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Employee Motivation Concepts and Theories Term Paper

… Employee Motivation / Concepts & Theories

Employee Motivation: Theories and Concepts

The issue of employee motivation is one that has become a central concern of management and leadership in modern business. There has been an increased realization in theory and… [read more]

Principal Role in Professional Learning Community Term Paper

… Role of the Principal in the Professional Learning Community
The role of the Principal is rapidly changing from that of being purely a
managerial and operational enabler of a school and its educators to being
much more attuned to the many unmet needs in the professional learning
community who actively seek educational guidance. This trend has been
exacerbated by the increasing number of working professionals who are
actively looking to keep themselves current in their chosen professions,
and many professionals looking to move into other fields of interest, in
addition to many looking to shift entirely to new professions. The
Principal of any learning institution has the unique opportunity to fulfill
the unmet needs of professionals in their community and need to step into
being a leader as opposed to being just an administrator is clear. This is
a vital difference for any educator; to manage is to keep the status quo,
but to… [read more]

Lessons From History Term Paper

… ¶ … Knock at Midnight: Inspiration from the Great Sermons of Reverend Martin Luther King, Jr.

Martin Luther King Jr. is perhaps known as the world's greatest modern leader. He changed the face of American society by spearheading an initiative towards civil rights for African-Americans.

Dr. King's leadership style was developed through his education as a Preacher and within his sermons he states that his "first calling and greatest commitment" was to be a preacher of the gospel.

King's leadership style is to use his personal presence and public speaking ability to draw in large audiences. Then he combines a strong and aggressive personality with his passion and beliefs to make him a very respected and powerful leader. His greatest strength is his speaking ability, in which he can utilize his oratory skills to convince millions of people of his ideas. Another underrated ability is his personable attitude and ability to communicate one on one with individuals.

Dr. King's greatest impact on modern leaders is his commitment to nonviolent protesting. This philosophy, adopted from Ghandhi allowed him to advance the cause of civil rights through the arena of politics rather than through violence and civil upheaval. The ultimate result is that it has left a legacy of discourse for current leaders who wish to instill change.

The reason that he is such a great leader is that he was able to unite so many disparate people into common causes. This is evidenced by the fact that he united many different divided churches into one progress unit during the early stages of the Civil rights campaign, as well as unite many different protest groups that would ultimately turn into the NCAAP.

In Their Time: The Greatest Business Leaders of the Twentieth Century (Hardcover)

The greatest leaders of the last past hundred years have greatly transformed the face of America and the world. This book focuses in on many of these figures who will transcend time to become major figures within history.

Sam Walton is one such leader that has redefined how leadership is portrayed and the unique skills that a leader within the modern era must possess.

The authors argue that Sam Walton posses an "contextual intelligence," which is defined as the… [read more]

General Patton the Leader Term Paper

… Patton the Leader

George S. Patton was an enigma, not only in the realm of military history, but also in terms of leadership style. This unique way of working with others, delegating tasks, and maintaining order was as much due… [read more]

Self-Assessment When the Christian Worldview Term Paper

… Self-Assessment

Being an Introverted Sensing Thinking Judging (ISTJ) personality corresponds with my religious convictions and values. A "duty fulfiller" by nature with a strong sense of truth and righteousness, I value honesty and integrity in all my actions and interactions ("Portrait of an ISTJ"). Moreover, my affection for customs and traditions within a professional environment parallels my experiences in religious organizations. I expect much from the organizations and people I work with, which occasionally becomes a problem for me as the modern corporate environment often does not foster employee loyalty. Furthermore, I value structure so that loosely-organized teams with ill-defined goals hinder my productivity and impair my ability to communicate effectively. Armed with self-understanding, I can learn how to maximize my potential in the professional world. A Christian mindset pervades my self-image and my behavior, influencing my modes of communication, my leadership skills, and my ability to deal with conflict and change. The ISTJ personality type supports my Christian worldview, enhancing my trustworthiness, affinity for structure, and desire to participate in practical, rule-oriented projects. My worldview and my personality combine to make me most suitable for a highly organized and traditional corporate culture that promotes company loyalty, trust, and productivity.

None of my face-to-face communications skills stand out; I scored low on nearly every measure suggesting that I am neither dominant nor passive. My listening skills also seem average compared with the general population and although I have a relatively high level of confidence and charisma I do not have the tendency to become an authoritarian leader. I also prefer not to work in loose clusters or groups with few rules. Results of the self-assessment tests indicate "excellent skills" in disciplining others, which may suggest my suitability for mediation or disciplinary work in a human resources capacity. In other words, I have a predilection for tact, an ability to keep criticism on an impersonal level and deliver messages in a non-threatening, calm, and easy-going manner. Those around me would tend to feel comfortable and would be highly likely to respond to my advice or direction.

Being calm in the face of conflict and change also enhance my leadership and team skills. I have a low level of stress and a negligible tendency to burn out. I scored high on global manager career suitability, and also scored high on the motivation to manage scale.

A neither vie for power nor shy away from it. Moreover, I respect authority figures and have no problem working in hierarchical organizations because I favor a structured organizational culture. My conflict skills are higher than average, and others also find me trustworthy and easy to get along with.

One of the key features of my personality and predilections is my strong sense of commitment to an organization. Thus, I prefer working in traditional corporate environments including government agencies. I am least comfortable in new age-type environments with less of a… [read more]

Ethical Dilemma if I Were the Employee Term Paper

… ¶ … Ethical Dilemma

If I were the employee, I would call in sick. Ethically, I suppose the company could say that I was not sick, but with a one-year-old with a broken arm, it seems that the first consideration should be the child. It is important to take care of Jaynee, especially if she is traumatized by the accident. Not staying home could actually make her reaction worse if she continues to be upset by the accident, which could actually cause the need to take more time off, rather than just one day. I think the family is the most important consideration, and that calling in sick is morally the right thing to do for the child's sake. It will go against the work group, and that is not good, but I believe family should come first in emergencies, and this is an emergency.

