Study "Leadership / Mentoring" Essays 56-110

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Leadership, Team Building, and Communication Research Paper

… Non-supportive and offensive behavior of team members can also be a major source of conflict between work teams. Similarly, uneven job responsibilities and unhealthy competition between team members can give rise to interpersonal conflicts. If a team member feels that… [read more]

Global Leadership Final Term Paper

… In simpler terms, the way companies and firms were run twenty years ago is not similar to the organizational culture today. Leaders are the ones with the dreams who don't allow anyone or anything get in their way of achieving those dreams. Leaders are meant to be representative yet they have to be insistent. Therefore, a leader should be proactive and updated about the new cultures and the new ways of dealing with problems. Regardless of how successful a leader is, he should not be overconfident in his skills. He should be willing to learn and improve his work and only then he can expect others to improve as well.


Bartlett, C.A, and S.Ghoshal (1998) Managing Across Borders, Boston: Harvard Business School Press.

Bingham, C.B, Felin.T and Black.S.J. (2000). An interview with John Pepper: What it takes to be a global leader.287-292.

Bird, A., Mendenhall, M.E., Stevens, M.J., Oddou, G. (2010) Defining the content domain of intercultural competence for global leaders. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 25(8), 810-828.

Gregersen, H.B., Morrison, A., & Black, J.S. (1998).Developing leaders for the global frontier. Sloan Management Review, 40, 21 -- 32.

Hollenbeck, G.P. (2001) "A Serendipitous Sojourn through the Global Leadership Literature," in Advances in Global Leadership, vol. 2, ed. William Mobley and Morgan W. McCall, Jr., Stamford,… [read more]

Smart Goal 1: Leadership Development Research Paper

… In regards to leadership development, these resources can be leveraged to obtain expert opinion regarding a skill or ability. In addition, these resources can also be used to help establish a network in which the mentee can rely upon for development in the future.

R: realistic- Is this goal something that is realistically obtainable in a professional practice?

The goal is very realistic in regards to professional practice. The task of bi-weekly meetings, monthly personal assessments, and bi-monthly seminars are all very helpful in regards to personal development. They are also easily measurable. If planned properly, they will not interfere with personal practice but would actually help the individuals practice through leadership development.

T: time bound - What specific dates or weeks will you accomplish each task of your project goal?

The goal to improve a particular leadership metric should be given a timeframe of between 3 to 6 months.

Smart Goal / Plan of Action

The individual nurse wills first development a strong relationship with a mentor within the facility. Through this relationship, periodic meetings, self-assessments and seminars will occur on a weekly and monthly basis. These meetings will focus on one particular leadership metric that both the mentor and mentee agree upon. This metric should be improved within 3 to 6 months. Attributes needed to achieve the goal are persistence, consistency, and passion for improvement. The meeting will take place in the hospital bi… [read more]

Relationship Between Culture and Leadership Thesis

… ¶ … Culture and Leadership

Leadership and culture are two of the main facets that make the difference between many societies and nations in the world. There is a sharp comparison between the different cultures that have influenced on the… [read more]

Healthcare Leadership and Management Research Paper

… One way for a leader to accomplish this is to lead by example. Though this concept might represent a cliche, it has stood the test of time for a reason. If leaders don't lead by example, then the employees might perceive something of a double standard which can led to a situation in which then they will undoubtedly foster resentment from the team. A good manager should hold themselves to as high, or even better higher, standards than those they are responsible for.

The transformational leadership model has been identified to be potentially the best model for leadership; especially in regards to organizational change. The definition of transformational leadership was described as a type of leader could relate to the moral values of their followers. Such a connection can act to transform their personal goals into organizational goals; employees would then devote their energy and resources into transforming the organization (Judge & Bono, 2000). Such a leadership style is heavily dependent on effective communication. To become a transformational leader, five suggestions that aim to help managers foster their own transformative style has been identified (Straker, 2011):

1. Developing the vision

2. Selling the vision

3. Finding the way forwards

4. Leading the change

Core Performance Measures and Critical Pathways

The facility in which I work does track Core Measures for community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), congestive heart failure (CHF), or myocardial infarction (MI) however the metrics from this tracking doesn't seem to be a priority unless something goes wrong. I do not believe that the organization tracks critical pathways for analysis however. First developed in the 1980s as a tool to reduce length of stay, critical pathways also provide a useful tool for monitoring quality of care. Once the cost of a pathway is known, analyzing the cost-effectiveness of the pathway as well as the associated cost variances is possible (Marquis & Huston, 2011). By using clinical and cost variance data, decisions on changing the pathway can be made with both clinical and financial outcome projections. The advantage of critical pathways is that allow for some measure of standardizing processes so that the health care delivery can be more streamlined.

The upcoming changes in the healthcare system through healthcare reform are likely not going to involve nurse's opinion in the design. The perception about the reforms state that nurses will have the least influence on the design; lower than patients, doctors, healthcare executives, pharmaceutical executives, insurance executives, and the government. However, this is regrettable because in the same poll nurses were among the most trusted group within the healthcare industry. Although they polled slightly below doctors, nurses were more trusted than any of the other groups included in the survey. In fact, nurses were better trusted than the internet, newspapers, magazines, television, and even books. An overwhelming majority of opinions feel that removing barriers that centers around increasing the voice of nurses, expectations and accountability, improving perceptions of nursing among others, and improving the selection and training of nurses.

Works Cited

Judge,… [read more]

Servant Leadership Theories Research Paper

… Servant Leadership Theory

There are several leadership theories that address this issue from different points-of-view. There are theories that refer to leadership skills as innate. In accordance with such theories, leaders are born, not made. These theories of leadership usually… [read more]

Emotional Intelligence and Leadership Term Paper

… Emotional Intelligence and Leadership

In the recent past, the issue of emotional intelligence has gained significant prominence in leadership circles. This is more so the case after Daniel Goleman authored a book, Emotional Intelligence, which extensively explored the topic and… [read more]

Leadership in Organizations Organizational Leadership Thoughts Capstone Project

… Leadership in Organizations

Organizational Leadership

Thoughts on Leadership (Opening statement)

Management verses Leadership

What is management?



The overlap ion management and leadership

What do leaders do?

Comparing personal thoughts and leadership models

Leaders see what others do not… [read more]

Leadership Effectiveness Leadership Qualities Research Paper

… The leader should have a positive and friendly attitude towards the employees and should invite them to ask questions and help them to make decisions. Leaders should be capable of maintain a good working environment. One should be open to criticism and should be able to face failure without blaming the workers or the employees.

By following Branson's leadership style at work one should include the approaches of directing, participating and delegating in one's leadership style.


Leadership effectiveness is the key element for the development of a good working team which can help to achieve the goals and objectives of a particular company. Without good leadership qualities it is not possible to maintain a strong team which eventually results in bringing downfall to the company. Branson's leadership style stands among the best leadership example which works as a guideline for those who want to achieve the best working teams and achieve high goals and objectives.


Benincasa, R. (2012, may 28). Six leadership styles and when you can use them.

Deal, B.A. (1991). Reframing Organizations.San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Duggan, T. (n.d.). The Three-Stage Model of Effective Leadership. Demand Media.

Slocum,… [read more]

Management to Leadership Organization Seminar Paper

… Management to Leadership Organization

Where do I want to be in 3 years?

In 3 years time I would like to see my goal for leadership materialized, my dreams caming true and my motivation still at the highest point to… [read more]

How Does Leadership Emerge in a Group That Has No Common History? Essay

… Emergence of leadership in a Group with no

Common History

Work groups are critical to a survival of an organization, and have been identified as the building blocks to enhancing organizational effectiveness. Groups are the broadest category of social aggregate involving in mutual interaction and mutual awareness. However, a leadership role must be filled within a group to solve a problem within a group. While a group is critical for organization, however, an effective matching leader is critical to deliver a problem-solving solution as well as mentoring, coach and serve the role of a facilitator to enhance effectiveness of a group. Leadership is the process of social influence where an individual uses his or her social influence to enlist the support of others to accomplish a common task. Leadership theory reveals traits, which include situational interaction, behavior, power, value, charisma, vision and intelligence. Leadership is an evolved traits target to assist a group to function effectively. In a setting where a group of people interact, a leader always emerges. Within the academic circle, a question remains unanswered: How a leader emerges within a group that has no common history?

