"Leadership / Mentoring" Essays

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Challenge of Building Sustainable Organizations the Human Factor Article

Article  |  10 pages (2,896 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Sustainable Organizations

The Challenge of Building Sustainable Organisations: A Human Factor

With many of the world's governments galvanized in their writing, legislating into law and enforcing compliance standards for environmental sustainability, human sustainability is quickly going by the wayside. With more focus on sustainability and eco-friendly processes, from supply chain practices of reverse logistics to new product development including Design… [read more]

Personnel in Technology Society Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,454 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Personnel in Technology

Society and technology are so interwoven and it's now clear that doing without technology is becoming impossible. And with it being omnipresent the society needs to be supporting the operators and the system itself around the global. In depth we are now going to consider what is involved in building an effective technology team.

It is important… [read more]

Communication and Trust in Global Virtual Teams Thesis

Thesis  |  9 pages (2,485 words)
Bibliography Sources: 8


Communications -- Building Trust in Global Virtual Teams

Globalization has already changed the conduct of modern business tremendously and in myriad ways. Contemporary business organizations must consider the implications of their decisions in different societies, sometimes adopting significantly different strategies based on local cultures, values, norms, and expectations. In many cases, those elements differ substantially from one society to the… [read more]

Narrative in the End Article

Article  |  2 pages (450 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


¶ … Narrative

In the end, many of the studies reviewed come to the same conclusion, that supervisors have a significant impact on the employee's work experience. An employee's emotional experience, job satisfaction, and ability to handle conflict within the workplace all is affected by the supervisor's interactions and leadership style. Research also concludes that there are purposeful acts supervisors can take to improve their communication with their employees.

Possible Alternative Solutions:

The possible alternatives supervisors have at their disposal, to improve supervisor-employee communications, are varied. First, improving the leader-member exchange can help employees understand their job breadth similarly to their supervisor's understanding. Second, supervisors can balance the level of supervision they give employees, to prevent resentment and improve communications. Third, implementing a transformational leadership style can help improve the employee-supervisor relationship, which will improve communication. Fourth, the supervisor's action can significantly make up for the issues employees experience, including difficulties in communication, when the organization is lacking in the service climate area. Lastly, understanding which types of communications are best delivered by direct supervisors and which are best delivered by senior management can help improve the reception of these communications.

Best Alternative Solution:

The best alternative solution involves combining several of these possible alternative solutions. The best solution involves implementing a training program that instructs supervisors in finding a balance in their management levels,…… [read more]

Improving Communications Between Supervisors and Employees Article

Article  |  10 pages (2,771 words)
Bibliography Sources: 20


¶ … improving communications between supervisors and employees at Kongsberg Automotive.

Improving Communication Between Supervisors and Employees at Kongsberg Automotive

Bono, Foldes, Vinson and Muros (2007) performed an experience sampling study, examining how organizational leaders affect the emotional experiences of their employees. Health care workers were surveyed four time per day, for two weeks, in this study. It was found… [read more]

Do Controlling Shareholders Enhance Corporate Value? Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (780 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Yin-Hua, Y. (2005). Do controlling shareholders enhance corporate value? Corporate

Governance: An International Review. 13(2), 313-325.

According to Y. Yin-Hua's 2005 article "Do controlling shareholders enhance corporate value?" from Corporate Governance: An International Review, when managers have a larger personal investment in a company, they have a greater incentive to make wise policy decisions for that company. They also have a greater personal incentive to take measures to ensure company's financial health over the long-term. Yin-Hua analyzed Taiwanese companies and found that concentrated ownership enhanced the positive effects of having a personal interest in a firm, given that there were fewer competing interests embedded in the corporate government structure. Concentrated ownership means the positive incentive effect of owning shares will weigh against the negative entrenchment effect of caution which may result if a leader fears losing personal wealth and does not wish to embark upon a potentially risky but potentially profitable firm decision.

Yin-Hua specifically chose Taiwanese firms because he felt that previous studies were misleading in terms of their portrayal of firm ownership and its effects upon corporate risk-taking. Taiwanese family-owned firms have dispersed shareholdings on paper, so they will not have to disclose their shareholdings. Earlier findings suggested the benefit of concentrated ownership eventually tapered out and resulted in entrenched decision-making. But Taiwanese firms with concentrated leadership often made good decisions. Yin-Hua took care to examine the actual nature of the proportion of concentration of leadership, rather than simply looking at how the leadership structure appeared 'on paper.'

However, one of the problems of using Yin-Hua's study is that American firms tend to have fairly idiosyncratic ownership patterns, compared with other nation's firms. The question of how shareholdings affect value enhancement, and the costs of large shareholdings and entrenchment was first studied by Stulz (1988) who suggested that as managerial ownership and centralized shareholding control increased, the negative effect on firm value associated with the entrenchment of manager-owners started to exceed the positive incentive benefits of personal, managerial ownership of a large proportion of stock. This resulted in blocking value-enhancing takeovers. The fact that Yin-Hua's analysis contradicts Stulz's findings may be particular to the family-based nature of the Taiwanese firms Yin-Hua studied. In family-lead firms, a more long-term focus might be natural to the leadership. But in the United States, firm ownership, even by large shareholders, is often…… [read more]

Dennis & Goldsmith Text Reaction Paper

Reaction Paper  |  2 pages (717 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


¶ … Dennis & Goldsmith text takes a clear position on what leadership should be. The first chapter for example identifies leadership as a three-pronged paradigm that balances ambition, competence and integrity. The authors also emphasize that the 'ambition' aspect of leadership could be somewhat dangerous, in that it is easy to become seduced by the power involved in a leadership position. In fact, the most striking part of this reading is the fact that the power of leadership is simply part of many other aspects that should be in balance for leadership to be effective. Indeed, this aspect has been considered as important in the literature as well.

According to a research white paper by Bal et al., power has a very particular role to play in leadership. Significantly, the paper cites research to indicate that most leaders, amounting to 94% of the leaders surveyed, regard themselves to be at least moderately powerful in their workplace. This sense of power is not only seductive, but could also lead to faulty decision-making. Another significant figure is that only 59% of leaders believe that employees at all levels of their workplace are empowered to perform optimally.

The point the paper and the reading make is the fact that leaders should not be concerned only with feeling powerful, but with in fact understanding their particular sources of power and enhancing these. Bal et al. identify the sources of leadership power as the power of expertise, the power of information, and the power of relationships.

Breaking down power into these specific categories is vitally important in order to ensure that leaders understand the nature of power instead of simply the heady feeling connected with it. Power should be used to enhance effective leadership.

In general, this text appears to be concerned with taking a certain position regarding leadership and its aspects. The most effective leadership, according to the authors, is one that is balanced among its various elements of power.