Jason is clearly the main leader of the group, and he exhibits behaviors such as keeping the team on task and focused, managing the time effectively, and delegating some of the presentation to other members. Bill is attempting to lead by causing friction between the members… [read more]

Models and Theories of Change Review Term Paper

… ¶ … Change Review

In the business world, change has always been at the order of the day. In the current so-called information age, this is more prominently the case than ever before (Yeaky, 2002). Existing and developing technology has… [read more]

Motivation and Morale of Law Enforcement Officers Term Paper

… ¶ … Motivation and Morale on Leadership in Law Enforcement



The objective of this work is to research and examine the effect that motivation and morale has upon leadership and specifically… [read more]

Davis Four Models vs. Generation X Term Paper

… ¶ … Organizational Leadership

Four organizational models are traditionally used to characterize an organization's methods of leadership. These models of leadership include the autocratic, custodial, supportive, and collegial types of organizational leadership, all of which create different behavior expectations for employees and give rise to the generation of certain 'culture' within the organization. This sense of organizational culture may come either from the top down or simply permeate throughout the organization, depending on the style of leadership that is deployed. (McNamara, 1999)

As the culture of America has itself changed so has the prevalence of different types of organizational cultures. America has shifted from a land where autocratic and custodial modalities of leadership dominated, as during the 20th century postwar boom, to a more unstable and democratic business climate where more supportive and collegial types of leadership have come to the forefront.

During the Baby Boom period, or the immediate postwar economic expansion, an autocratic model of governance characterized most major American companies. Employees were ordered to obey the leader of the organization. Little creative input from lower-level employees was solicited, and the organizational hierarchy determined the level of authority members of the organization were given. IBM might be an example of this type of company. In exchange for obedience, workers who 'toed the company line' felt that they had a good chance of moving up the hierarchy at a steady pace. Another common model during this time was the custodial, or welfare-based company method of leadership. These companies practiced a paternalistic attitude towards their employees. In exchange for loyalty, these companies promised security and great rewards for all employees. General Motors, until recently, stood as a paradigmatic example of such a company. GM, until recently was able to depend upon its considerable economic resources to give generous pensions and perks to its employees in exchange for their loyalty to the company. (Clark, 1998)

However, the inability of General Motors to continue in such a paternalistic fashion highlights how much the American economy has changed. The past values of the Baby Boomer generation, such as loyalty to a single company, deference to company authority, and trust in the company structure, as personified in the autocratic and custodial models, is no longer a guarantee of personal success. Hence, other models are replacing the autocratic and custodial models. Also, for 'Generation X,' the new and younger generation of managers, there has been a revolution in… [read more]

Effective Leadership Term Paper

… ¶ … Glory directed by Edward Zwick and Dan Lerner. Specifically it will summarize the film and apply at least three leadership theories to the main character. It will also contain a personal reflection on the leadership qualities of the… [read more]

Leading With the Soul Book Book Review

… Leading With the Soul

Book Overview

Like many books on management and leadership, Bolman & Deal address common concerns organizations and individuals have when addressing important leadership concerns in their book "Leading with the Soul." The difference between this book and other leadership books is the authors take a spiritual look at concepts including leadership and management philosophy. This book examines leadership by exploring it using philosophical, religious and spiritual inquiry. The authors also examine how psychotherapy can influence one's leadership ability and succeed within the organization.

Bolman & Deal explore leadership by presenting the relationship between the main character, Steve Camden and his mentor. The main point the authors attempt to present is that to inspire and encourage people to feel motivated in the careers, work environment and with themselves, they must look to a leader for encouragement and support. A leader has more responsibility than simply overseeing the tasks of his or her incumbents. Rather, the authors suggest the main character was not leading as best he could or was "dispirited" as the authors describe, trying to find meaning in a life that seemed meaningless. Camden's problem presented as a story is that he focuses too much on profitability and meeting the organization's bottom line, rather than nourishing his own soul and helping those under him do the same.

Bolman & Deal suggest there are many gifts that come with leadership, among them authorship over others, power and significance. A leader has an obligation to give to those under him to encourage others to try new things or new ways of doing things to inspire hope, success and achievement. The authors suggest the "gift of authorship" allows leaders to create successful organizations because it encourages greater knowledge sharing and encourages employees to take responsibility for their success and that of the organization. The "gift of love" as described by the authors is sharing the idea that any organization has to create a culture that embraces each member as members of a family. For this family to work each member, whether an employee or manager must learn to listen to one another and appreciate each member's contributions to the team.

Other gifts explored include the "gift of power" and "significance." Power relates to the leader's duties to direct their energy into helping others succeed, and encouraging others to do the same. This goes against the idea that one should be self-promoting, and instead encourages the idea that people should work together toward a common goal to promote success. Significance suggests that leaders should enable others to gain a sense of pride for all they achieve and feel that they contribute to… [read more]

School Systems, the Educational Leader Plays Term Paper

… ¶ … school systems, the educational leader plays a vital role in connecting the school with the community. The leader is someone who the teachers, staff, students and parents can look to for guidance, support and information. A school leader… [read more]

Attitude Change Through Persuasion Term Paper

… Team Management

Creating and Managing a Successful Team

Creating and managing a successful team requires the consideration of many factors. Motivation, leadership, cohesiveness, and team assessment are just some of the factors that need to be considered. In this essay,… [read more]

Organizational Communication Management Term Paper

… Establishing clarity of purpose and a sense of something larger than the individual's purpose in the organization's individual agendas is critical. The organization at this time needs to be focused on its goals to avoid becoming distracted by relationships and… [read more]

Right Term Paper

… The chapter then goes on to discuss leadership styles and their strengths and weaknesses. One excellent piece of advice was to seek out colleagues whose leadership styles complement one's own. The book states, of course, that leaders need to have self-awareness of their own style and that it is the leader's responsibility to realize that employees may have different styles and may need to be approached in different ways.

Similarly, Ciampa and Watkins challenge us to think about whether we learn best through hard data or soft data. Hard data relies on numbers, while soft data relies on collecting experiential information from other people. My preference is soft data, as I am much more comfortable listening to the experiences and opinions of others than sitting down or studying a map or plan.

Ciampa and Watkins also ask how many problems leaders like to work on at once. Single trackers like to keep one main area in focus, while multiple trackers may be working on several different issues at the same time. I realized that I am a multi-tracker who likes to have several things going at once and gets bored if I'm only focusing on one problem.

In learning orientation, leaders may be either inquisitive (listen to the whole story before putting pieces together) or argumentative (listening to only part of a story and adopting a hypothesis quickly before all facts are known). I'm the inquisitive type. I like to know everything I can about what's going on before I make a snap decision.

