"Leadership / Mentoring" Essays 771-840

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Business a Review of "Onward Book Report

… Schultz has demonstrated that as a leader he was able to assess what was going on in the company, and identify what needed to be done to change. However, the change can be brought about simply with a few hours… [read more]

Prejudice There Are Several Ways Term Paper

… A third way that I can reduce prejudice in the workplace is to change the way that organizations understand prejudice. First, there must be a working definition of prejudice so that managers understand what it is that they are dealing with. Clawson (2008) offers one, and makes the point that when it is clearly defined, everybody in the organization can work together to eliminate it. This way, each person within the organization will be empowered to perform the individual tasks of understanding prejudice and eliminating it -- this work must be done at the org culture level, and not simply rely on management to make it happen.

Institutional prejudice is a big issue, and I can also help to spearhead a move to root that out. There might be prejudice embedded in policies, and the result of that is that these policies would need to be identified and then changed. The result of this is probably that I can take charge of this situation, but also to encourage others to look at their policies and whether they are discriminatory. It might also be good to spearhead an initiative to talk to minority groups and find out if they are feeling like any policies have embedded prejudice, and work to change those policies that are identified.

By doing these three things, I can play an important role in the organization in reducing prejudice. I do this by reducing my own prejudice levels through self-awareness, by setting a strong Level 5 leadership example for the organization and my peers, and also by placing focus on eliminating prejudice from the organization's culture and its formal institutions and policies as well.


Bruner, B. (2012). Leveraging difference makes a competitive difference. Darden. Retrieved February 17, 2014 from https://blogs.darden.virginia.edu/deansblog/2012/03/leveraging-difference-makes-a-competitive-difference/

Clawson, J. (2008). Prejudice in organizations. Darden.

Collins, J. (2005). Level 5 leadership: The triumph of humility and fierce resolve. Harvard Business Review. Retrieved February 17, 2014…… [read more]

Multiple Theories in Research Two Essay

… ¶ … Multiple Theories in Research

Two theoretical notions that guide Caron and Rosette (2011) study on biases against black leaders are that black's success comes from superior athletics skills while the white success is attributed to their smartness and leadership ability. These notions have greatly impacted how black leaders are evaluated. When black leaders perform poorly in whatever activity s/he is assigned to do people will be quick to say that black folks are not as intelligent, determined or decisive and are therefore not good leaders. The situation is never the same when a black leader does an excellent work. However, the good performance is attributed to compensatory attributes like "he has survival skills'. Good performance is never attributed to actual leadership competence. Evaluation of ones work is therefore based on his/her skin color rather than the actual behavior. Bringing into perspective black and white quarterbacks in Major League Baseball't evaluate the use of the incompetence stereotype or the compensatory talents, black quarterbacks who lost were described as incompetent leaders than white quarterbacks. There were no differing descriptions when the white and the black quarterbacks both won. When black quarterbacks won they were praised for athleticism much more often than the white quarterbacks to infer that black success comes from superior athletics skills while the white success comes from smarts and leadership ability. Black leaders are also down-graded because of their skin colors especially in law firms operated by black and white partners. Metrics used in evaluation are often subjective and do not measure concrete and behavioral issues. I find it very contradictory to allude that African-Americans cannot be good leaders when they perform dismally in their leadership responsibilities while at the same time aver that African's leadership prowess is pure luck and that theirs cannot be tied to leadership ability. Why is it then that white success comes from smarts and leadership ability?

Carton and Rosette are adamant that evaluators keep changing goal posts when it comes to evaluation of black leader's performance outcomes. The duo draws this inference from a popular belief that blacks are not intelligent, determined, or decisive and cannot therefore make good leaders. Unfortunately, this does not feature when a black leader performs well. However, compensatory attributes are attributed to such leader instead of attributing this successful to his actual leadership competence. Core competency is explained away as opposed to being recognized. Such stereotype allow simplistic cognitive shortcut that leads to a leap to negative evaluation based on ones skin color rather than his actual behavior. Black leaders are therefore labeled as incompetent when they fail to perform to others expectations while their white colleagues perceived to be smart and having inherent leadership ability. Blacks' leadership and organizational success are tied to perceptions that they are lucky or have compensatory attributes standing in for actual competence. Black leaders have consequently been down-graded because of their skin color. Under circumstances when there appears to be a gap in leadership skills of gifted black attorneys or… [read more]

Intra Agency Cooperation the Federal Term Paper

… Intra Agency Cooperation

The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) and the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) have contributed substantially to the development and security of this nation's military industrial complex which energizes the country's populace. These federal governmental organizations are similar… [read more]

Teams Virtual Term Paper

… Teams

Virtual teams face a number of challenges -- those common to all teams and those that are unique to the virtual team environment. A team is considered to be "two or more people who interact and coordinate their work to accomplish a specific goal" (Daft, 2010, 504). This is differentiated from a group in that there is a common goal that drives the team. There are a few dilemmas inherent in the team concept alone. These include the surrendering of independence, which causes conflict especially when one is being evaluated on individual and team outcomes simultaneously. Another issues is that there may be free riders on a team, which causes conflict with people who work harder, and ultimately some teams become dysfunctional (Daft, 2010, 505). Daft defines dysfunction as including a lack of trust, fear of conflict, lack of commitment, avoidance of accountability, inattention to results and more. In other words, there are a lot of problems that are inherent with teams.

In addition to the challenges faced be all teams, a virtual team faces unique challenges that relate to its virtual nature. A virtual team is comprised of members who are geographically dispersed, and who therefore are primarily linked through information and telecommunications technologies. Challenges virtual teams face include added difficulties in communication, cultural barriers, time zone differences, greater difficulty in forging team culture, unity and mission, and increased difficulty in monitoring team performance.

It is the team leader's job to manage the virtual team effectively. The managers who put the teams together in particular bear responsibility because it is important to get the composition of the team right in order for the team to be effective. Furthermore, each team member bears greater responsibility for the team outcomes. They need to work harder than in other teams to form the right mindset, and ensure that there is cohesion among team members and adherence to group norms.

In addition to team leadership as a method of solving problems, there are specific things that the management of the virtual team can do in order to ensure success of the virtual team. Three things in particular are the use of technology to build relationships, shape culture and to monitor progress (Daft, 2010, 510). Technology is the key element to the success of virtual teams. In part, this is self-evident because technology is the facilitating factor that allow virtual teams to exist in the first place. However, it is worth taking some extra time to understand the critical role that technology plays in ensuring the success of virtual teams.

The first thing is that technology needs to be used to build relationships. Daft (2010, 511) notes that Nokia's successful…… [read more]

Trust Matters Essay

… Trust Matters Reflection

In the book Trust Matters: Leadership for Successful Schools, by Megan Tschannen-Moran (2004), the author addresses the importance of trust issues in schools. Trust is a valuable part of leadership, especially in schools where there are many impressionable young minds. Creating and maintaining trust are both very important, and the only way to do those things is to develop an understanding of how they should be done. While the book is geared toward educators, anyone who is looking for more trust in his or her life can use the book to gain valuable insight. Without trust, an organization will not be effective (Tschannen-Moran, 2004). If the people in an organization do not trust one another, they cannot work in teams properly because they expect others to sabotage them or to not do their parts of the job properly (Tschannen-Moran, 2004). There are five main and important facets of trust discussed throughout the book, and these are honesty, openness, benevolence, competence, and reliability (Tschannen-Moran, 2004).

Additionally, there are also five functions of leadership that are only going to be successful if trust is part of the equation. Those five leadership functions are modeling, coaching, visioning, meditating, and managing (Tschannen-Moran, 2004). While not every leader in every school is going to be an ideal leader, many of them can learn more effective ways to handle their duties by cultivating trust with others (Tschannen-Moran, 2004). In other words, leaders are only effective if they trust and work with one another, and students are only going to follow and respect leaders they trust. If there is no trust, there is no basis for a relationship between leaders or between leaders and followers (Tschannen-Moran, 2004). That is true for schools, but also true for families, companies, and organizations. In the book the focus is on trust in education, but the information provided can certainly be extrapolated out and used in other situations…… [read more]

LMX Theory Term Paper

… They are all part of the same 'system' yet view the organization and the environment from slightly different ways. One person may pick up on something another might not: the key is a bringing-together, however, and the 'whole' of the collective perspective is always greater than the part.

This is instructive in light of LMX theory because, like LMX, Senge stresses the human component of strategic analysis that cannot be ignored. Interpersonal relations affect strategy and organizational growth. However, in light of LMX concepts, Senge's advice suggests that basing relationships too much upon levels of personal comfort might inhibit organizational growth and be the source of creative roadblocks in business. It is all too common for managers to structure their inner circle with 'yes people' who think like them and do not challenge them, preventing the full benefits of holistic analysis to be enjoyed.

Agree or disagree?

I have personally seen the 'dark side' of LMX theory in action, whereby in a workplace favoritism and a sense that certain people are 'like us' have resulted in talented people from being excluded from the critical inner circle of decision-makers, thus depriving the organization as a whole in the long run of unique and diverse voices. Ultimately, everyone is hurt in the long run, for as Senge says, all functioning and vital parts of the organization must come together in a seamless and integrated whole. Senge's timely analysis is an important antidote to the 'groupthink' that often pervades modern organizations.


Northouse, P.G. (2013). Leadership: Theory and practice. 6th Edition. Thousand Oaks, CA:

Sage Publications.

Senge, P.M. (2006). The fifth discipline: The art and practice of the learning organization.

Revised and Updated Edition. New York: Currency Doubleday.

Sims, R.S. & Quatro, S.A. eds. (2005). Leadership: Succeeding in the private, public, and not - for profit sectors. Armonk,…… [read more]

Employment Motivation and Engagement Essay

… Journal of Law and Health, 17(2), 385-386.

Weiner, B. 1980. Human Motivation. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Wilson, S.B. 2008. Goal Setting: How to Create an Action Plan and Achieve Your Goals. New York: AMACOM.

Wilson, I. & Madsen, S.R. 2008, April. The Influence of Maslow's Humanistic Views on an Employee's Motivation to Learn. Journal of Applied Management and Entrepreneurship,

13(2), 46-51

Ziegler, A. 2001, January 1. Achievement Motivation and Implicit Theories of Intelligence.

Psychologische Beitrage, 43(1), 1-5

Neff, T.M. 2002. What successful companies know that law firms need to know: The importance of employee motivation and job satisfaction to increased productivity and stronger client relationships. Journal of Law and Health, 17(2), 385.

Alderman, M. Kay. 2004. Motivation for Achievement: Possibilities for Teaching and Learning. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 37.

Little, B. & Little, P. 2006, January 1. Employee Engagement: Conceptual Issues. Journal of Organizational Culture, Communications and Conflict, 10(1), 112.

Little & Little, p. 111.

Weiner, B. 1980. Human Motivation. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 92.

Ziegler, A. 2001, January 1. Achievement Motivation and Implicit Theories of Intelligence. Psychologische Beitrage, 43(1), 1.

Wilson, I. & Madsen, S.R. 2008, April. The Influence of Maslow's Humanistic Views on an Employee's Motivation to Learn. Journal of Applied Management and Entrepreneurship, 13(2), 47.

Khandekar, R.P. 2012, August. Interacting Sets of Contradictory Human Needs as Drivers of Human Behavior. Indian Journal of Economics and Business, 11(2), 323.

Ibid., 323.

Barbuto, J.E., Fritz, S.M. & Plummer, B.A. 2004, September. Is There a Difference between Agriculture/Natural Resources and Non-Agriculture/Natural Resources Majors' Motivation Sources? NACTA Journal, 48(3), 30.

Lawerence, P. & Norhira, N. 2001. Driven: How Human Nature Shapes our Choices. San Fransico, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Isaac, R.G., Zerbe, W.J. & Pitt D.C. 2001, Summer. Leadership and Motivation: The Effective Application of Expectancy Theory. Journal of Managerial Issues, 13(2), 212.

Liao, H-L & Liu S-H. 2011, March. Modeling Motivations for Blogging: An Expectancy Theory Analysis. Social Behavior and Personality: an international journal, 39(2), 252.