Fundamental objective of this paper is to investigate how a leader emerges within a group.

How a leader Emerge Within a Group having no Common History

One of the fundamental methods that influence an emergence of leader in a group with no common history comes from the evaluation of individual ability as well as commitment assigned to group goals. An emergent leader from a group is an individual having a significant influence on other member of the group. However, an emergent leader does not have any formal authority compared to a formal leader. A leader could derive legitimacy through the group members' perception.

Task competence is an important factor that influences an emergent of a leader within a group. Typically, a group is formed to solve a problem, and a group member who has a competent to solve a problem is likely to emerge as a group leader. A task competence encompasses a set of characteristics that requires a group to achieve its desire goal. For example, an individual with higher mechanical ability is likely to emerge as a leader within a group performing mechanical tasks. Typically, task ability largely contributes to a leader's emergence.

Goal commitment is another factor leading to an emergent of a leader within a group. A group member who determines to accomplish a goal and unwillingness to lower or abandon that goal is likely to emerge as a leader. Thus, a group member needs to be sufficiently involved in the group tasks to be emerged as a leader. Thus, a leader must show a greater concern to a group goal than other member of the group.

Other antecedents are also identified which include seniority, personality traits, gender, verbal participation rate and approval from… [read more]

Servant Leadership Essay

… In conclusion, there is no doubt that Jesus led by serving, according to Tidball; and because in modern times obtaining power can be "…insidiously corrupting," it is important for managers, pastors, and others seeking leadership positions and skills to be servants first. That goes for the business person, to the university student in leadership class, to the football player and the teacher in elementary school. Unless individuals understand service, and engage in serving the needs and wants of others first, their ascension to positions of leadership will not be based on the correct philosophical worldview. And without the maturity that results from sincere self-assessment, a person's world view may be just a narrow fraction of what it could be.

Works Cited

Center for Servant Leadership. (2010). What is Servant Leadership? Retrieved February 25,

2013, from

Greenleaf, Robert. (2010). Ten Principles of Servant Leadership. Butler University. Retrieved February 25, 2013, from

Meixner, Cara. (2010). Reconciling Self, Servant Leadership, and Learning: The Journey to The East as Locus for Reflection and Transformation. Journal of Leadership Studies, 3(4),


Rozuel, Cecile, and Kakabadse, Nada. (2010). Ethics, spirituality and self: managerial… [read more]

Failure in Leadership Essay

… Failure in Leadership

An instructive case study of a failure in leadership and management capability

Barrack Obama on good leadership

Leadership is a lucrative field that demands a lot of simulation and hard work from the participating agents. In most… [read more]

Level Three Leadership an Effective Term Paper

… An effective leader sticks to central concepts in his logical analysis. He deals with similar concepts and avoids tautology at all cost. He is capable of presenting his conclusions based on analysis that had previously been conducted, and data. Moreover, he is capable of protecting himself against his own biases while doing logical analysis because he is resigned to finding the truth. An effective leader values the input of his contemporaries especially those respected in the realms of leadership (Clawson, 2012). By doing this, he seeks to know if his rationale is congruent with theirs. This gives them confidence with regard to whether his arguments would be listened to.

An effective manager works with people rather than through them to get results. He never abdicates his responsibility to his subordinates as he is responsible for achieving organizational objectives. He endeavors to make work to be a source of satisfaction to the personnel as opposed to being a source of punishment (Pigors & Myers, 1981). He appreciates that human beings are entitled to exercising their self-direction and self-control with regard to attaining the objectives that he is committed to. He recognizes that commitment to objectives is a function of the rewards or incentives given after achieving a specific goal. He is alive to the fact that rewards are given to satisfy ones ego and self-actualization needs. The manager encourages employee participation to encourage their growth and their ability to accept responsibility. An effective manager uses participation as a manipulative tool or a gimmick. He recommends promotions, pay increase, and transfers for his employees. Besides, he keeps his subordinates abreast with what happens in the company (Pigors & Myers, 1981). He constantly carries out job appraisals so that his subordinates become aware of how they are doing. He is open to hearing complaints and grievances of his employees. An effective manager is very aware that freedom is integral when it comes to productivity contrary to a popular belief that supervisors should always breathe down the necks of the employees. An effective manager offers incentives to his employees.

References List

Clawson, J.G. (2012). Level Three Leadership: Getting Below the Surface. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Pigors, P. & Myers, C.A. (1981). Personnel Administration: A point-of-view and a… [read more]

Lincoln and Leadership Term Paper

… Leadership includes the need to possess drive, integrity, motivation, self-confidence, knowledge of the business; and haste to respond to and recognize the needs of others. Leadership, therefore, necessitates effective communication. A good leader has to be able to communicate and be with as well as attempt to understand his employees from their perspective (Hunt, 1991). He has to be humble recognizing that he exists for his followers rather than the reverse. He is able to deal with change and flexible and able to lead his subordinates through change too. Also important is that the effective leader leads per example. Leadership requires keeping employees enthused about their work, motivates them. Leadership possesses the following characteristics: Empowerment; Risk-taking; Participation; and Development. A leader also has to be constantly learning, reflective and calm (Hunt, 1991). And Different times call for different forms of leadership.

Times of change for nation or for organization call for an active leader -- not merely someone who is transactional. It calls for someone to step in, to take the reins, to influence his followers, to provide new and heady direction and spur his followers in a new direction.

Lincoln was a leader in that he reached out for what people wanted, focused on what they wanted and needed, and set about supplying that. He looked far into the future and predicated its patterns. In that he was visionary. He was charismatic in that he knew what he wanted and achieved it regardless of others negation and criticism. He imported his belief in his nation and persona to his followers. In that way, he was transformational. He had an utter confidence in himself and in his company.

Lincoln, too, knew what had to be done. An inside person may have feared to take these steps due to incurring unpopularity, but Lincoln assessed the situation and set out to free the slaves.

During periods of unrest and change, the country needs someone active who is willing to take the responsibility on himself and has the courage and fortitude to lead. The thing is Lincoln has all of these. 'Regular' leadership may be the transactional style. This is detrimental in times of change where you need someone to take risky stance particularly since you are dealing with risk. This is what Lincoln did.

So, yes part of his successes can be attributed to the fact that he was an outsider and could see out of the box. Part two of his success was that he was bale and willing to take this risk and directive stance in a time that needed it. He was a transformational leader.

Shumpeter (2012) discusses Mukunda's book on leaders who are outsiders and insiders and states that Mukunda divides leaders into two types, "filtered" and "unfiltered." Insiders are those who are filtered. They have been tested, have gone through the 'ropes', have climbed up the management leader in the conventional way before they struck it to the top. Unfiltered outsiders are enigmas. They include people like… [read more]

Unethical Leadership Research Paper

… For that reason, values and ethics are the significant factors in dealing these employees evolution.

In short, leaders who connect with, allow, or encourage unethical acts within their organizations do not put ethical leadership on show. In its place, those… [read more]

Trait Leadership Definitions / Descriptions Essay

… 3).

On page 4 of his Mother Jones article Dowie points out that of all of Iacocca's objectives (price, fuel consumption, performance, comfort, appearance… et al.); safety was not one of them. "Safety doesn't sell," Iacocca was heard saying in… [read more]

Leadership, Team Building and Communication Term Paper

… As one project engineer said, time to an engineer is in analog and for a manufacturing engineer, it is digital.

These stark differences in the perception of time make communication challenges even more challenging. The role of a transformational leader in a team is to alleviate the differences in how one team vs. another processes information and perceives their role (Streiner, Deibler, Besterfield-Sacre, Shuman, 2010). These are the catalysts that cause the barriers in communication across Cisco.

