of nutritional deficiency in an individual and recommend certain foods, supplements, and lifestyle changes -- for example walking, yoga, etc. Though a nutritionist or nutritional consultant may possess quite a bit of knowledge about anatomy and physiology, it is against the law for a nutritional consultant to diagnose symptoms of a disease and prescribe any type of medication for it (Harrison 2011). Wilson notes that this can sometimes be a very harry thing for nutritional consultants to deal with. This can be especially true if patients have "self-diagnosed" or if they are coming to a nutritionist after getting a diagnosis already from a physician. Wilson points out that it is necessary to understand that nutritional consultants are not doctors and that they cannot and must not claim to be able to cure a person of anything. The role of the nutritional consultant is only to give clients nutritional information that they feel would benefit them. A nutritional consultant can get into trouble with the law in California if they suggest that someone leaves their current doctor or that a person should stop taking the medication that was prescribed by his or her doctor. These rules are quite strict, but they are necessary in order to make sure that the nutritional consultant knows the boundaries of their profession and what it means in terms of the law and the legal implications that can go along with not abiding by the law.

Some of the precautions that can and must be taken are to have a "Client Statement" form, which is similar to a disclaimer (Harrison 2011). This client statement form gives the client a very clear reference that tells them that the nutritional consultant is not and never will be in the business of diagnosing anyone or curing anything. The nutritional consultant must have the client agree to and sign this form is imperative. The client should keep a copy for his or her own records and the nutritional consultant should keep one for his or her own records in case… [read more]

International Law Assess the Legality Seminar Paper

… International Law

Assess the legality of the 2003 American invasion of Iraq in the context of the United Nations Charter provisions governing the use of force. Does the legal position adopted by the United States on the Iraq war a… [read more]

Law and Business When Glenn Assessment

… ¶ … Law and Business

When Glenn says that a legal tradition is information, he is referring to the way that the legal process helps form the basis of historical tradition, of the way societies decided to form a code… [read more]

Dog Bite Florida Law Only Representing Person Bitten Essay

… starting point for this legal analysis is Florida Revised Code section 767.04. The statute has three essential elements. First, it imposes strict liability on the dog owner.

This means that the Plaintiff will not have to demonstrate that the dog was either vicious or had a prior history of biting. Secondly, the statute also establishes the doctrine of comparative negligence and, therefore, any behavior by the Plaintiff that might be construed as contributing to the injury might be used to offset the potential damages. Finally, the statute provides a defense to the dog owner's liability through the use of the "Bad Dog" exception. The defense allows the dog owner to avoid liability by prominently displaying a sign warning of the dog's presence.

Defendant's Display of Warning Sign

The law in Florida has long been that a dog owner will not be liable for injuries caused by his dog where he prominently displays a sign on the premises warning of the dog's presence.

According to deposition testimony by the defendant, Jimmy Taylor, there was a sign to the side of his driveway that was clearly visible, however, the wording of the sign, "Beware of the Dog," does not adhere to the exact wording of the statute granting the defense. Under the terms of the statute the sign must contain the words "Bad Dog" and the defendant's own testimony clearly indicates that his sign did not include such language. This failure by the Defendant may open the door for the court to disregard the availability of this defense.

It should be pointed out that the Plaintiff claims to not have seen the warning sign. This claim, however, has no bearing on the application of the defense. The fact that she did not see the sign will not serve to change the outcome as the case law clearly states that the failure to notice a prominently displayed sign does not prevent the application of the statutory defense.

I. Plaintiff's Voluntarily Exposed to Herself to Potential Injury

The fact that the Plaintiff also voluntarily placed herself in a position of danger may also serve to affect the Defendant's liability in this action.

In the preliminary notes it was reflected that the Ms. Buffet was initially out of the reach of the dog but voluntarily placed herself within his reach when she moved to acquire a piece of sponge cake.

In mitigation of Ms. Buffet's actions, she did rely upon the fact that the dog appeared to be properly tethered at the time… [read more]

Natural Law Term Paper

… Natural law theory is one of the main significant theories in the viewpoint of Classical Realism. It is also extensively mistaken by many whom both have not taken the time to examine it or have heard of it and put… [read more]

Legal Value of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights Essay

… Legal Value of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights

Human rights may have varied definitions but all those definitions revolve around a similar idea; necessary and inalienable rights that belong to all humans without which humans can neither enjoy freedom… [read more]

Trace the Development of Law Essay

… ¶ … Trace the development of law from the Babylonian Code of Hammurabi to the Romans. Include in your discussion the Judaic concept of law and how it differed from both Babylon and Rome.

Although legal codes apparently date from… [read more]

Legal Process There Are Several Federal Laws Research Paper

… Legal Process

There are several federal laws that prohibit employment-related discrimination on the basis of a disability. Violations often include things related to hiring, reasonable accommodations, training, advancement, benefits, or dismissal, or a range of other employment-related matters. People who… [read more]

Legal Management the Legal Issues Book Review

… Legal Management

The Legal Issues of Management: Case Scenarios

Chapter 2-Case #1: The scenario described by the case in question offers a clear-cut case of sexual harassment. An individual who has succeeded on the strength of her professional merits is… [read more]

Employment Discrimination Research Proposal

… Workplace Discrimination

Jurisprudence in Workplace Discrimination: Defining Discrimination in Griggs v. Duke and Beyond

Laws are seldom as finite and concrete as they are often perceived by the public and portrayed in the media. They are often somewhat ambiguous, even… [read more]

Problem of International Law and Its Enforcement Essay

… ¶ … International

Law And Its Enforcement



Customary International Law (Kontorovich 2006, ¶ 1).