Wilson, S.B. 2008. Goal Setting: How to Create an Action Plan and Achieve Your Goals. New York: AMACOM,…… [read more]

Leader an Important Essay

… NINE: I wouldn't say this principal has charisma, but she does inspire others on staff by her work ethic, her attention to detail, and her camaraderie with the faculty. She sponsors a staff picnic every spring (at a picnic facility by the town lake) and a holiday party in December; she creates a relaxed atmosphere of fun, food, and she goes out of her way to buy fun raffle prizes.

TEN: The principal has established a positive relationship with not only parents but with community leaders in business and government. She is very adept at getting in-kind donations from businesses that help the school (a sporting goods store recently installed basketball backboards and nets on the playground), and she makes sure students write snail-mail thank you letters. (She provides the stamps.)

What characteristics does this effective leader have? Why are these important? How can they be cultivated in others, including you?

The ten leadership characteristics provided in this paper help to answer those questions. While she is showing strong managerial skills -- leadership requires the use of certain key managerial skills -- she is above all a leader concerned first and foremost that students are engaged in the learning process and enjoying the experience as well. She is not a power broker, because as mentioned she encourages faculty to research proposals and come to a consensus on what should be done in the school; transformational leadership calls for involving all parties in decision making and she does that very effectively. Another characteristic that this principal exhibits is a willingness to engage with all cultures represented in her school. Last summer she attended Spanish language classes and is determined to be reasonably fluent within the next two years. She wants to be able to interact with the parents of Latino immigrant children in her school. These are important leadership traits, and in just the few days I shadowed her, that enthusiasm had a positive effect on my own view of public school management.

Does she lack any traditional leadership qualities? If so, which ones?

Perhaps some people would feel that transformational leadership is not traditional, and that a "traditional leader" makes sure all the power comes from the top down. However, this is not her style. The very fact that nearly 35% of her students are Latino, and that she is taking classes to learn Spanish, should tell anyone paying attention that this principal is very competent and very concerned that the students get the best possible education. The answer is she does not lack traditional leadership qualities.

Does the leader have any surprising qualities? If yes, discuss them.

I would say a principal that takes the time and effort to learn another language so she can better relate to the parents of her minority students has qualities that are unexpected. In the Alberta Journal of Educational Research the authors describe a "…moral transformative" leader as one that knows how to "…unearth how leadership practices generate and perpetuate inequities" that keep… [read more]

Managing People. Module Essay

… These new rules for the work team enabled the leaders to fortunately press the 'reset' button and a clear team vision statement and goal was written out, along with the objectives and the deliverables of the project. There was some… [read more]

Lifeline Management Principles and Theories Term Paper

… It is therefore a practical matter to esteem the values of authentic leadership at Lifeline or be prepared to be called out on the false motives. One's heart must be in alignment with the goals an objective of an organization such as Lifeline where authentic leadership is a centerpiece to this approach.

Part 4: Evaluation

Although I am generally pleased with my organization's performance and leadership style, I do believe there is work to be done in order to reach a higher level. Regarding intuition and gut instinct, some leaders are often hesitant to address this matter in any serious manner leaving many workers to simply to employ their own intuition without any direct order from leadership. In some ways it appears somewhat silly to enforce intuition since its origin cannot be accurately traced.

Instead, Lifeline should be a little more open about the touchy/feely aspects that accompany a transformational shift from the intellect to the darker and more esoteric factions of the mind. This is more or less a reflection of the community itself and the obvious repression of these tools and skills. Leadership treats intuition in very off-handed approach where each individual is expected to use their "gut" when they deem it is necessary. This two edged sword is both beneficial and harmful depending on the situation and the circumstances, but either way it is neither properly addressed or classified.

The leadership at Lifeline is mostly authentic using George's definition and parameters of the idea. Most employees I am associated with, appear to live very balanced lives and are looking to give back to the community and help others that appear to have severe imbalances present in their lives. Many co-workers are friends and attend social activities together outside of work further demonstrating an authentic workplace with authentic and real leadership that binds the members together even when not at the workplace.

The serious and often sad nature of our work requires an authentic approach. Human lives are very much at risk if our work fails and our community will suffer as well. At Lifeline we transcend the normal workplace and realize that our jobs have a special implication and our moral and ethical standards need to be aligned with those of the community and political factions of our region.

Balance and harmony are key components of authentic leadership and my assessment is that we do in fact generally produce a balanced approach even though we fail quite often at many sub-tasks. As humans, we need problems to motivate us and keep us on our toes to make life interesting, challenging and rewarding. This is essentially the case at Lifeline and I am very…… [read more]

Lessons Senge Provides That Relates Term Paper

… This gap must be addressed by means of effective leadership.

I do not believe that leadership style needs to affect one's ability to pursue epersonal mastery and manage mental models. Indeed, reflection and inquiry are skills required to determine one's leadership style. How to use this to effectively address the gap between current situation and vision requires both personal mastery and managing mental models. Hence, I do not believe that a factor that concerns one's inherent nature as a leader should or does affect one's ability to manage factors that can be changed and are determine by external elements.

In reaction to the response, it makes a particularly good point regarding slowing down our thinking in a world that is increasingly fast paced, not only in terms of the work we are required to do, but also in terms of the information that bombards us on a daily basis. These two factors combined requires quick thinking and decision-making, which makes it very difficult to take time for reflection, learning, or conscious self-management. Hence Senge's core disciplines are important indeed in the business context, where decision-making and leadership have the potential to affect tens or even thousands of people.

I also think the second paragraph of the response connects nicely with the first in terms of the way a person thinks and forms opinions, which is often so quick that one is not even aware of it. This paragraph provides a nice focus on the human aspect of business, where the first paragraph considered thinking about situations related to business.

As shown in my own response, I agree completely with the final part of the given response. It makes no difference where a person is on the leadership scale. Each leader has the necessary mental faculties to develop mental management models and to achieve personal mastery. Leadership style is innate. The disciplines can…… [read more]

Activity I Completed Essay

… Therefore, if there is something in my personal life that would make me appear less capable of leadership, it would be important to keep that information as private as possible.


This activity helped me to exemplify a number of the American College of Education Educational Leadership Dispositions. One of the most salient of these is excellence, the area in which I was trying to improve. I believe that I increased my capacity for excellence by learning the value of professional and social networking, which is an integral part of earning promotions and inspiring followers.

It also directly allowed me to exemplify the virtues of lifelong learning by interacting with others pursuing this goal (such as Mr. Williams) as well as by helping students get the tools to achieve this end. Lifelong learning is my greatest strength among these dispositions; it was good to be in a situation in which I could help motivate others to adopt this habit as well.


Adamek, M.S. (2007, July 1). Elements of leadership development: What contributes to effective leadership? Music Therapy Perspectives, 25(2), 121-125.

Roof, J. & Presswood, K. (2004,…… [read more]

Fiedler's Contingency Theory the Overarching Research Paper

… " (Northouse p. 129)

The wealth of evidence given to support Fiedler's Contingency Theory does not significantly alter my view that the model is inherently flawed. In fact, this may well be the ideal demonstration of a theory which succeeds far better in the experimental context than in the real-world. As the critique provided by Northouse indicates, implementation of this model in an actual organizational setting can be extremely cumbersome and rife with obstacles. Noth the least among them is the personnel at any given organization. The risks of resistance and turnover may be higher in a contingency leadership context based on the degree of effort, resource and reform dedicated to creating a company which is compatible with the leader in question. One is inclined to wonder why this would ever be preferable to the selection of a leader for whom no change is required but who is inherently capable of demonstrating flexibility, versatility and dynamism. Indeed, these are traits that we commonly associate with leadership based on the effectiveness typically demonstrated thereby.

Post Response:

I find, in light of my own response to Fiedler's Contingency Theory, that I am in total agreement with the commentary made by my piers. Indeed, in addition to my grievances with the philosophical premise of this model, I am inclined to share the sentiment that the LPC is a test with poor reliability given its reliance on self-report.

Question 2:

In chapter 8 and 9 of the Fifth Discipline Senge proposes that leaders must be adept at pursuing personal mastery (lifelong learning and growth) and at managing mental models (understanding and challenging our presuppositions). What are the 2 or 3 most salient lessons…… [read more]

Employee: How Companies Profit Term Paper

… Intrinsic motivation is also necessary, which can be fostered through informal mentorship, supporting employee education, and keeping channels of communication and dialogue open between employees and employers.

Also, in the One Minute Manager, is management based on goal setting, praise, and verbal reprimand seem like a reasonable and comprehensive approach to management? Do you think one technique should be emphasized more than the other?

I believe that all three components when properly implemented are necessary techniques to use in effective management. Goal-setting is essential, given that employees need to know what they are expected to achieve. Otherwise, the office will deteriorate into a state of chaos and frustration. Personal rivalries and agendas are apt to come to the forefront, unless a common vision and mission is conveyed, along with short-term and long-term goal-setting to achieve that mission. However, in addition to the all-important creation of viable goals is the need to offer feedback to employees so they understand that they are making progress -- or, conversely, that they need to work on specific issues. Praise and rebuke should not be thought of solely in terms of extrinsic carrot-and-stick approaches. Instead, the emphasis should be on giving positive feedback about the things that do go well -- and immediate negative feedback when things do not go well. Feedback enables employees to better meet goals and eliminates the frustration when they receive poor performance reviews when they did not know they were doing…… [read more]

Self-Reflection Is Critical Essay

… While others viewed leadership as an external event, I have influenced them to acknowledge that it is an intimate expression of my personality. This suggests that this course has changed my influence by enabling me to tell others what to do. I have achieved this through thinking about how my actions reflect myself. Therefore, I have learned to think broadly instead of brainstorming what actions to take in a situation. I have influenced my subjects to develop a broad view of the world especially on the effect of the messages they send to others.

This course changed my view on paradigms. As a result, I have been able to impart this influence on others, too. Paradigms have helped me understand someone's diverse views regarding reality. As mental models, paradigms have made major contributions in structuring my thoughts and guiding how others think. Such an influence makes great sense of all information other people encounter by influencing where they pay attention, how to pay attention, how they should interpret things and how they should draw conclusions (Kotter, 2009).

My influence is guided by a series of unconscious presumptions that I carry to make sense of what others experience. I have influenced people to develop paradigms over time from their environment, cultural niche, and rules governing their behavior. My influence has been useful because it has helped people structure how to act and think in different situations. As I seek to influence others, I aspire to reach a leadership level where I would recognize that people have different ways of thinking. When I view people with differing paradigms as thinking in an immoral, unpredictable, irrational, unethical, and confusing, it would frequently create conflicts.


Kotter, J.P. (2009). John P. Kotter on what leaders really do. Boston:…… [read more]

Likeability Is Effected by Management Dissertation

… The best leaders are able to balance the emotional and the logical, underscoring the need for continual improvement and innovation to ensure challenging objectives are accomplished (Den, Deanne & Belschak, 2012). Theorists and researchers alike show that just creating a… [read more]

Qualities of an Effective Leader Term Paper

… The Behavior of Effective Leaders

Gary Yukl uses the peer-reviewed Academy of Management Perspectives journal to present what he has learned about effective leadership; Yukl has studied various research projects on leadership qualities that have been published over the past fifty years (Yukl, 2012, 66). Yukl refers to a "…bewildering variety of behavior constructs" that he has discovered in doing this research on leadership (66). A great deal of the research that Yukl reviewed (especially research projects that had been launched between 1960 and 1980) emphasized how leaders tend to influence subordinates and the research zeroed in on "…task-oriented and relations-oriented behavior" (Yukl, 69). When studying task-related had to do with making sure people and equipment are used in a way that is efficient, Yukl explains (69). Subsequent to the 1980s, the research that Yukl reviewed has been based on theories of "…transformational and charismatic leadership" (69).

What has emerged from these studies of existing research are a number of behaviors that can be culled out from those existing surveys and presented as effective paths for today's leaders to follow. Leaders need to do the following to be effective, according to Yukl: a) planning (getting solid information from colleagues, subordinates, bosses and outsiders); b) clarifying (setting clear and achievable goals and clarifying those goals for improved performance); c) monitoring (closely observing whether or not assignments are being carried out); d) solving problems (intervening when necessary to quickly identify the cause of a problem); e) supporting (which enhances work relationships); f). developing (insisting that employees are upgraded in their skills through training); g) empowering (giving authority / delegating to others); and ushering in change (Yukl, 70-73).

Ushering in change is done through advocacy for change, having a vision about what change is needed, encouraging innovation for change, and "facilitating collective learning" (Yukl, 73).