The text by Yuki appears to be far less clear than that of Dennis & Goldsmith. Indeed, the author appears to make an attempt at presenting a variety of views regarding…… [read more]

Psychology to Organizations in Many Ways Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,227 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


¶ … Psychology to Organizations

In many ways, business organizations are reflections of those who create them and occupy positions of executive leadership and direction. Generally, business founders and organizational leaders who are functional psychologically and whose motivations correspond appropriately to the legitimate needs of the organization and its personnel tend to attract and cultivate individuals with similar characteristics and personal attributes. Conversely, business founders and organizational leaders whose motivations correspond to the need to overcompensate for personal shortcomings and psychological insufficiency tend to attract associates who mirror those negative personal characteristics and attributes.

While myriad factors contribute to the success of business organizations, those that meet certain fundamental criteria in the realm of psychology are often much better positioned for long-term success than those that do not meet those fundamental criteria. Ideally, the founders of any organization would lay the groundwork most conducive to organizational success in many ways.

In the realm of human psychology, some of the essential defining elements and characteristics consistent with the success of the organization would include establishing a climate that cultivates leaders; recognizing the primary sources of human motivation for achievement; distinguishing psychologically functional and dysfunctional sources of motivation; emphasizing the opportunity for intellectual independence, creativity; de-emphasizing over-reliance on natural inclinations toward social conformity; recognizing different aspects of human cognitive intelligence and learning capacity; and promoting personal and professional integrity.

Cultivating Organizational Leadership

Generally, the most successful organizations are those that seek to identify candidates for employment who have high potential for professional development into organizational leaders. Modern principles of business management and organizational psychology distinguish between management and leadership. Management is substantially limited to operational and administrative efficiency; leadership incorporates concepts such as the ability (and inclination) to help other develop professionally and achieve their fullest professional potential. Therefore, in designing a business organization for success, one would seek to hire supervisors and business managers who demonstrate high levels of leadership skills and to install a managerial development program whose primary purpose is to cultivate leadership skills throughout the organization.

Psychosocial Development, Self-Esteem, and Healthy Motivation for Success

By the time individuals are adults, they usually have reached the stage of psychosocial development where they have a natural desire to become part of a community in which they are valued and appreciated. In Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs, this corresponds to the Esteem Phase of psychosocial development. In principle, Maslow suggested that there are two fundamentally different sources of motivation in relation to achievement and the need for self-esteem.

Specifically, pseudo-self-esteem (or "lower" motivation for self-esteem) is based on maintaining the perception that one is respected or admired by others, virtually irrespective of the underlying reasons why. Typical examples of lower-level-based self-esteem would include seeking status, personal recognition, and fame, as well as the general desire for attention from others. On the other hand, typical examples of genuine (or, in Maslow's terminology, "higher" motivation for) self-esteem would include the desire to earn the respect of others for substantive reasons rather than a blind… [read more]

Characteristics of a Successful Supervisor Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (789 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


¶ … Supervisors

Effective business management is substantially dependent on the quality and effectiveness of supervisors. Supervisors are responsible for assessing the qualifications and professional competence of personnel, identifying the relative strengths and weaknesses of individual employees, ensuring that working groups function in a manner conducive to organizational success, and for motivating personnel to achieve the highest performance level of which they are capable individually as well as in coordination and collaboration with others.

The specific attributes of good supervisors include psychological maturity and stability, high self-esteem, good interpersonal and communication skills, the ability to connect with, motivate, and earn the respect of others, and high levels of personal integrity.

Personal and Psychological Attributes of Effective Supervisors

Generally, people who are psychologically mature, emotionally stable, and who enjoy healthy self-esteem tend to attract and connect most easily with others who share those psychological traits (Maxwell, 2007; Robins & Judge, 2009). Conversely, people who are psychologically immature, emotionally unstable, and who suffer from low self-esteem tend to be uncomfortable around and even threatened by those who are much healthier than they are psychologically. As a result, over time, working groups led by psychologically healthy supervisors tend to reflect similar characteristics, as do those led by comparatively unhealthy or psychologically weak supervisors (Maxwell, 2007; Robins & Judge, 2009).

Whereas supervisors who operate at a high level of psychological maturity and stability are eager to share the rewards of good performance on the part of their subordinates, those who operate at a lower level of psychological maturity and stability only reward performance to a point but are often threatened by signs of very high performance among their subordinates (Maxwell, 2007). Instead of sharing credit with their teams (and blame, when warranted), ineffective supervisors tend to usurp the credit associated with the successes of their subordinates and allocate blame "downhill" regardless of whether or not it is deserved. As a result, good supervisors typically earn the trust and genuine respect of their subordinates; meanwhile, poor supervisors may inspire fear but they are rarely trusted or respected (Harari, 2002; Maxwell, 2007).

In many respects, those elements of good leadership in the supervisory capacity are merely manifestations of personal and psychological integrity (Harari, 2002; Maxwell, 2007). Good supervisors reward competence rather than flattery and they are genuinely interested in helping their subordinates achieve professional success. Conversely, poor leaders reward personal…… [read more]

Groups, Teams All Teams Are Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (923 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Groups, Teams

All teams are groups, but not all groups are teams. The primary difference between teams and groups is that the former are highly focused and dedicated towards achieving a common goal. Groups generally looser gatherings of individuals that come together to brainstorm and share ideas but not necessarily to work on a collective project. Often with teams, individual members are "split into parts appropriate to each individual's talents," ("Teams & Groups" 1996). However, the individual's tasks are defined in part by the goals of the team. Tasks may even be shared or rotated to meet team objectives ("Differences between Work Groups and Teams" nd). In a group, task rotation rarely occurs because the individual is a self-contained unit. Tasks, roles, and responsibilities do not vary much because individuals are concerned with their own outcome and challenges rather than that of the team ("Differences between Work Groups and Teams" nd).

A sports analogy helps to envision the way teams function, whereas musical bands are usually referred to as "groups." Although musicians do have common goals in terms of producing, their objectives cannot be quantified in the same way that sports teams can. Sports teams play to win, and so too do workgroup teams. Ultimately, teams are "more effective" than groups in a business setting (Zeff & Higby 2002).

Another core difference between teams and groups in the workplace setting is that team members share a collective accountability. By definition, a team works together to achieve a common goal. Thus, a team also shares collective responsibility for failure. In a group, individuals work together to achieve their own personal objectives such as when a students gets together to study. Teams, on the other hand, get together to produce a collective project. Moreover, team leaders play different roles than group managers. Managers "just assign work with little discussion or collaboration with the staff members" ("Differences between Work Groups and Teams" nd). Group managers are "based on hierarchical positions," whereas the leadership role in a team is "shared by team members," (Zeff & Higby 2002). Team leaders motivate and inspire team members, and share in the collective outcome.

