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Comprehensive University Environment Thesis

… ¶ … University Environment Leadership Change

A comprehensive university environment demonstrates a unique environment for change and especially high order change such as the replacement of senior leadership, be it departmentally or university wide. Due to the fact that a… [read more]


New Leaders Research Proposal

… New Leaders

Leadership style determines the way a manager or leader interacts with others in an organization (Blanchard, 1999). This style doesn't need to be fixed or unchangeable; instead it can be flexible and modifiable to suit various situations. Most managers make a mistake in choosing the right leadership style when they feel that they need to stick with one style in all situations. Inadequate knowledge of leadership styles can also result in erroneous choices and similarly, a manager who doesn't understand his strengths and weaknesses can make the same mistake too. There is not one single reason why a manager would falter when choosing a leadership style. There can be host of issues affecting his choice and sometimes wrong choice for himself. A person who knows that he can do better by being amiable doesn't need to adopt the autocratic style and similarly a strong charismatic leader doesn't always need to be a servant leader in order to get the best out of people. Lack of proper leadership training can tend to create all these conflicts. In order to choose the right leadership style, it is thus important for managers to:

a. know their strengths and weaknesses

b. understand their employees

c. assess the situation properly

d. be open to flexibility in style

e. have adequate leadership training

Leadership training is essential for everyone in management position. If a person is to supervise or lead a team of workers, it is important that organization provides sufficient leadership training so that this person can choose the right style for himself and can become a more effective leader. In many organizations either such leadership training is unheard of or it is simply not effective. Normally organizations will invest in their future leaders by sending them to attend seminars and courses on the subject of leadership which helps them attain self-confidence as a leader, learn more effective ways of communicating and building a professional vision for themselves and their teams. However in organizations where this is not done properly, managers can find themselves in a fix. For example in this given case, Cheryl, Rob and Linda were promoted to leadership positions without any training in that area. They clearly lacked the skills to command a team and to communicate with members of their teams who were their peers only a day before. It is important to firms to understand that a great deal changes between employees when one of them is promoted to a senior position. Giving directives to peers is not an easy task and needs to be handled effectively. For this reason good leadership training must be imparted before a person is promoted to a major position and also while he…… [read more]


Workplace Conflict in the Educational Term Paper

… Again, management in the departments above and around this department did nothing about the changes, either, they allowed them to continue.

Perhaps the biggest item missing from the department after the changes was the lack of a feeling of being a team. Another author notes, "Research has also shown that cohesion is fostered by demonstrations of liking and respect among teammates, harmony among group members, lessened social anxiety and meaningful, shared social experiences (Michalisin, Karau & Tangpong, 2007). The importance of team building cannot be ignored in successful organizational leadership, and that team feeling disintegrated in this environment. A good leader is also a good team builder, even a coach or mentor at times, but that did not occur in this department, either.

In conclusion, the situation described here is a classic example of a lack of organizational leadership in an educational setting. It is a real life example of how not to manage and empower a staff. A good organizational leader could have saved much of the staff, rather than losing them, and a good organizational leader would have recognized there was a problem and worked to find a viable solution. The fact that the larger educational organization routinely created managers out of educators indicates the problem was widespread throughout the organization, and that organizational leadership was simply not a priority at this institution. Instead, the institution shows how not to manage effectively.

References

Adamchik, W. (2007). Organizational leadership: Three principles for higher effectiveness. Human Resource Planning, 30(2), 11.

Levinson, M.H. (2005). Using general semantics to enhance organizational leadership. ETC.: A Review of General Semantics, 62(3), 250+.

Michalisin, M.D., Karau, S.J., & Tangpong, C. (2007). Leadership's…… [read more]


Globe (Global Leadership and Organizational Behavior Effectiveness) Research Proposal

… ¶ … GLOBE (Global Leadership and Organizational Behavior Effectiveness) project has extended national cultural dimensions

According to its official website, the GLOBE Research Project was "a multi-phase, multi-method project in which investigators examined "the inter-relationships between societal culture, organizational culture, and organizational leadership" to promote understanding and tolerance in the business world ("Globe," Home Page, 2009). While cultural biases can limit the ability to study leadership cross-culturally, the GLOBE project used a wide range of researchers from many nations to create as broad a perspective as possible on concepts of leadership. Ultimately, GLOBE used 170 researchers from 62 nations over the course of its 11-year study to identify specific leadership attributes that are culturally endorsed within specific cultural contexts. Its methodology was to create culture dimension scales and subject the scales to a variety of statistical analyses "to determine whether people from organizations or societies agreed in terms of their rating of leadership attributes" ("Guidelines, 2006).

GLOBE identified certain attributes that seemed to be universally associated with effective or ineffective leadership (Grove 2005). These were consolidated into six key "culturally-endorsed leadership theory dimensions" (CLT)s: 22 universally effective leadership attributes such as being "trustworthy," a "motive arouser," and "excellence oriented" (Grove 2005). The GLOBE Project also discovered that 35 leadership attributes seemed to be "culturally contingent," or dependant upon cultural context (Grove 2005). This confirmed the overall hypothesis of GLOBE researchers "that possessing an implicit leadership theory is true of groups as well as of individuals. The researchers' main hypothesis was that each organizational or societal culture will be associated with a specific set of beliefs about leadership. Put another way, the researchers wanted to show that societal and organizational culture influences the kind of leadership found to be acceptable and effective by people within that culture" (Grove 2005). Leadership, in other words, was not an objectively determined attribute, as it is often…… [read more]


Principles of Transformative Leadership Thesis

… ¶ … Astin & Astin (2000) make in their chapter entitled "?"

Astin & Astin make as the central focus in their chapter entitled "Principles of Transformative Leadership" the exploration of those characteristics which mold a leader both on the individual level and when oriented according to team imperatives. Here, one of the key points is the argument that leadership is inherently an agency for meaningful change in an organization. As the text contends, "leadership is a purposive process which is inherently value based." (Astin & Astin; 8, 2000) This means that the effectiveness of a leader in bringing about change will be reflected in the degree to which an organization is then more suited to meeting its operational goals and functioning consistently with its company-wide mission.

b. What are the barriers that you see might stand in the way of becoming a truly transformational leader and how does one begin to surmount those barriers?

Barriers to effective transformational leadership can emerge from a multitude of sources. External barriers such industry or economy-wide crises, shortages of resources or other adverse market conditions can impede the achievement of goals. In this case, leadership must be prepared to adjust plans and alter procedures according to these impediments. Where internal resistance becomes clear, it is the…… [read more]


Utopian Communal Societies and Their Term Paper

… Another writer notes, "Fourier believed that the cause of conflict and suffering was the perversion of natural human goodness by faulty social organization. He advocated a solution of small planned communes, and he called then phalansteries" (Hayes, 2002). Because many of the members of Brook Farm were writers, they shared their experiences with Fourierism and Brook Farm, and the ideals spread to many other groups who formed utopian communities around the country. The Fourier model was extremely complex. Author Hayes continues, "There was a high degree of organizational complexity associated with the Fourier model. Matters were also complicated by a system of time keeping that had been introduced in deference to some people's belief that others were slacking" (Hayes, 2002). The community only thrived for a few years, and money problems, combined with a fire that burned down a building in progress, finally drove the group to disband. As with the other groups, finances were often a problem, especially in the beginning years of these communities.

Essentially, Brook Farm and the other utopian communities were experiments in socialism. Another author notes, "The most important 'legacy of nineteenth-century socialism ... lies less in communitarianism, however, than in ecological efforts to restrain the growth of production and population in order to assure the survival of the species'" (Fitting, 2001, p. 108). They all were couched in religious beliefs and spirituality of some sort, they all desired a life away from the city and based on the community, and they all wanted to be economically successful. These groups showed diverse methods of leadership and encouragement, and they illustrate the need for strong, coherent leaders who can grow with the organization. They also show that nineteenth century society was offensive to some who wanted more out of life, and that there will always be people who want to move away from the politics and mores of modern society to live and work in simpler, more rewarding activities.

References

Claeys, G. And Sargent, L.T. (1999). Utopian societies. New York: New York University Press.

Fitting, P. (2001). Utopia: The search for the ideal society in the western world. Utopian Studies, 12(1), 108.

Foster, L. (1991). Women, family, and utopia: Communal experiments of the Shakers, the Oneida Community, and the Mormons (1st ed.). Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University…… [read more]


Perfect Position Research Proposal

… DISC Leadership

Optimal Leadership Role as Determined by DISC Platinum Rule Assessment

Effective leadership and organizational management requires being able to work with various personality types, and this skill begins with understanding oneself. According to my results on the DISC Platinum Rule Assessment instrument, my predominant behavior style is Dominance and my classical profile pattern is Result-Oriented. Given the proper opportunities and position, combined with a conscious and careful self-restraint, these personality qualities can be utilized at several levels within a standard corporate organization. Dominance implies a desire to be in control, and this is not far off the mark, but the implications and advantages of this personality type -- as well as the pitfalls -- are of course more complex. Combining this with the extreme orientation towards results that is observable in my classical profile pattern provides a significant amount of insight as to the types of jobs and positions in a standard corporate organization that would be suitable for my leadership skills.