What Makes Change Leaders Effective?

Sometimes strong leaders make a classic mistake by declaring that they have won before they actually should be claiming victory; they fail because they didn't execute the change initiative properly and claiming they have won is an excuse for not completing the project. That leader, considered a bad leader, will tell his employees that change will be "messy" and that is a mistake because it is a negative theme when all change themes should be positive (Miller, 2002). But the "good leader" will first be positive by building "high levels of commitment and resolve" and he will institute the right framework for change through discipline and adaptability (Miller, 359). Being adaptable helps "navigate change successfully" and the facts are that 7 out of 10 change leaders don't know how to navigate the challenges associated with change (Miller, 360). In fact: 28% of organizational change efforts "are abandoned before completion"; 46% get behind schedule and go over budget; and 80% do not get implemented the way in which they were supposed to be implemented (Miller 360). Why? For two reasons: one, the leader is not capable of being adaptable to chance himself; and two,… [read more]

Staffing Organizations Changing a Promotion System Essay

… CSD is not aligning the necessary skill sets for success at a particular job with the qualifications of the persons being hired. Tom is a highly competent salesman, but the personal qualities, skill sets, and experience of being in sales do not necessarily align with that of a manager. To some extent, this is unsurprising, given that little in Tom's background has prepared him for his current position. CSD does not seem to offer a mentoring program to groom entry-level persons for leadership positions. It also takes a purely horizontal view of the promotions process. Once someone has proven himself to be successful in one position, the employee is promoted until he is no longer competent.

CSD could have prepared Tom for a managerial position with training and grooming early on in his career, once he distinguished himself as a salesperson and showed initiative and drive. This could have cultivated the other skills necessary for Tom to shine as a manager that were not necessarily honed in sales. Or, the company could have given Tom additional responsibilities in sales (such as training new hires in sales techniques that worked) and hired a manger from outside the company. Instead, CSD now has the 'worst of all worlds.' Tom is no longer doing what he does best as a salesman and is instead an incompetent manager. Tom will not be able to rise up through the company, given his current poor ratings. The company is denied the ability to have a competent manager in this critical position. Tom's career is thwarted. There also seems to be no mechanism to move Tom into a position for which he might be better-suited. While the company is considering investing in some additional training for Tom, it would have been cheaper and less painful to train Tom while he was still moving up through the company. Tom would have then been prepared to have been a manager, or, if unable to grasp these skills, the company would have known not to promote him to a managerial position in the first place.

Q2. Promotions at the company cannot be viewed as a 'reward' for company loyalty or even success at a lower-level position. The exact specifications needed to be fulfilled for every position must be reviewed. In the case of a manager, the ability to work well with others, delegate, and supervise are needed -- not necessarily the qualities a good salesman possesses. This does not mean that someone in sales cannot learn these skills, but there must be some sort of proven ability to fulfill these functions to justify a promotion. That is why talent-spotting, training, and evaluation of candidates long before the promotional process occurs is so vital and relevant.

Talent must be 'groomed' for a long period of time before an employee assumes a leadership position. Mentoring and training programs can help screen out candidates who are not good fits for…… [read more]

Response to Issues in Health Care Management MBA Annotated Bibliography

… ¶ … Health Care Management

Leadership abilities can be stemmed from numerous angles and many companies have a particular design of leadership. Many of these designs originate from researches and patterns of development. Goleman (1998), in this post clarifies with images how leadership ought to be taken and how one's feelings play a big duty to an efficient design of leadership. The method you apply, the sort of individual you are and the activities you take are necessary in leadership abilities. Goleman worries that leaders must have this as an essential part of their everyday inspirational capability. In the research discussed by Goleman on inspiring others, completion outcomes are rooted in the feelings of the team of sales individuals. The optimists were more persevering which resulted in prospering in their objectives. Goleman goes on to discuss that feelings have no obstacles when they become infectious; they stream from manager to worker or worker to worker. The means through which any leader settles disagreements must be performed in ways that reveal cases of staff members' finest capability. In Goleman's perception of the 3 levels of group efficiency, he highlights that a team coming together with a favorable attitude can one-up that one marketer that has actually been labeled by the company as the very best. Goleman explains this kind of group as a superlative group. Goleman concluded with the concept that leaders must want to get time to instruct workers to carry their feelings in favorable instructions. This will cause extraordinary development of the staff members as well as the company.

Summary 2

McCrimmon (2005) in this post proposes to communicate his take on the very best kind of leadership. The excellences of companies are from thought leadership and he goes on to contrasts this with the idea of shared leadership that primarily concentrates on their distinctions and not their resemblances. His description of thought leadership comes down to the amount of money leverage we have more than the concepts that we consider each day. Generally, the position of an individual does not make him or her the leader. He shows thought leadership by utilizing examples in numerous ways that companies and lifestyles integrate it in daily life. From his examples, people have abilities that they did not understand they had till they shared that ability with another person or a team of individuals. This isn't really constantly the case, he mentions. There are circumstances where thought leadership has actually been rejected within companies however those concepts were not helpful beyond that company. In his essential qualities of thought leadership, there is no procedure to how it needs to happen. He simply asserts that as soon as the concept has actually been shared, the leader either stands a possibility of going up within that business or handing the baton to somebody greater in rank. McCrimmon asserts that though leadership is the core foundation of companies with cutting-edge concepts, unlike shared…… [read more]

Assistant Principal Assistant Principle Scenario Term Paper

… Assistant Principal

Assistant Principle Scenario

What will be your first job here?

As the only Assistant Principal assigned to Misery high school by the district, as opposed to having been selected by the new head principal, I can assume entering into this new environment that I am the senior serving AP. This means that my very first job is to establish a role as a leader, mentor and organizer for other assistant principles. Collectively, it will be upon us to guide a new school with a high-risk student population to a place of cohesion and stability. A coordinated vision of leadership will be critical to achieving. I would consider it my first job to reach out to my fellow APs and get the process of collaboration moving forward.

How will you proceed?

I would proceed by calling for an informal gathering of the APs in a comfortable social setting. It will be important for our group to establish a sense of familiarity with one another and to find ourselves on the same page where leadership approach is concerned. Evidence suggests that the leadership and cohesion we show as a unit will be observed and assimilate by the teachers as well. According to Spillane (2003), "over the past few decades researchers have consistently reported that school leadership, principal leadership in particular, is critical in developing and sustaining those school-level conditions believed essential for instructional improvement." (Spillane, 2003; p. 343)

This means that our ability to achieve a sense of unity will translate to a similar ability for our entire faculty. Given the considerable challenges ahead, it seems absolutely critical that we…… [read more]

Job an Assessment of Inside Term Paper

… They seem so coin-operated and myopic, it is easy to imagine them as small retailers haggling over a discount with a supplier of just a few dollars. Instead, they are haggling over millions, and yet they lack even the self-awareness of their myopic, very short-term and transitionally-based mindset. Lacking in many of them is evidence of the ability to provide individualized consideration to their staffs who are clearly struggling with ethical decision-making, and there are also examples of many of the leaders lacking idealized influence from an ethical standpoint as well, two of the critical building blocks of transformational leadership (Marsh, 2013). The paradox of these leaders from an ethical standpoint can also be seen in how intellectual stimulation and inspirational motivation are guided by greed instead of the ethical growth of their businesses (Marsh, 2013).

Accountability is also lacking throughout the entire mindset and perspective of these leaders as well. A core aspect of ethical leadership is the ability to infuse a high level of accountability and ethical performance into any organizational culture (Bauman, 2013). One of the driving forces of the major paradox the firm presents in the lack of ethical accountability over defrauding smaller investors and knowingly driving large transactions that would lead to foreclosures. With a lack of accountability the duplicity of leaders to do what their own interests dictate overtake the ethical common good which is the very foundation of utilitarian ethics (Marsh, 2013). Without that foundation, the decisions of these financial leaders nearly crushed the economic system of a nation.

The restructuring attempts made by the executives were feeble at best, merely window dressing to keep the regulators from issuing indictments. The role of restructuring needed to have a strong element of legislative force and laws to them in order to be effective (Baber, 2013). Instead nearly all the main executives involved in the crisis are free today, enjoying fortunes made at the expenses of literally millions of others who had worked their entire lives to afford homes. Instead of looking at how to restructure debt and the financial transactions to help solve the crisis, in many cases these executives looked to further complicate them, adding to their wealth at the expense of others.


Baber, G. (2013). A critical examination of the legislative response in banking and financial regulation to issues related to misconduct in the context of the crisis of 2007-2009. Journal of Financial Crime, 20(2), 237-252.

Bauman, D.C. (2013). Leadership and the three faces of integrity. Leadership Quarterly, 24(3), 414.

Marsh, C. (2013). Business executives' perceptions…… [read more]

Military Experience Relates to HR Essay

… These skills play a vital role in my life and they highly motivated me during my service time. For instance, in a tough situation, I maturely deal with the arising issues and make the wisest decisions than I did before… [read more]

Service Learning Project Working in Teams Essay

… Service Learning Project

Working in teams provides us with an opportunity to accomplish more than we would if we worked individually, yet we can also learn a lot about ourselves as part of this process. In this course, I had… [read more]

George Hanbury, Alka Sapat Essay

… The individual's personality will have a similar impact on fitness. A person who is more serious will not be as easily accepted in a workplace environment that is used to being lighter and more humorous just as a looser individual will be less likely to fit in an office which has hitherto been all business. Perception will also impact fitness in that the way that an individual presents him or herself will be directly related to the way that he or she views himself. If they believe themselves to have certain characteristics then they will be far more likely to depend on these characteristics in dealing with their employees. The same holds true for the way that the individual is perceived by others, particularly members of the city council or people who are also in positions of authority. The way that they view a city manager will influence the level of freedom that the manager is granted and how much the council acts in opposition or in support to that person. Demographics and their relationship to fitness have a great deal to do with the characteristics of the city in question. Within any environment there is statistical evidence to show that the people who populate the area tend to prefer members of government or other local authority offices where the person looks like them in some way. Whether it is ethnicity, nationality, religion, or gender, there is a tendency to vote in or support the appointment of a person who is representative of the majority civilian population.

The researchers found that there is statistical evidence to prove the validity of the fit model of leadership. Further they were able to determine six different criteria by which a leadership's fitness could be evaluated. Although each of these determinations, save for demographics, is a subjective evaluation and therefore it is possible for findings to be biased based on those examining the person's fitness.

Works Cited

Hanbury, G., Sapat, A., & Washington, C. (2004). Know yourself and take charge of your own destiny: the 'fit model' of leadership. Public…… [read more]

Organizational Design Hax and Majluf's ) Essay

… Organizational Design

Hax and Majluf's (1981) in their article titled "Organizational Design: A Survey and an Approach" provide eight of the most common symptoms of an inadequate organizational structure. This study focuses on how deficiencies in motivation or leadership contribute to the structural problems in organizations (Hax & Majluf, 2001). Abraham Maslow has arguably stated that human need is a psychological or physiological deficiency, which human beings feel that it should be satisfied. Human needs can create tension, which eventually influences work behaviors and attitudes of people. Maslow developed his theory founded on how he has defined needs proposing that people get motivated through an assortment of needs. Further, he claims that these human needs come in a hierarchy. Maslow's premise implies that if human needs remain unsatisfied, the work behaviors and attitudes can be influenced; people are motivated by unsatisfied needs (Dessler, 2006).

According to Maslow, along with learning, attitude, personality and perception, motivation is an integral component in understanding employee behaviors and attitudes. Organizations should not think that motivation is the only way of explaining employee behavior because it acts and interfaces with the working environment and other processes of mediation. Behavior is easily seen and should not be equated with precipitators of behavior. In restricting the central purpose of motivation, Maslow believes that future research studies should focus on behavior. There are abound definitions of behavior. However, these definitions have similarities such as incentives, goals, aims, wishes, want and desire. As we have seen the definition provided by Maslow, motivation is a need that activates a person's attitude of behavior. Therefore, motivation processes are grounded on associations among incentives, drives and needs. In this case, the aspect of motivation revolves around three interdependent and interacting elements; incentives, drives and needs (Hax & Majluf, 2001).