Teams may be more productive than groups for several reasons. For one, the communication among team members is generally more effective than among group members ("Teams & Groups" 1996). Improved communications in a team is due to several factors. For one, individuals are encouraged to participate in team meetings and discussions because they are invested in the outcome. Synergy is also created in a team, because the "group as a whole is greater than the sum of each individual's within the group," ("Teams & Groups" 1996). Synergy is created because of "collaboration and jointly produced outputs," (Zeff & Higby 2002). Team meetings are less formal…… [read more]

Behavior Is Not Seen the Same Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,196 words)
Style: Harvard  |  Bibliography Sources: 0


¶ … behavior is not seen the same way by everyone. In other words, my behavior may be acceptable to some while it may annoy someone else. This is because every person has different perceptions and beliefs. They do not have the same set of values, beliefs or opinions as us and sometimes this can clash to the extent that our behavior becomes irritating to them. However by the same token, we do meet people who have the same way of thinking as ours and hence they approve of our behavior. This is what happened to me during my college years where I came across two professors who treated me very different. One of the professors taught business communication and the other taught ethics. I was a very vocal student who loved to participated and share my knowledge. My business communication professor totally approved of this and even encouraged it. I had become her favorite student so much so that she would tell her other students about me and ask about me after I left college. I liked her a lot too because I could see that we had almost similar personalities. We both loved to talk, to share, to be overdramatic at times and simply loved having fun. She could probably sense the same thing and hence appreciated my personality. However the same was not true for my ethics teacher whom I disliked quite a bit. I must admit that I personally never liked this teacher and it was as if he could sense that too because he took an instant dislike to me as well. He wouldn't like me sharing my knowledge as he saw it bragging. He would misunderstand what I would say and always thought of me as a threat to his authority. This was one class I totally couldn't stand but I had to take it to complete my graduation. But this made me see that our behavior cannot possibly please everyone. While it would please some, it would definitely irritate someone else.

1. Positive self-talk statement should always be in the present tense.

They should always be assertive in nature.

They must always be spoken with a firm belief.

In other words when a person uses affirmations, he must remember to make them in present tense. This means instead of saying "I will be a confident person," the person needs to say "I am a confident person" as if he has already accomplished the goal that he wishes to achieve. It must also be assertive. This means there must be no weak words or phrases. For example instead of saying, "I do not like smoking but I still do it. I need to quit," the person should say, "I absolutely abhor smoking and cannot even think of inhaling smoke." These statements should be based on strong belief. Now this is a tricky condition. This is because most people using self-talk statements may lack belief in some areas and hence need to use affirmations. But… [read more]

CEO's Salary, Bonus, and Long-Term Term Paper

Term Paper  |  9 pages (2,423 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 20


Second, CEO compensation tends to be highly persistent over time and remuneration and firm performance typically are jointly determined.


Hypothesis 1: As a CEO has more year of experience, his pay will increase

There will also be an assumption that CEOs hired from outside according to the previous performance of the company will tend to be highly compensated compared… [read more]

Making Sense Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (806 words)
Style: Harvard  |  Bibliography Sources: 2


¶ … Boeing, the world's leading commercial aircraft manufacture, recently made some notable changes to its business and product strategies. According to a recent press release, company leaders "announced organizational changes intended to strengthen the company's focus on both performance and long-term strategy" ("Boeing," 2010, p. 1). These new strategies include major executive personnel changes, as well as a new "vision and road map" for production and marketing endeavors, and a fresh approach to global product strategies.

According to Helms-Mills sense-making framework, there are eight elements that need to be integrated into the change process. In applying this framework to the changes at Boeing, the following deductions can be made:

Identity construction

Because people all have their own life experiences that have shaped the way they view things, not everyone will look at the change process in the same way. For example, some people may see the executive replacements at Boeing to be an ominous sign, while others may see it as a necessary part of restructuring the company for a better and more lucrative future. Much of how the situation is identified depends on how the identifiers are affected by the change. The leaders at Boeing need to, as Helms-Mills suggests, handle the situation with care in order to ensure that the majority of both insiders and outsiders will view this 'rocking of the boat' in a positive way. This entails sending out press releases like the one discussed here, that paint the changes in a forward-thinking, goal-oriented light. This helps people to make sense of these changes.

2. Social sense-making

Making sense of the situation at Boeing in socially-oriented way requires an understanding of the interactions between various individuals and groups, and how these changes will affect these interactions. Clearly, the replacement of numerous department vice presidents is going to affect how different groups of employees communicate with their boss, but it can also change the way they communicate with each other.

3. Extracted cues

Managers at Boeing need to do more than merely speculate about how the changes they have implemented will affect their employees -- they need to keep an eye out for 'cues' that will provide them with the inside information they need to make decisions which will cause the least amount of company disruption. It is critical, however, that they interpret these cues correctly. Otherwise, they may "inadvertently create problems for staff in accepting the legitimacy of…… [read more]

Club Qualifications the Key Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (550 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


¶ … Club Qualifications

The Key Club is tremendously important to me for several specific reasons. I understand that leadership is one of the most important qualities required of people who are successful in life and in their professional responsibilities. Since the first core value of Key Club is Leadership, I am hoping and expecting that my participation will help me develop the necessary leadership skills to become successful professional in my personal and professional life.

I have been told that I have a good character so I hope I will be able to contribute something back to Key Club in that regard since Character is the organization's second core value. Likewise, the fact that Key Club highly values the concepts of Caring and Inclusiveness is something that inspires me because it mirrors the perspective of my family and my religious affiliation. In that regard, it seems that participating in Key Club offers the unique opportunity to improve myself while simultaneously achieving something that benefits others whose circumstances may be less advantaged than mine.

It is my expectation that Key Club will provide the opportunity to develop all of the necessary skills to help organize, administrate, and oversee, public functions. In that capacity, I hope to learn how to use my natural ability to make good judgments and decisions to help Key Club present positive, beneficial, well organized, and safe events that benefit all participants. My parents have always taught me the importance of following established rules and I believe that has helped me develop the appropriate perspective to help explain necessary rules and requirements to participants in Key Club events in a manner that…… [read more]

Human Relations Seven Themes Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,557 words)
Style: Harvard  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+


Human Relations

Seven themes of human relations are communication, self-awareness, self-acceptance, motivation, trust, self-disclosure and conflict resolution (Reece & Brandt, 2006). These themes guide one's learning of human relations, and mastery of these concepts can allow for better personal growth and the achievement of organizational objectives. Communication refers to the means by which we convey ideas, feelings and concepts to… [read more]

Innovation and Change Essay

Essay  |  1 pages (498 words)
Style: Harvard  |  Bibliography Sources: 5


Innovation and change are threads that run through all organization in spite of industry, size, and age. With today's globalization, organizational change is inevitable. Therefore, those organizations that embrace innovation as well as change have an opportunity of flourishing in whatever they do, and may not end up struggling to achieve the organizational objectives (Gibson, 1996).

