Study "Leadership / Mentoring" Essays 606-660

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Path Goal Theory Leadership Discussion Chapter

… Path-Goal Theory

Path goal

Apple vs. Google:

A case study of the Path-Goal theory of leadership

The Path-Goal theory of leadership is a modification on the situational theory of leadership. Both philosophies suggest that appropriate leadership methods are not a one-size-fits-all prescription. Rather, as the 'Path-Goal' name suggests, the leadership path depends on the goal of the leader. Unlike situational leadership, which stresses adaption to the needs of the subordinate, in Path-Goal theory the leader consciously chooses a leadership technique to produce certain behaviors (Northouse 2006: 128-129).

One example of a Path-Goal leadership style is directive leadership, which involves a 'telling' style of leadership, or giving orders. In contrast, a supportive leadership style is based upon bolstering the confidence of the follower and addressing the needs of the employee in a warm, interpersonal manner. A participative leadership style is based upon a relationship of de facto equality, in which both leader and follower shape the direction of their objective. Achievement-oriented leadership is one in which a leader tries to make subordinates perform at a high level by setting high standards (Northouse 2006: 129-130).

Followers have needs for affiliation, preferences for structure and control over their tasks, and different perceptions of their own ability, which will affect the leadership style used. The type of task that must be completed will also influence leadership. Ambiguous, complex tasks may require more directive leadership. Employees who are dogmatic and inflexible may require this type of leadership to be effective. A good example of a directive situation might be in an arena where following safety protocols are important, like in firefighting. In contrast, supportive leadership is called forth to generate interest in mundane tasks. For example, at a fast food restaurant staffed by teen employees, a manager with a fun interpersonal style is likely to get superior results from his or her employees vs. A manager who regards assembling burgers as such a serious task employees are not allowed to talk, joke, and laugh during downtime.

However, not all ambiguous tasks require a directive style. Those which require a high degree of creativity might benefit from participative leadership, particularly with autonomously-minded, independent and creative workers. But complex, ambiguous tasks that are very challenging which must be performed by employees who are innately competitive might benefit from an achievement-oriented leadership style (Northouse 2006: 134).

The contrast between different types of leadership styles can be seen in a comparison of the different corporate cultures manifest at Apple and Google, two of the world's major technology companies. Google manifests a highly participative culture. According to its website, all employees are encouraged to give feedback about the standard operating procedures of the company, and engineers are even given the leeway to pursue their own independent research projects. These projects have generated some of Google's best ideas. "We listen to every idea, on the theory that any Googler can come up with the next breakthrough.…… [read more]

Leadership at Windber a Study Case Study

… Leadership at Windber

A Study in Leadership:

The Case of Windber

The case study presented here, referring to the Medical Facility Windber, is an example of a great success in a not-so-great economy, which is attributed to the facility's president F. Nicholas Jacobs. As can be seen from the case study, Mr. Jacobs, who takes over Windber when the facility is in a deplorable state, with, as the case study well describes, "industrial pink painted" walls, "circa 1970 furniture," and "snow leaking through the windows of the conference room," manages to turn the facility into a thriving, even booming place of business that brings in half a million dollars annually.

The work done by Mr. Jacobs is a testament to his abilities, his leadership, the way he treats co-workers, but also his ambition to prevent the facility from closing its doors and thereby effectively turn it around. In order to achieve his goal, Jacobs, as the case study further mentions, interviews employees, finds out what the community wants from the center, and implements a set of policies meant to drive up revenue and drive down costs, while also updating the facilities. The president does quite a lot of research, as evidenced by the document, and even interview people in the community.

Jacobs thus finally realizes that octogenarians make up a large percentage of the population in the city and they are the ones who must utilize the hospital facilities. Thus, he makes it a priority to improve their quality of life and sets his vision forth in a community center that, as the case study states, "would allow members of the community to exercise in a state-of-the-art facility while having access to professionals to answer health-related questions." It is through this shrewd philosophy that Jacobs can achieve his goal and turn the new preventative-care philosophy in income-generating results.

With the full description given above of the fantastic turnaround of a small medical community, the paper will now aim to answer the following points:

1. How factors of situation leadership theories can be applied to Jacobs and Windber.

2. How Jacobs would score on the least-preferred-co-worker scale and why.

3. What the range of the overall situational favorability would be for Jacobs, based on the success of Windber.

First, according to the leadership theory model, there is no best…… [read more]

Leadership Self-Development Essay

… Leadership -- Self Development

SGM Sebastian Morman Sr.

United States Army Sergeants Major Academy

SGM Walter Thomas

Leadership -- Self Development

Self-esteem is crucial for effective leaders

Trust begets trust; high self-esteem begets respect; low self-esteem only begets obedience

Only psychologically secure leaders can allow participatory decision-making. Psychological insecurity undermines genuine leadership and trust.

Effective leaders promote self-development in their subordinates; ineffective leaders are threatened by that prospect.

Establishing trust requires communicating an understanding of others' perspectives and needs.

Integrity is crucial for effective leadership and consists of fundamental consistency in statements, actions, and values.


Generally, leadership within the context of the professional business environment is considered in the context of people skills and personal and professional values and expectations. However, there is another crucial aspect of leadership that has nothing to do with teachable skills or even with natural personality traits and abilities: namely, personal psychological development or self-development. It differs from the other components of leadership mainly in that it has to do strictly with the individual leader rather than with anybody else. In principle, effective leaders must be self-aware; they must be psychologically secure enough to maintain an objective perspective, yet simultaneously empathetic enough to understand the motivations, fears, aspirations, and frustrations of others. They must be able to communicate in a manner that is conducive to establishing trust, and they must demonstrate personal integrity. All of those abilities require that leaders achieve a high level of self-development.

The Importance of Personal Self-Development in Leaders

As a general rule, the way we treat and respond to others is substantially a function of the way we see ourselves (Giuliani, 2002; Maxwell, 2007). Therefore, people who have positive expectations and motivations and who are comfortable "in their own…… [read more]

Leadership Strategies Throughout History Research Paper

… Although this is also related to change, the difference being is that there is a more concrete understanding of the what-is and the what-will-be. Consequently, "the strategy then provides a series of recommendations to close the gap between the current situation and desired future. Once the leadership strategy is known, a leadership development strategy can be formulated to produce the desired future state, and implications for talent management processes can be identified (Center for Creative Leadership, 2009)." For instance, an organization who found itself losing managers who have led the company through years of success as a result of hiring by competitors can either hire new managers or develop the leadership within. If the latter solution is the one being considered, there has to be a thorough evaluation of personnel who are being eyed for the leadership / management. In this case, the organization will need to ascertain the level of knowledge and experience of each person as well as the capability to be promoted to the important roles of managers / leaders. A skills and experience gap analysis on what these people have and how the organization wants to build them up to fit the responsibilities to be given them. There will have to be a leadership development strategy that "will then follow with specific recommendations regarding approaches to be taken to develop current and future leaders, as well as the collective capabilities of the organization's leadership, in line with the leadership strategy (Center for Creative Leadership, 2009)."

The above may be a difficult undertaking especially if the organization suffered mass departures of managers / leaders and a management / leadership vacuum occurs that is growing into a crisis. Those left at the helm of the organization should have a leadership strategy themselves and the leadership strategy "becomes much more focused, and much more hands-on. The leader directly takes command of the ship, and there is not as much delegation as might occur in running of the business on a normal basis. (Palmer, 2008, p. 64)" In engaging in this particular leadership strategy, the leader must make sure that those being trained into management / leadership roles at a time when the personnel departure crisis occurred are cognizant of the fact that they are facing the "baptism of fire" since the sense of organizational normality is gone. Only when the manager / leader proteges realize that they are in an extraordinary situation can they rise to the occasion and be successful in their training development as future managers / leaders.

Often it has been said that "different strokes for different folks," and by the same token, different leadership strategies are applied to different situations. More particularly, changes in the organization need to be dealt with in a manner where the leadership strategy will cause the least disruption and enjoin those who refuse the changes to be part thereto. Then there is the leadership strategy developed during crisis situations where those in the leadership roles faced formidable odds and abnormal… [read more]

Organizational Leadership Characteristics of Transformational Essay

… They are not detail oriented. This is where followers come in, to handle the details. A key point to make is that transformational leaders are charismatic, but not narcissistic. Bass (1990) points out those pure charismatic leaders succeed through a belief in them, rather than a belief in others. A transformational leader believes in others…thus a true transformational leader believes in the ability in others to get the job done (Starcevich, 2008). Passion and confidence as Bass states, are one thing; when taken too far, they can easily be mistaken for "truth" and reality; an enthusiastic leader can do many things, but can also lead people over a cliff if they are not careful to make sure they are correct in their decisions (1999, p. 11). If an organization is happy to remain static then a transformational leader will have a difficult time engaging the people in the organization to change; if however a change is in the making, then the right transformational leader at the right time will be just the impetus needed to facilitate change (Bass, 1999). There are times when transformational leaders are not successful, because an organization is not ready for change, and/or the organization is happy with the manner in which it conducts business and does not want to change. In instances like this employees and managers are more likely to suffer from burnout from the enthusiastic presence of a passionate transformational leader rather than experience growth and dynamic productivity (Starcevich, 2008). This highlights the importance of using transformational leadership in organizations where change is a constant variable or needed to facilitate effective organizational transformation (Starcevich, 2008).