The two recommendations for managing these communication barriers include first having a team rotation schedule created where each member of the manufacturing team spends time in engineering, up to a week, understanding how their processes work. The same holds true for the design engineers in manufacturing. Next, both groups of team revolve in and out of customer visits, so the triad of design engineering, manufacturing and customer insight are gained. Using this triad approach members of the cross-functional teams will have a much broader perspective of how their contribution impacts the company. They will also see first-hand how the differences in perception of time are created and maintained.

The second recommendation is to have each cross-functional team member hold information sessions for his entire department on the project. This not only elevates the need for the cross-functional team member to thoroughly understand the entire project, it also positions them as the critical point of contract within their departs for a specific product lien development. By doing this, communication will be improved; in addition to giving them the opportunity to attain a higher levels of autonomy, mastery and purpose in their role. These three factors of autonomy, mastery and purpose are critical for long-term motivation to learn and excel at a job.


Buffinton, K.W., Jablokow, K.W., & Martin, K.A. (2002). Project team dynamics and cognitive style. Engineering Management Journal, 14(3), 25-33.

Chadwick, C. (1996). Team talk: The power of language in team dynamics. International Journal of Conflict Management, 7(4), 380-382.

Fitzgerald, S., & Schutte, N.S. (2010). Increasing transformational leadership through enhancing self-efficacy. The Journal of Management Development,

French, J.R.P., & Raven, B.H. (1959) The bases of social power. In D. Cartwright (Ed.), Studies in social power (pp. 150-167). Ann Arbor: University of Michigan.

Judge, T.A., & Joyce, E.B. (2000). Five-factor model of personality and transformational leadership. Journal of Applied Psychology, 85(5), 751-765.

Maslanka, A.M. (2004). Evolution of leadership theories. Grand Valley State University). ProQuest Dissertations and Theses,, 51

Purvanova, R.K., & Bono, J.E. (2009). Transformational leadership in context: Face-to-face and virtual teams. Leadership Quarterly, 20(3), 343.

Streiner, S., Deibler, C., Besterfield-Sacre, M., &… [read more]

Leadership of David Petraeus Research Paper

… 10) Stay fit to fight. Your body is your ulti-mate weapons system. Physical fitness for your body is essential for mental fitness. 11) The only thing better than a little com-petition is a lot of competition. Set chal-lenges for your subordinates to encourage them to excel. 12) Everyone on the team is mission criti-cal. Instill in your team members a sense of great self-worth, that each, at any given time, can be the most important on the battlefield.

From this one may reasonably conclude that Petraeus' leadership style is by and large transformational. Transformational leadership involves creating positive change in the followers whereby they take care of each other's interests and act in the interests of the group as a whole. Essentially the leader's task is consciousness-raising on a wide plane. The leader's fundamental act is to induce people to be aware or conscious of what they feel and to feel their true needs so strongly, to define their values so meaningfully, that they can be moved to purposeful action. In this leadership style, the leader enhances the motivation, moral and performance of his follower group. Transformational leadership is all about values and meaning, and a purpose that transcends short-term goals and focuses on higher order needs (Warrilow, NDI).

Michael Gerson (2012) noted that Petraeus was "supremely informed and often breathtakingly candid, an attribute that involves risks but establishes credibility." However, Petraeus' recent public downfall, brought on by his extramarital affair reveals a flaw in his character. Infidelity involves personal betrayal. Innocent people, spouses and children, suffer unfairly. Nonetheless, the manner in which Petraeus faced this public humiliation is to be admired, he admitted to showing "extremely poor judgment," and told the employees at the CIA, "Such behavior is unacceptable, both as a husband and as the leader of an organization such as ours" (Gerson, 2012). After a career dedicated to high standards, Petraeus chose to apply those standards to himself.


Many of the qualities and attributes demonstrated by Petraeus are applicable to police organizations. His leadership style is designed to create more leaders, not followers. His rules for life are grounded in creating a professionally run efficient force. The integrity he has thus far demonstrated in the face of this current scandal is to be admired, even if his actions are not. Unlike so many public figures whose shortcomings have been publically exposed in the past, Petraeus has not shirked nor made excuses for his responsibility in the matter.

Leadership in any organization is difficult. It has been said that leaders have a nameplate on their chest that says "expert" and a giant target on their back. A leader's behavior is held to higher standards; this is how it should be. Petraeus' fifth rule of living "We all will make mistakes. The key is to recognize them and admit them, to learn from them, and to take off the rear? view mirrors, drive on and avoid making them again" is most applicable in this case. Organizational leadership is… [read more]

Leadership Training for Youth Annotated Annotated Bibliography

… The study findings indicate that the context best suited to the development of initiative is structured voluntary activities, such as sports, arts, and participation in organizations. These context create opportunity for youths to experience the rare combination of intrinsic motivation and deep attention. Adolescents participating in effective organizations were found to acquire a new operating language that appears to correspond to the development of initiative. (PsycINFO Database Record

Larson, R., Hansen, D., and Moneta, G. (2006). Differing profiles of developmental experiences across types of organized youth activities. Developmental Psychology, 42, 849-863.

The authors studied the different types of experiences that youth encounter according to their participation in community-based and extracurricular activities. A representative sample of 2,280 11th graders took a computerized survey about their organized youth activities. Sports and arts programs were reported to develop initiative, but sports were also considered high stress. Service activities were associated with teamwork, positive relationships, and social capital. Positive experiences were reported as more significant in youth programs than in school classes.

Lee, B.C., Westaby, J.D., and Berg, R.D. (2004). Impact of a national rural youth health and safety initiative: Results from a randomized controlled trial. American Journal of Public Health, 94 (10), 1743-1749. doi: 10.2105/AJPH.94.10.1743

The authors carried out an evaluation of a rural youth health and safety initiative implemented by the 4000 National FFA in the United States. Data was collected at 3 intervals and with a 3-group, cluster-randomized, controlled trial design. Of the 3081 students and 81 advisors, no significant effect of the initiative on agricultural health and safety knowledge, safety attitudes, leadership, self-concept, and self-reported injuries of project participants. According to data from 30 public health nurses following the intervention confirmed that no sustainable community partnerships were developed.

Mavroveli, S., Petrides, K.V., Rieffe, C, and Bakker, F. (2007). Trait emotional intelligence, psychological well-being and peer-rated social competence in adolescence. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 25, 263-275.

The authors studied the relationship between trait EI and four socioemotional criteria in adolescents. EI was positively associated with adaptive coping styles and negatively associated with depressive thoughts. In boys, EI is negatively associated with maladaptive coping styles. More nominations were given to classmates with high EI for leadership qualities.

Wingenbach, G.J. And Kahler, A.A. (1997). Self-perceived youth leadership and life skills of Iowa FFA members. Journal of Agricultural Education, 38(3).

The authors surveyed 316 Iowa FFA members to determine the relationship between their participation in youth leadership activities and self-perceived leaderships skills and life skills. Scores on the Youth Leadership and Life Skill Development Scale (YLLSDS) showed the highest means for "getting along with others," "respect others," and "show a responsible attitude." The strongest relationship was between FFA leadership activities and YLLSDS scores.

Zeldin, S., Christens, B.D., and Powers, J. (). The psychology and practice of youth-adult partnership: Bridging generations for youth development and community change.

Through this descriptive study the authors sought to articulate youth-adult partnerships as a particular phenomenon characterized by authentic decision-making, natural mentors, reciprocity, and community connectedness, and to… [read more]

Educational Leadership Book Review

… "True leadership is even more complex" in the education field (Williams-Boyd, 2002, p. 4). Teacher expertise (what teachers are able to accomplish) is the most dramatic aspect as far as student performance is concerned, Williams-Boyd explains; but teachers can't really be leaders unless "they have a voice in the direct work of the school" (28). That means that for teachers to be leaders in the truest sense of the word they must be in on the school's "…goal setting, personnel hiring, environmental decision-making, and instructional operation" -- this is referred to as "shared governance" and every alert and competent administrator understands the importance of shared governance in terms of teachers being able to fulfill their mission.