Lewin's Model of Change

This gentleman came up with model of change, which up to this moment is being referred to as one of the cornerstone change models. His model comprised of three major phrases of change and was therefore referred to as Unfreeze- Change-Refreeze model (Davis, 1979). This social scientist as well as physicist described organizational change through the analogy of altering the shape of an ice block. Lewin believed that, for thriving change to take place an individual must comprehend the reasons as to why this change is taking place. He further adds that motivation has to be created prior to change. In Lewin's change model, an individual ought to be assisted to reconsider a number of cherished hypotheses concerning one's relations and oneself to other individuals (Driscoll, 2000).

Bridges Model of Change

Bridges model of change stated that change is situational, and that change is different from transition (which is psychological process individuals undergo through in order to adapt to the novel situation or concepts). In this model, Bridges stated that transition is internal, whereas change is always external, and that change is concerned about external situation. In conclusion Bridges…… [read more]

Resistance Is One of the Challenges Encountered Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (496 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Resistance is one of the challenges encountered by leaders at every level of organizational authority. At the individual level, resistance to leadership may typically be primarily a manifestation of interpersonal psychological factors and social relationships and skills. At the departmental or business unit level, resistance to leadership may typically be related to matters of substantive differences in strategic or operational concerns; they may also involve various other issues such as displaced responsibility, groupthink, or reflect elements of social or doctrinal subcultures in the vocational environment.

At the organizational level, resistance may include some of the same elements of resistance at the departmental level, as well as more general concepts of social psychology and group relations. In that regard, the prevailing aspects of organizational culture are also significant potential sources of resistance in circumstances where leadership directives conflict with well-established organizational philosophy and practice.

Resistance at the Level of the Individual

The most frequent cause of resistance to leadership at the individual level generally relates to employees who have not (or have not yet) fully undergone the process of organizational socialization (Aronson, Wilson, & Akert, 2003; Myers & Spencer, 2004). In some cases, that resistance may be insurmountable, such as where the individual employee is not psychologically vested in the organization because he views the position as temporary rather than as a point on a career track with the organization (Blair, 2003).

The other principal source of resistance at the level of the individual employee is a function of…… [read more]

What Is Human Services? Thesis

Thesis  |  4 pages (1,305 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 2


¶ … Human Services

When speaking about "nowadays," the first thing that might come to one's mind, or at least among firsts, is the multitude of institutions and organizations that exist in a society. Although they have all been created with the same and certain purpose of fulfilling people's needs, it is exactly the variety of needs that makes these institutions and organizations so divided and so specific. They perform in particularized areas of activities and their work can be translated into the types of services they offer to population.

The current paper work focuses on a service that covers a significant area of the society's concerns, the human service.

To begin with, one should gain a better understanding of what "Human Services" specifically refers to. Overall, this field activates with the objective of meeting human needs, focusing both on prevention and on the remediation of the problems. Human services' constant concern must regard improvement of the quality of life, which one can gain not only by focusing on direct services, but also by seeking improvement at the level of agencies in service delivery. or, in other words, the good or poor quality of a service relates directly to the professionals that stand behind it.

Furthermore, in order to get an even more complete view of this field, one should think at the specificity of human services in comparison to the other types of activities from this extended area that is called "services."

There is a general assumption that they are not alike, but in more specific terms, what differentiates human services among all the other services is that they are designed to address issues of happiness to a large extension and in a systematic and extremely complex way, rather than tangential or as a secondary objective, which is the case of most ordinary services.

Let us take the example of an adolescent with a deviant behavior, a pickpocket or a child dropping out of school. The intervention of human services will firstly provide a complete analysis of the family background, childhood environment, possible psychical traumas which will further lead to an adequate treatment and intervention.

The history of human services spans over a century and has been in constant transformation ever since. The main reason for this relies on the notion that, as they are different from the other services, one should organize them in a different way. Furthermore, despite the general purpose of fulfilling human needs, there have always been specific objectives that have lead actions in various directions and sometimes became potentially competitive: improving efficiency, effectiveness, accountability, availability, coherence, continuity, quality of life, consumer choice etc.

Though, the most important redesign of the human services consists in two key-words: collaboration and service integration, referring to the generic processes by which individuals and groups grow to be more positively interdependent and learn to coordinate their activities in ways that provide for synergistic benefits.

In accord to this, one should cast a glance at a specific human service system… [read more]

Business Management -- Final Case Analysis Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,038 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


Business Management -- Final Case Analysis

What should Dave do now and why? Discuss possible alternative solutions and propose a recommendation with a rationale for that recommendation.

Primary Recommendation

The primary recommendation to Dave Griffin is to understand the conceptual difference between friendliness and employee orientation. Specifically, employee orientation does not necessarily mean taking a particular interest in the lives and personal circumstances of individual employees outside of the job. In the context of the recommendations from the leadership seminar pertaining to employee orientation, the specific types of changes required to increase a supervisor's degree of employee orientation comprises elements such as identifying the specific reasons that low-performing employees fail to perform at a higher level; it also means understanding what motivates high-performing employees.

In principle, the recommended approach for Dave is to abandon his efforts to ingratiate himself socially into the lives of his poor-performing employees. Instead, Dave should express his increased effort in the realm of employee orientation in a manner that communicates his desire to understand why his high-performing employees work harder and more conscientiously than his low-performing employees, as well as what specific factors either motivate higher performance or detract from that motivation on the part of his lower-performing employees.

If anything, Dave's misunderstanding of the concept of "employee orientation" and his attempts to ingratiate himself socially into the lives of his poor-performing employees was counterproductive: instead of motivating them to perform better, they likely reinforced those employees' current level of dedication to their positions and their responsibilities by communicating (albeit indirectly) that Dave was pleased with their performance at the level that Dave considers unsatisfactory.

Possible Alternative Solutions

Dave should abandon any attempt to motivate improved performance among low-performing employees by means of expressing greater personal interest in their lives, especially to the extent that interest relates to their lives and circumstances outside of work. The modern approach to employee motivation and performance management emphasizes the bilateral direction of information transfer that is bottom-up in addition to top-down (Daft, 2005; Russell-Whalling, 2008). Dave should try implementing mechanisms recommended by contemporary personnel management specialists such as soliciting information directly from employees who are performing poorly.

This type of approach is what Dave's leadership seminar should have explained in connection with the concept of being employee-oriented. Inquiring into what specific factors in the work environment contribute to high performance and low performance with respect to individual employees is one effective means of becoming more employee-oriented (Daft, 2005; Russell-Whalling, 2008). Conversely, chatting up subordinates and inquiring into personal lives and circumstances is not an effective method of improving performance and may also result in other problems relating to unnecessary personal involvement that could potentially undermine supervisory authority and respect for the supervisor.