Finally, the authors talk about an experiential vs. conceptual approach to learning. Experiential people want hands-on experience; Conceptual people want to step back and take a wide view of the problem. I'm very much an experiential person, and don't feel that I can say I've learned anything unless I've done it at least once.

Right from the Start: Taking Charge in a New Leadership Role by Dan Ciampa and Michael Watkins offers a wealth of information to anyone assuming a new management position. I even found some of their ideas enormously helpful for my own growth and reflection. This book should be a gift to every college… [read more]

New Business Enterprises Confront Unlimited Challenges Term Paper

… ¶ … new business enterprises confront unlimited challenges for their existence. The magnitude to which the business meets such challenges effectively lies mostly on the very attributes of the organisation and the culture that grows internally. This is to predict… [read more]

Workforce Diversity or the Demographic Mix Term Paper

… Workforce diversity or the demographic mix of different genders, races ethnicities, ages, and able-bodiediness in the workforce, is becoming increasingly important, as the use of demographic differences in employment is covered by a series of federal, state/provincial, and local laws outlawing discrimination. However, both mental and physical aptitudes and abilities are still used in matching individuals to organizations and jobs in terms of personality and capacity. The 'Big Five' personality framework consists of extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, emotional stability, and openness to experience. A useful personality framework consists of social traits, personal conceptions, emotional adjustment, and personality dynamics, where each category represents one or more personality dimensions.

Chapter 5

The perceptual process involves the perceiver, the setting, and the perceived. Common perceptual distortions include stereotypes or prototypes. Halo effects, selective perception, projection, contrast effects, and expectancy. Managing the perceptual process involves the management of impressions, management of the self and others and managing the information attention and selection stages of perception. Managing the information organizing stage, the information interpretation stage, the information storage and retrieval stage, and being sensitive to effects of the common perceptual distortions are all key to an effective perceptual process. Attribution theory involves emphasis on the interpretation stage of the perceptual process and consideration of whether individuals' behaviors result primarily from external causes or from causes internal… [read more]

Group Cohesion Within an Organization Term Paper

… In these quarterly meetings, there should be no holds barred. Until now, we have discussed the positive elements of team building; but group cohesion will collapse if certain truths are withheld. If an employee is not performing up to par, discuss it at the quarterly meeting and move that employee. The team effort will suffer, as we discussed earlier, if certain cogs are weak. The quarterly meeting is the venue to ask and answer the tough questions that will -- in the long run -- build team productivity and group cohesion.

The simplest way to build group cohesion, according to Vasudha Deming is to ask your team members to offer "testimonials" about their fellow team members. In "The Big Book of Leadership Games," Deming implores team leaders to have "employees write positive testimonials about their experiences during a particular work-related project. At the appropriate time, hand out index cards to employees and ask them to take a few minutes to write about the value of what they've just done." (Deming, 37)

Here are some questions Deming suggests that would foster group cohesion:

1) What would you tell others about the experience?

2) In what ways have you seen your hard work pay off?

3) How has the experience benefited you?

The focus in all these questions should be team-oriented. Who on the team, for instance, helped you succeed, and how? The key here is to recognize what is working and what is not in group cohesion efforts. The process serves as a sort of survey as to how to improve your team's efforts to work together.

At the same time, it allows your team to build team chemistry. As we discussed earlier, the best teams work on their own, without external motivations, because they have group cohesion -- or team chemistry -- mastered. That is what these testimonials foster.

Essentially, the most important elements of group cohesion are discovering who is in which roles, and correcting that when necessary. Once people are in the correct roles, make sure they are affirmed for their good work and assigned mentors when they perform poorly.

Ask for testimonials to truly recognize workers when they have done something well, thereby fostering group cohesion efforts. Finally, in the most important group cohesion event, the meeting, know exactly what each meeting's goals are, and make sure team members recognize those goals as well.

Group cohesion is a powerful force in human resources management, and through these techniques, every team will have greater chemistry and productivity.


Blanchard, Ken & Muchnick, Marc. "The leadership pill." New York: Free Press. (2004)

Deming, Vasudha. "The big book of leadership games." New York: McGraw Hill. (2004).

Kellerman, Barbara. "Bad leadership." Boston: Harvard Business School Press. (2004).

Lencioni, Patrick. "Death by meeting." San Francisco: Wiley.… [read more]

Self-Organization Our Own Company Is Self-Organized Term Paper

… Self-Organization

Our Own Company is Self-Organized

We Practice What we preach

Remember that famous hair care advertisement that goes along the lines of 'not only am a spokesperson for the hair club for men, I'm also a client' -- well, we too use the self-organizational model of leadership in our own company approach and structure -- every person's thought counts -- from the delivery driver who distributes company materials in the most effective fashion to the CEO.

We believe that by deploying self-actualized leaders and teachers into the field to teach people about the self-organizational principles that we are making our greatest organizational commitment to our values -- all teachers have input into the constant restructuring of company materials.

Change the self, change one's organization is our motto -- change and value every employee, and create a more productive organization. We have evolved from a small operation into one of the leading CEO education seminars in the field.

People-focused organizational approaches such as our educational operation helps change corporate relationships in terms of the whole person, whole group, and the whole organization. (Clark, 2000)

Because our organization is educational, it attempts to change the whole social system of corporate America by changing the minds of individual leaders of the organization we deal with, regarding the minds of these CEO's employees.

Our purpose is to build better relationships by achieving human objectives, organizational objectives, and social objectives -- a company, especially an educational company, is never better than its teachers and its people.

We recognize that not everyone just at the top of the company has something to give. Thus when one has contact with our company, one knows that every person is committed to its values, from lowest to highest-level employees.

Risks and rewards for trying the self-organizational model of leadership

Ten Risks vs. Ten Rewards

1.The risk of too much criticism of the top CEO vs. The reward of generating new creative strategies for the larger organization by taking care issues that can block progress

2.The risk of the costs of too much idea flexibility and leniency vs. The rewards of new ideas and a greater openness on the parts of employees

3.The risk of costing the company money by throwing out tried and tested standard operating procedures vs. The reward of a leaner operation through innovation,… [read more]

Self-Reflection Personal Values in Personnel Administration Term Paper

… Self-Reflection

Personal Values

In personnel administration, I believe several of my personal values will be useful. These include helping others, showing loyalty, being a good listener, calming excited people, and creating a stable, harmonious work environment. All of these combined will provide me with the necessary skills to provide my personnel with as much work satisfaction as possible. My listening skills and loyalty will ensure that I take all personnel matters closely to heart, and that I will care enough to make changes where necessary. Furthermore, calming excited people is helpful in disputes among personnel. My own calm demeanor will serve to help others stay calm in possibly inflammatory situations. In this way then my overall task will be to use my administrative and people skills to create an atmosphere of harmony in order to help personnel work together at the highest level of teamwork and performance.


