"Leadership / Mentoring" Essays

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People Side of Leadership and Developing Executive Leadership in the Public Sector Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (782 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


¶ … quality of leadership, and of the leaders themselves, can influence and organization's success and contribute to its failure. Two recent articles in the professional journal, the Public Manager, discuss the role of leadership in public organizations and how leaders can be more effective. The two articles are similar in that they address the question of what makes an effective leader, but they differ in their overall focus and conclusions. Jeff Turner focuses almost exclusively on technical skills of leadership and how leadership fits into the organization's structure and how it influences the organizations strategic success. Mark Leheney, in contrast, argues that effective leadership relies on people skills, not process or strategizing.

In his article, "Developing Executive Leadership in the Public Sector," Jeff Turner first explicates the current crisis in public sector leadership, mainly that the leaders in place are ineffective. They are perhaps good managers, but good management does not equal good leadership. Leaders, Turner says, must be able to guide an organization toward its strategic goals and respond to the unique challenges of working in the public sector, including frequent policy changes, distrust of political leaders, competing goals, resource shortages and competition with the private sector. What's the solution, then to the predicament, according to Turner? Increasing leadership capacity by creating a "deep bench" of leaders throughout the organization, not just at the top (51). Turner explains that there are several indicators that indicate whether or not a leader is effective: self knowledge; personal accountability; strategy setting; engaging others; and harnessing insights (51-2). Notice that only one of his categories, engaging others, is focused strongly on the people skills of being a leader; the rest are technical skills and self-focused. Turner does turn to people skills when he mentions organization-specific qualities of leadership -- engaging and persuading the team toward the strategic goals. Still, Turner's focus is on a leader's effectiveness at a higher level, that of organizational objectives.

Can good leadership be taught? Can a leader be made? Turner thinks so, and he sets out specific practices and training approaches for developing strong leaders. First, Turner argues, leadership development needs to be firmly seated as a job for senior management, not for human resources (52). Only by being mentored and exposed to senior leaders can emerging leaders find their way to effectiveness, he argues. Leadership development programs,…… [read more]

Leadership Models Research Paper

Research Paper  |  5 pages (1,339 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3



There are a number of different theories to describe the best approach to leadership. Transformational leadership theory developed as a counterpoint to transactional leadership whereby the role of the leader is to change the way the organization functions at a core level, as opposed to changing the way specific tasks are conducted. Servant leadership, as espoused by Robert Greenleaf, in which leaders decide to take on that role as a means to serve their organizations and improve them, rather than as a means to advance one's own standing. Situational leadership theory is focused on the idea that the ideal type of leadership is dependent on the characteristics of the situation. Results-focused leadership is a counterpoint to situational leadership, in that the leadership style is dictated by the desired outcomes of that leadership. This paper will examine each of these four leadership theories in turn, and will compare and contrast them with one another, both in terms of philosophical underpinnings and in terms of the practical application of these theories in real organizations.

Transformational Leadership

Transformational leadership theory arose as a counterpoint to transactional leadership. The latter theory is more traditional, and based on the idea that leaders engage in transactions with their followers, exchanging remuneration or benefits for the completion of specific tasks. Transformational leadership arose out the realization that the transactional leadership model did not fit all organizations well. Some organizations, in particular those engaged in knowledge industries, had to utilize different systems of motivation. The transactional relationship between leader and subordinate was insufficient to produce superior results, because the tangible offers of the leader were insufficient to spur motivation among the subordinates. Transformational leadership recharacterized the relationship between leaders and subordinates as a leader engaging the followers. Under transformational leadership, motivation comes from higher order motivating factors rather than the lower order factors of pay and benefits.

The practical implication of transformational leadership is that the leader needs to be an interpersonal motivator, since getting the best from the subordinates is no longer a simple business negotiation. The underlying philosophy is that workers will perform better when engaged in their work than when they are simply performing a task out of a sense of duty to uphold an agreement. This theory has its roots in the writings of Marx about the roots of worker motivation, but adapted to a liberalist, capitalist setting.

Both situational and results-focused leadership theories share some similarities to transformational leadership. Both call for a degree of flexibility in leadership style, while the transformational leader must be flexible, almost by definition. The means of motivation, by virtue of not being transactional, are subject to change based on the situation, which can be defined either in terms of inputs or outputs. Transformational leadership differs from these two approaches, however, because it is focused on the means of accomplishing tasks. This rejects the idea that the task defines the means (results-oriented) because while the means may change the underlying philosophy behind the means will not change.… [read more]

Leadership Potential and Values Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (612 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


¶ … Leadership success [...] common measures and best practices in measuring leadership success. Being a successful leader is more than knowing how to motivate others. A successful leader must be ethical, moral, and exhibit high values, but they must be motivational to their staff members, as well. A good leader is an example to others, but they must be flexible and adapt to changing situations, too.

Good leadership is critical for any organization to function successfully. Measuring leadership success is also essential for any organization's success rate. To measure a good leader, managers must look for adaptability, personality, and ability to accomplish the organization's mission. Other qualities that are essential to excellent leadership include morals, ethics, and extremely high values, and the ability to motivate others.

Ethics and morals are extremely valuable qualities in effective leaders. Leaders represent the organization, and to represent it well, they must be morally and ethically sound. First, if they have high standards, that will translate to their staff members, and they will uphold those ethics and morals. Next, most leaders interact with the company's vendors and customers, and they must represent the highest standards of morals and ethics to gain their trust and win their business. Neither customers nor staff members want to deal with someone who is ethically or morally challenged, so successful leaders must represent the highest standards to others to give credence to the company. They must have a winning personality, as well. Two writers note, "The personality of the leader, coupled with an ability to accomplish the mission, prove critical for success of the organization" (Jerabek & Day, 2009). Staff members do not wish to work with a leader who is aseptic or unfriendly, and customers do not wish to interact with this kind of person, either. A successful leader must have a winning personality,…… [read more]

Leadership as it Is Expressed Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,588 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


¶ … leadership as it is expressed through the motion pictures Twelve Angry Men (1957) and Dead Poets Society (1989). Peter G. Northhouse's "Leadership: Theory and Practice (Fifth Edition)" and Nicollo Machiavelli's "The Prince" attempt to describe effective management and all the factors regarding it. As it is shown in the two films, leadership cannot be described from an objective… [read more]

Leadership Analysis the Necessity Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,176 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


Leadership Analysis

The necessity of leadership has determined several experts in the field to study the subject and to identify a series of characteristics that leaders should have in comparison with managers. The importance of leadership and the roles of leaders are reflected in the works of theorists and practitioners in the field. There are several theories that describe leadership styles and the different types of leaders and types of work environments addressed by these leaders.

Fred Fiedler is one of the most important theorists that have addressed the leadership field. Fiedler's theory refers to a contingency model of leadership effectiveness. Although there are several contingency theories regarding leadership, Fiedler's theory is considered to be the most complex.

In Fiedler's opinion, the leader's effectiveness depends on two aspects: leadership style and situational favorableness. When these factors interact, they create situational contingency.

The leadership style of the leader in case is not likely to change, therefore, it will influence the relationship between the leader and his subordinates, and the manner in which the leader manages certain situations.

According to Fiedler's theory, the leadership style is measured by the least preferred co-worker scale. This instrument is used in order to measure leadership orientation. The characteristics that are included in this scale are: unfriendly-friendly, uncooperative-cooperative, hostile-supportive, guarded-open, and others.

There are other characteristics that can be introduced in the measuring scale, in accordance with the area of activity, the type of company that the leader works in, and the situations that must be addressed by the leader.

A high score achieved by the leader subjected to this measuring scale reveals the fact that the leader in case has a human relations orientation. A low score reveals the fact that the leader in case is task oriented.

Fiedler explains how the measuring scale works. In other words, people that are human relations oriented tend to describe co-workers in a more positive manner, which means they will receive a higher LPC score. People that are task oriented tend to describe co-workers in a more negative manner, which means they will receive lower LPC scores.

It is important to understand that the LPC scale system is intended to reveal the orientation of the person taking the test, rather than that of the person being subjected to the test. The system is designed in order to identify the person's type of motivation, and whether the person in case is motivated by human relations or by tasks.

The situational favorableness is determined by the following factors: leader-members relations, task structure, leader position power. The leader-members relations are represented by the trust, respect, and confidence between the leader and his employees. The task structure refers to whether the tasks that must be performed by the group of the leader are clear and structured. The leader position power refers to the power that the leader has outside and within his group.

In Fiedler's opinion, there is no ideal leader. But all leaders can be effective if they implement an orientation… [read more]

Globalization and Leadership Essay

Essay  |  6 pages (1,874 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Globalization and Leadership

The Phenomenon of Globalization

Globalization can be defined as the unfolding resolution of the contradiction between ever expanding capital and its national political and social formations. Up to the 1970s, the expansion of capital was always as national capital, capital with particular territorial and historical roots and character. Afterwards, capital began to expand more than ever as… [read more]

About How Alex Sander Uses His Leadership Skills Case Study

Case Study  |  5 pages (1,367 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … Alex Sander uses his Leadership Skills

Alex Sander has strengths and weakness as much as any other human being. In the context of his career and the workplace, we have three sets of evidence to consider regarding his role about how he has acquitted himself in the workplace. These sources are:

The conversations with the neighbor,

His own statements

The 360 degree analysis made at the company and some other patterns noticed by the colleagues and superiors.

Based on these it is possible to see how Alex uses his strengths and how his weakness can be converted to a strength if he so wished. The principal question is his role and the behavior with his colleagues at workplace.

In order to put the actions, attitudes and workplace behavior of Alex in the proper perspective it is necessary to consider the proper definition of leadership and the traits that psychology advises to look for in a leader. Then it also becomes necessary to examine the work of Alex in such a way that his pressure at work and his commitment and what he undergoes can be analyzed in that perspective. Finally the strengths and how he used it and the weakness which he has to overcome can be seen. According to psychologists and sociologists the greatest driving force for a person to perform is the person's life dream. Thus the basic identity a person sees for himself or herself largely drives that person and develops characteristics suited to the perception. (Day; Zaccaro; Halpin, 2004)

The development of leadership qualities can be demonstrated in managing a team. And authors like Williams (1998) have identified "core' leadership thus defining a leader as the 'inward' leader, or 'outward' leader', 'exemplar', 'eccentric' and so on." A leader thus can be a motivator, organizer and someone who makes a team to accomplish goals. But the way this is achieved varies from person to person, hence the many type of leaders being defined. The importance lies in managing and motivating the team and in accomplishing the necessities for the assumed role. Looking at the career of Alex, it is easy to point out that he has initiative and enterprising spirit. He wants either to become an important player in a corporate entity or create his own enterprise. The greatest and most important asset in his character is this enterprising ability and mindset. The second important asset is the ability to define the work and create and assign job roles that are suited to each player of the team. This also seems to be an added asset and the focus with which the team is managed as a 'no-nonsense-boss' is an added asset. These characteristics are shown from the dialogues Alex has with the neighbor and his colleagues at the office.

