"Leadership / Mentoring" Essays

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Change Process in Organizations Article Review

Article Review  |  3 pages (888 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Organizational Change

Navigating Organizational Change According to Current Scholarly Research

One of the most pressing demands imposed upon an organization undergoing some degree of change is that concerning the relationship between leadership and membership. Often, the strains of change can be difficult to assimilate for both aspects of the organization. However, it is the core responsibility of leadership to ease this transition by opening the airwaves for communication, presenting with clarity information about the form which this change will take and proceeding with a clear plan of action. The three articles considered hereafter address different aspects of organizational change.

One of the great ironies of implementing a major organizational change is that those organizations which are most expansive and successful are often those that will face the greatest practical difficulty in implementing change. So demonstrates the article by Tsao (2002), which examines the challenges faced by McDonald's as it simultaneously attempts to alter its image and improve its economic fortunes. Tsao reports that the fast-food giant had been in something of an economic downslide as the public focus shifted to greater patterns of health consciousness, as its own market became more competitive and as McDonald's simply reached a plateau in terms of the practicality of expansion.

Accordingly, the article reports that McDonald's would face myriad practical difficulties in the process of change. As the Tsao article reports, "It's a very large ship to turn around,' says S&P equity analyst Dennis Milton. And not only is McDonald's a mature company, with 30,000 stores worldwide, but its primary business is saturated: The market share that burger chains hold among all quick-service restaurants has fallen from 37.1% in 1997 to 35.3% in 2002, according to Chicago-based market researcher Technomic." (Tsao, 2002) in attempting to address this condition, McDonald's would initiate a multipart strategy of change which included such measures and drawing back from its steady pace of physical expansion to focus on improving aesthetic and practical conditions at existing locations. Other measure of importance would prove to be the shift of menu and image to improve McDonald's poor nutritional reputation.

As with McDonald's, the rationale for change at Wal-Mart is similarly imposed by image problems. Likewise, the situation calling for change at Wal-Mart is driven by a combination of internal pressures based on policy orientation and external pressures proceeding from economic realities. As the article by Hays (2004) reports, Wal-Mart has begun to experience a correlation between its own often-maligned labor practices and the ways that consumers respond to the retail giant. The article suggests that Wal-Mart finds itself at a crossroads with respect to the methods it has used to cut costs and improve profits.

Though…… [read more]

Four Styles of Creative Intelligence and Their Influence on Organizational Decision-Making Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (847 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


¶ … Creative Intelligence and their Influence on Organizational Decision Making

Creative intelligence has a significant and lasting impact on decision making in organizations. Leading theorists in transformational leadership contend there is a correlation between the ability to motivate and creative intelligence

(Boyatzis, 24). In fact leadership traits of transformational leaders indicate they have the ability to move between transactional and transformational leadership approaches depending on the specific situational requirements in their organizations (Baum, et.al). Creative intelligence then is critical for any organization to attain those strategic objectives that require intensive process integration, cross-functional support, and continued focus on a common, often difficult objective.

Assessing the Impact of Creative Intelligence on Decisions Making

The four types of creative intelligence including intuitive, innovative, imaginative and inspirational and each has a specific impact on organizational decision making. Entire organizational cultures in fact can be based on the predominant creative intelligence within the organization for example (Baum, et.al). In organizations that resist change and rely on the assumption or knowledge base of the company in making decisions, intuition dominates the decision making process (Rowe). It is easy to see based on this fact how quickly in a more complacent or slower-moving culture how intuition could dominate over the other forms of creative intelligence. Organizations tend to resist change and in fact design change out of their structures over time. Intuition is a byproduct of organizational stability yet if relied on too much as part of any organizational culture and its decision making processes, it can become a path to complacency as well.

Innovative organizations in general rely on data to guide their decisions and often create various initiatives and programs internally to nurture and reward innovative concepts and ideas. Google is an example of a corporate culture that has a very high degree of innovativeness. The company has instituted since its founding the Rule of 20% which states that any engineer or developer can spend 20% of their time on projects of interest to them (Gawer, Cusumano,28). Products and services designed using the Rule of 20% now contribute over 50% of revenue to Google, and this includes AdWords, AdSense and others (Gawer, Cusumano,28). The innovative aspect of creative intelligence is the catalyst for economic growth over the long-term for Google and has become engrained in the company culture as a result.

The imaginative aspect of creative intelligence impacts organizational decisions by concentrating on nontraditional solutions to problems or the development of entirely new types of products or services. Apple's culture is one that is strongly influenced…… [read more]

Strategy in Performance and Reward Systems Essay

Essay  |  8 pages (2,940 words)
Bibliography Sources: 13



When employees are recognized and appreciated they will be personally motivated and the company will be rewarded, as well. If developed and administered correctly, motivational programs can increase loyalty because of the employees' greater involvement in the company's future, as well as enhance communication between employees and management. In past decades, management thought of recognition as a nice gesture… [read more]

Communicating in a Technological World Research Paper

Research Paper  |  8 pages (2,406 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


Leading & Managing Virtual Teams

Leading and Managing Virtual Teams

Virtual teams have long been part of the organizational structure of the armed forces, with the U.S. Army being one of the leading branches of service that is continually improving this approach to managing remote resources, people and tasks to attain missions and objectives. The intent of this analysis is… [read more]

Machiavelli's the Prince Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,395 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Machiavelli's: The Prince

According the Machiavelli, what qualities are the most important for an effective leader to possess? Why?

The most important qualities that are essential for someone to be an outstanding leader would include: the ability to effectively delegate, to provide captured territories with local autonomy, follow the example of others throughout history, and have an in depth knowledge of the art of war. When looking at the first principal, the ability to delegate, it highlights how those leaders who will not engage in any form of nepotism and appoint government officials (who are of the people) will be easier to govern. This is because the legitimacy of the government is brought into question, as a select group of people are running the country. Over the course of time, the leadership is susceptible to having outside forces try to eliminate the group that is ruling the country. The citizens (that they are ruling over) are unwilling to resist any kind of outside intervention, because of this perception. However, when public officials are selected based upon merit rather than who they know, there is more legitimate support for the government. As the public believes that the leadership will take into account their best interests. This makes it harder for foreign powers or domestic agitators, to create instability within the country. (Machiavelli, 1988)

The second principal, to provide captured territories with local autonomy, means that a good leader will understand and respect the people's desire for their own self-determination. Where, the conquering country is not attempting to impose their traditions / ideas upon all territories. Instead, they take an approach where they will give the local population control over their own internal affairs. This creates a good relationship between the conquered territory and the mother country. Where the local population becomes more loyal to those in power, this is because they are not attempting to change or destroy their way of life. Over the course of time, this helps to establish friendly relations between the government and the once conquered territory, making it easier to manage because the conquerors are not viewed as outsiders. (Machiavelli, 1988)

The third principal, all great leaders will follow other great leaders throughout history, means that no one is born with the ability to lead. To learn the most appropriate ways to rule requires: studying the tactics that the great rulers throughout history utilized. This will provide all young leaders with the vision and ideas that must be implemented, in order to lead as effectively as possible. (Machiavelli, 1988)

The fourth principal, all great leaders must be familiar with the art of war, means that they will be knowledgeable in a number of different subjects to prepare them for warfare. This is essential, because it allows the leadership to focus on the worst case scenarios, so that they can be prepared for unexpected. An example of this can be found when, Machiavelli said, "A ruler should therefore always be concerned with military matters, and in peace… [read more]

Developing Professionals Case Study

Case Study  |  3 pages (1,083 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4



The Boston Consulting Group takes it human resources very seriously; their employees and the employee's skills are their means of production and are the firm's most important assets. BCG has devoted significant resources to ensuring that they hire the brightest candidates and keep the top performers. In 1997, CEO Carl Stein establish "the people team" which is responsible for monitoring the success of BCG's recruiting, consultant development, project staffing, performance reviews and promotions. Career development committees (CDC) at the local and regional levels support the "people team" and are responsible for all activities expect recruiting.

