"Leadership / Mentoring" Essays 701-755

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Al Chainsaw Dunlap Term Paper

… Toxic Leadership: The Story Of Al Chainsaw Dunlap

Leadership is the lifeblood of the organization. Leaders set the tone for organizational culture. The workers and managers look to top leaders for examples of communication style, dress, and attitude. The leader can make or break the organization, from this standpoint. For better or worse, the leader determines the course that the organization will take on all levels (Curry, 2002). The following will explore an extreme case of "toxic leadership," that is leadership that takes the corporation down the road to destruction. One of the most famous examples of "toxic leadership" in recent years is the case of Al "Chainsaw" Dunlap. We will explore what makes him different and why he chose the path that he did.

Case of Dysfunction

Al "Chainsaw" Dunlap is famous for his tendency to "downsize" a company. Chainsaw earned his nickname by ruthlessly cutting jobs in order to increase the share price of the corporation. It is a basic assumption that the CEO will have the interests of the organization at the forefront. However, one must wonder if it were incompetence, or self-serving interests that caused Al Dunlap to plunge Sunbeam-Oster into bankruptcy (Byrne, 1998).

Dunlap developed his style while at Scott paper and Crown-Zellerbach. His methods encompassed cutting costs drastically in order to inflate the profits, thus giving a false sense of security to investors. This caused an unrealistic increase in share price and boosted investor profits. However, Dunlap misjudged the Sunbeam corporation and his plan backfired, plummeting stock prices from $53/share to $11/share four months later when industry leaders revealed that Sunbeam's revenues had been padded (Byrne, 1998).

One of Dunlap's key techniques involved deceptive accounting practices. Dunlap worked side deals with retailer to give them deep discounts. This enticed them to buy more than they could handle. Excess merchandise was shipped to warehouses and delivered later. However, the sales revenue was realized in the books immediately (Byrne, 1998). The money was not actually there, but it appeared as if Sunbeam were realizing huge revenues through massive sales. Shareholder's grew weary and Dunlap was fired. He had to repay $15 million in a shareholder lawsuit (Byrne, 1998).

If one examines this story on the surface, it would appear that Dunlap was simply a poor manager, but there is more to the story that lies just below the surface. When one begins to look at organizational culture, it becomes apparent that Dunlap did more than simply mislead shareholders. Behind Dunalp was a fiery personality that was known for storming out of Board Rooms, leaving others dumbstuck at his actions (Byrne, 1998). This hardly paints the picture of as a CEO who is calm, reserved, and wise. There were some that became truly concerned by his apparent emotional state and began to question his ability to lead (Byrne, 1998).

Eventually, the board became split between supporters of Dunlap and those that felt he was leading them down the road to destruction> Dunlap promised backing from major investors,… [read more]

Leadership and Strategy in Clinical Audit Term Paper

… Clinical Audit

The concept of clinical audit was introduced in 1993 as a quality improvement process aimed at improving patient care and outcomes through a systematic review of care according to or against explicit criteria and the implementation of change… [read more]

Leadership Principles in Sports Profile of a Dream Team Term Paper

… Dream Team

One of the ways to improve the way a sports team works as a united whole rather than each player working as a separate entity (which will not build a successful team), is to look at what builds… [read more]

Adaptable Management Supervisors and Managers Term Paper

… ¶ … Adaptable Management

Supervisors & managers are often regarded as being highly adaptable and being aware of the styles and approaches to management. Is this a realistic assumption?

When confronted with this question, Fielder (1967) would likely reply no, rather the success of a decision is more contingent upon organizational or situational factors, than a supervisor or manager's ability to change his or her leadership personality. Instead, the overall group atmosphere, the structure of the task at hand, and the leader's power position are more influential. For example, a relationship-motivated leader, who does not view any of his or her subordinates in an extremely negative fashion, is likely to be most effective and adaptable in an intermediately favorable situation. The favorable status of a situation is gauged by Fielder in terms of the other relationships on a work team, how defined the task at hand may seem, and in terms of the clear control of the leader over the subordinates designated to complete the task. But a highly task orieted leader will instead excel in either a very favorable or unfavorable situation in terms of the workplace relationships, task definition, and his or her control over the other members of the team.

The idea that supervisors or managers pay attention to leadership theories is thus less important than the managers own, perhaps subconscious psychological profile and how it relates to the task at hand and the nature of the group. A more relationship-driven leader might seem to be more adaptable than a leader driven merely to complete a task. But implicit in Fielder's theory is that personalities are less likely to change than are other situational factors. Rather tasks are subject to a variety of different external factors, and if these factors change, the likelihood of success may increase or decrease depending on the leader's character.

Fielder's theory is one of the more extensively researched of leadership theories. His research involved asking many leaders to rate the members of their organization in regards to their effectiveness. Leaders with clear ideas about their negative or positive feelings about different member of their organization. More judgmental leaders were heavily task-oriented while less judgmental leaders tended to be more relationship-oriented. Suit the leader to the situation, rather than alter or educated the leader, he would suggest.

Vroom and Yetton's (1973) Normative Decision Theory likewise has a very situational emphasis, but has a less deterministic quality. Success, these authors write,…… [read more]

Rudolph Giuliani's Management Book, Leadership Term Paper

… ¶ … Rudolph Giuliani's Management Book, Leadership

Rudolph Giuliani, former mayor of New York City, writes about management style and leadership tools in his book, aptly titled Leadership. In the book he offers many insights into what sort of good leadership skills he used to lead the city of New York through the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001. He also discusses leadership tools that helped him reach his position as mayor and to act effectively in his many different positions over the years. Overall, Giuliani's suggestions are good. However, in many cases they are not very original and are like other suggestions you will find in any business leadership guide.

The book both begins and ends with what happened on September 11, 2001. Giuliani's choice to use this important world event as both the beginning and end of his book was a good one. It reminds the reader that Giuliani was in the midst of some very tough situations and that he applied all of his techniques in the real world. He also shows a more human side by including his own reflections and feelings about the event.

While reading the book, it became clear that each of the chapters focused on one leadership or management tool. Chapter Two, for example, is called "First Things First" and discusses how important a morning meeting with key staff is to a man in an important position. This was an original suggestion, as many people have weekly or even monthly meetings. Of course, having a morning meeting may not be crucial for all organizations but Giuliani's point is to get regular progress reports and stay in close contact with those who work with you.

Other important chapters (and ideas) include: "everybody's accountable all the…… [read more]

Recent Innovation Term Paper

… Innovative Mentoring

Creating innovation within jobs can be difficult in some career tracks. In government work, for instance, a person may have to work within rules that affect not only his or her department but the other departments affecting that person's work. Nevertheless, innovation can occur in an individual's work style. One place where managers can create change within a bureaucracy is in mentoring.

Part of a manager's job is to train new employees in the department. This can be a perfunctory exercise with efficiency as its goal. Such an approach will involve teaching the person the technical ropes. In government this can include learning how to apply complex regulations as well as learning how to work within regulatory restrictions that come from outside one's department. However, by adding an aspect of mentoring, it is possible to create a feeling of connection to one's department that can lead to increased job satisfaction for the new employee. It may also help keep valued employees within one's department instead of losing them to other branches of the government agency.

Many mentors and mentees prefer a formal mentoring arrangement, where a new employee is paired with a more advanced person at the executive or high managerial level. They set goals and have regular meetings. Often they do not work together during the day (Smith et. al., 2005). This is not always a practical solution in government, and there can be advantages to a manager taking a mentor relationship with new employees.

Some businesses have taken a more informal approach to mentoring, where the natural leaders take employees under their wing (Pielstick, 2002), but that also does not always work within highly structured bureaucracies. In the Department of Defense, the issues involved, for instance in generating contracts, is complex and the rules both complicated and essential. In such a situation, it may be important for new employees to be led by people in charge of the larger picture for a department.

One approach to such a situation could be to use mentoring to, as Heimann and Pittenger (2000) say, 'nurture the talents of younger subordinates." When looking at mentoring within a restricted population, such as one specific sub-department in a large bureaucracy like the Department of Defense, focusing on each new employee's talents can be tremendously valuable in the long run. For instance, proofreading is often considered an entry-level skill, but when evaluating government contracts, the skill takes on new meaning: a misplaced decimal can end up costing the government millions of dollars. Spotting that employee who has the ability to spot finance-related errors and helping that person develop those skills can make the person a tremendous asset to his or her department.

Having a department head or leader mentor all new employees, however, seems to fly in the face of what most people think of as mentoring -- a one-on-one relationship that endures, possibly over years, with the mentor taking special interest in the progress of the mentee. However, some experts in the… [read more]

Philosophy of Nursing Leadership Term Paper

… ¶ … Philosophy of Nursing: Employing the House-Mitchell Path Goal Theory of Leadership in a Heath care Context

The House-Mitchell Path-Goal Theory of contingent and situational leadership stresses that no single person or manager is an island. An individual leader must be responsive to the larger organizational environment. This theory underlines the commonly experienced truism for individuals in the health care field that no nurse can function outside of her specific situational environment. In other words, the behavior of a nurse in a suburban pediatrician's office would necessarily vary from the protocol followed by a nurse in a war zone, in terms of relating to subordinates and superiors. It is not that either nurse is incorrect in his or her leadership style, or more worthy than the other, rather a nurse must tailor his or her behavior to his or her situation.