General Analysis:

On the superficial analysis some traits that stand out have been examined. The abilities of Alex can be charted from the reports in the assessment given by the report and the following analysis… [read more]

Leadership Theory Has Undergone Significant Evolution Essay

Essay  |  8 pages (2,315 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Leadership theory has undergone significant evolution in the past hundred years. Taylor and Fayol provided basic descriptions of leadership function in for-profit enterprises. The leadership they described was perhaps more in line with what we today understand as management -- scientific control, planning and command -- but it provided a starting point. As leadership study has become more refined, it… [read more]

Leadership Plan Personal Leadership Development Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,327 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


Leadership Plan

Personal Leadership Development Plan

Personal Development and Theoretical Underpinnings

Throughout the self-reflection and investigation that has taken place during this course, I have developed an increasing awareness of my particular leadership strengths, weaknesses, and styles such that I am able to more concretely and with greater certainty outline a plan for the development of my own leadership potential. The fact that my preferred types of power being expert knowledge and referent power, and with a strong disinclination for coercion, combined with my strong team building skills and my ability to compromise and collaborate as a means of resolving conflicts, fits much of the theoretical criteria for transformational leadership (Bass & Riggio 2006). My personal leadership development plan is to adjust my attitudes and behaviors to more closely match those of the transformational leader as defined in literature, in order to be able to more effectively lead my organization.

Transformational leadership theory is a relatively recent development in managerial style and the study of leadership, but already has a proven track record of success in many organizations (Bass & Riggio 2006). Especially effective in times of change and transition, transformational leadership by definition inspires the other members of the organization, creating a sense of common purpose and communal value and thus making for a more efficient organization with a happier and more productive workforce (Bass & Riggio 2006; Hiebert & Klatt 2001). This ability to inspire is perhaps the most essential aspect of transformational leadership, and is one that I plan to develop as fully as is possible.

Developing into a transformational leader will not, of course, be a simple or easy task. Though I have several qualities that will serve as major strengths in this development, most especially my ability to foster collaboration in the face of conflict and a leadership through expertise, there are also some definite weaknesses in my leadership style and general approach that would preclude my development into a true transformational leader, and recognizing and detailing these weaknesses must form the first part of my development plan (Bass & Riggio 2006; London 2002). Maintaining an ongoing awareness of these weaknesses through the various steps of leadership development will help to ensure that this development takes place in a focused manner, actively and consciously addressing specific issues in leadership style and attitude (London 2002).

A large part of being a transformational leader is making sure that communication takes place with a great deal of efficiency within the organization, and especially in smaller organizations such as that in which I hold a leadership role facilitating ongoing education and information sharing must be a major part of the leadership task (Bass & Riggio 2006). Establishing the proper skills and attitudes for fostering such a communicative and educational environment will also be a major feature of my leadership development plan (Bush 2003). Again, the identification of specific skills and an ongoing awareness of these needed skills throughout the phases of development will keep the plan and my progress… [read more]

Facilitative Leadership Providing Leadership Without Taking Control Essay

Essay  |  7 pages (1,988 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Facilitative Leadership

Providing leadership without taking control is the essence of effective facilitative leadership, and this often requires leaders to change how they think as much as how they manage (Brome, 2006). A facilitative leader is one that is more centered on subordinates, less on traditional lines of authority and the need to exercise formal power in all situations, and… [read more]

Leadership Models Assessment Essay

Essay  |  6 pages (1,652 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


¶ … Leadership Models

Assessment of Four Leadership Models

The industrial age, transactional, transformational and situational leadership models emerged from the unique needs of organizations to optimize their workforces to the tasks needed to accomplish strategic goals. Each of these leadership approaches or theories also reflect a given mindset and prevailing belief in how best to manage human productivity to… [read more]

Contrarian's Guide to Leadership in the Book Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,470 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Contrarian's Guide To Leadership

In the book, the Contrarian's Guide to Leadership by Dr. Steven B. Sample takes on an ambitious aim: to explain how leadership is both contextual, driven by emotional intelligence and also a learned skill that can be honed over time. This is an ambitious vision for any book, traversing the foundational aspects of leadership using a… [read more]

Theory Construct of on Leadership Book Report

Book Report  |  4 pages (1,439 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Theory/Construct of on Leadership by John W. Gardner

In John W. Gardner's (1990) book on Leadership, he addresses the question of why the leadership that is available today is not better than it is. In other words, he asks the question that many people wonder - why isn't the leadership that's available today better, and what can be done to… [read more]

Twelve O'Clock High - Leadership Creative Writing

Creative Writing  |  5 pages (1,827 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Twelve O'Clock High - Leadership

Over the last ten years the world has been facing a lack of leadership in many areas. Part of the reason for this is: many people will talk about how important it is to set the example. Yet, when you look at their leadership style and attributes, it is clear that they are saying one… [read more]

Jim Collins Level 5 Leadership Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (2,719 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


¶ … Jim Collins

Level 5 Leadership: Which is harder to cultivate within yourself: humility or will?

Personal humility and professional will are both excellent characters in a leader. In fact Jim Collins (2001) in his book Good to Great reported that these qualities are paramount in becoming a level 5 leader. Many would argue that these are characteristics that… [read more]

Leadership to Most People in Most Contexts Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (1,078 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Leadership to most people in most contexts is a very general term, because it can apply to many situations and numerous kinds of leaders. One form of leadership occurs when a person sees a need to make a decision, or take a position, or help others decide the best way to do something. In his book Leadership: Theory and Practice, Peter Guy Northouse explains that leadership has been defined in terms of the "power relationship that exists between leaders and followers" (Northouse, 2007). But to some scholars leadership has also meant someone who is part of a transformation process that "moves followers to accomplish more than what is usually expected of them," Northouse continues.

For the purposes of using leadership in the review of the film "Prince of Persia: The Sands of Time," this paper will use the following definition from Northouse: "Leadership is a process whereby an individual influences a group of individuals to achieve a common goal."

"Prince of Persia" is certainly not considered an Academy Award-level movie -- none of the actors were nominated for any awards -- nor was it well received by film reviewers who specialize in critiquing with a sharp eye for flaws. In fact the movie is a spin-off from a video game of the same name, and it has scenes that are filled with gratuitous violence and cliched dialogue. Sword fighting, wild stunts that are slowed down to super-slow-motion speed, and other computer-generated special effects appear throughout the film.

Those weaknesses do not take away from the fact that the film has leadership as one of the themes. As Northouse explains, leadership is a process, leadership involves influence, leadership occurs in a group context, and leadership involves goal attainment.

The film has well-known actors playing significant roles; it stars Jake Gyllenhaal as Prince Dastan; Ben Kingsley as Nizam, Dastan's uncle; Gemma Arterton as Princess Tamina; and Alfred Molina as Sheik Amar. It is produced by well-known movie mogul Jerry Bruckheimer. While it is a spin-off from the video game franchise, it departs from the video in that the main point -- and the leadership element -- has to do with stopping the bad guy from releasing the Sands. The film is set in ancient Persia, and the basic plot goes like this: Prince Dastan and Princess Tamina team up -- a very unlikely team indeed -- to keep the mysterious and powerful dagger out of the hands of the very dark enemy forces. Whoever has possession of the dagger has the power to rule the world by releasing the sands of time.

Leadership comes into play early in the film, as a young orphan street boy -- an actor that is supposed to be a young Dastan -- makes a big impression on the King of Persia (Ronald Pickup). The young Dastan evades the King's men in a wild romp through the village, and when he is caught, after making the soldiers look very bad and embarrassing the King, he could be… [read more]

Nursing Leadership A-Level Outline Answer

A-Level Outline Answer  |  2 pages (738 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Nursing -- Leadership

Effective leadership is a prime determinant of work satisfaction. The presence of strong leadership sets the tone for achievement in the work environment. How do you think the work environment can be helped by a strong leader, and how do you think it can be hindered by a weak or ineffective leader?

Generally, one of the most important aspects of vocational leadership relates to the appropriateness of leadership style to the nature of the vocational environment, relationships, and responsibilities (Medley & LaRochelle, 1995). Various approaches to leadership have been compared in nursing, including the transactional, transformational, and management by exception styles, largely, because those are the predominant leadership and management styles in healthcare and other similar professions (Medley & LaRochelle, 1995).

Briefly, transactional leadership refers to the underlying concept that workers perform primarily for the purpose of the contractual transaction (i.e. work for monetary compensation) where their pay is substantially determined by their performance or by their promotion to higher-paying positions by virtue of superior performance in their current responsibilities (Medley & LaRochelle, 1995). Transformational leadership refers to the philosophical transformation in attitudes, perspective, and values in employees by virtue of the leadership of supervisors and/or predominant organizational culture. Finally, management by exception refers to a laissez-faire leadership style wherein only significantly superior and inferior performance generate supervisory attention while acceptable performance is largely ignored (Medley & LaRochelle, 1995). According to Medley & LaRochelle (1995), transformational leadership is significantly more likely to be associated with positive outcomes in terms of employee satisfaction and job performance measures in nursing. Those conclusions are consistent with my observations because nurses whose main concern is their paycheck and nurses who only receive feedback when their performance is significantly above or below expected standards tend to go on "auto-pilot" and to become somewhat disconnected with their work, often performing robotically. Conversely, nurses whose supervisors provide transformational leadership tend to buy-in to a deeper philosophical meaning to their responsibilities and to approach their work more enthusiastically and conscientiously because they become committed to their leaders' (and their organizations') values and missions.

2. Members of the younger generations (i.e. those 18 to 35 years of age) have said that they want to be…… [read more]

Leadership Would You Recommend Abrashoff Use Assessment

Assessment  |  2 pages (756 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


¶ … leadership would you recommend Abrashoff use to get the ship back on course and inspire sailors to give their best?

Captain Abrashoff is commanding a ship that is one of the best-equipped, most modern ships in the U.S. Navy. However, the morale of the sailors on the U.S.S. Benfold is extremely low, given the sailor's poor living conditions and inconsistent training. Crew members are frustrated because they feel that much of their day is devoted to pointless tasks. They do not understand their duties or how the orders fit into the 'big picture' of their organization's larger mission and plan. In contrast to the usual demeanor of a military leader, Abrashoff must adopt a more participatory managerial style, and listen to his crew's concerns. Abrashoff's problem is not one of technology or logistics: it is a human resource-related issue. The crew does not feel as if it is respected, so it is not exerting itself, using 100% of its potential effort, which is required on a military ship.

The quality of the food, the appearance of the ship -- all of these small details matter in a leadership-driven environment. By changing the sailor's physical circumstances and making decisions more participatory, Abrashoff can change the sailors' attitudes. Abrashoff must begin having meetings with the crew to solicit their input about how the management of the ship should take place. Abrashoff must assume that the sailors want to serve their country to their fullest capacity, and the crew's attitude is one of his assets. The sailors must not be seen as his adversaries in improvement measures. Individuals who seek out a military career no longer have to do so: they enlist because they desire to show their leadership skills.

Only through a non-dictatorial and participatory leadership style can Abrashoff involve the sailors in the changes that need to take place to make the U.S.S. Benfold a high-functioning ship. Often it is individuals involved in the day-to-day workings of a ship that have the most potentially valuable input to give, regarding the standard operating procedures of the unit. And the very act of asking for input can be a morale-booster, especially when dealing with the typical personality profile of an individual who chooses to enlist in the military.

Question…… [read more]

Primal Leadership Text Book Review

Book Review  |  2 pages (652 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Primal Leadership Text

Six types of leadership: Precis of Primal Leadership

In their management primer Primal Leadership, the authors Daniel Goleman, Richard Boyatzis and Annie McKee identify six different leadership styles that they believe characterize the way authority functions within a variety of organizations, and the appropriate role of management during different stages of an organization's history.

The visionary leader

This leader is most effective when setting a long-term mission and purpose for an organization. A visionary leader inspires respect with his or her great charisma, but is most effective when marshalling the support of individuals who really believe in his or her vision already. An example of a visionary leader might be the executive of Whole Foods, leading an organic, green revolution: many people already believe in the goals of sustainability being put into action when joining such a politically-motivated group. This leader is not focused on solving technical problems, but upon creating something truly new in the organizational landscape and is often the organization's founder during its early years.