Each new recruit is assigned a CDC advisor who is the individual responsible for providing feedback on the consultant's performance. The advisor and the consultant identify action plans for improving the consultant's weaknesses and they create a career plan, which includes an estimate of when the consultant may be promoted to a project lead. In addition to a CDC advisor, a consultant is assigned two other resources to help them assimilate into the BCG culture. They share an office with a second year consultant or a newly promoted project leader and receive a mentor. A mentor is an officer of the firm and is responsible for nurturing the consultant.

This case provides several issues for consideration: recommendations for the consultants based on their last CDC performance review, recommendations on how the mentors can better assist their consultants and are recommendations for changes to the human capital management system.

The consultants

This business case presents four consultants who have just completed their first year at BCG. Each has worked on a minimum of two projects and has received two CDC performance reviews. Each consultant has had different issues to deal with as they assimilated into the BCG culture: Josh had to deal with returning to BCG post- graduate school, Eric's challenge was being an industry hire, Michael was a hire from academia with a PhD in sociology and little to no work experience and Madeleine was struggling with her simultaneous success and boredom.

BCG has a policy of up or out; if you did not achieve a promotion to project lead within 26 to 30 months, you would be asked to leave. In order to be promoted, a consultant needed to exhibit strong performance is three areas: strong analytical problem-solving ability, effective communications and interactions with both colleagues and clients and that their personal values aligned with the values of BCG.

The mentors

In this business case we meet four mentors: Matt, Michael Larissa and Eric. All are vice-presidents and officers of the firm. Matt and Larissa were experience and proactive mentors, while Michael was a passive mentor and Eric was inexperienced and unsure of his role. In 2001, mentoring became an element of the performance criteria for officers and their rating would effect both discretionary compensation and timing of promotions.

Recommendations for the consultants and their mentor

Josh Coopersmith and Matthew Glassman

Josh is on track to be promoted within a year and it… [read more]

Self-Assessment, Referring to Teamwork in My Group Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,562 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


¶ … self-assessment, referring to teamwork in my group, the score was 9, indicating a relatively high level of effective teamwork within the group. The quiz covers what are viewed as the antecedents to successful teamwork -- effectiveness of teamwork is measured by results rather than inputs. In general, the result is not surprising. The team in question works well,… [read more]

Fed Ex Within the Context Case Study

Case Study  |  4 pages (1,111 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Fed Ex Case Study

Within the context of organizational behavior, leadership is one of the most crucial aspects of the entire rubric of the organization. Scholars and philosophers alike have been trying to define leadership for centuries, albeit without much success. True, leadership is, in part, decision making at the nth level. Decision-making, of course, is one of the fundamental keys to the survival of an organization, more so now that economic boundaries between countries crumble, business becomes more complex, and the results of decisions often have global impact. FedEx's Fred Smith, with his military background, epitomizes the four managerial traits that most scholars see as determining success within the modern business: honesty/ethical, competent -- good track record; reward and recognizing managerial goals and decisions through progressive Human Resource programs, and placing heavy and well publicized emphasis on awards for humanitarianism, performance, and teamwork.

Part 2 -- From the research available, Federal Express is a company in which strategic leadership outshines tactical management. Leaders do not have subordinates, they have followers. Leadership inspires, motivates and sets the direction to achieve goals; leaders focus on people. Both people and organizations want leaders. People want leaders to assist them in accomplishing their goals. Organizations want leaders to not only motivate, but to provide organizational direction for employees to follow. Fed Ex takes upper level leadership theory seriously, and continually implements a Best Practices model that advance their culture both covertly and overtly. Primarily this is done through trait -- Fred Smith's vision, energy and commitment flow through to top managers and become the paradigm of operations rather than just theoretical constructs.

Part 3 -- Federal Express's managers use three levels to facilitate their team's effectiveness as they combine expertise to make a true synthesis -- e.g. The whole being greater than the sum of the parts. They do this by embracing the following three ideas: competing collecting as one brand and one voice; but at the same time operating independently by meeting distinct customer needs in distinct cultures; and embracing the idea of managing collaboratively by working together to sustain loyal and long-term relationships with clients, employees and other stakeholders.

Part 4- of course, as a company the size of FedEx, operating on an international level, multiple teams are used in various situations. However, Smith epitomizes the idea of self-managed teams at whatever level because those teams have the expertise, interest, and logistics to be able to solve problems quickly and without a great deal of bureaucratic paperwork or excessive upper management. This works well because of the time factor -- central to FedEx. For whatever reason, the delivery of any one package is termed "the golden package." If ANYTHING delays that delivery, the team is empowered to fix the issue, even if that issue is Mother Nature, mechanical (plane failure, etc.). Thus, the self-managed teams become managers with the reason to manage, service to the client.

Part 5- One way that FedEx managers play a critical role in the development of… [read more]

Rewards the Efficacy of Short-Term Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (961 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2



The Efficacy of Short-Term Rewards

Of course that fat, end-of-the-year bonus check is lovely to get. Even in these lean days, when that annual largesse may have been put on a diet, the bonus given for a long period of good work is certainly beneficial in terms of proving to be an incentive for a worker to continue to put in his or her all. However, and this is something that can all-too-often be overlooked in the rush of everyday business, short-term rewards are also important. This paper examines one situation that the writer has personal experience with in which a system of short-term rewards was instituted with the result that both productivity and employee satisfaction increased.

One summer I was working as a combination warehouse person/delivery person. The food bank where I worked accepted donations at a warehouse that I (along with about a dozen other workers) organized according to how perishable they were and basic food type. My duties also included putting together "food baskets," which were actually boxes that we put together for whole families, and delivering these boxes of food to families as well as other organizations such as churches and schools.

All of the paid workers were young and working for low wages. There were also a number of older workers (ranging from their fifties to their eighties) who worked as volunteers. This created a certain amount of conflict because the volunteers tended to look down on those of us who were working for money rather than out of a spirit of giving (as they perceived the situation). This conflict was exacerbated by the fact that the director of the agency rewarded the volunteers on a monthly basis with a dinner for all of them at a nice restaurant and a drawing for gift cards for different stores. Her rational (when I asked) about why the volunteers were rewarded relatively lavishly when they worked intermittently and the paid workers were not rewarded was that volunteers needed different types of motivation.