Starcevich (2008) states that the role of a transformational leader includes creating partnerships for a competitive edge, or for creating a dynamic union between the organization and the employees, or between the organization and other potential networks. Transformational leaders can create a more effective organization by engaging employees using interpersonal communication when acting as a leader but also as a coach, which creates a more positive work environment, and builds performance factors. What are these factors? These factors, critical to the success of an organization, include sharing the organizational vision, building an environment conducive to learning and growth, being a positive and encouraging role model, enforcing self-confidence among employees, and reducing the level of fear in the leader/follower role.

The transformational leader is one that distinguishes him or herself from the rest of the organization, and yet is a much appreciated member of the organizational family. He or she recognizes their place as a key player in the development and stabilization in the present and in the future.


Bass, B.M. (1990 Winter). From Transactional to Transformational Leadership: Learning to Share the Vision. Organizational Dynamics: 19-31.

Bass, B.M. (1999). Two decades of research and development in transformational leadership.

European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 8(1): 9-32.

Starcevich, Matt M. (2008). The Coach: Creating Partnerships For a…… [read more]

Role of Leadership in Change Research Paper

… The employees should feel that they are part of carrying out the change and that their values, opinions and feeling are taken into considerations.

Technology is advancing every day and which an integral part of change. However this can also… [read more]

Situational and Transformational Leadership Approaches Essay

… That is primarily true as far as the competency-based elements of the LDM, simply because: (1) the decision to pursue a career in social services is more likely to be a function of philosophical perspective and community commitment than it is a function of attributes; and (2) to whatever extent specific personal attributes are important in the field, it would seem that they would be more in the areas of motivation and personality and much less in the areas of general or crystallized cognitive abilities.

In principle, I agree with you that the most determinative factors in the decision to pursue social services careers such as working wit the homeless reflect the combination of a general socially conscious, concerned personality and an acquired appreciation for the importance of specific human causes. Moreover, that characterization is probably much more broadly applicable to other causes, such as environmental or animal conservation. Whereas the philosophical focus might reflect different prior experiences and exposures to different issues and sensibilities, all of these professionals probably share very similar motivation in terms of their caring personalities.

Response to Post #5

I agree with everything you said about the importance of providing better treatment and other resources for the mentally ill. On the matter of leadership, I would have to reiterate much of what I said in connection with homeless services. Specifically, as you explain very well, transformational leadership emphasizes change above all else. That is a powerful motivator but it probably works much better with new converts than it does with more seasoned professionals who are already committed to the cause. In fact, among more experienced social services professionals, I might want to incorporate elements of transactional leadership, such as in the form of earned levels of authority or autonomy. Transactional motivation would not be the right choice for recruitment or for new entrants into the profession but it might be perfectly appropriate and beneficial with tenured professionals in the field. That would allow organizations to reward productive performance and reliability with positive reinforcers that promote job satisfaction in the field.

Response to Post #6

I am not so sure that transformational leadership relates to this social problem (intimate partner violence) in the way that you describe. Certainly, there is a need for change or transformation among offenders, but I believe that is unrelated to the leadership style issue. If anything, offenders are often more appropriately motivated by sticks instead of carrots. I believe that when discussing this social issue with regard to leadership styles, it is the leadership of those charged with preventing, responding to, and investigating intimate partner violence. As I said with respect to the other types of social services, I believe transformational leadership works best with new entrants into the field. I would imagine that directive and situational leadership approaches would be the best choices in this field. While there is a law enforcement component to this issue, I would no think that rigid (i.e. paramilitary and strict hierarchical) leadership styles would… [read more]

Herzberg and Blanchards' Theory Leadership Research Paper

… Blanchard and Hersey's basic understanding is that the leader has to adjust his leadership styles (S1-S4) to go along the development stages (D1-D4). They believe that the leader has to show that flexibility towards the worker because the leader's attitudes… [read more]

Educational Leadership Merriam-Webster's New English Admission Essay

… More generically, I also go out of my way to help staff members with various classroom management issues. I try to identify such issues on an individual basis and during various periodic department meetings. By providing a detailed outline of my vision and the school's relevant policies, I continue to preserve our institution's reputation for excellence, while also developing and nurturing our educational professionals.

Being that the conveyance of standards and policies represents a large portion of my job assignment, I accept a great deal of responsibility when regulations are broken, forgotten or not adequately acknowledged. Despite the fact that in some cases such occurrences are a result of blatant disregard for specific standards, I believe that effective communication of the importance attached to these standards will likely deter many of the potential disdainers. Therefore, while it is also my responsibility to determine and hand out consequences to the individuals who have broken the rules, I always do a bit of self-examination and reevaluation after such incidents to determine if I could have done anything to prevent this individual from acting out.

During my time at the Marsh Avenue Expeditionary Learning School I have not taken a great deal of calculated risks. However, I am certainly open to the idea of alternative forms of education and interaction. I continuously embrace the ideas proposed to me by my staff members and administrative peers. However, as I naturally assume a great deal of responsibility in the event of a failure of any proposal, I always make it my duty to diligently research and examine the various potentialities of all results. Nevertheless, some risks that I have taken during my tenure include the Crew program and a relatively non-traditional approach to physical education. Both of these programs involved a great deal of outside the classroom activity and material that students would not normally encounter in a conventional educational setting. Each of these educative endeavors has produced very favorable results. In fact, Crew members have been able to raise their cumulative in-classroom average from an 84 to a 92. Thus, while I initially and strategically adapted both programs to a small group of students (as somewhat of a trial period) I believe that the core principles and successes produced by these initiatives appropriates consideration for the expansion of these educative tools.

Ultimately, my leadership roles have required me to interact with all members of the traditional educational cycle. By knowing the concerns of parents, administrators, teaching professionals and students, I believe that I have been able to construct a reliable cross-section of what it takes to accommodate this wealth of inputs. By continuously maintaining dependable communicational channels, collaborative relationships with parents, staff members and administrators, nurturing and developmentally friendly job environments and without question: safe classrooms, I feel like I will be able to meet the needs of all members of my educational institution. Moreover, by striving to remain proactive in my new position I know that I will be able to develop an… [read more]

Michael Mckinney Examines the Nature Article

… When everyone perceives everyday activities as opportunities to uphold and exemplify values and beliefs that serve the greater good, in that sense then, everyone becomes a leader.

Michael Elliott's essay examines leadership from a different perspective, by analyzing traits of successful leaders. While charisma, like good looks, account for the success of several leaders, Elliott presents other world leaders who owe their success to other attributes. One such example is Ban Ki-Moon, the U.N. Secretary-General who has achieved a measure of success by gaining consensus among the diverse 192 nation-states that he leads. Elliott holds that Italy's Berlusconi is successful because Italians relate to him as "just one of us" (Elliott, 2009).

Elliot also offers examples of less-than-gifted speakers who are successful leaders because of their other qualities, including the ability to lead economic reform, decisiveness, and persistence. He cites his favorite example of leadership as shown by Eisenhower's famous D-Day memo that was never sent. Eisenhower, who believed the supreme quality for leadership was unquestionably integrity, (Dwight D. Eisenhower Quotes, 2011), made a point of taking personal responsibility for a D-day failure that fortunately never transpired.

The two essays by McKinney and Elliott provide exceptionally insightful analysis of what leadership is and isn't. They both demolish some commonly held beliefs about what it means to be a good leader. Each article offers persuasive and convincing arguments for their positions.

One only wishes that many of today's wannabe-leaders could read these essays and recognize themselves and their flawed pseudo-leadership for what it is. Better yet, that having read these essays, they arrive at a new level of self-knowledge and ability to choose service over self-interest as they respond to the needs of their respective countries and world communities.

Reference List

Dwight D. Eisenhower quotes. (2011). Brainy Quote. Retrieved June 18, 2011 from

Elliott, M. (2009). No charisma? Don't worry, you can still be a leader. Time [Online]. Retrieved June 18, 2011 from,9171,1909616,00.html

Lucius Quinctus Cincinnatus. (2011). Retrieved June 18, 2011 from

McKinney, M. (2000). The focus of leadership: Choosing service over self-interest. Retrieved June 18, 2011 from… [read more]

Leadership Term Paper

… Government leaders and political party members seem to adopt this transactional style and have exploited for all of its use. Although they may seem to be transformational, governments and politicians simply do not have enough experience or the required skills to successfully transform any group of people as large as a country or one that requires the government. Transactional leadership is necessary as a means to communicate and successfully prolong any government institution. Regardless of one's personal feelings towards any particular adopted leadership style, each must be respected for their own individual worth and appropriateness.

Overall and in summary, developing a leadership style is an individual and relative task that is appropriate for those seeking to control and inspire other's behaviors. Using a simple three-step model where an individual first completes a self-analysis using frank and honest approach, then, developing these basic facts and skills into a formulated plan of logical leadership strengths, and, in the third stage, a leadership style begin to develop and flourish and become present within one's own everyday behavior. This culmination will be successful only when the leader has successfully aligned his or her own individual skills and strengths and weaknesses to the organization's. It is when this alignment is complete with balance and harmony do we see a successful leadership style being implemented. The specific individual skills are not as important as their application to the specific organization, and once this is understood an effective leadership style naturally develops, and the presence of excellent leadership skills will be evident.

