"Leadership / Mentoring" Essays 71-137

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Unethical Leadership Research Paper

… For that reason, values and ethics are the significant factors in dealing these employees evolution.

In short, leaders who connect with, allow, or encourage unethical acts within their organizations do not put ethical leadership on show. In its place, those… [read more]

Trait Leadership Definitions / Descriptions Essay

… 3).

On page 4 of his Mother Jones article Dowie points out that of all of Iacocca's objectives (price, fuel consumption, performance, comfort, appearance… et al.); safety was not one of them. "Safety doesn't sell," Iacocca was heard saying in… [read more]

Leadership, Team Building and Communication Term Paper

… As one project engineer said, time to an engineer is in analog and for a manufacturing engineer, it is digital.

These stark differences in the perception of time make communication challenges even more challenging. The role of a transformational leader in a team is to alleviate the differences in how one team vs. another processes information and perceives their role (Streiner, Deibler, Besterfield-Sacre, Shuman, 2010). These are the catalysts that cause the barriers in communication across Cisco.

The two recommendations for managing these communication barriers include first having a team rotation schedule created where each member of the manufacturing team spends time in engineering, up to a week, understanding how their processes work. The same holds true for the design engineers in manufacturing. Next, both groups of team revolve in and out of customer visits, so the triad of design engineering, manufacturing and customer insight are gained. Using this triad approach members of the cross-functional teams will have a much broader perspective of how their contribution impacts the company. They will also see first-hand how the differences in perception of time are created and maintained.

The second recommendation is to have each cross-functional team member hold information sessions for his entire department on the project. This not only elevates the need for the cross-functional team member to thoroughly understand the entire project, it also positions them as the critical point of contract within their departs for a specific product lien development. By doing this, communication will be improved; in addition to giving them the opportunity to attain a higher levels of autonomy, mastery and purpose in their role. These three factors of autonomy, mastery and purpose are critical for long-term motivation to learn and excel at a job.


Buffinton, K.W., Jablokow, K.W., & Martin, K.A. (2002). Project team dynamics and cognitive style. Engineering Management Journal, 14(3), 25-33.

Chadwick, C. (1996). Team talk: The power of language in team dynamics. International Journal of Conflict Management, 7(4), 380-382.

Fitzgerald, S., & Schutte, N.S. (2010). Increasing transformational leadership through enhancing self-efficacy. The Journal of Management Development,

French, J.R.P., & Raven, B.H. (1959) The bases of social power. In D. Cartwright (Ed.), Studies in social power (pp. 150-167). Ann Arbor: University of Michigan.

Judge, T.A., & Joyce, E.B. (2000). Five-factor model of personality and transformational leadership. Journal of Applied Psychology, 85(5), 751-765.

Maslanka, A.M. (2004). Evolution of leadership theories. Grand Valley State University). ProQuest Dissertations and Theses,, 51

Purvanova, R.K., & Bono, J.E. (2009). Transformational leadership in context: Face-to-face and virtual teams. Leadership Quarterly, 20(3), 343.

Streiner, S., Deibler, C., Besterfield-Sacre, M., &…… [read more]

Leadership of David Petraeus Research Paper

… 10) Stay fit to fight. Your body is your ulti-mate weapons system. Physical fitness for your body is essential for mental fitness. 11) The only thing better than a little com-petition is a lot of competition. Set chal-lenges for your subordinates to encourage them to excel. 12) Everyone on the team is mission criti-cal. Instill in your team members a sense of great self-worth, that each, at any given time, can be the most important on the battlefield.

From this one may reasonably conclude that Petraeus' leadership style is by and large transformational. Transformational leadership involves creating positive change in the followers whereby they take care of each other's interests and act in the interests of the group as a whole. Essentially the leader's task is consciousness-raising on a wide plane. The leader's fundamental act is to induce people to be aware or conscious of what they feel and to feel their true needs so strongly, to define their values so meaningfully, that they can be moved to purposeful action. In this leadership style, the leader enhances the motivation, moral and performance of his follower group. Transformational leadership is all about values and meaning, and a purpose that transcends short-term goals and focuses on higher order needs (Warrilow, NDI).

Michael Gerson (2012) noted that Petraeus was "supremely informed and often breathtakingly candid, an attribute that involves risks but establishes credibility." However, Petraeus' recent public downfall, brought on by his extramarital affair reveals a flaw in his character. Infidelity involves personal betrayal. Innocent people, spouses and children, suffer unfairly. Nonetheless, the manner in which Petraeus faced this public humiliation is to be admired, he admitted to showing "extremely poor judgment," and told the employees at the CIA, "Such behavior is unacceptable, both as a husband and as the leader of an organization such as ours" (Gerson, 2012). After a career dedicated to high standards, Petraeus chose to apply those standards to himself.


Many of the qualities and attributes demonstrated by Petraeus are applicable to police organizations. His leadership style is designed to create more leaders, not followers. His rules for life are grounded in creating a professionally run efficient force. The integrity he has thus far demonstrated in the face of this current scandal is to be admired, even if his actions are not. Unlike so many public figures whose shortcomings have been publically exposed in the past, Petraeus has not shirked nor made excuses for his responsibility in the matter.

Leadership in any organization is difficult. It has been said that leaders have a nameplate on their chest that says "expert" and a giant target on their back. A leader's behavior is held to higher standards; this is how it should be. Petraeus' fifth rule of living "We all will make mistakes. The key is to recognize them and admit them, to learn from them, and to take off the rear? view mirrors, drive on and avoid making them again" is most applicable in this case. Organizational leadership is… [read more]

Leadership Training for Youth Annotated Annotated Bibliography

… The study findings indicate that the context best suited to the development of initiative is structured voluntary activities, such as sports, arts, and participation in organizations. These context create opportunity for youths to experience the rare combination of intrinsic motivation and deep attention. Adolescents participating in effective organizations were found to acquire a new operating language that appears to correspond to the development of initiative. (PsycINFO Database Record

Larson, R., Hansen, D., and Moneta, G. (2006). Differing profiles of developmental experiences across types of organized youth activities. Developmental Psychology, 42, 849-863.

The authors studied the different types of experiences that youth encounter according to their participation in community-based and extracurricular activities. A representative sample of 2,280 11th graders took a computerized survey about their organized youth activities. Sports and arts programs were reported to develop initiative, but sports were also considered high stress. Service activities were associated with teamwork, positive relationships, and social capital. Positive experiences were reported as more significant in youth programs than in school classes.

Lee, B.C., Westaby, J.D., and Berg, R.D. (2004). Impact of a national rural youth health and safety initiative: Results from a randomized controlled trial. American Journal of Public Health, 94 (10), 1743-1749. doi: 10.2105/AJPH.94.10.1743

The authors carried out an evaluation of a rural youth health and safety initiative implemented by the 4000 National FFA in the United States. Data was collected at 3 intervals and with a 3-group, cluster-randomized, controlled trial design. Of the 3081 students and 81 advisors, no significant effect of the initiative on agricultural health and safety knowledge, safety attitudes, leadership, self-concept, and self-reported injuries of project participants. According to data from 30 public health nurses following the intervention confirmed that no sustainable community partnerships were developed.

Mavroveli, S., Petrides, K.V., Rieffe, C, and Bakker, F. (2007). Trait emotional intelligence, psychological well-being and peer-rated social competence in adolescence. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 25, 263-275.

The authors studied the relationship between trait EI and four socioemotional criteria in adolescents. EI was positively associated with adaptive coping styles and negatively associated with depressive thoughts. In boys, EI is negatively associated with maladaptive coping styles. More nominations were given to classmates with high EI for leadership qualities.

Wingenbach, G.J. And Kahler, A.A. (1997). Self-perceived youth leadership and life skills of Iowa FFA members. Journal of Agricultural Education, 38(3).

The authors surveyed 316 Iowa FFA members to determine the relationship between their participation in youth leadership activities and self-perceived leaderships skills and life skills. Scores on the Youth Leadership and Life Skill Development Scale (YLLSDS) showed the highest means for "getting along with others," "respect others," and "show a responsible attitude." The strongest relationship was between FFA leadership activities and YLLSDS scores.

Zeldin, S., Christens, B.D., and Powers, J. (). The psychology and practice of youth-adult partnership: Bridging generations for youth development and community change.

Through this descriptive study the authors sought to articulate youth-adult partnerships as a particular phenomenon characterized by authentic decision-making, natural mentors, reciprocity, and community connectedness, and to… [read more]

Educational Leadership Book Review

… "True leadership is even more complex" in the education field (Williams-Boyd, 2002, p. 4). Teacher expertise (what teachers are able to accomplish) is the most dramatic aspect as far as student performance is concerned, Williams-Boyd explains; but teachers can't really be leaders unless "they have a voice in the direct work of the school" (28). That means that for teachers to be leaders in the truest sense of the word they must be in on the school's "…goal setting, personnel hiring, environmental decision-making, and instructional operation" -- this is referred to as "shared governance" and every alert and competent administrator understands the importance of shared governance in terms of teachers being able to fulfill their mission.

Williams-Boyd shares ideas as to how schools can assure that teachers fulfill their potential as leaders. Offering them the following roles enhances their leadership skills and helps the school in powerful ways; teachers could: a) be appointed to school improvement teams (SITs); b) chair the leadership council at the school; c) be placed on the district "textbook selection committed"; d) mentor new teachers; e) be faculty representatives on the PTA; f) staff developers (by taking graduate classes and attending workshops, teachers could better lead in professional development for all teachers); f) become conference speakers; g) be used as "curriculum specialists"; and h) "sit on local state, and national association boards" as policy participants to help establish policy for the teaching profession per se (Williams-Boyd, 29-30).

In conclusion, there are many ways that teachers can become effective leaders, including learning to de-fuse conflicts in the classroom and elsewhere, becoming actively involved in school-related decision-making issues and being appointed to important boards and organizations that influence what is taught in schools.

Works Cited

Tomlinson, Harry. (2004). Educational Leadership: Personal Growth for Professional

Development. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications.

Williams-Boyd, Pat. (2002). Educational…… [read more]

Leadership Self -- Assessment Creative Writing

… As well identified are the model of leadership theory that is most preferred by this writer and the model of leadership theory in nursing that is believed to be the most compatible and productive when used in combination with the transformative nursing leadership model chosen by the writer of this work. This brief study has revealed that the efficient leader that transforms through self-motivated and focused change is one that knows themselves and has a strong drive to go to any lengths to achieve their goals. Self-motivation is a pre-requisite to motivating others toward achievement of their goals and harmonization of personal and common organizational goals.