Researchers have established that motivation is the main factor going into the performance of an employee. Other facets such as working conditions, resources, and ability are not of much importance. It has been presumed that organizations have run short of motivation for their employees, thus the need of replenishing it periodically. All these indicate that motivation is the…… [read more]

Mahatma Gandhi Qualities I Admire Term Paper

… During the British invasion, he led protest movements against the forces of colonialism. Mahatma Gandhi is such a strong individual because he has drawn masses of people across the world, including Cesar Chavez and Martin Luther King influencing hem throughout the 21st Century. His fight for peace makes him a different character. He believed in unity and peace, which prompted him to fight against violence. Using peaceful demonstrations and hunger strikes, he led India to freedom. He attributes his objection to violence because violence brings temporary good and permanent evil; this indicates his strong belief in peace. Eventually, in 1947, the British army surrendered because Gandhi had influenced the Indian people to become uncooperative. He had made India become one great peaceful power based on the principle of equality. The contribution of Gandhi is much than being the leader of the nonviolent struggle in order to achieve freedom of India. He had very great visions with a global idiom: he recognized India's societal syncretism (Dalton, 2012).


Dalton, D. (2012). Mahatma Gandhi: Nonviolent power in action. New York: Columbia

Flin, R.H., O'Connor, P., & Crichton, M. (2008). Safety at the sharp end: A guide to non-

technical skills. Aldershot, England: Ashgate

Gandhi, M.K., & Dalton, D.G. (2006). Selected political writings. Indianapolis, IN: Hackett

Publ. Co Gill, R. (2010). Theory and Practice of Leadership. London: SAGE Publications Ltd.

Punnett, B.J.,…… [read more]

Lisa Benton Case Term Paper

… According to Bossidy (2007, p. 60), people who generate ideas are highly valued. Linton's stated frustration at Lisa's apparent inability to do this with confidence is therefore a legitimate one in terms of management. Still, even after her intention to be her "true self," Lisa continues to let her frustrations overwhelm her. Her inability to communicate effectively therefore plays a direct part in her inability to recultivate the confidence she felt when arriving at Houseworld for the first time. Indeed, she is even hesitant to ask for a transfer to a different department where her talents would flourish more effectively.

In this, Lisa has failed to adhere to the first "law of managing up" (Leadership in the 21st Century, Lecture 2). This law requires the follower to recognize his or her own responsibility in managing an effective relationship with superiors. As seen above, Lisa is disappointed and bewildered by the attitudes of her immediate superiors to her. Rather than communicate these concerns directly to them, however, she makes subtle complaints to her friends and others she feels are more sympathetic towards her situation. Rather than recognizing her role in managing these relationships, Lisa continues to wait for Linton and Scoville to improve their attitudes. What she could have done differently in this case is, as said, a combination of communicating directly with those she wants a better relationship with and remaining true to her own self in terms of generating ideas.

A major concern for Lisa is Linton's claim that she lacks self-confidence in voicing ideas and opinions. Linton does, however, recognize her ability to work well with others and exude a sense of positive energy around the office. It is important that Lisa recognizes this as a form of recognizing confidence in herself and builds on that to improve her relationship with her boss (Leadership in the 21st Century, Lecture 1).

My first recommendation is that Lisa should not quit her current job in the face of her difficulties. This would be a reactive response. Instead, she should be proactive in terms of communicating honestly with her immediate superiors. Her first action should begin with Vernon, where she feels a sense of sympathy. She should honestly voice her concerns and frustrations without undue emotion or hostility. She should do the same with Linton and Scoville, honestly voicing her concerns while also outlining her willingness to reach the company's goals, the goals of her leaders, and her own development goals. Since going out to dinner has been a basis for many leadership communications, it may be a good idea to take all three leaders to dinner at the same time to avoid any further conflicts regarding communicating behind anybody's back. In this way, Lisa can recognize not only her responsibility, but also her ability to restore and cultivate effective and positive relationships with her superiors.


Bossidy, L. (2007, Apr.). What Your Leader Expects of You and What You Should Expect in Return. Harvard Business Review.

Leadership in the 21st… [read more]

Motivation Stress and Communication Essay

… Motivation, Stress, And Communication

Job Description

In the words of Armstrong (2012), "a job description defines what job holders are required to do in terms of activities, duties or tasks." It is therefore an overview of the various tasks as… [read more]

Julius Caesar as an Ethical Leader Essay

… Julius Caesar as an Ethical Leader

Ethical leadership can be observed in some of history's most notable individuals, taking into account that their strategies made it possible for them to assist their subordinates in achieving success as a whole. People… [read more]

Lao Tzu Essay

… Machiavelli's concept of the Prince and Lao-Tzu's concept of Tao Te Ching are intriguing facets that touch on many aspects of leadership. These facets deal with human life and existence in the world. From the study reiterated on the relation… [read more]

Quality Improvement for Patient Falls Term Paper

… Nursing-sensitive indicators produced by NDQF are indicators that reflect the quality of nursing care provided to the patient that represents competence, devotion, and level of education / certification of nurse and organization. All indicators are based on empirical evidence. The… [read more]

Key Terms Reaction Paper

… ¶ … Leading

Kouzes and Posner's (2007) leadership participation inventory asserts certain characteristics inspire followers. Leaders should be honest, forward-looking, competent, inspiring, intelligent, fair-minded, broad-minded, supportive, straightforward, dependable, cooperative, determined, imaginative, ambitious, courageous, caring, mature, loyal, self-controlled, and independent. This theory advises five actions for successful leadership: 1) model the way, 2) inspire a shared vision, 3) challenge the process, 4) enable others to act, and 5) encourage the heart. I believe the key to strengthening involvement activities is communication. Research shows that organizations that have open communication where information not only flows downward from someone who hold a senior position, but also upward where subordinates feel free to express opinions, offer suggestions, and even voice complaints, have the following characteristics. 1) Constituents and subordinates and are valued - constituents and subordinates are happier and more motivated when they feel they are valued and their opinions are heard. 2) a high level of trust exists - telling the truth maintains a high level of trust; this forms the foundation for open communication and motivation. 3) Conflict is invited and resolved positively -- without conflict, innovation and creativity are suppressed. 4) Creative descent is welcome -- by expressing unique ideas, team members feel they have contributed and improved outcomes. 5) Input is solicited -- the key to any success is input which establishes a sense of involvement and improves working relations. 6) Constituents and subordinates are well informed -- all parties are kept informed about what is happening within the organization. 7) Feedback is ongoing -- both positive and negative feedback must be ongoing and provided in a manner that builds relationships rather than assigns blame (Kurtz, 2010).

Key Term: General Manager

Raymond Shulstad (2009), a retired USAF Brigadier General, identifies…… [read more]

Leaders and Managers A-Level Coursework

… On the contrary, process oriented leaders are believed to be more considerate towards their followers, centering on the requirement of the employ, building competence, self-assurance and relationship. If the balance between task and process is missing, either the employees are dissatisfied or the efficiency is reduced. Thus to maintain efficiency along with employee satisfaction, leaders need to maintain the balance between task and process.

Different Styles of Team Members

Different styles of team members are as follows:


A contributor is focused with high standards, organized, responsible and authoritative. He might be less productive when there is too much information that needs to be handled.


Collaborator is forward looking, imaginative, flexible and goal directed.


A communicator is usually relaxed, supportive, enthusiastic, energetic, tactful and considerate.


A challenger is honest, out spoken, thorough, adventurous and questioning.

Surprises during Facilitation Sessions

Facilitation can be very surprising at times. A leader may come across multiple situations where team members can respond surprisingly thus the facilitator always needs to have a command and grip over his work in order to deal with such circumstances. Secondly, team members can be very rigid at times so in order to cope with them, facilitator needs to be flexible and open to ideas. Lastly, team members can be demanding at times. This might surprise the facilitator but to handle the situation, facilitator needs to be adapting.

Dynamics in Team Development

The behavioral relationships between members of a group that are allocated linked tasks within a company. Dynamics are affected by roles and duties and have a direct impact on productivity (DiTullio, 2010).

Facilitator plays a vital role in team development. Their task is to maintain the balance between every individual on a team and to monitor the performance and make sure that the desired results are obtained. He plays a significant role in proper functioning of a team.

Similarly, all other individuals involved in team development are important. For instance, of team members are not accommodating and competent, goals can never be achieved and team work will eventually fail. Thus all individuals associated with the team are vital for proper functioning of a team.

Mission as a Leader

The mission of the leader is to maintain a balance in the team in order to attain healthy results and to attain the best possible outcomes from a team.


DiTullio, L. (2010). Project Team Dynamics: Enhancing Performance, Improving Results. New York: Congress Publication.

Northouse, P.G. (2010). Leadership: Theory and Practice. New York: SAGE Publicatiion.

Weaver, R.G., & Farrell, J.D. (1997). Managers As Facilitators: A Practical Guide to Getting Work Done in a Changing Workplace. New York: Berrett-Koehler Publishers.

Western, S. (2008). Leadership: A…… [read more]

Human Skills in Management Three Article

… The human skills construct was measured by 28 items that included attribute description language such as: "Shows interest in the needs, hopes, and dreams of other people." This particular question item was significantly correlated with effectiveness at ? = 0.97. The authors argue that their hypothesis about the importance of human skills, particularly for middle managers, did not materialize because of the different approaches to addressing the construct. In prior studies, the human skills construct tended to be narrower, focusing on empathy and warmth, for instance; but in this study, the human skills construct was broader. Overall, the skill dimensions in this research represented more holistic interpretations than what are found in earlier studies on managerial skills.

The Bible teaches a holistic approach to human (people) skills. Many of the problem that Christian leaders face are people problems. A friend of mine who is head of a school for dental hygienists says that her priority for addressing each day is: People, paper, dirt. While the first two priorities are self-explanatory, the third, in her notion is that the facility receives her attention once the needs of people and the paperwork requirements are met. The day-to-day energy of managers often goes to addressing misunderstandings, complaints, interpersonal conflict, poor performance, and inadequate communication. It takes robust human skills to deal constructively with these issues. In the words of Paul when he is instructing Timothy, "And the Lord's bondservant must not be quarrelsome, but be kind to all, able to teach, patient when wrong, with gentleness correcting those who are in opposition" (2 Timothy 2:24, 25a). From this scripture, the broader definition of human skills used by the authors seems appropriate. Christian leaders (managers) must be patient and inspiration, fair and consistent with workers, provide opportunity for personal development and career advancement. In addition, Christian leaders must be adept at communication such that workers clearly understand their duties and responsibilities, and the focus of the enterprise is enabled and maintained.

Key term: human skills


Tonidandel, S. Braddy, P.W., & Fleenor, J.W. (2012). Relative importance of managerial skills for predicting effectiveness. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 27…… [read more]

Teams Term Paper

… It is at this point that they will evolve with new challenges and personalities of the various members. (Jones 2001)

A good example of this can be seen with observations from Jones (2001) who said, "Groups rarely remain as static… [read more]

Team Case Analysis Project Alternatives and Recommendations Essay

… Team Case

A Leader Among Equals

Finding a leader in a group of founding partners that all considers themselves to be on equal footing and to have an equal stake in the venture is not going to be an easy task no matter how it is gone about. There will almost certainly be multiple individuals that feel they are the most qualified for and/or most capable of moving the company forward and making the proper decisions, and no matter how a leader is chosen or emerges factionalism and discontent is likely to be a result. The development and selection of various methods through which to choose a leader should be guided by the principle of minimizing discord following leadership selection, and though this might not be entirely accomplishable it can certainly be achieved to some degree.

Potential Leadership Selection Methods

Continuing the venture without some sort of hierarchy and leadership is untenable and out of the question, therefore some form of leadership selection model must be implemented. The simplest method and the one most likely to yield a positive outcome viewed favorably by the largest number of people in the group would be if a clear leader emerged from ongoing meetings and discussions held between the team members. Natural leadership is a rare quality but a highly effective unifier and motivator in real-world settings, and it would be simplest is a member of the group emerged as such a leader and was able to gain the support of a majority of the group (Peshawaria, 2011). Unfortunately, if this was going to occur it probably would have at this point, and from the case details it does not appear that any natural leaders are going to emerge from this scenario without a little more prodding and a little more conscious effort on the part of the team members, and thus this solution might not be able to be implemented.