The coaching leader

The coaching leader is people-focused, and urges individuals to meet personal goals in the service of the organization. Because of a coach's individualistic focus, a coaching leadership style very one-on-one in its approach, and fairly short-term in focus. Improving specific business areas, such as customer service at Comcast, are well-suited to this style. This style requires a certain amount of 'buy-in' from workers, and is useful in bolstering organizational morale in a cohesive organization that simply needs some fine tuning.

The affiliative leader

The affiliative leader focuses on creating harmony and ties between workers. Affiliative leadership can be a useful approach when an organization has just undergone a dramatic, wrenching change, such as being the focus of a lawsuit or a new merger. Affiliative leaders use trust-building and bridge-building to create a community. This type of style is not conducive to growth and expansion, but affiliative approaches are necessary at times, such…… [read more]

Applying Servant Leadership Principles in a Conflicted Church Dissertation

Dissertation  |  100 pages (30,193 words)
Bibliography Sources: 30


Applying Servant Leadership within a Conflicted Church: The Project as an Act of Ministry

My church, the South Iowa Chapel, like many modern churches, is a church in conflict. Conflicted churches are problematic because they drive parishioners away from church, and, possibly, away from Christ. Conflict in a church can also be a difficult situation to remedy, because of the… [read more]

Leadership in the 21st Century: Compromise Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (2,017 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


Leadership in the 21st Century:

Compromise and conciliation in the presidency of Barack Obama

Barack Obama became the first African-American president of the United States in 2008, an accomplishment that few believed could have transpired only a few years before his meteoric political rise. Since his inauguration, 'no drama Obama' (as he is known) has drawn fire from the left… [read more]

Cost Leadership Strategy Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (500 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … Leadership Strategy

While all businesses strive to attain profitability, there are those market and industry factors that force organizations and businesses into cost leadership strategies. The intent of this analysis is to explain which businesses are best attuned to this type of business model. Typically organizations with a very broad scope and where the differentiating element of their strategies is value excel with a cost leadership strategy (Voola, O'Cass, 2010).

Products and Services Businesses That Excel with Cost Leadership Strategies

Products that often rely on rapid product lifecycles where price has become one of the primary differentiators do the best when relying on Dr. Michael Porter's low price leadership strategy. This is because of the scope of their product strategy, which is often very broad, and the unique value proposition of high tech products which is often quite fast relative to substitute products. Manufacturers who rely on low price and cost leadership often look to create incentives for their channel partners to further accelerate the velocity of sales -- as often low cost leadership strategies rely on inventory turns and current ratio performance to attain their financial objectives.

Where cost leadership strategies have their greatest effect is when the unique value proposition of an organization is reflected in the alignment of their value chains to the cost savings passed on to customers. This is specifically the strategy at Wal-Mart, where the Low price Everyday (LPED) strategy is predicated and supported by extensive investments in supply chain optimization, value…… [read more]

Personal Leadership Beliefs: Overview Leadership: Current Knowledge Assessment

Assessment  |  4 pages (1,158 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


¶ … Personal leadership beliefs: Overview

Leadership: current knowledge

Teamwork is an essential aspect of optimizing organizational performance. According to the Keirsey Temperament test, I have an intuitive ability to facilitate teamwork and create a team atmosphere that can optimize organizational performance. Interpersonal and communication skills are some of the most important leadership qualities when doing business today. Exercising leadership in a diverse environment requires understanding how people's different value orientations impact organizational behavior. I believe that my Idealist (NF) and Intuitive Feeler orientation gives me the required patience and understanding to create a leadership environment where all the contributions, of every member of the organization, are valued. My style is that of a participatory managerial approach that strives to draw forth the skills of all organizational members.

Leadership skills

Media and public relations have become especially important in today's economy, and I believe that my communication skills make me ideally suited for the demands of today's business environment. Good listening is a skill: so is being able to say the same things in different ways to appeal to different types of people.

Even though many corporate workplaces are quite segmented, departments such as it and marketing must engage in more joint efforts than ever before. I have always enjoyed being a part of multidisciplinary teams and acting as a liaison with other companies and departments. Teaching, diplomacy, and negotiating are all skills which I -- and a good leader -- must possess in abundance, just as much as traditional leadership capacities of managing, delegating, and exercising authority. Authority in modern organizations no longer exists in a top-down fashion.

Disposition towards leadership

On an ethical orientation test, I was characterized as an 'organizational person,' who puts the value and goals of the organization ahead of personal values. Once upon a time, I suppose, this type of orientation was seen as antithetical to strong leadership. However, now I believe that this type of disposition is an asset. Instead of stressing personal advancement, I strive to create a common mission and goal for those with whom I work. I have long understood that no person is an 'island.' Every leader is dependant upon others to realize organizational goals, and a leader who places the needs of him or herself above that of the organization is no leader at all.

Of course, even the most popular and congenial leader cannot lose sight of his or her values: someone who is overly yielding will not be respected. But I am strong as well as supportive: I try to use the need to put aside personality conflicts and accomplish the task at hand as a way of keeping team members highly focused. In this sense, my desire to be an organizational cheerleader can work to my advantage.

Those whom I supervise know I prefer to lead through dispensing praise, not with sanctions. I am always quick to note peoples' different accomplishments, and when there is a problem, my approach is 'how do we fix this,'… [read more]

Reasons Why Change Is Difficult for Employees and Leadership Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,552 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5



Yukl (2010) does not oversimplify leadership or its practical application. Instead, Yukl (2010) proposes a multi-linkage model in which the leader has a primary effect on situational variables, which in turn impact members of the team and thereafter, team performance. Among the intervening variables a leader might be able to affect include the effort exerted by subordinates, task structure… [read more]

Emotional Leadership the Importance of Emotional Intelligence Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  5 pages (1,371 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 10


Emotional Leadership

The Importance of Emotional Intelligence in Leadership

There are many different styles and aims of leadership that have been identified in both professional and academic literature. Since the middle of the twentieth century this literature has come to focus at least as much on the human aspect of leadership and management -- on the ability to motivate and coordinate individuals -- as it has on the more numerical and mechanistic aspects of organizational leadership (Chan 2007). The concept of emotional intelligence, though variously defined, has been identified as a necessary component of successful leadership in a wide variety of disciplines and many different organizational types (Ashkanasy & Dasborough 2003; Eason 2009). This paper identifies several of the ways in which emotional intelligence has been found to alter the nature and effect -- as well as the efficacy -- of leadership in a variety of settings and with a variety of goals.

An essential goal in many organizations, regardless of the industry or primary objectives of that organization, is the inspiration and motivation of the organization's workforce to provide the best possible service to the organization. Transformational leadership is a leadership style that is defined by its achievement in this area, and emotional intelligence has been cited as a primary characteristic of transformational leaders in may situations (Barbuto & Burbach 2006). Essentially, it is the ability to recognize and respond to emotions honestly and adeptly that allows leadership to become truly transformational, promoting not only individual efficacy and motivation but also establishing greater group cohesion (Wang & Huang 2009). Leaders hat poses true emotional intelligence can use this to inspire employees and organizations to new levels of excellence and productivity.

Emotional intelligence is also an effective component of leadership in a much broader sense. The existence and application of empathy and emotional intelligence in leadership is an essential element in determining the needs of many organizations, particularly in educational endeavors (Moore 2009; Singh et al. 2007). Many studies have also found emotional intelligence to be of paramount importance in nursing leadership, as well; the more directly emotions are both a means and an ends of the organizations practices and goals, it seems (and quite reasonably so), the more necessary emotional intelligence becomes and the more extreme its effect on organizational and individual efficacy (Vesterinen et al. 2009; Akerjordet & Severinsson 2008). In the fields of both education and nursing, the emotional needs of the client (students and patients, respectively) are a part of the direct focus of the services provided, making emotional intelligence arguably a more prominent feature of successful leadership in these industries.

The usefulness of emotional intelligence is not limited to a few select fields or goals, of course, but is broadly applicable in almost any leadership setting. There has been some suggestion that emotional intelligence -- or more precisely, an over-reliance on emotional intelligence as a decision-making tool for leadership -- can actually be a hindrance in some situations, but this is far from the prevailing… [read more]

Leadership Film Project: Dead Poets Society ) Essay

Essay  |  6 pages (2,105 words)
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Leadership film project: Dead Poets Society (1989)

"Carpe Diem, boys! Seize the day! Make your lives extraordinary." The image of Robin William's teacher in the film Dead Poets Society (1989) has become an iconic representation of what a good teacher should resemble: Williams embodies a teacher who inspires a love of poetry in his students, and also encourages his students… [read more]

Role of Vision at Mentor Graphics Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  3 pages (815 words)
Style: Harvard  |  Bibliography Sources: 2


Role of Vision at Mentor Graphics

The company's vision statement should provide clear guidelines for the company, it should clearly design the direction that the company should follow in order to achieve its goals and objectives. Instead, Mentor Graphics Corporation developed a series of vision statements that had nothing to do with the company's activity or situation, but sounded interesting, which seemed to be more important for the company's managers at that time.

Instead of developing a vision that would determine the necessary changes at Mentor Graphics, the company did the opposite, by developing visions in order to adapt to already existing changes provided by the external environment. This way, the company was one step behind its competitors most of the time, weakening the company's position on the market, and determining the company to lose ground in favor of its competitors.

The company's second vision statement, Beat Daisy seemed to have strengthened the company, since Mentor Graphics achieved this objective, and the company's volume of sales exceeded that of Daisy Systems. But this strengthening was not sustainable on long-term, mainly because it was not based on real capabilities of the company.

Furthermore, the company experienced with several vision statement that only weakened Mentor Graphics. Instead of using the vision to the company's advantage, top managers considered that it would be more suitable to develop vision statements that sounded very innovative, like the Six Boxes or the 10X Imperative. But such vision statements only clouded the judgment of the managers and of the employees that were supposed to apply the strategy developed by their superiors.

3. There is a series of reasons for which visions may fail (Terez, 2002). For example, if a vision is either too specific or to vague, or whether it is inadequate for the company and the situation in case, or is not realistic, it may fail to deliver the expected results.

In Mentor Graphics' case, it is obvious that the vision was too vague for what the company needed. Customers were disoriented, they could not figure out what the company was about, because the vision statement was so vague (Kotelnikov, 2001).

This was disorienting for employees also. The vision statement in case was unable to provide them the direction they needed in order to achieve the objectives established by their superiors.

Also, the company's various visions did not adapt over time. The Beat Daisy vision was suitable for the company's situation during the…… [read more]

Leadership Charisma Myth: Leaders Need Thesis

Thesis  |  3 pages (949 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


Leadership Charisma

Myth: Leaders Need Charisma

At certain points in my life I have had a tendency to place certain figures of authority on mental pedestals, esteeming them beyond what their actual qualities and actions warranted. I would not consciously strive to be like these individuals, but would sometimes berate myself for not matching them in certain of their qualities. One of the consistent features exhibited by the individuals I looked up to in this fashion was their charisma, and their ability to sway other individuals (including myself, of course). These individuals also invariably toppled from their pedestals with varying impacts on my view of myself, but another common feature was the realization that their charisma -- one of the features that had so drawn me to them -- was essentially empty. Worse than that, it could be misleading, inspiring confidence in their leadership and authority when there was no substances behind it. These experiences are what has drawn me to the research of debunking the myth that all good leaders require or even benefit from a powerful and winning charisma.