In my ideal world, things work in a certain consistent way. In an environment of personnel management then, I find it important to perform in a consistent, predictable manner. Since this is something I hold in high regard, I would also expect it to a certain degree from my personnel. Other important philosophies that I hold include demonstrating patience and developing specialized skills. The latter represents my ultimate professional goal, and drives the rest of my values, philosophies and leadership style.

Being of consistent character and working style, maintenance of the status quo is also an important part of my philosophy. In managing personnel, I would therefore implement a set of regulations according to which each employee must perform his or her work. This will ensure predictable routines for both my workers and myself.

Further… [read more]

Organizational Dynamics L. Jones Term Paper

… This can affect the choices I make in how I serve them.

Another component of understanding the data or information in my job involves an understanding of the meaning of the mean, median, and mode of the population in question.… [read more]

Decision Making Styles Leadership Term Paper

… Thinkers are very good at making long, detailed decisions that take up a great deal of time, but learning how to take short cuts and to occasionally use timesaving tricks rather than doing things as carefully as possible can help… [read more]

Motivation Organizational Behavior Term Paper

… Employees will be able to choose which incentive that they want after the goal has been accomplished.

The timeframe of accomplishing such goals would be relatively short (2-6 months) so that employees can be rewarded as soon as possible. Ensuring employees that the rewards for their performance are close also aids in the motivation of employees. Providing incentives in a timely manner also boost the employees trust in the company and ensures them that they will be rewarded for performing a given task.

In addition to offering the employees incentives in a reasonable timeframe, the company must also ensure that employees are treated well and that their compensation is tied to their performance. The company must treat employees with dignity and respect and be appreciative of the job that they do. Employers must always let employees know how valuable they are if they want to ensure that employees stay motivated and productive.

Effectiveness of the solution

This solution to the problem of employee motivation should prove beneficial to everyone involved. Incentives have long been proven to improve job performance and increase motivation. Three groups will be impacted by the solution that has been chosen including leadership, managers and employees.

Organizational leaders will be impressed by the increase in sales and the overall productivity of the company. The leadership will also have a greater appreciation of the employees and the goals that they are able to accomplish. Leadership will be able to present the accomplishment of these goals to shareholders and other stakeholders.

The effectiveness of the solution will also influence managers. Managers will have a better understanding of what it takes to motivate employees and devise other tactics to sustain employee motivation.

Managers will also gain the respect of employees and have a better relationship with employees.

Lastly, the solution will be of benefit to the employees. The employees will be motivated to increase productivity and get the goals accomplished. The employees will know that they will be rewarded for their efforts in a timely manner. They will also have a greater sense of responsibility and want to work hard to meet organizational goals. In addition, employees will understand that they are valuable and that their jobs are important in meeting the overall goals of the organization.

Organizational Behavior concepts and principles

The main organizational behavior concept that was used to find a solution to this problem was incentives. Incentives provide employees with a reason to be motivated and perform well. There are several ways incentives are implemented; in the form of bonuses, pay raises, and additional vacation time. Incentives also aid employees in understanding that their work is valued and needed. In addition, the design ensures that there is a specific timeframe given to employees. This draws from the principle of expectancy and ensuring that employees are presented with incentives in a timely manner. This boost the confidence of the employee and ensures them that their hard work will be rewarded.

Another concept used in the design is goal… [read more]

Conflict and Negotiation Examples Term Paper

… There could be no stronger embodiment of inspirational vision where leaders and followers share common values.

His demonstration elicits immediate admiration, however, his men end up nourished only by their trust.

For Shaw to command effectively, he must understand his men.

We may wish to control or influence the behavior of others in conflict, and we want, therefore, to know how the variables that are subject to our control can affect their behavior" (Schelling, 1980, p. 4).

Shaw engages Rawlins' help in understanding the needs of his men. He is motivated to do the right thing. He sees that they need shoes and uniforms. Through his actions, Shaw illustrates traits of a transformational leader.

Shaw exhibits conflicting loyalties, between his friendships and his duty. He is conflicted when faced with courts martial under the command of Colonel Montgomery. He is unwilling to take the chance that Montgomery will separate him from his command and his men. In response, his decision is to comply with Montgomery's orders to burn the town. Could his response have been different? Should it have been? In the longer view, he was able to uncover enough evidence against Montgomery to force his requests for action on his commanding officer. It is unfortunate that he had to employee tactics such as these.

Conflict resolution takes many forms. One hopes that one does not find oneself in a situation where one can only obtain resolution through deceit. Shaw demonstrates the ability to use several tactics to negotiate through conflict. Some are not as desirous as others are, but one doubts that the real world holds less opportunity for using the variety of tactics Shaw employs in the movie.


Coombs, C.H., & Avrunin, G.S. (1988). The Structure of Conflict. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Rosenbach, W.E., & Taylor, R.L. (Eds.). (1998). Contemporary Issues in Leadership (4th ed.). Boulder, CO: Westview Press.

Schelling, T.C. (1960). The Strategy of Conflict. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. [read more]

Leadership Friedman, Stewart D. 2002 Term Paper

… Thus they begin to learn the executive skill of delegating. By comparison, many other studies have demonstrated that a feeling that a person has little or no power or decision-making authority can significantly add to stress (Nelson, et. al., 2001, Petrus & Kleiner, 2003).

The employees are given considerable authority to find a project that they believe will increase productivity, increase the bottom line, or improve customer satisfaction. They make use of computer connections to allow people to work together in chat rooms on projects of mutual interest. In addition, people can nominate themselves to enter this program. All these things increase a feeling of control and power, which may actually ease some feelings of stress (Nagel & Brown, 2003),


Nagel, Liza, and Brown, Sheri. 2003. "The ABCs of managing teacher stress." The Clearing House 76:5, May/June.

Nelson, J. Ron; Roberts, Maura L.; and Ohlund, Barbara J. 2001. "Sources of Occupational Stress for Teachers of Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders." Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, Summer.

Pretrus, Teodor and Kleiner, Brian H.