When I began to work there, the regular, paid workers were given a review that might lead to a raise every six months and were given an annual bonus. However, because the turnover was so high, most of the paid workers never actually saw an annual bonus. One of the reasons that the paid workers left (other than the fact that the pay was low and the hours were erratic) was that the volunteers were given short-term rewards while the paid workers (who tended to view the volunteer workers as dilettantes) were asked to wait for six months to have their work acknowledged.

The director of the agency went to a workshop after I had been there for four months and came back with the intention of revamping the reward system and asked me along with one of the volunteer workers to assist in…… [read more]

Cultural Change Embedded Culture Resistance and Change Management Web Content

Web Content  |  3 pages (862 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


¶ … allbusiness.com/science-technology/behavior-cognition-Psychology/13413337-1.html

This website offers a serious, research-based assessment of some of the ways in which management style and decision-making strategy affect people's willingness to follow a leader. This seems to be an aspect of leadership that is often overlooked, especially within the literature of management. Certainly, the ways in which a manager acts is essential, but such actions so not take place in a vacuum. An effective leader acts in a way that connects with that person's followers/workers. This picture of leadership style is complicated by the fact that effective leadership must also be congruent with the specific goals of the leader and the organization as a whole. Assessing and furthering goals shared between leaders and followers is based on concepts of focusing on psychological strengths that already exist among followers. These strengths are then multiplied by attuned leaders through the emphasis on hope, self-efficacy, resiliency, and optimism as tools for each person to increase both efficiency and self-expression

2. http://www.breakoutofthebox.com/transchange.htm

This website presents a very clear exegesis of the ways in which fundamental change can occur in an individual through a series of steps. I found this particularly useful -- and convincing -- because it made clear that change often (and indeed probably most often) occurs not in a single step but as a series of interlinked events. The first step of change in this model is "learning," or acquiring new skills and capabilities through "incremental improvement" "without examining or challenging underlying beliefs and assumptions."

The second step of change is "reframing" or "double-loop learning." This can include basic learning processes but is marked in addition by "fundamentally reshaping the underlying patterns of our thinking and behavior." This change thus allows a person to incorporate new knowledge and skills into profoundly new ways of seeing and doing.

Finally, sometimes people (both leaders and followers as well as teams of both) can effect even more fundamental change. Transformational or "triple-loop" learning involves an overall transformation of self, changing who one is as well as how one conceives of oneself.

3. http://humanresources.about.com/od/organizationalculture/a/culture_change_2.htm

This website makes the excellent point -- which should be obvious, but all-too-often is not -- that organizational change can only be effective if there are clear goals for that change. All too often when an organization's leaders feel that something is wrong, they seek change in a non-directed way. But knowing that things should change is not very helpful in the absence of any other information.

The process of making organizational cultural change requires, first, understanding the way in which an organization's current culture works. The next…… [read more]

Leading Organizational Change in American Schools Research Paper

Research Paper  |  10 pages (3,912 words)
Bibliography Sources: 15


Leading Organizational Change in America's K-12 Schools: A Literature Review

Creating positive changes in America's schools is a key responsibility of educational leaders. Researching best practices via the relevant scholarly literature can assist those seeking to manage and improve the learning environment in America's K-12 schools, in contributing to the creation of a thriving instructional atmosphere. By integrating the knowledge… [read more]

Managing Criminal Justice Organization Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (701 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


Managing a Criminal Justice Organization

Managing Criminal Justice Organization

Organizational change, particularly due to economic factors, is a difficult time for leaders and their staff. While change is difficult for many people, maintaining staff morale in the face of cuts can be a particularly challenging task. As a manager of a police department where significant cuts are necessary in order to achieve economic sustainability, it is necessary to find ways to keep staff motivated both intrinsically and extrinsically. A work environment that is built upon intrinsic and extrinsic rewards has been found to lead to an increased level of total job satisfaction and as a result job performance (Gagne & Deci, 2005). Intrinsic motivation is defined as the engagement in an activity because of the interest and satisfaction that the activity itself invokes while extrinsic motivation requires the addition of a separate consequence such as a tangible reward (Gagne & Deci, 2005). In the latter, satisfaction is derived from the extrinsic reinforcement of the activity rather than the activity itself.

Motivation in organizational settings is often defined as a set of attitudes and values that influence an employee to operate in a goal directed manner (Hofsteded, 1980). As a leader one must always seek to identify what motivates the staff that they supervise. While there are many overarching concepts about human behavior and motivation, organizational leadership, particularly in the face of economic difficulties, should include the identification of what motivates or drives individual employees. Traditionally, motivation can be found through monetary rewards and gains, however, in difficult economic times leadership must find ways to motivate individuals in other ways. While this can be a daunting task, it will allow for engagement of each employee in a manner that will meet their needs and interests and maintain if not increase job satisfaction and performance.

While task consistency and direct supervision are paramount in a police organization, encouraging employees to find ways to make autonomous decisions as well as to contribute to the overall decision making of the department is a key factor in intrinsic motivation (Gagne & Deci, 2005). During times…… [read more]

Manager Was a Person Who Was Highly Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (609 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


¶ … manager was a person who was highly organized and a skilled motivator. You always felt good doing work for this person, even when this work was difficult. The least favorite manager was the opposite, somebody who could convince you that your good work was actually something tedious and unnecessary. In the military, you must do some unpleasant tasks at times. Having a manager that would instill in the team the confidence that even the worst task was an important component of a greater mission -- even when that mission is unknown -- was to me the sign of a great leader. Both leaders organized in a similar way and the tasks we performed were similar, but one simply had more ability to instill confidence and a sense of unity among the group while the other made our work seem relatively pointless in comparison.

DQ2. The tasks at the shop are largely routine, although they vary from customer to customer. The subordinates are generally experienced and competent. The environment is positive and the leader has a high trust relationship with his workers. Alan has a task-focused leadership style where he schedules the workers with an eye to optimizing the effectiveness of the shop in terms of customer output. This type of leadership is appropriate for this situation. Alan does not need to be wholly directive beyond the scheduling as the mechanics are sufficiently experienced to make their own decisions about the best methods of doing the job. Cognitive resource theory predicts Alan's behavior well. His own experience is irrelevant for simple tasks, yet his experience is important when stressful conditions arise. He only contributes when he takes a directive role, for example in scheduling.

DQ3. A desirable vision should have a number of traits. The vision should be clear and realistic. The vision…… [read more]

Alex Sander Is Proving Brilliant Case Study

Case Study  |  7 pages (2,337 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


" This denotes a leader's ability to interpret his surroundings and react effectively, especially when his power or safety is challenged. Once again, when applied to Sander, it is clear that he falls short. His perception is that the obligation to consider the feedback is an imposition on time that he would rather use in working on new products and… [read more]

Score for This Self-Assessment Exercise Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (979 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


¶ … score for this self-assessment exercise was 36, just slightly below the average indicating the need for personal structure. While I was not really surprised by my score as such, I did find the questions themselves, and my responses to them, interesting. The questions appeared to address two categories of structure: structure in terms of one's personal relationship with things and events, and structure in terms of one's relationship with people. My responses in these two categories appeared quit divergent. I for example strongly dislike having to make sudden changes in my planned schedule. On the other hand, I do not believe in too rigid a daily structure; there must be some spontaneity. For this reason, I enjoy being with spontaneous people. I think this could be because I secretly want to be like them; their lives seem so much more fun than mine.