Hix, C.; McKeon, Leslie; and Walters, S. (2009) Clinical Nurse Leader Impact on Clinical

Leadership and Motivation (2012) MSG. Retrieved from: http://www.managementstudyguide.com/leadership-motivation.htm

Microsystems Outcomes JONA Volume 39, Number 2, pp 71-76 Copyright B. 2009 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Retrieved from: http://www.nursing.vanderbilt.edu/msn/pdf/cm_Hix.pdf

Saccomano, SJ (2008) Registered Nurse Leadership Style, Confidence Level, and Delegation Practices to Unlicensed Assistive Personnel: An Exploration of Confidence (. Retrieved from: http://domapp01.shu.edu/depts/uc/apps/libraryrepository.nsf/resourceid/013DD72A4B4A4F52852575770044D39D/$File/Saccomano-Scott-J_Doctorate.PDF-Open

Smith, JA (2011) Are you a transformational Leaders? Nursing Management Spat. 2011 Vol. 42 Is. 9.…… [read more]

Leadership Essay

… Organizational commitment can be attributed as employees' loyalty and faithfulness towards organization and his intensions to be the part of that organization. Organizational commitment has significant importance because committed workers have less intension to quit the job, less often absent and highly motivated to perform at advanced level (Packard, n.d.).


Leadership is frequently seen as an important variable affecting organizational performance. While the idea has been extensively studied, there is still much to be discovered regarding how leadership affects variables such as organizational culture, climate, and performance. Leadership is frequently seen as a key factor in coordinating and aligning organizational processes. As with any facet of organizational functioning, it should focus on organizational performance, and most important, effectiveness in achieving desired outcomes. Leadership is frequently seen as a key factor in coordinating and aligning organizational processes. As with any aspect of organizational functioning, it should focus on organizational performance, and most important, effectiveness in achieving desired outcomes. Leaders can impact program capacity through the use of evidence-based practice in program design and in this model; job satisfaction is seen as an intermediate outcome that can also affect an organization's effectiveness. To successfully lead professional staff, transactional leadership should be augmented by the use of transformational leadership, which includes idealized influence, inspirational motivation, intellectual stimulation, and individualized consideration (Packard, n.d.).


Banerji, P. & Krishnan, V.R. (2000). Ethical preferences of transformational leaders: an empirical investigation. Retreived from http://rkvenkat.org/priyanka.pdf

Grant, A.M. (2012). Leading with Meaning: Beneficiary Contact, Prosocial Impact, and the Performance Effects of Transformational Leadership. Academy Of Management

Journal, 55(2), 458-476.

Kotelnikov, V. (n.d.). Effective leadership. Retrieved from http://www.1000advices.com/guru/leadership.html

Marsiglia, A.J. (2005). The relationship between leadership and personality. Retrieved from http://lead-inspire.com/Papers-Articles/Leadership-



Packard, T. (n.d.). Leadership and performance in human services organizations. Retrieved from http://www.sagepub.com/upm-data/27204_7.pdf

Sadeghi, A., & Pihie, Z. (2012). Transformational Leadership and Its Predictive Effects on Leadership Effectiveness. International Journal Of Business & Social Science, 3(7),


van Aswegen, A.S., & Engelbrecht, A.S. (2009). The Relationaship between

Transformational Leadership, Integrity, and an ethical climate in organisations. South African Journal Of Human Resource Management, 7(1), 221-229.


Vasilaki, A. (2011). The Relationship Between Transformational Leadership and Postacquisition Performance. International Studies Of Management & Organization,

41(3), 42-58.… [read more]

Leadership Any Degree Book Review

… Keohane's reliance upon historical examples is particularly timely in this section, in which she denotes how previous presidents kept members from rival parties as part of their cabinets in order to fully embrace a balanced perspective which inevitably colored -- and aided -- their own leadership. This notion is underscored by the fact that the author believes that "thoughtful leaders will make sure those close to her point out drawbacks occasional without fear of losing their jobs" (Keohane, 2010).

In the face of such incisive findings regarding the relationship between leaders and followers, the chapter which the author dedicates to pondering the importance and the question of gender in leadership seems a little superfluous, and certainly seems to slow the narration down. Perhaps this occurrence is due to the fact that by virtue of Keohane's own accomplishments as a female leader, the question of gender in such a role no longer seems as important as it perhaps once did. Gender differences are a mere facet of life, and while there may be traditionalists who are not desirous of female leadership, such leadership is a reality today and does not appear to worthy of an entire chapter in this book -- especially since some of the other issues addressed in it are more trenchant. The author determines that "socialization and cultural expectations, rather than hormones and genes" (Keohane, 2010) are responsible for the difference in styles of leadership attributed to the sexes. Yet this revelation, or little of the other information in this chapter, does little to add a great deal to the primary theme of this work -- what and how to produce the most effective form of leadership, which can be done by either a man or a woman.

Of particular value in this manuscript is the portion that the author dedicates to discussing the role and challenges of leaders in democracies. Although there are different nuances in the place of both of these factors in a democracy vs. those of other forms of government, leaders still have a job to do in democracies what is oftentimes circumscribed by the very nature of such a political system. In this respect, Keohane's manuscript does well to demonstrate the very obstacles present in America's democratic form of government -- such as the rigid system of checks and balances and the dedicated amount of resources employed to limit authority and leadership including political partisanship -- that counteract effective leadership from a single individual. Keohane explains that the executive branch of government, then, while readily viewed as the head of the country, essentially has to wheedle its way to the implementation of policies -- which is simply part of what the other denotes is an intrinsic part of the conundrum of leadership in a democratic society.

Throughout Thinking About Leadership, Keohane maintains a refreshing perspective that allows her to add unique insight to time honored topics (with the lone exception being in her detailing of the issue of gender in leadership) and to… [read more]

Leadership: Three Theories, Three Centuries Leadership Theory Term Paper

… Leadership: Three Theories, Three Centuries

Leadership Theory Over Three Centuries

Many experts have attempted to derive overarching theories of leadership to describe the properties of a social construct that has changed over the last three hundred years, here separated by… [read more]

Leadership the Theories Research Paper

… Furthermore, the author conceives of this moral behavior in a hierarchized sense in which the overarching goal of transformation leadership is to secure these rights for the general public. In keeping with this conception of leadership, Burns' esteem of transformational leaderships seeks to discern what sort of moral reasons a person becomes a leader, and what positive effects upholding the aforementioned mores that person's leadership will have upon the public.

Although Burns also defined aspects of leadership theory that adhered to transactional leadership, his most influential work in this field was related to transformational leadership. As such, there were a few inherent negatives associated with his notions of transformational leadership, such as its reliance upon motivation in order to properly galvanize a group of followers. Additionally, his conception of transformational leadership was less able than other styles of leadership to accommodate unforeseen obstacles.

Traces of Burns' and Weber's leadership theory surface in that of Daniel Goleman, who is principally known for his conception of emotional intelligence as an apt measurement of the prowess of a leader. Goleman's ideal of emotional intelligence is commendable in that it attempts to both identify and quantify that process of transformative leadership that compels followers to adhere to the leadership of a certain individual. Emotional intelligence and its measure is akin to that of conventional intelligence (there is an emotional quotient as opposed to an intelligence quotient to measure it) which Goleman believed was supplemented by the former to account for fostering inspiration in one's followers (Goleman et al., 2001, p. 1). Another boon of Goleman's notion of emotional intelligence is that he was able to stratify it into five different components which consisted of a leader's internal attributes -- such as a leader's possession of self-awareness, motivation and self-regulation -- as well as external attributes, which includes a leader's ability to empathize with others and to relate to them via social skills.

The principle drawback of Goleman's leadership theory being based almost solely on emotional intelligence is that it primarily relies upon a behavioral approach to conceptualize and contextualize qualities of leadership. Although it is fine to incorporate this aspect into the field of leadership, Goleman's concept of emotional intelligence relies upon the behavioral approach almost to the exclusion of other prudent measures and conceptions of leadership that are more cognitive in nature. Still, its behavioral approach does well to expand the field of leadership theory.


Goleman, D., Boyatzis, R., McKee, A. (2001). "Primal Leadership: The Hidden Drive of Great Performance." Harvard Business Review. Retrieved from http://waldorf.nexlearn.com/harvard/c3eilb/course3tools/LTEI_8296p2_PrimalLeadership.pdf

London, S. (2008). "Book Review." Scott London. Retrieved from http://www.scottlondon.com/reviews/burns.html

Williams, D. (No date). "Max Weber: Traditional, Legal-Rational, and Charismatic Authority." Tripod. Retrieved from http://danawilliams2.tripod.com/authority.html… [read more]

Leadership Plans for Upcoming Academic Essay

… Event planners must understand the client's vision and the overall organizational culture and ethos of the client, so the event does not clash with this concept. For example, a hip, youth-oriented company would not necessarily want a golf event at a staid country club to market itself. Finding an appropriate location, entertainment, food, and sponsorship if necessary are some of the duties I must fulfill. I must put clients at ease so they know that I understand them. However, I must also be authoritative in my interactions with vendors and the individuals who make up the components of the event. The food must be served in a timely fashion, the employees at the door must be prompt, well-trained and courteous, and the event must seem to run seamlessly, no matter how much stress there may be behind the scenes. It is my job to show leadership of vision and also tactical vision. Sometimes it feels like event planning requires the stylistic eye of a Martha Stewart, the organizing ability of George Patton, and the diplomacy and tact of a UN ambassador!

As a marketing specialist, I am continually challenged by the need to be creative while communicating my clients' desires to the public and I strive to rise to the occasion. The public can be very jaded today and the marketplace is super-saturated with information. I must use new and old media to their greatest effect when working with clients selling diverse products and services. Often, even seasoned organizations have only a vague idea of how to 'brand' themselves, and it is my mission to create a holistic concept to enable clients to 'stand out' and to ensure that every facet of the marketing underlines the idea we have collectively created as part of our brainstorming sessions. Once again, I am called upon to show leadership -- leadership of ideas and concepts. I must work with clients at times as a peer, other times as a guide, other times as a servant of their vision. Flexibility and confidence are both demanded. This is the essence of my brand of…… [read more]

Leadership by Gayle C. Avery Essay

… 17-18). Characteristics of this time period include minimal differences between leaders and followers, or perhaps organizations in which the adaptability and accountability of members is so strong that there either are no leaders or everyone is considered a leader.

The principle basis for the second part of Understanding Leadership is to offer a variety of case studies that effectively demonstrate the varying principles of leadership that the author addressed in the first segment of this book. In doing so, it is fairly noteworthy to mention that Avery has selected examples from international settings that encompass North America, Europe, and Australia as well so that students are able to understand the global application of the concepts the author has denoted. 10 cases studies are used in all within this part of the book. Some of the more interesting case studies actually apply to formal leadership in a political context in which the author provides examples of presidents utilizing some of the same theories of leadership that those in private corporations, such as BMW and Rodenstock (Avery, 2004 p. 279), utilize to establish policy and to incorporate the assets that their followers inherently represent. In fact, the decision making process that the author portrays for both private and public leadership (such as those alluded to in the aforementioned examples) demonstrates the inexorable tendency of leaders to incorporate more input and support from their followers in determining what sort of policy is adapted and decisions are made.