This theory is valuable as well for nurses to understand their leadership roles as it also stresses that an individual in the caring profession, responsible for managing the health of patients, must be responsive to ever-changing patient and subordinate needs, shifting situational dynamics, and also to the fluid demands made upon their personal reserves of leadership and management within his or her organization. True to the situational and contingency theory, a good nurse must be a leader in advocating for the patient's needs and establishing what is necessary for the patient to be restored to health, and set clear and goal-oriented treatment plans that must be followed for the sake of the patient, rather than the sake of the nurse's personal sense of self-empowerment as a leader. (Blanchard, 2005)

Although many situational theories of leadership stress the integral relationship between the leader and the environment, however, the path-goal theory is unique in that it suggests that leaders are not necessarily born. This is a valuable lesson, given that not all individuals drawn to the nursing profession have actively sought leadership roles in their previous professional or personal lives, perhaps feeling that they are better suited to helping others, rather than leading others. But more and more, in an increasingly bureaucratic and oversubscribed American health care system, nurses find themselves in the roles of managerial leaders, leaders of other nurses, as the de facto if not de jure primary caregivers of some patients on a regular basis in a variety of environments, as well as becoming the leading advocates of better patient health. In other words, to be a nurse is to be a trained, knowledgeable professional with a quantifiable and clearly defined skill level, not to be a 'born leader.' (Blanchard, 2005)

To be a nurse is to be a manager and a monitor, not just of a patient's vitals but also of organizational health and like all managers can increase their effectiveness through education, training and development. A nursing leader may display, according to the theory four different types of leadership styles depending on the health care situation. For instance, to a young and uncertain subordinate nurse,… [read more]

Leadership One of the Great Term Paper

… I have fought against white domination, and I have fought against black domination. I have cherished the ideal of a democratic and free society in which all persons live together in harmony and with equal opportunities. It is an ideal which I hope to live for and to achieve. But, if needs be, it is an ideal for which I am prepared to die."

In female side, on the other hand, one of the great leaders that I consider is Mother Teresa and I consider her the greatest leader of the 20th century because of the things she did for the cause of promoting humanitarianism and love for every people especially the needy. There is no greater kindness that I have seen but Mother Teresa's. Even despite of her old age, she continued her charitable activities just to help those who needs her help. She was a leader who embodied what leadership really means as how Jesus had shown to us. Mother Teresa was a leader whose role that she played was as a servant to the people. She traveled from one country to another just to promote support and help especially to the poor and the sick. Even in countries that showed great danger for her safety and for her health, Mother Teresa considered no boundaries. Her love for bestowing service to people cannot be overcome by anything, as how she had shown it until her death.

Martin Luther King, Nelson Mandela, and Mother Teresa, are three of the great leaders in history who have properly defined, through their ideals, what leadership really means. That is, to serve for the good of all.


White, Jacke. Martin Luther King.


Brink, Nelson. Nelson Mandela.


Great Leaders of the 20th Century.

http://www.nea.org/lessons/pbs050101.html… [read more]

Leadership Problems Term Paper

… The power that money conveys, rather than the material assets of wealth make the organizational culture of the firm of "Wall Street" attractive. At one point in the film, Bud asks Gekko how much money is enough to make someone happy and satisfied. The truth is that there is no dollar figure on this amount, because after a certain point money is besides the point -- rather Gekko enjoys milking the system for all of its worth, and bending and The breaking the law to make even more millions, for the power it gives him outside of the conventional system of hard work and ethics, as embodied by Bud's father.

Question 4

What are the ethical problems of the case?

Insider trading, profiting off of secret knowledge unobtainable to the public drives the plot of the film. Also, even from the beginning of the film, Bud's ethics present a problem of divided loyalties. By day, Fox works for a conventional Wall Street firm as a stockbroker. Although this firm is primarily focused on making money, it at least attempts to adhere to the letter of the law, a fact that Bud is well aware of -- but he still engages in his own, after-hours work, in the hopes of making even more money. This is how he meets Gekko.

Thus, the central ethical dilemma Bud has to face, is to whom does he owe loyalty to, as an employee? To the firm who hired him? To his own skin -- after all, the nature of the stock brokering trade is a fairly self-interested one, and not committed to a higher moral good? Or to Gekko? There is also the larger dilemma of how simply making money may or may not be enough, in terms of one's life path -- Gekko, making money off of money seems like a hollow and empty shell of a man, when his pursuit of greed for no real…… [read more]

Leadership Ethics Term Paper

… Leadership Ethics: Case Study Questions

Of the three options available to Joe, which the most ethical?

Of all the options available to Joe in his current situation, the second option of a possible solution to the problem is the most… [read more]

Leading People Being Able Term Paper

… I value diversity very strongly and half of the employees that I have are minorities, women, and veterans. They have many unique roles in their lives which range from being parents, spouses, and single parents to balancing the demands of home and work life, and providing top-notch services to the department. I took this group of talented employees and transformed them into a cohesive and high achieving team.

Another example of leading people occurred in July 2004 in which I had four challenges which overlapped and greatly impacted the performance of my organization. There was a 30% turnover in staff during this time with employees moving to North Carolina and Florida. Because of this, the challenge of recruiting for a season that is historically busy was a very high priority. Secondly, there was a transition of the organization's leadership during that period of time which required a shift in operations education for the staff. The third challenge was the planning and execution of many of the high-profile events that took place during that time and which I had to work on and be involved in on a daily basis. The fourth challenge involved my selection to participate in a senior executive service candidate development program. This required me to attend courses for core qualifications as well as maintaining my job performance on a daily basis.

Within a six-month time frame from August of 2004 to February of 2005 I recruited for the positions that were open, interviewed 11 candidates, hired new employees, provided on-the-job training, built a cohesive team of professionals, and planned and executed several high-profile events. One of the main benefits of the online college program I was required to take for the senior executive service candidate development program was that it made me much more aware of various ways to maximize the positives and work around or even actually change the negatives, as well as how to avoid overuse of the positives.

Because I view myself as a leader I am also committed to lifelong learning. It is widely known that one of the main differences between leaders that are very effective and those that are not as effective is the effective leaders' ability to recognize how the individual behavior of that leader impacts the workplace. Leader behavior is very important to the social and total mix of corporate culture. Work situations are constantly changing and the leaders' behavior must also change if it is going to be effective. At the end of the online college program I completed I was able to discuss with my coach and mentor the results of the assessment inventories that I took and we were then able to work together to create a personal action plan for my individual professional development as well as strategies to motivate and lead my staff through the challenges that were going to be encountered over the following 90 days. The program helped me to integrate many of the new insights and information that I gained… [read more]

Leading People, Leveraging Diversity Term Paper

… We're living in a constant period of transition, and the shelf life of our solutions keeps getting shorter. Historically, what works has become history because a new problem takes the old problems place in a hurry. Thus, by understanding the core concepts of mentoring and coaching, a leader can help lead others through the never ending need to adjust to change.

Learning to be a leader begins with self-motivation and knowing and seeing oneself as a leader. To often organizations find out that an employee that was the best worker turns out to be the terrible leader just like better athletes not being good coaches. Performance and leadership are very different skills. I am a leader because I possess an ability to manage change, experience, an understanding of a potential outcomes, an ability to motivate, passion and a strong sense of responsibility. I also have a strong desire to take care of my people as well as need to motivate those folks.

A leader possesses the knowledge and skills that help establish and therefore improve the organizational structure and processes of any business. By utilizing the leadership skills of coaching and mentoring, I have acquired the necessary know how to design and implement operational plans, secure and manage resources, and to facilitate a shared decision-making process. Of course this did not come easy. It was a matter of patience and eventual understanding that permitted me to distinguish the differences of office protocols between my more traditional military leadership regiment and my protocol of service from the civilian support aspects of the VA's mission and culture. However, what I learned from these very different business settings eventually helped me to better understand the various components associated with the management of human capital, financial control, and utilizing technological resources to standardize protocols of other business structures.

In conclusion, it is a fact that I have been a leader in both governmental and private sector business environments for over two decades, but that is not all that it takes to be a leader. Leadership fosters a system of ethical behavior and helps a business with the many pieces that fit together to reach their vision, mission, and/or goals.

References… [read more]

Negotiation: A Required Skill Term Paper

… However, other more vital to the survival of the organization negotiations such as mergers and the like, like require dedicated team collaboration among well-balanced and well-trained team members. This is elemental and cannot be created in a moment of triumph or upon a mere whim, but must be created from the ground up by enabling, encouraging and demanding through leadership daily collaboration, cooperation along with inter-team negotiation. This training and leadership begins at the coffeepot and applies to mergers as well. An individual in leadership will apply great consideration as well as educated and inspired action toward the training and positioning of staff to prepare the organization as a whole for the processes of negotiation.


Braham, Barbara (2004) Negotiation Tips: Skills Techniques & Strategies for Effective Negotiation http://www.bbraham.com/html/negotiation.html

Howard Gardner "Using Multiple Intelligence to Improve Negotiation Theory and Practice." Negotiation Journal October 2000: 321-324.