Works Cited

Bolden, R. Gosling, J. Marturano, A and Dennison, P. " A Review of Leadership Theory and Competency Frameworks" Centre for Leadership Studies University of Exeter June 2003. Web 4 June 2011.

Boje, David "Transformational Leadership" Transform Webpage 25 December 2000. Web 4 June 2011.

Fullan, Michael "Leadership for the 21st Century: Breaking the Bonds of Dependency" Educational Leadership Vol 55 #7 April 1998. Web 4 June 2011.

House, Robert et al. "Understanding cultures and implicit leadership theories across the globe: an introduction to project Globe" Journal of World Business 37 (2002) 3-10. Web 4 June 2011.

Ogbonna, Emmanuel and Harris, Lloyd " Leadership style, organizational culture and performance: empirical evidence from UK companies" International Journal of Human Resource Management 11:4 August 2000 766-788. Web 4…… [read more]

Globalization That Diversified Cultures Essay

… Therefore, it is the sole responsibility of the leader to observe and identify correctly where the individual stands and how this individual can be dealt in terms of persuasion or in order to make an inspirational impact (Wahba, 1976).

According… [read more]

Leadership Effectiveness Leaders, Followers Essay

… Secondly, the leadership style influences the outcomes from a follower. Thirdly, the arrangement and planning of the assignments for subordinates also shows the capability and effectiveness of leadership. Leadership is also affected by the support and assistance of a leader to attain organizational goals. The absence/lack of elements required for a good atmosphere at the workplace hinders the leadership effectiveness. The culture and customs at the workplace also determine the leadership effectiveness (Encyclopedia of Human Behavior, Vol. 3, p. 54).

A leader is faced with several challenges when he is empowered. One challenge could be the building and maintenance of a diversified team. A leader can face a number of problems while managing a big group. It is a difficult task to satisfy people belonging to different backgrounds and having different personalities. He could solve this problem by encouraging his subordinates to communicate through emails and messages. The best way to organize and manage a team is to instigate regular personal communication via phone or computer. The other challenge a leader might face is the stimulation of his subordinates to contribute to the company's goal. He could arrange sessions with his followers to communicate the vision of the organization and its importance. He could inspire them by offering initiatives, rewards and bonuses. This would encourage his followers to share the company's vision with more spirit. Such proposals would be both inspiring and motivating for the followers. They would take more interest and pay more attention in their work. The expectation of rewards and bonuses would make them perform their tasks with a higher degree of commitment and dedication.


M. Chemers, Martin. (1994). Leadership. Retrieved (2011, April 13) from

R. Gedney, Christine . (1999). LEADERSHIP EFFECTIVENESS AND GENDER. Retrieved (2011, April 13) from… [read more]

Leadership and Solitude When Talking Article Review

… Deresiewicz, W. On Solitude and Leadership. Independent School v. 70 no. 2 (Winter 2011) p. 102-7

Interpersonal Communications Module 3

Article #2 Defining Quality Leadership

Leadership is a very important element in virtually all fields of employment, especially in education. Therefore, it is also very important to establish quality and effective leadership at the head of an organization or entity in order for it to be successful and accomplish its organizational goals. In her article titled What is Quality Leadership?, Misty Laucour explains and defines how delegation and empowerment are important as leadership strategies. She explains that it is important for leaders to delegate responsibilities to employees or members of an organization while at the same time empowering those individuals. Lacours states that leaders can empower individuals by allowing them to take part in the decisions making process, thus creating an environment where the quality of work goes up due to good employee morale. Lacour lists that following actions as vital to the empowerment of follower: " (a) effectively match people to assignments; (b) engage all in active listening; (c) engage in purposeful actions based on goals and vision; (d) focus on growth and opportunities, not failures; (e) encourage others to think critically"(Lacour).

Taking into account what is presented in the article one would have to agree with Lacour's assessment of what quality leadership really is. Our contemporary society is one that is heavily influenced by Democracy, in this type of social and political atmosphere people in general are encouraged to be involved and make decisions. Our society is not one where dictatorship is accepted, that is to say that people do not like being told what to without having any sort of input. It has been proven that the most effective workers and members of an organization are those that are happy and have good morale. In order for good employee morale to be established empowerment of the followers should be present, this way they can feel important and significant in the overall process, thus creating a more productive and effective atmosphere.

Lacour, M., et. al., What is Quality Leadership?.…… [read more]

Leadership Issues at Ford Motors Term Paper

… ¶ … Leadership Issues at Ford Motors

Does the leadership style that Mulally has adopted match the situation confronting the organization?

Yes, the task-oriented leadership of Mulally matched the situation confronting the Ford company at the time that he took over. Mulally recognized the importance of branding and immediately ordered a reinstatement of the Taurus brand that had been discontinued prior to his assumption of authority (Hochleutner, 2011). Mulally issued instructions to re-introduce the Taurus to recoup the long-term investment in its successful reputation prior to its discontinuation. Another major decision that demonstrated Mulally's strategic vision and decisiveness was his selling off of the Land Rover and Jaguar brands in 2007, despite the fact that the selling price, $2.3 billion was substantially below what Ford had paid for them. Subsequently, the purchaser, Tata Motors, lost so much money on those brands as a result of the 2008 increases in the price of oil that they relied on a bailout from the British government to remain viable (Hochleutner, 2011).

At the same time, Mulally has demonstrated that he does not suffer from the inability to admit mistakes or to make personal sacrifices for the benefit of his organization. Specifically, he sold of five of Ford's six corporate jets after automobile industry executives were criticized for arriving in Washington for congressional hearings about the industry bailouts in corporate jets. Similarly, Mulally had offered to halve his $2 million salary in the event that Ford accepted bailout funds (Hochleutner, 2011). Ultimately, this balance of strategic decision-making with a personal perspective that values the needs of the organization above personal needs (Hill & McShane, 2007) has enabled Mulally to turn ford around successfully even in the face of economic crisis.

Would you characterize Mulally as an effective leader? How would you explain his or her success or lack thereof?

Mulally…… [read more]

Org Behavior Organizational Behavior and Leadership Profile Research Paper

… ¶ … Org Behavior

Organizational Behavior and Leadership Profile

The leadership styles that managers exert in their organization have an important influence on the behavior of employees and on their productivity and efficiency. This means that leaders must continuously analyze their leadership behavior in order to identify aspects that are not in accordance with the objectives of the company or with the team. It is [also important to analyze organizational behavior in order to better integrate these aspects.

The leadership style was quite interesting to take, and the results provided some surprises. My scores in this case are the following: authoritarian style -- 28, participative style -- 34, and delegative style -- 27. This means that I usually apply the participative or democratic leadership style, but in certain situations I apply the autocratic or the delegative style. This is somewhat of a surprise for me because I consider myself as clearly a democratic leader.

The surprise is represented by the high score in the autocratic and delegative style, which are quite close with the scores in the democratic leadership style. I consider myself as rarely employing the methods associated with these two types of leadership. I prefer to make use of autocratic leadership when addressing organizational strategy decisions, in establishing the strategic line that the company must follow. Furthermore, I discuss strategic alternatives with my team, encouraging the team members to participate with their ideas and to discuss alternatives that seem to be the most suitable. Although the team does not necessarily vote on all decisions, it is important to reach agreement on the discussed issues. This is because the strategic implementation and its success depend on the agreement and understanding of the team members.

Also, I do not necessarily encourage the delegative leadership style, or at least not as revealed by the scores in this test. Although I encourage the participation of employees, I try not to allow them too much…… [read more]

Karen Leary Term Paper

… Multicultural Leadership

In the fast-paced and increasingly internationalized world of business that exists today, the number of multicultural interactions that take place between companies and even within the same company and office is reaching ever higher. There are enormous intrinsic benefits to this increased cultural exposure; learning new perspectives as well as new customers and beliefs is rewarding in and of itself. There are also practical benefits that businesses and offices can achieve from properly approaching and handling situations of multicultural interaction, and significant detriments to operations as well as team and individual efficacy if these situations and relationships are not properly approached. This paper will examine some brief strategies and perspectives that can be employed to manage multicultural relationships and interactions in an effective manner that is beneficial for all parties.

Before any effective solution can be implemented, the specific issues that are being faced must be identified. There are situations when members of a team are already willing to try to learn about each others' cultures, but don't know where to begin, and there are also situations where the problems have not been identified as cultural, and so are misinterpreted as problems involving incompetence, lack of discipline, or a lack of respect instead (Brett et al. 2007). Understanding where the problems are originating and how they are forming is essential to dealing with these issues, as a more foundational approach will of course be necessary in the second scenario (Brett et al. 2007; Platow et al. 2009). Structuring specific interventions for specific issues will lead to more effective multicultural relationships.