2003. "New developments concerning workplace safety training: Managing stress arising from… [read more]

Strong Leaders Term Paper

… Without these individuals at the helm of such large organizations, it would be extremely difficult to capture the attention of thousands of employees. In organizations of this magnitude, the ability of charismatic leaders to instill motivation and idea stimulation is… [read more]

Mpcomp it Gives Me Immense Term Paper

… Recommendation #1: Naytov Co.

I am thrilled to recommend Dmitriy Chernyak for an MBA program. As a team lead for Naytov Co., an ISP, system integrator and reseller, I originally hired Dmitriy in a part-time contract position to do testing for the front end side of Naytov information system. The position involved testing various C++ and Java applications.

Dmitriy quickly demonstrated excellent problem solving and programming skills in his tenure with Naytov. He consistently found errors in code, and also suggested various means to fix the errors.

As a result of his excellent performance, Dmitriy was quickly transferred to development. Dmitriy excelled in this new challenge, and quickly became a valuable member of the development team.

A strongly recommend that you accept Dmitriy to the MBA program. His excellent work ethic and strong problem solving skills ensure that he excels in his studies, and makes a valuable contribution in his chosen… [read more]

Young Age Term Paper

… Each group selected a leader at random, by placing our names in a hat. My name was picked; it was my first encounter with leading a group. From the very first day the group was hard to work with. Only two of the girls were friends, and they tended to gang up on the rest of us. Besides the two girls, none of us knew each other as friends, so it made it difficult to get together and talk on the phone. Furthermore, each student in the group had a different level of academic motivation. The two girls didn't care much about the project and expected everyone else to do most of the work. They were standoffish on the phone and after school and it was hard to arrange study groups with them. One of the other students, a male, was a little too serious and coveted my position as leader. He and I clashed frequently. Too many egos spoiled any fun we could have had with our project. I did my best to remain calm, but I lost my temper several times. The biggest shortcoming I exhibited during this project was my defensiveness. I had too much of my ego invested as leader and took criticisms and suggestions too personally. I became argumentative, too, and at times was reluctant to make compromises or concessions to others. When another student made a suggestion, sometimes I would dismiss it merely because I had the power to do so. Cooperation was a lofty ideal at that point; it was too easy to fall into the traps of leadership, like allowing a desire for power over others to override a healthy, balanced display of leadership. By the time the project was over, most of our differences were ironed out, but none of us really remained friends. I took myself too seriously at that time and was unable to maintain a sense of humour. However, I was too young to understand the qualities necessary to be an effective leader. My experience as varsity swim team captain proved that with a little maturity comes a lot of confidence.

Confidence is probably the most important quality that I developed through both these leadership experiences. Even after the science project, I felt more confident because I was forced to do most of the talking during the presentation. I also had to make so many decisions that it boosted my self-esteem and developed my decisiveness. Looking back, I can see that through that seemingly negative experience, I did learn the importance of humility, patience, and tolerance in dealing with others. I may not have been a totally effective leader then, but my faults and failings paved the way for greater understanding of what is required of me as a team leader. When I became captain of the swim team, I was able to prove that I can be an effective leader. Because I made an impact on my teammates, my confidence was raised. I now feel that even… [read more]

Employee Motivation, Rewards, and Driving Term Paper

… As we know, money is not the sole motivator for employees, or college students. They must gain something else, such as a sense of satisfaction, the achievement of a goal, more free time, respect, admiration, or some other benefit, which cannot be directly measured. In order for motivational techniques to be effective, it is necessary for the leader to identify what motivational factors are important, an then develop incentives based on those needs.

Effective managers and teachers give employees a sense of satisfaction. Verbal rewards and encouragement as well as recognition for accomplishments are important in increasing motivation. Employees must feel that they are a part of a group and that they have input into the outcomes of the company, both personally and as a team member. They must have goals and receive reward for achieving those goals. These goals must be clear and concrete. These same principles are important both in the workforce and in the school environment.

In some circumstances, the motivation may be to avoid a cost. Such as in the case of punishment. The purpose behind punishment is to motivate a person not to do something. In essence punishment still works on the principle of opportunity cost. In order to be effective, the punishment (cost) must out weight the reward of the action.

In conclusion, by applying the principles of motivational theory, mangers can benefit from increased production. Teachers and students can benefit from better learning and improved scores. A thorough understanding of motivational theory is necessary for anyone in a leadership position.

Works Cited

Lindner, James R. Understanding Employee Motivation. Piketon Research and Extension

Center. The Ohio State University. Journal. June 1998, Volume 36, Number 3. Accessed May 2002.

Lorraine, Sherry, Shelley Billig, Daniel Jesse, and Deborah Watson-Acosta. Assessing the Impact of Instructional Technology on Student Achievement. The Journal. February 2001. Accessed May, 2002. [read more]

Substitute for Experience Term Paper

… This is a relatively new phenomenon that has arisen in the modern society, especially in the United States.

In the planned mentoring programs, mentors are selected from religious, corporate, or neighborhood communities by seeking volunteers. These mentors are then matched to the mentees through interviews, personal profiles, comprative interests, or getting acquainted sessions. The need for such 'planned' mentoring programs have arisen due to the changing family structures. In the traditional families such mentoring or 'role-modeling' for the youth is provided by the parents. With the increasing number of single-parent families or broken families, the need for 'natural' mentoring is fulfilled by these planned mentoring programs.

Not everyone can be a good mentor. This is because a good mentor, just like a good coach or a good teacher, needs to have certain qualities. Some of these characteristics are in-built in an individual, but this does not mean that one cannot develop or enhance these qualities if there is a genuine desire to help others and there is an awareness about what makes a good mentor. It is generally accepted that a good mentor should be a good and 'active' listener, he should be able to build trust and keep confidences. He should be able to inspire through personal example and encourage others to follow suit. Most of all, a good mentor provides corrective feed back to a mentee and is a generous person.