Williams-Boyd shares ideas as to how schools can assure that teachers fulfill their potential as leaders. Offering them the following roles enhances their leadership skills and helps the school in powerful ways; teachers could: a) be appointed to school improvement teams (SITs); b) chair the leadership council at the school; c) be placed on the district "textbook selection committed"; d) mentor new teachers; e) be faculty representatives on the PTA; f) staff developers (by taking graduate classes and attending workshops, teachers could better lead in professional development for all teachers); f) become conference speakers; g) be used as "curriculum specialists"; and h) "sit on local state, and national association boards" as policy participants to help establish policy for the teaching profession per se (Williams-Boyd, 29-30).

In conclusion, there are many ways that teachers can become effective leaders, including learning to de-fuse conflicts in the classroom and elsewhere, becoming actively involved in school-related decision-making issues and being appointed to important boards and organizations that influence what is taught in schools.

Works Cited

Tomlinson, Harry. (2004). Educational Leadership: Personal Growth for Professional

Development. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications.

Williams-Boyd, Pat. (2002). Educational… [read more]

Leadership Self -- Assessment Creative Writing

… As well identified are the model of leadership theory that is most preferred by this writer and the model of leadership theory in nursing that is believed to be the most compatible and productive when used in combination with the transformative nursing leadership model chosen by the writer of this work. This brief study has revealed that the efficient leader that transforms through self-motivated and focused change is one that knows themselves and has a strong drive to go to any lengths to achieve their goals. Self-motivation is a pre-requisite to motivating others toward achievement of their goals and harmonization of personal and common organizational goals.


Hix, C.; McKeon, Leslie; and Walters, S. (2009) Clinical Nurse Leader Impact on Clinical

Leadership and Motivation (2012) MSG. Retrieved from:

Microsystems Outcomes JONA Volume 39, Number 2, pp 71-76 Copyright B. 2009 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Retrieved from:

Saccomano, SJ (2008) Registered Nurse Leadership Style, Confidence Level, and Delegation Practices to Unlicensed Assistive Personnel: An Exploration of Confidence (. Retrieved from:$File/Saccomano-Scott-J_Doctorate.PDF-Open

Smith, JA (2011) Are you a transformational Leaders? Nursing Management Spat. 2011 Vol. 42 Is. 9.… [read more]

Leadership Essay

… Organizational commitment can be attributed as employees' loyalty and faithfulness towards organization and his intensions to be the part of that organization. Organizational commitment has significant importance because committed workers have less intension to quit the job, less often absent and highly motivated to perform at advanced level (Packard, n.d.).


Leadership is frequently seen as an important variable affecting organizational performance. While the idea has been extensively studied, there is still much to be discovered regarding how leadership affects variables such as organizational culture, climate, and performance. Leadership is frequently seen as a key factor in coordinating and aligning organizational processes. As with any facet of organizational functioning, it should focus on organizational performance, and most important, effectiveness in achieving desired outcomes. Leadership is frequently seen as a key factor in coordinating and aligning organizational processes. As with any aspect of organizational functioning, it should focus on organizational performance, and most important, effectiveness in achieving desired outcomes. Leaders can impact program capacity through the use of evidence-based practice in program design and in this model; job satisfaction is seen as an intermediate outcome that can also affect an organization's effectiveness. To successfully lead professional staff, transactional leadership should be augmented by the use of transformational leadership, which includes idealized influence, inspirational motivation, intellectual stimulation, and individualized consideration (Packard, n.d.).


Banerji, P. & Krishnan, V.R. (2000). Ethical preferences of transformational leaders: an empirical investigation. Retreived from

Grant, A.M. (2012). Leading with Meaning: Beneficiary Contact, Prosocial Impact, and the Performance Effects of Transformational Leadership. Academy Of Management

Journal, 55(2), 458-476.

Kotelnikov, V. (n.d.). Effective leadership. Retrieved from

Marsiglia, A.J. (2005). The relationship between leadership and personality. Retrieved from



Packard, T. (n.d.). Leadership and performance in human services organizations. Retrieved from

Sadeghi, A., & Pihie, Z. (2012). Transformational Leadership and Its Predictive Effects on Leadership Effectiveness. International Journal Of Business & Social Science, 3(7),


van Aswegen, A.S., & Engelbrecht, A.S. (2009). The Relationaship between

Transformational Leadership, Integrity, and an ethical climate in organisations. South African Journal Of Human Resource Management, 7(1), 221-229.


Vasilaki, A. (2011). The Relationship Between Transformational Leadership and Postacquisition Performance. International Studies Of Management & Organization,

41(3), 42-58. [read more]

Leadership Any Degree Book Review

… Keohane's reliance upon historical examples is particularly timely in this section, in which she denotes how previous presidents kept members from rival parties as part of their cabinets in order to fully embrace a balanced perspective which inevitably colored --… [read more]

Leadership: Three Theories, Three Centuries Leadership Theory Term Paper

… Leadership: Three Theories, Three Centuries

Leadership Theory Over Three Centuries

Many experts have attempted to derive overarching theories of leadership to describe the properties of a social construct that has changed over the last three hundred years, here separated by… [read more]

Leadership the Theories Research Paper

… Furthermore, the author conceives of this moral behavior in a hierarchized sense in which the overarching goal of transformation leadership is to secure these rights for the general public. In keeping with this conception of leadership, Burns' esteem of transformational leaderships seeks to discern what sort of moral reasons a person becomes a leader, and what positive effects upholding the aforementioned mores that person's leadership will have upon the public.

Although Burns also defined aspects of leadership theory that adhered to transactional leadership, his most influential work in this field was related to transformational leadership. As such, there were a few inherent negatives associated with his notions of transformational leadership, such as its reliance upon motivation in order to properly galvanize a group of followers. Additionally, his conception of transformational leadership was less able than other styles of leadership to accommodate unforeseen obstacles.

Traces of Burns' and Weber's leadership theory surface in that of Daniel Goleman, who is principally known for his conception of emotional intelligence as an apt measurement of the prowess of a leader. Goleman's ideal of emotional intelligence is commendable in that it attempts to both identify and quantify that process of transformative leadership that compels followers to adhere to the leadership of a certain individual. Emotional intelligence and its measure is akin to that of conventional intelligence (there is an emotional quotient as opposed to an intelligence quotient to measure it) which Goleman believed was supplemented by the former to account for fostering inspiration in one's followers (Goleman et al., 2001, p. 1). Another boon of Goleman's notion of emotional intelligence is that he was able to stratify it into five different components which consisted of a leader's internal attributes -- such as a leader's possession of self-awareness, motivation and self-regulation -- as well as external attributes, which includes a leader's ability to empathize with others and to relate to them via social skills.

The principle drawback of Goleman's leadership theory being based almost solely on emotional intelligence is that it primarily relies upon a behavioral approach to conceptualize and contextualize qualities of leadership. Although it is fine to incorporate this aspect into the field of leadership, Goleman's concept of emotional intelligence relies upon the behavioral approach almost to the exclusion of other prudent measures and conceptions of leadership that are more cognitive in nature. Still, its behavioral approach does well to expand the field of leadership theory.


Goleman, D., Boyatzis, R., McKee, A. (2001). "Primal Leadership: The Hidden Drive of Great Performance." Harvard Business Review. Retrieved from

London, S. (2008). "Book Review." Scott London. Retrieved from

Williams, D. (No date). "Max Weber: Traditional, Legal-Rational, and Charismatic Authority." Tripod. Retrieved from [read more]

Leadership Plans for Upcoming Academic Essay

… Event planners must understand the client's vision and the overall organizational culture and ethos of the client, so the event does not clash with this concept. For example, a hip, youth-oriented company would not necessarily want a golf event at a staid country club to market itself. Finding an appropriate location, entertainment, food, and sponsorship if necessary are some of the duties I must fulfill. I must put clients at ease so they know that I understand them. However, I must also be authoritative in my interactions with vendors and the individuals who make up the components of the event. The food must be served in a timely fashion, the employees at the door must be prompt, well-trained and courteous, and the event must seem to run seamlessly, no matter how much stress there may be behind the scenes. It is my job to show leadership of vision and also tactical vision. Sometimes it feels like event planning requires the stylistic eye of a Martha Stewart, the organizing ability of George Patton, and the diplomacy and tact of a UN ambassador!