A straightforward and simple vote for the leader could also be considered as an option for determining who should make final decisions to guide the team and the venture forward. This would be a way of explicitly maintaining broad empowerment amongst the group, which can be essential to overall group functioning and performance (Boyle, 2011). At the same time as a simple democratic vote might be the most broadly empowering means of selecting a leader, though, it could also end up fracturing the group still further, especially if each member of the group simply votes for themselves as the leader -- the group will be no further along than it is now. If a simple plurality is used to determine the leader, than this solution could cause even greater friction; if one person manages to amass only one or two votes for themselves outside of their own vote, they would be the leader of the group despite lacking a broad consensus or vote of confidence in this leader's capabilities or appropriateness. While the group members would all be expected to abide by… [read more]

Leadership Profile Essay

… Qualities of a Good Educational Leader

While some qualities of a good leader are consistent across groups, one of the interesting things about leadership is that different people may look for different attributes in a leader. This paper will examine the attitudes of 3 teachers, 3 students, and 3 parents about what they believe make a good educational leader. While there might be overlap between the different groups, there will probably also be differences, as teachers and parents frequently have conflicting ideas about what constitutes a quality education. Therefore, speaking with each group should provide some insight into what qualities each group finds critical for good leadership.

Educational leaders, such as team leaders, principals, and administrators lead teachers. In their professional capacity, they are in charge of setting the tone for the professionals who work underneath them. Therefore, one would anticipate that teachers' responses about what makes a good educational leader would be similar to what people think makes for a good boss in other circumstances. This was the case. Of the three teachers interviewed, all three of them mentioned that a good educational leader needs to have effective communication skills. Moreover, they all went a step further and clarified that the leader needs to have effective written communication skills, because poor written communication skills lead to a lack of confidence in the leader's own educational background. Another thing that all three teachers said was that educational leaders need to be willing to back up teachers and stand behind their decisions, rather than automatically succumbing to parental pressure when there is a dispute between the parent and the teacher. Two of the teachers suggested that the leaders need to be able to deal effectively with children. All three of them believed that the leaders should have spent at least some time teaching in a classroom environment, so that education is more than theory to them. Finally, they believed that educational leaders should be willing to listen to teachers and get feedback about which approaches were successful and unsuccessful in the classroom environment.


Students had an interesting perspective on what leadership qualities were necessary in an educational leader. The students who were questioned were all in high school, but the first thing that the interview revealed was that their concept of educational leader was very narrow in comparison to the adults' concepts. The students spoke almost exclusively in terms of principles and vice principals, but did not address leaders at any other level. This made it clear that they did not really process those other educational leaders as leaders at all. Therefore, while none of the students mentioned it as a characteristic; I think that visibility is an important educational leader characteristic…… [read more]

GPS-GO Takes Garmin Case Study

… Nevertheless, it is plausible that there are substantive undeveloped design ideas that can be utilized in subsequent GPS products, as this disruptive technology is unlikely to experience reduced demand -- other than, perhaps, through increased integration in other digital devices which would plausibly make a stand-alone GPS product less appealing.

1. Assume that Joseph will lead teams for the three Garmin product launches. Determine the most appropriate personality traits that Thomas should adopt to successfully lead each team or all teams altogether.

The culture at GPS Global seems to call for a directive leadership style. In fact, that is the leadership style that Scott appears to have successfully adapted. Certainly, as a leader works across a company, different leaderships styles my better suit particular circumstances or teams. For example, a consultative style may function best when dealing with highly skilled technical workers, such as engineers. In these instances, a leader wants to be facilitative of great design while maintaining some governor on the tendency of technological innovation design to exceed resource boundaries. A participative leadership style would be effective in a "work group" approach to dealing with the process, procedures, and sign-off maze, for instance. Work group around the globe have demonstrated efficacy in efforts to streamline and rationalize production and manufacturing systems. Coleman (2000) assets that leadership style must be multifaceted, fitting itself to the circumstances and the goals of particular situations. Regardless of the importance of an agile and prescriptive leadership style, the complexity of the GPS Global research, development, and manufacturing processes seem to call for a firmer hand -- on the whole -- than either a consultative or participatory leadership style can provide.

1. Put yourself in the shoes of Joseph Thomas and discuss what you would do differently.

Employees at GPS Global were excited about the new non-governmental line of GPS products on which they were working. The employee's orientation to work was a hold-over from governmental contract work that was characterized by more generous time frames and narrower specifications. Given the relative freedom of a privately-funded production initiative, the employees enthusiasm was no longer bounded by the firm hand of the government with regard to research and design. The production of the GPS product line evolved into a continuous enhancement effort, rather than a production process with an end, time certain. For all his knowledge, Thomas did little to stem this high-spirited approach to making the best GPS products possible, rather than the most sellable, competitive, and profitable GPS products.

Moreover, though he arguably had the clout to do so, Thomas did not attack the behomouth paperwork and sign-off problems that were a legacy of the Tinker-Toy process development process. Processes were stuck onto the each other for reasons that were no longer apparent to anyone engaged in the production. Addressing these issues are a reasonable long-term goal for Thomas and his team as the archaic processes are a drain on productivity and resources. For the company to be competitive in GPS manufacturing, it… [read more]

Complex Organization Essay

… ¶ … Oganization

Complex organization

In the modern day era, the role and practice of management have changed dramatically to increase in importance. Today's managers are visionaries and leaders, as they have to envision the future of the company, and… [read more]

Learning Environment and Configuration Schools A2 Coursework

… Learning, Environment and Configuration Schools

The Learning, Environment, and Configuration of Schools

The environmental approach is described as a reactive process because it focuses on what has already taken place (or is taking place) in the current environment and uses that to determine what should be done next. Plans cannot be made in advance, because the environment has to be taken into account when those plans are put into use (Mintzberg, 2005). Because that is the case, it is not possible to set up a proactive way to plan out a particular issue. It is possible to come up with several different plans and choose one to put into practice based on what would be best in a particular environment, but that is not the same as having the right plan based on a proactive assessment (Bass & Avolio, 1994; Kotlyar & Karakowsky, 2006). One can consider the environment, but environments are not static. They are always changing, and as they change and adapt those who are in them must also change and adapt (Harrison, 2010). Of course, it is also possible to take an approach that is not environmental in an effort to avoid the reactive process issue.

Some choose to take other approaches, but there are not always other approaches to take. The environmental approach to schooling is used because all children are different. When a group of them are placed into a classroom together, the dynamics of that classroom are also different. Coming up with strategic plans and being a good leader can be challenging with students in a classroom setting, but in order to do well in that endeavor a person must consider the environment carefully. As the environment changes, the teacher must adjust the strategic plan in order to provide the proper plan for the students going forward. When this is done correctly everyone benefits, but when it is not done correctly the students may lose out on the information they need and the teacher may become frustrated and aggravated because he or she feels that the students are not focused on learning.

Transformational leadership is a great way to operate a business, but it has to be…… [read more]

Director of Intercollegiate Athletics at the Ohio State University Essay

… Leadership: Self-Reflection

I scored low for the categories "Model the Way," "Inspire a Shared Vision" and "Encourage the Heart." I'm extremely aware of the fact that when it comes to education, leading by example is one of the most effective things that one can do. This is why I was disturbed by the fact that I scored low on "modeling the way" and want to work hard to improve this. According to Kouzes and Posner, the key to modeling the way revolves around setting an example by acting in manners that are consistent with collective values and the act of achieving small wins that foster regular progress and help commitment to grow. By acting like a balanced, kind, and dedicated athlete myself, who's not afraid of rigorous training or hard work, I can inspire these actions within my students as well. To be clear, one of the ways I can improve this is by bettering the manner in which I communicate with others.

Generally, I think of myself as a shy person who leads by example on the wrestling mat. I feel very comfortable demonstrating to my athletes the correct form and technique that one needs to use for specific maneuvers and strategies. However, this type of modeling isn't always effective with all types of learners. Some learners learn better with imagery or story-telling, others learn better with pictures or by going through the demonstrated routines on their own. If there's one aspect of modeling the way that I can certainly improve, it's by improving my communication skills.

The better and more effectively that I can communicate with my students; the more likely I am to reap results from them as athletes. Furthermore, I'll be able to offer them a higher quality of teaching via these improved communication techniques. In order for me to improve theses characteristics I feel I need to learn to be more sociable. I need to put myself in these social situations so I can become comfortable talking to new people and my wrestlers. Developing some kind of relationship would be ideal as it would allow me to create a bond of friendship and trust with my wrestlers which would empower me to a greater extent as a coach. While it's important for my athletes to know me as someone who sets a standard for hard work and discipline, the team will be behooved if they also know me as someone who all members feel comfortable talking to about ideas, fears and issues.

Communication will also help me to "inspire a shared vision." All of my athletes need to know that as members of the wrestling team, they're part of something that's larger than themselves and they have an opportunity to do something really heroic. They can inspire other students, act as role models for young kids and pave a future for themselves that can be full of bright opportunities. As Kouzes and Posner remind us, "Leaders spend considerable effort gazing across the horizon of time… [read more]

Extrovertism What Makes Extroverts Essay

… During his time as the CEO of GE, he focused on how to ensure that the firm was able to adapt with changes in the economy. This meant that some of the traditional businesses were sold. While at the same time, the company was venturing into new areas that would help the firm continue to maintain its dominance in these areas. To achieve these objectives he continually worked with different stakeholders and listened to contrasting viewpoints. In the process, he concentrated on a number of areas to include:

Asking what needs to be done.

Making decisions that took into account different ideas.

Communicating effectively.

Developing a workable strategy that is focused on the desired results and constraints.

Assuming responsibility for all decisions.

The combination of these factors, are showing how extroverts are the best leaders. This is because their personality is shaping the way they interact with others. In the future, this creates situations where these individuals understand the needs of different stakeholders. When this happens, they create a sense of respect and address any kind of challenges while they are small. This is the point that everyone will have a common sense of purpose in achieving various objectives. Moreover, these individuals are willing to lead by example. This adds to these perceptions, by showing everybody how this person is practicing the very ideas they are talking about with others. Once this takes place, is when stakeholders will have a greater sense of respect for them and their ability to lead. (Harvard Business Review, 2010)


Harvard Business Review. (2010). HBRs' 10 Must Reads on Leadership. Boston, MA: Harvard Business Review.

Rothstein, M.…… [read more]

Theory (the Great Man' Theory) Essay

… This is particularly important in today's martial atmosphere.

6. The 'general mood' element

This consists of the ability of the team as a whole to deal with change in an optimistic manner and to deal with adversity with humor.

Sun Tsu in his 'The Art of War' the primer of leadership skills recommends that the warrior leader should be self-disciplined and implement goals to guide him. These goals should be internally, not externally motivated, and the warrior should seek to constantly and consistently focus on them and follow them. He should also use these goals to structure vision for his followers. A leader has to know how to communicate, how to emphasize, how to negotiate, how to prevent conflict, and so forth. A good leader has to be able to communicate with and emphasize with the other (Bateman & Snell, 2009, p. 436). He has to be able to deal with change, help his followers deal with change, and, most importantly, lead by example. In this way, he will be credible. In order to motivate his followers, he has to personify the qualities of empowerment, risk-taking, participation and constant development of personal skills and knowledge. In this way, the ideal leader has to be constantly improving himself in all ways, whilst being reflective and calm (Bateman & Snell, 2009).

This is the epitome of EI, and, therefore, I conclude that EI -- far more than intellectual intelligence -- is the perquisite qualities for a soldier -- any soldier - in this generation.

The events of September 2001 have arguably had the greatest impact on homeland security and transformed it from the far more relaxed traditional style that it had practiced beforehand and to a more vigilant, alert style of leadership. This places a great deal of stress on anyone, particularly on those guarding the Country. Given the fact that onerous traditional duties have not only remained unchanged but have been supplemented by demanding and pressurizing other duties, security workers are open to qi great deal of stress that can easily - and does -- impact their performance. Leadership, therefore, of both oneself and of others -- correct and wise leadership -- has consequently rarely been as important and needed as now. The point is that this leadership must be structured in a correct manner, and the way to structure it runs -- it seems to me -- according to the guidelines of EI.


About.comLeadership Theories - 8 Major Leadership Theories


Bateman, T.S., & Snell, S. (2009). Management: Leading and Collaborating in a Competitive World, Eighth Edition. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill http://highered.mcgraw-hill.com/sites/007338142x/information_center_view0/

Goleman, D. (1995). Emotional intelligence: Why it can matter more than IQ. New York: Bantam Books.