With estimates of just ten percent, Dominant or Decisive individuals are the smallest behavioral group in the DISC framework (Bosse-Smith 2005). Given the result-oriented nature of Dominant people in general, and as expressed in my personal profile pattern, a position in the elite ranks of upper management would not necessarily be preemptory (Bosse-Smith 2005). My skill set and personality could do well as a chief operations officer, directing other personnel and middle management with an eye towards the overall bottom line. This would utilize both my predominant behavior style of Dominance and my classical profile pattern of being Result-Oriented. It would also utilize the knowledge acquisition role performed by self-managers, which has been associated with dominant behaviors (Politis 2001).

John Geier, who was largely responsible for popularizing Marston's personality assessment via the DISC construct, notes…… [read more]


Servant Leadership Does Service-Learning Experience Help Students Research Proposal

… Servant Leadership

Does Service-Learning experience help students promote characters of Servant Leadership at Fu-Jen Catholic University and National Taiwan University?

Leadership can be found in many forms. Some leaders are self-serving, seeing everything in their possession as a tool to… [read more]


Leadership Essay

… Leadership

Leaders are often put into the position of having to make difficult decisions. At times, the leader must tackle difficult ethical issues. In the situation of the posthumous father, the leader at the hospital is being forced to make a decision for the same reason that many leaders must: there are no set policies for the issue and nobody else wants to make the decision because it is too difficult. Leadership is being the place where the buck stops.

When faced with a difficult ethical dilemma, the leader should be able to make a calm, rational assessment. In a situation such as this, the leader will inevitably upset somebody with his or her decision. Another component of leadership is being able to communicate the decision is a clear, decisive manner that diffuses any potential difficulty. Emotions in this situation are high on all sides, so the decision must be rendered in such a fashion that emotions are not raised any further.

In this instance, the policy may not have used death as an…… [read more]


Leadership William Faulkner's Lo! Shows an Interesting Essay

… Leadership

William Faulkner's Lo! shows an interesting perspective on leadership. The President in this story is supposed to be the leader, but seldom takes a true leadership position. He defers the problem to the Secretary, which causes consternation on the latter's part. Moreover, his response to the problem of the Indians is to wish them away. His desire to push the issue away so that he can deal with matters more to his taste is demonstrated by his views and actions, including exonerating a murderer and giving them title to all the land surrounding the ford.

The Chickasaw chief Weddell shows much stronger leadership. In response to the white people coming to his land and setting up shop at the ford, he determines to solve the problem. To do this from a position of weakness, he brings his entire clan to the President, in order to force the unwilling President to deal with the issue at hand. With calm, he leverages the President's lack of willingness to deal with the situation in order to get what…… [read more]


Leadership in the Secret Sharer by William Essay

… Leadership

In The Secret Sharer by William Faulkner, we encounter a young captain, unsure of his leadership credentials. He is new to the captain's position, and knows neither his own abilities nor those of his crew. He encounters an unusual situation with a stranger who has come aboard his boat. The story shows how leadership character can be shaky at first, but develops. His lack of knowledge and self-confidence has him keep the stranger in his cabin, unbeknownst to the crew. A more confident leader would not likely have been so surreptitious. However, he guides the ship close to shore, and to danger, in order that Leggatt escape.

While his lack of confidence has him acting in a sneaky manner, his actions are directly contrasted with the cowardice of Leggatt's previous captain. That individual is portrayed as afraid of his crew and therefore unable to do the right thing, at least from Leggatt's perspective. Leadership is about being in charge, and in the case of the young captain, he struggles to…… [read more]


Leadership and Teamwork Issues Mary Case Study

… However, by then, Kristine should have realized that the situation required a direct response on her part and she should not have allowed another team meeting (much less a team presentation to Mary) without first addressing the problem with Brent privately. Depending on Brent's response, Kristine might have wanted to involve Mary in those conversations.

Had Kristine addressed the situation sooner, Brent could never have purposely embarrassed her during the presentation. She made the situation worse with her remark to Jennifer, because it reinforced the impression to the team that she was not in control and may have created the impression (especially in front of Mary who was not privy to earlier team meetings) that Kristine was engaged in a petty personal conflict with Brent. Had Mary realized what was going on, she could have helped empower Kristine and re-establish her leadership authority by responding directly to Brent as follows:

"Brent, we appreciate your enthusiasm. On the other hand, you are part of a team of individuals and it is my understanding that your team appointed Kristine as your team leader. Your information may have value, but it is never appropriate to blindside your team leader and the rest of your team that way. You don't ever contradict your team's presentation or your team leader during a team presentation in front of the client like that. Proper protocol is to bring your information up during a team meeting or to Kristine first, no matter what. After your team and your team leader have decided, as a team, what to do with your information, only then do you bring that information up during a team presentation. Are we clear on that?"

Sources Consulted

Kemp, Francine D. "Saving Face" Industrial Engineer, 41(5), 39-43. (May/09). Retrieved June 22, 2009, ABI/INFORM Global database. (Document ID: 1711521141).

Liu, Meina. "The Intrapersonal and Interpersonal Effects of Anger on Negotiation Strategies: A Cross-Cultural Investigation." Human Communication Research, 35(1), 148. Retrieved…… [read more]


Special Education Director Thesis

… Special Education Director

Leadership styles in K-12 have been studied using both quantitative and qualitative approaches. Compare and contrast the underlying assumptions, strengths and weakness, and practical considerations that would lead to a choice of one or the other method… [read more]


Abraham Lincoln as a Leader Thesis

… ¶ … Leadership in management [...] President Abraham Lincoln's leadership traits and what made him a great leader. President Abraham Lincoln, sixteenth president of the United States, was perhaps one of the greatest leaders in the nation's history. He embodied… [read more]


Leadership Is an Integral Research Proposal

… ¶ … Leadership is an integral part of the strategic management process. The author of this article seems to have a strong grasp of this fundamental point, despite some weaknesses in the article. The author is correct in contending that no matter where the leadership comes from -- natural or expertise -- the leader must be trained. They must represent the ethics and objectives of the organization. Organizations rely on leaders to help them guide and implement strategy. The leaders, therefore, must also be led themselves. Training is fundamental to this process. Leaders must receive direction on how to lead, and where to lead.

Leadership is not merely about strength or charisma. The most important thing to remember about leadership is that direction is critical. The discussion about ethical leadership hits upon some key points, but fails to take the example to its natural conclusion. Leaders in a company do a lot, but they do not do everything. Many ethical lapses come from lower-level employees, and they make these errors specifically because of poor leadership. High profile ethical lapses at the leadership level have guided the issue away from the fundamental truth -- leaders influence the ethics of the entire organization. Not only do they adhere to strong ethical principles in their own actions, but they must also impart their ethical standards on the rest of the organization.

The article hints at the nature of leadership within the organizational structure. Leaders at all levels must be in tune with the company's missions, yes, but it is not solely their responsibility to ensure this. Leadership in effective companies is not the collective action of many leaders acting independently, it is a company-wide structure. Each level of leaders must effectively lead the lower levels. The workgroup leader must take direction from another leader, a chain that goes to the top of the organization. This requires not only training, but also communication. True leadership is not only about making sound decisions, it is also about communicating goals, ethics, values and plans. The more effective and the more consistent the communication, the stronger the leadership will be at all levels of the organization.

2) Followership. Heather Smith's article on followership brings an interesting perspective to the issue of leadership. When the structure of a typical organization is considered, we can see that leaders must inherently be followers. The role of a leader is to communicate the strategies and objectives of the organization to those expected to execute those strategies and reach those objectives. However, in doing this, the leader is taking direction from above.