The style of leadership that is employed in multicultural teams and organizations is also highly important in determining how effectively these teams and…… [read more]

Tony Haywood vs. Barack Obama Deepwater Horizon Term Paper

… Haywood and Obama -- Leadership Styles During BP Gulf Crisis

Introduction (BP Oil Spill, Background)- the Gulf of Mexico British Petroleum oil spill, also known as the Deepwater Oil Disaster, was one of the largest, most damaging, and most controversial oil disasters ever. The spill itself began on April 20, 2010 with an explosion on the Deepwater Horizon Oil platform, killing 11, injuring 17. It was not until July 15th, however, that the leak was stopped by capping the wellhead, after releasing almost 5 million barrels (206 million gallons) of crude oil, or 53,000 barrels per day into the Gulf of Mexico. It was not until September 19th that the relief well process was complete and the U.S. Government, EPA, and Coast Guard agencies declared the well breach effectively stopped (Cavnar, 2010).

The damage caused by the spill is almost immeasurable; ecological, political, economic, social -- it almost devastated the U.S. Gulf Coast fishing and tourism industries. Even in January 2011 a report was made by oil-spill experts from the University of Georgia stating that tar balls continue to wash up on beaches, collect in shrimp nets, kill marsh grass, and even undegraded oil in the seabed (Dykes, 2011). It will likely be years, if not decades, before the final assessment of damage, short-term and long-term, is accurately noted from this disaster.

Reactions, as one can imagine, ranged from blame to outrage to sadness that modern multinational corporations could still allow such unmitigated ecological sloppiness to occur. Some blamed British Petroleum, some the U.S. Government for a lack of oversight in providing stricter guidelines for drilling; others a combination -- all noted that greater accountability would be necessary in dealing with situation like this -- preventative measures, cleanup improvements, and economic solutions. The U.S. Government unequivocally named BP as the responsible party for the disaster, and officials up to the President have publically stated they will hold the company accountable for all cleanup costs and damage. In fact, after months of investigation and an untold amount of money, even BP acknowledged that it had been lax in certain areas and had made serious mistakes leading up to the disaster. Regardless of the viewpoint, however, both sides do agree that the situation will have long-term consequences for future deep-water drilling efforts globally (National Commission, 2011).

Naturally, there are a number of issues that should be studied in relation to this crisis; there are engineering questions, moral questions, a wide-range of economic questions, procedural questions, and certainly political questions. However, one seminal issue that focuses attention on the crisis is the leadership skills, or lack thereof, shown by the two most public figures involved: U.S. President Barack Obama and BP Corporation CEO Tony Hayward. Reviewing public speeches, memos, and even directives, one cannot help but be saddened that neither Obama nor Hayward exhibited the type of leadership necessary to lead the public through this crisis -- in fact, their performance shows a decided lack of leadership and more of a tend towards… [read more]

Psychodynamic Approach Reaction Paper

… Psychodynamic Approach to Organizational Leadership

Theories on organizational leadership are often developed and refined according to schools of thought on organizations, how they function and how opportunities are maximized there within. Such is to say that the organization is often thought of as an entity from which strategies and approaches will arise. To an extent though, this view tends to contradict evolving ideas about organizational dynamics that are highly dependent upon individual and collective personalities. The evolving role of human resources in organizational orientation suggests that organizations are coming ever more to view the personality dynamics within as a strong basis for driving strategies and culture. This is the premise that underscores the psychodynamic approach to leadership. Based on my own personal experiences and on the research available on this approach, I have come to view leadership as a direct function of the manner in which leadership and personnel interact.

The research by Vries & Engellau (2009) supports this perspective. Here, the researchers note that we are experiencing something of a transition today on in organizational strategy that is predicated by use of the psychodynamic theory. Accordingly, they tell "that the organizational man or woman is not just a conscious, highly focused maximizing machine of pleasures and pains, but also a person subject to many (often contradictory) wishes, fantasies, conflicts, defensive behavior, and anxieties -- some conscious, others beyond consciousness -- is not a popular perspective. Neither is the idea that concepts taken from such fields as psychoanalysis, psychodynamic psychotherapy, clinical psychology, and dynamic psychiatry might have a place in the world of work." (Vries & Engellau, p. 4)

As the researchers go on to note though, there is a growing consensus that it would be foolish and self-defeatist to ignore the true human impulses that may even overshadow the conditions created by organizational strategy and orientation. For Vries & Engellau, the focus on human resources as a channel for better understanding and maintaining the morale of personnel justifies a greater emphasis on the psychological suitability of certain individuals for leadership. As I consider myself an effective and natural leader, I have used the psychodynamic approach to objectively identify my own personal strengths and weaknesses and to subsequently contextualize these in the modes, strategies and culture that define a positive working environment.

Through such assessment, I was able to identify by strengths as a verbal communicator, my abilities as a mediator between conflicting parties, my personal sensitivity to the needs of others and my capacity to serve simultaneously as a leader and as a colleague. Within the context of my organization, I have evaluated these to be particularly valuable in…… [read more]

Transformational Women's Leadership the Website Essay

… Of course, from her point-of-view, the revolutionaries and rebels were traitors to the king who deserved to be put to death. On the other land, some of the remarks attributed to her such as "Let them eat cake" she almost… [read more]

Leadership Style Describing Two Different Styles Essay

… Nursing -- Authoritarian and Democratic Leadership

Authoritarian Leadership

Generally, authoritarian leadership style involves a power structure whereby a single individual or a small contingent of individuals in relative positions of authority over a group makes binding decisions for the group (Marquis & Huston, 2008). It is commonly employed in industries and within organizations that utilize a hierarchical command structure, such as military and paramilitary organizations and police agencies. Some of the advantages of authoritarian leadership include the ability of leaders to maintain strict control, the clarity of organizational rules, and the avoidance of deviations from expectations, particularly in circumstances where errors of mistakes can have serious consequences. Some of the disadvantages of authoritarian leadership include the negative effect on morale, although that is much more likely to be a concern within organizations or industries in which there is no obvious necessity for employing authoritarian leadership (Marquis & Huston, 2008).

Democratic Leadership

Democratic leadership is much different from authoritarian leadership, principally because it involves a group decision-making process and a sharing of authority instead of a concentration of authority in one individual or contingent of individuals (Marquis & Huston, 2008). Democratic leadership is most appropriate in situations where members of the group are relatively close in their respective knowledge, skills, abilities, training, and experience; it is less appropriate in situations where there are significant differences among and between group members in those respects. Some of the advantages of democratic leadership include the broad range of ideas that may emerge from a larger group and the beneficial effect on individual morale that is associated with sharing in the leadership role (Medley & LaRochelle, 1995; Rosengren, Bondas, Nordholm, et al., 2010).

Personal Philosophy of Nursing Leadership

My personal philosophy of leadership in nursing is that either authoritarian or democratic leadership styles may…… [read more]

Leadership in the Survey on Preferred Normative Essay

… Leadership

In the survey on preferred normative leadership style, the results came out to 6 facilitate, 3 consult, 3 decide and 0 delegate. This indicates a trend towards a facilitating leadership style and I prefer not to delegate. According to… [read more]

Leadership Potential Survey Did Not Surprise Me Essay

… ¶ … leadership potential survey did not surprise me with its results. I have always felt that I had strong leadership potential, for a number of reasons. I believe that I have a desire to be a leader, and that… [read more]

Are Leaders Born or Made? Research Paper

… Leadership: Born or Made?

Sneha & Joshi

Goleman et al.



Kouzes & Posner



Leadership and the Balance Between Inborn Talent and Learned Skill

An effective leader is one who possesses both the innate talents of one… [read more]

Rhythmic Activities Facilitate Shared Leadership Research Proposal

… After adjusting for gender differences, the initial directed play phase had a small but significant effect on the later cooperative behavior. This was suggested by results from counts of cooperative acts, amount of time spent helping the other child, and… [read more]

Criminal Justice Leadership Term Paper

… Criminal Justice -- REVISED, 2nd.

Leadership Principles as Applied to Criminal Justice

"The greatest leader is not necessarily the one who does the greatest things; he is the one who gets the people to do the greatest things." -- Ronald Regan (cited in New Word City, 2010).

Ronald Reagan was called "The Great Communicator" because of his ability to speak to people and engage them with plain talk, heart and, sometimes, humor. Reagan was ever the optimist, gentle and folksy at times and tough when he needed to be. His leadership principles would serve one well when working in the criminal justice system.

Develop and clearly enunciate a bold vision (New Word City, 2010).

Criminal justice is policy-driven. The main goal is to ensure the safety and security of everyone from staff to prisoners. A strong leader will thoroughly understand policies and the tools they provide to support the goal. He will have a clear idea of what is necessary to achieve goals and leave no ambiguity in defining them for the people around him.

2. Keep your sunny side up (New Word City, 2010).

It can be difficult to remain optimistic when working in the criminal justice system. The work can be challenging and dangerous; sometimes people can feel discouraged that nothing ever seems to change. A strong leader will have an optimistic attitude and be able to focus on the positives in any situation. It does not mean that his expectations are foolishly unrealistic or that he ignores problems and hopes that somehow they will magically resolve themselves. It does mean that he will not allow himself or his people to become mired in negativity. He should recognize the positives and help his people focus on them, not in a way that allows people to rest on achievements but as they motivate people to continue working toward the pursuit of goals. Success can beget further success.

3. Show a pleasing personality (New Word City, 2010).

A career in criminal justice can be stressful. A good leader will set an example for everyone by projecting a calm, positive demeanor that also projects strength. Humor, when appropriate, can help put people at ease. A leader can show strength without diminishing others. There is no reason to make people fearful of their leader and leave them wondering what to expect from one moment to the next. People can focus on the mission if they do not have to worry about their leader's moods and reactions. The work can be challenging and the atmosphere can be tense. A leader with a pleasing personality can offset these negative aspects of the job.