Katheleen M. Eisenhardt, Jean L. Kahwajy and L.J Bourgeois III "How management teams can have a good Fight" Harvard Business Review. July-Aug 1997.

Lewicki, Roy J, David M. Saunders, and John Minton. Essentials of Negotiations. NY: McGrew Hill 2nd edition 2000.

LeBaron, Michelle. Bridging Troubled Waters: Conflict Resolution From the Hear. SF: Jossey-Bass 2002

Messick, David M. And Max H. Bazerman. "Ethical leadership and the Psychology of Decision-making" Slogan management review; Vol. 37. No.2 P. 9 (1996).

Negotiation Techniques (1998) Quality Guide [Online] available at: http://erc.msh.org/quality/ittools/itnegot2.cfm

Shell G. Richard. Bargaining for advantage: Negotiation Strategies for Reasonable People. NY Penguin books. 1999.

Siegel, Michael Eric (2001) Leadership From Three American Presidents The Journal of Leadership Studies. 2001 Vol.8 No.1 Questia Online Library.

Vantage Partners: Effective Negotiation Skills [Online] available at: http://www.vantagepartners.com/corped/workshop.cfm?id=1

"Constructive conflict helps teams make high-stake decisions under considerable…… [read more]

Leadership Term Paper

… In summary, several leadership theories exist. In order to be an effective leader, one must learn to utilize several different techniques depending on the situation encountered. By remaining flexible in one's leadership style, one may become more effective and gain respect and trust from employee followers.


Bass, B.M. (1990). From transactional to transformational leadership: Learning to share the vision. Organizational Dynamics (Winter), 19-31.

Beccaria, L.M., & Favero, N. (2000). [Expectations of nursing managers and assistants as to the managerial style of an executive director of a teaching hospital]. Rev Lat Am Enfermagem, 8(2), 83-90.

Bolman, L.G., & Deal, T.E. (1992). Leading and managing: effects of context, culture and cender. Education Administration Quarterly, 28, 314-329.

Fabian, N. (2004). Leadership -- what is it and are you headed for it? J. Environ Health, 67(3), 54, 52.

Kerfoot, K. (2004). On leadership: creating your own leadership brand. Urol Nurs, 24(5), 438-440.

Kitson, A. (2004). Drawing out leadership. J Adv Nurs, 48(3), 211.

Kowalski, K., & Yoder-Wise, P.S. (2004). Five Cs of leadership. Can J. Nurs Leadersh, 17(1), 36-45.

Parsons, L.C., & Reiss, P.L. (2004). Breaking through the glass ceiling: women in executive leadership positions -- part II. SCI Nurs, 21(2),…… [read more]

Leadership the Only Constant Term Paper

… In fact, it is worth noting here that one manual on military leadership states, "Good leaders develop through a never ending process of self-study, education, training, and experience." (Heart Quotes Center)

Leadership by example is also important to facilitate the development of people and empower them to lead themselves. In other words, a good leader is someone who is a teacher and coach rather than a director. One leadership analysis calls such a person a "Superleader." (Harris, 1993, p. 373) Business organizations are now increasingly beginning to grasp the importance of such leadership, as evidenced by the emergence of the learning organization and the emphasis on employee empowerment. Marriott Hotels, for example, empowers its employees to spend $10 at their discretion to satisfy guests. In one such case, a guest complained about not finding a particular book in the hotel gift shop and the cashier, at the end of her shift, walked to a local bookstore and purchased the book with the $10 she was allowed. Naturally, the guest became a confirmed Marriott customer for life. Such an incident demonstrates empowerment and also shows how leadership becomes a matter of doing the right thing at the right time (Harris, 1993, p. 373-374).

Besides the ability of identifying the right thing to do at the right time, a good leader is also someone who cultivates the art of listening because he or she realizes the important role it plays in changing the outlook and behavior of groups, companies or even countries. Often referred to as transformational leadership, this involves (a) articulating a realistic vision of a future that can be shared; (b) stimulating subordinates intellectually; and (c) paying attention to differences between subordinates. Thus, transformational leaders go beyond heroic acts to actually help their organization, institution, or country receive feedback and alter the course of direction (Harris, 1993, p. 387). Though there are many examples of such excellent leaders, the one person who comes readily to mind is Mahathir Mohammad, under whose prime ministership, Malaysia grew into a strong political and economic middle order in the world (Nair, 1997, p. 80-82).

Examples of great leaders are few and far between in the world. But each of them has left an indelible mark and a legacy for their admirers to emulate. I, being one such admirer, hope to follow in their footsteps. To that extent, I hope that I will be given the opportunity in life to demonstrate that I can live up to the leadership qualities that I so admire.


Drucker, P. (1999, June). The new commandments of change. Excerpt from Management

Challenges for the 21st Century. Inc. Magazine. Retrieved Nov. 7, 2004: http://www.inc.com/magazine/19990601/804.html

Harris, T.E. (1993). Applied Organizational Communication: Perspectives, Principles and Pragmatics. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Heart Quotes Center. (2004). Leadership Quotes and Proverbs. Retrieved Nov. 7, 2004:


Kotter, J.P. (1988). The leadership factor. New York: Free Press.

Nair, S. (1997). The Internationalization of Malay politics. Islam…… [read more]

Leadership Award Speech Welcome Term Paper

… Yet there is some degree to which history is changing. As Anthony Robbings correctly revealed, the process of change as we know it has been radically changed. It used to be that change happened slowly -- today, change is almost instantaneous and discontinuous in a manner that we cannot anticipate or have not anticipated. The truth is that discontinuous change is here to change and will affect you and me whether we like it or not. Leaders, however, will call on their ability to anticipate. A true leader has the ability to control instead of to react and the ability to predict instead of respond. This is what will guarantee growth and expansion.

Leaders must predict and they must anticipate, but a large part of this comes from controlling. How do leaders control? They must control the future and the masses by controlling the knowledge. You are here as awardees today because you know how to present and control information to such a degree that you came to the attention of the judges and then presented yourself in such a fashion that you were chosen. As leaders you must know that ignorance equals pain and poverty. That is the lot of the rest of the pack. You are ahead of that, and you must stay ahead by using knowledge and information. That is how the 21st century works. Instantaneous change is controlled by instantaneous transfer of information. What you must recognize as leaders is that information without purpose is useless. Hoard your information, guard it so that you can decide who will experience pain and poverty, and so you can make sure that you remain a leader... Information, of course, is meant to be shared eventually. A true leader, though, discerns information pollution, information overload, and information timeline. This means that a leader knows that every piece of information they have is positive, no matter how negative it might seem to the masses. It's all a matter of how the information is processed. Information pollution is when the masses take your information as negative and this can hurt you. Information overload means that they have been given too much information, obviously, and it is the information timeline that determines how quickly information can be shared. Information control will define the shape of leadership in the future as much as nanotechnology will control the biology of the future.

So welcome to the 21st century, leaders. You are here today because you put your spirit --your information-- in others. You are inspiring; you are in control of some degree of the information, and you have the ability to use these to break rules and shape the world the way you want it.… [read more]

Crimson Tide: Leadership Term Paper

… Some rebels groups in Russia have taken control of Russian missile base and are threatening to launch attacks against Japan and the United States. USS Alabama is well equipped with missiles itself and can easily launch a pre-emptive attack. However before they could do so, they need to receive orders from higher-ups. As both wait anxiously, the ship is partially attacked, leaving the radio communication system in tatters. Since the communication device isn't working properly, a partial message received by the ship becomes a bone of contention between the two officers. The message simply says something about launching a missile attack. Hunter believes they should wait for further orders before proceeding, as the partial message could be a termination order. Ramsey on the other hand believes 'orders are orders' and wants Hunter to prepare for possible battle. This is the crucial scene where two philosophies, two leaderships styles, two management attitudes clash with each other, creating the possibility of mutiny on the ship. In the end, Hunter wins as the orders are rescinded but that doesn't make him a hero. Instead this situation makes us think. What if orders had not been withdrawn? Then Hunter's delay would have had terrible consequences. What is the right way of leading? Should we always follow the orders? These are some of the questions about leadership and management that emerge as we watch this movie. In short, the film shows that in the clash between old and new brigade of leaders, there are no winners or loser, no monsters or saints. It is all about differences in perception and wisdom.… [read more]

Self-Organizational Model of Leadership Term Paper

… By being like Martha, who made more of herself, one can look to her both as a leader and a model for one's own success.

Likewise, Oprah Winfrey's openness about her struggles with weight and race, and her openness and empathy to the struggles of others enabled her, by making the most of herself (in figurative rather than literal terms), to create an empire in white corporate America. She allowed others to buy into her ideal that by empowering and actualizing the self, by consuming Oprah talk shows and O. magazine, one could enjoy the same success as the founder in one's own life. Thus, the self-organizational model of leadership enables those who model themselves as successful, particularly those of marginalized gender, social and racial status, or difficult and hard scrabble backgrounds, to use themselves as a commodity or model, and to use their biography as a modality or case study in leadership.