Having said this, I do believe that the exercise outcome is an accurate representation of how I perceive my tasks within the organization, and how I experience my relationships with my colleagues. While I like some degree of structure in my schedule, too much rigidity makes it boring, and I enjoy variety. In my interactions, I love to be friends with spontaneous people; many of my friends are much more spontaneous than I am.

2) 1.

In terms of stereotyping and social identity, it is unfortunate that past events in Rochelle Beauport's professional experience led her to apply the assumption of stereotyping to Syd Gilman. Because her previous boss stereotyped women, saying that they simply "couldn't take the heat," Beauport was led to believe that the same was occurring in terms of her present situation. This experience of stereotyping by her previous boss also led to Rochelle's current experience of her social identity as a woman of color, a minority in a world that is generally prejudiced towards such employees. From this perspective, she was therefore unable to understand Syd's sincere intention to reward her.


The other perceptual error in the case study is committed by Syd Gilman. In his past experience, the signature promotion he was offering to Beauport was indeed a reward. He experienced it as a reward in his own past, when the promotion provided him with the opportunity to become familiar with different functions within the company. It never occurred to him that Rochelle was expecting a promotion that would provide her with more responsibility within her own department. In Syd's perception, he is therefore rewarding Rochelle, and is assuming her shocked reaction to be positive while it was anything but.


It is clear that there is a significant communication gap between Rochelle and Syd in this case study. Neither is communicating effectively his or her intentions or wishes. Hence, incorrect conclusions are drawn. To minimize this sort of problem, companies should ensure that an open communication channel is maintained to promote a mutual understanding of what constitutes…… [read more]

Management Is a Diverse Role and Increasingly so in the 21st Century Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,457 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Management is a Diverse Role in the 21st Century

Given how turbulent global economies have become, the daily lives of workers in all developed nations are more uncertain, stressful and filled with distrust than ever before. It is the challenge before leaders as the 21st century accelerates into its second decade to accept these highly uncertain conditions and create leadership… [read more]

Argyris and Schon's Theories for Action Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,350 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


¶ … Argyris and Schon's Theories for Action

Over the last ten years, the amounts of leadership in business have been increasingly brought to the forefront. Part of the reason for this, is because many managers and administrators have been lacking the ability to effectively lead their organization. Where, many managers and executives will often pay lip services to having effective leadership, yet in practice they are not demonstrating the necessary characteristics to motivate employees. A good example of this can be seen with a study, which showed that 73% of businesses say that their employees are their greatest asset. However, when you look at where employees rank in the priorities of the business, 98% have them ranked in sixth place. (Chitwood, 2004) This is significant, because it shows how there is a lack of leadership at many business. To help managers be able to address this issue, Argyris and Schon's theory was developed. This provides managers with specific steps, to help improve the underlying amounts of leadership at any organization. To fully understand how this can help provide leadership training requires; examining this theory by looking at: the concrete experience, reflective observations, abstract conceptualization and active experimentation. Together, these different elements will provide the greatest insights, as to how Argyris and Schon's theory can help to improve the overall amounts of leadership at any organization.

Concrete Experience

The ideas of Argyris and Schon's theory, builds off of previous work that was conducted by Freud and Jung, regarding the human thought process. Where, people determine what thoughts will affect, the actions that will occur to them in their lives. Argyris and Schon build off of this theory, by claiming that people have mental maps in their minds, which can serve as a guide for what actions they will take. The problem is: that few people are aware of these mental maps. Those who do know about them will rarely utilize them, to positively influence their actions. At which point, someone will become reactive, to the events that shape their environment. This would qualify as the objective component of the theory, by providing a general overview. (Anderson, 1994)

However, when look at the specific factors; it is clear that the actions theories would address the individual personal experiences of the event. This is subdivided into two sections, espoused theories and theories in use. Espoused theories are: when one person will have loyalty for the conscious actions they are taking, often defending them (even when they are wrong). Theories in use are: when there are various actions that are implied, to the behavior of the individual. In most cases, the thoughts for these actions are generated on the subconscious level. (Dick, 2006)

Argyris and Schon's theory provides: a general overview for explaining the thought process that contributed to human behavior. At the same time, it provides specific information, as to how this related, to the conscious and unconscious actions of the individual. This is significant, because it provides a number of different… [read more]

History of the Study of Organizational Behavior Individual Work Motivation Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (951 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


¶ … Personalizing Productivity is a fairly straightforward morality play about the role that treating employees well has on motivation. This article oversimplifies the issue of motivation, but does tap into one important aspect of motivation. There is a psychological need on the part of all people to have meaning in their work. When management is able to tap into that meaning, the result will be higher levels of motivation, which in turn lead to higher levels of productivity.

The basic psychology of motivation has addressed in a few different ways. Maslow's hierarchy is one of the most basic ways for managers to understand human motivation. The company is presumed to meet the safety needs of the workers. The managers in the article that were successful tapped into the social and esteem needs of the workers; the managers who were not successful did not. There were differences between the leadership styles of the different managers, illustrating that the question of motivation is not one of style but of meeting deep-rooted needs.

The social needs include the need for belonging and this is illustrated in the article. When workers do not feel as though they are a part of the team -- for example the quote "she treats us like fifth-graders" -- they lose motivation. When workers do feel that they are an important part of the team -- for example the quote "one hand washes the other" -- they have higher levels of motivation. The same applies to esteem needs. The esteem needs of the workers are met through recognition of their contributions to the organization. When these conditions are met, employee motivation increases.

The other major content theory is Herzberg's Two-Factor Theory. Dissatisfaction arises when certain factors are not present in the work. With the poor managers at Flagler, the recognition for efforts was not present, and neither was a human connection between the manager and the worker. As the result of this, the employees lost motivation. The company may have been providing many things to the employees, but it is the absence of specific things that the employees need that resulting in decreased motivation (Silva, no date).

In addition to the content theories of motivation, there are also process theories. Vroom's Expectancy Theory posits that employees will put into work a level of effort that is related to the expected outcomes. In other words, if the employees expect that greater effort will result in nothing, they will not put forth greater effort. Employees therefore can be understood to be rational actors and all terms and conditions of their employment, including their productivity, can be viewed as part of a bargain. When managers fail to reward employees for increased effort -- such as Bill Shaney -- the employees are unwilling to exert further effort. If there is an extrinsic reward, even a non-financial one,…… [read more]

Challenge of Building Sustainable Organizations the Human Factor Article

Article  |  10 pages (2,896 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Sustainable Organizations

The Challenge of Building Sustainable Organisations: A Human Factor

With many of the world's governments galvanized in their writing, legislating into law and enforcing compliance standards for environmental sustainability, human sustainability is quickly going by the wayside. With more focus on sustainability and eco-friendly processes, from supply chain practices of reverse logistics to new product development including Design… [read more]

Personnel in Technology Society Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,454 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Personnel in Technology

Society and technology are so interwoven and it's now clear that doing without technology is becoming impossible. And with it being omnipresent the society needs to be supporting the operators and the system itself around the global. In depth we are now going to consider what is involved in building an effective technology team.