4. Know your strengths and limitations (New Word City, 2010).

A wise leader recognizes personal strengths and capitalizes on them. Even the best leader has flaws; he will explore ways to overcome them as they apply to the workplace. He will recognize that there are personal limits…… [read more]

Participative Leadership Term Paper

… Leadership

Participative Leadership

Leadership means dissimilar things to different people. On the other hand, a usually accepted definition is that it is a procedure that takes place in sets in which one member pressures and controls the actions of the… [read more]

Leadership Models in Healthcare Research Proposal

… ¶ … healthcare industry is clearly in a period of transition, most researchers would agree that this transition is one of the position of the health care institution and organization as an institution of provisional care to one that better… [read more]

Level 5 Leadership? Level 5 Leaders Blend Book Report

… ¶ … Level 5 leadership?

Level 5 leaders blend deep personal humility with professional will and determination to get things done

Level 5 leadership is credited with leading 11 companies to true greatness, as defined by Jim Collins as taking an organization with a mediocre market share to out-performing the market and/or dominating its industry

These Level 5 leaders often shun the public spotlight and put their company's success above their egos and personal financial interests. Lee Iacocca was a showy leader, but after his initial success, his focus got diverted. Chrysler stock fell 31%. Iacocca also demanded stock options, a private jet and other company perks that had little to do with real success.

Example of a Level 5 leader: Darwin Smith of Kimberly Clark

Upon assuming the helm of the company, Smith made radical decisions to make the company solvent and modernized.

Smith sold the company's signature mills, got out of the coated paper market and focused instead upon consumer products like Kleenex and Huggies.

Despite Wall Street's initial…… [read more]

Intrinsic Motivation and Transformational Leadership Research Paper

… Intrinsic Motivation and Transformational Leadership

The dependent variables in this case are intrinsic motivation and transformational leadership. The independent variables are self-esteem, motivation, satisfaction, and achievement.

Intrinsic motivation and transformational leadership are considered to be the dependent variables because these are the variables that must be predicted in relationship with the independent variables (Value-Based Management, 2010). Self-esteem, motivation, satisfaction, and achievement are considered to be independent variables because they influence the evolution of transformational leadership. In other words, transformational leadership is influenced by these variables.

It is difficult to estimate whether important variables were not taken into consideration by the researcher (Sykes, 2010). This is usually applicable to the independent variables. This is because it is easier to identify the dependent variables that characterize certain situations.

In case of the independent variables, if the findings and results of the research project are not satisfactory and have failed to provide a satisfactory explanation of the studied problem, one may consider that certain variables were not taken into consideration, which affected the results of the study (Sen & Srivastava, 1990).

3. Transformational leadership manifests in different ways in accordance with the type of business in case, the level at which it is exerted, personal characteristics of the individual, and business unit under discussion. Therefore, it is necessary to study each situation, given the fact that it is difficult to generalize and provide a profile that fits several situations.


1. Intrinsic motivation and transformational leadership are influenced by a series of factors that belong to the personal abilities of the individual and to the external environment that influences the development of the individual.

2. There are certain differences between the problem stated in the regression analysis case and that in ANOVA. For example, the problem in the regression analysis intends to identify how transformational leadership is influenced by a series of variables, independent ones, how each of these variables influences the evolution of transformational leadership and how this manifests in certain situations.

In the case of ANOVA, the problem consists in analyzing how transformational leadership evolves when it interacts with certain variables.

1. The nominal variables used in the case of ANOVA are: self-esteem, motivation, satisfaction, and achievement.

2. These variables represent the factors of influence in the case of transactional leadership. This type of leadership is influenced by these factors that manifest in different manners based on the personal characteristics of the individual and on the conditions of the situations in case.

The possible combinations are: transactional leadership -- self-esteem, transactional leadership -- motivation, transactional leadership -- satisfaction, transactional leadership -- achievement.

Each of these variables has a…… [read more]

People-Oriented Leadership in 1911 Term Paper

… ).

As noted previously, employees also have to know that their efforts are part of a larger whole made up of a community with other employees who are just as committed. People in the organization who have the same leader… [read more]

Ethical Leadership Literature Review

… Ethical behavior is all about internally control one's behavior using the five essentials that have been discussed so far. These characteristics form the overall social responsibility stamina in a person and various other forms of responsibility involving the direction of… [read more]

Personal Reflections and Vision- Looking Back Essay

… Personal Reflections and Vision- Looking Back

One of my key values today is efficacy. I like to get things done and I am highly result-oriented. However, based on previous experiences I acknowledge the fact that in the race for the… [read more]

Leadership at Work Reaction Paper

… Leadership at Work

Do you believe that the greatest leaders are made, not born?

Over the decades, there has been the constant debate about, if the greatest leaders are made not born. Where, those individuals who had to endure life's challenges and work their way to the top are: the most likely to be the best leaders. This is because they learned at an early age, the various techniques to be able to adapt to their environment. As they were forced to deal with the different challenges that life would throw their way. This would form a core set of values that would help these people to see the world in a different light. Where, they no longer would settle for what others "believe" is possible. Instead, these people will often look at the situation and find a way to motivate themselves, along with those around them. Once this takes place, is when they have the ability to transform their lives and everyone who is following them. As what was once impossible, now is easily within their grasps, thanks in part to the vision and inspiration of this person.

Yet, when you look beyond this generality, it is clear that all leaders will have a moment of clarity in their lives. This is when a situation or event occurs, that will force the individual to begin to have clarity. Where, they will see the world in a different way that will define: who they are in the future and what they will become. For example, "Geezer" Sidney Rittenberg spent 16 years in Chinese prison, as a spy. During his time in solitary confinement, he would have a moment of clarity that would redefine his life. As he refused to accept the miserable conditions that he endured and vowed to change them (along with himself) for the better. Once he emerged from prison, he was not going to let anyone or anything stand in the way of him meeting his objectives. Where, he would start a consulting firm that would create and augment the way American businesses would interact with the Chinese. As his firm played a part, in helping to build the Chinese trading relationship, with the U.S. And the rest of the world. ("Leaders are Made Not Born," 2003) This is important, because it shows how great leaders are made, based upon the experiences that they have, as they shape who they will become in the future.

At the same time, the best leaders learn from their mistakes and never give up on their dreams. As Collin Powell once said, "Effective leaders are made, not born (they) learn from trial, error, and from experience. When something fails, a true leader learns from the experience and puts it behind him. You don't get reruns in life. Don't worry about what happened in the…… [read more]

Feminist Leadership When Professionalism Meets Patriarchy: Practical Essay

… Feminist Leadership

When Professionalism Meets Patriarchy: Practical and Interpersonal Issues in Female Leadership

The issues of gender inequality and preconceptions are often dealt with in a largely abstract and obtuse manner, and is seen as belonging wholly to the realm of the humanities; they are something for critics, philosophers, and artists of every stripe to dwell on and discuss, but not really relevant to scholarship outside of these fields. Even scholarship in these areas, of course, notes the practical ramifications of the abstract concepts in at least a basic and almost rote fashion: the reduced employment opportunities due to perceptions of lessened ability (or increasing demands as women are expected to be both homemaker and career-oriented, according to some), fewer positions of authority in a variety of social institutions, etc., but they are limited in the extent to which they can explore the practical implications and effects of the patriarchal framework that has been posted to exist in Western culture.

The fact that research with feminist implications and objectives has been so lacking in areas of more direct and specific scientific and/or practical inquiry is itself due largely to the patriarchal framework itself. The framing of a feminist objective or research question is itself seen as an inherently abstract and subjective act in the patriarchal framework, and is automatically seen as subjective and non-scientific as it explicitly defines the perspective of the research. All research has this perspective, of course, but it remains implicit in the dominant framework until attention is called to it precisely because it is the dominant framework.

Empirical, practical research is a growing part of the feminist tradition, however, and points to issues that are both as simple and direct as those identified by feminist literature at large, and also more subtle and personal than mere philosophizing can establish with any sort of certainty. This paper examines the published results of three recent peer-reviewed studies regarding femininity in leadership roles -- how it is perceived, reacted to, and engaged in, and what its effects are for the leaders themselves as well as members of their team and organizations as a whole. Some of the conclusions that this research arrives at seems to uphold conventional wisdom and anecdotal evidence, but the empiric method of achieving these results and the level of detail these research endeavors have produced make them well worthwhile. Ultimately, the research shows that "feminine" leadership traits and methods differ significantly in their operation and influence from traditional leadership methods, and that failing to proactively account for these differences can lead to interpersonal difficulties as well as organizational inefficiencies.