A recent article in the magazine Time explores the concept of charismatic leadership, noting that it was one of the three types of leadership defined and described by sociologist Max Weber (Elliott 2009). It was far from the only type of leadership Weber identified, and this article goes on to note many prominent current and former world leaders that have proven enormously successful and popular despite a lack of charisma -- Germany's Angela Merkel, Great Britain's Tony Blair, and many others are specifically listed. In fact, this article makes the assertion that the insistence on charisma is largely and American trait, and tends to produce superficial rather than meaningful leaders (Elliott 2009).

Though he takes a less negative view of charisma as a leadership quality than does Elliott of Time, Harvard professor Joseph Nye argues that it is not even a quality that fully belongs to the people said or believed to posses it (Nye 2008). He des not suggest that it is not in some ways an individual and personal quality, but asserts that the right situation and the right followers are also necessary to bring this charisma about. It is not so much a feature of a leader, then, as it is a combination of timing and the will of the masses. Charisma must be granted, in other words, and though there are those that have an easier time having the public aid them in this endeavor than others it is not actually a quality that the leaders themselves wholly posses. This means that charisma is not only unnecessary for good leadership, but it cannot really be purposefully achieved (Nye 2008).

Other scholars have gone even further, and claimed that personality traits in general are not any indicator of the type…… [read more]

Impact of Transformational Leadership on Subordinates Development and Performance Thesis

Thesis  |  6 pages (1,679 words)
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¶ … Transforamtional Leadership on Subordiantes Development and Performance

This work intends to examine and discuss the impact of transformational leadership on the development and performance of subordinates.

Definition and Characteristics of Transformational Leadership

Transformational leadership is described as a "process of transforming the organizational behavior, the culture and the individuals; simultaneously transforming the leader himself." (Leadership Development, 2009) Transformational… [read more]

Leadership Its Importance for Today's Organization Thesis

Thesis  |  5 pages (1,418 words)
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Edwin Locke's The Essence of Leadership: Four Keys to Leading Successfully was published in 1999. Locke is famous for his work on motivation, and applies that work to his treatise on leadership. The Essence of Leadership covers a range of ground including the nature of leadership, leadership traits, the knowledge, skills and abilities that leaders need, and vision. Vision… [read more]

Transformational Leadership a Leadership Style That Bring the Best of People Thesis

Thesis  |  10 pages (2,770 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10


Transformational Leadership, a leadership style that bring the best of people

Transformational Leadership

The issue of leadership and leadership effectiveness has become a focus of much debate in the past two decades. This has resulted in two central trajectories of thought on leadership, particularly in the business and organizational world. A central line of inquiry into what makes an effective… [read more]

Leadership This Is a Guideline and Template Thesis

Thesis  |  2 pages (661 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3



This is a guideline and template. Please do not use as a final turn-in paper.

Can Leadership Be Taught?

The definition of leadership includes "the ability to guide, direct, or influence people." That sure sounds like something that can be taught. But we'll look a bit deeper into that definition and what leadership really is. My opinion is that a real leader has that innate quality and charisma to endear people to his other leadership qualities such as his knowledge, experience, professionalism, talent, and strength of character. It is that innate charisma that I do not believe can be taught.

A person can "lead" by excellent management skills, and can supervise his subordinates professionally and capably, but would they define him as a leader, or a great manager? Experts attempt to define leadership in many ways. A leader influences people to succeed and accomplish objectives that allow the "team" not just the individual to become more cohesive.

Leaders apply certain values that they have established over a period of time along with their own skill set. Their leadership has a positive impact on those who choose to be impacted by it. It motivates people to desire to excel -- to prove to their leader their own capabilities without him or her asking them to.

Leadership after all is an ability -- a talent if you will or a skill -- to inspire in others a vision or a dream (Kurnik, 2009).

Can Leaders and Future Leaders Be Taught Leadership?

If the question is can a person who has leadership traits already be taught to be a better leader? The answer would be probably, yes. That is given that the traits we discussed above are present, say, in one who has displayed the potential but needs experience to gather the other skills necessary to lead. Can any manager or supervisor be taught to be a leader? Again the response would be no.

"The idea that leadership can be taught suggests…… [read more]

Bad Leadership Is Hazardous to Your Health Thesis

Thesis  |  5 pages (1,551 words)
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Bad leadership is hazardous to your health. Stories of bad leadership abound in the business press. Criminal leaders such as Ken Lay and Jeffrey Skilling can bring down their companies (Smith, 2006). Bankers exercising poor risk management can cripple the global economy. But poor leadership can have far worse impacts. From the incompetent construction foreman or Joseph Stalin, by negligence… [read more]

Mentoring Program for Professional Women Respondents' Profile Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  4 pages (988 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Mentoring Program for Professional Women

Respondents' Profile

Respondents surveyed totaled to N=338 females, majority of which belongs to the 20-30 years old age range (50%). Around 38%, meanwhile, belonged to the 31-40 years old age range. Most of the females surveyed, in effect, have ages between 20 and 40 years old. Majority are single (51%), but there is also a sizable portion of females that are married, albeit less than the majority (44%). Almost all have undergraduate to graduate degrees (92%), most are working for the government (74%), and there is an almost equal split between first line employees (48%) and middle to senior managers (50%). This good mix of management level among respondents provides a good representation of female employees' thoughts and attitudes about the concept of developing a mentoring program for professional women.

Mentoring Awareness

Respondents were well aware of the difference between coaching and mentoring, with most of them answering that there is a difference between the two. Despite this knowledge, more than the majority of the respondents have not participated in and have poor knowledge in any mentoring programs (58%). But almost all recognized the need for a mentoring program (92%), citing the following purposes or advantages that a mentoring program would give them: "experience, knowledge and skills transfer/self-development; career progression; network opportunity/provide exposure and visibility within the organization; opportunity to identify potential leaders and fast track them; and encourages, motivates, and increases productivity."

Interest in mentoring program

The expressed need for a mentoring program was indeed validated when asked about the respodents' interest in a mentoring program for professional women. Almost all expressed interest in participating in a mentoring program (90%). Most would like the mentoring program to run from a few months (43%) to one year (31%), and frequency of meetings was highly distributed across weekly (29%), bi-monthly (34%), and monthly (27%) meetings between mentor and mentee.

Mentoring program

Respondents were also asked about their preferences on the kind of mentoring program they would like to have. Getting the top two favorable responses (ratings of "4" and "5") from each potential benefit enumerated, most of the respondents want a mentoring program that will give the mentee an opportunity to 'expand her knowledge of career path and options' (86%) and 'develop (their) interpersonal and communication skills' (81%). Least mentioned and favorable potential benefit the respondents would like to have is to 'expand (their) knowledge of the company' (64%).

When asked about the potential negative aspects of a mentoring program, respondents feared that they will be considered as "weak" (74%). Second top or mostly cited response was that the respondents were 'embarassed to have a mentor' (73%). Least mentioned negative aspect was respondents' fear that a 'bad mentoring experience could adversely impact the program' (31%). These percentages make up the top two responses, signifying that these responses were considered the more negative aspects of a mentoring program for female professionals.

Respondents mentioned that while there is almost a general concensus…… [read more]

Leading Lessons in Leadership From Steve Jobs Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (875 words)
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Lessons in Leadership from Steve Jobs

In assessing why Steve Jobs is consistently ranked as one of the most exceptional leaders of his generation, his leadership attributes and styles, personal strengths and perspective on how to make achievement relevant all matter in the analysis. Jobs' innate ability to interlink the personal attributes of the Apple brand with the products' design and the value loyal customers get is exceptional (Beckman, Harris, 2008). As a result, Apple consistently has the highest levels of repeat purchase and customer loyalty of any PC and MP3 manufacturer today, with this loyalty bordering on cult status (Burrows, Grover, Green, 2006).

Functions of Leadership

From the initial Apple Macintosh to the development of the iPhone, iPod and iTouch Series of products, Steve Jobs exemplified the functions of leadership. In fact to gain the cooperation and commitment of talented engineers to produce these products, Jobs had to first communicate clearly and succinctly a vision each of these could find a role to fulfill. This ability to create a compelling vision where each person sees their role clearly and is energized by the thought of contributing is an essential function of leadership (Beckman, Harris, 2008). The vision of a leader and their consistency and commitment to it is also critical for their long-term credibility. Steve Jobs has consistently shown this passionate commitment to a vision. As a result he has earned exceptionally high levels of credibility and respect from those that work for and with him (Beckman, Harris, 2008).

Second, Steve Jobs has been successful in delineating his own leadership style by integrating both transformational and transactional aspects of leadership. Transactional leadership that concentrates on immediate rewards for exceptional effort has been one of the strategies Steve Jobs has used to motivate engineers to work exceptionally hard to attain product development schedules (Beckman, Harris, 2008). He has also been able to bring in the most critical areas of transformational leadership and emotional intelligence, providing those working with and for him with support and guidance. Mr. Jobs is a very intensely driven leader and does expect the same level of passion in others he has for the work or vision he is attempting to achieve (Burrows, Grover, Green, 2006). As a result of this his transformational leadership style is often seen as very demanding with high expectations of complete commitment to the vision being pursued (Beckman, Harris, 2008). Regardless of whether the vision is a new phone as in the iPhone or a new ultra-thin laptop like the MacBook Air, Steve Jobs;' transformational leadership strengths also give those working with and for him a clear sense…… [read more]

Shared Leadership Directly Impacts the Innovation Process Thesis

Thesis  |  4 pages (1,205 words)
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¶ … shared leadership directly impacts the innovation process within organizations and how defining and executing an effective management vision is critically important to an organizations' success. Shared leadership requires a highly transformational leadership style if it is to be effective (Mancheno-Smoak, Endres, Potak, Athanasaw, 2009). The essence of transformational leadership is the ability to earn respect and trust and continually prove those attributes are warranted over time (Kouzes, Posner, 2005). To the extent any leader has the ability to create an exceptional vision and execute to it is the extent to which they provide subordinates with the opportunity to personally identify with the vision and see their role within it (Kouzes, Posner, 2009). The intent of this paper is to analyze these two dynamics of leadership, underscoring how critically important they are as catalysts of significant change throughout organizations.


Creating and Sustaining Shared Leadership in the Innovation Process

The difference between leaders who are capable of consistently delivering exceptional levels of innovation and performance in their organizations relative to those that are not rests on their credibility (Kouzes, Posner, 2005) and the trust others have in their ability to do what they say they will do (Kouzes, Posner, 1990). For leadership to be effective then there must be an exceptional level of honesty, accountability and transparency associated with any leader if they are to be effective in making innovation a regular occurrence or event in their organizations. Studies by Dr. Kouzes and Dr. Posner in the formation of their Kouzes-Posner Model of Leadership (Posner, Kouzes, Schmidt, 1985) indicate that these factors of trustworthiness, transparency and honesty are even more important than the areas of competency and technical skill. The ability to move away from the transactional styles of management, specifically concentrating on an immediate reward or punishment approach to managing subordinates is also critically important for innovation to occur. The need for nurturing the areas of autonomy, mastery and purpose in one's position can only be attained when there are transformational leaders seeking to bring these attributes out in their subordinates (Mancheno-Smoak, Endres, Potak, Athanasaw, 2009). The greater the levels of autonomy, mastery and purpose, the greater the motivation employees have to continually learn and improve themselves and also the greater tenacity they have in the face of stress as well (Lyons, Schneider, 2009). In those organizations where stress levels are reasonably to exceptionally high, there is a corresponding need for leaders to actively promote autonomy, mastery and purpose with their subordinates (Posner, Kouzes, Schmidt, 1985).