Works Cited

Kauffman, S. (1995). At home in the universe: The search for laws of self-organization and complexity. New York: Oxford University Press. Retrievable on the web at http://www.goertzel.org/dynapsyc/1999/AutopoiesisPaper.htm… [read more]

Group Term Paper

… Group decisions were generally taken by consensus, as far as the solutions to the problem were concerned. The problem usually came from the top management and was generally a software project that needed to be delivered by a certain time (as agreed with the client) and to have several key features. In the first step, the team leader delivered a draft plan, following his opinion on the phases that the project would be realized across. This included project development, testing and quality assurance. The draft was presented to the team and was discussed, with everybody getting a chance to say whether their part could be done by the time scheduled.

If it could not, then the person in cause presented viable arguments of why it couldn't be done. This included, for example, the fact that the project used a new technology and two or three days needed to be allocated for studying it. The team agreed on a unanimity basis on the schedule for the project. This is very important to note, because it shows that the word of order in the group was consensus. Certainly, the team leader had the authority to impose his point-of-view, but he didn't use it, because some team members had a better expertise in some areas and because unanimity enforced team unity and increased overall team capacity and team spirit.

Following the schedule decision part, implementation came naturally. Indeed, because the team had unanimously decided on a schedule, they were more likely to respect it and abide by it. As I have mentioned previously, regular meetings, usually informal, took place in order to check the status of each phase and analyze whether the trend was positive.

In terms of ground rules, there are perhaps two worth mentioning: cohesion and feedback. Team cohesion went further than the issues I have discussed here above and meant that the team members needed to regularly check and refer to one another. This was compulsory, as the phases were generally correlated with one another and this was perhaps the part where team spirit best showed its positive aspects.

The second rule, feedback, was closely connected with the first. Feedback was usually on two separate plans. First of all, there was a feedback procedure used between the team members. Second of all, there was a constant feedback from each team member to the team leader, who was in charge with the overall coordination of the project and, further more, needed to report to the top management on how the project was evolving.

As we can see from the facts presented here above, there are several things worth mentioning with relation to this team. First of all, an informal atmosphere and a social approach ensured both full commitment and a collaborative climate. Practice has shown that, at least in this group's case, these two factors increased greatly overall efficiency.

Second of all, an informal climate did not mean that the focus was not on accomplishing the given task, but rather that… [read more]

FBI ATF Term Paper

… ¶ … Waco Incident: Failure of Leadership?

The Waco incident refers to the botched attempt in February / April of 1993 by the ATF and the FBI to raid Mt. Carmel -- the compound of the Branch Davidian religious sect in Waco, Texas -- in which about ninety people lost their lives. Although subsequent official inquiries into the incident absolved the ATF and FBI of any wrongdoings, credible evidence exists about a number of serious blunders committed by the people who conducted the operation. Moreover, a lack of effective leadership was on prominent display throughout the incident. In this paper I shall point out specific incidents of the absence of appropriate leadership during the incident and the cover-up by ATP and the FBI in the aftermath.

The tragedy at Waco was set into motion on the morning of February 28, 1993 when a force of 76 ATF agents stormed the compound that housed the Branch Davidians in an attempt to serve a search warrant and an arrest warrant for the sect's leader. In the gun battle which followed 4 ATF agents and 6 Davidians were killed. (Vizzard 1997) A subsequent House of Representatives inquiry report in 1995 indicated that there had been serious lapses in the command and control of the ATF raid and that the secrecy of the raid had been compromised. Moreover, it was reported that some bureau managers had attempted to cover up the fact that the raid commanders had given the go-ahead for the raid despite a warning by an undercover agent that the Davidians had prior knowledge of the operation. (Ibid., p. 155)

The botched attempt by ATF was not surprising considering the leadership crisis that existed in the bureau at the time. Even before the surprise raid was ordered by the ATF leadership on Mt. Carmel, there had been serious accusations of sexual harassment at the Bureau. So much so, that an ATF agent told a television network: "In my career with ATF, the people that I put in jail have more honor than the top administration in this organization." (Quoted by Lynch, 2001). Such an observation casts serious doubt about the quality of leadership at ATF who ordered the raid. Another surprising aspect of the ATF operation is that no attempt was made to arrest David Koresh in the days before the raid when he was frequently seen jogging…… [read more]

Women-Workforce Effects Term Paper

… This theory also suggests that leaders exhibit certain leadership styles and behaviors based on what people expect of them as a male or female; this expectancy is also referred to as gender roles (Eagly & Johannesen-Schmidt, 2001). Gender roles are… [read more]

Jack Welch Leadership Strategies Term Paper

… In the mid-nineties, Welch was quick to implement Six Sigma in GE, when there were signals that the quality systems in the company were falling short of the increasing expectations from the markets.

Leadership in management:

Welch was a leader… [read more]

Leader the Concept of Leadership Term Paper

… Turning out a leader, as opposite to being just a manager, is a situation provided by others. (Upward Mobility: Leading Business to Success)

You will never discover how to turn out a leader prescribed into a job description -it is… [read more]

Leadership at Sea and Seven Term Paper

… Without a clear task that they are responsible for, individuals do not feel a sense of responsibility to the collective and perform poorly.

Another officer had a similar problem. Rather than wishing to accomplish activities in the most efficient and… [read more]

Team and Leadership Behaviors Transactional Term Paper

… Whitman has managed to create a deep sense of identification not only among employees, but among customers as well. The same values and vision that help her to focus in on accomplishing the company's financial goals are the values and vision that have become a trademark for the atmosphere of the company. This showcases Whitman's transformational leadership skills. It seems that in imposing order on what was a very unstable internet startup company, operational guidelines have been derived from that strong will to survive. But the operational guidelines are the smaller gears that operate on the larger machine of unity.

Whitman's transactional leadership roles give way to transformational leadership roles as she redefines the corporate culture of EBay's offices into one that allows for efficient communication, as shown by her cubicle format, and also her ability to allow for the most opportunities of development for the company. This can be seen in her keen eye for the state of affairs in the future of the internet. In attempting to reach 50% revenue growth rates per year, it seems that a leader would need to excel in transactional leadership then have the operational efficiency and methods from such a model become the foundation for transformational leadership.

This seems to be a unique model upon which Whitman operates. The majorities of businesses seem to undergo transformational leadership ideals first, and then try to tack on operational efficiently, data acquisition and analysis, and the other details after the big picture goals have been identified with what the CEO deems should be the proper attitude to go after…… [read more]

Role of Leadership in Police Term Paper

… However, when dealing with experienced employees, leaders will find that the delegating style has a greater success rate. This allows employees to participate in making decisions and gives them as sense of independence.

Therefore, it is important to understand how experienced and skilled employees are when implementing new leadership practices. Leaders must first evaluate where the employee stand in terms of both ability and willingness to perform tasks. Then leaders can determine which management style would be most effective.

For example, in police departments, the performance of new officers must be supervised more closely than more experienced officers. However, this management style would not be effective with experienced officers, as it will lead to job dissatisfaction.


In many police departments, particularly poorly managed departments, the leadership philosophy is to control the officer rather than encourage teamwork and productivity. However, due to the increased educational level and experience of police officers, when this type of leadership exists within departments, it presents many problems, including a dissatisfied staff and low rates of retention.

Leaders within police departments must, therefore, shift their emphasis from employee control to employee team building, and must involve officers in the decision-making process. They must also work to develop the traits found in effective leaders and study effective leadership styles.

Leadership turns vision into reality. Leaders of police departments must be committed to and demonstrate support for the effectiveness of policing organizations. The police leaders must support changes in their organizations and reinforce efforts to collaborate with each other as well as with the community. In modern police organizations, leaders must educate the community and employees on how a police organization can be successful and productive.


Blake, Robert. (1964). Mouton, Jane. (1964). The Managerial Grid. Houston, Texas: Gulf Publishing.

Bucqueroux, Bonnie. (2002). Leadership vs. Management. Policing.com. Retrieved from the Internet at http://www.policing.com/articl/lead.html.

Hansen, Paul. (2002). Developing Police Leadership. Rochester, New York: Irondequoit Police Department.

Hersey, Paul. (1984). The Situational Leader. New York, New York: Warner Books.

Likert, R. (1961). New Patterns of Management. New York, New York: McGraw-Hill.

The Role of Leadership in Police Management… [read more]

Leadership Styles Among Male Term Paper

… Synthesists do not generally look for compromises, consensus or agreement on the best solution to a problem or situation. They will however look for a solution that will connect and assimilate the random and contradictory views to arrive at a… [read more]

Education Term Paper

… 3=I agree that this is a solution.

4=I perform this task every day strongly agree that this is an issue strongly agree that this is a solution.

The use of the same scale hierarchy as SOIC should help reduce confusion by the survey participant and eliminate possibilities of survey bias.

The length of the survey will be approximately two to three pages. There is some concern about the length, especially given the time constraints and stress that the assistant principal is under. However, the extent is necessary to fulfill the study's intent of being one of the first studies to understand the assistant principal's views on factors that impede instructional leadership and what they feel will work to promote leadership. Because of the length, the study will avoid any use of open ended questions and will only use a numerical scaling. This should greatly reduce the time required of the assistant principal to complete the study.

3.3 Participants

This research study will target 150 assistant principals in southeastern Texas from approximately XX schools, representing approximately XX percent of all schools in this region. This will be an effort to provide a representative sample of the assistant principal population in this geographic region rather than an attempt to identify schools or assistant principals with similar characteristics.