Qualitative research necessarily runs the risk of having less easily defined terms, and in most circumstances less control over variable control. All three of the studies synthesis are primarily qualitative in nature, but significant attempts have been made at variable control and at the presentation of clearly defined variables and terms. This research constitutes a significant inroad for the furtherance of feminist achievement and recognition… [read more]

Creating a Plan for Positive Influence Term Paper

… ¶ … Positive Influence

Using DISC in the workplace: Personality overviews

Ideally, personality differences should be a source of productivity in the workplace, rather than discord. However, all too often interpersonal conflicts are the result of team-based initiatives that blend different personality 'types' in an ineffective fashion. It is essential that ice-breaking activities foster awareness of the diversity of interpersonal approaches within a work team or a place of employment. Only through awareness can workers overcome their tendency to see the world in a different way and focus on the task at hand. "Understanding personality is also the key to unlocking elusive human qualities, for example leadership, motivation, and empathy, whether your purpose is self-development, helping others, or any other field relating to people and how we behave" (Chapman 2010). Bruce Tuckman identified four critical stages of team-based formation -- forming, storming, norming, and performing -- and as part of the forming process, understanding different approaches to problem-solving and interpersonal styles can minimize the divisive nature of the storming process, and move a work team more quickly into the norming and performing phases (Smith 2005).

The DISC personality overview offers four distinct personality classifications: dominant, interactive, steady, and cautious. Because of the popularity of the DISC classification scheme, and its unique relevance to the workplace, many employers are having their workers take the DISC test as part of team ice-breaking activities. DISC stands for 'dominant, interactive, steady, and cautious (also referred to as conservative or conscientious)' to represent the four different styles classified by the paradigm. Dominant personality types are the typical leaders of a group: they are extroverted and focused on furthering their own ambitions. Interactive types are socially driven. They are also extroverts but need affirmation in terms of their relationships. Steady types are introverts who are often the backbone of the organization: they do not like to take a 'front row seat' to organizing others like interactives, but they wish to maintain organizational harmony. Cautious types are introverts like steady types, but are analytical in nature and rule-bound.

While these personality characterizations may seem quite general in nature, they are further broken down into sub-types. The dominant director type enjoys leading and delegating; the dominant pioneer type seeks out new opportunities. The dominant adventurer type is a great risk-taker who is hungry to be independent and stand out from a crowd, while a dominant producer type is directed to achieve self-improvement by realizing the goals of the project, often "according to an internal timetable" (McCloud 2010). When assigning workers to a team project, having a dominant individual is often useful to deploy as a 'leader' figure but the type of project will determine the type of dominant individual required. A producer might shine on a project that gives him or herself an opportunity to learn new things; a pioneer might delight in being the first project manager for an assignment with little precedent or direction; an adventurer might leap at the chance to have a showy position… [read more]

Leadership it Is so Difficult to Measure Essay

… Leadership

It is so difficult to measure the effectiveness of leaders for a couple of reasons. The performance of the organization is tied to a number of other variables, which vary in intensity and in their relationship to the leadership function. Another reason is that the role of the leader is often ill-defined. The criteria used to measure the effectiveness of leaders varies by situation, but is rooted in organizational objectives. In particular, performance against a set of objectives or benchmarks based on prior performance can be used to gain insight into a leader's effectiveness. For CEOs, broad corporate-level objectives such as net income, market share and share price can form the basis for measurement; at lower levels functional targets such as unit productivity, sales figures or turnover can be used. There is to me no difference between leadership and management. Managers must lead their units in order for the unit to achieve objectives. All units and employees have objectives to which they are working, in other words to which they must be lead. The traditional understanding of the divide between leadership and management can be better characterized as the difference between transactional leadership and transformational leadership.

2. The most important of Yukl's ten leadership functions for my leader is to create alignment on objectives and strategies. I work as a Squad Leader in the Army, where I lead a company of ten men. While I perform many of the key leadership functions for my team, my superiors are responsible for the task of ensuring that my company's activities are aligned with a broader strategy. My current leader performs exceptionally well in this regard. My company's work has contributed strongly to the success of recent missions, and provides critical support for other companies. The tight integration between the activities of different companies is a key component of success. The impact of this leadership has been positive for me. It helps make my job easier in terms of keeping up morale and dedication, because everybody understands the value of our work to the overall objectives. In addition, this leadership has proven a good example to me of how to think about overall strategy. This will help in my own career development as it gives me a strong benchmark for leadership performance…… [read more]

Alan Mulally CEO Ford Motor Company Case Study

… Allan Mulally and Leadership at Ford Motor Company

Historians have many approaches to history. One which applies to the case of Allan Mulally is that of the "great man" or leader. In such analyses, leadership and its effects upon the… [read more]

Book Theory Construct Book Report

… ¶ … Theory/Construct

Servant Leadership: A Journey into the Nature of Legitimate Power and Greatness

When it comes to leading others, there is more than one way to do it. It is important, though, that the right way is sought out and consistently utilized. When people are led grudgingly and they are unhappy, they often find that they do not do the quality and quantity of work they would otherwise be doing. They suffer, and the company they work for suffers. The leader remains ineffective, but sometimes the followers are the ones who get the blame (Greenleaf, 1997). To have legitimate leadership and hold onto power in the right way, says Greenleaf (1997), the leader needs to be a fair and honest person who the followers can see is actually working toward the betterment of the company. He needs to be a servant, and give of himself.

When leaders and followers work as a team, more gets done. That is not just because of the team effort, but because of everything it produces - like higher morale and happier workers. When workers are happy they give more to their companies. That allows them to gain more in the way of raises, bonuses, and promotions. In turn, these benefits keep them interested in working harder. Leaders are charged with the duty of keeping their followers working and keeping their morale high (Greenleaf, 1997). There are only so many ways for this to take place, however, and what a leader does can shape the destiny of his followers for a long time to come. Many leaders do not take this seriously, and they fail to realize just how important it is for them to be a part of what their followers are doing.

According to Greenleaf (1997), servant leaders are transformational leaders. That is opposed to transactional leaders, who focus largely on a situation and what to do about it as it appears. Transformational leaders are forward-thinkers, and they do not wait for something to happen and then react to it (Bass & Avolio, 1994). Instead, they look ahead to the things that may take place within an organization, and they plan and prepare for them (Greenleaf, 1997; Bass & Avolio, 1994). By doing this, they are ready for the future and so are their followers. The company can move forward, and it can grow and change quickly, simply because the leader is paying attention.

The basic idea that Greenleaf (1997) offers in this work is an extension of what was offered by Bass & Avolio (1994) when they discussed transformational leadership. People respond to leaders who appear to care about them and the company as a whole. They respond to leaders who are interested in a group effort and who are willing to work alongside their followers, instead of just telling other people what to do. The main theory that Greenleaf (1997) presents goes right along with that context: leadership is not about ordering people around, but about guiding them toward… [read more]

Improving Organizational Effectiveness Through Transformational Leadership Book Report

… Improving Organizational Effectiveness Through Transformational Leadership by B.M. Bass and B.J. Avolio

In their book Improving Organizational Effectiveness Through Transformational Leadership, Bass and Avolio discuss transformational leaders and how they can change the dynamics of an organization to the point where the entire company becomes more effective. Often, these organizations become more efficient, as well. The basic ideas of the authors revolve around how transformational leadership works, and how it differs from leadership that is only transactional in nature. A transformational leader is one who focuses on change throughout the entire organization over the long-term, not just on how something can be done differently by one part of the organization right now (Bass & Avolio, 1994).

Too many organizations, say Bass & Avolio (1994), focus only on short-term solutions and quick fixes. Those things might help right away, but they are not going to help anyone in the long-term. Organizations can even go bankrupt or disappear because they did not stay current and change along with their counterparts. With that in mind, it is vital that organizations that want to remain strong change and adapt to the times. With transformational leadership, they can do just that. The other side of the coin, transactional leadership, is much more focused on now things occur in segments or transactions (Bass & Avolio, 1994). An organization would deal with one transaction, and then it would move on and deal with another one, etc. It is a constant game of catching up and changing to fit the times, instead of a flow of information and ideas that keep an organization ahead of its competition.

Another author who focused on this same issue was Bennis (2003). In his book on Becoming a Leader, Bennis (2003) stated that it is very important to see leadership as something long-term. One cannot just assume that leadership is a short-range issue, because there will be very limited success when doing things that way. Instead of doing that, even though it might be easier at the time, focus a leader should focus his attention on how he can do things that will stay valuable to the organization for a long period of time. When he does that, it becomes very difficult for an organization to fail. In short, transformational leadership is all about being proactive. Transactional leadership is all about being reactive. These are very different, especially in a business sense.

The theory that Bass and Avolio (1994) work from is that organizations need strong leaders who are going to stay there and continue to be part of the organization. The followers need a leader who they can put their trust in, and they will not be able to put their trust in someone who they think will be leaving soon. They also will not be able to trust someone who seems unmotivated or who is not thinking about the good of the organization for the future. By creating this work, Bass and Avolio (1994) show that there is great interest… [read more]

Application to Health Care Article Review

… ¶ … Anson, Betty. (2003). "Taking Charge of Change in a Volatile Healthcare Marketplace." Human Resource Planning. 23 (4): 21.