It is important… [read more]

Communication and Trust in Global Virtual Teams Thesis

Thesis  |  9 pages (2,485 words)
Bibliography Sources: 8


Communications -- Building Trust in Global Virtual Teams

Globalization has already changed the conduct of modern business tremendously and in myriad ways. Contemporary business organizations must consider the implications of their decisions in different societies, sometimes adopting significantly different strategies based on local cultures, values, norms, and expectations. In many cases, those elements differ substantially from one society to the… [read more]

Narrative in the End Article

Article  |  2 pages (450 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


¶ … Narrative

In the end, many of the studies reviewed come to the same conclusion, that supervisors have a significant impact on the employee's work experience. An employee's emotional experience, job satisfaction, and ability to handle conflict within the workplace all is affected by the supervisor's interactions and leadership style. Research also concludes that there are purposeful acts supervisors can take to improve their communication with their employees.

Possible Alternative Solutions:

The possible alternatives supervisors have at their disposal, to improve supervisor-employee communications, are varied. First, improving the leader-member exchange can help employees understand their job breadth similarly to their supervisor's understanding. Second, supervisors can balance the level of supervision they give employees, to prevent resentment and improve communications. Third, implementing a transformational leadership style can help improve the employee-supervisor relationship, which will improve communication. Fourth, the supervisor's action can significantly make up for the issues employees experience, including difficulties in communication, when the organization is lacking in the service climate area. Lastly, understanding which types of communications are best delivered by direct supervisors and which are best delivered by senior management can help improve the reception of these communications.

Best Alternative Solution:

The best alternative solution involves combining several of these possible alternative solutions. The best solution involves implementing a training program that instructs supervisors in finding a balance in their management levels,…… [read more]

Improving Communications Between Supervisors and Employees Article

Article  |  10 pages (2,771 words)
Bibliography Sources: 20


¶ … improving communications between supervisors and employees at Kongsberg Automotive.

Improving Communication Between Supervisors and Employees at Kongsberg Automotive

Bono, Foldes, Vinson and Muros (2007) performed an experience sampling study, examining how organizational leaders affect the emotional experiences of their employees. Health care workers were surveyed four time per day, for two weeks, in this study. It was found… [read more]

Do Controlling Shareholders Enhance Corporate Value? Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (780 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Yin-Hua, Y. (2005). Do controlling shareholders enhance corporate value? Corporate

Governance: An International Review. 13(2), 313-325.

According to Y. Yin-Hua's 2005 article "Do controlling shareholders enhance corporate value?" from Corporate Governance: An International Review, when managers have a larger personal investment in a company, they have a greater incentive to make wise policy decisions for that company. They also have a greater personal incentive to take measures to ensure company's financial health over the long-term. Yin-Hua analyzed Taiwanese companies and found that concentrated ownership enhanced the positive effects of having a personal interest in a firm, given that there were fewer competing interests embedded in the corporate government structure. Concentrated ownership means the positive incentive effect of owning shares will weigh against the negative entrenchment effect of caution which may result if a leader fears losing personal wealth and does not wish to embark upon a potentially risky but potentially profitable firm decision.

Yin-Hua specifically chose Taiwanese firms because he felt that previous studies were misleading in terms of their portrayal of firm ownership and its effects upon corporate risk-taking. Taiwanese family-owned firms have dispersed shareholdings on paper, so they will not have to disclose their shareholdings. Earlier findings suggested the benefit of concentrated ownership eventually tapered out and resulted in entrenched decision-making. But Taiwanese firms with concentrated leadership often made good decisions. Yin-Hua took care to examine the actual nature of the proportion of concentration of leadership, rather than simply looking at how the leadership structure appeared 'on paper.'

However, one of the problems of using Yin-Hua's study is that American firms tend to have fairly idiosyncratic ownership patterns, compared with other nation's firms. The question of how shareholdings affect value enhancement, and the costs of large shareholdings and entrenchment was first studied by Stulz (1988) who suggested that as managerial ownership and centralized shareholding control increased, the negative effect on firm value associated with the entrenchment of manager-owners started to exceed the positive incentive benefits of personal, managerial ownership of a large proportion of stock. This resulted in blocking value-enhancing takeovers. The fact that Yin-Hua's analysis contradicts Stulz's findings may be particular to the family-based nature of the Taiwanese firms Yin-Hua studied. In family-lead firms, a more long-term focus might be natural to the leadership. But in the United States, firm ownership, even by large shareholders, is often…… [read more]

Dennis &amp Goldsmith Text Reaction Paper

Reaction Paper  |  2 pages (717 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


¶ … Dennis & Goldsmith text takes a clear position on what leadership should be. The first chapter for example identifies leadership as a three-pronged paradigm that balances ambition, competence and integrity. The authors also emphasize that the 'ambition' aspect of leadership could be somewhat dangerous, in that it is easy to become seduced by the power involved in a leadership position. In fact, the most striking part of this reading is the fact that the power of leadership is simply part of many other aspects that should be in balance for leadership to be effective. Indeed, this aspect has been considered as important in the literature as well.

According to a research white paper by Bal et al., power has a very particular role to play in leadership. Significantly, the paper cites research to indicate that most leaders, amounting to 94% of the leaders surveyed, regard themselves to be at least moderately powerful in their workplace. This sense of power is not only seductive, but could also lead to faulty decision-making. Another significant figure is that only 59% of leaders believe that employees at all levels of their workplace are empowered to perform optimally.

The point the paper and the reading make is the fact that leaders should not be concerned only with feeling powerful, but with in fact understanding their particular sources of power and enhancing these. Bal et al. identify the sources of leadership power as the power of expertise, the power of information, and the power of relationships.

Breaking down power into these specific categories is vitally important in order to ensure that leaders understand the nature of power instead of simply the heady feeling connected with it. Power should be used to enhance effective leadership.

In general, this text appears to be concerned with taking a certain position regarding leadership and its aspects. The most effective leadership, according to the authors, is one that is balanced among its various elements of power.

The text by Yuki appears to be far less clear than that of Dennis & Goldsmith. Indeed, the author appears to make an attempt at presenting a variety of views regarding…… [read more]

Psychology to Organizations in Many Ways Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,227 words)
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¶ … Psychology to Organizations

In many ways, business organizations are reflections of those who create them and occupy positions of executive leadership and direction. Generally, business founders and organizational leaders who are functional psychologically and whose motivations correspond appropriately to the legitimate needs of the organization and its personnel tend to attract and cultivate individuals with similar characteristics and personal attributes. Conversely, business founders and organizational leaders whose motivations correspond to the need to overcompensate for personal shortcomings and psychological insufficiency tend to attract associates who mirror those negative personal characteristics and attributes.

While myriad factors contribute to the success of business organizations, those that meet certain fundamental criteria in the realm of psychology are often much better positioned for long-term success than those that do not meet those fundamental criteria. Ideally, the founders of any organization would lay the groundwork most conducive to organizational success in many ways.