As a marketing specialist, I am continually challenged by the need to be creative while communicating my clients' desires to the public and I strive to rise to the occasion. The public can be very jaded today and the marketplace is super-saturated with information. I must use new and old media to their greatest effect when working with clients selling diverse products and services. Often, even seasoned organizations have only a vague idea of how to 'brand' themselves, and it is my mission to create a holistic concept to enable clients to 'stand out' and to ensure that every facet of the marketing underlines the idea we have collectively created as part of our brainstorming sessions. Once again, I am called upon to show leadership -- leadership of ideas and concepts. I must work with clients at times as a peer, other times as a guide, other times as a servant of their vision. Flexibility and confidence are both demanded. This is the essence of my brand of… [read more]

Leadership by Gayle C. Avery Essay

… 17-18). Characteristics of this time period include minimal differences between leaders and followers, or perhaps organizations in which the adaptability and accountability of members is so strong that there either are no leaders or everyone is considered a leader.

The principle basis for the second part of Understanding Leadership is to offer a variety of case studies that effectively demonstrate the varying principles of leadership that the author addressed in the first segment of this book. In doing so, it is fairly noteworthy to mention that Avery has selected examples from international settings that encompass North America, Europe, and Australia as well so that students are able to understand the global application of the concepts the author has denoted. 10 cases studies are used in all within this part of the book. Some of the more interesting case studies actually apply to formal leadership in a political context in which the author provides examples of presidents utilizing some of the same theories of leadership that those in private corporations, such as BMW and Rodenstock (Avery, 2004 p. 279), utilize to establish policy and to incorporate the assets that their followers inherently represent. In fact, the decision making process that the author portrays for both private and public leadership (such as those alluded to in the aforementioned examples) demonstrates the inexorable tendency of leaders to incorporate more input and support from their followers in determining what sort of policy is adapted and decisions are made.

Furthermore, it is important to note that even in this second section, the author fails to vary from her motif of delivering this information and its examples in a didactic manner. To that end, the examples provided by specific case studies are frequently followed by analysis questions that help readers to interpret the cases in the context of the theories provided in the first section. The particular virtue of Understanding leadership lies in Ayer's chronicling of the evolution of leadership theory and its implementation, which began from a fairly autonomous form of leadership in which there was little input from followers, to eventually transform into the leadership characterized by the Organic Period, in which there is a considerable amount of equity between leaders and their followers, and fairly slight distinctions between the two. In depicting this evolution through academic theories and examples via case studies, Ayers is essentially depicting the increase in value of followers, which is widely shown throughout the manuscript to increase the efficacy of the various organizations exemplified in the book.

However, it is not until one has read the entirety of the first section that Ayers' methodology becomes readily apparent to her readers. It is difficult to understand the author's reasons for presenting the myriad theories of leadership until she ties them together in the last chapter of the first part of the book, which provides an integration of both the theories and paradigms previously presented so that the reader can tell how they relate. Also, the stratifications of the different paradigms… [read more]

Leadership Team Leadership Analysis Essay

… Engineering felt it could fit into markets including material handling and warehousing. Marketing felt this market was exceptionally small compared to the mainstream printing and imaging market. As the conflict traversed both internal and external teams, the project manager, using many aspects of the Team Leadership Model, had the engineering and marketing teams set up test, or beta sites, to evaluate the printer in these market areas. This leadership strategy made the marketability a shared goal, and also made the actual performance of the printer in this environment immediately known. Using this technique, the project leader had galvanized both teams to a common goal and created a higher level of team effectiveness by seeking to balance task, relational and environmental factors in a single leadership strategy (Hui-Ling, Yu-Hsuan, 47). This also gave each team an opportunity to work with the other and appreciate the perspective of added features and product quality, two areas engineering had deep personal commitment to, and sales achievement, what marketing wanted.

The use of the Team Leadership Management creates a framework that trust can be created upon when a leader seeks to balance internal and external factors, often serving as pressure points, on a cross-functional or multifaceted team (Keiser, Nancy, Maureen Kincaid, and Kristine Servais, 20). Ultimately this strategy created shared leadership and ownership of the product, which is another indication of effective team leadership (Vandewaerde, 414).


Having seen how the Team Leadership Model works to create a highly effective framework for managing the performance of teams comprised of significantly different departments, it is evident this approach has significant potential. The great the level of potential conflict in a team, the more effective this framework becomes. Being able to balance internal and external factors or forces that stress teams is one of the most powerful aspects of this model. Seeing engineering and marketing understand each other for the first time was remarkable, as both teams had completely different perceptions of the product, market and selling scenarios previously to this product introduction.

Works Cited

Bucic, Tania, Linda Robinson, and Prem Ramburuth. "Effects of Leadership Style on Team Learning." Journal of Workplace Learning 22.4 (2010): 228-48.

Chia-Chen, Kuo. "Research on Impacts of Team Leadership on Team Effectiveness." Journal of American Academy of Business, Cambridge 5.1 (2004): 266-77.

Eisenbeiss, Silke A., Daan van Knippenberg, and Sabine Boerner. "Transformational Leadership and Team Innovation: Integrating Team Climate Principles." Journal of Applied Psychology 93.6 (2008): 1438.

Hui-Ling, Tung, and Chang Yu-Hsuan. "Effects of Empowering Leadership on Performance in Management Team." Journal of Chinese Human Resources Management 2.1 (2011): 43-60.

Keiser, Nancy, Maureen Kincaid, and Kristine Servais. "Using a Collaborative Leadership Model in a Teacher Education Program." American Journal of Educational Studies 4.1 (2011): 5-20.

Schaubroeck, John, Simon S.K. Lam, and Sandra E. Cha. "Embracing Transformational Leadership: Team Values and the Impact of Leader Behavior on Team Performance." Journal of Applied Psychology 92.4 (2007): 1020.

Vandewaerde, Maarten, et… [read more]

Transformational Leadership Which CEO Essay

… Yet for the entire organization there was an initial period to see just how authentic and transformational he would be or not. His approach to creating authenticity immediately focused on the sense of loss and apparent anxiety throughout the organization that the vision would somehow be altered. Yet Tim Cook chose to commit the year to Steve Jobs' vision of launching the latest iPad, going squarely against low-end laptops and netbooks. He also promised to not change any of the existing product development plans, and also pledged to not seek to marginalize any existing systems and strategies in place. He kept his word and continued to move aggressively in the direction of these shared goals and visions that Steve Jobs had created. The signaled to the entire company his authenticity and he fully intended to keep his word at the event that celebrated Steve Job's life. The essential aspects of a transformational leader's skill set include transparency, honesty and the ability to sense what leadership skill set is the best for a given situation (Avolio, Gardner, 334). This last aspect of any leaders' skill set is predicated on their level of Emotional Intelligence (EI) and ability to quickly act based on these perceptions (Fitzgerald, Schutte, 497). Finally Tim Cook has also shown a very adept series of skills in applying idealized influence, inspirational motivation, individualized consideration and intellectual stimulation, all critical factors in transformational leadership (Fitzgerald, Schutte, 498).


Combining these factors of transformational leadership and the ethics of using them to further the best interests of Apple while also staying the course to deeply engrained values in the company shows exceptional judgment as well (Price, 70, 71). Tim Cook could have vacillated, appeared uncertain, even unsure of the decisions made in the past. Instead he chose to take a very focused a deliberate strategy of accelerating the company to its vision and mission Steve Jobs had defined. He did change the culture slightly based on his more informal, conversational style, yet through all of the massive and potentially disruptive change of losing a CEO, Tim Cook held true to the course and shows what authentic leadership is when faced with a very significant challenge.

Works Cited

Avolio, Bruce J., and William L. Gardner. "Authentic Leadership Development: Getting to the Root of Positive Forms of Leadership." Leadership Quarterly 16.3 (2005): 315-38.

Fitzgerald, Susan, and Nicola S. Schutte. "Increasing Transformational Leadership through Enhancing Self-Efficacy." The Journal of Management Development 29.5 (2010): 495-505.

Price, Terry L. "The Ethics of Authentic Transformational Leadership." Leadership Quarterly 14.1 (2003): 67-81.