Within the context of organizational behavior, leadership is one of the most crucial aspects of the entire rubric of the organization. Within the context of the healthcare paradigm, it moves beyond critical to vital -- with literally the power of life and death as a direct consequence of the role of the leader, the team, and the ability for the function of leadership to function beyond the managerial, and into the ideal of successful leadership. Decisions are made constantly in healthcare and business alike; it is the part and parcel of being effective in one's job. Innovation and improvement on a regular basis are required to maintain and improve the ability to make rational decisions, and some psychologists even believe that the ability to make effective decisions is at the core of the individual's success of failure within their organization

In healthcare, it is particularly important that leaders model the way. Leaders demonstrate their beliefs in their actions. They speak honestly about their vision and do what they believe is right. Leaders encourage the heart. Showing appreciation and providing rewards are ways leaders show encouragement and motivate others. Leaders create change, focus on leading people, have followers, have long-term goals and are proactive. They create a vision, approach the vision by setting the direction, facilitate in decision-making, and use personal charisma. Leaders appeal to the heart, are persuasive by selling their vision, want achievement, take risks, and break rules. They also have a transformational style, exchange excitement for work, use conflict to resolve issues, and make new roads. Most of all, leaders are concerned about what is right, give credit to others, and…… [read more]

Groups and Teams Essay

… Leadership Teams

Some of the same travails that face a corporation when creating or using a team management approach to any particular situation are oftentimes the same type of travails that face a virtual team attempting to address the same problem. In the case of ComCorp, the virtual team was widely dispersed throughout the globe and very little, if any, personal or face-to-face contact would be available. This is true of many virtual teams, which is why developing team cohesiveness can be so difficult, and it is certainly true that developing a team's cohesiveness is one factor that will often time determine the amount of success, or lack thereof, that a team experiences. Success is often driven by how a leadership team works together.

As an example; one recent study showed that the Fermi 2 nuclear plant was beginning to experience a decline in plant safety record and performance indicators. Since management of the nuclear facility affected more than just the employees that worked there. The plant's management had formed a leadership team to address the issues concerning the decline. However, there seemed to be little action being taken to address the situation. In order to discover why the inaction existed an assessment was completed that "revealed a number of underlying issues that contributed to the gaps in team performance" (Rogers & Walker, 2010, p. 6). What the study showed was that "senior managers were not aligned on expectations and did not respond consistently to performance problems" (Rogers, p. 6).

Comparing the performance of the nuclear plant's leadership team team's performance to the team at ComCorp is similar to comparing night to day. The nuclear plant's team was not cohesive.

The team also did not seem to be on the same wave length and "they were reluctant to jump in and help one another and did not drive improvements across the station in a coordinated manner" (Rogers p. 7). Most importantly, the study showed that the team had problems with timely sharing of information, helping other departments and getting consistent and effective feedback.

The virtual team at ComCorp seemed to have no such difficulties. Instead, the members of the ComCorp team "really worked well as a team, particularly when (the team leader) had us continually focus on our major priorities and strategies" (Kerber, Buono, 2004). The difference between the two teams seems to be a leader who extolled the priorities of the team and focused the team on those priorities vs. A leader who may have been more interested in establishing his superiority.

The team that was on-site at the nuclear power plant actually had more opportunities to establish a cohesiveness and a focused purpose than did the ComCorp team due to the locale of each, yet it seems as if the leader of the…… [read more]

Experimental Text on Charismatic or Else Transformational Essay

… ¶ … experimental text on charismatic or else transformational headship reveals that this headship has deep impacts on cohorts. Nonetheless, whereas a number of accounts of charismatic headship hypothesis forecast such kind of impacts, not any of the versions or… [read more]

Author's Theory Basic Ideas Book Review

… ¶ … Leadership by James MacGregor Burns

In Leadership, James MacGregor Burns (1978) addressed the basic idea of the leadership role, and how each person who is placed into that role can find his or her own way of becoming (and remaining) effective. Because leadership is very different depending on the type of organization being led and the people who make up that organization, leaders must consider all facets of leadership rather than simply choosing a style and blindly trying to follow it, even if it doesn't seem to be working very well. Unfortunately, too many leaders do not realize that they can change their leadership style, and the must change their leadership style, in order to be more efficient, more effective, and more successful. Once a leader realizes this, he can choose between different kinds of leadership so that the style he's using meshes well with the community or organization in which he is trying to lead.

The main theory that Burns (1978) offers is that of transformational leadership. Up until he brought his theory to light most, if not all, leaders were following the path of transactional leadership, which is far different. It is clear that Burns' book is definitive when it comes to leadership styles and information. It is densely packed with historical facts, quite long, and full of a lot of insights that other leadership books just do not seem to have. For anyone who wants to be a leadership scholar and a success in that area, Burns' book should be essential reading. Few other books have that designation. While not everyone will agree on what the book has to offer, the information that was presented by Burns back in 1978 is still quite relevant to the way that people must address leadership issues today.

One of the things that Burns (1978) does so well is to make a distinction between executive leadership and intellectual leadership. He even takes the time to address the circumstances that surround these two different kinds of leadership styles and why one may be 'created' in a person over another style based on the way that person adapts to what is taking place around him. Burn's (1978) book is not designed as a "how to" when it comes to leadership. Instead, it provides anyone who reads it with a good framework to further understanding of the role of being a leader. It also addresses the requirements that a leadership role involves, depending on the style of leadership, how many people are being led, and other factors. Any reader can find a satisfying and very exciting moment when he or she comes across his or her own leadership role or style during the reading of the book.

With transformational leadership - sometimes also called transforming leadership - Burns (1978) shows that he understands the difference between what he has named and the previous discussions of transactional leadership. Transactional leadership is different because it works on the premise that each encounter between the… [read more]

Demonstrate an Understanding of Emotional Destiny Annotated Bibliography

… ¶ … Lincoln on Leadership," Donald T. Phillips (YEAR) paints a portrait of former President Abraham Lincoln as an extremely adept leader with a vast, effective, and honest arsenal of leadership strategies. So timeless were Lincoln's methods that Phillips often… [read more]

New Team Leader Case Study

… ¶ … Raymond Cattell, a leading pioneer in the field of personality assessment, there are several traits which make up his Leadership Potential equation. He derived this equation based upon the study of military leaders, and it is still used… [read more]

Song of Roland Essay

… Roland

A Song of Leadership: Decisiveness and Divine Intervention as Signs of Leadership in the Song of Roland

The Song of Roland, a medieval epic poem and one of the oldest surviving pieces of French literature, recounts a certain cycle of tales from one of Charlemagne's crusades, centering around the figure of his nephew and a commander in his army, Roland. Through a series of events, Roland ends up dying at the hands of the enemy army, an act which increases rather than diminishes his presence as a leader amongst the rest of Charlemagne's army. Certain qualities can be seen in both Roland and Charlemagne, as well as in other characters throughout the tale, that clearly demonstrate the common expectations for leaders amongst the people of Charlemagne's army and, implicitly, for the intended readership/audience of The Song of Roland at the time when it was first written and recited. A view of Roland's position as a leader also emerges quite clearly from such an examination.

Leadership Qualities and Duties, and Roland's Measure

Decisiveness is one of the key leadership qualities demonstrated throughout The Song of Roland. The inciting incident of the story, when Roland proposes Guenes to be the negotiator for Charlemagne's army, happens with a great suddenness, with Roland instantly calling out the name in response to the Emperor's request (lines 274-8). It is ironic that this instance of decisiveness also leads to Roland's downfall, but the quick and sure decision making at this moment and at many others clearly demonstrates the desirability of this leadership quality.

The true marker of leadership in the epic, however, is a show of divine blessing for a leadership position. This is something that is seen far more in Charlemagne and even in other minor characters more than it is in Roland himself, and this could be an indicator of where Roland truly stood as a leader in his world and in the minds of those who were audience to the epic. In order to aid Charlemagne in his pursuit of the pagan hordes, God keeps the sun from setting in a direct homage to certain Biblical battles, and later in the epic divine intervention allows Guenes to be brought to punishment for his treason (2458-9; 3923). Though this is not so much an internal quality of the leaders themselves, God showing his favor to certain individuals is definitely evidence of their leadership capabilities.

Along with these specific qualities and capabilities, there are certain duties expected of leaders that appear to be especially important in The Song of Roland. Decision-making is obviously one of these duties, though this is already covered above; another highly important duty is to use those decisions to uphold specific moral principles, particularly valor. Roland cites his need to protect his own valor, and the valor of his Frankish men, in his refusal to blow the horn he wears that will bring Charlemagne and the rest of the Christian army to their aid at the outset of the ambush… [read more]

Leadership in Developing Book Review

… Leadership

In Developing the Leader within You, John Maxwell (1993) defines leadership simply as the ability to influence people. Leadership is "nothing more; nothing less" than influence (p. 1). Having followers is what defines a leader, not a title. Leadership can exist without an official position or status. In fact, many people with titles or official positions of power are inefficient or ineffective leaders. A boss is not a leader; a boss is simply a boss. Maxwell sets out to define what leadership is, and how to develop leadership skills. The author notes that everyone has the potential to be a leader by developing innate skills and changing attitudes and perspectives. All people, claim Maxwell, are already influential. The key is capitalizing on the skills and potentials that already exist.