Mentoring has always been a process through which the older generation has passed on its experiences, skills, and values to a younger generation so that they can avoid the pitfalls in life. Until recently almost all mentoring was 'natural' -- based on the desire of the mentors to contribute and the mentees to learn. Nowadays, it is not always possible to find natural mentors due to changing patterns of the modern society; hence the need for planned mentoring. There is little doubt, however, that mentoring can and does play a useful role in guidance of the youth and in bringing out the best in… [read more]

Change Proposal the Company Term Paper

… (Robbins, 1997, p 323). Organizational structure has undergone a major change by implementing a matrix structure to incorporate the task force. However this matrix structure incorporated into the old structure will not be effective if the entire structure is not… [read more]

Analyzing the Movie Commentaries Essay

… Movie Commentaries

Norma Rae starring Sally Field

Plot Summary

This movie filmed in the state of Alabama is about social conflicts. In short scenes not common to that time, the film shows the restrictions or limits of thought/vision that come… [read more]

Analysis of Documentaries by Michael Moore Essay

… Filmmaker: Michael Moore

Michael Moore is not only a documentary film maker but also a satirist. Roger and Me was his first film and it turned out to be the highest-grossing American documentary of that period. Moore's politics and comedy… [read more]

Challenge of Groupthink in Management Essay

… ¶ … vignette is that Julie is caught up in a classic case of groupthink. We typically believe that groups perform better than single individuals; however, this is not always the case. Psychologist Irving Janis set the ball in motion regarding identifying under what conditions group decisions are biased. Janis (1972) studied a number of American foreign-policy failures such as the Bay of Pigs Invasion and America's missing of the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor and concluded that poor decisions occurred largely because of the phenomenon termed "groupthink."

Groupthink occurs when the members of the group have a strong need to maintain conformity and harmony. Critical thinking in these situations is often suspended and leads to poor decision-making by the group. Janis (1972) described several facets of groups that are more likely to engage in groupthink that include a very strong and authoritarian leader, high group cohesiveness, high need and pressures towards for conformity and unanimity, a tendency to discourage differing opinions, and the illusion that the group is invulnerable. Janis (1972) believed that the causes of groupthink included the high group cohesiveness that resulted in a devaluation of individual opinions, insulated the group from outside influences, and resulted in the members of the group having similar philosophies and backgrounds without much diversity. There is also a lack of impartial leadership in these groups and they are often pressured by external circumstances such as highly stressful threats, moral dilemmas, or limited time to come to a decision (Kolb 2013). The group cannot see obvious flaws in their decisions. The group cannot see obvious flaws in their decisions. For example, the reasons for the failure of the Bay of Pigs Invasion initiated by John F. Kennedy and his advisers were quite clear to anyone outside the group; however, Kennedy and his group members believed they had an infallible plot to overthrow Castro. It was not until after the plot had failed miserably and humiliated the United States that the group realized their poor decisions/planning.

Janice (1972) advises that in order to avoid a groupthink situation that the group should assign at least one member to critique group proposals in group decisions and that this member be allowed to speak freely and to discuss alternatives to the group's proposals. In addition Janice (1972) suggested that groups that are highly cohesive (have a shared sense of identity) are less apt to view their own mistakes or to accept criticism from others. On the other hand groups very low in group cohesiveness may not be able to identify with each other and may not be able to come to any type of decision at all due to no commitment to the goals and focus of the group. Thus, groups that have more moderate levels of group cohesiveness share some sense of… [read more]

Usefulness of Four-Drive Theory and Equity Essay

… ¶ … EVLN model of job dissatisfaction, predicts and explain Wendy's future actions and recommend a strategy for Tanya.

The Exit-Voice-Loyalty-Neglect model of job dissatisfaction suggests there are four different ways in which employees tend to respond to dissatisfaction about their workplace. The first is simply to leave or exit. Wendy has already done this to some extent, taking a month's leave of absence but her return suggests that she cannot afford or is unable to leave the job for another situation. The voice approach refers to making constructive attempts to resolve the situation by raising one's voice. Unfortunately, Wendy has given no indication to Tanya that she will respond to the situation in a positive way. The loyalty approach is waiting for conditions to improve in a passive fashion. Clearly, Wendy has taken an actively aggressive approach to Tanya given her nasty and disruptive behaviour and thus has little organizational loyalty. The strategy closest to that which Wendy has adopted is that of neglect. Instead of putting patients first and foremost, she has been acting out in a negative fashion towards Wendy and sowing dissent amongst her fellow staff members. Her hostility could also be a way of trying to make Tanya look bad, given the discord that has been generated amongst staff members.

Tanya must meet with Wendy, acknowledge Wendy's feelings, and stress the need to put their differences aside so they can focus on the real purpose of the organization, which is promoting wellness amongst patients. To do so, staff members must get along and communicate, not act in nasty and hostile ways towards one another. Wendy could ask for Tanya's assistance and seek out suggestions about coping with some of the problems affecting the clinic, but always with a firm reminder that she is in the leadership position and in control. If Tanya continues to interfere with the functioning of the clinic, Wendy must be assertive and take action against Tanya.

Q2. Assess the usefulness of four-drive theory and equity theory in suggesting how Tanya might deal with Wendy and keep the clinic staff motivated.

The four-drive… [read more]

Decisions Teamwork Ethics Chapter

… Org Behavior

This chapter is about teamwork and team performance. The first section is about high performance teams. There are several characteristics of high performance teams -- that they have a sense of urgency, that they have clear goals and… [read more]

Gang Violence Essay

… Gang Violence

In "Collective and Normative Features of Gang Violence," Decker (1996) examines the sociological origins of gangs and describes the impetus for gang-related violence through a sociological lens. Decker (1996) focuses on "contagion," or the spread of a collective mentality through the group. Contagion refers both to the spread of violent behaviors within one group as well as the spread of violence and gang membership increases across and between different neighborhoods. Decker (1996) also focuses on the issue of threat, and how actual and perceived threats precipitates violent behaviors among gang members. Group cohesiveness and collective behavior are also discussed.

Data was collected from a three-year study conducted in the city of St. Louis, in which the researchers directly contacted gang members for interviews. Contacts were made through a street ethnographer with sufficient credibility within the gang community to ensure authenticity of the participants' membership in the gang. Interviews were conducted with members of different gangs, ultimately 99 individuals between the ages of 13 and 29, from 29 different gangs. Research is therefore descriptive and qualitative in nature, as opposed to experimental.