Thus, it is a fallacy that the roles of leader and follower are considered mutually exclusive. They are not. Indeed, one must do both in order to help the organization attain its goals. It is imperative that prospective leaders understand what their role within the organization…… [read more]


Educational Leadership Platform Essay

… Educational Leadership

Educational Platform

The effective and successful leadership in the educational setting is leadership marked indelibly by several primary factors. These factors summarily include that the leadership is of good character and someone who can motivate others and that is goal-oriented and meticulously organized. A good character is not optional because this is the very basis upon which the leadership role in education is able to motivate, lead, and forge the path of best practice in an ethical environment. Good character is a pre-requisite for trust and for respect and these are guarded possessions of the effective and successful leadership in the educational setting. When an individual is respected and vested with trust that individual is very easily able to motivate followers and collaborators because their opinion is valued and if not always understood backed up by those who place their trust in the hands of this type of leader. Organization in this role makes a requirement of functionality on several important levels the first of these is 'self' followed by organization of staff, other school workers, parents, students, other caregivers and family members, other interactional and collaborative organizations, agencies and institutions in invariably the world-at-large. Goal-orientation is another primary factor because without an orientation or focus upon the goals which are set as being the highest achievement then substitute goals and alternate agendas will rule over efforts, expenditures and initiatives in the educational setting. Leadership in education is quite similar to the Captain at the Wheel guiding forth toward the light on the shore that leads into the halls of learning in a solid and sound environment that is fertile for effective and innovative instruction and learning in the school classrooms. This is an…… [read more]


Leadership Administrative Practices Research Proposal

… Leadership (Administrative) Practices

The postmodern challenge to the theory and practice of educational administration> Taken at http://www.ccthomas.com/ebooks/9780398073824.pdf

There can be no claim to support a knowledge base for a profession without a bona fide theoretical framework to define and support… [read more]


Attributes of the Ideal Leader in Higher Education Thesis

… Attributes of the Ideal Leader in Higher Education

The impact of an organization's leadership on its performance is well documented, but when it comes to higher education, a number of things have changed in recent years that have challenged even… [read more]


Ahmed Zewail Research Proposal

… Ahmed Zewail

Dr. Ahmed Zewail currently serves as Director of the Physical Biology Center at the California Institute of Technology (CalTech). Prior to this he was Director of the NSF Laboratory for Molecular Sciences (LMS) at CalTech for ten years. In 1990 he became the Linus Pauling Chair Professor of Chemistry and Physics.

He is best known for his important contribution towards the field of femtochemistry. This involves the study of chemical reactions as they occur at extremely short timescales known as femtoseconds. Dr. Zewail pioneered the use of an ultrarapid laser technique that allows scientists to observe how quickly chemical reactions take place as well as why some reactions take place while others do not. For his scientific endeavors, he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1999.

Dr. Zewail's accomplishments can be attributed to his good leadership and personal skills, which developed as he was growing up. In terms of his personal characteristics, Dr. Zewail had grown up always having a deep thirst for knowledge. In particular he had a great love for learning about math and science. He was always highly inquisitive about everything and enjoyed problem solving. Besides being a good student he also turned out to be a good teacher in science to college level students, as he discovered in Egypt when he became a teaching assistant in graduate school. While working towards his Masters and Ph.D requirements, he also showed himself to be an avid scientific researcher who was able to publish many important findings. It was during the time of completing his Ph.D that he was given the idea of finishing his studies in America.

His strong determination to complete his studies in America despite all the obstacles against it reveals another aspect of his personality. The various impediments he faced included not having any prior connections abroad, traveling to America just after the 1967 Arab-Israeli war through which its image in Egypt was most unfavorable, having to apply for scholarships at various American universities, and going through numerous bureaucratic and regulatory barriers just before traveling.

Once he arrived in America his ability to adapt quickly and easily into a foreign culture revealed another characteristic of his personality. This adaptation could be seen by the way Dr. Zewail learned to appreciate American culture, master its language, and take advantage of the opportunities it had to offer within a matter of time.

Once Dr. Zewail adjusted himself to working and studying…… [read more]


Using Leadership and Ethics Concept Research Paper

… ¶ … Emperor's Club: A Study in Leadership and Ethics

When viewing Michael Hoffman's the Emperor's Club, students of leadership and ethics are stunned with the implications of this film about high school students and their history teacher. During the… [read more]


Leadership Skills to Develop a Career Research Proposal

… Leadership Skills to Develop a Career

Using Leadership Skills to Develop a Career

First, recognizing that the leadership skills known today will hopefully be fine-tuned, strengthened and made more valuable through experiences through my career, this paper discusses how leadership skills will be used for developing my career for the long-term. The leadership characteristics most valued including transparency and trust (Gilley, Dixon, Gilley, 153) and the ability to lead with passion and emotional intelligence (EI) are two essential aspects of any set of leadership skills (Marques, 648).

My Leadership Skills Inventory: Present and Future

The catalyst of any effective executive is the ability to foster, earn and grow trust with subordinates and associates (Drucker, 59) enabling subordinates to attain the highest levels of accomplishment based on their innate talents and strengths. This attribute of leadership also includes the ability to seek out the strengths of subordinates and when possible, peers to assist them to get to their goals. The very essence of leadership is the ability to be empathetic and clearly communicate with others and is considered to be the foundation of EI (McGuire, Rhodes, Palus, 3). As a result of the importance of EI, I think this needs to be the foundation for using leadership skills to advance my career by first focusing on this skill set and its continued growth. With a solid foundation of EI the ability to ascertain which career opportunities best fit with my unique skills sets and preferences can be defined. EI is also essential for managing subordinates in a first-time management position. Paying attention to this skill set and continually seeking to refine and grow it is going to be essential for my career to progress.

Second, working on transparency and trust is also critical to using leadership skills in my career. The ability to match up or align what I say I am going to do and what I actually do has everything to do with my credibility, in fact leaders get judged more harshly than others on the alignment of these two points. For leaders, walking the talk and fulfilling commitments is exceptionally important. As with anyone, working to bridge the gap between expectations created and fulfilled is critical for the development of any career. This is the catalyst of credibility that needs to be continually pursued to have an exceptionally strong career over time. The ability to earn and nurture trust is essential for any leader to be effective over the long-term (Hurley, 84).

Nothing of any substantial value ever gets created and maintained in an organization without passion. It is the fuel that propels projects to completion, gets goals attained and keeps teams working together towards a common goal (Marques, 649). In making the big decisions about ones' career it is therefore much more insightful to choose only those positions, whether in an individual or leader role, that one has the greatest passion for. Before embarking on professional career in any given field it is also critical to re-examine… [read more]


Critical Thinking on Business Ethics and Theory Term Paper

… Leadership has been examined from a number of perspectives to demonstrate the factors that enter into the leadership role, how to make leadership more effective, the limits of leadership, and so on. Differing perspectives are offered by Goleman (2004) and Prentice (2004).

Prentice (2004)

Prentice (2004) describes leadership in terms of being able to read people and to understand them. The author denies such leade4rship qualities as charisma and ses most leaders as other than able to gain loyalty and support through the force of their personalities. Instead, he sees leadership as an achievement more than an abilty, as understanding what his or her subordinates want and how they can find what they want through the goals set for them as part of the job. Having said this, though, the author also recognizes that knowing how to achieve this and how to learn what is needed in order to get the best out of workers is a difficult task. Crude forms of leadership rely on certain types of rewards, and while this may be effective, it is not as effective in the long-term and cannot be translated into success for all tasks and all personnel.

The idea most people have of the leader derives from an image of the military, though in reality, morale is usually poor in military units. There are good reasons for this, but that does not mean that leadership is more effective when based on more than imposed hierarchy. Leadership should develop through the understanding of the leader of what makes people do things and then how to get them to do what is needed. Knowledge of people is key in this view of leadership, and this requires recognizing the complexities of human being sand also the variety and the fact that all people are different. Having only one way of treating people will fail. The author says that the application of the Golden Rule ahs been recommended but does not lead to the success desired. It is important to understand the goals and purposes of each worker and not to assume that those goals and purposes are merely the same as our own, for they may not be. The author also notes problems with human perception and so with the ability of the leader to perceive the goals of his employees, though doing so is quite important. Other factors that can intervene and make the leader less effective are also noted. A knowledge of the goals of the subordinate are one thing, but how this information is used is equally important and requires tact, something many leaders should nurture but do not. They will be less effective as a result. The author concludes that the leader needs to use his or her skills and human insight in the manner of an orchestra leader, one who understands the needs and abilities of each subordinate and who melds these into a working whole. In order to be able to make use of these perceptions and understandings, the… [read more]


Leadership Training Program Term Paper

… ¶ … Holstein, William J.). "At Southwest, the Culture Drives Success." BusinessWeek.

According to the former CEO of Southwest Airlines James Parker, leadership is not a skill that can be taught in a single course. Rather, leadership training must be integrated throughout the entire organization and the value of leadership must be continually reinforced, for all employees. The first step of a good leadership training program is finding the right people. Hire for attitude, not for skill, he counsels. This may sound like a strange motto for an airline, but while he contends that individuals must have the necessary background to do their job (like being able to fly a plane) it is also essential in a service-based company that they be 'other-oriented.' In short, the first step of finding good leaders is to know the needs and mission of the organization holistically, rather than seeking to fill a particular position. Interviews, as opposed to mere resume-screening, were a critical part of the interview process at Southwest.