3.5 Problem Statement

There's a lot of data to demonstrate the lack of instructional leadership in schools, but little research that has obtained the assistant principal's view of the factors that prevent their ability to be an instructional leader and solutions that could possibly address this problem. Although data suggest that there is very little instructional leadership at the assistant principal level, it will still be necessary to obtain these results to obtain data that is specific to the region being studied and to obtain the most current data possible.

3.6 Data Collection Procedures

All data needed for this analysis will be obtained through the mailing of all 150 written letters and surveys directly to the assistant principals. A letter will explain the purpose and importance of the survey, give suitable information about the academic institution and surveyor request survey completion, and provide contact details for returning the survey. Phone calls and emails may be used to encourage participation if initial response rates are low, but these forms of communication will not be used in the formal data collection process. Additional studies may also be mailed if response rates become an issue. The goal is to obtain at least thirty completed surveys, representing a twenty percent response rate.

3.7 Data Analysis Procedures

All survey results will be entered into a software package and codified with the same rankings that have been offered by the survey. Next, rankings and percentages as well as mean averages will be used to analyze survey results. Also, linear regression analysis will be used to explore the relationship between lack of instructional leadership and primary causes and also primary causes and possible solutions.

Additional analytical techniques may be employed as knowledge… [read more]

Multidimensional Model of Sport Leadership Term Paper

… This research aims to clarify the relationship between coaches and athletes, shorten the expectation of athletes and the difference between the ideal and real leadership of coaches.

Chelladurai's researching method was adapted by Dr. Cheng and had been composed as a book named "The leadership of sport coaches." According to Cheng, the behavior, attitude and value standard of a leader has a major influence on athletes' imitating behavior (Ryan). The reason that a coach can influence athletes is the job of coach is complex, as the coach must react quickly when faced with different problems. Generally speaking, coaches' training and teaching methods greatly influence the emotion management of athletes


Basically, in order to improve the skills of athletes and target excellent performance, the Multidimensional Model serves as a means to understand the reaction between athletes and coaches.

In the sports field, the judgments one makes of a leader must be multidimensional, taking into consideration great strengths, streaks of mediocrity, and flaws. Every coach has a unique pattern of attributes, sometimes conflicting in ways.

Works Cited

Butler, Richard J. Sports Psychology in Action. Arnol, 1996.

Challadurai, P. Leadership in sports organizations. Canadian Journal of Applied Sciences, 5, 226-231. 1980.

Chelladurai, P. Discrepancy behavior and satisfaction of athletes in varying sports. Journal of sport psychology, 6, 27-41, 1984.

Chelladurai, P. Managing Organizations for Sport and Physical Activity: A Systems Perspective. Holcomb Hathaway, 2001.

Chelladurai, P. Manual for the Leadership Scale for Sports. The Ohio State University, 1994.

Chelladurai, P. Multidimensionality and multiple perspectives of organizational effectiveness. Journal of Sport Management, 1(1), 37-47. 1987.

Chelladurai, P. Reimer, H. Leadership and Satisfaction in Athletics.

Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology (JSEP),

Gardner, John. Thompson, Jim. Positive Coaching: Building Character and Self-Esteem through Sports. Warde, 1995.

Price, M.L., & Weiss, M.R. Coach burnout, coach behaviors, and athletes' psychological responses: Applying Chelladurai's multidimensional model…… [read more]

Mentoring Process in a Business Term Paper

… Instrument Design

Survey questionnaires were selected as the means for collecting data. The questionnaires were then distributed to the contact person at each institution. The contact person carried out the administration of the questionnaire within a given five day period.… [read more]

Role of a Leader Term Paper

… There are also more extreme and bizarre leadership techniques such as transcendental meditation (Smith et al., 1994) and some of the fire walking techniques advocated by Jack Black.

If we consider all the new leadership styles available there are a few things in common with them all, these commonalties include the need to be flexible, and the ability to empower employees. The theory appears to be by giving away some of the power, more leadership is gained. There also another common factor, and that is almost all agree that a leader cannot be completely defined, there will always be that factor X which defines him or her over a standard manager. Therefore, we can see a big difference between the trained managers during the early twentieth century and the leaders which have evolved at the end of the century.


Alter Allan E. (1998 Dec 14), 3M's leadership journey. (Company Operations) Computerworld, p75(1)

Byham William C. (1999 Feb) Grooming next-millenium leaders. HRMagazine, v44 i2 p46(5)

Hesselbein F (Ed); GoldSmith M (Ed); Beckland R(Ed); Drucker P; (1997) The Leader of the Future: New Visions, Strategies, and Practices for the Next Era, Now York, Jossey-Bass Publishers

Smith Timothy K.; Hadjian Ani, (1994, 12-12), BIG THINKERS: WHAT'S SO EFFECTIVE about STEPHEN COVEY? The author of The Seven Habits of Highly Effective People sells a message of moral renewal, and corporate America is buying it. Is this a…… [read more]

Boys Who Exercise the Dominant Term Paper

… Unlike most people, he evaluates the competing leaders only in terms of their ideas. But Piggy is missing the point, because the fact is the boys get emotional sustenance by the 'bells and whistles' provided by Jack's more satisfying, if more hollow form of leadership. Ralph's ideas, such as keeping the fire going and passing the conch to speak at meetings, are good. But as Al Gore discovered, merely having the better ideas is not enough. Persuading others on an emotional as well as on an intellectual level is necessary to have wide-scale support as a leader. If a leader does not do this, the 'George Bushes' of the world will inevitably hold sway over the Al Gores.

It is tempting, in light of the degeneration that occurs in the society under Jack's authority to view Jack as the bad leader and Ralph as the good leader. However, this is not really the case. Both are inadequate leaders in different ways. Jack has personality, but no moral sense of others and no real concrete ideas behind the personality to make his sway over the other boys effective. Ralph has good ideas and a mature sense of other's needs, but the fact that he is unable to convince others of this is partly due his lacking as a leader of charisma as well as evidence of a lack of maturity of the other boy's. It is tempting to blame the other boy's immaturity for their unwillingness to trust in Ralph's judgement over Jack's. But the poor results of Al Gore's 2000 campaign is evidence that being a leader is not simply intellect, but a unique combination of rationality, charisma, and emotional as well as mental intelligence.

Works Cited

Carlson, Tucker. "Unsurprisingly Clinton Focused on Himself." August 15, 2000. CNN.com

Golding, William. The Lord of the Flies. New York: Prentice Hall, 1959.

Election 2000" CNN/ALLPolitics.com http://www.cnn.com/2000/ALLPOLITICS/stories/08/18/convention.wrap/

McCabe, Ian Christopher, and Barrett, Ted. "Bush Parties on Eve of his Inauguration." January 19, 2001. CNN.com.

President Bush calls for Welfare Reform that Strengthens Families" rnc.com. May 13, 2002. http://www.georgewbush.com/Newsroom/Releases/May02/PresidentBush051302.htm… [read more]

Leadership Power Struggles and Firm Performance Research Proposal

… Leadership power struggles are commonplace in the corporate world, but there has been relatively little study about how these power struggles affect organizational success. Derkzen et al. (2007) inquire as to whether or not internal power struggles signify a successful partnership, where the individuals engaged in the struggle may be providing the sort of governance needed through the process of challenging each other's ideas. Power is usually discussed at a macro-level, the power of different elements of society, for example. This creates a fairly significant gap in our understanding of how leadership power struggles influence the performance of organization. Indeed, such power struggles are natural when leadership is diffuse, and particularly when diffused among individuals with differing worldviews (Smith, et al., 2006). This is likely because the strongest ideas will rise to the top, and be the ones implemented.

There has been significant amounts of research on organizational power dynamics, so that is a well-studied issue that can form the basis for understanding how such dynamics -- conflict in particular -- affect organizational outcomes (Fairholm, 2009). Some research has had a fairly narrow focus, such as how struggles manifest in terms of executive power, and what that does to both governance and firm performance (Combs, et al., 2007), or how different leadership styles might affect performance (Gadot, 2006), but ultimately this is a thinly-studied issue. With that starting point, it is possible to begin explaining how organization dynamics, power and conflict might affect outcomes. Hypotheses can be developed, and subsequently tested.

Research Design

The research will utilize multiple different case studies. There are a few issues that will need to be resolved in order to make this possible. First, the concept of a leadership power struggle needs to be understood and defined. There is risk that arriving at a definition of what precisely constitutes a leadership power struggle will lead the researcher to specific conclusions -- in other words if something is not destructive, is it considered a leadership power struggle? If it has to be destructive to be considered a 'struggle', surely we do not need to conduct any research because we know the outcome is negative. So the definition has to be constructed in a way consistent with the literature and in a way that still leaves room for both positive and negative outcomes.

Once several case studies have been identified, there will need to be some analysis of the similarities and differences between the cases, as these are expected to have some explanatory power. So the research will be conducted on the basis of existing case studies on organizational conflict, to examine this issue. Financial data can be used to analyze organizational performance, but there may be challenges in operationalizing other variables.