Furthermore, it is important to note that even in this second section, the author fails to vary from her motif of delivering this information and its examples in a didactic manner. To that end, the examples provided by specific case studies are frequently followed by analysis questions that help readers to interpret the cases in the context of the theories provided in the first section. The particular virtue of Understanding leadership lies in Ayer's chronicling of the evolution of leadership theory and its implementation, which began from a fairly autonomous form of leadership in which there was little input from followers, to eventually transform into the leadership characterized by the Organic Period, in which there is a considerable amount of equity between leaders and their followers, and fairly slight distinctions between the two. In depicting this evolution through academic theories and examples via case studies, Ayers is essentially depicting the increase in value of followers, which is widely shown throughout the manuscript to increase the efficacy of the various organizations exemplified in the book.

However, it is not until one has read the entirety of the first section that Ayers' methodology becomes readily apparent to her readers. It is difficult to understand the author's reasons for presenting the myriad theories of leadership until she ties them together in the last chapter of the first part of the book, which provides an integration of both the theories and paradigms previously presented so that the reader can tell how they relate. Also, the stratifications of the different paradigms… [read more]

Leadership Team Leadership Analysis Essay

… Engineering felt it could fit into markets including material handling and warehousing. Marketing felt this market was exceptionally small compared to the mainstream printing and imaging market. As the conflict traversed both internal and external teams, the project manager, using many aspects of the Team Leadership Model, had the engineering and marketing teams set up test, or beta sites, to evaluate the printer in these market areas. This leadership strategy made the marketability a shared goal, and also made the actual performance of the printer in this environment immediately known. Using this technique, the project leader had galvanized both teams to a common goal and created a higher level of team effectiveness by seeking to balance task, relational and environmental factors in a single leadership strategy (Hui-Ling, Yu-Hsuan, 47). This also gave each team an opportunity to work with the other and appreciate the perspective of added features and product quality, two areas engineering had deep personal commitment to, and sales achievement, what marketing wanted.

The use of the Team Leadership Management creates a framework that trust can be created upon when a leader seeks to balance internal and external factors, often serving as pressure points, on a cross-functional or multifaceted team (Keiser, Nancy, Maureen Kincaid, and Kristine Servais, 20). Ultimately this strategy created shared leadership and ownership of the product, which is another indication of effective team leadership (Vandewaerde, 414).


Having seen how the Team Leadership Model works to create a highly effective framework for managing the performance of teams comprised of significantly different departments, it is evident this approach has significant potential. The great the level of potential conflict in a team, the more effective this framework becomes. Being able to balance internal and external factors or forces that stress teams is one of the most powerful aspects of this model. Seeing engineering and marketing understand each other for the first time was remarkable, as both teams had completely different perceptions of the product, market and selling scenarios previously to this product introduction.

Works Cited

Bucic, Tania, Linda Robinson, and Prem Ramburuth. "Effects of Leadership Style on Team Learning." Journal of Workplace Learning 22.4 (2010): 228-48.

Chia-Chen, Kuo. "Research on Impacts of Team Leadership on Team Effectiveness." Journal of American Academy of Business, Cambridge 5.1 (2004): 266-77.

Eisenbeiss, Silke A., Daan van Knippenberg, and Sabine Boerner. "Transformational Leadership and Team Innovation: Integrating Team Climate Principles." Journal of Applied Psychology 93.6 (2008): 1438.

Hui-Ling, Tung, and Chang Yu-Hsuan. "Effects of Empowering Leadership on Performance in Management Team." Journal of Chinese Human Resources Management 2.1 (2011): 43-60.

Keiser, Nancy, Maureen Kincaid, and Kristine Servais. "Using a Collaborative Leadership Model in a Teacher Education Program." American Journal of Educational Studies 4.1 (2011): 5-20.

Schaubroeck, John, Simon S.K. Lam, and Sandra E. Cha. "Embracing Transformational Leadership: Team Values and the Impact of Leader Behavior on Team Performance." Journal of Applied Psychology 92.4 (2007): 1020.

Vandewaerde, Maarten, et…… [read more]

Transformational Leadership Which CEO Essay

… Yet for the entire organization there was an initial period to see just how authentic and transformational he would be or not. His approach to creating authenticity immediately focused on the sense of loss and apparent anxiety throughout the organization that the vision would somehow be altered. Yet Tim Cook chose to commit the year to Steve Jobs' vision of launching the latest iPad, going squarely against low-end laptops and netbooks. He also promised to not change any of the existing product development plans, and also pledged to not seek to marginalize any existing systems and strategies in place. He kept his word and continued to move aggressively in the direction of these shared goals and visions that Steve Jobs had created. The signaled to the entire company his authenticity and he fully intended to keep his word at the event that celebrated Steve Job's life. The essential aspects of a transformational leader's skill set include transparency, honesty and the ability to sense what leadership skill set is the best for a given situation (Avolio, Gardner, 334). This last aspect of any leaders' skill set is predicated on their level of Emotional Intelligence (EI) and ability to quickly act based on these perceptions (Fitzgerald, Schutte, 497). Finally Tim Cook has also shown a very adept series of skills in applying idealized influence, inspirational motivation, individualized consideration and intellectual stimulation, all critical factors in transformational leadership (Fitzgerald, Schutte, 498).


Combining these factors of transformational leadership and the ethics of using them to further the best interests of Apple while also staying the course to deeply engrained values in the company shows exceptional judgment as well (Price, 70, 71). Tim Cook could have vacillated, appeared uncertain, even unsure of the decisions made in the past. Instead he chose to take a very focused a deliberate strategy of accelerating the company to its vision and mission Steve Jobs had defined. He did change the culture slightly based on his more informal, conversational style, yet through all of the massive and potentially disruptive change of losing a CEO, Tim Cook held true to the course and shows what authentic leadership is when faced with a very significant challenge.

Works Cited

Avolio, Bruce J., and William L. Gardner. "Authentic Leadership Development: Getting to the Root of Positive Forms of Leadership." Leadership Quarterly 16.3 (2005): 315-38.

Fitzgerald, Susan, and Nicola S. Schutte. "Increasing Transformational Leadership through Enhancing Self-Efficacy." The Journal of Management Development 29.5 (2010): 495-505.

Price, Terry L. "The Ethics of Authentic Transformational Leadership." Leadership Quarterly 14.1 (2003): 67-81.

Purvanova, Radostina K., and Joyce E. Bono. "Transformational Leadership in Context: Face-to-Face and Virtual Teams." Leadership Quarterly 20.3 (2009): 343.

Zhu,…… [read more]

Contingency Theories Leadership & Situational Essay

… It gives leaders a theoretical foundation to select which leadership style to use.

Situational leadership is the one that I often use. It allows one to analyze a situation and adopt the most appropriate leadership style, where the employee's developmental level is low; it allows me as the manager to provide more support and direction of a given task. When the employees have higher levels of development and are competent, then I offer less support and direction. Situational leadership leads to work being done effectively. It helps build a relationship between managers and employees. It also helps to raise the development level of the employees Northouse 99()

The human resource manager in our organization uses the path-goal leadership style. He helps the employees reach a goal through guiding them towards the goal. The manager also directs and coaches the workers in order to achieve a certain goal. The leaders behavior is motivational and it helps the subordinates be able to cope with some difficulties in the organization.

The successes of situational approach of leadership are that it is easy to understand and use. When leaders adopt effective leadership styles, tasks get done better. It helps build a relationship between managers and employees. It helps the employees sharpen their skills towards certain tasks. Situational approach fails to distinguish between leadership and management. The managers themselves come up with decisions without involving the subordinates. Workers end up feeling left out in the decision making process of the company resulting to low productivity.

Path-goal theory helps managers influence performance and satisfaction of the employees. It increases the outcomes of employees by clarifying the path to the set goals and reducing the roadblocks to goals by encouraging employees to work towards a set goal. Path goal approach may fail where the goals set for the task are too high that cannot be reached by the path chosen by the leader. The leadership style requires many assumptions and is not easy to use.

The success of contingency leadership is that it allows an organization chose leaders who are best suited for a task. These leaders use their skills to get a job done effectively. This leadership style leaves out subordinates in decision making process of the company resulting to poor results.


Elenkov, Detelin S., William Judge, and Peter Wright. "Strategic Leadership and Executive Innovation Influence: An International Multi-Cluster Comparative Study." Strategic Management Journal 26.7 (2005): 665-82. Print.

Herold, D.M., et al. "The Effects of Transformational and Change Leadership on Employees' Commitment to a Change: A Multilevel Study." Journal of Applied Psychology 93.1 (2008): 346-57. Print.

Hill, Linda. Becoming a Manager: How New Managers Master the Challenges of Leadership. New York: Harvard Business School Publishing Corporation, 2003. Print.

Northouse, P.G. Leadership: Theory and Practice. Thousand Oaks, California: SAGE, 2009. Print.

Waldman, David A., et al. "Cultural and Leadership Predictors of Corporate Social…… [read more]

Leadership Philosophy Essay

… It is the philosophy of leadership that not only affects the behaviors but ultimately the effectiveness of leadership (Ambler 2006). It should contain the components like personal values (honesty, commitment, respect for people), an approach regarding the completion of tasks and responsibilities, defined priorities, expectation from people and a fair criteria for their evaluation, an understanding of people's expectations from the leader (Ambler 2006).

Thus, developing a leadership philosophy is a very personal exercise. It involves a key set of beliefs about people, life and the belief that groups and organizations can be effective. It must begin with answering some serious questions about who you are, what you believe in, what you value, your priorities and your expectations of yourself and others ("Leadership Philosophy,").


In order to develop a believable, realistic and trustworthy leadership philosophy, the individual should follow 7 essentials i.e. vision, ethics, care of employees and their families, process of leader development, change, diversity and humor. No matter what sort of leadership level or organization one leads, one is obliged to develop a considerate, selfless, wide-ranging and reasonable leadership philosophy for those who work for him/her. It is impossible for a leadership philosophy to address all the mentioned essentials or confronted issues. However, a sensible leadership philosophy will serve as a concrete beginning point that will not only be understood by the leaders himself but by those he leads (Leboeuf 1999).

To conclude, a well-established leadership philosophy helps in the creation of a united and positive environment that not enables leaders to discover their absolute position and their preferences. Consequently, they communicate their expectations to the followers. By knowing his/her expectations, the followers act in the similar fashion as their leaders'. Thus, this whole process helps in the achievement of organizational effectiveness as both the leaders and followers become bonded to a relationship of mutual trust and confidence ("Leadership Philosophy,").