Only when an employee has a sense of ownership over their roles in an organization will their contributions get beyond the typical carrot-and-stick analogies of transactional leadership. What's needed for innovation to occur is for employees to take an active level of ownership over their jobs and apply their own unique creative skills to solving them. This has been shown in empirical studies over and over again to only occur when transformational leadership sets the foundation for task ownership (Mancheno-Smoak, Endres, Potak,… [read more]

Win-Win Peer Mentoring and Tutoring Program Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  4 pages (1,227 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


¶ … Win-Win Peer Mentoring and Tutoring Program; a Collaborative Model

The Big Buddies program is a peer mentoring tutoring project designed to decrease the school dropout rate and increase youth interest in volunteerism. Susan Dennison review this program in the article "A win-win peer mentoring and tutoring program; a collaborative model." This important works can provide an example that can be used to develop similar programs in other areas of the country. The following review examines the quality of the research project as presented in the article.

The first area that will be explored is the literature review. The literature review provides the rationale and development of the theoretical underpinnings of the article. The literature review for Dennison's article presented an excellent summary of research from both a historical perspective and in a modern context. It is comprehensive and provides an organized overview of theory regarding state of the art mentoring programs at the time of the research. It highlights the development of current theory on peer mentoring. Dennison's article was published in the year 2000. However, many of the articles referenced in the literature review were over 10 years old at the time the article was written. More recent articles would have provided a better underpinning for the development of the literature review.

The purpose of the article is to describe the Big Buddies program and to report the results of a program evaluation. It is apparent that the research will use a case study approach, although this is not clearly stated in the purpose statement. This type of research design does not have t clearly defined independent and dependent variable, as in a comparative or empirical study design. Aside from these formal elements, the study lacked a clearly stated hypothesis. It is simply a review of another research evaluation conducted by the Big Buddies program in the selected community setting.

In the Program Evaluation Design, the hypothesis is not stated. Therefore, the purpose of the study is not clear. It is apparent from the context of the section that the "quasi-experimental" design is mean to evaluate the effectiveness of the Big Buddies program using a non-equivalent control group design. However, the lack of a formal hypothesis and accompanying set of research questions hinders the ability of the researcher to determine if the study in deed met its implied goals and objectives.

The sample selection criteria for the research study used two groups of 25 "at risk" elementary students. The test was repeated using two groups of 25 "at risk" high school students as well. It is not known if the study population was sufficient to be representative of the school population, as this information was not provided. The intention of increasing the reliability of the method by repeating the study with different age group was a good idea, but unfortunately did not work due to the inability to obtain two matched groups.

It is not known what elements of the selection criteria determined that a student is… [read more]

Leadership Development Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (1,142 words)
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Leadership Development: From the Ground Up

Great leaders were once thought to be born, not made. However, the new trend to emphasize leadership development in managerial theory reflects the belief that leadership qualities can be fostered within individuals, if the organization implements the correct policies and programs. A leadership-driven organization is a learning organization, an organization that shows it is receptive to employee dynamism and creativity. A leadership-driven organization is also an organization that knows how to mentor top talent by giving responsibilities to employees who shine on every rung of the organization. Of course, a certain innate spark is necessary to lie within the heart of the individual so the leadership qualities kindled by the organization can take hold. Mental toughness, a refusal to shirk any challenge, and a desire to make a difference in the life of the organization are all part of the character foundations of a good leader (Smith, 1996, p.30). But these qualities must be recognized and cannot be taken for granted; otherwise they will begin to dim within the employee's heart and impede the overall performance of the individual in his or her service to the workplace.

It has been said that perhaps, most importantly of all, a willingness to learn makes a great leader: "there is strong evidence that learning agility is one of the best predictors of who will get promoted and be successful. It is defined as a continual search for ways to improve and learn from every job experience, such as taking control of your own development and taking advantage of the continuous learning opportunities" afforded by the organization (Taylor 2009). An organization must offer opportunities for self-improvement and leadership development. This can include initial training, of course, but can also encompass personal enrichment venues offered on a consistent basis, like the free fitness and wellness programs provided by Google for its employees. These are not simply perks -- they demonstrate the company's willingness to invest in its workers and its drive to better employees' working lives, the quality of their work day, and the world. Showing generosity to employees creates potential leaders with a commitment to the company who will be generous with their time and ideas in the service of the organization.

It is also essential to ask: why do some individuals seem to possess the innate characteristics of leadership but fail to shine? 'But we train our recruits,' wail some managers. However, a key aspect of leadership development is that the training must transfer to organizational performance. "In response to the diminishing significance of training and HRD, researchers, practitioners and business leaders alike are calling for a shift in focus from viewing training as a standalone class/event, to taking the systemic, long-term focus of aligning training and related programs to the strategic focus of the organization" (Gilpin-Jackson, & Bushe 2007). Training workers in an environment that seems separate from the needs of the regular workday does not foster healthy work habits; instead the organization must instill effective… [read more]

Member Roles and Leadership in Groups Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (568 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1


Group Roles

Leadership and Member Roles in Groups: An Overview

Effective group functioning depends upon the fulfillment of various roles within the group, and on the leadership principles utilized within the group. Several key roles played by members of the group that lead to effective group functioning have been identified; these roles are filled both by leadership and other group members when a group is truly functioning effectively. The instigator role initiates action, or conversation in the context of a meeting. Information and opinion providers give content and context to the discussion or project at hand, often at the behest of information and opinion seekers, who raise questions and pursue avenues of uncertainty, thus helping the group arrive at a better understanding of the situation at hand. Analyzer and orienter roles are also essential for interpreting the information thus obtained and putting it to proper and effective use, as well as maintaining a singularity of purpose amongst the disparate group members. All of these member roles are essential to group function.

While the above roles are necessary for the specific knowledge-sharing and application functions of a group, other roles are also needed. Maintenance roles ensure a healthy group dynamic and cohesion, with an effective level of conflict to ensure progression. Gatekeepers monitor the discussion and make sure that all voices have a say, and that ideas and information sharing in the group aren't dominated by a few individuals. Encouragers provide support to other group members through validating and re-emphasizing their ideas, sometimes placing them in new contexts. The harmonizing role works to relieve tension in the group, stemming unnecessary conflicts before they escalate into problems that might affect group cohesion. With proper maintenance roles,…… [read more]

Leadership Styles Transactional Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  4 pages (1,226 words)
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Transactional style of leadership is effective in some organizational contexts however; there are other organizational contexts in which the Transactional style of leadership is very limited and very ineffective.

The 'Transactional' leadership style is one which motivates followers through an appeal to the self-interest of those followers. The principles of transactional leadership include the principles of motivation through an exchange process and have as its focus the accomplishments of workers and the resulting desirable rewards employees receive for these accomplishments. (Thomas, 2003)

The work of Wanjiru (2009) entitled: "The Benefits of Transactional Leadership" states that leadership style "...plays a crucial role in the development of an organization. Transactional leadership is of the leadership style that is often used by many companies. Transactional leadership believes that punishment and reward motivate people. This leadership also assumes that when people agree to do a particular assignment, a part of that agreement is that they give up all authority to their boss. The leader holds control and power over the subordinate" (Wanjiru, 2009)

The primary goal of the employee in the organization with transactional leaders is to "obey the order of their managers. The idea is that when a subordinate takes up a job, he or she agrees to obey their manager totally. The 'transaction' is the money or any other award that the company pays to its subordinates for their compliance and effort. The relationship between the subordinate and the leader becomes transactional. In transactional leadership the leader has the right to punish his or her subordinates if their performance is not according to the predetermined standard." (Wanjiru, 2009)

Transactional leadership is the style used most often in today's companies. Transactional leadership is a style of leadership that makes it perfectly clear what the company expects from the employees. The focus of the transactional leadership style is goals that are short-term in nature.

II. Communication Style of Transactional Leaders

The communication style of the transactional leader is one that is characterized by the leader 'telling' information to followers. Wanjiru (2009) states that transactional leadership "...makes clear that what is required and expected from their subordinates. It also mentions that subordinates will get award if they follow the orders seriously. Sometimes punishments are not mentioned but they are understood."

Incentives are used by some organizations for providing encouragement for greater productivity. Wanjiru (2009) states that transactional leadership "...is a way of increasing the performance of its subordinates by giving them rewards. Transactional leadership is also called as 'true leadership style as it focuses on short-term goals instead of long-term goals." Wanjiru additionally relates that the transactional style leadership "...has more of a 'telling style'." (2009)

Transactional leadership is based on the fact that reward or punishment is dependent on the performance. Even though researchers have highlighted its limitations, transactional leadership is still used by many employers. More and more companies are adopting transactional leadership to increase the performance of its employees." (Wanjiru, 2009)

III. Pros and Cons of Transactional Leadership Style

The transactional leadership… [read more]

Organizational Motivation and Leadership in the Workplace Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,714 words)
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Organizational Motivation and Leadership in the Workplace

Established pursuant to Article 1, Section 8 of the U.S. Constitution, the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office has played a vital role in promoting technological innovation since the founding of the United States more than 230 years ago. Despite its importance to the protections of intellectual properties in the United States, the U.S.… [read more]

General Electric Leadership Program Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (655 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1


GE's program is unique because it sends trainees to several different sites, and they work in real time jobs, while studying leadership models too. They rotate into different jobs and roles, and they experience different locations and areas. This helps young leaders in many ways. They get to see different operations, discover what they are most interested in, what they are best at, and what they enjoy. The interviewees say that the program is very challenging and dynamic, and that they have to work in many different environments, and that they learn a lot from the situations and working with the other leaders. They also say it is very hands on and that they deal with numerous situations and are mentored by other leaders.

The training program also benefits GE in many ways. It creates excellent managers who are prepared for just about any situation they could encounter in their careers with the company. The program teaches adaptability, something good leaders need, and it helps create managers that can move within GE's many different divisions very seamlessly. That gives GE much more options and benefits from their managers, and that is another way the program pays off for them. They get managers who are loyal, well trained, and interested in what they are doing, and they create leaders who can lead at many different levels throughout the company.

In conclusion, GE's program is one of the best leadership programs because they have fully developed it. They identify many leadership candidates while they are still in school. They offer them a job, and the ability to decide what area they would like to concentrate in after they finish the training. They offer them skills and the ability to lead others and to understand all facets of the company, and that creates great leadership for the future.


Smith, Ethan. "At GE, Management Development is a Continuous Process." AprediaCorp.com. 2009. 22 Sept. 2009.

.… [read more]

Leadership at GE Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (688 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1


It prepares them for the things they will face on the job, so they understand the challenges of being a leader, and know how to meet those challenges. It seems to develop loyalty to the company, too. Both of the people interviewed seem to be proud they are in the program and working for GE, in fact, they almost seem like ambassadors for the program, and openly ask other young people to join it. That means they will support the company in the future, and that ensures that GE will not spend the money training young people and then lose them to other industries.

This program is also successful because it fully prepares the graduates to lead in any area of the company, which means they can transfer between different locations with very little retraining or learning, and that helps the company in many ways. First, they know their managers are flexible and can work in just about any environment. It also means they will always have a good crop of well-qualified managers to draw on, even if they spin off new companies. Because they have a global outlook in their training, they create leaders who can seamlessly move throughout and upward in the company, and that benefits the company in numerous ways. The global outlook spreads throughout the company and allows it to be successful anywhere it chooses to do business.

GE's leadership program benefits the company, the leaders it trains, and ultimately, the people it does business with. These leaders are capable of leading the company into the future because of their training, and because GE invests so much into the training programs. They are intensive, they teach the company's goals and objectives, and they create well-qualified leaders who are ready to take the company into the future. Those are just some of the reasons the program is so respected and so successful.


Smith, Ethan. "At GE, Management Development is a Continuous Process." AprediaCorp.com. 2009. 22 Sept. 2009.