After finding the right people, the organization needs to create an environment where leadership talents and attributes can flourish. Employees need to feel as if they are part of a world where their creativity, intelligence, humor, and individuality is important, in service of the company's mission. Having a common mission and culture is essential -- so that every level of the organization will be united, and managers and other top personnel are not isolated. This is why all Southwest employees were subject to the same orientation. This also taught future managers about the people and jobs their policies would affect. Parker is proud that during his time at Southwest, CEOs would be seen having lunch in the cafeteria with 'regular people.' Top managers were required to routinely visit sites where people were actually working. Managers had a sense of how…… [read more]


Henry V Term Paper

… Henry V Driving the Leadership Engine -- William Shakespeare's ideal, motivational king and the management philosophy of Noel M. Tichy

The great, rallying speech William Shakespeare's Henry V makes to his English troops before the decisive battle of Agincourt contains some of Shakespeare's greatest heroic poetry. However, the St. Crispin's Day made by Henry speech can be boiled down to one, essential theme: "We're all in this together." The great king Henry V in the play and later in the movie, based upon Shakespeare's play becomes one of the common soldiers, and also, in his rhetoric elevates the common soldiers to the level of a king.

In Kenneth Branagh's film, Henry V's face is smeared with dirt, and he is no longer the young, attractive, and careless leader of the beginning of the film. That king lead his nation heedlessly into a foolish war, to regain the French territories lost to Henry's predecessors. Despite the fact that the English troops were lesser in number, they proved greater in valor, and against all odds, they triumphed. But because Henry's war is based on a fairly tenuous claim, when the English army realized they were outnumbered, the men were angry and resentful. They had suffered on the long campaign, and they had forgotten what they were fighting for in the first place. Without a sense of mission, most of the men would rather go home. Shakespeare's Henry knew he needed to motivate the English soldiers, restore his legitimacy as a king and leader in their eyes, and give them a common purpose, even if the purpose is only tenuously based in rhetoric. Essentially, in the speech he rolls up his sleeves and acts like a common soldier and appeals to English grit and sense of honor. They have come so far, how can they turn back now, he asks?

The purpose of fighting is glory and proving one's manhood, urges Henry. "The fewer men, the greater share of honour." In other words, if people are not 100% committed, they can leave, because half-hearted soldiers are not wanted and do not deserve a stake in the great accomplishments that will take place. Those soldiers who are truly committed will simply have to work harder. An autocratic king might threaten a soldier who refused to fight with the law and pain of death. However, Henry stresses that money is not the primary objective of the cause and offers generosity towards those who will not fight: He is a truly transactional, transpersonal, and inspiring leader, rather than a leader who uses his status as a goad to performance. "Let him depart; his passport shall be made/and crowns for convoy put into his purse:/We would not die in that man's company/That fears his fellowship to die with us" (4.2).

The cause is glorious, he stresses, and it is an honor, not a danger to fight and take risks. By making the fight a personal challenge, rather than focusing on some of the more dubious parts of… [read more]


Applicability of the Kouzes and Posner Leadership Model Term Paper

… Kouzes Posner

Kouzes-Posner Model: The usefulness of their Leadership Practices Inventory (LPI)

The Kouzes-Posner Model of Leadership is an attempt by the researchers James M. Kouzes and Barry Z. Posner to quantify leadership according to a reliable survey instrument. To create their exam, later named the Leadership Practices Inventory (LPI) they decided to ask 'ordinary' people in enterprises, rather than industry leaders, thirty-eight open-ended questions about what these individuals considered stellar leadership experiences. The questions included: "Who initiated the project? How were you prepared for this experience? What special techniques and strategies did you use to get other people involved in the project? What did you learn about leadership from this experience?" ("About LPI -- the methodology," 2002, LPI Online).

The author's definition of 'ordinary' people included middle and senior level managers in private and public sector organizations. They later widened their range of interviewees to community leaders, student leaders, church leaders, government leaders, and hundreds of others in non-managerial positions ("About LPI -- the methodology," 2002, LPI Online). The surveys were open-ended, in other words, the batteries of questions were not merely laundry lists of leadership qualities, and the interviews sometimes took up to "two hours of reflection and expression" ("About LPI -- the methodology," 2002, LPI Online). To obtain a wider range of data than was possible through such an intensive method, they distributed a shorter, two-page form that was completed by another group of 80 managers, and assistant researchers conducted an additional 42 in-depth interviews ("About LPI -- the methodology," 2002, LPI Online).

This data collection method seems to combine both breadth and depth and includes a refreshing sample of leadership examples outside of the world of private, corporate enterprise as well as upper level management. The conclusions drawn from this combination of anecdotal and quantitative data, according to the Kouzes and Posner showed that leadership can be boiled down to what they call "The Five Practices: Challenging the process, inspiring a shared vision, enabling others to act, modeling the way, encouraging the heart ("About LPI -- the methodology," 2002, LPI Online). Given the extensive amount of data collected by the authors, these conclusions seem, at best, to be somewhat generic and hardly counterintuitive. While it is difficult to disagree with any of these principles, on the other hand, the additional value or insight gleaned seems fairly minimal.

For example, regarding "challenging the process," Kouzes and Posner note that persistent people take risks and look for opportunities because they are determined to achieve their goals, even in the face of adversity, hardly an earth-shattering notion (Kouzes & Posner 2007: 169). They also stress the need for a vision, or a common mission, urging leaders to "envision the future by imagining exciting and ennobling possibilities" and enlist others to collaborate on achieving…… [read more]


Company Is in Crisis Term Paper

… Leadership

Company in Crisis

When a company is in crisis, do you believe that a radical change in leadership (who is in charge) is required to turn the company around? Support your position.

Obviously, a company in crisis is an extremely serious situation, and drastic steps have to be taken to recover from the crisis. Two experts note, "One cannot overstate the notion that crisis situations and the handling of them literally can make or break a firm's long-term reputation" (James and Wooten). Removing management during a crisis can be the way to solve at least some crises, especially if management is responsible for the crisis, or is responsible for a bad or poor reaction to the crisis. In this case, it would probably be more effective to remove the manager (or managers), and bring in new leadership to manage the crisis.

On the other hand, retaining management during a crisis can help add a sense of normalcy to the situation, and may help others better manage and eliminate the crisis. An experience manager is also more familiar with the company, its procedures, and the best way to deal with the crisis using existing company resources, if that is possible, and so, they may be the most prepared and best choice to help manage a company in crisis. New leadership, brought in to manage a crisis, would have to familiarize themselves with the company and its operations, which could lead to a slower reaction to the crisis. Using existing management means they can hit the ground running to come up with solutions to manage the crisis and save the company from further damage.

Another important consideration in crisis management leadership is the ability of the leader to return the business to everyday operations. If the leader is quite capable of managing during non-crisis situations, but does not have experience or training in leading a crisis situation, it may be more effective to bring in a crisis manager, if only temporarily, especially to help return the business to normal and successful operations. Many companies specialize in providing crisis managers in these situations, to help existing leaders or to lead on their own. This makes sense if the leader has little experience in crisis management, or is unable to successfully bring the company back to normal operations after a crisis situation. Removing a trusted and well-liked leader, however temporary, could harm morale and employee productivity, as well, so these are also important considerations in deciding whether to bring in a crisis manager. In the long run, it may be more effective for the company to bring in a crisis manager, who can end the crisis quicker and get the company back to normal operations as soon as at all possible.

Effective leadership during a company crisis depends on many of the foundations of leadership. Trust is especially important during times of crisis, and leaders who have developed trusting relationships inside and outside the company will usually prove to be extremely effective crisis… [read more]


Leadership Styles of Cleopatra and Queen Elizabeth Term Paper

… ¶ … leadership styles of Cleopatra and Queen Elizabeth I, comparing their ruling styles, the sociological thinking of the day that might have influenced their decision-making, and their strengths as women in a male dominated society. Women as leaders have always existed, from Biblical times to the present day. However, some women, such as Cleopatra and Queen Elizabeth I have been exceptional leaders with leadership skills that set them apart from many illustrious male rulers.

Cleopatra ruled Egypt from "51-30 BC and was the last Macedonian ruler of that country.

She first ruled jointly with her brothers/husbands Ptolemy XIII and Ptolemy XIV" (Gonos). Cleopatra is famous for her love affairs with Roman leaders Caesar and Marc Antony, but her leadership style set her apart, as well. She was a forward-thinking leader even for her time, and one of her most far-reaching leadership skills was to attempt to make Egypt as strong as possible by aligning it with one of the world's most formidable powers - the Roman Empire.

Cleopatra used her womanly charms to gain access to some of the world's most powerful leaders, but it was all because of her own beliefs about Egypt and world domination. Writer Gonos continues, "Cleopatra's personal goal was to keep Egypt from losing its position of power within the Mediterranean. She used power and influence tactics to overcome the leadership limitations placed upon her as women" (Gonos). There were limitations on women leaders, because they had to overcome an extremely male dominated society, and become effective leaders when some of those men might even be plotting against them. Both of these women were clearly strong and well educated, and they knew how to use their power effectively, not only to dominate their enemies, as Queen Elizabeth did, but to gain alliances with others, as Cleopatra did. They had to be strong to survive in a world of men, and they knew it.