3. Gang violence is central to gang life, and is even part of the initiation process, as new members pledge their allegiance through acts of violence against rival networks. Violence is usually framed in terms of retribution, which explains why violence between gangs is ongoing. Gangs rarely take responsibility for initiating violence themselves. Moreover, gangs view violence as the only means to solve the problem of gang membership and do not view alternatives to violence as being viable. In addition to violence, other symbols of group solidarity include the use of graffiti and tagging to mark territory. Territorialism is important to gang identity. Gang violence is cyclical, with stages of escalation and de-escalation,… [read more]

Performance Action Plan Essay

… John Ziegler's Perspective As Sales Manager

Annual performance

Although John Ziegler clearly entered into his position with a strong desire to do well, his performance shows some notable deficits. First and foremost, he did not take in enough input from other sources when hiring Larry Palmer. Palmer's lack of experience and poor references should have been an immediate red flag. Ziegler also ignored the seasoned sales representative Dick McClure's hostility towards him, rather than discussing the issues Dick had with him out in the open. Given McClure's long-time service for the company, establishing a better relationship with him should have been more of a priority. Ziegler did not use the computerized information system in an effective fashion; he took a long time to learn how to use it to issue reports and performance reviews. This also translated into problems over the course of his first year.

Overall, Ziegler's first year was characterized by a lack of systematic efforts and inconsistencies, such as his focus on Larry Palmer vs. other, more qualified candidates. Ziegler had a tendency to make decisions in a high-handed and unilateral manner. He also did not seem to realize the importance of having a personal touch. A more sensitive manager would have understood why McClure felt hostility towards him and treated him with respect, given his age and service to the company. But Ziegler seemingly had no idea that there would be any personal animosity or stress.

Although these oversights regarding his interpersonal manner could… [read more]

Managing Team Conflict and Expectations Research Paper

… Communication Style and Managing Conflict

One of the most important roles of a leader is to anticipate which situations will cause the most stress and disruption to their teams' progress on critically important projects. One of the biggest challenges to managing a team is keeping everyone focused on a deadline, despite the many distracts and other work that needs to be done. Using transformational leadership techniques, a team, department or company leader can reduce the stress caused by deadlines. A core component of transformational leadership is selectively relying on emotional intelligence (EI) while aligning the job roles of each person in a team with their core strengths (Purvanova, Bono, 2009). The following strategies can be used for helping a team alleviate stress caused by deadlines before any conflict arises.

Alleviating Stress Through Transformational Leadership

The most effective strategy to help teams alleviate stress is to first make sure roles are clearly defined and responsibilities understood by each team member. This alleviates conflicts related to roles, which transformational leaders excel at minimizing due to their levels of EI (Purvanova, Bono, 2009). With clarity of roles accomplished, the next task is to make sure every member of the team has very clear, achievable goals and understand the tasks needed to accomplish them. This focuses on making sure every team member not only understands what is expected of them, but also have the support they need from the leader to do their jobs. Transformational leaders excel… [read more]

Myers-Briggs Is a Personality Inventory Essay

… The sensing function will see the problem framed more as a tangible problem based on fact, evidence, and reason. The intuitive individual will have a predisposition to see the situation in the abstract and try to put themselves in the situation. The T. And F. functions deal with the individual makes decisions. The thinking individual will make rational decisions based more on the factors that are inherent in the situation while the feeling oriented individual may make decisions based on their irrational side or their feelings of the situation. They make decide based on instinct rather than reason.

7. Do you think organizations lose some of their good workers as a result of this clash of types?

Absolutely, different positions can be filled by many different personality types. The worker can be quite competent in their roles even if they are clashing with different personality types in the organization. It is important to understand different preferences of working when considering if an employee is good at their job. A more objective performance measure will be a better indicator than a whether or not the individual fits in with other personality types. Sometimes a level of friction is actually good in an organization and can drive employees towards high performances.

8. Identify one person with whom you tend to clash. Can you tell if their type is different from yours? What would you say is the strength of their type and how does it serve the organization?

In many cases I have conflicts with very detailed oriented people that have more trouble seeing the bigger picture. I can definitely tell their personality is different than mine because they focus on the steps or details while I typically frame things in the end goal or bigger picture. It is difficult for me to work with this type of person sometimes because when they focus too much on each step, then I can get frustrated and fatigued. However, at the same time, if I work with people who are more like me then we can lose focus of the details or the individual steps and move too fast. I think it makes sense to have the two different personality types work with each other as a type of balance. However, to work well together the two types of personality must learn… [read more]

Ethics Within the Educational System Essay

… Teams are brought together by a common goal and a common vision that has both collective and individual reward. Aligning these ideas on what is best for the individual is best for the organization can help provide the necessary mind frame to a school that is need of team cohesion. To implement such strategies requires energy and dedication. Leaders must commit themselves 100% to their objectives if they are to expect their follower to do the same. A helpful mantra in this case is " never ask anyone to do something you have not done yourself or are not willing to do as well." Remembering that everyone is human with human emotions also serves the school and community well by adding a sense of empathy and kindness to the leadership style that is intended to be both effective talkers and listeners.

Journal 4

I have established a more comfortable level of research skills within the context of this class and I feel that this improvement will greatly assist me in applying what I have learned into the real world. By having the ability to find other similar examples of what I may be going through provides a definite lift to my confidence and ability to support teachers and students within the school environment. Hiring new teachers will be generally approached in the same way as I felt my approach was solid in this manner, however, an emphasis on ethics and morals may play more into the decision making process when considering new teachers for hire. It is difficult to predict the future and in order to hire and retain high quality teachers it is necessary that I become as high quality within my job as… [read more]

Action Plans and Learning Goals Assessment

… Skill 2: Building Teamwork

Broad Goal: To enhance my team building and team management skills

SMART Goal: To develop the skills necessary to create, manage, and build efficient and productive teams. This I seek to accomplish within a time frame… [read more]

Obstacles to Becoming a Successful Research Paper

… I was also fortunate to find mentors throughout my life, in both educational and professional contexts, who encouraged my ability to search for innovative and creative solutions. They reinforced what I was taught in my home.

I believe that my achievement orientation is largely attributable to my cultural background. My cultural background places a significant focus on individual achievement and how those individual achievements contribute to community well-being. Furthermore, because this orientation impacts how I interact with others, I believe that the cultural influence is particularly important in the context of me as a leader.

Ironically, I feel as if I developed my oppositional style in schools. In many ways, the modern educational system puts children in a competitive role with one another. Moreover, the narrow approach to teaching styles means that children who learn differently and think in a creative and imaginative context are oftentimes punished for doing so. I believe that my family emphasis on individuality conflicted with the school-based desire for uniformity and helped bring out some of my more negative character attributes and make me more oppositional.