In the realm of human psychology, some of the essential defining elements and characteristics consistent with the success of the organization would include establishing a climate that cultivates leaders; recognizing the primary sources of human motivation for achievement; distinguishing psychologically functional and dysfunctional sources of motivation; emphasizing the opportunity for intellectual independence, creativity; de-emphasizing over-reliance on natural inclinations toward social conformity; recognizing different aspects of human cognitive intelligence and learning capacity; and promoting personal and professional integrity.

Cultivating Organizational Leadership

Generally, the most successful organizations are those that seek to identify candidates for employment who have high potential for professional development into organizational leaders. Modern principles of business management and organizational psychology distinguish between management and leadership. Management is substantially limited to operational and administrative efficiency; leadership incorporates concepts such as the ability (and inclination) to help other develop professionally and achieve their fullest professional potential. Therefore, in designing a business organization for success, one would seek to hire supervisors and business managers who demonstrate high levels of leadership skills and to install a managerial development program whose primary purpose is to cultivate leadership skills throughout the organization.

Psychosocial Development, Self-Esteem, and Healthy Motivation for Success

By the time individuals are adults, they usually have reached the stage of psychosocial development where they have a natural desire to become part of a community in which they are valued and appreciated. In Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs, this corresponds to the Esteem Phase of psychosocial development. In principle, Maslow suggested that there are two fundamentally different sources of motivation in relation to achievement and the need for self-esteem.

Specifically, pseudo-self-esteem (or "lower" motivation for self-esteem) is based on maintaining the perception that one is respected or admired by others, virtually irrespective of the underlying reasons why. Typical examples of lower-level-based self-esteem would include seeking status, personal recognition, and fame, as well as the general desire for attention from others. On the other hand, typical examples of genuine (or, in Maslow's terminology, "higher" motivation for) self-esteem would include the desire to earn the respect of others for substantive reasons rather than a blind… [read more]

Characteristics of a Successful Supervisor Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (789 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


¶ … Supervisors

Effective business management is substantially dependent on the quality and effectiveness of supervisors. Supervisors are responsible for assessing the qualifications and professional competence of personnel, identifying the relative strengths and weaknesses of individual employees, ensuring that working groups function in a manner conducive to organizational success, and for motivating personnel to achieve the highest performance level of which they are capable individually as well as in coordination and collaboration with others.

The specific attributes of good supervisors include psychological maturity and stability, high self-esteem, good interpersonal and communication skills, the ability to connect with, motivate, and earn the respect of others, and high levels of personal integrity.

Personal and Psychological Attributes of Effective Supervisors

Generally, people who are psychologically mature, emotionally stable, and who enjoy healthy self-esteem tend to attract and connect most easily with others who share those psychological traits (Maxwell, 2007; Robins & Judge, 2009). Conversely, people who are psychologically immature, emotionally unstable, and who suffer from low self-esteem tend to be uncomfortable around and even threatened by those who are much healthier than they are psychologically. As a result, over time, working groups led by psychologically healthy supervisors tend to reflect similar characteristics, as do those led by comparatively unhealthy or psychologically weak supervisors (Maxwell, 2007; Robins & Judge, 2009).

Whereas supervisors who operate at a high level of psychological maturity and stability are eager to share the rewards of good performance on the part of their subordinates, those who operate at a lower level of psychological maturity and stability only reward performance to a point but are often threatened by signs of very high performance among their subordinates (Maxwell, 2007). Instead of sharing credit with their teams (and blame, when warranted), ineffective supervisors tend to usurp the credit associated with the successes of their subordinates and allocate blame "downhill" regardless of whether or not it is deserved. As a result, good supervisors typically earn the trust and genuine respect of their subordinates; meanwhile, poor supervisors may inspire fear but they are rarely trusted or respected (Harari, 2002; Maxwell, 2007).

In many respects, those elements of good leadership in the supervisory capacity are merely manifestations of personal and psychological integrity (Harari, 2002; Maxwell, 2007). Good supervisors reward competence rather than flattery and they are genuinely interested in helping their subordinates achieve professional success. Conversely, poor leaders reward personal…… [read more]

Groups, Teams All Teams Are Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (923 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Groups, Teams

All teams are groups, but not all groups are teams. The primary difference between teams and groups is that the former are highly focused and dedicated towards achieving a common goal. Groups generally looser gatherings of individuals that come together to brainstorm and share ideas but not necessarily to work on a collective project. Often with teams, individual members are "split into parts appropriate to each individual's talents," ("Teams & Groups" 1996). However, the individual's tasks are defined in part by the goals of the team. Tasks may even be shared or rotated to meet team objectives ("Differences between Work Groups and Teams" nd). In a group, task rotation rarely occurs because the individual is a self-contained unit. Tasks, roles, and responsibilities do not vary much because individuals are concerned with their own outcome and challenges rather than that of the team ("Differences between Work Groups and Teams" nd).

A sports analogy helps to envision the way teams function, whereas musical bands are usually referred to as "groups." Although musicians do have common goals in terms of producing, their objectives cannot be quantified in the same way that sports teams can. Sports teams play to win, and so too do workgroup teams. Ultimately, teams are "more effective" than groups in a business setting (Zeff & Higby 2002).

Another core difference between teams and groups in the workplace setting is that team members share a collective accountability. By definition, a team works together to achieve a common goal. Thus, a team also shares collective responsibility for failure. In a group, individuals work together to achieve their own personal objectives such as when a students gets together to study. Teams, on the other hand, get together to produce a collective project. Moreover, team leaders play different roles than group managers. Managers "just assign work with little discussion or collaboration with the staff members" ("Differences between Work Groups and Teams" nd). Group managers are "based on hierarchical positions," whereas the leadership role in a team is "shared by team members," (Zeff & Higby 2002). Team leaders motivate and inspire team members, and share in the collective outcome.

Teams may be more productive than groups for several reasons. For one, the communication among team members is generally more effective than among group members ("Teams & Groups" 1996). Improved communications in a team is due to several factors. For one, individuals are encouraged to participate in team meetings and discussions because they are invested in the outcome. Synergy is also created in a team, because the "group as a whole is greater than the sum of each individual's within the group," ("Teams & Groups" 1996). Synergy is created because of "collaboration and jointly produced outputs," (Zeff & Higby 2002). Team meetings are less formal…… [read more]

Behavior Is Not Seen the Same Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,196 words)
Style: Harvard  |  Bibliography Sources: 0


¶ … behavior is not seen the same way by everyone. In other words, my behavior may be acceptable to some while it may annoy someone else. This is because every person has different perceptions and beliefs. They do not have the same set of values, beliefs or opinions as us and sometimes this can clash to the extent that our behavior becomes irritating to them. However by the same token, we do meet people who have the same way of thinking as ours and hence they approve of our behavior. This is what happened to me during my college years where I came across two professors who treated me very different. One of the professors taught business communication and the other taught ethics. I was a very vocal student who loved to participated and share my knowledge. My business communication professor totally approved of this and even encouraged it. I had become her favorite student so much so that she would tell her other students about me and ask about me after I left college. I liked her a lot too because I could see that we had almost similar personalities. We both loved to talk, to share, to be overdramatic at times and simply loved having fun. She could probably sense the same thing and hence appreciated my personality. However the same was not true for my ethics teacher whom I disliked quite a bit. I must admit that I personally never liked this teacher and it was as if he could sense that too because he took an instant dislike to me as well. He wouldn't like me sharing my knowledge as he saw it bragging. He would misunderstand what I would say and always thought of me as a threat to his authority. This was one class I totally couldn't stand but I had to take it to complete my graduation. But this made me see that our behavior cannot possibly please everyone. While it would please some, it would definitely irritate someone else.