Queen Elizabeth I, also known as one of the world's strongest female…… [read more]


Brett Favre Term Paper

… ¶ … leadership in the medieval world with leadership today. Specifically it will discuss the leadership style of Brett Favre and compare his leadership skills to those of medieval leaders. Favre is a modern day knight, leading his team to… [read more]


Team Leader Term Paper

… Team Leader

Introduction good definition for a team leader might be "The person who understands the ultimate project objectives, each step of the way, and who guides the rest of the team down this path through clear vision setting and… [read more]


Trait and Behavioral Approaches to Leadership Turn Term Paper

… ¶ … trait and behavioral approaches to leadership turn out to be of only limited usefulness? How much more successful are current views about what makes a good leader? The researcher proves that transformational leadership is the best model of… [read more]


Machiavelli and Plato Term Paper

… Philosophy

Leadership According to Plato and Machiavelli

The qualities of an ideal leader are not as clear as we might immediately think. In fact, if it really were all that easy to determine out the characteristics of the ideal leader, then there probably wouldn't be so many books published each year on the subject. Understanding the best qualities of a leader, and what makes them so, is not an easy task. How we define the best types of leadership is indicative of the kind of society and world in which we want to live, as well as the degree to which we are willing to accept the realities of human nature and human society. The demands placed on the individual in a leadership by these factors will influence the degree to which the individual is capable of living up to the idealized version of leadership that we lay out for him or her. In fact, even consulting some of Western philosophy's greatest minds leaves us with wildly differing opinions as to what constitutes the perfect leader. Contrasting the viewpoints of Plato's philosopher-king with Machiavelli's prince suggests that extreme variation that can emerge when we attempt to characterize the ideal leader.

Plato's views on leadership can largely be derived from the Republic, arguably one of the most significant works in the history of Western philosophy. In the Republic, which describes the creation of an idealized city, Plato discusses the principles that would make such a political entity so ideal, including the nature of its leadership structure. For Plato, the role of his republic's leaders was to reduce civil strive through concerted effort. By acting impartially and fairly, the leaders of Plato's imagined realm would work together to promote harmony in the land for all people (Korab-Karpowicz). In Plato's estimation, then, the role of the leader in society is to equitably create a better and more harmonious condition for all citizens.

But the path to this style of leadership is more complex than simply expecting individuals to naturally act so virtuously. Plato recognized that few individuals are ever really wise or prudent enough to lead. He suggested that these skills be cultivated in those few individuals that display an innate ability to master them. In other words, Plato believed that leadership required leaders who possessed highly developed skills and morals that could be applied to the needs of society. He argued that managing a nation -- or business, or university, or local club -- was a craft that required a very particular skill set. Leaders needed to be well trained in order to fulfill the demands that their position would inevitably place upon them (Korab-Karpowicz). For this, Plato suggested that the entire educational structure of society be designed to gradually weed out those individuals who were unable of meeting the high requirements of leadership roles. Only those with the ability to develop Plato's kind of practical wisdom could advance to become a kind of philosopher-king that would rule through impartial intellect and… [read more]


School Leadership Term Paper

… ¶ … School leadership is a critical component in overall school performance. The study by Marks and Printy (2003) examines the potential in collaboration between principals and teachers in making leadership decisions. The study examines the school leadership from the perspectives of two different models: transformational leadership and shared instructional leadership. In the transformational leadership model intellectual direction is given, but teachers are empowered and supported in decision making. In shared instructional leadership the principals and teachers share responsibility for various elements of education. The principal seeks the guidance of teachers when forming policies within the school. However in this model the principal remains the overall leader of the collaboration.

Critique

Purpose

The purpose of the study is to measure the impact on school performance of collaboration by teachers and principals in school leadership.

Literature Review

The literature review predominantly focuses on the formation of the two different models which are to be used in the study. The majority of the literature is quite old, although this may have been necessary in order to trace the original structures of the models used, with information taken from the original sources of the theorists who designed the models. The models are thoroughly explained and analyzed, with justification given for the choice of these two particular models for the study. The original model of 'instructional leadership' has been adapted for the study, using 'shared instructional leadership' although there is a full definition and justification given.

Methods

The study examined performance at grade 8 level in 24 schools across the U.S. The only criteria for inclusion were that the school had made substantial progress in reform efforts, although the study does not elaborate on their definition of 'substantial efforts'. A total of 910 teachers across the samples returned surveys which gathered information relating to teaching practice and perceptions of the school and its development. Researchers also spent a week on site at the school to perform observational analysis, including observation of decisional and managerial meetings. The researchers also evaluated instructional techniques of 144 teachers across the…… [read more]


Purpose of Leadership Term Paper

… ¶ … Leadership

SETTING the PATH to FOLLOW

To set the vision and mission of a group

Leadership is the position or function of one who is in charge or in command of others (American Heritage Dictionary 4th edition 2006).… [read more]


Leadership in an Era of Compounding Globalization Term Paper

… Leadership
In an era of compounding globalization it is critical for leaders to
appreciate and understand the many differences between cultures globally,
and further, within varying regions of a nation as well. If a leader is
going to be able to motivate team members from a wide variety of cultures,
this is critical. Leaders who manage teams whose members represent diverse
cultures must build trust by showing respect and a willingness to listen to
their ideas and contributions. First and foremost, just the act of
listening and appreciating their insights is critical, as communication is
essential to keep members from diverse cultures actively engaged in
contributing to the group. Second, leaders need to understand that
cultural differences in communication styles and methods, in addition to
understanding how cultural norms may be significantly different across
diverse cultures as well. In order to understand these cultural
differences and distances leaders need to study…… [read more]


Leadership According to the Book Term Paper

… Leadership

According to the book the Leaders Companion: Insights on Leadership throughout the Ages by J. Thomas Wren, a successful business leader will utilize several different strategies in order to ensure their business' success. According to Wren, research has shown that using at least one of the six management strategies that Wren identifies has a strong correlation with effective leadership. These six strategies include such characteristics as drive, leadership motivation, honesty, integrity, self-confidence, cognitive ability and having significant business, industrial or organizational knowledge. (Wren: p. 135-141)

When looking at a business leader through one of the aforementioned leadership strategies, it can be concluded that any business leader who exhibits a combination of these strategies can be regarded as a successful business leader. For example, if a business leader is clearly driven and has leadership motivation in that he or she is often seen leading by example, one is exhibiting the characteristics of a business…… [read more]


Leadership Charismatic Leaders the Four Influence Tactics Term Paper

… Leadership

Charismatic Leaders

The four influence tactics charismatic leaders are most likely to use are deliberate Machiavellianism, gentle manipulation of people and situations, undue pressure, and debasement. Charismatic leaders must have power and control, and each of these influence tactics create power and control over others in a negative and self-serving way. Deliberate Machiavellianism uses power and deceit as justified types of management, and it debases and demoralizes the people underneath this type of leader. This leader feels justified in whatever they do, as long as it serves their own purposes, and so, they use any means possible to gain control and power. Gentle manipulation of people and situations continues this propensity to act in a self-serving way, rather than creating a healthy team environment that serves the entire group. Charismatic leaders are not concerned about how others appear, only how they appear, and so they will manipulate people and situations to get the outcome the want.

Undue pressure is also another tactic that helps the…… [read more]


Accounting -- Economics Accounting and Economics Week Term Paper

… Accounting -- Economics

ACCOUNTING and ECONOMICS WEEK 5 QUESTIONS

Can someone who is not a leader be an effective manager?

In many situations, it probably is possible to be an effective manager without being a leader, but doing so would require additional skill and effort in other management areas to compensate for comparative shortcomings in leadership skills. Certain specific types of work may preclude management success without leadership competence, particularly where hands-on leadership is a central feature of the industry or work environment. Such areas might include military and law enforcement careers whose structure is based on hierarchical leadership (Greenstein & Learner, 1971).

Managerial candidates in other fields might require extraordinary abilities in other areas, such as effectively assessing personnel strengths and weaknesses, identifying leadership potential in others, team building based on assessed abilities, and, most of all, the ability to delegate leadership responsibilities to less experienced, but qualified individuals with better leadership skills relative to their peers. Question 1b: Does the corporate culture of the firm have anything to do with it?

The corporate culture of the firm plays a large role in determining whether or not managerial candidates are likely to succeed without strong leadership skills. Just as certain types of industries such as law enforcement absolutely require leadership in management, so do private sector firms whose established corporate culture emphasizes that particular quality in management. Whereas a corporate culture that does not specify any specific preferred management style may allow managers to overcome their shortcomings in this area and ultimately succeed without leadership skills, corporate cultures that strongly emphasize one-on-one mentorship and hands-on team leadership at the managerial level likely do not (Ross, 2002).