Generally, I was not surprised to find that I highly identified with positive attributes like self-actualization and achievement. I have always been a very goal-oriented person and I have accomplished most of my goals. Furthermore, I have been successful in leadership and management positions, even when I have moved into high-risk scenarios in those positions. However, I do wonder whether I had bias in answering my results, because I am aware of the traits that are considered positive and negative, which may have led me to minimize the impact of my own negative behaviors on my leadership style. As a result, the question I am left wondering is: do my results accurately reflect my abilities as a leader? What I would like to do is to ask one of my mentors or a supervisor to complete the inventory as if they were me and answering honestly. I believe that those results would help me evaluate whether my perceptions of my behavior are accurate.


Human Synergistics International. (2014). The achievement-oriented style. Retrieved September 6, 2014 from

Human Synergistics International. (2014). The oppositional style. Retrieved September 6, 2014 from

Human Synergistics International. (2014). The self-actualizing style. Retrieved September 6,

2014 from

Human Synergistics International.… [read more]

Group Organizational Behavior Article Review

… The article notes that external knowledge can indeed help team dynamics at times but when it has too dominant or too contrarian of an influence, the results can be quite negative (Haas, 2010). The author of this report would agree that having a team that is very independent and autonomous can be problematic and indeed seems to pose the opposite to what is stated in the first article whereby teams are controlled too much. As with most things, there needs to be a happy center where the team is controlled sufficiently from outside influences but they are also not intimidated into submission by the power dynamics of the group leadership or other factors that affect the group.

The third and final article looks at what is known as social loafing. Commonly seen more in student/college environments, social loafing is when a member of a group decides to remain disengaged and lazy when working in a group as compared to whey they are working on their own. Inevitably, this loafer misses meetings and/or simply does not do their part of the work. The rest of the group eventually will figure this out and they will generally cover the slack created by the loafer to uphold and maintain the grade for the group. Of course, this tends to happen in work situations as well even though such a loafer could be punished or fired. Even further, there would be resentment and discord between the coworkers post-loafing (Schippers, 2014). The author's only real reaction to this dynamic is that the loafer needs to be called on it as soon as it starts and jettisoned if they refuse to work acceptably after a warning. This loafing is a sign of maturity and consideration for the burdens and outcomes of coworkers and the team and such a person should obviously not be part of groups where his/her deliverables are of any great import because it creates an unfair burden to the other team members.


None of the three topics covered in this report were all that complex but they are certainly still hard to manage since pinning down what is urging people to do (or not do) what they end up doing can be difficult. Indeed, even a social loafer may be disengaged due to being distracted or otherwise in distress. Regardless of what is going on, setting the stage for what is expected and desired is key as is holding people accountable.


Haas, M.R. (2010). The double-edged swords of autonomy and external knowledge:

Analyzing team effectiveness in a multinational organization. Academy of Management Journal, 53(5), 989-1008. doi:10.5465/AMJ.2010.54533180

Schippers, M.C. (2014). Social loafing tendencies and team performance: The compensating effect of agreeableness and conscientiousness. Academy of Management Learning & Education, 13(1), 62-81. doi:10.5465/amle.2012.0191

Tost, L., Gino, F., & Larrick, R.P. (2013). When power makes others speechless: The negative impact of leader power on team performance. Academy of Management

Journal, 56(5), 1465-1486. doi:10.5465/amj.2011.0180 [read more]

Managing Criminal Justice Organizations Position Essay

… Charismatic leaders send "all the right signals" and are "enthusiastic and passionate" and they have a knack of making others feel good in their presence (Varghese).

If I were the head of a criminal justice group, would I encourage close personal relationships or try to prevent supervisors from close friendships with subordinates?

In law enforcement work, there is often an extraordinary amount of pressure placed on police officers on the street or in squad cars, on detectives, on commanders and on others in the department. The danger that a police officer faces every day are enormous, and hence good communication between officers (including their supervisors) is important in order to be able to talk about the horrific scene that happened hours ago.

Getting one's feelings out to his peers and to supervisors in a relaxed environment would seem to be a healthy activity. I see nothing wrong with a rookie cop sitting down with several other officers (including supervisors) in a local pub for a beer or two. Not just to "let off steam," but to have an exchange with others who have also faced frighteningly dangerous, violent situations. And if as a result of that conversation over a couple beers, an officer becomes friends with a sergeant who is several notches above him, there is nothing inherently wrong with that.

Dictating that a subordinate cannot become close friends with a supervisor is the wrong kind of leadership, in my opinion. Assuming that all members of the police unit (or probation office) have had ethical training (preferably annual ethical classes that are required), those classes should present the right and the wrong of personal relationships. Using your friend, for example, who is a supervisor, to justify wrongdoing or questionable behaviors that present a conflict of interest is very wrong. But again, I would not lay down rules that supervisors and underlings cannot be friends outside the work environment; but I would remind them often that this office has a hierarchal chain of command, and any attempt to side-step the rules vis-a-vis chain of command will be met with sanctions.

Works Cited

Merchant, P. (2014). 5 Sources of Power in Organizations. Demand Media. Retrieved July 23, 2014, from

Varghese, S. (2010). The Power of Charisma. Forbes. Retrieved July 23,… [read more]

Glenn Murphy Research Paper

… The CEO's decision to hire Art Peck in the company's top leaders is certainly intriguing and makes it possible for someone to gain a more complex understanding of his thinking. He preferred to hire Peck on account of his experience in financial consulting instead of keeping one of the most creative persons in the company -- Marka Hansen. While Hansen put across great ideas, her work did not advantage GAP and she was largely responsible for the company's graduate fall. Murphy is the type of leaders who makes decisions based on logics and prefers to earn profits as a leader in his domain rather than to concentrate on goals that provide little to no financial compensation (Gap Inc. Names Glenn Murphy Chairman and Chief Executive Officer).

Expansion was one of the principal ideas that made it possible for the company to thrive during Murphy's time as CEO. "Under his leadership, the company has established a global brands management structure to provide the foundation for multi-channel international expansion, and has successfully driven consistent bottom line earnings growth by focusing on healthy margins and expense management." (Glenn K. Murphy Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, Gap Inc.) Even though his focus on expansion might have initially seemed rash and likely to bring even more loss, it gradually became clear that the company needed to change its philosophy in order to be able to maintain its position on the market. [read more]

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