Likewise, that effort probably provides unintentional positive feedback that is very susceptible to misinterpretation as positive reinforcement and to the erroneous perception among poor-performing employees that their level of performance in satisfactory by virtue of the increased apparent personal interest in their lives on the part… [read more]

Work Values and Generational Differences Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  10 pages (2,949 words)
Style: Harvard  |  Bibliography Sources: 7


Work Values and Generational Differences

A generation is defined as a body of individuals who were born and alive at approximately the same time. These individuals share similar life experiences, cultural trends and events ("Generation," 2009; Smola & Sutton, 2002). Although generations has been a topic of discourse for eighty years (Hatchmann, 2008), there is still a disagreement on the… [read more]

Molson Coors Brewing Company Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  1 pages (315 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Molson Coors Brewing Company

Despite its successes, the Molson Coors Brewing Company continues to be tormented by internal conflicts which have yet to be resolved. A first example of ineffective conflict management is offered by the tensions occurred between cousins Eric and Ian Molson, who were bind by contract to rule the company together, but which become engaged in attempts of character assassination.

The two were not able to unite their powers as members of the same family and make the best decisions in favor of the organization. In other words, they were unprofessional, driven by personal desires and as such unable to move passed their egos and unite their forces in the benefit of the brewery; the result was the emergence of an interpersonal and even dysfunctional conflict.

A second example belongs to more recent times and refers to the internal tensions which arouse after the merger with the Coors Brewery, Eric Molson's long-term fixation. Each…… [read more]

Outdoor Education Development Essay

Essay  |  7 pages (2,222 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+


Outdoor Education

Developing an Appreciation for Nature

Teams form an essential part of the business world today. However, not all teams are made the same. Effective teams are an asset to the corporation, but ineffective teens represent a liability. Outdoor experiences such as Outward Bound International, offer teams the ability to grow trust, and their ability to co-operate through overcoming… [read more]

Heart of Change Thesis

Thesis  |  4 pages (1,307 words)
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¶ … Change

The major point or observation being focused on is the story displayed on page 50. The story is written by author Roland de Vries. The author discusses the post war scenario in South Africa and how he was entrusted to integrate seven different armies into one single national unit. The seven different armies were defense forces related to the apartheid regimes wherein two armies were related to the liberation armies while four were from the homeland. These armies fought against one another for several years, and now they are being asked to sit across the table and negotiate towards an integrated army for South Africa. In the first meeting, representatives from all the seven armies were brought together. Everyone acted professionally and there was not shouting or talking without turn. The author believes this was because of mistrust as no one was willing to let their heart out. However when the writer took the bold step of negating the purpose of these meetings by asserting that the goals are superficial and impractical, other joined in and started to talk about their experiences. That was the first time progress was made. Not everyone adapted a safe approach and people started talking about what was at stake for them. None of the parties could envision a joint national force at that point in time.

After this meeting the author decided to hold all future meetings via camping trips where everyone would sit around the fire and talk about personal stories. This idea turned out to be successful as many representatives opened their heart out and started telling war stories. The turning point came about when one night the boat they were traveling on capsized and it threw Solly Mollo (a leader of the liberation army) and the author in the sea. Solly Mollo could not swim and so the author decided to help him out. They were stuck in the ocean for over an hour before they were rescued and during this time they both talked about their war experiences: how their families coped having a loved one being in the army? How they were victims of racism? And so on. The discussions were very personal and very candid. This moment had a great impact on the results and its quite amazing to see how a group of enemies can actually sit down and do all of this fascinating stuff.

Theoretical framework

The most important fact of teamwork is perhaps its familiarity with each other. A team which is made up of a majority of similar members over a long period of time will not only get used to each other but also understand each other and cover up the flaws that the other members might have. There will be an excellent level of team spirit and loyalty. Perhaps one of the best ways in which teams are maintained over a long period of time is by making sure that all the team members share the same goals and… [read more]

Solution Oriented Decisions Models Thesis

Thesis  |  1 pages (335 words)
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Solution-Oriented Decisions Models

What are the most valuable concepts in solution-oriented decision making?

Solution-oriented decision making focuses on the need for leadership to promote innovative thinking at every level of an organization. Leaders do not tell others what to do, rather they learn about potential solutions from subordinates as well as colleagues. They lead through their enthusiasm about finding solutions not through procedural authority. The words "because I say so" are foreign to solution-oriented leadership. Once leaders find what they believe to be the solution, they implement it by creating a total organizational level effort. Leaders must be indiscriminate in soliciting ideas, yet extremely discriminate in implementing those ideas, given the hard work involved in creating effective solutions over the long-term.

The solution is always the focus, not the job title of the person who gave the suggestion. The approach to problem-solving is democratic in the extreme: the organization is viewed as an "idea factory" rather than a hierarchy (Ramsey 2005, p.4). When individuals come up with…… [read more]

Skills to Become a Team Leader Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (1,031 words)
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Skills to Become a Team Leader

There are a few aspects of leadership that I consider to be of utmost importance. Leadership is the art of harnessing resources to achieve an objective. The setting of the objective is critical, since that will dictate not only the leadership style that will be adopted but will also dictate the way that the team is built. In the process of building a team, one must understand the objectives that are to be accomplished, in order that the right components of the team are all in place. From there, I wish to develop three main skills in order to guide the team to its objectives.

The first is supporting. Leadership must be able to not only guide the effort but lend the needed support to ensure that the team does not falter. A skillful leader is able to listen and understand the needs of each member of the group, which allows the leader to offer each member the support they need to be their best (Buyers, 1999). Support is one of the key traits of a leader, particularly during the tough times. I wish to improve my key support skills -- praising the ideas of others, showing friendliness, and pointing out others' contributions.

The second skill I wish to develop is confronting. Leaders are ultimately responsible for the project, which also means that they are responsible for group discipline. Confrontation, however, need not be negative. Confrontation is not the same thing as conflict, and as such I wish to build my skills at constructive confrontation, such that issues are dealt with and problems worked out in a constructive, positive manner (Hoover & DiSilvestro, n.d.). Constructive confrontation allows for issues to be dealt with more quickly and for solutions to generate better outcomes. I believe that in general I have been reticent in the past to address issues for fear of being misunderstood or generating negative sentiment in the team. However, I believe that combined with increased support and a higher energy level, I will be better able to deliver a more positive version of confrontation than I have in the past.

The third skill I wish to develop is energizing. Leaders are passionate people (Lock, 2007) and the greater the degree to which that passion exudes throughout the group, the more productive the team will be. Such positive energy leads to a wide range of desirable results. Not only does the team get more work done, but they are more willing to cooperate, respond better to the challenges that will inevitably occur along the way and the team believes in the leader more. Energy is a powerful tool for a leader to harness, but that energy has to be genuine, something I feel that I may have lacked at times in the past. Thus, I want to build my skills at motivating others towards this greater effort and I wish to be more enthusiastic on a day-to-day basis.