Ambler, G. 2006. "The Importance of a Clear Leadership Philosophy." The Practice of Leadership. Online. Available from Internet. http://www.thepracticeofleadership.net/the-importance-of-a-clear-leadership-philosophy, accessed May 5, 2012.

Fairholm, G.W. 1998. Perspectives on Leadership: From the Science of Management to Its Spiritual Heart / . Westport, CT: Quorum Books. Online. Available from Internet. Available from Questia, http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=102148555, accessed 5 May 2012.

"Leadership Philosophy." Academy Leadership. Online. Available from Internet. http://www.academyleadership.com/leadershipphilosophy.asp, accessed May 5, 2012.

Leboeuf, M.K. 1999. "Developing a Leadership Philosophy." Military Review79, no. 3: 28+. Database online. Available from Internet. Available from Questia, http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5035666478, accessed 5 May 2012.… [read more]

Leadership and Teams Leadership Theories Term Paper

… , 2001).

Along with this, the team leader should also consider the appropriate time and extent of stakeholder involvement. A lot of involvement by stakeholders can increase ambiguity in objectives; therefore, the involvement should be restricted to the concerned problem… [read more]

Leadership Style and Traits Research Paper


He says that he wants his people to look from the crews eyes and to believe that benfold is the best ship among all in Navy. He made his people understand and believe in their own self and… [read more]

Personality and Leadership Research Paper

… Conclusion

It is apparent from the research materials presented that ethical leadership, first of all, is being thoroughly studied in a post-Enron, post-WorldCom era, and for good reason. Secondly, the linkage between the traits and antecedents of personality has found a prominent place in the literature. And thirdly, given that within the global business environment in this millennium there has been a new, inspired emphasis on environmental and social responsibilities for companies, hiring a leader -- or training a potential leader -- requires an organization to delve deeply into -- and utilize fully -- the Big Five leadership components. Leaders after all are required to provide vision for the future as well as role modeling every minute of every day.

This paper posits that leaders are not born with the skills of leadership but rather they are nurtured and trained to be leaders; and moreover, conscientiousness, agreeableness, and a leader's emotional stability -- along with a well-developed superego -- can and will impact employees in positive ways, moving any organization forward on an optimistic path.

Works Cited

Cherry, Kendra. (2012). What Is Personality? About.com / Psychology. Retrieved April 24,

2012, from http://psychology.about.com.

Coon, Dennis, and Mitterner, John O. (2008). Introduction to Psychology: Gateways to Mind

and Behavior. Independence, KY: Cengage Learning.

Davies, Kevin. (2001). Nature vs. Nurture Revisited. NOVA / Public Broadcasting Service.

Retrieved April 25, 2012, from http://www.pbs.org/nova/body/nature-versus-nurture-revisited.html.

Kalshoven, Karianne, Den Hartog, Deanne N., and De Hoogh, Annebel H.B. (2010). Ethical

Leader Behavior and Big Five Factors of Personality. Journal of Business Ethics,…… [read more]

Ursula Burns in February Essay

… 1). Burns also learned the importance of taking the ego out of important decisions by planting an idea and allowing a follower/subordinate to run with it. By "giving people credit for ideas that they didn't have, but you sold to them" will "give them ownership," (Bryant, 2010, p. 1). Burns knows the need to build "followership," which corresponds to situational leadership theory.

Burns certainly has the formal power as CEO to run Xerox. In terms of bases of power, Burns does not use coercive power to intimidate others into performing according to company standards. Burns also does not pander to petty extrinsic reward schemes that might create a false sense of collaboration in the workplace. Instead, Burns opts for legitimate power. With the formal authority to lead the company, Burns also obtains the power that has been legitimized by 31 years of familiarity with the company. The Xerox Corporation helped to pay for Burns' graduate degree, engendering a mutual sense of trust between the current CEO and the organization as an entity. Therefore, Burns possesses a personal power that is based both on her expertise as a Xerox employee and engineer; and on her referent power that commands organic respect and admiration from employees. Xerox also depends on Ursula Burns, especially because of the CEO's commanding vision of where the company is headed. The creation of dependency on Burns for enacting the vision she created for the new Xerox is crucial for Burns to remain an effective leader.

In terms of sheer managerial effectiveness, Burns possesses the technical know-how, the people skills, and the conceptual skills in order to effectively run the Xerox Corporation. Burns manages over 100,000 employees at Xerox. Although she might not mentor or work directly with the majority of Xerox personnel, the organizational culture and climate Burns creates has an immediate impact on the daily lives of all employees. By engaging in frank, straightforward, and sometimes brutally honest communications, Burns avoids unhealthy organizational behavior that could damage the company's reputation. Communication is central to Burns's leadership philosophy, which is not necessarily confined to any one style but instead amalgamates the best of many. Burns may not be a charismatic leader like Richard Branson, and yet she commands as much appreciation and respect within the Xerox Corporation. With the possible exception of her innate outspokenness, Burns does not act in any sort of unconventional manner. She is a rather traditional leader, yet one that possesses a natural sense of transformational empowerment.

Burns's leadership success is partly situational, too. Her steady rise to the commanding post of Xerox shows that her vision was bred of experience rather than intuition about what the company needs. Burns also avoided some of the pitfalls of becoming entrenched in an anachronistic organizational culture. Someone who has been an employee of the same company for more than three decades might have the tendency to become regimented and stuck; Burns was not. As a type of transformational leader, Burns demonstrates an inspirational way of… [read more]

Leadership What Makes a Good Leader? Essay

… Leadership

What makes a good leader? This is a question which has been inciting research and inquiry within the contemporary business environment for generations. Leadership is essentially a developed and designed process where one individual, the leader, influences and motivates others within the group to attain particular goals or objectives. Strong leadership takes much more than just authority, and thus is often hard to come by.

Leadership cannot be mistaken as other elements of modern business discourse. Management does differ greatly from leadership. Essentially, management involves all the practical steps to implement plans and oversee their execution, while leadership is the much more abstract notion of inspiring and motivating the members of the team to succeed in various executions of plans. Leadership revolves around the concept of influence, while management is a more formal connotation that leads by the very designation of their position or role within the organization (De Pree 2004). A leader may not always be in a formal position of authority, and neither does a formal manager always prove to be an effective leader. Thus, the most important difference between the two connotations is the way they go about getting a plan or task done (Smirich & Morgan 1982). The leader will inspire and encourage others to work hard to succeed, while the manager will enforce his or her power and authority, often using demands and possibly threats of discipline, which is available to them in their position of authority, to get the goal accomplished.

Trait theories of leadership did move the modern discourse closer to what we see at today, but it was still plagued with limitations. Earlier developments of theory were essentially limited because of a lack of evidence and data really solidifying the tenants of the theories in question. For example, the early form of test-management theory failed to optimize similar traits in the same manner within the context of a single empirical inquiry. As a result, "very little information about the psychometric properties of the trait measures were reported; thus it is possible that many of the measures had limited validity," (House & Aditya 1997 p 411). Essentially, the measurements to ensure validity were not always the strongest, and they way they were utilized by different research teams was incredibly varied, producing much different results from one research team to the next.

There are a wide number of different branches within the concept of attributing behavioral theory to the understanding of leadership within a contemporary context. Each of these theories inherently focus on molding and teaching certain desired behavioral traits as a way to properly train, motivate, and inspire the people under the leader. Task-oriented behavioral styles of leadership focus on inspiring behavior that will focus on the completion…… [read more]

Leadership Research Paper

… At times, this suppression of personal ego and selfish motives may be quite obvious, as when a corporate leader voluntarily offers to take a miniscule salary while his or her company is recovering from difficult economic times. At other times, the actions of the servant leader may be hidden almost entirely, observed only by those who are approached by the servant leader and asked, "How can I help you do your job?" (Bell & Smith, 2010, p. 7)

The servant leader bases judgments on what is best for the group in relation to attaining its goals. (Bell & Smith, 2010, p. 6). Leo, the servant from Hesse's novel, is the perfect allegory for this concept. Leo, the revered leader of the order, understood ego-centric or authoritarian leadership would do his followers no good because the whole purpose of their pilgrimage was self-realization, which must be learned through one's own experiences. Thus, Leo poses as the servant in order to help them without directing them and without their knowledge that they are being helped. (Bell & Smith, 2010, p. 6)

The Servant leader is created through the merging of an individual's interests with the interests of the group. The servant leader derives fulfillment and personal satisfaction by seeing his or her supportive role pay dividends in the confidence, creativity, and productivity of others. (7). Proud, loving parents exhibit this quality of servant leadership, as their satisfaction comes from the influence they have had on the lives of their children and the level of development that their children have reached. (Bell & Smith, 2010, p. 7).

Ideal Leadership Style According to Admired Qualities

The ideal leadership style, from my perspective, depends on the context in which the leader has to operate. For example, the leadership qualities that I admire most in political leaders is the ability to overcome obstacles, ability to achieve goals, ability to fight for a cause, and courage. (Bell & Smith, 2010, p. 11-12) The leadership qualities that I admire in nonpolitical leaders is the ability to inspire others, ability to listen and understand, sacrifices made for others, patience, and high moral standards.

My preferred leadership style in nonpolitical settings, then, is the transformational leadership model. Transformational leadership is concerned with the transformation of the followers in pursuit of a common goal. Transformational leaders achieve this goal through communication, inspiration, and leading by example, thereby demonstrating the qualities that I admire: ability to listen, inspiration, and high moral standards.

My preferred leadership style in political settings, however, is the dominant leadership model. Dominant leaders are attractive for political settings because politics is such a cutthroat environment, filled with individuals and groups attempting to elevate their own interests, usually to the detriment of other interests. (Medina, et. al., 2008, p. 256). Success in this field requires the ability to fight for a cause and the ability to achieve goals, specifically the political causes and goals held the leader's group or constituency. Because many worthy political causes are opposed by powerful… [read more]

Leadership Assessment Term Paper

… Leadership Assessment

Definition of leader

In order to know the type of skills that characterize a leader one first has to know what a 'leader' means, but, as Van Wart (2003) points out, leaders vary from age to age and… [read more]

Servant Leadership Essay

… Servant leadership is often associated with the Bible and Jesus Christ, it is totally compatible with most religions and theories of philosophy.

In this essay, this author will use be using "great man" theory and participatory leadership in order to explain inadequacies in Greenleaf's characteristics of servant leadership. While the egalitarian ambitions of the servant leadership approach are laudable, they simply do not work in real situations, especially military and corporate situations. As we shall see in the great man and participatory leadership theories, there is a need to inspire followers to carry out the wishes of the leadership. Great leaders do this through inspiration. The characteristic of humility in servant leadership may be adequate in religious or charitable organizations, but it is not valid in the real world.