Question 2a: How does…… [read more]


Extraverted Person Is More Likely to Succeed as a Leader Than an Introverted Term Paper

… Extraversion

The relationship between leadership and extraverted personality

What makes an excellent leader? Does effective leadership stem from the combination of the right person and the right situation, or can an individual mold his or herself into a leader if… [read more]


Dead Poet Society Term Paper

… Dead Poets' Society

Keating's style of leadership contradicts that of Nolan's: Keating was known to be a non-conformist, while Nolan can be considered a traditional leader. As a teacher-mentor, Keating encouraged his students to assume not only a different perspective in life, but also act on this "change of perspective." His influence over his students is unparalleled, creating radical changes in their outlook and personality over time. Most notable were the developments in the characters of Neil and Todd. Neil's changed outlook in life led him to pursue a career in acting rather than medicine. Todd, meanwhile, was able to come out of his shy personality, and be able to channel his artistic self through his impressive talent for imagery in poetry.

These changes in the boys' perspectives and attitudes towards life make Keating a more effective leader than Nolan. While Keating established rapport and closeness with his students, Nolan was the type of leader who is traditional in every sense: subservient to authority, a strict follower of rules, and mainly unimaginative. Nolan's leadership style proved to be ineffective, since the boys' admiration and regard remained with Keating, even after he was fired by the school administration.

Looking into Nolan's and Keating's leadership styles, it cannot be said that Keating is better than Nolan. Instead, it can be observed that Nolan's leadership style complements Keating's style, or vice versa. What makes Keating more effective than Nolan was the fact that he established greater rapport with the boys compared to Nolan. As complementary leaders, Nolan is identified as the rational-functional leader, while Keating was the emotional-interactional leader in the film.

Keating is considered a successful leader, since he was able to gain the respect and support of his students despite his being a new teacher in the academic institution. As stated earlier, he was effective in his ability to act as a mentor -- to serve as an inspiration to his students. Because of his ability to act as an inspiration and to draw admiration from his students, he was able to incite them to act on their changed perspectives. With Keating as their inspiration, the students revived the Dead Poets' Society, an organization that Keating used to be a member of. It was through this secret organization that the boys were able to "live" life the way they wanted it to be, to indulge themselves in activities and endeavors that gave them avenues for self-expression. Keating can be likened to a charismatic leader whose leadership and admiration of his students will always remain with them, even though he will no longer be their teacher and mentor in school.

Nolan is considered a successful leader for Welton Academy. This is based on the fact that he was able to meet the school administration's expectations of him as a teacher. He is successful because as a teacher, he strictly followed the rules and embodied the traditional culture of the school. In these aspects, Nolan was considered a success. He cannot be rightfully… [read more]


Team Leadership Conflict Resolution Term Paper

… ¶ … Team Building and Conflict Resolution

Teamwork and teambuilding are touted in all management, business and organizational newspaper articles, magazines and books, yet numerous companies either pay lip service to this tool or do not use it at all… [read more]


Al Chainsaw Dunlap Term Paper

… Toxic Leadership: The Story Of Al Chainsaw Dunlap

Leadership is the lifeblood of the organization. Leaders set the tone for organizational culture. The workers and managers look to top leaders for examples of communication style, dress, and attitude. The leader can make or break the organization, from this standpoint. For better or worse, the leader determines the course that the organization will take on all levels (Curry, 2002). The following will explore an extreme case of "toxic leadership," that is leadership that takes the corporation down the road to destruction. One of the most famous examples of "toxic leadership" in recent years is the case of Al "Chainsaw" Dunlap. We will explore what makes him different and why he chose the path that he did.

Case of Dysfunction

Al "Chainsaw" Dunlap is famous for his tendency to "downsize" a company. Chainsaw earned his nickname by ruthlessly cutting jobs in order to increase the share price of the corporation. It is a basic assumption that the CEO will have the interests of the organization at the forefront. However, one must wonder if it were incompetence, or self-serving interests that caused Al Dunlap to plunge Sunbeam-Oster into bankruptcy (Byrne, 1998).

Dunlap developed his style while at Scott paper and Crown-Zellerbach. His methods encompassed cutting costs drastically in order to inflate the profits, thus giving a false sense of security to investors. This caused an unrealistic increase in share price and boosted investor profits. However, Dunlap misjudged the Sunbeam corporation and his plan backfired, plummeting stock prices from $53/share to $11/share four months later when industry leaders revealed that Sunbeam's revenues had been padded (Byrne, 1998).

One of Dunlap's key techniques involved deceptive accounting practices. Dunlap worked side deals with retailer to give them deep discounts. This enticed them to buy more than they could handle. Excess merchandise was shipped to warehouses and delivered later. However, the sales revenue was realized in the books immediately (Byrne, 1998). The money was not actually there, but it appeared as if Sunbeam were realizing huge revenues through massive sales. Shareholder's grew weary and Dunlap was fired. He had to repay $15 million in a shareholder lawsuit (Byrne, 1998).

If one examines this story on the surface, it would appear that Dunlap was simply a poor manager, but there is more to the story that lies just below the surface. When one begins to look at organizational culture, it becomes apparent that Dunlap did more than simply mislead shareholders. Behind Dunalp was a fiery personality that was known for storming out of Board Rooms, leaving others dumbstuck at his actions (Byrne, 1998). This hardly paints the picture of as a CEO who is calm, reserved, and wise. There were some that became truly concerned by his apparent emotional state and began to question his ability to lead (Byrne, 1998).

Eventually, the board became split between supporters of Dunlap and those that felt he was leading them down the road to destruction> Dunlap promised backing from major investors,… [read more]


Leadership and Strategy in Clinical Audit Term Paper

… Clinical Audit

The concept of clinical audit was introduced in 1993 as a quality improvement process aimed at improving patient care and outcomes through a systematic review of care according to or against explicit criteria and the implementation of change… [read more]


Leadership Principles in Sports Profile of a Dream Team Term Paper

… Dream Team

One of the ways to improve the way a sports team works as a united whole rather than each player working as a separate entity (which will not build a successful team), is to look at what builds… [read more]


Adaptable Management Supervisors and Managers Term Paper

… ¶ … Adaptable Management

Supervisors & managers are often regarded as being highly adaptable and being aware of the styles and approaches to management. Is this a realistic assumption?

When confronted with this question, Fielder (1967) would likely reply no, rather the success of a decision is more contingent upon organizational or situational factors, than a supervisor or manager's ability to change his or her leadership personality. Instead, the overall group atmosphere, the structure of the task at hand, and the leader's power position are more influential. For example, a relationship-motivated leader, who does not view any of his or her subordinates in an extremely negative fashion, is likely to be most effective and adaptable in an intermediately favorable situation. The favorable status of a situation is gauged by Fielder in terms of the other relationships on a work team, how defined the task at hand may seem, and in terms of the clear control of the leader over the subordinates designated to complete the task. But a highly task orieted leader will instead excel in either a very favorable or unfavorable situation in terms of the workplace relationships, task definition, and his or her control over the other members of the team.

The idea that supervisors or managers pay attention to leadership theories is thus less important than the managers own, perhaps subconscious psychological profile and how it relates to the task at hand and the nature of the group. A more relationship-driven leader might seem to be more adaptable than a leader driven merely to complete a task. But implicit in Fielder's theory is that personalities are less likely to change than are other situational factors. Rather tasks are subject to a variety of different external factors, and if these factors change, the likelihood of success may increase or decrease depending on the leader's character.

Fielder's theory is one of the more extensively researched of leadership theories. His research involved asking many leaders to rate the members of their organization in regards to their effectiveness. Leaders with clear ideas about their negative or positive feelings about different member of their organization. More judgmental leaders were heavily task-oriented while less judgmental leaders tended to be more relationship-oriented. Suit the leader to the situation, rather than alter or educated the leader, he would suggest.

Vroom and Yetton's (1973) Normative Decision Theory likewise has a very situational emphasis, but has a less deterministic quality. Success, these authors write,…… [read more]


Rudolph Giuliani's Management Book, Leadership Term Paper

… ¶ … Rudolph Giuliani's Management Book, Leadership

Rudolph Giuliani, former mayor of New York City, writes about management style and leadership tools in his book, aptly titled Leadership. In the book he offers many insights into what sort of good leadership skills he used to lead the city of New York through the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001. He also discusses leadership tools that helped him reach his position as mayor and to act effectively in his many different positions over the years. Overall, Giuliani's suggestions are good. However, in many cases they are not very original and are like other suggestions you will find in any business leadership guide.

The book both begins and ends with what happened on September 11, 2001. Giuliani's choice to use this important world event as both the beginning and end of his book was a good one. It reminds the reader that Giuliani was in the midst of some very tough situations and that he applied all of his techniques in the real world. He also shows a more human side by including his own reflections and feelings about the event.