Part 2: With respect to supporting,… [read more]

Virtual Teams Thesis

Thesis  |  16 pages (6,056 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10


¶ … Virtual Teams

A Study of the U.S. Army Logistics Network

The concept of virtual teams has grown exponentially with the pervasive adoption of the Internet and the corresponding growth of technologies that enable greater levels of collaboration, coordination of complex tasks, and greater shared ownership of tasks as well. Organizations, whose strategic objectives rely on specific skills sets… [read more]

Self-Assessment Disc Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,589 words)
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DISC Self-assessment

This paper provides an overview of the DISC personality profile, the author's personal analysis of her own DISC scores, and a more general examination of how DISC can enhance leadership and teamwork in the workplace. Concludes with reflections on the use of personality assessment in the workplace.

Overview of DISC

My profile

Leading and following

My 'Uniquely… [read more]

Al-Hussami, Mahmoud (2008). A Study of Nurses Thesis

Thesis  |  4 pages (964 words)
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Al-Hussami, Mahmoud (2008). A study of nurses' job satisfaction. European Journal of Scientific Research 22(2).

The purpose of the study was to examine the effects of organizational commitment, perceived organizational support, transformational leadership, transactional leadership behavior, and level of education on nurses' job satisfaction, especially long-term health care center nurses.

The author proposes the question: how do organizational variables impact nurses' job satisfaction?

The author gathered data via questionnaire related to job satisfaction. The questionnaire was given to 60 nurses at four nursing homes, all of which were randomly selected. The author performed statistical analyses on the results.

The author found a strong correlation between nurses' reported job satisfaction and organizational commitment, organizational support, level of education, transactional leadership and transformational leadership.

Key concepts include the core concept of job satisfaction, which is related to quality of care. Organizational issues include leadership styles, which impact subordinate employee satisfaction. Other important concepts include organizational support, and organizational commitment.

6. The author assumes that organizational behavior may be influenced by the research, by suggesting that job satisfaction affects quality of care.

7. a. If the author's line of reasoning is correct, then health care organizations and especially long-term health care facilities, should consider improving organizational commitment and organizational support as well as change leadership styles towards transactional and transformational.

7. b. If the author's line of reasoning is ignored, then health care institutions may face serious crises related to low job satisfaction such as staff shortages.

8. The author's point-of-view is from the level of nursing management and health care administration.

Part 2

1. The author clearly states his meaning, and the text is as succinct as possible. A minimum of jargon is used and the language is clear.

2. The authors' claims are based on empirical evidence, so they are accurate assessments.

3. The author precisely analyzes the data from the survey responses.

4. No, the author does not introduce any irrelevant material; the report is brief and to the point.

5. The author does not delve into the complexities of organizational commitment, organizational support, transactional leadership, or transformational leadership. The writing is not superficial but these issues are not addressed.

6. The author does not consider opposing points-of-view, but it would be hard to imagine a valid point-of-view that disparaged nurses' job satisfaction.

7. The text is consistent and logical, as the author's ideas flow from point to point and each section is clearly labeled and set apart from the next.

8. The subject is not dealt with in a trivial manner, although more depth would have bolstered the central arguments.

9. The issues the author addresses are not inherently controversial, even if they do challenge existing organizational theories and behaviors. Therefore, the author does display fairness.

Kleinman, C.S. (2004). Leadership: A key strategy in staff nurse retention. The Journal of Continuing Education in Nursing 35(3).

1. The author intends to draw…… [read more]

Organizational Management Project Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (756 words)
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¶ … Organizational Management

Project Management

No matter what role you are playing in an organization, allowing fear to play a major part in your decision-making process is never a good idea. On the other hand, fear can also be a useful tool. For project managers, finding the best balance between healthy and unhealthy fear is necessary. Healthy fear is part of what motivates us as leaders. If we were not afraid of something, then we would not lead. For instance, responsible leaders often have a healthy fear of missed deadlines and poor quality work. This fear is enough to motivate them to do quality work and to do it on time. Unhealthy fear, however, is fear that becomes so paramount that project managers cannot function. For instance, a project manager who is nervous about coming to work each day because she is afraid of what other employees will have to say to her or because she is obsessed with the idea of timeliness expresses an unhealthy fear. Project managers who find the right balance will be motivated, but still realistic. In this same vein, project managers often also tap into a kind of fear that is like intuition. For instance, they might feel fearful about making a certain step in a project play or continuing with the project in the midst of uncertainty. This kind of fear can also be helpful to the project manager as it teaches him or her to think in just a moment, making decisions based upon an experienced and well-cultivated sensor for fear. Thus, for the project manager, balancing fear is an important way to deal with uncertainty.


Every business has to gauge its successes and losses, in addition to comparing itself with others who are in the field. In a competitive environment, managers know that they need to understand these numbers, and to exceed competitors in customer service in order to win this financial war. Still, managers need to be careful regarding how they benchmark. Benchmarking requires its proponents to implement standards and categories in order to begin the benchmarking process. For some companies and some industries, this might be inconvenient and not worth the annoyance. In addition, determining what standards to measure for each company can be a difficult…… [read more]

Mao Zedong Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,282 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


¶ … Real Mao Zedong: The Man in the Myth

Mao Zedong is both one of the most influential and one of the most controversial figures of the twentieth century. This should not be too surprising; influence often comes with controversy attached. Mao does cut a very intriguing figure, however, as he is both revered and reviled by contemporary scholars. Making sense of the actual human being behind the powerful leader of the victorious revolutionary army during the Chinese civil war and the subsequent supreme ruler of China for a period of several decades can be difficult. The layers of propaganda both support and denigrating Mao make ascertaining the truth about his achievements and his actions nearly impossible. Even when certain actions are known, discerning Mao Zedong's true intentions and beliefs is rarely as simple as it would seem on the surface.

Mao is known as a fierce political and military leader as well as a philosopher and poet -- along with many other far less glorious titles, such as despotic dictator and mass murderer. Because of the amount and popularity of his own published works, it might be thought that determining his opinions, intentions, and motives for individual acts might be simpler. His words were used for heavily propagandized purposes, however, and are open to some degree of interpretation, making even an analysis on these grounds somewhat suspect. The surest way to develop a picture of the man behind the mythic and almost godlike figure that Mao has become (largely as a result of his own purposeful development of his public image) is to examine the actions it is known that he took and the words he is known to have said or written as a whole, and from there deduce the possible motives and intentions behind certain actions, and the reasons these motives and intentions might have existed in the first place. Such a broad view is necessary to develop a picture of the changing man that Mao was.

Such a broad view also requires extensive research and reflection, and we are lucky to have the scholarship of Roderick MacFarquhar in his book the Politics of China: The Eras of Mao and Deng, which analyzes the political life of Chairman Mao and goes a long way in revealing the man that existed behind the power and the myth. The opening essay of the book notes that by September of 1956, the Communist Party could claim near-complete unification and single-mindedness, as well as complete domination over the government and military operations of China, and a large and growing hold on the social infrastructure as well. At the head of the party and the country was Chairman Mao. This fact alone is a testament to the charisma that Mao possessed.