Thus, is the issues regarding operationalizing variables cannot be overcome, the study will need to be primarily qualitative in nature. However, it may prove possible to develop a classification system for different types of leadership power struggles, in which case it may be reasonable… [read more]

How Leaders Can Impact Employee Productivity Essay

… Leadership Power Struggles manifest themselves in employee behavior. This impacts overall organizational performance and productivity.

Employee motivation and its impact of job satisfaction and tenure

Employees that are highly motivated both intrinsically and extrinsically stay with their employee for longer durations. These longer stints with a single employer allow for the employee to become more tasks efficient. Through these efficiency gains, overall organizational performance and productivity is improved. Leadership power struggles arise as employee behavior, dictated by internal motivation, cause parties to act in disparate ways. Likewise, employees react to varying motivational factors differently based on culture. In Asian countries were a collectivistic culture is prevalent, organizations productivity is based on the performance of the group. In western culture, individualism is prevalent. As a result, individuals looking to surpass their peers often engage in conflict that is dysfunctional. These individuals are primarily motivated by intrinsic mechanisms such as money, power and fame. All of which characterize an individualistic organization as oppose to a collectivistic one. As a result power struggles emerge that undermine the overall organizational performance and productivity. Examples include Wall Street investment bankers and entrepreneurs. In their individual search for power, these organizations undermined their own productivity. As a result the worst financial crisis since the great depression emerged.

b. Leaders, historically are highly motivated by a calling outside the sphere of influence of the their job. These leaders are motivated to construct activities or concepts that ultimately benefit the company while creating a greater good for humanity. As these leaders fulfill their calling, conflicts often arise about organizational direction. This can potentially lead to disputes in leadership that impact…… [read more]

Leadership Power Struggles: Negative Fallout Essay

… Leadership Power Struggles:

Employee behavior, organizational performance and productivity

Effective leadership is seen as vital to organizational success; it has been called an art as much as a science (Bolman & Deal 2011). Leadership dynamics and attitudes are widely assumed by many management theorists to have a trickle-down effect upon employees, regardless of the individual motivational profile or ability of the employee. The purpose of this study will be to attempt to understand how struggles between leaders as well as between leaders and employees affect the wider organizational mission and goals, as measured by performance and productive output. For example, according to Greer (et al. 2013), leader unpredictability is linked to group power struggles and ineffectuality, regardless of the other qualities the leader brings to the team: even otherwise creative and loyal employees will engage in infighting. Also, as noted by Driver (2013), leaders, just like employees can have character profiles which either mesh with or subvert organizational goals.

Both qualitative and quantitative studies will be used to support this analysis of leadership as a dynamic process which is constantly being negotiated by leaders as well as employees. Leadership case studies and analyses will be selected both from Western and non-Western contexts (Takahashi et al. 2012). Some cultures may be more collectivist in their orientation, for example, and have less obvious power struggles and place more emphasis on harmony. This will affect the dynamics of organizational behavior and reflect a different cultural orientation and concept of leadership. Leadership is not a static component and varies based upon the organization's internalized concept of what is a strong leader. Within the leadership dynamic there is often a continual negotiation of what it means to lead as well as who is a leader.

Communication of leadership concepts will also be a critical component of the study, including how leadership is inferred to be most effective by both leaders and followers. Ems (2014) notes how social media has, in many ways, 'upped the ante' or created a larger platform on which power struggles can be waged, through email and even through public information-sharing (both official and unofficial) by would-be leaders and employees. While some of this dynamism may result in positive organizational growth, it can also result in a diffusion of a sense of common mission and goals.

The qualities of what constitutes positive leadership attributes will also be studied. Interesting, according to Judge (et al. 2003), a surprisingly moderate correlation has been found between aspects of leadership such as intelligence…… [read more]

Change Management Research Paper

… Coutta, Ramsey. A Practical Guide for Successful Church Change. Bloomington: iUniverse.

According to Coutta, "the church itself is a fascinating mixture of the changing and the unchanging," (p. 1). This statement is true for the religious movements that comprise Christian… [read more]

Concept of Influence in Nursing Term Paper

… Rethinking the Concept of Influence in Relation to Nursing Pracitce

The objective of this study is to examine the concept of influence in relation to the nursing practice. Towards this end. This study will review material that is academic and… [read more]

Instructional Strategy Admission Essay

… Instructional Management and Leadership (edits and additions are in italics)

Creating a scalable, stable and secure ecosystem that can deliver long-term benefits to students, educators and academicians is essential if those served, the students, are going to excel in their… [read more]

Organizational Change Recruiting and Retaining Research Paper

… A model was presented as an example of some of the factors of culture and the organization that should be considered in the transition.

Transformational leadership was also identified as a model that could assist with facilitating the transition. Leadership is the ability to influence a group toward the achievement of a vision or set of goals and transformation adds a motivational dimension to this definition. Bass (1985) suggested four main components of transformational leadership that seem relevant in leading the organization through the period of organizational change.

Some tactical considerations were also identified. The first was to consider the knowledge base that is in the present organization as well as the post-merger organization. It will be important to understand the presence of knowledge in the current organization to ensure that it transferred effectively to the new entity. Furthermore, the gap between existing knowledge and the needed knowledge could represent the foundation for a training program that could facilitate the employees being able to perform their job functions in their new roles. Any skills that are needed by the employees to adapt to their new roles should be conducted before the transition if possible.

Works Cited

Argote, L., & Ingram, P. (2000). Knowledge Transfer: A Basis for Competitive Advantage in Firms. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 150-169.

Bass, B. (1985). Leadership and performance beyond expectations. New York: Free Press.

Bass, B. (1999). Two decasdes in research and development in transformational leadership. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 9-32.

Everyone A Leader. (2009, August). Organizaitonal Development Models. Retrieved from http://everyonealeader.blogspot.com/2009/08/organizational-development-models.html

Judge, J., & Bono, J. (2000). Five factor model of personality and transformational leadership. Journal of Applied Psychology, 751-765.

Paine, V. (2008). Organizational Change:…… [read more]

Prescriptive Aspects of LMX Theory Term Paper

… d. complete the instrument at the end of the chapter. What does it suggest about your relationship with either your boss or a subordinate?

I scored a 29 which that I have a high-functioning relationship with the leader of my group. If the score would have been one point higher, then this relationship can be considered very high functioning.

e. If you, as a follower, initiate a dialogue with your manager that improves your score on one or more of the areas listed in the instrument, would that be considered leadership on your part? Explain your answer.

In this model it would be considered to more of an in-group type relationship than the subordinate illustrating leadership. The subordinate could be acting in a way that many would view as leadership, but in regard to the model the individual would be illustrating in-group behaviors and motivations.

d. In the chapter on Transformational Leadership, Kouzes and Posner's found the following five practices/traits as aspect of leaders when they were at their best. Which two of these below are strengths of yours when you at your best? Give an example from one of your most satisfying experiences. They include:

1. Modeling the way... walking the talk...

2. Challenging the process.... constantly looking for better ways to do things. Change agents.

3. Inspiring vision helping followers recognize the importance of their work, it's higher purpose.

4. Enabling others to act....empowering others to grow in both their skills, confidence & in ethical behavior.

5. Encouraging the heart.touching followers in a way that move them to be their best.

I believe that I am best at modeling the way and challenging the process. When I have been in positions of leadership, either formally or informally, I definitely like to challenge my group to perform at their very best. I always set the most challenging goals that I believe are attainable. For example, in one situation I tried to push a group to increase their performance metrics by twenty-five percent over the course of a three-month period. This was a challenging goal but I believed it to be within the reach of the group if they put forth their best behaviors. Also, in order to achieve this goal, I had to empower others to act on their own in order to increase the group's flexibility and efficiency. I let them make more decisions about productivity increases and we shared best practices about what we learned.

Some have said, the primary job of the leader is not to get the most out of people but to bring out the best in their people. There is a different feel to these two different approaches, isn't there?

Yes, there is definitely a difference in the perspective inherent in these two phases. For example, "to bring the best out in people" implies a level of humility that is consistent with the concept of transformational leadership. While, by contrast, "to get the most out of people" is more of a managerial perspective… [read more]

Nice Manager: Critical Analysis of Human Behavior Research Paper

… The first one is encouraging Harry to increase his self-awareness. The second is offering Harry a chance to change his perception of his management style. A good manager should understand himself and others. It is easy to understand others, which is why one needs to have self-awareness. Self-awareness has been established to be the most important capability to have or develop (Bratton, Dodd, & Brown, 2011). Been self-aware will allow a manager to understand their personality traits, emotions, beliefs, perceptions, and attitudes. Harry does not understand the position he has and the responsibilities of his position. Harry lacks self-awareness, which makes it easy for the employees to slack on their work and request that he assists them. This lack of self-awareness is hurting his chances of advancing in his career.

There are two ways that Harry can increase his understanding of himself. Soliciting feedback and self-assessments. Soliciting feedback is a way of mirroring oneself by asking others to tell them what they think of him and his managerial style. This feedback would allow Harry to see himself in a new light and start to make necessary changes. Feedback is vital for job satisfaction and performance improvement for the employees and the manager. Having a clear picture of who he truly is will enable Harry to see himself differently and understand the mistakes he had been making.