A. Great Man and Participatory Leadership vs. Servant Leadership

One of the main issues that Greenleaf has to defend his theory against is that it is too naive to work. Humans are corrupt and can not carry out the high ideals implicit in its precepts Greenleaf & Spears, 2002, 22-24). In the opinion of this author, it is a criticism that Greenleaf does not adequately answer. This is particularly the case in the case of public service leadership theory, where the "great man" theory is often seen as necessary, especially in a crisis. What was formerly a problem with this theory, namely the quasi-mystical aura of the leader, has been broken down and studied. Since then, focus has been placed upon the work of integrating transactional and transformational types of leadership theory into comprehensive models in the pursuit of a more holistic approach to explain what Van Wart (Van Wart, 2003, 215-216). Since then, work like the Van Wart article has helped the "great man" theory lose much of what was seen as unscientific aspects in order to manage and create institutional culture (ibid., 225).

Participatory leadership theory takes this one step further by explaining much about why the followers of leaders participate willingly in bringing about the vision of the leader. Such participative leadership increases the quality of the any decision and increases follower commitment, motivation and satisfaction. While previous work has been done, it was lacking in empirical value. In the study article in the Journal of Organizational Behavior study by Somech, it showed that long-term relationships are more stable, although they function well in the short-term as well (Somech, 2003, 1003). While there was more need indicated for study, it has been shown that participatory cooperation from subordinates is very much contingent upon charisma. This may be possible with servant leadership over time, but there have not been empirical studies of this leadership style.

Most of the exchange of information regarding servant-leadership has been philosophical. Studies such…… [read more]

Theories of Leadership and Followership Thesis

… ¶ … leadership that influenced me.

Leadership self-analysis examination

An evolving standard for going the extra mile

Generally, it seems to me that leadership is all about 'doing' rather than 'thinking' or simply 'managing'. Margaret Wheately (2002) talks about challenging… [read more]

Style Approach in Leadership Term Paper

… ¶ … Leadership

Evaluating the Transformational System of Leadership

The essence of transformational leadership is the ability to provide an organization with a very clear sense of purpose, a challenging goal or vision to attain, and give each person involved… [read more]

Leadership a Philosophy of Leadership Is Important Essay

… Leadership

A philosophy of leadership is important, because it helps to guide the leader through all different situations. The philosophy embodies the truths and guiding principles that characterize one's view of leadership (Leboeuf, 1999). By having a philosophy to help guide in leadership situations, a leader can be more consistent in his or her actions (Ambler, 2006). If the philosophy is congruent with good leadership practices, the outcomes of one's leadership will be consistently strong.

My leadership philosophy is based on the concept of servant leadership (Greenleaf.org, 2011). I believe that the purpose of leaders is to allow the organization to excel. The leader needs to be the one to lead by example, to set the tone for the rest of the organization. The leader needs to make the rest of the organization better, and do whatever it takes to allow the other members of the organization to perform at their highest level. My experiences in the past with leadership have led me to adopt these ideas as my central philosophy. I believe that leaders are part of the organization, not above the other members but working alongside them to ensure that the organization's mission is achieved.

I believe that the best leaders are not born, but can be trained. I believe that leadership is as simple as understanding where you need to be and how you need to get there. Leadership is finding a way to get the people you need to do the things you need them to. Leadership makes the workplace better, because you not only have better people but they want to work for you, so you keep the best people. The best leaders always have time -- they do not exist for their own interest but for the interest of the people they work with, and the organization they work for.

The best leader that I ever worked for shared this philosophy, and was influential in the development of my leadership philosophy. I admire my uncle Gail, with whom I worked in construction. He took it upon himself to ensure that every member of his crew had the skills and tools necessary to perform at his highest level. He was the sort of leader who was the hardest worker on the site. His work ethic was infectious, and I could see the impact that it had on the entire crew. He worked alongside of everybody else, and helped them through any challenges that arose.

Gail was straightforward; his leadership style was direct. He made sure everybody knew what to do, and when it had to be done. He explained everything well the first time, so that the workers could simply focus on getting the job done. This required a lot of preparation on his part, and he spent whatever time was necessary to ensure that he was prepared. His instructions were always direct; workers always knew what was expected. They also knew the consequences of failing to live up to expectations. That he was tough… [read more]

Transformative Leadership Transformational Application Essay

… She said that I did a good job in helping others realize their potential, by mentoring and soliciting advice. She also praised my willingness to lead by doing, and said she had never seen me ask someone to do something in a leadership context that I would be unwilling to do myself. However, in terms of vision and charisma she gave me only slightly above average grades, in contrast to the well-above-average scores in my other areas.

Some of my problems in being charismatic may be because I have not yet been given the task of formulating my own vision; rather I have primarily been in charge of realizing the vision of others. However, not every transformational leader begins as an entrepreneur and the leader of his or her own organization. Transformational leaders must have an internal sense of fairness, rights, and values, even when upholding the vision of another leader in the service of the organization.

I have a good base of values with which to work -- such as my belief in the need for mentorship of subordinates, which was such a critical part of my own development as an employee. But I must look deeper within to create a sense of my values and vision so it consistently inspires me, so it can inspire others.

With a deeper sense of purpose that is consistent through my work, I believe that I may also become more charismatic and embody the type of responsive, unpretentious and effective leadership that I admire. I am not displeased with the leadership I exercise now, but I think I can do better. I cannot ask others to perform to a higher standard if I am not willing to try the same myself. Workers are not simply motivated through individualized mentorship -- they like to think they are part of something larger than themselves. That is the essence of transformational leadership.… [read more]

Importance of Understanding Relationship / Leadership Style Essay

… Leadership/Relationship Style

Background- the core philosophical conundrum of leadership has been debated and defined by social theorists, philosophers, and politicians for centuries. True leadership is something almost undefinable at times: that spark that moves from the tactical to the strategic… [read more]

Religion and Leadership Core Religious Research Paper

… An individual who is emotionally intelligent is likely to also be emotionally, psychologically, and spiritually mature. Regardless of the philosophical or religious tradition from which an individual hails, servant-leadership will ensure organizational success. Research shows that emotional intelligence is linked to measurable results in an organization, which is why servant leadership may also ensure the fulfillment of both personal and organizational goals.

The concept of servant leadership is one that is holistic and multifaceted. Servant leadership and transformational leadership go hand in hand. For this reason also, systems theory and servant leadership go hand in hand. Organizations seeking stronger ethical foundations would be wise to cultivate servant leaders. Regardless of whether an organization is a Christian -- or any other type of religious -- one, servant leadership will ensure a harmonious, cooperative workplace environment. Supporting team members, inspiring positive change and growth, and developing future leaders through mentoring are all components of servant leadership. Behaviors associated with servant leadership are measurable, too. Future research shall elucidate the concrete ways servant leaders promote organizational success.


Agosto, E. (2005). Servant Leadership. Danvers, MA: Chalice.

Antonakis, J., Ashkanasy, N.M. & Dasborough, M.T. (2009). Does leadership need emotional intelligence? The Leadership Quarterly 20(2): 241-261.

Boyum, G. (2006). The Historical and Philosophical Influences on Greenleaf's Concept of Servant Leadership. Servant Leadership Research Roundtable. Aug 2006. Retrieved online: http://www.regent.edu/acad/global/publications/sl_proceedings/2006/boyum.pdf

Fry, L.F. (2009). Towards a theory of being-centered leadership: Multiple levels of being as context for effective leadership. Human Relations 62(11):1667-1696

Kamalini, K. (2010). A new culture of leadership: service over self. Journal of Christian Nursing 27(1): 46-50.

Rosete, D. & Ciarochi, J. (2005). Emotional intelligence and its relationship to workplace performance outcomes of leadership effectiveness. Leadership and Organization Development Journal 26(5): 388-399.

Sipe, J.W. & Frick, D.M. (2009). Seven Pillars of Servant Leadership. Mahway, NJ: Paulist.

Valk, J. (2010). Leadership for transformation: The impact of a Christian worldview. Journal of Leadership Studies 4(3):83-86.

Wallace, J.R. (2007). Servant leadership: A worldview perspective. International Journal of Leadership Studies 2(2): 114-132.…… [read more]

Applying Leadership Theory Literature Review Chapter

… He also questions the stated influence of leadership as depicted by many authors. He identifies marketing, strategic planning, product development and investment as other important variables contributing in determining the level of organizational performance. To support his argument, he further… [read more]

Leadership in Public Sector Annotated Bibliography

… Allan Chapman (2010). Training and learning development: training, coaching, mentoring, training and learning design - developing people. Retrieved May 5, 2011 from http://www.businessballs.com/traindev.htm

Shows the various training, coaching and mentoring needs that organizations do have and the varying designs that can used to achieve the following. Allan also gives the training ideas and outlines that every organization and in particular the HRM leader who wants to see a healthy employee base can use to train and teach the staff as he develops their skills. Further, Allan shows the attributes the various HRM leaders who are effective in an organization and how they use training and learning to enhance the employee capability. He further explains and gives examples of how HRM leaders can design by themselves effective training programs. There is an extensive discussion of the mentoring services and how an effective mentoring service can be established by the leaders in any organization.

Susan M. Heathfield, (2011). Performance Management Process Checklist: Step-by-step to a Performance Management System. Retrieved May 5, 2011 from http://humanresources.about.com/od/performancemanagement/a/perfmgmt.htm

Susan gives the various ways through which performance can be graded or assessed in an organization. She discusses the significance of the performance management system and look into particular ways in which the various originations have used and benefited from the performance management processes. She also discusses the methods and the procedures that can be followed in an attempt to have a proper appraisals and development of appropriate and workable work systems.

Phil Kenmore, (2010). Communication Between Public Sector Staff And Managers is a Must in the Face of Cuts. Retrieved May 5, 2011 from http://www.guardian.co.uk/society/2010/jun/23/public-sector-cuts-communication-essential

Here, Phil gives and exposition of the communication process and procedures in a public sector. He shows the significance of the effective communication between the staff and the management in the public sector. In this section, Phil juxtaposes what is happening in the private sector with the trend in the public sector and points out the various areas where the public sector can borrow from the private sector. The research that Phil discusses here was based in the UK and covered comprehensively the communication trend in the public sector vis-a-vis the private sector and what he found out to be outstanding was the fact that the private sector apparently kept their focus on the customers in the face of recession unlike the public sector who never had this as an outstanding feature.

Stephen Bach, (2001). Hr and New Approaches to Public Sector Management: Improving HRM Capacity. Retrieved May 8, 2011 from http://www.who.int/hrh/en/Improving_hrm_capacity.pdf

This is a report of the WHO workshop that was held in December 2000 in France to look at ways in which the HRM can contribute positively to the improvement of the Health Care Sector in the entire world. This paper focuses on the capacity building for the HRM leadership and team with a bid to ensuring that the same training can capacity building would lead to a new dispensation of the leadership and skills needed to well and appropriately… [read more]

Leadership Has Become a Prominent Research Paper

… Leadership has become a prominent topic of research in recent years. One of the main reasons for this is that leadership is a major factor in the performance of employees and, by association, the performance of the company. There are… [read more]

Art of Mentoring Book Report

… Mentoring is a subset of leadership, an experience too often relegated to the context of situations too soft to be considered corporate. However, Shirley Peddy shows that mentoring is one of the core facets of enterprise-level leadership. In the Art of Mentoring: Lead, Follow, and Get Out of the Way, Peddy illustrates the definition of mentoring, the role of mentoring in organizational culture, and techniques for effective mentoring.