Marks, D.E., & Sun, I.Y. (2007). The impact of 9/11 on organizational development among state and local law enforcement agencies. Journal of Contemporary

Criminal Justice, 23, 159-173.… [read more]

Changed Drastically Essay

… ¶ … changed drastically within the last two decades. With it, comes the various ideals of both a change in the role of leadership and the concept of globalization. One of the ways in which the late 20th century evolved was the change in economic, political, and cultural movements that, through technology, seemed to move countries of the world closer together. This idea, broadly called globalism, refers generally to the idea that as life becomes more technologically complex, people in various countries are tied together, regardless of their government, culture, religion, or specific country. No leader can expect to lead without understanding that their universe is far broader than ever before -- divergent, dichotomous, and complex.

Clearly, leadership is more than management; hence not all managers are leaders. Leadership involves the capacity to motivate workers and employee to work towards a common goal. Leaders also influence the employees towards certain behaviors they want. The modern organization should therefore acquire the best team of managers, who should have leadership traits and accept changes in the organization when necessary, including technological change. Management and leadership are most certainly not the same, despite the fact that many, even in business, use the terms in the same manner.

These are but a semblance of the skills necessary to become an Officer of the Biochemistry and Genetics Society. I began my learning and growth process as a young girl from an agricultural background who sought out leadership roles whenever possible -- Graduating Class Vice President, FFA President, and an Officer in the National Honor Society. I was co-chair with a committee on agricultural practices, taught elementary school and made numerous presentations to various groups on…… [read more]

Path Diagrams of Research Models Essay

… Hypothesis 4: Psychological empowerment moderates the relationship between transactional leadership and follower innovative behavior.





The forms of leadership (transformational & transactional) are the independent variables. The innovative behaviors are the dependent variables. Psychological empowerment serves as a moderator in this study.

Research Study 3


Although the effects of authentic leadership on job performance and organizational commitment are well-documented, the mechanisms that explain those effects remain unclear. The results of our study support a model whereby indirect effects supplement the direct effects of authentic leadership on job performance and organizational commitment, through the mechanism of job characteristics, intrinsic motivation and goal commitment.

Hypothesis 1: Authentic leadership is positively related to follower task performance and organizational commitment.

Hypothesis 2: Authentic leadership is positively related to follower perceptions of core job characteristics.

Hypothesis 3: Follower perceptions of core job characteristics are positively related to follower intrinsic motivation.

Hypothesis 4: Follower intrinsic motivation is positively related to follower task performance and organizational commitment

Hypothesis 5: Follower perceptions of core job characteristics are positively related to follower goal commitment.

Hypothesis 6: Follower goal commitment is positively related to follower task performance and organizational commitment.










Authentic leadership, perceptions of job characteristics, intrinsic motivation, and goal commitment serve as independent variables across…… [read more]

Reframing Is a Unique Concept Essay

… However, more emphasis should have been placed on the factors that influence the leadership reframing process such as motivation. As the authors duly note, "…reframing expands choice by developing options." These options however can not properly manifest themselves unless personnel are properly motivated. As personnel are now based in differing regions, management must be able to effectively motivate in order for the reframing process to properly work. This is important because in a more globally competitive environment, reframing options will depend primarily on the willingness and motivation of employees.

In addition, in regards to the artistry component, I believe it prudent to discuss the changing dynamic of required skills within the work environment. I agree with the author when he states, "… the emphasis on artistry rests on belief in the importance of using skills and imagination to create possibilities for beauty and enjoyment in organizational life." However, what happens when those skills become obsolete? In regards to reframing I believe it is important to discuss continuous learning and development of skills. This is particularly true as Americans now have competition for jobs overseas. In many instances, these individuals possess equivalent skills while requiring less pay. As such for the enjoyment of organizational life, a continued emphasis on continuous artistry is warranted. Through this continued emphasis on learning and artistry, the reframing process will continue to create unique possibilities within the organizational.


1) Lee G. Bolman; Terrence E. Deal. Reframing Organizations: Artistry, Choice, and Leadership (4th ed.)…… [read more]

Bureaucracies Strategies to Autocratic Leadership Essay

… The model is hardly flexible, and this makes the employees and other staffs feel uneasy when working. The model is also known to have hindered the capabilities of many humans, who feel their ideas cannot be implemented due to the rigidity of the model in formal organizations.

Strategies to autocratic leadership

The autocratic approach to leadership could be defined as the leadership style where the leader takes in to consideration the objectives and goals of the organizations, and makes most of the decisions in the organization. This means the leader will be responsible for the maintenance of regulations, which are to be strictly followed in the course of duty. Reaching well-defined strategies is, therefore, centralized and linked to the duties of decision making. When developing the school for formal organizations and bureaucracies study, the leader will be responsible for the decision-making and final word during the development. Hierarchical orders are considered for the best interest, with the leader requiring enough interest to operate and coordinate the development.

The leader does not indulge much with the staff or other peers, and team members, hence effective in some situations and ineffective for individual development. Typically, in case the development will be time bound with strict deadlines for completion, with critical stages needing maximum attention, then autocratic leadership will be more fruitful. This is because autocrats are focused on the objectives of projects, and prevents any distracting objects and opinions during work. This ensures the goals of development remain in focus leading to greater control of the projects of organization development. In case of dilemmas and crisis, the staff and employees will rely on the autocrat who is to provide clear track of the required resolutions. This helps the development to be faster, due to sober decision-making procedures by the autocrat. This would be the best leadership style to apply in the development of the organization, which aims to provide studies for formal organizations and bureaucracies. However, the leader will be careful to ensure that there is communication during the working hours, team building strategies and short-time solutions in case of hindrances. The named aspects are the cause of many failures in the development…… [read more]

Health Ballenstedt's Work Confronts Article Critique

… There are numerous issues and potentially problems that stem from an inharmonious dynamic among the manager/leader, the organization, and the subordinates of the manager/leader. Therefore, their research in this area has a great deal of potential for practical application and use.

Among the factors the authors believe contribute to the successful fit of a leader within an organization, they list factors such as leadership style and personality traits that are more personal and distinctive per individual. They also cite factors such as perceptions of the manager, and demographics of the city wherein the organization is. It is a logical yet rare occurrence to read in research about leadership mention about how the physical space, not just where the organization conducts business, but the greater and larger community space affects leadership efficacy. Such techniques and methods of thinking are present in areas such as organizational & industrial psychology, but they have yet to catch on in a large-scale, meaningful way.

The authors were able to use their data to construct a fit model. They interpreted the data and made several conclusions regarding factors that affect the tenure of a manager/leader. Several of the factors were culturally-based or biased, such as gender, ethnicity, and whether the leader was born in the United States. They conclude that leaders who are more introverted, retain inner motivation, as well as highly perceptive and adaptable, make the best leaders and they are the kind of leaders who lead for a long time. The conclusion may come as a shock or seem counterintuitive that a good leader is not extroverted, but introverted, but extroversion can intimidate or put off subordinates for many reasons. Following this research as a guide, the author contends that leaders could use more introversion and perceptual agility rather than extroverted aggressive tendencies, but the leader needs to be extroverted enough to handle speaking in front of groups, delegating tasks, and other basic components of organizational leadership/management.

Hanbury, G., Sapat, A., & Washington, C. (2004) Know Yourself and take Charge of Your Own Destiny: The Fit Model of Leadership. Public Administration…… [read more]

Psychology Organizational Psychology Wal-Mart Stores Term Paper

… Role of power and influence in Wal-Mart

In this particular situation, the role of power and influence can be visibly seen by termination of Ms Julie upon finding her affair with fellow employee and taking bribes from other company. On the other hand, there was no investigation taken on behalf of the company, to find out that whether Ms Julie accusation about the company's CEO was truthful or not.


Conflict is a kind of motivation in which a person is committed to act against the rival. "Organizational conflict must not necessarily be reduced suppressed or eliminated, but managed to enhance organizational learning and effectiveness" (Rahim, 2011, p. 66).

Suppressing conflict or departing an employee on the basis of a conflict is not a wise step taken by organization. Before an organization adopt severe measure of termination of separation of an employee, it is very important to determine and evaluate all the factors that have contributed in the development of that particular conflict. In the hard times, it is leadership, a true leadership and its power to motivate and influence the employees is, that can come handy for an organization. As John Adair quoted "one word of caution: nobody can teach you leadership. It is something you have to learn."(Adair, 1997, p. 01)


Adair, J. (1997). Leadership Skills. United Kingdom: Cromwell Press, Trowbridge, Wiltshire.

Baldoni, J. (2005). Great Motivation Secrets of great leaders: McGraw-Hill Books, United

States of America.

Rahim, A. (2011) Managing…… [read more]

Liberal Arts and Business How Liberal Arts Relates Literature Review Chapter

… Liberal Arts and Business: How Liberal Arts Relates to Business

Liberal arts and business

There has been a huge debate roaring in Canada and the U.S. On the virtues of a broad education system as compared to a practical education… [read more]

OD Choice Collins, J Term Paper

… Great correspondence with other organizational development theories and frameworks is found in the perspective and purpose of the book, however, as well as in identifying some of the key agents and circumstances that contribute to organizational success. Larger theoretical frameworks of organizational development also put leadership as one of the most important factors of organizational success, and the degree of control over the culture at the organization is also paramount. Collins and Hansen clearly feel the same way, defining the qualities in leaders that lead to success and demonstrating how these qualities must be imbued throughout the organization in order to have the necessary level of impact. In this regard, their book fits neatly with other theories regarding organizational success.

The authors identify five leadership traits that they believe are qualities found in every highly successful organization, and to some degree in other organizations that demonstrate a capacity for longevity and profitability. These traits are fanatic discipline, empirical creativity, ambition, productive paranoia, and humility. Again, some of these seem at least partially contradictory -- ambition and humility do not seem to go readily hand-in-hand -- but the authors make a strong case for each of these elements. Remaining committed to plan goals and schedules for achieving them, innovating but doing so in a careful manner that keeps the creativity rooted in empirical findings, striving to succeed and ensuring that production and real results are just as much a part of day-to-day organizational goals as are growth ambitions, and finally being able to admit error and seek counsel are all important. Great leader share the recognition and rewards of their companies while serving as strong forces for progress and change within these organizations.

Great by Choice could hardly be considered the definitive work on organizational theory and success, especially given the many changes that occurred in the business world between the time that the authors observed and the time the book was actually published. It does provide some very interesting insights into the workings of organizations and organizational leaders, however, and demonstrates the degree to which leadership plays a vital role in establishing and maintaining long-term profitability. While other theories still persist, they will be informed by the conclusions…… [read more]

Micro-Organizational Behavior Research Paper

… Organizational Behavior

Micro-Organizational Behavior

The basis of all effective leadership is found in how leaders define the expectations, goals, vision, mission and values of an organization. The more effectively any leader can move from being only focused on an authoritarian… [read more]

Leadership and Management Essay

… She has experience in clinical practice, commendable negotiating abilities, excellent people skills and great sense of humor. She also acts as a supervisor to those who provide care directly and gives reports to the nursing administrator.

Important qualities or characteristics

According to Nurse Patricia, there are several qualities that a nurse manager needs to have in order to discharge their duties with effectiveness and efficiency in the hospital. One is to respect other member of staff. The nurse manager needs to acknowledge that each member of staff is a professional and even though he or she is the overall supervisor, the subordinates need to feel they are respected. Secondly, the nurse manager needs the ability to set standards and to provide clear examples to the subordinates. The nurse manager also needs to be organized in their activities and to exercise creativity and flexibility. Organization makes sure that there are clear rules by which the members of staff conduct themselves including shifts, deadlines, milestones, etc. The nurse manager needs to make decisions efficiently and to be able to resolve any conflicts arising in their work station. The nurse manager also needs to motivate and empower their staff so that they feel valued and respected in the hospital. The nurse manager needs to be honest, fair and consistent in their decision making in order for the members of staff not to feel any kind of favoritism or discrimination. Lastly, the nurse manager needs to be an effective communicator this involves them being able to pass information with ease and in a clear manner Sheridan, Vredenburgh, & Abelson, 1984()

Personal philosophy of leadership

Nurse Patricia has a personal philosophy that is centered… [read more]

Developing Business Skills Essay

… Business Skills

When I reflect on my experiences, I can see that one of the things I want to work on steadily throughout my career is my leadership. In particular, I think that problem-solving is a skill that I can build. Leaders are expected to develop and communicate visions, to set strategy and to ensure that problems are anticipated and solved. While it is impossible to anticipate all of the problems, understanding how different types of problems arise and then formulating tactics and strategies to ensure that those problems are dealt with is an essential leadership skill.