According to Daft (2013, p. 456) Perception is the cognitive process one uses to make sense of their environment. Harry's perception of management needs to change to allow him to become a top manager. Currently, Harry believes that a manager should be agreeable with his employees, but this is not helping the employees because if another manager takes over they will not have someone to assist them in their weak areas. Harry should encourage and show employees how to perform the tasks instead of doing them himself. He should understand that the employees should view him as a leader and not a co-worker or friend. Differentiating a leader from a peer is vital for Harry and the employees.

The best solution for Harry is self-awareness. This is because it would offer him an opportunity to view himself as others see him, and he can understand his weaknesses. Self-awareness is like a mirror of oneself that if used properly can be effective in transforming a person. Implementation should begin with the employees' feedback. This will ensure that Harry understand how the employees see him before the top managers can give him their feedback.


This assignment offers one the opportunity to understand their own behavior, and the behavior of others. This will allow one to become a better manager. The importance of understanding oneself is also emphasized, which would lead to one becoming a good manager. This case offers one a chance to appreciate feedback and make amends to their behavior based on the feedback. It is possible for one to assume they are an effective leader, and they are performing their duties as expected,… [read more]

Teams vs. Groups Research Paper

… There is no point to trying to pretend to be more confident than you are or in hiding your lack of experience because that will only set you up for blame if the team is unsuccessful under your leadership.

Key Suggestion #3: Be honest with the other members of your new team about your reservations being the leader. Try to establish that you deserve to be the leader based on your performance and subject-matter expertise, but acknowledge that the leadership aspect of your leadership role is something new to you and express your appreciation (in advance) for their patience about that. Try to earn and maintain their respect by being honest with them about your abilities and experience and indicate that while you are ultimately in charge of decision making, you welcome their constructive input.

Essay Prompt

Section 1

What Constitutes a Team (see attached)?

Focusing on the material related to team building, compare and contrast this college classroom with a team that you are familiar with. In what aspects does a college classroom resemble a team? Are there parallels between the stages of team development and the progression of a college classroom? What type of team formation is going on a college classroom? Does the notion of social loafing apply to a college classroom in any respect? Please be specific in your examples, and support your opinion with evidence from the text. When you select a team, we are looking for a substantial analysis and discussion of all the relevant issues surrounding selection, cohesion, activity, conflict, and outcomes. Please provide a comprehensive analysis from your OB perspective and be as candid as possible so we can all learn the Good, Bad & Ugly of team formation and dynamics.

Section 2

A Lesson in Team Building (see attached)

One of your Facebook friends has posted this note: "Help! I have just been assigned to head a new product design team at my company. The division manager has high expectations for the team and for myself, but I have been a technical design engineer for 4 years since graduating from college. I have never managed anyone, let alone led a team. The manager keeps talking about her confidence that I will be very good at creating lots of teamwork. Does anyone out there have any tips to help me master this challenge? Help!" You immediately start to formulate your recommendations. What are the three key things you will advise her to do, and why those three first? This is an all-too-common occurrence. People are selected to lead with ABSOLUTELY no training, preparation and (assuredly) limited guidance. Here is your chance to comment (in some detail) on what you would do, what THEY should do, and what the org…… [read more]

Industrial Organizational Psychology: Motivation Research Paper

… The research is related to this case study since it shows that without motivation employees can not perform well which is what is seen in the case study; the team members lack motivation hence do not achieve the goals set.Ajang, 2011).

V. Pro/cons. Detail a suggested plan of action for moving forward

The first thing to do will be change the leadership style that Jasmine is using. Jasmine should transformational form of leadership. The most important task of leaders is to motivate their followers to achieve great things. Transformational leadership is the most effective when it comes to employee motivation when they interact with the beneficiaries of their work which brings out how the vision has meaningful consequences for other people. Transformational leaders engage in inspirational behaviors like articulating a compelling vision, emphasizing collective identity, expression of confidence and optimism. At its core transformational leadership involves the motivation of followers to transcend their own self-interest for the sake of the entire team, or the entire organization (Grant, 2012).

The advantagesof this action plan would be the fact that employees will be motivated and hence achieve the goals set. However there are also disadvantages of this leadership style which include; its lack of application details, it is prone to abuse, it is time consuming and depends on the individual leader for proper execution.

VI. Steps to build rapport

There are several things that can be done in order to build a rapport with clients. Some of this things include being friendly with the clients that come to the retail store. Secondly there can be gifts given to the customers in order to motivate them to come more and more. Third, there can be promotions organized where the customers participate in and stand a chance of winning.

VII. Ethical considerations

There are several ethical considerations to put in mind in this case. This includes treatment of employees within the retail store; there should not be any form of discrimination on the employees, they should all be treated equally. Another thing is to ensure that the goods provided in the store are safe and within required standards for the consumption of the customers.


Grant, A. (2012). Leading with meaning: Beneficiary contact, prosocial impact, and the performance effects of transformational leadership.

This article is on the impact of transformational leadership in any organization. This article is relevant to the case study since it brings out the advantages of applying transformational leadership within the case study.

Ajang, P. (2011). Assessing the role of work motivation on employee performance. Retrieved July 7, 2014 from http://umu.diva-portal.org/smash/get/diva2:140549/FULLTEXT01.pdf

This article looks at the importance of motivation of employees when it comes to their performance.it is relevant to the case study since we have seen the issue in the case study is the lack of motivation for employees hence it just emphasizes more on the fact that employee motivation is important when it comes to their performance.

Van de Ven, A, & Sun, K. (2011). Breakdowns in Implementing Models… [read more]

Transformational Leadership the Roles Research Proposal

… Nettles & Herrington (2007) examined this critical role within the educational system in their research. They held a premise that "there is ample evidence that the school principal is regarded as crucial to school success and student achievement. In particular,… [read more]

Nursing Motivation Research Paper

… Response to Post:

Of course, further education in nursing is a vitally important part of running an effective nursing organization. Medical science today develops at a very rapid rate, and new information is always available. Therefore continual study is a vital part of all health professions. I therefore agree that providing nurses with many educational opportunities is a good way to maintain strength within the nursing organization.

While continual formal education is, of course, very important, as the implication seems to be, it is also important to do regular research. Like education, research can also function as a powerful tool to motivate nurses and encourage retention.

Since motivation is often focused on giving workers a sense of autonomy, it may be a good idea to offer nurses the opportunity to identify an area of research or study that they find particularly important. By researching and studying this area, they can also act as educators to their fellow workers. Such information sharing, especially in the case of research, will not only motivate individuals to bring elements that they consider to be important to the table, but also to impart information that they consider important to their fellow nurses.

As the speaker in the video mentions, by letting workers make their own decisions about what they wish to work on, creativity is heightened and the company benefits in ways that are unforeseen. By providing nurses with the autonomy to conduct research on areas that they consider to be important, therefore, the healthcare environment can benefit from creativity and innovation that may not have been foreseen.

Both research and further study should therefore be encouraged in the nursing environment in particular and generally in health care. It is a highly important that this kind of motivation and creativity be included in the workplace.… [read more]

Work and Management Theory Essay

… There are trade-offs when comparing employees as each of these employees provide a benefit to the organization but at the same time conflict arises when organizational goals or individual goals clash one with the other.

IV. Chapter 17 on Career… [read more]

Are Leaders Born or Made? Essay

… D.

Charisma, in the words of Dyck and Neubert (2008, p. 449) is "a special 'trait' that some leaders have to attract and inspire others." Charisma can neither be acquired nor learnt - it is simply a personality "trait commonly thought to make great leaders" (Dyck and Neubert, 2008, p. 449).

III. My Argument

Leaders are both Born and Made

As with the arguments presented above, leaders are either born or made -- they cannot be both. It should, however, be noted that careful evaluation of the leadership behaviors of accomplished leaders and an informed analysis of literature on management and leadership demonstrate that in fact, leaders are both born and made. It is important to note that although the ability to lead effectively could be acquired - through training, learning, and hard work - under certain circumstances, effective leadership is largely dependent on the concerned individual's inherent traits.

Argument: Under certain conditions inherent traits are the most important determinant of effective leadership.


To begin with, one area where inborn leadership traits could come in handy is change implementation. As Gerard H. Seijts (as cited in Stephenson, 2004) points out, for a leader to be able to "navigate the rough seas of organizational change," he or she ought to have the relevant interpersonal skills and be a good communicator. This is particularly the case given that to effectively implement change, individuals in positions of leadership ought to take charge of the situation and develop strategies to overcome resistance to change. Strategies in this case could include, but they are not limited to, ensuring that in addition to being sufficiently motivated, all employees are involved and well briefed on new initiatives. The ability to motivate and influence others is intrinsically linked to both the character and personality of the concerned leader. This is yet another indication that under certain conditions, an individual's ability to offer effective leadership is determined by some inherent traits.


It is also important to note that individuals who are deemed charismatic (a trait common amongst successful leaders) are the most appropriate kind of leaders during crisis situations.

Argument: Under different circumstances, people can, through learning and hard work, become effective leaders.


In the words of Lussier and Achua (2012, p. 10), "everyone has the potential to lead, and leadership can be developed." Otherwise, the authors argue that schools of business and leadership would not be offering leadership courses. Major corporations would not also invest huge sums of money on leadership training. One of the companies that have had an excellent reputation of developing leaders is General Electric. The success of GE's leadership development program has seen some of the company's managers leave GE to become accomplished CEOs and top executives of other corporations.