The title of the book sets the stage for what is to come, clearly defining mentoring as an art and not a science. After all, diversity precludes mentoring from being anything quantifiable. What is quantifiable are the results that come from effective mentoring programs that are adopted by organizations. This is one of the reasons why Shirley Peddy is an in-demand public speaker whose views and techniques on mentoring are being employed to transform corporate culture, individual performance, and overall productivity in the workplace.

Because workplaces are comprised of employees from vastly different personal backgrounds, it is impossible to create a one size-fits-all approach to mentoring. In fact, age and other critical variables will impact the effectiveness of mentoring. Mentors are almost always synonymous with being "older," even if they are not actually old. The image of a mentor in the philanthropic sector would be that of a Big Brother or Big Sister, who serves as a mentor for a young child or adolescent. In the workplace, it would likewise seem that mentors would be employees who are older -- and perceived wiser. At the same time, Shirley Peddy and other theorists on mentoring neglect the fact that age cannot and should not be viewed as a defining feature of the mentor -- mentee relationship. For example, a young person can quite readily become an effective mentor for an older person in fields like Internet usage and information technology. There are absolutely no hard and fast rules when it comes to defining mentoring, implementing a mentoring program, and developing the techniques with which to mentor others.

Early in the Art of Mentoring: Lead, Follow, and Get Out of the Way, Shirley Peddy presents two of the most common challenges mentors face in their professional lives. The first is the mentee who has no idea what his or her goals are, or even what questions to ask. When the mentee approaches the mentor, he or she may place undue pressure or expectations on the relationship. The mentee expects to be made perfect, molded by the mentor. Alternatively, the directionless mentee expects to have his or her hand held the whole way. Mentees who expect promotions simply be participating in a mentor program are also problematic. Shirley Peddy provides the specific ways of dealing with the communications that can arise at this early stage in the mentoring process. However, the author could have done a better job addressing some of the issues that do arise at this stage. The mentor that expects too much, or who misunderstands the mentoring relationship should probably read Shirley… [read more]

Mentoring Program Essay

… Mentoring Plan



Mentoring Plan

This document explains Citizens Property Insurance Corporation's mentoring plan for workers involved in the new customer care center project. The purpose of this plan is to explain the duration, selection process, program structure, training, and communication requirements of mentees and mentors.

Mentoring: An overview

Mentoring can serve many functions, including orienting, training, and supporting new workers. For an insurance company that is highly dependent upon commission-based sales, master salesmen identified as highly skilled would make ideal mentors. Having such sales professionals mentor a new salesperson for an initial orientation period, and then continue to meet with the trainee at frequent intervals to discuss sales techniques will increase the company's likely profitability as well as prove helpful for trainees. For non-sales staff dealing with the public, mentoring after the training period will also be an ongoing process, as more experienced staff members are paired with less experienced staff members, who will then evaluate their performance in customer relations.

For employees who do not deal with the public, after the initial orientation and trial period for employees, mentoring will be used to nurture highly capable leaders to prepare them for managerial positions, as determined through regular performance reviews.


One of the difficulties of any sales-based enterprise is the need to create a sense of cohesion amongst salespersons, and to enable sales staff to share their insight with new trainees. During the orientation period, all new sales trainees will be assigned salespersons designated as master salespeople, with a proven track record of success. After the training period is over, new sales staff will be able to meet with their mentors regularly, to discuss concerns and questions they have about customer interactions. A similar program will be instated with customer support staff. Selected customer interactions will be taped and reviewed, and more effective methods of improving customer assistance…… [read more]

Leadership Skills Research Paper

… Leadership in Human Relations

What are the key leadership skills that today's Human Resource professionals need in order to function seamlessly and effectively? Among the leadership skills reviewed in this paper are motivational skills, the ability to inspire, political skills and the ability to lead people as the company adapts to change in an economic downturn.

What is a leader? According to Leslie L. Kossoff, internationally respected executive advisor specializing in corporate turn-around, there is a big difference between a "manager" and a "leader" (Kossoff, 2010). Management is a career, Kossoff explains and leadership "is a calling." More specifically, leadership doesn't require charisma or "that special something" but what it does require are "clearly defined convictions" and the "courage of your convictions" to see your goals and convictions transformed into reality.

Employees need leadership from someone they can trust, Kossoff explains, and from someone who is working for "the greater good." When the organization a leader is working with transcends "…all previous quality, productivity, innovation and revenue achievements," that is a sure sign of solid leadership.

Managers and business owners in Singapore believe skills and competencies that make a good leader include the ability to motivate and inspire, among other qualities. An article in the journal Research and Practice in Human Resource Management reports on the results of two surveys with managers and business owners in Singapore. The respondents were 61 employers from "a broad cross section" of organizations in Singapore. The bulk of the participants (70%) were between 26 and 45 years of age and 80% had management positions. About 65% held HRM positions.

The respondents were asked to complete a questionnaire with six main parts. The first part queried participants as to "expected and experienced" leadership in their workplace, and the second part asked respondents to specify their preference as to gender in leadership. The third part tested the "level of leadership satisfaction" and the fourth section invited the respondents to comment on "…a variety of leadership behaviors." The fifth section asked participants to score leadership performance based on their experiences, and the final section "evaluated leadership competency" (Choo, 2007, p. 105).

The results of this research showed that, first of all, respondents believe there are "significant gaps" in leadership skills in their workplaces. Those gaps included "motivating, inspiring and acknowledging" the contributions of staff members (Choo, p. 106). In other words, managers and business owners in this survey believe that the ability to motivate people is an important leadership skill. So too are the skills of inspiring people who work with you or for you, and acknowledging accomplishments of others -- a simple pat on the back occasionally -- are good leadership skills. Over half of the respondents indicated that their supervisors "…were not good role models and…lacked vision and creativity" (Choo. p. 106).

In the meantime, the results showed a "reasonable consensus" that the top five leadership qualities are: a) ethics and integrity; b) being accountable; c) showing confidence; d) communication; and e) dedication (Choo. p.… [read more]

Leadership Management Style Analysis in Nursing Research Paper

… Nursing Leadership

Abstract of Interview with Nursing Leader

The nursing leader interviewed in connection with this project has an educational background that includes a Bachelor of Business Administration and a BSN, and she is currently pursuing a Masters of Science… [read more]

Leadership Styles Leadership Theories Northouse ) Notes Essay

… Leadership Styles

Leadership Theories

Northouse (2006) notes that there are many different ways to finish this sentence "Leadership is…" He posits that there are just as many definitions of leadership as there are people who have tried to define it (2006).

It is much like the words democracy, love, and peace. Although each of us intuitively knows what he or she means by such words, the words can have different meanings for different people. As soon as we try to define leadership, we immediately discover that leadership has many different meanings (Northouse 2006).

While there are many definitions for leadership, there are many different styles of leadership and, of course, differing opinions on which styles of leadership are the most effective. This paper will not attempt to define leadership or delve into the myriad of styles, but will, rather, take a look at three different styles of leadership -- Level 5, Transactional, and Transformational -- all of which have proven to be very effective.

Executive A came to the job as CEO when the company was weak; the company was losing money (approximately $2 million a year) and its stock had gone down in value to about $23 a share. During Executive A's run as CEO, the stock rose 128% and the company profited after years of losing money. While the media believes that the CEO is the person responsible for the success of the printing company, Executive A has been very humble in accepting full responsibility, usually saying that it is the great leaders of the company that are the reasons for the company's success. Because Executive A is also able to accept responsibility for the mistakes that have been made as well as for all the reasons aforementioned, Executive A is exhibiting Level 5 leadership.

Level 5 leaders are confident individuals who are able to leave their positions as leaders with the next leader being set up for success. Level 5 leaders are also usually humble and are not attention seekers, arrogant, or in need of having media attention. They always give credit to others, which is exactly what Executive A has done.

Executive A has been unwavering in his determination to make the company a success. In part, Level 5 leaders must know talented individuals when they see them so they can use those employees' talents to aid in the success of the company. Level 5 leadership is "a combination of unique, counterintuitive quality of humility and unwavering perseverance" (Ronco & Ronco 2005). Jim Collins, author of the 2001 book, Good to great, says that "Level 5 leaders are a study in duality: modest and willful, humble and fearless" (2001). He then goes on to use Abraham Lincoln as an…… [read more]

Comparing and Contrasting Four Leadership Models or Theories Research Paper

… ¶ … Leadership Theories

Comparing and Contrasting Four Leadership Models or Theories

Great Man, Transformational/Transactional, Situational, and DISC theories of leadership

Four leadership theories:

Great Man, Transformational/Transactional, Situational, and DISC theories of leadership

One of the first formal theories of… [read more]

Transformational and Charismatic Leadership Reaction Paper

… Transformational and Charismatic Leadership

A charismatic leader is often understood as a person who can best interact with those around him and his most powerful trait is that of making the people around him feel good about themselves. In an organizational context, this leads to improved employee morale and the subsequent improved employee performances (which ultimately materialize in improved organizational results).

From the same broader category of managers who strive to achieve improved organizational results through motivated staff members is the transformational leader. A transformational leader is generically understood as one who is able to identify the necessity for an organizational change; he implements the change and he stimulates the others to also embrace the modification. In the process, the transformational leader strives to better himself but also better the followers.

A major component of transformational leadership is the empowerment of the employees. On the one hand, this element presents the employees with the ability to directly participate in the change process and to better grasp the dimensions and the necessity for change. On the other hand, the empowerment of the employee stimulates his motivation as it makes him feel valued and appreciated within the organizational context. In turn, this materializes in higher levels of employee on the job satisfaction, which also means the degrees of employee loyalty and performance would be higher.

The leadership style adopted by the manager plays a pivotal part in the means in which the employees would respond to organizational strategies. In other words, an important determinant of the human resource strategies to be implemented within an organization is constituted by the style of the leader. This dimension of the managerial style -- be it transformational, charismatic, democratic or otherwise -- is often overlooked in the analysis of the managerial style, function and role.