To this point, I think I have begun to understand the dynamics of leadership and of interpersonal communication. Problem solving can be focused either on strategic problem solving or on interpersonal problem solving, but there is often an interpersonal dimension even to strategic problem-solving. As such, I have chosen to focus on this aspect of my leadership the most. There are actually not that many theories that help one grow as a communicator, but I know that practice is something that is important. One of the ways to make one's experiences matter is to reflect on those experiences. Doing so will allow one to determine what the best course of action was, and then compare that to the actual course of action.

I know that during our teamwork, we had some problems that could have be resolved more effectively with better interpersonal communication. The group eventually did come to some resolutions but I think that on reflection the problems could have been resolved better. This episode was significant only because I was able to reflect on it after the fact, and learn from some of the issues that arose. The issues were about strategic direction, and the division of labor, so fairly basic issues that mirror the sorts of issues that arise in the real world.

I know that during the episode I felt more annoyed than anything else. The problems did not seem reasonable, and that really affected how I saw the issue. That also, on reflection, made it more difficult to resolve the issue. Too much stubbornness was brought needlessly into the situation. Now, when I look back, I realize that when everybody involved stepped back, I think we all realized that the team was not working as effectively as it could have, and the result of that was that the team started to work more effectively. We became more focused on the end task, and the flow of communication improved dramatically. I see such conflict within the group now in an entirely different light as a result. Ideally, such conflict should be avoided but as a leader it is not always easy to anticipate all problems and address them before they arise. The leader's role is to ensure that when problems arise, they are addressed as quickly and professionally as possible. There is such a thing as creative conflict, as long as the leaders of the organization handle the conflict… [read more]

Leader as Coach Essay

… Leader as Coach

To remain relevant in today's increasingly competitive business environment, organizations are being called upon to embrace new ways of thinking. Unlike in the past, globalization has required that organizations adapt to multicultural environments brought about by evolving… [read more]

Core Competencies of Executive Coaching and Outcomes Essay

… ¶ … Competencies of Executive Coaching and Outcomes

Essentially, coaches should ideally possess some core competencies. Indeed, it is these competencies that bring about a situation whereby the need to attain organizational objectives is matched with concern for people. In… [read more]

Collecting Food Packages for Homeless Essay

… As for instance, when the man says:

I've always been interested in a vocation that is more than just a paycheck and has something after you're done with it that you feel like you've accomplished something -- made life easier or better for other people.

More so, we see this emphasized later with the paragraph:

I've to the notion of that human beings can often behave in really terrible ways and selfish ways. But I also have this notion that they also have a hungering and a longing to want to the opposite. They want to do good. I think that's why people come here and volunteer, I think that's why food companies give us product. I think that's why agencies want to get that food and give it to people -- people have a basic longing and hunger to want to care for others.

The idealism of the Symbolic frame is reinforced by the sentiment of the last sentence:

we're not just about the business of giving food to satisfy the people's physical needs. You know, it's a real clear sense of when we give out food, were giving out hope (Bolman & Deal (*) .

This is the participative / democratic leadership style where all are equally involved in effecting change and where the leader makes his team of volunteers feel that all are equally significant in leading the organization. All too, a re equally involved in the decision making process, as in all aspects of the organization, although the leader is the one who makes the final decision. (Leadership Styles; online ).

Conceptual frameworks may well dictate the perspective and frame of mind that the leader has towards the way that he will run his or her organization. The leader, for instance, who sees the organization according to a structural framework may more likely adopt an authoritarian style of leadership. The leader possessing the symbolic framework may naturally prefer the laissez faire style of leadership where his team are accorded almost complete liberty. In other words, the conceptual framework often eventuates into the type of leadership that the person will adopt.


Bolman EG & Deal TE, Leadership and Management Effectiveness: A Multi-Frame, Multi-Sector Analysis…… [read more]

Gender and Communication: Breaking Term Paper

… These gender barriers occur largely when men and women work together and are forced to meet on a middle ground to complete a task without allowing personal beliefs or biases get in the way of what needs to be done. While instances like this are far less common than they once were within the business world, even an isolated incident can make for a difficult work environment. Even the smallest incident of gender bias has the capacity to escalate and ruin a good thing, much as the saying "one bad apple can ruin the whole bunch" implies.

It is key, then, to insist upon the usage of strategies to reduce and hopefully eliminate any gender barriers within the office, and such strategies are both simple and effective. Many gender inequality issues can be altered or eliminated if open communication is present within a workplace. Additionally, this communication must be fostered by a sense of awareness and understanding that is common within a certain group of people within a workplace. For example, while we understand that men and women are not the same, this fact should not be translated in any way to mean that men are better at business than women or that women think more clearly than men (Russell, 2010, p.1). Instead, differences between people of any gender in the workplace must be measured on an individual level that respects a person's identity in a way that, "understands that differences are desirably and arbitrary, not right or wrong, as this understanding will diminish the majority of communication problems," especially between the sexes (Sanders, 2000, p.1).

Only with open communication and awareness training can members of any business or company understand the differences between the sexes in a way that allows them to appreciate how these differences combine in order to create a greater whole. With the use of seminars, in-house speakers, and workshops -- even utilized sporadically throughout the work year -- an office environment can improve immensely as well as hold a firm basis to grow upon. In utilizing such simple, cost-effective strategies to foster open communication and respect between employees of any gender, a company will truly begin to enact its business mission as a unified team rather than one that is divided.

Looking toward the Future

As seen, while men and women may tend to depict varying leadership styles within the workplace, it must always remain at the forefront of the mind that different does not mean bad. Rather, different styles have the capacity to allow work to be done in a way that takes in a project from all angles, instead of just one. Though men and women are scientifically proven to act differently, and as such, lead differently, than each other, it must be remembered that no style has proven better than the other.


Catalyst. 2005. Women take care, men take charge: stereotypic of U.S. business leaders exposed. Web. Retrieved from: http://www.catalyst.org/file/53/women %20take%20care,%20men%20take%20charge%20stereotyping%20of%20u.s.%20business%20leaders%20exposed.pdf [Accessed on 2 March 2012].

Eagly, A. And Johnson, B.… [read more]

Team Is a Small Collaborated Term Paper

… The team leader was able to counsel a member who was trying to dominate the group that all the views of the other should be evaluated to achieve the team goals. With the intervention of the team leader, the team was able to arrive at a successful solution revealing that the influence of a leader is very important.

Influence of a Leader

Influence of leadership is very important within the team. A leader should have ability to intervene if there is a problem within the group. One of the functions of a leader is to prevent dominance of a member of the group, and a leader should ensure that everyone within the group contributes constructively. 5 Quick 1992). Within our team, the leader exhibited democratic leadership style because he allowed everybody to contribute, and allowed the problem-solving step to resolve problem manifested within the group. The step taken by the team leader to produce better result is to "embrace the person's concerns. Listen so intently and repeat back what you've heard so accurately that the person feels he/she has been heard. Ask questions that test assumptions, reveal biases, and bring out important data." (University of Wisconsin-Madison 2007, P 8). With the performances of team leader, the group has demonstrated effectiveness.

Effectiveness of the Team

Our team was very effective because everybody within the group was able to contribute effectively to achieve the team objectives. For example, all the engineers within the group were able to design the effective oil spill cleaning apparatus to clean the oil spills, and a Geologist within the group was able to use his knowledge to advise the group on the best method to design cost effective oil cleaning machine without causing environmental hazard. In the end, everybody in the team was assigned a role based on the individual experience and educational qualification. With effective communication, problem was erased in the team and the team was able to accomplish its purpose.

Contribution of Communication to Cohesiveness

Communication has been able to enhance cohesiveness within the group, and the team leader ensured that there were multiple interactions to enhance cohesion. Typically, there was no break of communication in the group and technology affected the communication effectiveness. To enhance effective communication, the team used the technology systems such as email, phone, face-to-face conversation and instant messaging to communicate. An effective method that the team used to communicate was through instant messaging, and the entire team member met twice in a week to discuss the solution. With effectiveness of communication, the team was able to reach a solution.


Goals, roles, ground rules and norms are very effective to accomplish a solution and solve a problem in a team. By defining a team goal, every member of the team will work towards the team goal, and will not divert from the team goals. Typically, norms are very important within the team. With laid down norm, team will follow laid down rules to accomplish the team goals. Assigning roles to… [read more]

Eglaxosmithkline Case Study


E1: The first step in this process will revolve around doing further preparation on what constitutes an effective organization that is purposefully developed to take advantage of proven organizational theories (Laguerre, 2010). GSK is already well grounded in this regard, but moving to an eGSK requires contemplating how existing resources can be focused complimentarily on multiple objectives. Our goal should be to not interfere with existing operations or personnel, but instead to tag the new e-model on to what already works well. ICT has the ability to profoundly scale the impact value of what already exists, and it is clear that this project can be an exceptional example of multiple a bottom line ROI (GIIN, 2012). We should be able to extract from each department enough of what is needed for this eLearning experience to ensure that in the future it cannot be easily separated from the other profit-making priorities of the company. An appropriate eTeam (okay, enough of the e's!) will be created to mirror each of the critical departments; and space will be preserved for including either internal or external stakeholders who may be shown to otherwise be excluded because of our business configuration. The team will include lower- and upper management representatives, scientific professionals, operational experts, and creative representatives of stakeholder departments. HR and IT representatives will either be included and/or specialized technical expertise in these and other hands-on components will be made available to the team.

E2: Specific attention in regard to this recommendation will be directed at all of the corporate elements associated with governance, business operations, production, diversity and community/global integration now in place (GSK, 2012). We have established communication and flow diagrammatic representations of these sectors. In reviewing them, the oversight team will be guided by what already exists and will look toward integrating ICT with an eye toward making the organizational documents and flow patterns interactive to support further change.

E3: Our recommended guide for this element comes from the writings of Joshua C. Laguerre (2010) on how to develop leadership utilizing researched and philosophically grounded leadership theories. He bases his findings on Yukl's 2010 "Leadership in Organizations," which he supplements with the findings of other critically reviewed operational foundations. Laguerre chose Yukl because of his comprehensive and appealing definition of leadership, which incorporates the recognized important elements of effective leadership and was geared toward sustaining future leadership development via a dynamic or… [read more]

Efficient Online Course Teams While Many Students Research Paper

… ¶ … Efficient Online Course Teams

While many students dread team work, working in collaborative teams helps students prepare for the real world, where most work scenarios will involve some degree of team work. Effective team work allows students to hone their leadership abilities, develop communication skills, work on problem-solving skills, and learn openness to new ideas and new approaches to goal setting and goal achievement. Even in online learning environments, team work can be a critical teaching skill. In fact, as more companies become more dependent upon virtual work environments, having the ability to work in a virtual group environment is quickly becoming a necessary work skill.

While many people discuss the benefits of teamwork, they may do so without specifying that people only benefit from certain types of teamwork. Dysfunctional teams can hinder a student's progress, rather than help the student learn and grow. An effective team has a common well-defined goal that can excite team members and motivate them to make sacrifices for the good of the team (Text, p.9). An effective team also has a results-driven structure that clearly defines who reports to whom and who does what, leaving no questions as to individual responsibilities and duties (Text, p.9). An effective team is also composed of competent group members; it is not enough for team members to know what their jobs are, they must also have the skills and competencies to complete those jobs (Text, p.9). The team must also feel committed to the task and unified with the rest of the team (Text, p.9). Furthermore, a team should have high goals, but those goals should be realistic and attainable (Text, p.9). Unattainable goals are likely to result in frustration and can be counterproductive to the team's goals; therefore the entire team should be responsible for goal-setting (Text, p.9). Good teams need good leaders; leadership responsibilities can and probably should be spread across the team, but those in leadership positions should display strong principles (Text, p.9).

There are six basic characteristics that are linked to being an effective team…… [read more]

Forgotten Group Member Case Study

… Group Development.

The case history represents an example in action of Tuckman's model of groups that are characteristically formed of 4 stages - forming, storming, norming, and performing, with some models adding a fifth called Adjourning (Chapman, n.d.).