Contracts for International Sale of Goods (Cuniberti 2006, ¶ 1).


Foreign Direct Investment (Thomas 2006, ¶ 1).


General Agreement on Tariffs… [read more]

Law School Personal Statement Research Proposal

… Law School Personal Statement

I have gone through enormous challenges in my lifetime, some brought about by external factors and numerous by my own indecisions and bad decisions in life. However, every time I have managed to come out on top and focusing on work seems to have always been the right instrument to pull my through a personal crisis. Despite my Bachelor Degree in Business Administration, obtained in the Fall of 2008, I have always felt that time and life challenges have never given me the appropriate time to spend with my academic career and with learning in general -- at least not to the degree that I wanted to allocate as much time as possible for this segment of my life.

With my career safely assured and with a dedicated course that included promotions in 11 years from quality manager to Director of Quality for three different divisions to Operations Manager for the Medical Division at my company and, eventually, to Operations Manager in charge of two different divisions, I would like to compensate for some of the missed time on my academic development.

This is obviously not the only reason why I would like to enroll in law school. While deciding what the best way to pursue my education would be, I weighed different the different options according to a framework that involved different factors. First of all, the academic challenge was important. I have managed to achieve a Bachelor Degree in Business Administration, as mentioned in the previous paragraphs, and this was certainly an intellectual challenge, not only because of the complexity of the subjects involved, but also because I was working at the time and had to manage my time wisely between school and work. Going to law school would bring similar challenges, the one I am most interested in being the intellectual challenge. The courses in law school will definitely be of a different type than what I have encountered in completing my BA in Business Administration and I definitely look forward to this new challenge.

On the other hand, ever since my childhood and adolescent days, when my challenging family environment allowed me to make my own decisions and meant that I received no appropriate guidance, I turned to reading and learning as an alternative to that. I read a lot in high school and I was able to accumulate knowledge and information. The brief stint in learning about engineering concepts and principles, in the Mechanical Engineering program that I… [read more]

Aspect of Legal System in Democratic Republic of Congo Research Proposal

… ¶ … Legal System in Democratic Republic of Congo

Administrative Law

administrative law in the democratic republic of the congo

The Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) was known previously as Zaire. This area is situated right on the equator in… [read more]

Environmental Crime Tort Laws Are Designed Essay

… Environmental Crime

Tort laws are designed to protect individuals, groups or organizations against undue harm as a result of malice, negligence of willful recklessness. The key characteristics of tort concern the nature of the relationship between plaintiff and defendant, the… [read more]

Legal Formalism and Legal Realism Essay

… Legal Formalism & Legal Realism

There has been a strong debate between the supporters of legal formalism and legal realism for years. The fact that the issue continues to remain an important topic for the public agenda suggests that, as… [read more]

Rules Rights and Justice Research Proposal

… ¶ … English legal system:."... The law is never static, it is always changing, being reinterpreted or redefined, as regulators and judges strive with varying degrees of success to ensure that the law constantly reflects changes in society itself..." (Harris,… [read more]

Real Estate Eminent Domain Thesis

… Constitutional Law: Real Estate Eminent Domain in Los Angeles, California

The objective of this work is to find one legal case from which an eminent domain event occurred in Los Angeles, California, within the past five years. Furthermore, this work… [read more]

Legal Writing Honigsberg's Compilation From the Gilbert Essay

… Legal Writing

Honigsberg's compilation from the Gilbert Law Summaries is considered by many to be the definitive reference series for the current law student and a preferred primer for quick evaluation to the practicing lawyer. For the former user especially, the volume offers a practical sequence of building blocks contributing to an understanding of the principles, and thereafter the practices, of law. In the version entitled Legal Research, Writing & Analysis, this experience and track record are channeled to focus on legal writing instruction.

Offering first a glossary of key terms to be used throughout the following sections, the volume shows a clear intention to arm the reader with the tools necessary to proceed with a fuller study on the subject. Therefore, this is followed by a largely theoretical section in which is reviewed the basic conceptual framework of American legal doctrine. This is a sensible segue into an examination of case law through several key decisions and, following that, a study on the application of this case law to our understanding and refinement of legislation and constitutional orientation.

The next… [read more]

Criminal Law Civil Liberties and Issues Term Paper

… Criminal Law

Civil Liberties & Issues of National / Legal Interest

The three Websites that were selected for this paper are: The American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) (;LegalInformation Institute (LII) / Cornell University Law School (;andFriends Committee on National Legislation… [read more]

Business - Law Business Law Issues Term Paper

… Business - Law


The Commerce Clause of Article One reserves to Congress the power to "regulate commerce...among the several states." The proposed rule cannot survive the exercise of Congressional authority opposing it. The Necessary and Proper Clause of Article One provides for congressional authority to "make all Laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying into Execution...all other Powers vested by this Constitution in the Government of the United States, or in any Department or Officer thereof." That power includes the authority to invalidate contradictory state laws. The Privileges and Immunity Clause of Article Four guarantees that "the Citizens of each State shall be entitled to all Privileges and Immunities of Citizens in the several States," which includes the right to travel freely among and between all individual states. The proposed law violates the Privileges and Immunities Clause.

"Employees at will" cannot sue for wrongful discharge if the reason for… [read more]

Roman Civil Law Term Paper

… Roman Law

The Praetor is commonly described as the gatekeeper of common sense in the Roman legal system. Discuss. Was he effectively a legislator?

The position of praetor was developed to create a new, more flexible system of law that… [read more]

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