Another important dimension of the transformational and charismatic leadership styles is the role of innovation in the process of managing people. This too is often overlooked, but its importance is incremental, especially today when innovation -- generally brought about by technological advancements…… [read more]

Personal Leadership Development Plan Essay

… Personal Leadership Development Plan

As a managerial leader, I have many strong suits. I am a detached and rational decision-maker, which manifests itself in a number of key strengths. I have scored highly, for example, in setting goals and objectives… [read more]

Creating Leadership Development Plan Term Paper

… Creating Leadership Development Plan

Leadership Development Plan

In assessing the results of the leadership plan received, my intention is to define a series of personal, professional and leadership strategies for improving based on the plan's feedback. My intention is to… [read more]

Training and Mentoring Research Proposal

… Training/Mentoring

Training and Mentoring in Human Resources

New Needs in Training and Mentoring

Human resources development is a constantly changing field; as the world grows increasingly smaller due to globalization, the opportunities and the competition for most firms and businesses are also rapidly expanding. New issues in the area of human resources that have arisen out of the new global business culture and can be most effectively handled through proper mentoring and training programs include diversity training and intercultural communication (HR 2009). Other issues that have recently garnered headlines and show a clear need for increased mentoring and more stringent training guidelines are accountability and personal as well as corporate responsibility (HR 2009). Mentoring programs lead to the true development of individuals and organizations, rather than simply paying lip service to the current business ideals (Heathfield 2009).

Objectives of Training and Mentoring Programs

The objectives of all training and mentoring programs can basically be broken down into two categories -- goals for the individual, and goals for the organization. These two different sets of goals are completely intertwined, of course, but they can also be examined separately. For the individuals involved -- both the mentor and their mentee -- the goal is to establish a better understanding of the company's needs, and to develop better methods of addressing and fulfilling those needs (HR 2009). At an organizational level, mentoring and training programs generally attempt to establish a continual learning environment or "learning organization" -- one that continues to grow and respond to changes within the workplace and in the industry/business world at large (Heathfield 2009).

Performance Standards in Mentor and Training Programs

The standards used to determine the appropriateness and efficacy of a specific training and/or mentoring program can vary from business to business and industry to industry. Basically, though, there are certain criteria that every mentoring and training program aims for, and success in these areas establishes what is called by some a "mentoring culture" (Heathfield 2009). Accountability, alignment, and communication are the top three sought-for results of an effective mentoring program; when these three areas have been adequately addressed to the point that participants in the program hold themselves accountable, are aligned with company visions and policies, and are able to effectively communicate (both transmitting and receiving communications), the programs has been successful.

Mentorship and Training Delivery Methods

Technology has allowed for a wide range of delivery methods to be implemented in standard mentorship and training programs. Teleconferences can be an effective way to conduct a training session for individuals in multiple locations, and to provide ongoing mentoring among different offices and locations within an organization (Heathfield 2009). There are also several packaged mentoring programs that can be used in online delivery methods, and tailored to the specific needs of most businesses and organizations (HR 2009). Face-to-face training and mentoring programs are also highly effective, of course, in both group and one-to-one settings, with different practices and goals achieving different levels of efficacy depending on group size and… [read more]

Administrative Mentoring Research Proposal

… Administrative Mentoring

Mentoring and the Emergent Educational Leader

The principal is the de facto leader of the public school. With this role comes no small degree of pressure and responsibility. And as the nature of education changes and evolves, so… [read more]

Leadership My Assumptions About Leadership Have Changed Research Paper

… Leadership

My assumptions about leadership have changed over time. I used to believe that leadership was simply a matter of having strong motivational skills. That remains a part of the role, but as I have become more interested in leadership… [read more]

Leadership in Aviation Weather Services Book Review

… ¶ … Leadership in Aviation Weather Services

Aviation weather services are vitally important to safety, so having good leadership is a very necessary part of them. Unfortunately, good leadership is not always something that's available for these types of services. When it is seen, it is still sometimes ineffective because of policies and procedures. Most often, however, those who are involved in leadership when it comes to aviation weather services are only interested in furthering their own careers, and this keeps them from accomplishing very much where their actual job specifics and job improvements are concerned. Naturally, this becomes a detriment to the individuals who are working under the person in the leadership position. One of the ways to cure this kind of problem is to address the leadership issues and correct them so that the entire organization runs more smoothly and provides the services that it should be offering. Many believe that federal leadership and action are what is needed to correct the problems that are being seen where aviation weather services are discussed.

The primary recommendation is that the FAA should take over and provide the leadership for aviation weather services. This is due to the fact that the FAA can better secure funding for these services and can govern more effectively than a private company could. The FAA should also take over all aspects of leadership in aviation weather services, including training, research, dissemination of weather products, new roles, and user needs, as well as making sure that aircraft are being separated from weather that could be hazardous. Doing all of this is no easy task, but something clearly has to be done, because weather causes serious problems for many aircraft. This does not normally result in crashes, but it does result in delays, diversions, and angry customers, and the possibility of a crash or other air disaster cannot be ruled out. Weather has caused these kinds of devastating problems before.

A main recommendation for how the FAA should handle this issue would be to become more proactive with safety issues. Another recommendation that should be considered is to look at the way that leadership is being conducted and whether a different style of leadership would be the best choice for aviation weather services issues. Like most governmental agencies, the FAA probably has a situational style of leadership, and a switch to a more servant leadership style may be in order. While not specifically recommended by the author of the aviation weather services writing, this is one area of leadership that has been more widely explored recently and continues to be studied. The author recommends that the FAA take over gradually, over a period of 12 months, but has the FAA taking over almost everything by the end of that time period. While it is certainly important to facilitate that takeover, there might be other ways that things can be better delegated and therefore they will become less of a problem for individuals who are working for… [read more]

Participative Leadership Term Paper

… Participative Leadership - Personal Development Plan

Summer vacations are a great opportunity for a student to work in various domains and organizations in order to get an idea of various styles of leadership. I took this opportunity to study managerial… [read more]

Acquired About Your Leadership Effectiveness Term Paper

… ¶ … acquired about your leadership effectiveness during the course?

I think that one of my key understandings related actually to the efficiency and effectiveness of leadership itself. In order to be an efficient leader, one needs to blend theoretical… [read more]

Organizational Leadership: A Literature Review the Turn Term Paper

… Organizational Leadership: A Literature Review

The turn of the 21st century brought with it a plethora of global challenges, particularly in the area of higher education administration, but also in other administrative areas. Leaders in higher education have had to… [read more]

Paradigm Shifts in Educational Leadership Term Paper

… Educational Leadership

Paradigm Shifts in Educational Leadership: Restructuring Goals/Revising Visions

Student achievement is the goal of education; leadership is the path to its attainment. Time, teams, and, passion are key components in the pursuit of excellence. However, systemic changes are… [read more]

Leadership Styles in the 21st Century Term Paper

… Leadership Styles in the 21st Century

Before defining leadership behaviors, leadership empirical studies have focused on the characteristics of efficient leadership, leadership practices or the skills and characteristics of a leader. Later on, these studies started to focus on the… [read more]

Teacher Leadership Term Paper

… Teacher Leadership - Literature Review
In the past few years, the relationship between the school principal
and teachers has emerged as a critical relationship necessary for the
continued educational opportunities of students, the growth of teachers,
and the success… [read more]

Leadership and Strategy in Material Management Term Paper

… Leadership Attributes

Effective Leadership in Healthcare Management

Effective management means more than the bottom line. It means being able to inspire people to do their best and to act in an ethical manner. Effective management is more than numbers. It… [read more]

Leadership Reflection Ioana Larion Term Paper

… Leadership Reflection

Ioana Larion

Although I am teaching full-time and working on a Master's in ESL, I do not think I am at the peak of my educational career at the present moment. This is a good time to ask myself why and to try to figure out a strategy for future growth.

Looking back at the years I spent in Europe as a foreign language teacher for French and English, I only remember myself as a young enthusiastic, dedicated and responsible teacher who rapidly asserted myself in the learning community. In my first year after college graduation, I taught adult colleagues using my translation, mentoring, networking, word processing skills. It seems like I did a good job since experienced, senior colleagues trusted me enough to name me head of international relations at my research company over several other experienced ladies and a man. As a translator, I dedicated countless hours to teach, tutor and accompany departments in conference presentations in many trips all over Europe and Asia and enjoyed every minute. Because I was young and had no family of my own at that time, I was always available and ready to offer my expertise. This situation made me a leader in the foreign language department in less than a year after graduation.

What were my particular leadership styles? I was very young and respectful, always greeting people first, opening doors for ladies and older colleagues, and listening and following directions. I respected my students (some being older people with an international reputation in their field) and answered them courteously. I was always on time and prepared, and was very organized and enthusiastic. I think that giving my "body and soul," interacting correctly with others, having no family and being so focused in my ascending career made me quickly become a leader.

After coming to the U.S., I became a French itinerant teacher where I hardly had a base school, a staff to belong to or any "leadership" opportunities. During this time, I was appointed the Itinerant Head of the French Department at the county level and a mentor. I did not think there was any other way "to advance on the ladder" when I was an itinerant teaching French who was overshadowed by the status of a certified teacher.

Currently, I teach French in a middle school and I'm a mentor, a member of the school improvement team, and an advisor…… [read more]

Leadership Within a Fire Department Term Paper

… Leadership Within a Fire Department

There is a wealth of information on leadership, but not all of it relates specifically to the unique leadership role within a Fire Department. The book First In, Last Out by John Salka begins to… [read more]

Motivation and Leadership Term Paper

… Motivation & Leadership

The objective of this work is to review the founder and CEO of Costco Wholesalers, whose name is Jeffrey H. Brotman. Costco is a Fortune 500 company. This work will review how Costco is run and will… [read more]

Entrepreneurial Leadership Styles a Comparative Study of Sweden and China International Business Term Paper

… Entrepreneurial Leadership Styles - Comparative Study of Sweden and China

In recent years, researchers have contributed different causes as responsible for the success of a country's economic system, and as a result, differing models for economic growth suggest multiple possible… [read more]

Mentoring Human History Is Replete Term Paper

… Works Cited

Jekielek, Susan M. et. al. "Mentoring: A Promising Strategy for Youth Development." Child Trends: Research brief. February 2002. June 7, 2005.

Kerka, Sandra. "New Perspectives on Mentoring." ERIC Digest. 1998. June 7, 2005. http://www.ericdigests.org/1998-3/mentoring.html

Kalbfleisch, Pamela J. & Joann Keyton. "Power and Equality in Mentoring Relationships." Chapter in Gender, Power and Communication in Human Relationships. Cody, Michael J. & Pamela J. Kalbfleisch Eds. Hillsdale, NJ: 1995

'A Message from the Secretary." Yes, You Can: A Guide for Establishing Mentoring Programs to Prepare Youth for College October 1998. June 7, 2005. http://www.ed.gov/pubs/YesYouCan/letter.html

Reh, F. John. "Mentors and Mentoring: What is a mentor?" About.com: Your Guide to Management. 2005. June 7, 2005. http://management.about.com/cs/people/a/mentoring.htm

'Some Questions and Answers About Mentoring Programs." Yes, You Can: A Guide for Establishing Mentoring Programs to Prepare Youth for College October 1998. June 7, 2005. http://www.ed.gov/pubs/YesYouCan/sect1.html

'What Young People Want From A Mentor." The National Mentoring Partnership. n.d. June 7, 2005. http://apps.mentoring.org/training/TMT/tmt26010.adp

Young, Clara Y. & James V. Wright. "Mentoring: The Components for Success." Journal of Instructional Psychology. Sept, 2001. June 7, 2005. http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0FCG/is_3_28/ai_79370576#continue

Proteges are sometimes called "mentees" in modern parlance.