1. Positive self-talk statement should always be in the present tense.

They should always be assertive in nature.

They must always be spoken with a firm belief.

In other words when a person uses affirmations, he must remember to make them in present tense. This means instead of saying "I will be a confident person," the person needs to say "I am a confident person" as if he has already accomplished the goal that he wishes to achieve. It must also be assertive. This means there must be no weak words or phrases. For example instead of saying, "I do not like smoking but I still do it. I need to quit," the person should say, "I absolutely abhor smoking and cannot even think of inhaling smoke." These statements should be based on strong belief. Now this is a tricky condition. This is because most people using self-talk statements may lack belief in some areas and hence need to use affirmations. But… [read more]

CEO's Salary, Bonus, and Long-Term Term Paper

Term Paper  |  9 pages (2,423 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 20


Second, CEO compensation tends to be highly persistent over time and remuneration and firm performance typically are jointly determined.


Hypothesis 1: As a CEO has more year of experience, his pay will increase

There will also be an assumption that CEOs hired from outside according to the previous performance of the company will tend to be highly compensated compared… [read more]

Making Sense Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (806 words)
Style: Harvard  |  Bibliography Sources: 2


¶ … Boeing, the world's leading commercial aircraft manufacture, recently made some notable changes to its business and product strategies. According to a recent press release, company leaders "announced organizational changes intended to strengthen the company's focus on both performance and long-term strategy" ("Boeing," 2010, p. 1). These new strategies include major executive personnel changes, as well as a new "vision and road map" for production and marketing endeavors, and a fresh approach to global product strategies.

According to Helms-Mills sense-making framework, there are eight elements that need to be integrated into the change process. In applying this framework to the changes at Boeing, the following deductions can be made:

Identity construction

Because people all have their own life experiences that have shaped the way they view things, not everyone will look at the change process in the same way. For example, some people may see the executive replacements at Boeing to be an ominous sign, while others may see it as a necessary part of restructuring the company for a better and more lucrative future. Much of how the situation is identified depends on how the identifiers are affected by the change. The leaders at Boeing need to, as Helms-Mills suggests, handle the situation with care in order to ensure that the majority of both insiders and outsiders will view this 'rocking of the boat' in a positive way. This entails sending out press releases like the one discussed here, that paint the changes in a forward-thinking, goal-oriented light. This helps people to make sense of these changes.

2. Social sense-making

Making sense of the situation at Boeing in socially-oriented way requires an understanding of the interactions between various individuals and groups, and how these changes will affect these interactions. Clearly, the replacement of numerous department vice presidents is going to affect how different groups of employees communicate with their boss, but it can also change the way they communicate with each other.

3. Extracted cues

Managers at Boeing need to do more than merely speculate about how the changes they have implemented will affect their employees -- they need to keep an eye out for 'cues' that will provide them with the inside information they need to make decisions which will cause the least amount of company disruption. It is critical, however, that they interpret these cues correctly. Otherwise, they may "inadvertently create problems for staff in accepting the legitimacy of…… [read more]

Club Qualifications the Key Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (550 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


¶ … Club Qualifications

The Key Club is tremendously important to me for several specific reasons. I understand that leadership is one of the most important qualities required of people who are successful in life and in their professional responsibilities. Since the first core value of Key Club is Leadership, I am hoping and expecting that my participation will help me develop the necessary leadership skills to become successful professional in my personal and professional life.

I have been told that I have a good character so I hope I will be able to contribute something back to Key Club in that regard since Character is the organization's second core value. Likewise, the fact that Key Club highly values the concepts of Caring and Inclusiveness is something that inspires me because it mirrors the perspective of my family and my religious affiliation. In that regard, it seems that participating in Key Club offers the unique opportunity to improve myself while simultaneously achieving something that benefits others whose circumstances may be less advantaged than mine.

It is my expectation that Key Club will provide the opportunity to develop all of the necessary skills to help organize, administrate, and oversee, public functions. In that capacity, I hope to learn how to use my natural ability to make good judgments and decisions to help Key Club present positive, beneficial, well organized, and safe events that benefit all participants. My parents have always taught me the importance of following established rules and I believe that has helped me develop the appropriate perspective to help explain necessary rules and requirements to participants in Key Club events in a manner that…… [read more]

Human Relations Seven Themes Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,557 words)
Style: Harvard  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+


Human Relations

Seven themes of human relations are communication, self-awareness, self-acceptance, motivation, trust, self-disclosure and conflict resolution (Reece & Brandt, 2006). These themes guide one's learning of human relations, and mastery of these concepts can allow for better personal growth and the achievement of organizational objectives. Communication refers to the means by which we convey ideas, feelings and concepts to… [read more]

Innovation and Change Essay

Essay  |  1 pages (498 words)
Style: Harvard  |  Bibliography Sources: 5


Innovation and change are threads that run through all organization in spite of industry, size, and age. With today's globalization, organizational change is inevitable. Therefore, those organizations that embrace innovation as well as change have an opportunity of flourishing in whatever they do, and may not end up struggling to achieve the organizational objectives (Gibson, 1996).

Lewin's Model of Change

This gentleman came up with model of change, which up to this moment is being referred to as one of the cornerstone change models. His model comprised of three major phrases of change and was therefore referred to as Unfreeze- Change-Refreeze model (Davis, 1979). This social scientist as well as physicist described organizational change through the analogy of altering the shape of an ice block. Lewin believed that, for thriving change to take place an individual must comprehend the reasons as to why this change is taking place. He further adds that motivation has to be created prior to change. In Lewin's change model, an individual ought to be assisted to reconsider a number of cherished hypotheses concerning one's relations and oneself to other individuals (Driscoll, 2000).

Bridges Model of Change

Bridges model of change stated that change is situational, and that change is different from transition (which is psychological process individuals undergo through in order to adapt to the novel situation or concepts). In this model, Bridges stated that transition is internal, whereas change is always external, and that change is concerned about external situation. In conclusion Bridges…… [read more]

Resistance Is One of the Challenges Encountered Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (496 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Resistance is one of the challenges encountered by leaders at every level of organizational authority. At the individual level, resistance to leadership may typically be primarily a manifestation of interpersonal psychological factors and social relationships and skills. At the departmental or business unit level, resistance to leadership may typically be related to matters of substantive differences in strategic or operational concerns; they may also involve various other issues such as displaced responsibility, groupthink, or reflect elements of social or doctrinal subcultures in the vocational environment.