Purvanova, Radostina K., and Joyce E. Bono. "Transformational Leadership in Context: Face-to-Face and Virtual Teams." Leadership Quarterly 20.3 (2009): 343.

Zhu,… [read more]

Contingency Theories Leadership & Situational Essay

… It gives leaders a theoretical foundation to select which leadership style to use.

Situational leadership is the one that I often use. It allows one to analyze a situation and adopt the most appropriate leadership style, where the employee's developmental level is low; it allows me as the manager to provide more support and direction of a given task. When the employees have higher levels of development and are competent, then I offer less support and direction. Situational leadership leads to work being done effectively. It helps build a relationship between managers and employees. It also helps to raise the development level of the employees Northouse 99()

The human resource manager in our organization uses the path-goal leadership style. He helps the employees reach a goal through guiding them towards the goal. The manager also directs and coaches the workers in order to achieve a certain goal. The leaders behavior is motivational and it helps the subordinates be able to cope with some difficulties in the organization.

The successes of situational approach of leadership are that it is easy to understand and use. When leaders adopt effective leadership styles, tasks get done better. It helps build a relationship between managers and employees. It helps the employees sharpen their skills towards certain tasks. Situational approach fails to distinguish between leadership and management. The managers themselves come up with decisions without involving the subordinates. Workers end up feeling left out in the decision making process of the company resulting to low productivity.

Path-goal theory helps managers influence performance and satisfaction of the employees. It increases the outcomes of employees by clarifying the path to the set goals and reducing the roadblocks to goals by encouraging employees to work towards a set goal. Path goal approach may fail where the goals set for the task are too high that cannot be reached by the path chosen by the leader. The leadership style requires many assumptions and is not easy to use.

The success of contingency leadership is that it allows an organization chose leaders who are best suited for a task. These leaders use their skills to get a job done effectively. This leadership style leaves out subordinates in decision making process of the company resulting to poor results.


Elenkov, Detelin S., William Judge, and Peter Wright. "Strategic Leadership and Executive Innovation Influence: An International Multi-Cluster Comparative Study." Strategic Management Journal 26.7 (2005): 665-82. Print.

Herold, D.M., et al. "The Effects of Transformational and Change Leadership on Employees' Commitment to a Change: A Multilevel Study." Journal of Applied Psychology 93.1 (2008): 346-57. Print.

Hill, Linda. Becoming a Manager: How New Managers Master the Challenges of Leadership. New York: Harvard Business School Publishing Corporation, 2003. Print.

Northouse, P.G. Leadership: Theory and Practice. Thousand Oaks, California: SAGE, 2009. Print.

Waldman, David A., et al. "Cultural and Leadership Predictors of Corporate Social… [read more]

Leadership Philosophy Essay

… It is the philosophy of leadership that not only affects the behaviors but ultimately the effectiveness of leadership (Ambler 2006). It should contain the components like personal values (honesty, commitment, respect for people), an approach regarding the completion of tasks and responsibilities, defined priorities, expectation from people and a fair criteria for their evaluation, an understanding of people's expectations from the leader (Ambler 2006).

Thus, developing a leadership philosophy is a very personal exercise. It involves a key set of beliefs about people, life and the belief that groups and organizations can be effective. It must begin with answering some serious questions about who you are, what you believe in, what you value, your priorities and your expectations of yourself and others ("Leadership Philosophy,").


In order to develop a believable, realistic and trustworthy leadership philosophy, the individual should follow 7 essentials i.e. vision, ethics, care of employees and their families, process of leader development, change, diversity and humor. No matter what sort of leadership level or organization one leads, one is obliged to develop a considerate, selfless, wide-ranging and reasonable leadership philosophy for those who work for him/her. It is impossible for a leadership philosophy to address all the mentioned essentials or confronted issues. However, a sensible leadership philosophy will serve as a concrete beginning point that will not only be understood by the leaders himself but by those he leads (Leboeuf 1999).

To conclude, a well-established leadership philosophy helps in the creation of a united and positive environment that not enables leaders to discover their absolute position and their preferences. Consequently, they communicate their expectations to the followers. By knowing his/her expectations, the followers act in the similar fashion as their leaders'. Thus, this whole process helps in the achievement of organizational effectiveness as both the leaders and followers become bonded to a relationship of mutual trust and confidence ("Leadership Philosophy,").


Ambler, G. 2006. "The Importance of a Clear Leadership Philosophy." The Practice of Leadership. Online. Available from Internet., accessed May 5, 2012.

Fairholm, G.W. 1998. Perspectives on Leadership: From the Science of Management to Its Spiritual Heart / . Westport, CT: Quorum Books. Online. Available from Internet. Available from Questia,, accessed 5 May 2012.

"Leadership Philosophy." Academy Leadership. Online. Available from Internet., accessed May 5, 2012.

Leboeuf, M.K. 1999. "Developing a Leadership Philosophy." Military Review79, no. 3: 28+. Database online. Available from Internet. Available from Questia,, accessed 5 May 2012. [read more]

Leadership and Teams Leadership Theories Term Paper

… , 2001).

Along with this, the team leader should also consider the appropriate time and extent of stakeholder involvement. A lot of involvement by stakeholders can increase ambiguity in objectives; therefore, the involvement should be restricted to the concerned problem… [read more]

Leadership Style and Traits Research Paper


He says that he wants his people to look from the crews eyes and to believe that benfold is the best ship among all in Navy. He made his people understand and believe in their own self and… [read more]

Personality and Leadership Research Paper

… Conclusion

It is apparent from the research materials presented that ethical leadership, first of all, is being thoroughly studied in a post-Enron, post-WorldCom era, and for good reason. Secondly, the linkage between the traits and antecedents of personality has found a prominent place in the literature. And thirdly, given that within the global business environment in this millennium there has been a new, inspired emphasis on environmental and social responsibilities for companies, hiring a leader -- or training a potential leader -- requires an organization to delve deeply into -- and utilize fully -- the Big Five leadership components. Leaders after all are required to provide vision for the future as well as role modeling every minute of every day.

This paper posits that leaders are not born with the skills of leadership but rather they are nurtured and trained to be leaders; and moreover, conscientiousness, agreeableness, and a leader's emotional stability -- along with a well-developed superego -- can and will impact employees in positive ways, moving any organization forward on an optimistic path.

Works Cited

Cherry, Kendra. (2012). What Is Personality? / Psychology. Retrieved April 24,

2012, from

Coon, Dennis, and Mitterner, John O. (2008). Introduction to Psychology: Gateways to Mind

and Behavior. Independence, KY: Cengage Learning.

Davies, Kevin. (2001). Nature vs. Nurture Revisited. NOVA / Public Broadcasting Service.

Retrieved April 25, 2012, from

Kalshoven, Karianne, Den Hartog, Deanne N., and De Hoogh, Annebel H.B. (2010). Ethical

Leader Behavior and Big Five Factors of Personality. Journal of Business Ethics,… [read more]

Ursula Burns in February Essay

… 1). Burns also learned the importance of taking the ego out of important decisions by planting an idea and allowing a follower/subordinate to run with it. By "giving people credit for ideas that they didn't have, but you sold to them" will "give them ownership," (Bryant, 2010, p. 1). Burns knows the need to build "followership," which corresponds to situational leadership theory.

Burns certainly has the formal power as CEO to run Xerox. In terms of bases of power, Burns does not use coercive power to intimidate others into performing according to company standards. Burns also does not pander to petty extrinsic reward schemes that might create a false sense of collaboration in the workplace. Instead, Burns opts for legitimate power. With the formal authority to lead the company, Burns also obtains the power that has been legitimized by 31 years of familiarity with the company. The Xerox Corporation helped to pay for Burns' graduate degree, engendering a mutual sense of trust between the current CEO and the organization as an entity. Therefore, Burns possesses a personal power that is based both on her expertise as a Xerox employee and engineer; and on her referent power that commands organic respect and admiration from employees. Xerox also depends on Ursula Burns, especially because of the CEO's commanding vision of where the company is headed. The creation of dependency on Burns for enacting the vision she created for the new Xerox is crucial for Burns to remain an effective leader.