While reading the book, it became clear that each of the chapters focused on one leadership or management tool. Chapter Two, for example, is called "First Things First" and discusses how important a morning meeting with key staff is to a man in an important position. This was an original suggestion, as many people have weekly or even monthly meetings. Of course, having a morning meeting may not be crucial for all organizations but Giuliani's point is to get regular progress reports and stay in close contact with those who work with you.

Other important chapters (and ideas) include: "everybody's accountable all the…… [read more]


Recent Innovation Term Paper

… Innovative Mentoring

Creating innovation within jobs can be difficult in some career tracks. In government work, for instance, a person may have to work within rules that affect not only his or her department but the other departments affecting that person's work. Nevertheless, innovation can occur in an individual's work style. One place where managers can create change within a bureaucracy is in mentoring.

Part of a manager's job is to train new employees in the department. This can be a perfunctory exercise with efficiency as its goal. Such an approach will involve teaching the person the technical ropes. In government this can include learning how to apply complex regulations as well as learning how to work within regulatory restrictions that come from outside one's department. However, by adding an aspect of mentoring, it is possible to create a feeling of connection to one's department that can lead to increased job satisfaction for the new employee. It may also help keep valued employees within one's department instead of losing them to other branches of the government agency.

Many mentors and mentees prefer a formal mentoring arrangement, where a new employee is paired with a more advanced person at the executive or high managerial level. They set goals and have regular meetings. Often they do not work together during the day (Smith et. al., 2005). This is not always a practical solution in government, and there can be advantages to a manager taking a mentor relationship with new employees.

Some businesses have taken a more informal approach to mentoring, where the natural leaders take employees under their wing (Pielstick, 2002), but that also does not always work within highly structured bureaucracies. In the Department of Defense, the issues involved, for instance in generating contracts, is complex and the rules both complicated and essential. In such a situation, it may be important for new employees to be led by people in charge of the larger picture for a department.

One approach to such a situation could be to use mentoring to, as Heimann and Pittenger (2000) say, 'nurture the talents of younger subordinates." When looking at mentoring within a restricted population, such as one specific sub-department in a large bureaucracy like the Department of Defense, focusing on each new employee's talents can be tremendously valuable in the long run. For instance, proofreading is often considered an entry-level skill, but when evaluating government contracts, the skill takes on new meaning: a misplaced decimal can end up costing the government millions of dollars. Spotting that employee who has the ability to spot finance-related errors and helping that person develop those skills can make the person a tremendous asset to his or her department.

Having a department head or leader mentor all new employees, however, seems to fly in the face of what most people think of as mentoring -- a one-on-one relationship that endures, possibly over years, with the mentor taking special interest in the progress of the mentee. However, some experts in the… [read more]


Philosophy of Nursing Leadership Term Paper

… ¶ … Philosophy of Nursing: Employing the House-Mitchell Path Goal Theory of Leadership in a Heath care Context

The House-Mitchell Path-Goal Theory of contingent and situational leadership stresses that no single person or manager is an island. An individual leader must be responsive to the larger organizational environment. This theory underlines the commonly experienced truism for individuals in the health care field that no nurse can function outside of her specific situational environment. In other words, the behavior of a nurse in a suburban pediatrician's office would necessarily vary from the protocol followed by a nurse in a war zone, in terms of relating to subordinates and superiors. It is not that either nurse is incorrect in his or her leadership style, or more worthy than the other, rather a nurse must tailor his or her behavior to his or her situation.

This theory is valuable as well for nurses to understand their leadership roles as it also stresses that an individual in the caring profession, responsible for managing the health of patients, must be responsive to ever-changing patient and subordinate needs, shifting situational dynamics, and also to the fluid demands made upon their personal reserves of leadership and management within his or her organization. True to the situational and contingency theory, a good nurse must be a leader in advocating for the patient's needs and establishing what is necessary for the patient to be restored to health, and set clear and goal-oriented treatment plans that must be followed for the sake of the patient, rather than the sake of the nurse's personal sense of self-empowerment as a leader. (Blanchard, 2005)

Although many situational theories of leadership stress the integral relationship between the leader and the environment, however, the path-goal theory is unique in that it suggests that leaders are not necessarily born. This is a valuable lesson, given that not all individuals drawn to the nursing profession have actively sought leadership roles in their previous professional or personal lives, perhaps feeling that they are better suited to helping others, rather than leading others. But more and more, in an increasingly bureaucratic and oversubscribed American health care system, nurses find themselves in the roles of managerial leaders, leaders of other nurses, as the de facto if not de jure primary caregivers of some patients on a regular basis in a variety of environments, as well as becoming the leading advocates of better patient health. In other words, to be a nurse is to be a trained, knowledgeable professional with a quantifiable and clearly defined skill level, not to be a 'born leader.' (Blanchard, 2005)

To be a nurse is to be a manager and a monitor, not just of a patient's vitals but also of organizational health and like all managers can increase their effectiveness through education, training and development. A nursing leader may display, according to the theory four different types of leadership styles depending on the health care situation. For instance, to a young and uncertain subordinate nurse,… [read more]


Leadership One of the Great Term Paper

… I have fought against white domination, and I have fought against black domination. I have cherished the ideal of a democratic and free society in which all persons live together in harmony and with equal opportunities. It is an ideal which I hope to live for and to achieve. But, if needs be, it is an ideal for which I am prepared to die."

In female side, on the other hand, one of the great leaders that I consider is Mother Teresa and I consider her the greatest leader of the 20th century because of the things she did for the cause of promoting humanitarianism and love for every people especially the needy. There is no greater kindness that I have seen but Mother Teresa's. Even despite of her old age, she continued her charitable activities just to help those who needs her help. She was a leader who embodied what leadership really means as how Jesus had shown to us. Mother Teresa was a leader whose role that she played was as a servant to the people. She traveled from one country to another just to promote support and help especially to the poor and the sick. Even in countries that showed great danger for her safety and for her health, Mother Teresa considered no boundaries. Her love for bestowing service to people cannot be overcome by anything, as how she had shown it until her death.

Martin Luther King, Nelson Mandela, and Mother Teresa, are three of the great leaders in history who have properly defined, through their ideals, what leadership really means. That is, to serve for the good of all.

Bibliography

White, Jacke. Martin Luther King.

http://www.time.com/time/time100/leaders/profile/king.html

Brink, Nelson. Nelson Mandela.

http://www.time.com/time/time100/leaders/profile/mandela.html

Great Leaders of the 20th Century.

http://www.nea.org/lessons/pbs050101.html… [read more]


Leadership Problems Term Paper

… The power that money conveys, rather than the material assets of wealth make the organizational culture of the firm of "Wall Street" attractive. At one point in the film, Bud asks Gekko how much money is enough to make someone happy and satisfied. The truth is that there is no dollar figure on this amount, because after a certain point money is besides the point -- rather Gekko enjoys milking the system for all of its worth, and bending and The breaking the law to make even more millions, for the power it gives him outside of the conventional system of hard work and ethics, as embodied by Bud's father.

Question 4

What are the ethical problems of the case?

Insider trading, profiting off of secret knowledge unobtainable to the public drives the plot of the film. Also, even from the beginning of the film, Bud's ethics present a problem of divided loyalties. By day, Fox works for a conventional Wall Street firm as a stockbroker. Although this firm is primarily focused on making money, it at least attempts to adhere to the letter of the law, a fact that Bud is well aware of -- but he still engages in his own, after-hours work, in the hopes of making even more money. This is how he meets Gekko.

Thus, the central ethical dilemma Bud has to face, is to whom does he owe loyalty to, as an employee? To the firm who hired him? To his own skin -- after all, the nature of the stock brokering trade is a fairly self-interested one, and not committed to a higher moral good? Or to Gekko? There is also the larger dilemma of how simply making money may or may not be enough, in terms of one's life path -- Gekko, making money off of money seems like a hollow and empty shell of a man, when his pursuit of greed for no real…… [read more]


Leadership Ethics Term Paper

… Leadership Ethics: Case Study Questions

Of the three options available to Joe, which the most ethical?

Of all the options available to Joe in his current situation, the second option of a possible solution to the problem is the most… [read more]


Leading People Being Able Term Paper

… I value diversity very strongly and half of the employees that I have are minorities, women, and veterans. They have many unique roles in their lives which range from being parents, spouses, and single parents to balancing the demands of home and work life, and providing top-notch services to the department. I took this group of talented employees and transformed them into a cohesive and high achieving team.

Another example of leading people occurred in July 2004 in which I had four challenges which overlapped and greatly impacted the performance of my organization. There was a 30% turnover in staff during this time with employees moving to North Carolina and Florida. Because of this, the challenge of recruiting for a season that is historically busy was a very high priority. Secondly, there was a transition of the organization's leadership during that period of time which required a shift in operations education for the staff. The third challenge was the planning and execution of many of the high-profile events that took place during that time and which I had to work on and be involved in on a daily basis. The fourth challenge involved my selection to participate in a senior executive service candidate development program. This required me to attend courses for core qualifications as well as maintaining my job performance on a daily basis.