At the organizational level, resistance may include some of the same elements of resistance at the departmental level, as well as more general concepts of social psychology and group relations. In that regard, the prevailing aspects of organizational culture are also significant potential sources of resistance in circumstances where leadership directives conflict with well-established organizational philosophy and practice.

Resistance at the Level of the Individual

The most frequent cause of resistance to leadership at the individual level generally relates to employees who have not (or have not yet) fully undergone the process of organizational socialization (Aronson, Wilson, & Akert, 2003; Myers & Spencer, 2004). In some cases, that resistance may be insurmountable, such as where the individual employee is not psychologically vested in the organization because he views the position as temporary rather than as a point on a career track with the organization (Blair, 2003).

The other principal source of resistance at the level of the individual employee is a function of…… [read more]

What Is Human Services? Thesis

Thesis  |  4 pages (1,305 words)
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¶ … Human Services

When speaking about "nowadays," the first thing that might come to one's mind, or at least among firsts, is the multitude of institutions and organizations that exist in a society. Although they have all been created with the same and certain purpose of fulfilling people's needs, it is exactly the variety of needs that makes these institutions and organizations so divided and so specific. They perform in particularized areas of activities and their work can be translated into the types of services they offer to population.

The current paper work focuses on a service that covers a significant area of the society's concerns, the human service.

To begin with, one should gain a better understanding of what "Human Services" specifically refers to. Overall, this field activates with the objective of meeting human needs, focusing both on prevention and on the remediation of the problems. Human services' constant concern must regard improvement of the quality of life, which one can gain not only by focusing on direct services, but also by seeking improvement at the level of agencies in service delivery. or, in other words, the good or poor quality of a service relates directly to the professionals that stand behind it.

Furthermore, in order to get an even more complete view of this field, one should think at the specificity of human services in comparison to the other types of activities from this extended area that is called "services."

There is a general assumption that they are not alike, but in more specific terms, what differentiates human services among all the other services is that they are designed to address issues of happiness to a large extension and in a systematic and extremely complex way, rather than tangential or as a secondary objective, which is the case of most ordinary services.

Let us take the example of an adolescent with a deviant behavior, a pickpocket or a child dropping out of school. The intervention of human services will firstly provide a complete analysis of the family background, childhood environment, possible psychical traumas which will further lead to an adequate treatment and intervention.

The history of human services spans over a century and has been in constant transformation ever since. The main reason for this relies on the notion that, as they are different from the other services, one should organize them in a different way. Furthermore, despite the general purpose of fulfilling human needs, there have always been specific objectives that have lead actions in various directions and sometimes became potentially competitive: improving efficiency, effectiveness, accountability, availability, coherence, continuity, quality of life, consumer choice etc.

Though, the most important redesign of the human services consists in two key-words: collaboration and service integration, referring to the generic processes by which individuals and groups grow to be more positively interdependent and learn to coordinate their activities in ways that provide for synergistic benefits.

In accord to this, one should cast a glance at a specific human service system… [read more]

Business Management -- Final Case Analysis Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,038 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


Business Management -- Final Case Analysis

What should Dave do now and why? Discuss possible alternative solutions and propose a recommendation with a rationale for that recommendation.

Primary Recommendation

The primary recommendation to Dave Griffin is to understand the conceptual difference between friendliness and employee orientation. Specifically, employee orientation does not necessarily mean taking a particular interest in the lives and personal circumstances of individual employees outside of the job. In the context of the recommendations from the leadership seminar pertaining to employee orientation, the specific types of changes required to increase a supervisor's degree of employee orientation comprises elements such as identifying the specific reasons that low-performing employees fail to perform at a higher level; it also means understanding what motivates high-performing employees.

In principle, the recommended approach for Dave is to abandon his efforts to ingratiate himself socially into the lives of his poor-performing employees. Instead, Dave should express his increased effort in the realm of employee orientation in a manner that communicates his desire to understand why his high-performing employees work harder and more conscientiously than his low-performing employees, as well as what specific factors either motivate higher performance or detract from that motivation on the part of his lower-performing employees.

If anything, Dave's misunderstanding of the concept of "employee orientation" and his attempts to ingratiate himself socially into the lives of his poor-performing employees was counterproductive: instead of motivating them to perform better, they likely reinforced those employees' current level of dedication to their positions and their responsibilities by communicating (albeit indirectly) that Dave was pleased with their performance at the level that Dave considers unsatisfactory.

Possible Alternative Solutions

Dave should abandon any attempt to motivate improved performance among low-performing employees by means of expressing greater personal interest in their lives, especially to the extent that interest relates to their lives and circumstances outside of work. The modern approach to employee motivation and performance management emphasizes the bilateral direction of information transfer that is bottom-up in addition to top-down (Daft, 2005; Russell-Whalling, 2008). Dave should try implementing mechanisms recommended by contemporary personnel management specialists such as soliciting information directly from employees who are performing poorly.

This type of approach is what Dave's leadership seminar should have explained in connection with the concept of being employee-oriented. Inquiring into what specific factors in the work environment contribute to high performance and low performance with respect to individual employees is one effective means of becoming more employee-oriented (Daft, 2005; Russell-Whalling, 2008). Conversely, chatting up subordinates and inquiring into personal lives and circumstances is not an effective method of improving performance and may also result in other problems relating to unnecessary personal involvement that could potentially undermine supervisory authority and respect for the supervisor.

Likewise, that effort probably provides unintentional positive feedback that is very susceptible to misinterpretation as positive reinforcement and to the erroneous perception among poor-performing employees that their level of performance in satisfactory by virtue of the increased apparent personal interest in their lives on the part… [read more]

Work Values and Generational Differences Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  10 pages (2,949 words)
Style: Harvard  |  Bibliography Sources: 7


Work Values and Generational Differences

A generation is defined as a body of individuals who were born and alive at approximately the same time. These individuals share similar life experiences, cultural trends and events ("Generation," 2009; Smola & Sutton, 2002). Although generations has been a topic of discourse for eighty years (Hatchmann, 2008), there is still a disagreement on the… [read more]

Molson Coors Brewing Company Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  1 pages (315 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Molson Coors Brewing Company

Despite its successes, the Molson Coors Brewing Company continues to be tormented by internal conflicts which have yet to be resolved. A first example of ineffective conflict management is offered by the tensions occurred between cousins Eric and Ian Molson, who were bind by contract to rule the company together, but which become engaged in attempts of character assassination.

The two were not able to unite their powers as members of the same family and make the best decisions in favor of the organization. In other words, they were unprofessional, driven by personal desires and as such unable to move passed their egos and unite their forces in the benefit of the brewery; the result was the emergence of an interpersonal and even dysfunctional conflict.

A second example belongs to more recent times and refers to the internal tensions which arouse after the merger with the Coors Brewery, Eric Molson's long-term fixation. Each…… [read more]

Outdoor Education Development Essay

Essay  |  7 pages (2,222 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+


Outdoor Education

Developing an Appreciation for Nature

Teams form an essential part of the business world today. However, not all teams are made the same. Effective teams are an asset to the corporation, but ineffective teens represent a liability. Outdoor experiences such as Outward Bound International, offer teams the ability to grow trust, and their ability to co-operate through overcoming… [read more]