.… [read more]

Servant Leadership Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  5 pages (1,798 words)
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Servant Leadership by Robert K. Greenleaf

Servant Leadership: A Journey into the Nature of Legitimate Power & Greatness. Robert K.

Greenleaf. Mahwah, NJ: Paulist Press, 2002. 370.

As a senior in college, Greenleaf had a sociology professor who challenged him to think about changing the structure of leadership within companies and the other large organizations that dominate American life. Greenleaf… [read more]

Leadership Secrets of Colin Powell Research Proposal

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Leadership Powell

The Leadership Secrets of Colin Powell. Oren Harari. New York: McGraw Hill, 2002. 278 pages.

Despite humble beginnings in Harlem, Colin Powell's life and career made him a four star general, Chair of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, and saw him retire from the post of Secretary of State, the highest foreign policy office in the United States.… [read more]

Leadership and Management Essay

Essay  |  7 pages (1,973 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10


Leadership and Management

There is a lot of confusion and debate around the topics of leadership and management. These two terms have often been interchanged and there is not much clarity in research with the management literature using varied definitions. Organizational management consultants and Human resource professionals are considering it not just an academic debate but also an important issue… [read more]

Leadership for 21st Century Thesis

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Leadership for 21st Century

A retrospective look at the business community will reveal that leadership is no longer today what is used to be one or two decades ago. Numerous new features have emerged, generally as a response to the developing requirements. Contemporaneous leaders focus more than ever on attaining and consolidating a strong competitive position, increasing customer and employee… [read more]

Reaffirming or Modifying Assumptions About Leadership Thesis

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Assumptions about Leadership

Leaders are born and made. This is what Kouzes and Posner believe in. However, an important dimension to their belief is the statement that leadership is not a gene. Rather than an innate set of skills and abilities, which is widely believed to be the case, leadership is honed. Anybody can be a leader. We all have it in us to be leaders.

In the same way, I too believe that leadership is acquired more through experiences rather than through birth. Unlike Bass, I do not believe that leaders are born. Since working at the Illinois Public School District Office, my experiences have shaped the way I view leadership and have helped develop my belief that leadership is an art that can be nurtured, learned, embodied and practiced by everyone. My idea of leadership is strengthened by Kouzes and Posner's writings. Like what Kouzes and Posner wrote, it is a widely held belief that leadership is an innate ability only to a chosen few. I suppose this is the reason why for most people, the thought of leading brings forth anxiety and discomfort. The reason for this might come from, as Kouzes and Posner speculated, the fear of failure and of not being able to make a positive change. However, just like Kouzes and Posner wrote, I believe that leadership is an innate ability which everyone is born with. And while we all have that innate capacity to lead and be leaders in our own rights, what we do with this innate capacity is up to us. Upon reflection, I realized that it is important for people to begin leadership early on.

One of the things I appreciate about Kouzes and Posner's article lies in their assumption that leadership is not about position and power. Their belief is an affirmation of my belief that power and position are not requisites for leadership. Leadership is not limited to those who hold high positions nor does it require a subordinate to lead. Rather leadership occurs at all levels of an institution.

It is true that leadership has nothing to do with how a person looks like. On the other hand, leadership is all about how we think about ourselves. We always hear that a great leader believes in his or her followers in as much as the followers should believe in their leader. I too believe that leadership requires leaders to have faith in people to change. For this reason, it is required that leaders believe in themselves before they can believe others. In order to create change, leaders should have belief in their capacity and in the capacity of others.

I have always believed that leadership is helping other people change their beliefs, behaviors, and attitudes. Leadership is helping others create a positive change in their lives. Upon reflection of Kouzes and Posner's article, this belief is affirmed. Alongside the affirmation, I also gained the insight that leadership is not only helping…… [read more]

Leadership Has Been Ongoing for Centuries Research Proposal

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Leadership has been ongoing for centuries, but in modern times several theories have emerged that have become predominant leadership thought. One of these is situational leadership. This style combines elements of task behavior (direction), relationship behavior (socio-emotional support) and building a readiness level in followers such that each situation is met with excellence and responses that are unique to that situation (Schermerhorn, 2001). Another leadership theory is the contingency model, wherein a leader has both a natural leadership tendency and also a fit between the leader's tendencies and the situation. The best fit between these two elements will be the best leader (Fiedler, 1964).

Another variant on contingency management theory is the Vroom-Yetton Model (1973), which expands on Feidler's contingency model but places emphasis on the way that the leader facilitates group action. Leaders can be manager-centered or group-centered, with the degree of freedom given the group dependent on the situation. In addition to these contingency-based models, there are other schools of leadership thought as well. Blake and Moulton (1964) developed the Managerial Grid Model, wherein leaders are determined based on a set of traits that they possess and their managerial style. Thus, managers can be categorized based on their concern for people and their concern for production. Their leadership abilities are essentially set by their leadership style, and are not based on contingencies (Enos, 2007).

2. My personal theory of leadership is that most contingency theories tend to ignore the degree to which the tone must be set before crisis emerges. The team, therefore, will have a predetermined response to a situation based on the leadership demonstrated to that point. I believe we can see this with organizations when they experience cultural inertia, even after the leadership team has been replaced. A leader's style influences the organization over a long period of time, even when the leader is no longer present. This personal theory leans towards some of the older theories such as the Blake-Moulton Managerial Grid, but I do not dismiss other theories, such as the Transformational-Transactional theory.

This theory, still somewhat in development I feel, is an adaptation of the concept of leadership style that I feel has merit. Some leaders are strong at one or the other, but few leaders are strong with both. To me, this explains why some organizations have substantial cultural inertia. I look at General Motors and see a firm that has experience decades of transactional leadership and is now in crisis because they cannot shift their culture to work under a transformational leadership model.

I believe that the ideal leadership theory has yet to be developed, in part because modern thought on the issue is new, and can be difficult to quantify. I feel that to some degree the leading theories require more synthesis in order to be ideal. Situational leadership is the strongest today because it incorporates elements of organizational readiness and seems to ascribe to the understanding that leadership begins with transactional leaders who set the tone for the… [read more]

Theoretical Characteristics for Leadership Research Proposal

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¶ … Theoretical Characteristics for Leadership as Provided by the Four Frameworks

The theoretical framework for the proposed qualitative study will provide a basis for evaluating the leadership capabilities and qualifications of the resource officers surveyed. This framework is produced by four distinct framework models. Each of these, in turn, provides a set of theoretical characteristics idealizing leadership. The questions which will be constructed for the survey of resource officers will be driven by the framework established in this discussion.

The first framework under consideration is the structural framework, which is a model centered on leadership that is dedicated to the social and strategic interests of an organization. This model of leadership promotes a theoretical construct centered on the environment in which members of the organization are expected to meet their responsibilities; on the experimentation that this type of leadership brings to the improvement of organizational goals; and on the adaptation which leadership demonstrates in overcoming challenges to achieving these goals. (Clark, 1)

This speaks to such approaches as Scientific Management Theory, manifested in Frederick Winslow Taylor's principled reconsideration of labor division. By beginning to designate tasks according to the individual strengths of laborers, by equipping the right laborers with the optimal supplies, by motivating workers with financial incentives relating to individual efficiency and by providing all workers and tasks with explicit guidelines to be induced during labor training periods, Taylor forever changed the face of industrial labor. These developments would prove remarkably effective at Bethlehem Steel where Taylor worked as a manager, and the same developments also seem to be applicable to the present research concerning resource officers. (Meyer, 3)

This differs from the Human Resources Framework of leadership which is less driven by strategic concerns than by the leadership's capacity to interact positively with personnel. According to the model offered by Bolman & Deal, the theoretical constructs provided by the Human Resources Framework require a leader that is accessible…… [read more]

How Others See Leadership Thesis

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¶ … Leadership

Making Sense of Leadership Through Scholarship and Interview

The issue of leadership in the American university is of the utmost importance as the university continues to meet the changing needs of contemporary society. Faculty and staff members who exhibit leadership qualities are among the elite who are suitable to foster change and bring academia to excellence. However, the concept of leadership is a murky one at best. Increased attention to the topic through scholarly research and popular interest has done much to exacerbate these conditions, as the different kinds of leadership often leave two parties discussing the concept talking about completely different ideas. By presenting the findings of an interview with a person I consider a leader and comparing those findings with scholarly portraits of leadership, I hope to present a portrait of what leadership looks like in academia. To be a successful leader in academia, one must have the ability to make sound decisions, the ability to influence, and the desire to help others or advance an organization..

In the area of making sound decisions, my leadership candidate has succeeded through the use of logic and temperance. Above all, my leadership candidate makes decisions after thoroughly weighing all alternatives and considering the impact of those decisions on short- and long-term goals. Consulting others in his decision-making, my leadership candidate has the ability to make a sound decision only after garnering all viewpoints. Without this exceptional quality, a leader could not be much of a leader at all. Indeed, a person who only boisterously attempts to exert his or her view is a workplace bully, according to Twale and Deluca (2005). Indeed, as Bowman and Garten (2006) point out that leadership is "releasing creative, combustible energy in others," and leaders must be able to make the decision to release the right kind of energy to be a good leader (pg. 6).

The second component of leadership revealed by my findings is that of influence. Leaders must be able to influence others or they are not leaders, but simply those with good intentions. Able to influence even the highest ranks in his university, my candidate for leadership has met this quality. Indeed, his ability to encourage others to see his point-of-view without being forceful is the perfect example of "releasing creative, combustible energy in others" (Bowman and Garten, 2006-page 6). This special influence occurs not through force or a desire to put one's self above others, as a workplace bully would do, but out of the desire to spread one's special talents to others. Because leaders generally know about these leadership qualities early in their lives (Bowman and Garten, 2006), they become influential through the honing of these skills and the desire to use them. As my…… [read more]

Leadership Style of Dr. Manmohan Singh Research Proposal

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Bibliography Sources: 7


Leadership Style of Dr. Manmohan Singh

Leadership Styles

Manmohan Singh's Leadership Style

In this era of rapid change, incremental focus is being placed on the management function within any social, political and/or business entity. In this order of ideas, the specialized literature presents the reader with a multitude of information on leadership styles. While some managers opt for a specific… [read more]

Personal Leadership Assessment Thesis

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An Initial Evaluation of My Leadership Skills

Leadership is a quality that is often recognized in certain individuals, but it is often difficult to define. This can make it difficult to see in oneself -- it is much either to recognize the leadership skills of another individual because the effects of such skills are often tangible. When looking to… [read more]

Leadership in Apollo 13 at the Center Thesis

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Leadership in Apollo 13

At the center of this films' relevance in the context of leadership is the confidence leaders bring out of their teams to rise above a challenge no one had anticipated or planned for. Instead of allowing self-doubt and alarmist data to completely derail the efforts of their teams (Buchanan, Hofman, 2000) both leaders, one on the ground and one in the spacecraft, keep their teams focused on accomplishing the goal rather than the many reasons why it cannot be accomplished. Apart from maintaining communication, both leaders in the film set up the daunting problem as a challenge, not as a reason for refusing to try (Bolman, Deal, 2006). In showing confidence in their teams and themselves, they in fact take a square peg and put it into a round hole, an allegorical reference the flight operations chief Gene Kranz uses to explain just how challenging the task is. In addition, the quiet confidence of Jim Lovell as…… [read more]

Google: Leadership vs. Management in Assessing Thesis

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Google: Leadership vs. Management

In assessing how Google has been able to succeed in intensively competitive industries including online search, advertising, and providing licensing of their technologies for use within corporations and governments globally, their leadership and management practices need to be taken into account. The intent of this paper is to analyze how the differences in management vs. leadership… [read more]

Leadership Frameworks Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,383 words)
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Teaching Leadership

Leadership Frameworks in Action

Leadership theory has grown hugely in prominence over the last few decades, and is seen as increasingly important in overall educational theory and performance. Several different theoretical frameworks have been proposed to aid in the understanding and development of leadership practices and abilities, and though they operate in different ways and emphasize different (though highly related) aspects of leadership, these different frameworks are not actually in any sort of opposition to each other, but rather suggest similar needs and trajectories of development for leadership practices. That being said, it is difficult (perhaps impossible) to examine the issue of educational leadership from multiple perspectives; though the interrelationship of multiple frameworks can be observed and commented upon, the application of leadership theories and values to practical real world situations can best be practically observed from the perspective of only a single theoretical framework.