IV. Conclusion


Leaders are both born and made. Although some inborn personality traits like charisma could come in handy in some situations, most people may acquire skills appropriate for most leadership situations.


In the final analysis, therefore, the relevance… [read more]

Ways to Improve Group Relationships in a Counseling Situation Discussion and Results Chapter

… Group Counseling: Effective Techniques

According to Corey (2014), using group counseling can be particularly effective because it encourages people to 'open up' about intimate issues when they see others doing so. A group setting can provide additional support for members that might be lacking in a one-on-one situation. A strong leader is often necessary to facilitate the creation of such a supportive group, however. During the forming stage of a counseling group, the leader will need to help break down emotional barriers. During the storming or period where group relationships are in flux, the leader will help members establish their roles and ensure that civility is preserved. During the norming phase, the group begins to attain a stage of functionality and can support one another while during the performing stage the group can act more autonomously, with the leader providing less obvious guidance. However, even if group leaders are not as ostentatiously present as they are during the first stages of formation, they must still make their presence known: good leaders are good listeners and need to set a strong example for other members of the unit.

According to Jacobs (2012), it is particularly critical for the leader to step in during the middle stages of group development to exercise direction over his or her members. One example of an effective approach to leadership during the more volatile middle stages include issuing progress reports, which helps the group members appreciate during difficult times how far they have come from their first tentative beginnings (Jacobs 2012: 265). These can be reviewed for five or ten minutes before addressing new material and can provide a useful springboard for…… [read more]

Group Decision-Making Term Paper

… Power and Decision-Making in Christian Faith Counseling:

Group decision-making

Group decision-making has become an increasingly important part of organizational development. Group work promotes social bonding and encourages members to escape their comfort zones and to be exposed to new ideas. Making decisions as a group can provide an effective counterweight to focusing on a narrow range of personal interests or a single solution, which often happens when people make decisions in isolation. Groups are always testing ideas and testing their leadership as they grow and evolve.

The management theorist Bruce Tuckman proposed that there are four distinct stages of group development: forming, storming, norming, and performing (Forsyth 2014: 19-20). During the first stage of forming, the members of the group are still getting to know one another. "The individual's behavior is driven by a desire to be accepted by the others, and avoid controversy or conflict" (Four (five) stages of group development, 2014, Washington University: 1). Team members are conciliatory as they begin to 'test the waters.' The leader must find a way to ensure that the group accomplishes its task by encouraging ice-breaking activities and breaking down emotional barriers.

During the second stage of storming, roles begin to be established. The group enters into a conflicted stage where group norms must be set. This phase is very unstable. "The team addresses issues such as what problems they are really supposed to solve, how they will function independently and together and what leadership model they will accept. Team members open up to each other and confront each other's ideas and perspectives" (Four (five) stages of group development, 2014, Washington University: 1). Storming is a normal, natural, and healthy process but the leader must ensure that this stage is resolved in an effective fashion with minimal heartache. The…… [read more]

What Values Are Important in a Leader Case Study

… Charismatic leaders make employees want to give back to the company, not simply take from it. They also capitalize upon employee knowledge and enthusiasm rather than stifle it.

Finally, the CEO must be a unifying, given the volatility of the current market and the ongoing changes in the world around it. The Yellow Company has currently embarked upon a series of expansive endeavors, including mergers and acquisitions, as well as substantially altered many of its standard operating procedures with technology. This has caused a great deal of disruption to the Yellow Company. With this in mind, it is essential that the Yellow Company have a leader who can provide a unifying force to all of its members. When two entities merge, quite often there is an unharmonious marriage of corporate cultures which the Yellow Company CEO must seek to address.

Interview question:

Mergers and acquisitions are always difficult for any company to weather. In fact, it has been observed that most mergers fare. With this in mind, how would you seek to ease the transitional period right after a merger and to create a more unified sense of identity for the organization?… [read more]

Internal Strengths and Weaknesses SWOT

… This creates impetus for change because it highlights the reality that the problems are not subject to Dr. M's misinterpretation -- they are real, noticeable by outsiders, and everybody can see that there is a problem. While there is expected to be significant resistance to change, it is harder for those resisting to argue that a problem does not exist when it is all over the media that a problem does exist. The roadblocks are numerous, however. There might not be funding for change -- the Board needs to get on board with that. Furthermore, the old guard of employees, the old CEO and the unions are all potential sources of roadblock.


The key recommendation here is to start with the start, and finish the leadership overhaul. This is a mainly political task, rather than operational, but getting a new CEO in place and bringing the Board on board with an organizational change plan is the most important step. Trying to make a small operational change without addressing the bigger issues is putting lipstick on a pig. Improving productivity here means getting the organization to think differently. Two pieces of the leadership puzzle are in place in Dr. M and the new medical Chief of Staff; now the old CEO needs early retirement and a new CEO brought in to complete the organization's leadership change. This will require the support of the Board. With a new leader, the culture of the organization can be changed. There is far too much emphasis on the old way of doing things when clearly the old way is resulting in poor performance. Entrenched employees and their union are not going to be receptive to change until they realize that they have no choice.

The new culture needs to be based on flexibility, and the ability to meet patient needs. The new leadership team, and the Board, need to draw up plans of what they want their organization to look like going forward, and then find the resources needed to make that happen. A lot of the older staff members will need to be retired soon, in order to help with this transition. But organizational change starts at the top, so the first step is getting the Board to move now and replace the outgoing CEO with someone who can help Dr. M and the Chief of Staff bring about a more accountable, productive culture for the long…… [read more]

Madiba Nelson Mandela Is Commonly Hailed Research Paper

… Madiba

Nelson Mandela is commonly hailed as one of the great leaders of the 20th century. As a revolutionary, he became the inspirational leader of the African National Congress, gathering disparate interests within the Congress to rally around a common… [read more]

Organizational Motivation I Have Worked Term Paper

… We worked together, only more determined this time, and finally found the solution in a powerful electric fan that, once pointed at the assembly line, blows off any empty boxes. Today, I can confidently boast of being part of the team that came up with the best piece of innovation the company has ever had, and I owe it all to that one colleague who stood up and demonstrated leadership when we needed it most.

The first case illustrates a situation of renewed motivation. It brings forth, quite clearly, the concept of teamwork. The student worked in a management team with the business owner to get others in the organization to work towards the realization of a common cause, which was, in this case, bringing customers back to the tavern and grill. Originally, the businesses had no regard for organizational culture, which is why it placed the organizational goals above those of employees' career development; the results were disastrous and as the author illustrates through the phrase, "we moved from bloom to gloom almost overnight." This illustrates the importance of building shared goals in an organization setting. Culture is identified by the common values and beliefs held by a certain group; shared goals are the basis of culture in an organization. They create togetherness and bring about cohesion, and without them, an organization is as good as dead.

The second case brings out the leadership trait of identifying with the problems of others. The author admits that it was quite late for an application to be made, and that most organizations would, when faced with a similar situation, disregard the same on this basis. The leaders at Alpha Chi identified with the author's problem and knew that if they did not act fast, the author stood to lose an entire year since the application window only opened once every year. A leader ought to display empathy; they ought to identify with their followers if they are to motivate them towards the achievement of organizational and personal goals. Moreover, a leader seeks to help their followers achieve their own personal goals, even as they work towards achieving those of the greater organization.… [read more]

Diagnosis in Organizations Essay

… When she was named CEO, she began a growth process at the company. The authors note that there are five "practices of exemplary leadership," being model the way, inspired a shared vision, challenge the process, enable others to act, and encourage the heart. This basic process is generally supported by leadership literature, which focuses primarily on leadership styles rather than the content of leadership. Vision, for example, is commonly cited as a major aspect of leadership because getting an entire organization to have a common vision is important to success going forward (Ruvio, Rosenblatt & Lazarowitz, 2010).

The article discusses these five practices in detail. Modeling the way reflects that the leader needs to have clear guiding principles, and only then can these principles be transmitted to the rest of the organization. "Do as I do, and as I say" - the leader needs to act in accordance with what he or she is trying to teach the rest of the organization. The second element is the vision, which is common in all leadership literature. The authors also argue, however, that challenging the process is a prerequisite for greatness, because processes can become stagnant. The external world is constantly evolving, which means managerial and leadership processes -- even good ones -- need to evolve as well. Enabling others to act is another critical element, because others are the ones who need to drive the organization -- the leader cannot do it all so others need to feel empowered as well. Encouraging the heart reflects the value of intrinsic motivation in leadership. Organizations thrive when their employees and leaders feel inspired to succeed, and especially to overcome challenges.


Chapter 1: Diagnosis: Models and Approaches.

Kouzes & Posner. (2012). When leaders are at their best.

Ruvio, A., Rosenblatt, Z., Lazarowitz, R. (2010). Entrepreneurial leadership vision in non-profit vs. for-profit…… [read more]

Disintegrating Relationships Between Organizational Leaders Dissertation

… (Krebs, 2008)

It is important to note that research shows that employees who are "included in key information flows and communities of knowledge are more dedicated and have a much higher rate of retention." (Krebs, 2008)

The work of Fu… [read more]

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