Attaining and keeping power during the tumultuous time in China during which Mao lived and ascended to supreme power required much brokering of deals and the ability to negotiate with many different people and keep them all happy and loyal.… [read more]

Archetypes the Three Archetypes Identified Thesis

Thesis  |  3 pages (946 words)
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The three archetypes identified in this specific society include teachers, artists, and leaders. Teachers make about 50% of society, with artists and leaders making 25% each.

Teachers include school teachers, parents, religious leaders, professors, and medical professionals. These archetypes generally operate from a basis of mutual respect, which is their most important attribute. The respect both others in their varied profession as well as those they teach. Teachers also command respect from those they lead Secondly, they are altruistic, caring for those they teach, imparting their knowledge as best they can. In this they are also cooperative, creative, rational, and finally competitive. In order to function at their optimal level, teachers are also somewhat competitive, but never to the detriment of their other, more people-oriented attributes.

Artists include writers, performing artists, painters, sculptors, and any other persons in predominantly creative professions. The most important attribute for this archetype is creativity. In this, they are also highly self-interested and competitive, mainly functioning as individuals rather than in cooperative groups. They also tend to be irrational, but can have mutual respect for each other. This is however a minor attribute and would never be chosen in favor of the self-interest or competitive components of their characters.

Leaders generally include politicians, company managers, and others in leadership positions. These people generally tend to be cooperative, with mutual respect also being high on the list of priorities. Good leaders are altruistic and recognize that leadership involves a democratic approach and helping people to meet their needs. Leaders can also be competitive and creative, but not to the detriment of the other qualities.

The society in which these three archetypes dominate will be supportive and harmonious. Each archetype will fulfil its function towards the optimal functioning of the others. The three archetypes support each other and work in harmony rather than in competition, although competition may be inherent in the individual archetypes. Politics will be the arena of the leader archetype. Because it is cooperative and creative, the leadership will also harmonize with the other archetypes, which include these attributes to some degree. The economic arena will be that of both the teacher and the leader, as they tend to be more rational than the artist archetype. Artists find creativity much more important than rationality, and will therefore benefit from leaving the economic system in the hands of the other archetypes.

If I were to return to the society 50 years later, I believe that there may be a slightly greater proportion of artists and fewer teachers. This will not be a major difference, however, and the society will remain more or less the same. Harmony will prevail, as the archetypes remain more or less the same, with a sufficient number of each archetype to fulfil its contributions to the society.

It is imagined that some leaders…… [read more]

Defining Teams Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  2 pages (697 words)
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¶ … teams - Effective team management

What is the difference between a group of people and a team? While a group is merely a collection of individuals, a team is created for a specific purpose -- either to win a game, or to realize a strategic management objective like building a house. However, building a team is a process, it is not something that is accomplished simply by bringing people into the same room, apportioning tasks and giving them a common deadline for a project.

According to the team management theorist Bruce Tuckman, all teams proceed through a series of stages that Tuckman calls forming, storming, norming and performing. The formative stage is when all of the team members are still feeling their way, reserved and hesitant. They may know why they have been included on the team, but feel uncertain as to the role of others, or the general mission of the team. It is essential during this phase that the team's standard operating procedures are generated to maximize efficiency and to encourage 'icebreaking' activities. Team members must get to know one another, not simply on a functional level, but also in terms of their personalities. Are the team members introverted? Extroverted? Are the members thinking or feeling types by nature, do they go with their gut, or are they more analytical? The team establishes its interdependence during this phase, as well as defines its individual components. The team may discuss its mission, or simply play 'getting to know you' games, or even take and share the results of personality tests.

Depending on the team's personalities, the storming phase can be very rocky. This is when members of the team jockey for their leadership positions, or try to determine how the team will come to decisions. For a small, three-person team, decision-making consensus would be ideal, although depending on the nature of the level of expertise of the various members, one individual may be designated more of a leader than other members on key decisions. or, members may have specific areas of leadership expertise, and various…… [read more]

Group Management Leading an Older Group Strong Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  1 pages (325 words)
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Group Management

Leading an Older Group

Strong leadership is a necessity in modern working environments. This necessary strength becomes vulnerable to young leaders within the context of a group where members are much older than the individual meant to lead. Such challenges as establishing credible respect and curbing the events of older individuals from trying to take over are common within these types of group environments.

When dealing with an entire group who exceeds one's own age, there are several difficulties which come to present themselves and must be solved. The first of these challenges would be to establish a creditable level of respect between the group members who prove older than oneself. Most older individuals will automatically have a bias towards a younger leader. There is a question of proper maturity and expertise. In order to fully control the group into reaching its finest potential, the young leader must automatically establish a strong and commendable reputation, whether through a recommendation from…… [read more]

Emotional Intellegence Exploring the Five Dimensions Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (883 words)
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Emotional Intellegence

Exploring the Five Dimensions of Emotional Intelligence

In his article, "What Makes a Leader," Daniel Goleman suggests that "IQ and technical skills" are simply the "entry-level requirements for executive positions" (94). What separates leadership attempts from leadership successes, however, is a "high degree of emotional intelligence" (94). According to Goleman, when tested against other components such as IQ and technical skills, emotional intelligence proved to a better predictor of good leaders and great performance. Often assessed by employers through models prepared by psychologists, which tell employers who to focus on for training, hiring, promotion, etc., emotional intelligence has five components, according to the author.

The first of these components, self-awareness, is defined as "having a deep understanding of one's emotions, strengths, weaknesses, needs, and drives" (Goleman 96). People who are self-aware tend to perform better on the job than their less than self-aware counterparts because they understand how situations and surroundings affect them, and are able to react in a more helpful manner, as well as understanding their values and goals, so they make better long-term decisions. The self-aware worker understands what really gets on her nerves, why she feels frustrated with co-workers and clients, or how a new job situation makes her feel. She is able to, then, respond to these situations by avoiding those circumstances that will cause her job performance to suffer and reacting in a rational way when confronted with problems. People can recognize whether or not they are self-aware by their ability to be honest about and with themselves. The self-aware employee is neither "overly critical nor unrealistically hopeful" (96). Furthermore, people who are self-aware tend to be self-confident, and able to speak about their failures and weaknesses as learning experiences, or with humor.