Within a six-month time frame from August of 2004 to February of 2005 I recruited for the positions that were open, interviewed 11 candidates, hired new employees, provided on-the-job training, built a cohesive team of professionals, and planned and executed several high-profile events. One of the main benefits of the online college program I was required to take for the senior executive service candidate development program was that it made me much more aware of various ways to maximize the positives and work around or even actually change the negatives, as well as how to avoid overuse of the positives.

Because I view myself as a leader I am also committed to lifelong learning. It is widely known that one of the main differences between leaders that are very effective and those that are not as effective is the effective leaders' ability to recognize how the individual behavior of that leader impacts the workplace. Leader behavior is very important to the social and total mix of corporate culture. Work situations are constantly changing and the leaders' behavior must also change if it is going to be effective. At the end of the online college program I completed I was able to discuss with my coach and mentor the results of the assessment inventories that I took and we were then able to work together to create a personal action plan for my individual professional development as well as strategies to motivate and lead my staff through the challenges that were going to be encountered over the following 90 days. The program helped me to integrate many of the new insights and information that I gained… [read more]


Leading People, Leveraging Diversity Term Paper

… We're living in a constant period of transition, and the shelf life of our solutions keeps getting shorter. Historically, what works has become history because a new problem takes the old problems place in a hurry. Thus, by understanding the core concepts of mentoring and coaching, a leader can help lead others through the never ending need to adjust to change.

Learning to be a leader begins with self-motivation and knowing and seeing oneself as a leader. To often organizations find out that an employee that was the best worker turns out to be the terrible leader just like better athletes not being good coaches. Performance and leadership are very different skills. I am a leader because I possess an ability to manage change, experience, an understanding of a potential outcomes, an ability to motivate, passion and a strong sense of responsibility. I also have a strong desire to take care of my people as well as need to motivate those folks.

A leader possesses the knowledge and skills that help establish and therefore improve the organizational structure and processes of any business. By utilizing the leadership skills of coaching and mentoring, I have acquired the necessary know how to design and implement operational plans, secure and manage resources, and to facilitate a shared decision-making process. Of course this did not come easy. It was a matter of patience and eventual understanding that permitted me to distinguish the differences of office protocols between my more traditional military leadership regiment and my protocol of service from the civilian support aspects of the VA's mission and culture. However, what I learned from these very different business settings eventually helped me to better understand the various components associated with the management of human capital, financial control, and utilizing technological resources to standardize protocols of other business structures.

In conclusion, it is a fact that I have been a leader in both governmental and private sector business environments for over two decades, but that is not all that it takes to be a leader. Leadership fosters a system of ethical behavior and helps a business with the many pieces that fit together to reach their vision, mission, and/or goals.

References… [read more]


Negotiation: A Required Skill Term Paper

… However, other more vital to the survival of the organization negotiations such as mergers and the like, like require dedicated team collaboration among well-balanced and well-trained team members. This is elemental and cannot be created in a moment of triumph or upon a mere whim, but must be created from the ground up by enabling, encouraging and demanding through leadership daily collaboration, cooperation along with inter-team negotiation. This training and leadership begins at the coffeepot and applies to mergers as well. An individual in leadership will apply great consideration as well as educated and inspired action toward the training and positioning of staff to prepare the organization as a whole for the processes of negotiation.

Bibliography:

Braham, Barbara (2004) Negotiation Tips: Skills Techniques & Strategies for Effective Negotiation http://www.bbraham.com/html/negotiation.html

Howard Gardner "Using Multiple Intelligence to Improve Negotiation Theory and Practice." Negotiation Journal October 2000: 321-324.

Katheleen M. Eisenhardt, Jean L. Kahwajy and L.J Bourgeois III "How management teams can have a good Fight" Harvard Business Review. July-Aug 1997.

Lewicki, Roy J, David M. Saunders, and John Minton. Essentials of Negotiations. NY: McGrew Hill 2nd edition 2000.

LeBaron, Michelle. Bridging Troubled Waters: Conflict Resolution From the Hear. SF: Jossey-Bass 2002

Messick, David M. And Max H. Bazerman. "Ethical leadership and the Psychology of Decision-making" Slogan management review; Vol. 37. No.2 P. 9 (1996).

Negotiation Techniques (1998) Quality Guide [Online] available at: http://erc.msh.org/quality/ittools/itnegot2.cfm

Shell G. Richard. Bargaining for advantage: Negotiation Strategies for Reasonable People. NY Penguin books. 1999.

Siegel, Michael Eric (2001) Leadership From Three American Presidents The Journal of Leadership Studies. 2001 Vol.8 No.1 Questia Online Library.

Vantage Partners: Effective Negotiation Skills [Online] available at: http://www.vantagepartners.com/corped/workshop.cfm?id=1

"Constructive conflict helps teams make high-stake decisions under considerable…… [read more]


Leadership Term Paper

… In summary, several leadership theories exist. In order to be an effective leader, one must learn to utilize several different techniques depending on the situation encountered. By remaining flexible in one's leadership style, one may become more effective and gain respect and trust from employee followers.

References

Bass, B.M. (1990). From transactional to transformational leadership: Learning to share the vision. Organizational Dynamics (Winter), 19-31.

Beccaria, L.M., & Favero, N. (2000). [Expectations of nursing managers and assistants as to the managerial style of an executive director of a teaching hospital]. Rev Lat Am Enfermagem, 8(2), 83-90.

Bolman, L.G., & Deal, T.E. (1992). Leading and managing: effects of context, culture and cender. Education Administration Quarterly, 28, 314-329.

Fabian, N. (2004). Leadership -- what is it and are you headed for it? J. Environ Health, 67(3), 54, 52.

Kerfoot, K. (2004). On leadership: creating your own leadership brand. Urol Nurs, 24(5), 438-440.

Kitson, A. (2004). Drawing out leadership. J Adv Nurs, 48(3), 211.

Kowalski, K., & Yoder-Wise, P.S. (2004). Five Cs of leadership. Can J. Nurs Leadersh, 17(1), 36-45.

Parsons, L.C., & Reiss, P.L. (2004). Breaking through the glass ceiling: women in executive leadership positions -- part II. SCI Nurs, 21(2),…… [read more]


Leadership the Only Constant Term Paper

… In fact, it is worth noting here that one manual on military leadership states, "Good leaders develop through a never ending process of self-study, education, training, and experience." (Heart Quotes Center)

Leadership by example is also important to facilitate the development of people and empower them to lead themselves. In other words, a good leader is someone who is a teacher and coach rather than a director. One leadership analysis calls such a person a "Superleader." (Harris, 1993, p. 373) Business organizations are now increasingly beginning to grasp the importance of such leadership, as evidenced by the emergence of the learning organization and the emphasis on employee empowerment. Marriott Hotels, for example, empowers its employees to spend $10 at their discretion to satisfy guests. In one such case, a guest complained about not finding a particular book in the hotel gift shop and the cashier, at the end of her shift, walked to a local bookstore and purchased the book with the $10 she was allowed. Naturally, the guest became a confirmed Marriott customer for life. Such an incident demonstrates empowerment and also shows how leadership becomes a matter of doing the right thing at the right time (Harris, 1993, p. 373-374).

Besides the ability of identifying the right thing to do at the right time, a good leader is also someone who cultivates the art of listening because he or she realizes the important role it plays in changing the outlook and behavior of groups, companies or even countries. Often referred to as transformational leadership, this involves (a) articulating a realistic vision of a future that can be shared; (b) stimulating subordinates intellectually; and (c) paying attention to differences between subordinates. Thus, transformational leaders go beyond heroic acts to actually help their organization, institution, or country receive feedback and alter the course of direction (Harris, 1993, p. 387). Though there are many examples of such excellent leaders, the one person who comes readily to mind is Mahathir Mohammad, under whose prime ministership, Malaysia grew into a strong political and economic middle order in the world (Nair, 1997, p. 80-82).

Examples of great leaders are few and far between in the world. But each of them has left an indelible mark and a legacy for their admirers to emulate. I, being one such admirer, hope to follow in their footsteps. To that extent, I hope that I will be given the opportunity in life to demonstrate that I can live up to the leadership qualities that I so admire.

References

Drucker, P. (1999, June). The new commandments of change. Excerpt from Management

Challenges for the 21st Century. Inc. Magazine. Retrieved Nov. 7, 2004: http://www.inc.com/magazine/19990601/804.html

Harris, T.E. (1993). Applied Organizational Communication: Perspectives, Principles and Pragmatics. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Heart Quotes Center. (2004). Leadership Quotes and Proverbs. Retrieved Nov. 7, 2004:

http://www.heartquotes.net/Leadership.html

Kotter, J.P. (1988). The leadership factor. New York: Free Press.

Nair, S. (1997). The Internationalization of Malay politics. Islam…… [read more]

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