One of the major leadership frameworks that has already been well established and continues to gain credence is Sergiovanni's Model of Transformational Leadership, which describes five basic types of leaders based on both their personal qualities and their professional approaches to the task of educational leadership. Many other theoretical leadership frameworks borrow from and influence Sergiovanni's model, defining similar types of leaders and leadership behaviors, making this Model of Transformational Leadership an excellent perspective from which to approach the broader topic of leadership frameworks and theories as a whole. The various facets of this framework explore both the purely human and the technical aspects of leadership in education, and Sergiovanni's model is especially useful in describing and explaining the interconnectedness of these various elements of educational leadership.

Perhaps the easiest way to come to an understanding of Sergiovanni's Model of Transformational Leadership as it applies to real world educational situations is through a description of the framework in action. The private senior school where I currently am employed provides an excellent example of how this leadership framework applies to real world situations, and also shows how effective this particular framework is in analyzing leadership roles and behaviors. Sergiovanni's model begins by outlining the five basic leadership forces: the technical, human, educational, symbolic, and cultural (Sergiovanni 1984). In his essay describing this theory, Sergiovanni describes each of these forces in terms of a hypothetical leader that embodies the characteristics of a particular force, but in reality all leaders are capable of drawing on all five forces, and indeed must employ each of the froces at varying times and to varying degrees to ensure effective and efficient leadership (Sergiovanni 1984).

The delineations Sergiovanni draws are not at all arbitrary, however, and each of the forces he identifies and the behaviors associated with can be seen to have definite real world counterparts. What Sergiovanni dubs the technical force is related to "management engineering," and helps a school leader provide "planning, organizing, coordinating, and scheduling to the life of the school" (Sergiovanni 1984). This type of administrative responsibility is certainly a major aspect of the leadership role… [read more]

Leadership and Motivation Leadership Cultural and Societal Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  12 pages (3,842 words)
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Leadership and Motivation


Cultural and societal influences on leadership and motivation

The content, the manner of manifestation, and the efficiency of leadership are the result of several determinant factors. The education the leader benefited from represents one of these factors. Education in relation with its contribution to the development of leadership is studied on three distinct levels: general education,… [read more]

Management and Leadership in Nursing Leadership Styles Thesis

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Management and Leadership in Nursing

Leadership Styles and Personnel Management:

In modern business management, leadership generally consists of one of several main philosophies. Transactional leadership is oriented toward the specific exchange or transaction of workers' services for a regular salary and other vocational benefits of working (Daft, 2005). In some respects, transactional leadership is a hybrid between a leadership system and a management system, by virtue of the inherent rewards of high performance (i.e. bonuses, salary increases, privileges, and promotions to higher positions) and the inherent consequences of poor performance (Daft, 2005).

One advantage of transactional leadership is that it reduces the need for separate management, which differs in principle from leadership in that it pertains more to employee performance in the context of business operations than in the context of the motivation or the direct oversight of personnel on an individual basis (Russell-Whalling, 2008). A disadvantage of transactional leadership is that it is also associated with "management by exception" and, therefore, may be conducive to an organizational culture of mediocrity since only exceptionally good or unacceptably bad employee performance is addressed directly.

Transformational leadership is much more of a true leadership style than a management system because of its intense focus on the mindset of the individual employee (Daft, 2005). For that reason, transformational leadership is more appropriate to industries that emphasize employee motivation and dedication to an organizational value or philosophy than highly-skilled labor or technical vocational performance. Sales functions and organizational values that promote a specific social concept (such as positive life-change-related products and service or environmental concerns) are best suited to transformational leadership models in general (Daft, 2005).

Charismatic leadership is very similar to transformational leadership except that the primary motivational orientation is directed toward an individual leader rather than to an abstract concept or organizational values. Whereas transformational motivation is generated by the degree to which individuals "buy in" to the organizational values, charismatic motivation is generated by the degree to which individuals admire and emulate the leader himself (Conger & Kanungo, 1998; Myers & Spencer, 2004). Also, much as in the case of transformational leadership, charismatic leadership is completely separate from personnel management functions and better suited to industries where personal commitment is more important to success than technical expertise (Russell-Whalling, 2008).

Finally, the servant leadership style is a method of leadership in which the leader demonstrates what is expected of workers in the organization by his or her own example. It is the least direct and also least intense form of leadership because it emphasizes the indirect or entirely passive communication of values and expectations instead of direct supervision or management (Daft, 2005).

For that reason, the servant style of leadership is most useful in connection with the achievement of specific objectives or projects whose successful achievement is beneficial to the entire organization and to individual workers. Examples would include commitments requiring periodic personal sacrifice in order to win a long-term contract that would increase profits and translate to higher bonuses for workers… [read more]

Comparing Four Models or Theories of Leadership Thesis

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Leadership As A Montage Of Models
The Connections Among Four Different Leadership Theories
What is leadership? Can it be defined through simple terms, or does
it change based on the situation and individual eader? If so, what
leadership theories exist? What models can be put into practice and when
should they be used? Scholars concerned with the practice of leadership… [read more]

Leadership Comparison of Leadership Styles as Evidence Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  3 pages (1,057 words)
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Comparison of Leadership Styles as Evidence for Leadership Fluidity

All great African-American leaders in recent history, Martin Luther King Jr., Colin Powell, and Harriet Tubman represent styles of leadership that future generations should seek to emulate. Their styles of leading were, nonetheless, different, suggesting that leadership is not merely a model that can be applied to every situation, but instead a fluid arrangement of ideas and concepts that should be changed depending on the circumstances of the leadership and the leaders themselves. A comparison of the different leadership styles and characteristics of these three pinnacles of leadership will underscore the fact that effective leadership is flexible leadership.

Unlike may leaders, who changed their communities before the development of modern technology, the world has a record of Martin Luther King's leadership characteristics and style through his foundational speeches. Ling (2003), however, states that the belief that King was the leader of the civil rights movement is mistaken. He was created by the movement instead of creating it himself, and did not speak for all African-Americans (Ling, 2003). Still, King was the founder of a large and important sect of this movement -- the non-violent sect. Thus, the characteristics of King's leadership style include pacifism as well as determination, as his "non-violence was not an outlook everyone shared" (Ling, 2003). Furthermore, King's leadership consisted of quiet strength instead of embittered arguing, and well-worded, flawlessly delivered species instead of passionate debates. Although misunderstood by some as having a "Messiah complex," King's quite leadership was able to gain him friends on opposing sides, allowing him to bring those people together (Ling, 2003). Thus, Martin Luther King's leadership style combined the characteristics of quietness and strength. Though he chose not to use violence like some of his civil rights movement counterparts, he commanded respect through determined and deliberate pacifism. While he did not become involved in passionate arguments, by waiting for the right moment to give convicting speeches, he won the minds and hearts of many. Finally, by choosing to present himself in a manner that commanded respect but not confrontation, King was able to converse with many, healing schisms and rifts.

Unlike King, however, Harai's "A Leadership Primer from General (Ret.) Colin Powell, Secretary of State," contains the following first lesson: Being a leader sometimes means pissing people off. Obviously, Powell's leadership style differs from King's commitment to pacifism and quiet strength. Instead, Powell's leadership as Secretary of State involved the confrontation of some for the sake of the group as a whole. Even with this caveat, Powell's leadership characteristics include compassion and concern, making himself available for others' complaints, problems, and criticisms. Furthermore, Powell's leadership style involves a confidence in one's self as the leader, a confidence that is necessary in order for leaders to make informed decisions that are in the best interest of others. For instance, Powell advocates against the blind trust in scholarship and experts, as well as encouraging leaders to take initiative, even when their decisions don't get… [read more]

Leadership and School Management Essay

Essay  |  10 pages (2,854 words)
Style: Harvard  |  Bibliography Sources: 5


Educational Leadership Issues

Leadership and Management in Education;

That schools in the United States in particular have generally experienced a decline in standards, in performance and in personnel commitment is evidenced throughout the field. To many theorists in the last decade, this is indicative of a core problem relating to the orientation and distribution of leadership. Overly centralized ways of… [read more]

Business Management - Leadership Comparing Transactional Essay

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Business Management - Leadership


Transactional Leadership:

Transactional leadership refers to the transaction or the quid pro quo arrangement whereby the employer provides a specific benefit or benefit package to employees in exchange for their professional services. Generally, the only employee motivation within the transactional leadership scheme to secure and retain the benefits of working for the organization, such as salary, health insurance, retirement plans, etc. While this form of leadership is one of the most common and easily administrated, it is also frequently associated with contributing to an organizational culture of mediocrity (Bass, 1997).

In principle, many employees whose sole vocational motivation consists of their direct benefits have little incentive to perform or produce up to their highest level because increased effort and commitment to the organization only corresponds to increased benefits to the employee is relatively few circumstances. Whereas the highest performing employees under transactional leadership may become eligible for increased benefits, such as promotions to higher-paying positions, that opportunity is usually only available to a small number of employees either next in line for promotion or whose abilities and commitment are sufficient to make them viable candidates for recognition that leads to promotion. Otherwise, the employee who puts forth greater effort than another (but for whom promotion is not a realistic or desired objective), receives the same reward for services rendered as the lower-performing employee (Bass, 1990).

For this reason, transactional leadership is also commonly linked to the concept of "management by exception," a reference to the fact that under this vocational motivational approach, management responds only to performance at the extreme ends of the spectrum of employee performance. Under transactional leadership, the vast majority of employees do not draw attention from management; only the extreme exceptions, such as those who perform well enough to merit reward through promotion and those who perform so poorly that it threatens the continued interest of the organization in maintaining the transaction of wages and benefits in return for the employee's service, receive specific motivation outside of their general relationship. High performing employees receive motivation in the form a carrot, represented by their promotions or bonuses while low performing employees receive motivation in the form of a stick, represented by the consequences of continued low performance if it threatens their continued employment within the organization.

Many government agencies have been characterized as functioning poorly precisely because they have traditional been administrated exclusively through transactional dynamics (Bass, 1990; Bass & Steidlmeier, 1999). In many government agencies and other organizations relying on transactional leadership, employees have been known to work just hard enough not to get fired throughout their careers, particularly after having reached and achieved their promotional or earning potential.