In Chapter Two, Maxwell emphasizes the importance of priorities and of setting goals. Leadership depends on knowing what you want and how to get it. Achieving goals in turn depends on setting priorities and being aware of what tasks require the most amount of energy expenditure. Maxwell (1993) also defines success as "the progressive realization of a predetermined goal," (p. 19). To set priorities, it is crucial to rate tasks on their level of urgency or importance. Moreover, Maxwell (1993) applies the Pareto Principle to prioritizing. The Pareto Principle suggests that 80% of people at a picnic will consume 20% of the food. Applied to an organization, the Pareto Principle can help leaders become more effective and help their companies be more productive. The key is to spend 80% investment of time, energy, money on the 20% most important things. To be more efficient and productive depends not on how hard you work but on how smart you work (Maxwell 1993, p. 22).

Chapter Three is among the most philosophical of the book. Maxwell defines and discusses "the most important…… [read more]

Sinagua Leadership Essay

… ¶ … Singua High School

How to use the leadership power and influence of the administration to address the challenges of the diverse and socioeconomically challenged student body? Singua High School has an extremely diverse population: 15% of the student body is Native American, 8% are Hispanic and 11% of students are classified as having learning disabilities. The majority of the school is drawn from a rural population with poor access to social services. The families of the students often suffer from severe socio-economic challenges.

How to transform the attitude of the student body through leadership? The high school, as a result of these problems, had many at-risk students. Many students were on the precipice of dropping out of high school entirely. There were also substantial numbers of pregnant students and students with small children.


The school adopted a practical, situational leadership approach to the curriculum, adopting a diverse array of programs. Both Advanced Placement courses and vocational education was offered, along with opportunities to cross-register for classes at the local university. A comprehensive ESL program was instituted. The school set high expectations for all of its students. It showed its students the type of education to which they could aspire if they worked hard, but also realistically gave students the tools they needed to achieve those aims.

For students contemplating dropping out, Singua created a program called New Start that would enable students to complete high school courses independently. It…… [read more]

Servant Leadership in a Conflicted Church Thesis

Applying Servant Leadership within a Conflicted Church: The Project as an Act of Ministry

My church, the South Iowa Chapel, like many modern churches, is a church in conflict. Conflicted churches are problematic because they drive parishioners away from the… [read more]

Group Dynamics Term Paper

… Group Dynamics

In today's business world, companies are increasingly realizing the value of group work in order to further their mission and goals. Indeed, there is a rising trend in understanding that individual executive coaching and mentoring can be imperfect… [read more]

Psychology Emotional Intelligence Individual Development Plans Research Proposal

… Psychology

Emotional Intelligence

Individual Development Plans are an excellent way for a person to develop and motivate themselves. Professors can help their students to improve their job skills and become more effective and productive by encouraging a focused approach to their individual training and developmental needs. Professors who promote the use of IDP's also send a clear message to their students that they view each person's professional development as a priority. If done properly these can be a good motivator for most people (Jacobson, 2008).

In doing an IDP a person should try to identify developmental opportunities that will help them to build on their strengths. Developmental occasions can take many forms, and a mix of training and experiential learning should be included. Besides formal training in a classroom setting other excellent developmental opportunities include mentoring, distance learning through the internet, assignment to a project team, cross-training and involvement in outreach efforts (Jacobson, 2008).

Developing a good Individual Development Plan consists of many steps. The first thing that a person needs is a goal. There needs to be some kind of reason to develop. If there's no reason to improve or no motivation, then there's no reason to have an IDP (How to Write a Great Individual Development Plan (IDP), 2008). My goal is to improve my leadership skills. In developing leadership skills a person must first explore their Emotional intelligence. EI consists of the ability to perceive, control, and evaluate one's emotions (Van Wagner, 2010). Emotional Intelligence is made up of five basic competencies. Emotional self-awareness, emotional control and self-management, empathy, self-motivation, and the ability to manage relationships with other people (Emotional Intelligence Competencies, 2005).

These Emotional Intelligence competencies determine how we manage ourselves. Self-Awareness is the knowing of one's internal states, preferences, resources and intuitions. Emotional Awareness consists of recognizing one's emotions and their effects. Accurate Self-assessment is the process of knowing one's strengths and limits. Self-confidence is a strong sense of one's self-worth and capacities (Emotional Intelligence Competencies, 2005).

Self-Regulation is the managing of one's internal states, impulses and resources. This is made up of self-control which is keeping disruptive emotions and impulses in check, trustworthiness which is maintaining standards of honesty and integrity, conscientiousness which is the taking of responsibility for personal performance, adaptability which is the flexibility in handling change, innovation which is being comfortable with novel ideas, approaches and new information (Emotional Intelligence Competencies, 2005).

Self-motivation consists of the emotional tendencies that guide or facilitate us in reaching goals. These tendencies include:

Being achievement drive: striving to improve or meet a standard of excellence.

An organizational commitment: aligning with the goals of the group or organization.

Having initiative: readiness to act on opportunities.

Having optimism: persistence in pursuing goals despite obstacles and setbacks.

Social Competencies determine how we handle relationships. Social Awareness and Empathy is the awareness of other's feelings, needs and concerns. This is carried out by understanding others by sensing others' feelings and perspectives and taking an active interest in their concerns,… [read more]

Leading Teams Thesis

… Leadership

Leading Teams

Teams differ from other type of groups in that members are focused on a joint goal or product, such as a presentation, completing an exercise, taking notes, discussing a topic, writing a report, or creating a new design or prototype. A team is a group all working towards the same goal (What is a team, 2007).

Managers are often used to closely monitoring the work of their team members and imparting new skills by working side by side with them. If this is the case they often struggle significantly when they work in a virtual management situation. The manger often feels as if he is not in touch and cannot hold team members accountable for their work. Team leaders often find that their management style, based on certain cultural assumptions, may not align with the various team members' expectations of leadership. Differences along these dimensions can be a reflection of country, functional, regional, corporate, and other cultures (Leading Virtual Teams, 2009).

When a team leader can better understand their own work style and how it is similar to and different from team members and how that impacts team performance, they can then build concrete strategies for bridging the gap. Strategies that foster the skill of style switching have proven critical in leading virtual, global teams. As the leader increases their skills in bridging the differences and modifying his leadership style, he builds the ability to leverage the diversity in the team as an asset (Leading Virtual Teams, 2009).

When global teams are formed, issues often emerge such as how to divide work between sites and how to handle organizational resistance. Frequently, individuals believe their jobs are threatened; they experience a loss of control over the overall success of their work, and they fear the possibility of being relocated internationally. These feelings of alienation make building strong relationships and building trust within teams even more difficult. When teams are located all in one place, they are able to build relationships informally through their daily activities. With global, virtual teams the lack of this relationship building time is especially challenging for team members whose work style is more relationship than task oriented (Leading Virtual Teams, 2009).

There are several things that team leaders can do to increase the level of trust and the strength of relationships within their teams. One of the strategies that team leaders can use to build cognitive trust is to create a clear vision, and roles related to that vision, that bind a team together. The team leader can also add to the cognitive trust of the team by giving team members data on why the team members were chosen to be a part of the team, information about the qualifications (Leading Virtual Teams, 2009).

When members of virtual, global teams are asked about the challenges they face, one of the most common complaints is about time zones. There is a constant flow of communication at all hours of the day and night. Team members… [read more]

Assessing Organizational Capacity for Change Thesis

… Leadership Decisions

Assessing Organizational Capacity for Change

Organizational leadership, decision-making, and change

Determine the feasibility of leadership solutions according to typology of decisions and decision-making

According to the Vroom-Yetton Model of organizational leadership and decision-making, there is no singular leadership or decision-making style that is ideal: rather it depends on the type of proposed change for the organization that is under consideration. For example, when making a decision that requires a definitive response and is likely to be supported by the majority of the organization, an Autocratic I (AI) model of decision-making may be acceptable. In this model, the leader makes a unilateral decision, based upon information to which only he or she is privy. Another type of autocratic decision-making model, the Autocratic II (AII) approach, is when the leader solicits information from others and then makes the decision independently. This presumes that the leaders' followers have value only as source of data, not as decision-makers and there is already strong support for the type of change proposed by the leader (Shackleton 1995, p.34).

If the decisions in question are divisive and the leader cannot obtain high-quality information to make the decision, the individuals solicited for input are likely to resent their subordinate status and the lack of respect the leader has shown for their intelligence and expertise. The group may then engage in passive acts of change resistance. The autocratic models should be avoided unless the decision is 'pro forma,' requires little input or commitment from others, and the leader has enough information to make a good decision, based his or her personal basis of information.

In the Collaborative I (CI) model of decision-making the leader shares the problem or proposal with certain trusted associates as individuals and then makes his or her decision alone. This has the benefit of generating honest input from others, without social pressures. But if the followers are aware that this is the decision-making method being deployed, it can stimulate political in-fighting, as they try to undercut the advice given by their rivals to the leaders. It is not advisable to use this model when there is a low degree of congruence between the personal agendas of the subordinates and the larger organizational mission.

In the Collaborative II (CII) model, followers are assembled as a group, give their input, and the leader makes the final decision. Collaborative types of models are likely to be superior when a heavy amount of 'buy-in' is required, but ultimately a single decision needs to…… [read more]

Leadership Approach to Help in Motivating Inspiring and Energizing Employees in Prime Gold Plus Research Proposal

… Prime Gold Motivation

The Leadership Approach to help in Motivating, Inspiring and Energizing employees in Prime Gold Plus.

A challenge commonly encountered by businesses and professional organizations alike is in the motivation of personnel to perform and to succeed. This… [read more]

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