Like self-awareness, the second component of emotional intelligence, as identified by Goleman, includes one's ability to be in control of oneself. This characteristic, self-regulation, is what allows those that possess it to remain in control of their emotions and feelings. According to Goleman, self-regulation is important for the business world because self-regulating people "feel bad moods and emotional impulses just as everyone does, but they find ways to control them and even to channel them in useful ways" (98). In a work environment populated with self-regulators, impulses and poor reactions to bad news are not common. Instead, the environment invites others to participate without fear that they will make a mistake and face the wrath of an angry boss. This promotes a calm, reasoned approach throughout the business run by self-regulating leaders. Furthermore, self-regulators tend not to panic, but to look at new and challenging information as opportunities to grow.…… [read more]

Business - Group Dynamics Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  8 pages (2,138 words)
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Business - Group Dynamics


In the modern vocational environment, relatively few enterprises consist of sole individuals; even small businesses involve groups of individuals who must work together collaboratively. Group dynamics apply to all working groups and, depending on how well various elements of positive group dynamics manifest themselves operationally, they have the potential to… [read more]

Elements of Storytelling Thesis

Thesis  |  5 pages (1,859 words)
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Management- Storytelling

Storytelling is recognized as a universal human activity (Matthews & Wacker, 2007). It serves wide-ranging and diverse purposes. History shows that societies have created stories and listened to them passionately and intently as well. Storytelling is also the method by which people introduce themselves to one another, where they come from, their beliefs, and how they are different… [read more]

Hegemony Humankind Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (708 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5



Humankind has always had its basic ethics and an important characteristic of humans is that there always were leaders and subordinates. One's place within society has to be clearly defined, as it is not possible for one to live without being aware of the attributes that he or she possesses. All humans generally aspire to a greater position in the social order from where they would be superior to others.

The term "leader" can be far more complex and it can even refer to a country or a certain race. There are examples world wide of nations which clearly distinguish themselves from the others because of several reasons and while some are seen as favorable for being leaders, others often attempt to force their way into leadership. For a leader it is most important for those that are subjects to accept and to enjoy the ruling so that a safe connection is made between the two parts.

Hegemony is the term that refers to "the exercise of intellectual leadership by a particular class" (Leland, 1997) and "a crucial part of this definition is that the ruling class's view on the world, especially on the social world and how it works, is accepted by most members of a society as correct." (Leland, 1997) Hence, if the bond between a master and his subjects would be consented by both parts involved, the hegemonic system would be present.

The term originally comes from Antonio Gramsci, which formulated it as a method of understanding how a social class can rule over another whereas the latter considers the matter to be perfectly natural. (Chandler) Despite the fact that Gramsci was a devoted communist, he presented the concept of hegemony clearly and without any intervention concerning his communist affinities. (Browning)

Today, the opinions concerning a certain country adopting a hegemonic system are controversial as despite the fact that most people would consider the U.S. To have all that makes a good leader, there are several beliefs that the country's qualities have faded in time. Some opinions even go as far as considering it to be naive for one to…… [read more]

Team to Be Autonomous in Decision-Making Thesis

Thesis  |  6 pages (1,709 words)
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¶ … team to be autonomous in decision-making provides a more open atmosphere for problem discussion and solution, Advert's team was far too autonomous. While the members of the team were bright, experienced hard workers, they were not equally versed in the company for whom they would be producing the commercial. Clearly, Advert had not even bothered to brief them… [read more]

Operation Management Teams Thesis

Thesis  |  2 pages (796 words)
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Teamwork: Performing on a work team

Occasionally, it surprises people to hear that work teams are a critical part of the busy optometrist's practice where I work. Beyond the expected medical duties that make up the heart of the physician's practice, many different individuals are required to make the office functional. The billing department, the administrative assistants, and the various technicians at the office must all work together to ensure that the office can serve patients from the moment an appointment is recorded on the computer system to any questions patients might have about insurance coverage after a visit. This collective 'team' has shown manifested success because of our mastery of what has often been called the '3 Cs' of teamwork: we have clear goals about what a good experience of a patient should resemble over the course of a visit, context (each team member knows what must be his or her unique contribution to the team), and commitment to the goal of quality service (Heathfield 2008). For the most part, we all like and fundamentally respect one another as individuals and for our contribution to the office.

Of course, when the office has to embark upon more concentrated short-term projects, a more formal approach to teamwork is required, similar to what Bruce Tuckman has called the 'forming, storming norming, and performing' model of teamwork (Tuckman, 2008, Businessballs). For example, when introducing a new computer system, all of the employees had to come together to form a group to discuss our different needs, some of which were in conflict, and the individuals orchestrating the change had to exercise a great deal of control over our meetings, given the uncertainty during this 'forming' process. During the 'storming' there was a great deal of resistance to the change, and discomfort with the new roles members in the organization would be forced to play during the transition. Next, during the norming process as we learned how to operate and implement the new system, we were able to exercise more control over the new program would fit into our work life. Because we had worked well together on a daily basis before, the team was able to reach this stage fairly quickly, and exhibit signs of strong team 'health,' such as a tolerance of different points-of-views, the ability to compromise and reach a consensus, the willingness to disagree openly with other yet…… [read more]

Lopez's Description, the Teams at ICU Medical Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  3 pages (859 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


¶ … Lopez's description, the teams at ICU Medical Inc. were both autonomous and responsible for making a variety of decisions. As Lopez asked the teams to come up with ideas, the teams were unified and motivated, all working together toward a common goal. Furthermore, Lopez's requirements gave the group a clear sense of direction, allowing them proper organization. Finally, the groups expressed characteristics of both universal participation and leadership as they were asked to elect leaders through a democratic process. As Lopez noted, this model -- giving groups the power to make many decisions on their own -- has both advantages and disadvantages. Disadvantages have to do primarily with organizational skills. As Lopez recalled, the teams had trouble providing ideas when they did not have clear leaders. Teams needed the organization and self-motivation to choose leadership and structure before they can become productive. Further disadvantages include the ability of some to hide behind other's productivity, as Wilder notes. Though these disadvantages can curtail the effectiveness of groups, they can be easily dealt with, as Lopez demonstrates by his organizing the groups using a book of twenty-five rules. The advantages of using groups in business innovation far outweigh the disadvantages. For instance, allowing groups to make autonomous decisions provides many unique thinkers to come up with different solutions. The model also takes pressure away from a single person or a small group, allowing the company greater reach.


In the groups as Lopez described them, leadership and structure, adequate resources, and performance evaluation and reward systems are clearly present and are clearly supporting the team's activities. Although Lopez did not provide the teams with leadership and structure at first, once those factors became apparent in the teams, they performed much better than they had without leaders and organization. In an environment where teams or group work were not often used, the team members probably did not know what to do or were embarrassed to express their ideas. With leadership and structure, however, team members could feel more comfortable sharing their ideas in an environment in which this was expected and required of everyone. Similarly, the teams were provided with adequate resources -- like the leadership structure and later the book regarding organization -- that allowed them to work in a productive fashion. Without the needed resources, the groups' ideas would not have been able to be tested or implemented, but Lopez made it clear that testing the groups' ideas was key for him. Finally, Wilder mentioned performance evaluation, noting that she refused to share a reward with those who…… [read more]