In terms of sheer managerial effectiveness, Burns possesses the technical know-how, the people skills, and the conceptual skills in order to effectively run the Xerox Corporation. Burns manages over 100,000 employees at Xerox. Although she might not mentor or work directly with the majority of Xerox personnel, the organizational culture and climate Burns creates has an immediate impact on the daily lives of all employees. By engaging in frank, straightforward, and sometimes brutally honest communications, Burns avoids unhealthy organizational behavior that could damage the company's reputation. Communication is central to Burns's leadership philosophy, which is not necessarily confined to any one style but instead amalgamates the best of many. Burns may not be a charismatic leader like Richard Branson, and yet she commands as much appreciation and respect within the Xerox Corporation. With the possible exception of her innate outspokenness, Burns does not act in any sort of unconventional manner. She is a rather traditional leader, yet one that possesses a natural sense of transformational empowerment.

Burns's leadership success is partly situational, too. Her steady rise to the commanding post of Xerox shows that her vision was bred of experience rather than intuition about what the company needs. Burns also avoided some of the pitfalls of becoming entrenched in an anachronistic organizational culture. Someone who has been an employee of the same company for more than three decades might have the tendency to become regimented and stuck; Burns was not. As a type of transformational leader, Burns demonstrates an inspirational way of… [read more]

Leadership What Makes a Good Leader? Essay

… Leadership

What makes a good leader? This is a question which has been inciting research and inquiry within the contemporary business environment for generations. Leadership is essentially a developed and designed process where one individual, the leader, influences and motivates others within the group to attain particular goals or objectives. Strong leadership takes much more than just authority, and thus is often hard to come by.

Leadership cannot be mistaken as other elements of modern business discourse. Management does differ greatly from leadership. Essentially, management involves all the practical steps to implement plans and oversee their execution, while leadership is the much more abstract notion of inspiring and motivating the members of the team to succeed in various executions of plans. Leadership revolves around the concept of influence, while management is a more formal connotation that leads by the very designation of their position or role within the organization (De Pree 2004). A leader may not always be in a formal position of authority, and neither does a formal manager always prove to be an effective leader. Thus, the most important difference between the two connotations is the way they go about getting a plan or task done (Smirich & Morgan 1982). The leader will inspire and encourage others to work hard to succeed, while the manager will enforce his or her power and authority, often using demands and possibly threats of discipline, which is available to them in their position of authority, to get the goal accomplished.

Trait theories of leadership did move the modern discourse closer to what we see at today, but it was still plagued with limitations. Earlier developments of theory were essentially limited because of a lack of evidence and data really solidifying the tenants of the theories in question. For example, the early form of test-management theory failed to optimize similar traits in the same manner within the context of a single empirical inquiry. As a result, "very little information about the psychometric properties of the trait measures were reported; thus it is possible that many of the measures had limited validity," (House & Aditya 1997 p 411). Essentially, the measurements to ensure validity were not always the strongest, and they way they were utilized by different research teams was incredibly varied, producing much different results from one research team to the next.

There are a wide number of different branches within the concept of attributing behavioral theory to the understanding of leadership within a contemporary context. Each of these theories inherently focus on molding and teaching certain desired behavioral traits as a way to properly train, motivate, and inspire the people under the leader. Task-oriented behavioral styles of leadership focus on inspiring behavior that will focus on the completion… [read more]

Leadership Research Paper

… At times, this suppression of personal ego and selfish motives may be quite obvious, as when a corporate leader voluntarily offers to take a miniscule salary while his or her company is recovering from difficult economic times. At other times,… [read more]

Leadership Assessment Term Paper

… Leadership Assessment

Definition of leader

In order to know the type of skills that characterize a leader one first has to know what a 'leader' means, but, as Van Wart (2003) points out, leaders vary from age to age and… [read more]

Servant Leadership Essay

… Servant leadership is often associated with the Bible and Jesus Christ, it is totally compatible with most religions and theories of philosophy.

In this essay, this author will use be using "great man" theory and participatory leadership in order to explain inadequacies in Greenleaf's characteristics of servant leadership. While the egalitarian ambitions of the servant leadership approach are laudable, they simply do not work in real situations, especially military and corporate situations. As we shall see in the great man and participatory leadership theories, there is a need to inspire followers to carry out the wishes of the leadership. Great leaders do this through inspiration. The characteristic of humility in servant leadership may be adequate in religious or charitable organizations, but it is not valid in the real world.

A. Great Man and Participatory Leadership vs. Servant Leadership

One of the main issues that Greenleaf has to defend his theory against is that it is too naive to work. Humans are corrupt and can not carry out the high ideals implicit in its precepts Greenleaf & Spears, 2002, 22-24). In the opinion of this author, it is a criticism that Greenleaf does not adequately answer. This is particularly the case in the case of public service leadership theory, where the "great man" theory is often seen as necessary, especially in a crisis. What was formerly a problem with this theory, namely the quasi-mystical aura of the leader, has been broken down and studied. Since then, focus has been placed upon the work of integrating transactional and transformational types of leadership theory into comprehensive models in the pursuit of a more holistic approach to explain what Van Wart (Van Wart, 2003, 215-216). Since then, work like the Van Wart article has helped the "great man" theory lose much of what was seen as unscientific aspects in order to manage and create institutional culture (ibid., 225).

Participatory leadership theory takes this one step further by explaining much about why the followers of leaders participate willingly in bringing about the vision of the leader. Such participative leadership increases the quality of the any decision and increases follower commitment, motivation and satisfaction. While previous work has been done, it was lacking in empirical value. In the study article in the Journal of Organizational Behavior study by Somech, it showed that long-term relationships are more stable, although they function well in the short-term as well (Somech, 2003, 1003). While there was more need indicated for study, it has been shown that participatory cooperation from subordinates is very much contingent upon charisma. This may be possible with servant leadership over time, but there have not been empirical studies of this leadership style.

Most of the exchange of information regarding servant-leadership has been philosophical. Studies such… [read more]

Theories of Leadership and Followership Thesis

… ¶ … leadership that influenced me.

Leadership self-analysis examination

An evolving standard for going the extra mile

Generally, it seems to me that leadership is all about 'doing' rather than 'thinking' or simply 'managing'. Margaret Wheately (2002) talks about challenging… [read more]

Style Approach in Leadership Term Paper

… ¶ … Leadership

Evaluating the Transformational System of Leadership

The essence of transformational leadership is the ability to provide an organization with a very clear sense of purpose, a challenging goal or vision to attain, and give each person involved… [read more]

Leadership a Philosophy of Leadership Is Important Essay

… Leadership

A philosophy of leadership is important, because it helps to guide the leader through all different situations. The philosophy embodies the truths and guiding principles that characterize one's view of leadership (Leboeuf, 1999). By having a philosophy to help… [read more]

Transformative Leadership Transformational Application Essay

… She said that I did a good job in helping others realize their potential, by mentoring and soliciting advice. She also praised my willingness to lead by doing, and said she had never seen me ask someone to do something in a leadership context that I would be unwilling to do myself. However, in terms of vision and charisma she gave me only slightly above average grades, in contrast to the well-above-average scores in my other areas.

Some of my problems in being charismatic may be because I have not yet been given the task of formulating my own vision; rather I have primarily been in charge of realizing the vision of others. However, not every transformational leader begins as an entrepreneur and the leader of his or her own organization. Transformational leaders must have an internal sense of fairness, rights, and values, even when upholding the vision of another leader in the service of the organization.

I have a good base of values with which to work -- such as my belief in the need for mentorship of subordinates, which was such a critical part of my own development as an employee. But I must look deeper within to create a sense of my values and vision so it consistently inspires me, so it can inspire others.