In the Forming stage, the leader of the group can help each individual know each other and help them casually discuss their differences. He may use this stage in order to prevent the next one of storming (i.e. conflict) by encouraging them to generate possible differences in outlook and discuss them amongst each other. Once done, Norming occurs where co-operation prevails and the different participants listen to each other. Finally, Performing is the end-result where the group works effectively as a cohesive whole. Adjourning occurs where the team concludes heir project and breaks up.

This group seems to have inadequately worked through the Forming stage, and, at least, one of them -- Mike is still at the Storming stage. Although Mike's conduct has a rebound effect on the others, and, therefore, we can conclude that the group as a whole is still at the storming stage.

Recognition of Tuckman's stages could have helped Christine lead her group where instead of merely managing and conducting the group (e.g. telling them to meet at a certain time) and frustrated as well as concerned by Mike's absences and detachment from group, she may have prevented this scenario from occurring right at the start by gently fielding the group into the Forming stage where each could have discussed their differences that may have prevented them from working as team effort. The fact that there are differences are evident from the character description of the various members. Discussing these differences in an informal manner would have allowed them to continue with the Storming stage, where deviations such as that of Mike would have been addressed. This done, the group could transition to their task (Norming).

Part II. Problem Identification

There is conflict with Mike who could have been an invaluable member to the team. His detachment from the group will cause them to fail. The other group's members have also merged only in a half-hearted way. Instead of functioning as a fully cohesive, tight-knit, motivated group, the whole is…… [read more]

Executive or Management Coaching Essay

… Executive or Management Coaching

Coaching can be quite powerful when well executed. However, in some cases, coaching can turn out to be a rather artificial and temporary process. This is more so the case in those instances where coaches fail to establish meaningful relationships between them and their clients for purposes of coaching. This text will concern itself with the key reasons as to why relationships are considered a foundation for coaches in their quest to evoke excellence in their clients.

According to Flaherty (2010, p. 4), "a coach is someone who builds a respectful relationship with a client and then researches the situations the client finds himself in, with a particular emphasis on the client's interpretation of the events." In basic terms, it is difficult for a coach to evoke excellence in others if he or she does not have a perfect or well-founded understanding of their own unique circumstances. In building relationships with clients, a coach is able to understand their capabilities as well as strengths and weaknesses. This understanding could aid the coach in designing the exercise in a way that best suits the client and the specific circumstances he or she is in. To highlight this assertion, Goldsmith and Lyons (2006, p. 21) are of the opinion that for purposes of enhancing the effectiveness of the coaching exercise, there is need for a coach to "engage in open-ended inquiry to establish an equilibrated helping relationship before he or she can determine what kind of help is needed."

Next, it is by way of nurturing a meaningful relationship that a coach wins the trust and confidence of the client hence motivating him or her to make recommended changes. As Flaherty (2010, p. 40) notes, "the elements of the relationship are mutual trust, mutual respect, and mutual freedom of expression." In this case the author uses the word mutual to create an emphasis that these elements of the relationship must go both ways, i.e. emanate from both the client and…… [read more]

Information Technology (IT) Organizational and Key Manager Assessment and Analysis Essay

… ¶ … Manger Assessment

IT Organizational and Key Manager Assessment and Assessment

Narrative Discussion of the Position

Over the last several years, IT personnel have been playing an increasingly important role inside a number of organizations. Part of the reason for this, is because technology has changed to the point where firms are now storing large amounts of data electronically. This increases the risks that they will face as issues such as security breaches, can wreak havoc on a corporation and its reputation. To prevent this from happening, all firms must have an IT manager that has: the experience, education, leadership and knowledge to deal with these challenges.

As a result, the position will involve a number of attributes that any candidate must possess to be successful over the long-term. The most notable include: at least ten years' experience working in IT, they must be able to communicate effectively / get along with others and they must have a minimum of five years working in a leadership position. These different elements are important, because they are showing how the ideal candidate must possess and utilize these skills on a regular basis to achieve the objectives of the organization.

A Discussion on what is required for the Position

The current opening for IT manager is one of the top executive positions inside the corporation. This means that this person will have a tremendous amount of responsibility for the IT strategy of the firm and how it is implemented. Their different responsibilities will include: establishing policy decisions, approving large budgets for entire departments and working with executives to create an effective IT strategy to deal with a host of challenges facing the firm.

This means that the ideal candidate should possess a number of attributes that will help them to excel on the job. The different skill sets that they must have are: the ability to work with other employees / team members, they need to have practical leadership experience working in an IT environment, effective communication, an in depth knowledge of new trends, they must be a problem solver and the ideal candidate should have the flexibility to adapt to a host of situations. These different elements are important, because they are showing how the right person must have the experience, education, leadership and ability to solve a number of challenges facing the firm. (Saia, 2011)

The Professional and Management Knowledge of the Position

Anyone who is considered to be a serious candidate for the position must be able embrace a number of different attributes. These include:

Experience -- All qualified individuals who are…… [read more]

Business Management -- Review of Four Articles Admission Essay

… Business Management -- Review of Four Articles

Boerner, S., Eisenbeiss, S.A., and Griesser, D. "Follower Behavior and Organizational Performance: The Impact of Transformational Leaders."

Journal of Leadership & Organizational Studies, Vol. 13, No. 3 (2007): 15 -- 26.

The purpose of this study was to determine whether or not specific leadership styles in organizational leaders necessarily correspond to attitudes and performance approaches of their subordinates. More particularly, the study proposed two hypotheses: first, that transformational leadership would correspond to higher levels of organizational citizenship among subordinates than transactional leadership; and second, that transformational leadership styles would also correspond to higher levels of innovation and creativity among subordinates than transactional leadership in organizations. Both of those hypotheses were confirmed by the study. This topic is directly applicable and important to the contemporary study of business management in that it suggests specific benefits to transformational leadership, especially within industries and organizations where creativity and innovation are important to success. More generally, the study implies that transformational leadership might be beneficial to all organizations in that organizational citizenship among employees is universally beneficial and desirable.

Methodologically, this study could be questioned because it relied exclusively on interviews with organizational leaders. Its conclusions were based on the characterizations of leaders about the levels of corporate citizenship, innovation, and creativity of their subordinates. Because the study focused on the relationship between leadership styles and corresponding tendencies of subordinates, it might have been more appropriate and more reliable to use alternative sources of data pertaining to the subordinates. Including the subjective characterizations of subordinates would have been preferable to exclusive reliance on the assessments from their leaders and an objective evaluation of subordinates in relation to the dependent variables (i.e. innovation, creativity, and organizational citizenship) would have been optimal.

Cattani, K.D., Dahan, E., and Schmidt, G.M. "Lowest Cost May Not Lower Total Cost: Using "Spackling" to Smooth Mass-Customized Production." Production and Operations Management, (Sep/Oct 2010).

The purpose of this study was to determine whether the traditional approach to mixed production cycles involving mass-produced items and specialty items is necessarily the most cost-effective solution to the limits of production facilities. More specifically, the study considered whether the "spackling" practice of producing specialty items first and then filling in the remaining time in the production schedule with the manufacture of as many mass-produced items as possible is always the best choice. The topic relates directly to the study of operational management because cost-effectiveness in manufacturing and production is a crucial factor in organizational profitability.

The hypothesis was that spackling would not always be the best choice and that a more flexible production schedule that incorporated additional variables (besides unit costs) would be preferable to spackling in all circumstances. The hypothesis was confirmed: the study determined that spackling is not necessarily the most effective approach in certain situations. In particular, the study determined that where the sales volume of mass-produced standard products is less than or equal to the sales volume of mass-produced custom products, profitability is actually increased… [read more]

Emergency Services Fire Department Essay

… Emergency Services Fire Department

In this paper the method of creating and sustaining a very efficient fire department is discussed in terms of the system, motivation, and sustainability of the department. Further modern leadership and motivational methods along with the professional considerations of the problems that fire fighters face and which ought to be addressed are highlighted.

Major Hypothesis:

The fire department deals with acute emergencies that require split second decisions and reactions and also high grade equipment and very dependable personnel who are dedicated and trained. It involves the leadership of many and team work. Hernon (2010) says rightly that for such systems to be effective there must be a network of leaders, and there must also be transformational leadership and these must necessarily hark to the aspects of emotional intelligence, resonant leadership and shared leadership. In this case it is recommended that a shared leadership team is created.

Creating the Team:

Motivation is one major aspect where training is imparted to create better fire fighters who can stand up to any challenge. Being a team work, the approach to leadership itself involves multiple paradigms. For example there is the trait approach, - or the 'great man theory' where a single individual was idolized as the leader. This prevailed for a long time and in the end of the 1900s the relational approach came to the front where more of the relations between individuals and how the relations were maintained and networked created the relational leadership concept. The modern or new leadership approach calls for the transformational leadership trait where the situation can be transformed from the existing to the ideal seamlessly by the initiative of the person or persons concerned. There are many more theories that are being revealed now. (Northouse, 2011)

The dependence on technology and modern gadgets has made it imperative that the personnel be trained to effectively handle the machines and become experts. Along with that they have to be trained to adapt to any situation and in other words show self propulsion and situational leadership. The situation creates the leader, and according to the contingency theory this is practical because the leadership style is determined by the situation and needs. The situational approach is more useful in this context along with the contingency method. The situational method asks the leader to adapt the developmental position of the subordinates. The task characteristics involve the leadership quality especially in the case of fire fighting. There are primary work groups as teams and the team members with their experience provide the leadership with established norms. (Northouse, 2009) There must be a system that can accommodate fast response and faster decisions with responsibility. For that some negative traits that are common have to be vanquished.

Workplace Considerations:

The common ethics, hazards and stress between the personnel in ambulance services, fire fighting and police are identical. These three services provide emergency services and have identical problems. Researchers have therefore spent lot of effort in finding the problems and developments… [read more]

Conflict Is Endemic Essay

… e. compromise. On the other hand, if he utilized accommodating conflict handling, he would get nowhere. Thus, the collaborative is a 'middle' ground, in many ways.

In a study that focused on collaboration, namely a study in which the "traditional administrative functions and processes are applied in a collaborative envi- ronment," it was found that the "role of the human service administrator appears to have expanded to include more of an external focus and this expanded focus may include some areas that can be ambiguous and difficult to specifically define," however it was maintained that this person had to somehow be a balanced individual who resolves problems through collaborative means (De Gibaja, 2001).

There are many ways to handle conflict. There is the individual who does not wish to deal with it very much, and accommodates it, and there is the "I always win" individual. However, conflict resolution is an art in itself and often the best way is a middle ground which, as mentioned above can be quite useful, especially if one utilizes collaborative and compromising means.


"The Art of Accommodation." (2011). Applied Strategies. Retrieved September 28, 2011, < http://www.applied-strategies.com/FOLDERS-HumanFactor/Accommodation.asp>.

De Gibaja, M. (2001). An Exploratory Study of Administrative Practice in Collaboratives. Administration in Social Work; 2001, Vol. 25 Issue 2, p39-59, 21p, 1 Chart

First Response:

My conflict-handling styles are competing and avoiding. I try to implement new strategic changes to address situational problems. In addition, I am always trying to find new directions for conflict-handling and creating new ideas. As a matter of fact, it is important to gain new wisdom for…… [read more]

Self-Assessment Progress Report Number Three Research Paper

… For my sten scores to improve that much would not surprise me because of how consistently I have worked at developing those skills.

The only recommendation that I would make to others would be to remind them to set aside time to systematically work at the tasks that they identified that will promote their professional growth. Anyone who wants to take this project seriously and make progress toward a career change needs only to be dedicated, and have a trustworthy, knowledgeable mentor. We may not all have the ideal personality or background for a particular job, but with some effort and determination, we can improve ourselves and develop new skills. We can be among that 10% to make a life-altering change.

Now that I have completed this project, I feel that I am closer to my dream of becoming a real estate agent. It is reassuring to know that even though I am not especially outgoing or affiliative, I can develop those skills . By the time I actually take some training in real estate and sales skills, I will already be well on the way…… [read more]

Role of Leaders in Change Management Term Paper

… Business

The Role of Leaders in Change Management

According to Watkins (2004), in order for a change management leader to be successful they have to manufacture momentum early on in the change process by gaining wins. Watkins defines a win… [read more]

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