Mentor served not only as a counselor to Telemachus during Odysseus' twenty-year absence, but also as a guardian and guide

A comparison of U.S. Bureau of Census figures between 1970 and 1994 show that children under 18 not living with two parents have increased from 41.5 to 66.7% among Blacks, from 10.5 to 23.8% among Whites and from 22.3 to 36.3% among Hispanics.… [read more]

Leadership in Sports Term Paper

… Leadership in Sports

One of the important benefits of taking an active part in Sports of any kind is the fact that the members of the team would develop certain leadership qualities. However, the fact is that if the leader… [read more]

Leadership and Human Resources Sunflower Term Paper

… According to Maxwell (2003), leadership by example is the key to successful leadership because it is the number one motivational, training, mentoring, and value principle.

The executive team developed a core value that would guide the way Sunflower conducted its business. This core value, "people are to be treated with dignity and respect" was simple, but powerful. The consulting team trained Sunflower's executive management team using this value and recommended changes for a manager who had a personality inconsistent with the new management style. In addition, the consultants trained Sunflower's operations management in participatory management and conflict resolutions. The training was later extended to Sunflower's line staff and first-line supervisors. Although improvement was evident after the training program, more work was needed. There was still conflict in the relationships between managers and supervisors and a feeling that the new core value was being driven solely by the CEO. The management group was unable to address conflict openly and productively. Some line supervisors had reverted back to their old, abusive practices and employees complained of lack of empowerment.

In response to Sunflower's issues, the consultants created individual executive coaching to help them address their real perceptions of, and feelings toward one another and to resolve conflicts. And, the consultants would introduce the notion of the competence culture in which ideas are judged on by their merit. "Having this clearly defined core culture as their goal, management now had a systematic way of thinking about their culture and the leadership practices that best suited the needs of Sunflower."

Sunflower was successful in its efforts to allow its employees to flourish in an environment and trust and synergistic interdependence. The primary reasons for Sunflower's success were that it developed a core culture as a goal, realized the need to address out-of-balance behaviors with the cultural change, implemented change as part of a continuous process, and involved all employees in the change management process.


Greene, C., Everet, A, and Ebert, R. (1005). Management for effective performance. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall, Inc.

Maxwell, J. (2003). Leadership by example is key to guiding a strong company. Houston Business Journal. Retrieved November 13, 2003 from Houston Business Journal Web Site: http://houston.bizjournals.com/houston/stories/2003/10/06/smallb2.html

Schneider, B., Competence run amok. Retrieved November 13, 2003 from Hanigan Consulting Web Site:… [read more]

Leadership and Management Term Paper

… A manager who wants to succeed will work to promote the positive impact and aspects that diversity will bring to the workplace. Using the very differences to expand the business vision can go a long way in promoting the embracement… [read more]

Leadership Term Paper

… Bob Adams impart his knowledge in examining a number of crucial leadership topics including leadership effectiveness, changing organizational culture through intercommunication, self-discipline at the workplace, employee commitment, and mutual activation between leaders and employees.

Adams represents a special spirit in volunteering and becomes a role model for the community to emulate. The award is given to an individual in the community who has volunteered his or her time to assist community members. The award also recognizes leadership qualities, lifetime experiences and heartfelt emotion. Adams suggested that people find out what is needed in their community, look at their schedule and take the time to go do it. They can find a friend and get them involved too. They can become involved in the mentor program at local schools, where the teachers and staff need all the help they can get."


Community service awardee Bob Adams honored for his work with local youth

Publication Date: May 22, 2002

Town Crier Correspondent

The Town Crier Company, Inc., Los Altos, California. All rights reserved. http://www.losaltosonline.com/latc/arch/2002/21/Communit/1adams/1adams.html… [read more]

Human Relations and Leadership Essay

… Human Relations

The experiences that Olsen has had are actually very representative of being a leader. Many people seem to think that being a leader means telling people what to do and/or inspiring the masses to do something amazing. That can be a part of leadership, of course, but it is not the only area where leaders must act. When someone is a true leader, they are in charge, and they can (and should) lead by example. When Olsen has issues that arise in the restaurant and he must handle them in the best way possible, he is learning about making tough decisions and handling problems. That is a very large part of being a leader, and one of the parts of leadership that almost always gets ignored. Then people are unprepared, because they have not had the opportunity to really handle the nitty-gritty, day-to-day details that are such a part of leading other people. The simplest parts of leadership, or at least those that seem the least complex and are handled nearly every day, are actually the parts that are the most important for building good leaders and strong teams of followers.

The more Olsen learns to handle smaller problems, like an employee calling in because of a sick pet, or a customer threatening to sue for something that was actually not the fault of the restaurant, the more he will become a good leader. Making small decisions may seem easy, but it sets a person up and helps them get prepared for making bigger decisions that are going to be much more difficult. That is an important aspect of being a good leader, and one that is being taught to Olsen, even if he really does not realize that is the case at the moment. Through the problems that have arisen for him, Olsen has also learned how to handle difficult or unexpected situations, and has been taught to consider the good of the restaurant before anything else, but also to be compassionate and realistic. Those are both good traits, and they will serve him well as a leader.

To help Olsen and others in…… [read more]

Mentoring as a Valuable Tool for Employee Training and Development Essay

… Business -- Employee Training and Development

Mentoring is considered a hot trend in employee training and development, though it has been around for many years in more simplified forms. As its use has grown in business, it is found in… [read more]

Path Goal Leadership Essay

… According to North (2010) participative leadership is comprised of "inviting subordinates to share in the decision-making" and through consulting with subordinates, gaining their views and ideas and then integrating the views of the subordinates into the decision making process about how the organization or group will proceed toward its goals. (Northhouse, 2010, p. 128)


Supervision by someone using this model would be a pleasant way to work toward goals in the organization because it would allow the subordinate to have input. This is particularly important when there are many levels in the organizational hierarchy because often those higher in the hierarchy of the organization are calling the shots and those lower in the hierarchy are actually doing the hands-on work. Hands-on work often results in problems that are unknown and that cannot be foreseen from the higher levels in the organizational hierarchy and where the workers in the hands-on aspect of the task have no input and no decision-making authority there is often a time delay in completing a task or project and furthermore the frustration level is high for all involved and the success level is reduced due to the disconnect between the orders issued for a task and the actual ability to complete the task as viewed by those who are not doing the hands-on work on the project or task.


In case 7.2 Shivitz manages a small business 'The Copy Center' located near a university and employs about 18 individuals who are generally going to school part-time and working for the business part-time. The focus of the business is publishing of course packs as well as desktop publishing and standard copying services. The business owns three copy machines that are state-of-the-art and quite a few computer workstations. Shivitz's leadership style is such that allows employees certain freedoms while at work because the work is so mundane and although the work the employees are performing is insignificant in nature, Shivitz goes out of his way to make sure that his employees all feel significant as individuals. In addition, Shivitz is well-known for helping his part-time employees with scheduling conflicts always ensuring that schedules are adjusted to accommodate employees.

For the employees who work on the computer workstations and who are full-time employees, Shivitz allows them the freedom that they need to perform their job since Shivitz understands that these types of workers are independent, confident and need their intellectual room to work with little supervision. Shivitz has employed a participative type of leadership that is effective in this work environment and that motivates employees to perform at their highest levels.


Path Goal theory provides four types of leadership styles that…… [read more]

Marissa Mayer Leadership Style Essay

… Along the way she showed a very systematic, driven approach to leadership that delivered results yet made it clear anything less than excellent performance by her managers and teams would not be tolerated (Elgin, 2005). She is known for being exceptionally focused on results and has been criticized for not paying attention to people's emotions, yet her results and the ability she has to get teams moving in the same direction is indisputable.

Assessment Of Marissa Mayer's Leadership Effectiveness

In the entrepreneurial culture of the Silicon Valley when Google first started up, there was a shortage of leaders capable of managing the complexity of exceptionally challenging technology projects while providing an accurate, attainable vision for team members. Marissa Mayer was ideally positioned to excel at Vice President of Product Management at Google. Had her skills sets and intensity for results and performance been ap0plied to a more stable, conservative industry such as banking, she may not have been as successful. Her approach to transformational leadership is one marked by a clear sense of urgency, focus on key results yet the ability to break down tasks ot individual elements and explain how they are orchestrated together (Elgin, 2005).

Her transformational skills have been criticized as lacking EI, yet she has compensated for this by making each member of her teams stronger and more able to contribute in future roles. Her leadership effectiveness in the high technology industry is exceptional, as her first year as CEO of Yahoo illustrates. She is very effective at taking complex tasks and redefining them into smaller components, applying rigorous methodologies to each to ensure optimal results. What she lacks in terms of the ability to excel as a Connector she more than makes up for as an Analyzer who at times is a strong Director as well. This unique mix of talents has made her highly effective in the high technology industry as a result.


Beugre, C.,D., Acar, W., & Braun, W. (2006). Transformational leadership in organizations: An environment-induced model. International Journal of Manpower, 27(1), 52-62.

Brin, D. (2010). Future tense: How the net ensures our cosmic survival. Association for Computing Machinery. Communications of the ACM, 53(6), 120.

Carter, S.M., & Greer, C.R. (2013). Strategic leadership: Values, styles, and organizational performance. Journal of Leadership & Organizational Studies, 20(4), 375.

Darling, J. & Beebe, S.A. (2007). Enhancing entrepreneurial leadership: A focus on key communication priorities. Journal of Small Business and Entrepreneurship, 20 (2), 151-168.

Darling, J. & Leffel, A. (2010). Developing the leadership team in an entrepreneurial venture: A case focusing on the importance of styles. Journal of Small Business and Entrepreneurship, 23 (3), 355-371.

Ben Elgin in, M.V. (2005, Oct 03). Managing Google's idea factory. Business Week, 88-90.

Fitzgerald, S., & Schutte, N.S. (2010). Increasing transformational leadership through enhancing self-efficacy. The Journal of Management Development, 29(5), 495-505.

Pearson, A.W., & Davies, G.B. (1981). Leadership styles and planning and monitoring techniques in R&D. R & D. Management, 11(3), 111.

Schmidt, J.E. (1993). Transformational leadership: The relationship… [read more]

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