With a deeper sense of purpose that is consistent through my work, I believe that I may also become more charismatic and embody the type of responsive, unpretentious and effective leadership that I admire. I am not displeased with the leadership I exercise now, but I think I can do better. I cannot ask others to perform to a higher standard if I am not willing to try the same myself. Workers are not simply motivated through individualized mentorship -- they like to think they are part of something larger than themselves. That is the essence of transformational leadership. [read more]

Importance of Understanding Relationship / Leadership Style Essay

… Leadership/Relationship Style

Background- the core philosophical conundrum of leadership has been debated and defined by social theorists, philosophers, and politicians for centuries. True leadership is something almost undefinable at times: that spark that moves from the tactical to the strategic… [read more]

Religion and Leadership Core Religious Research Paper

… An individual who is emotionally intelligent is likely to also be emotionally, psychologically, and spiritually mature. Regardless of the philosophical or religious tradition from which an individual hails, servant-leadership will ensure organizational success. Research shows that emotional intelligence is linked to measurable results in an organization, which is why servant leadership may also ensure the fulfillment of both personal and organizational goals.

The concept of servant leadership is one that is holistic and multifaceted. Servant leadership and transformational leadership go hand in hand. For this reason also, systems theory and servant leadership go hand in hand. Organizations seeking stronger ethical foundations would be wise to cultivate servant leaders. Regardless of whether an organization is a Christian -- or any other type of religious -- one, servant leadership will ensure a harmonious, cooperative workplace environment. Supporting team members, inspiring positive change and growth, and developing future leaders through mentoring are all components of servant leadership. Behaviors associated with servant leadership are measurable, too. Future research shall elucidate the concrete ways servant leaders promote organizational success.


Agosto, E. (2005). Servant Leadership. Danvers, MA: Chalice.

Antonakis, J., Ashkanasy, N.M. & Dasborough, M.T. (2009). Does leadership need emotional intelligence? The Leadership Quarterly 20(2): 241-261.

Boyum, G. (2006). The Historical and Philosophical Influences on Greenleaf's Concept of Servant Leadership. Servant Leadership Research Roundtable. Aug 2006. Retrieved online:

Fry, L.F. (2009). Towards a theory of being-centered leadership: Multiple levels of being as context for effective leadership. Human Relations 62(11):1667-1696

Kamalini, K. (2010). A new culture of leadership: service over self. Journal of Christian Nursing 27(1): 46-50.

Rosete, D. & Ciarochi, J. (2005). Emotional intelligence and its relationship to workplace performance outcomes of leadership effectiveness. Leadership and Organization Development Journal 26(5): 388-399.

Sipe, J.W. & Frick, D.M. (2009). Seven Pillars of Servant Leadership. Mahway, NJ: Paulist.

Valk, J. (2010). Leadership for transformation: The impact of a Christian worldview. Journal of Leadership Studies 4(3):83-86.

Wallace, J.R. (2007). Servant leadership: A worldview perspective. International Journal of Leadership Studies 2(2): 114-132.… [read more]

Applying Leadership Theory Literature Review

… He also questions the stated influence of leadership as depicted by many authors. He identifies marketing, strategic planning, product development and investment as other important variables contributing in determining the level of organizational performance. To support his argument, he further… [read more]

Leadership in Public Sector Annotated Bibliography

… Allan Chapman (2010). Training and learning development: training, coaching, mentoring, training and learning design - developing people. Retrieved May 5, 2011 from

Shows the various training, coaching and mentoring needs that organizations do have and the varying designs that… [read more]

Leadership Has Become a Prominent Research Paper

… Leadership has become a prominent topic of research in recent years. One of the main reasons for this is that leadership is a major factor in the performance of employees and, by association, the performance of the company. There are… [read more]

Art of Mentoring Book Report

… Mentoring is a subset of leadership, an experience too often relegated to the context of situations too soft to be considered corporate. However, Shirley Peddy shows that mentoring is one of the core facets of enterprise-level leadership. In the Art… [read more]

Mentoring Program Essay

… Mentoring Plan



Mentoring Plan

This document explains Citizens Property Insurance Corporation's mentoring plan for workers involved in the new customer care center project. The purpose of this plan is to explain the duration, selection process, program structure, training, and communication requirements of mentees and mentors.

Mentoring: An overview

Mentoring can serve many functions, including orienting, training, and supporting new workers. For an insurance company that is highly dependent upon commission-based sales, master salesmen identified as highly skilled would make ideal mentors. Having such sales professionals mentor a new salesperson for an initial orientation period, and then continue to meet with the trainee at frequent intervals to discuss sales techniques will increase the company's likely profitability as well as prove helpful for trainees. For non-sales staff dealing with the public, mentoring after the training period will also be an ongoing process, as more experienced staff members are paired with less experienced staff members, who will then evaluate their performance in customer relations.

For employees who do not deal with the public, after the initial orientation and trial period for employees, mentoring will be used to nurture highly capable leaders to prepare them for managerial positions, as determined through regular performance reviews.


One of the difficulties of any sales-based enterprise is the need to create a sense of cohesion amongst salespersons, and to enable sales staff to share their insight with new trainees. During the orientation period, all new sales trainees will be assigned salespersons designated as master salespeople, with a proven track record of success. After the training period is over, new sales staff will be able to meet with their mentors regularly, to discuss concerns and questions they have about customer interactions. A similar program will be instated with customer support staff. Selected customer interactions will be taped and reviewed, and more effective methods of improving customer assistance… [read more]

Leadership Skills Research Paper

… Leadership in Human Relations

What are the key leadership skills that today's Human Resource professionals need in order to function seamlessly and effectively? Among the leadership skills reviewed in this paper are motivational skills, the ability to inspire, political skills… [read more]

Leadership Management Style Analysis in Nursing Research Paper

… Nursing Leadership

Abstract of Interview with Nursing Leader

The nursing leader interviewed in connection with this project has an educational background that includes a Bachelor of Business Administration and a BSN, and she is currently pursuing a Masters of Science… [read more]

Leadership Styles Leadership Theories Northouse ) Notes Essay

… Leadership Styles

Leadership Theories

Northouse (2006) notes that there are many different ways to finish this sentence "Leadership is…" He posits that there are just as many definitions of leadership as there are people who have tried to define it (2006).

It is much like the words democracy, love, and peace. Although each of us intuitively knows what he or she means by such words, the words can have different meanings for different people. As soon as we try to define leadership, we immediately discover that leadership has many different meanings (Northouse 2006).

While there are many definitions for leadership, there are many different styles of leadership and, of course, differing opinions on which styles of leadership are the most effective. This paper will not attempt to define leadership or delve into the myriad of styles, but will, rather, take a look at three different styles of leadership -- Level 5, Transactional, and Transformational -- all of which have proven to be very effective.

Executive A came to the job as CEO when the company was weak; the company was losing money (approximately $2 million a year) and its stock had gone down in value to about $23 a share. During Executive A's run as CEO, the stock rose 128% and the company profited after years of losing money. While the media believes that the CEO is the person responsible for the success of the printing company, Executive A has been very humble in accepting full responsibility, usually saying that it is the great leaders of the company that are the reasons for the company's success. Because Executive A is also able to accept responsibility for the mistakes that have been made as well as for all the reasons aforementioned, Executive A is exhibiting Level 5 leadership.

Level 5 leaders are confident individuals who are able to leave their positions as leaders with the next leader being set up for success. Level 5 leaders are also usually humble and are not attention seekers, arrogant, or in need of having media attention. They always give credit to others, which is exactly what Executive A has done.

Executive A has been unwavering in his determination to make the company a success. In part, Level 5 leaders must know talented individuals when they see them so they can use those employees' talents to aid in the success of the company. Level 5 leadership is "a combination of unique, counterintuitive quality of humility and unwavering perseverance" (Ronco & Ronco 2005). Jim Collins, author of the 2001 book, Good to great, says that "Level 5 leaders are a study in duality: modest and willful, humble and fearless" (2001). He then goes on to use Abraham Lincoln as an… [read more]

Comparing and Contrasting Four Leadership Models or Theories Research Paper

… ¶ … Leadership Theories

Comparing and Contrasting Four Leadership Models or Theories

Great Man, Transformational/Transactional, Situational, and DISC theories of leadership

Four leadership theories:

Great Man, Transformational/Transactional, Situational, and DISC theories of leadership

One of the first formal theories of… [read more]

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