Federal government has been especially susceptible to this dynamic because it relies on a step-increase system for periodic raises and promotions predicated on little more than performing "satisfactorily" (Bass & Steidlmeier, 1999). Transformational Leadership:

Transformational leadership refers to the transformation of attitudes, values, and identities of employees within… [read more]

Facilitating Career Advancement Through Mentoring Scope Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  5 pages (1,469 words)
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Facilitating Career Advancement Through Mentoring

Scope of Proposal and Statement of Limitation

Proposal for Company-Wide Professional Mentoring Program

Selecting Candidates for Mentorship

Balancing Professional Responsibilities of Mentors

Maintaining Motivation on the Part of Mentors

Assessment and Program Evaluation

The purpose of this proposal is to design a company-wide professional mentoring program to provide necessary informal vocational training intended to enable… [read more]

Leadership Is Action, Not Position Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,182 words)
Style: Chicago  |  Bibliography Sources: 0


¶ … leadership is action, not position," means that being in a position of leadership does not make one a leader. Instead, a person can be identified as a leader based on their traits, behaviors, attitudes, goals, and the results that they achieve. First, a leader must have traits that make him or her capable of the monumental task that is leadership. These qualities include, first and foremost, motivation. Those who are not motivated by a genuine desire to lead, as opposed to the material benefits of leadership, such as money and power. Leaders are born with a general affinity toward motivation. They are the types that are excited about new challenges, and take pleasure in meeting them. In addition to motivation, leaders must have a degree of altruism. This does not mean that leaders must be solely motivated by altruistic goals. They may be excited about personal benefits, but part of their motivation must come from a larger source. They must also be ethical and moral people, and their behaviors must reflect this. Though ethics, morals, and values differ greatly from culture to culture, the ethics and values of a leader must include a desire to perform tasks honestly, and an ability to make decisions based on the good of the group.

In addition to the qualities and behaviors that categorize a leader, leaders are also defined by their attitudes, goals, and the results that they receive. Just as a leader must exhibit qualities of motivation and behave in an ethical manner, their attitudes must perpetuate these qualities and behaviors. Thus, the leader's attitude is upbeat and excited. Leaders are passionate about the goals to be achieved and the feats to be accomplished. Their attitude never says never; they believe they can prosper in any situation. This attitude allows them to be motivated and practice ethical behaviors. The positive attitude that leaders must embody also allows them to be goal oriented, setting achievable goals. This is a necessary characteristic of a leader in that it helps keep the leader motivated, as well as preventing the leader from becoming overwhelmed. As a leader's task is to accomplish goals, an excellent measure of whether or not a person can be considered a leader can be found in their ability to set achievable goals that are encourage team member motivation and accomplishment, without allowing team member burnout. Finally, leaders are gauged in part by the results that they receive. While anyone can attempt to lead a group, a leader is the person who does it successfully. Thus, a leader's results usually include the completion of a task, but they always include the unification of a well-functioning group.

Thus, the statement, "leadership is action, not position," suggests that not everyone in a position of leadership can be considered a leader. Instead, leaders must embody certain qualities, behaviors, and attitudes, while setting appropriate goals and achieving positive results.

II. Question Two

The Indianapolis Colts have come through a variety of ups and downs in… [read more]

Compare Leadership Theory X And Y With Leadership Theory Z Thesis

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Comparing Leadership Theories

The most successful managers today strive to understand human nature and what truly motivates employees to be productive. In the most productive working environments, employees understand how they fit into the company and managers understand how to support their employees and encourage them to be successful.

Many managers are now straying from traditional leadership theories, such… [read more]

Leadership How Can Perceptions Affect Essay

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How can perceptions affect a leader's interpretation of, and actions in response to, a particular situation? Using the role of teacher as a specific instance of leadership, discuss how a teacher's perceptual set may affect student motivation and performance. Do you think some teachers could become more effective by becoming more aware of these processes?

Perceptions are crucial to the interpretation of a given event or situation, as each person uses a different framework to assign meaning to and interpret the specifics of each situation. Arguably the more rigid and inflexible a given person's self-serving biases are, the more difficult it is for them to overcome these biases and accept concepts, thoughts, persons or situations that do not align with their specific self-serving bias framework. There is often in these situations a tendency to rely on assumptions regarding a person's intentions and competency using Attribution Error as well. In essence Attribution Error states that a person's judgments of another is based on their effort or innate abilities or lack of them rather than the broader environmental constraints that impact a person's abilities to accomplish their objectives or complete projects. In terms of the value of teachers having this training to be aware of their own perceptual biases and tendency to rely on Attribution Error, this could significantly increase their ability to assist students to learn more instead of judging then as either exceptionally bright or exceptionally challenged. Teachers being made aware of their own biases in terms of self-serving bias and Attribution Error would significantly increase their own effectiveness in being more efficient in helping students to learn; the impediment of judgment would be removed and teachers would be more effective as well.

4. How would you define motivation, satisfaction, and performance? What is your own view of what motivates people to work hard and perform well? What theory of job satisfaction best explains your actions either in school or at work?

The concepts of motivation, satisfaction and performance are interrelated as they collectively define the level of effort a person is willing to expend in order to get to their goals. Motivation is defined as the need for achievement a person has, including their intrinsic motivation to get to their goals. Satisfaction is based on fulfillment of cognitive theories of satisfaction that center on goal setting and expectancy theory.

Performance is defined by a person's level of achievement orientation, intrinsic motivation and goal setting cognitive processes all combined that leads to action being taken towards to the goal they are attempting to achieve. The theory that best describes my performance orientation at work and school is expectancy theory, as this theory concentrates on how the level of effort combined with…… [read more]

Leadership of Former President Ronald Reagan Thesis

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Bibliography Sources: 5


¶ … leadership of former President Ronald Reagan. Specifically it will study this leader and describe his development, methods of influencing others, values, traits, and behavior. Ronald Reagan, motion picture actor, politician, one of the best-loved presidents in recent history, was known as a great leader and political leader. How he reached leadership excellence is a study in human nature… [read more]

Educational Leadership Framework Leadership Essay

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Educational Leadership Framework

Leadership in education is a multifaceted concept that involves not only good business and negotiation skills but also a talent for insight into needs of this generation's students as well as the next. It is an ever-changing skill set that must be constantly self-monitored and updated as time goes on. A leader here must has skill not… [read more]

Leadership Theories Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,328 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10


Leadership Theories

The objective of this work is to answer the question of: "Do leadership theories help organization to develop effective leadership?" This work will analyze and compare leadership programs used in contemporary organizations to support the argument in this work. Specifically, this work will focus on two comparable organizations and define way to measure effective leadership and finally will determine which leadership theories are present and whether they develop effective leadership.

The work of Yukl (1998) entitled: "Leadership in Organizations" relates that there are six categories of leadership theory including:



Power and Influence;


Charismatic; and 6) Transformational. (Clawson, 1989)

Each of these are reviewed in the following sections of this work.


The 'Trait' approach to leadership is one of the earliest used approaches and places an emphasis on the traits of leaders. This approach has as its underlying assumption that "certain people possess innate characteristics that make them better leaders than others." (Yukl, 1998) the 'Great Man Theory' of Leadership holds that leaders are born and not made or in other words that some people have these internal traits and others do not.


This leadership approach gained popularity in the 1950s "as researchers grew frustrated with the traits approach." (Clawson,

Included in this theory is Mintzberg's Ten Managerial Roles, which include those of:

1) Figurehead role

2) Leader role;

3) Liaison Role;

4) Monitor Role

5) Disseminator Role

6) Spokesman Role

7) Entrepreneur Role;

8) Disturbance Handler Role

9) Resource Allocator Role; and 10) Negotiator Role. (Clawson, 1989)

Also included in this theory is Kotter's Leadership Factor (1988) which states that leadership "is defined as the process of moving a group (or groups) in some direction through mostly noncoercive means." (Clawson, 1989) Also falling within the range of this theory of leadership is 'Stewart's Three-Part Theory of Management', which holds that three forces exist which affect the managerial roles of individual managers to various degrees and help in shaping the nature of those jobs:

1) Demands - Duties and responsibilities imposed by others in positions of power and which the manager must uphold.

2) Constraints - Elements in the organizational and external environment that limit the manager's options.

3) Choices - the things a manager must do at his or her own discretion. (Clawson, 1989)


The power and influence theory of leadership include that of David McClelland or 'Two Faces of Power', which include:

1) Dominating power - seeks to subjugate others by keeping them weak and dependent on the leader; and 2) Empowering power - seeks to enable the weak. (Clawson, 1989)

Also included in this theory is the 'Social Exchange Theory' which holds that 'social exchange' "exists between a leader and other members of the group: the leader champions a course of action and the group affords the leader a greater or lesser degree of status and influence based on the perceived success or failure of the plan." (Clawson,

When the plan set out… [read more]

Effective Leadership Essay

Essay  |  6 pages (2,223 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 8


¶ … Leadership: In theory and in practice

The 20th century saw an explosion of leadership theories that attempted to explain why certain individuals seemed to excel in affording more capable leadership than their equally qualified counterparts when at the helm of organizations. Two different leadership strains of leadership theory emerged during the era. The first strain stressed the need… [read more]

Team Leadership Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (870 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 5


Team Leadership

Overview of theory and research

Team leadership is, broadly defined, a leadership approach where teams without designated leaders, or with leaders who act as facilitators rather than directive mangers, engage in self-managed approaches to decision-making. Although the teams are often formed for a specific purpose and usually have a goal they must collectively achieve, it is the group, not a single individual that instructs, facilitates, plans, and sets short-term objectives for the team (Armstrong 2008). The group is judged as a whole on the final performance, tasks and decisions are taken on by the group, rather than a single leader ("Team leadership," 2008, NCREL). However, some approaches to team leadership stress the need for a single individual to foster urgency and channel the team members to reach a specific goal (Clark 2005).

Team Leadership SWOT


Team leadership combines the input of many different individuals, incorporating a diverse range of skills, experiences and personality types. There are "superior outputs against all odds. This is due to the synergistic effect of a team" (Clark 2005).

All modern organizations are by their nature composite and require consensus. Team leadership enables this consensus to take place on a continuing basis, minimizing future divisiveness and bridging divides between different people in different parts of the organization.

The use of team leadership reduces tunnel vision and the tendency of one strong individual to lead an organization down the wrong path.

Self-managed teams mean that keeping open communication channels and other group maintenance functions are given added importance in the organization, which can increase decision-making efficiency overall ("Team leadership," 2008, NCREL).

There is an increased sense of shared responsibility to one another on the team and this sense of responsibility transfers to the team's common goal. This fosters an atmosphere where things 'get done" ("Leadership teams," 2008, NSBA).


This leadership style can stifle unique ideas because some ground-breaking ideas are initially not popular with the majority of the group.

Personal popularity of certain team members rather than quality of ideas may determine which viewpoints are heard during a session.

The goal, vision statement, or driving purpose of the organization's leadership can be lost.

Too many people on a team can make the team's goal fuzzy.

Too much time is wasted enabling every viewpoint to be heard, even if it is of limited value.

The construct of a team may encourage 'social loafing' and certain members of the group may do more work than others, even though the team is rewarded as a unit.


Team leadership's fostering of diversity is essential in today's global environment

Team leadership requires…… [read more]

Leadership Personal Leadership Audit I) Thesis

Thesis  |  4 pages (1,260 words)
Style: Harvard  |  Bibliography Sources: 5



Personal Leadership Audit i) the main leadership demands I expect to face on in the coming year include learning how to identify and select the best people for delegation of specific duties, leading with an appropriate amount of compassion, lessening the impact of personal preference on my leadership capabilities, and learning how to provide criticism in the most constructive manner.

A ii) I have a relatively extreme personality, which means that my strengths and weaknesses are often found in the same attribute. For example, I am a perfectionist, which ensures that I do my best to complete a project exactly as it is described, and that I will work tirelessly to see the completion of a project. However, as a perfectionist, I also occasionally have problems determining when a project is complete, because I am not satisfied with anything less than perfection and every project has some area for improvement. My perfectionism can lead to problems with delegation. First, as a perfectionist, I could also be described as slightly controlling, because I am never certain that other people will be able to work up to my standards. In addition, I sometimes have difficulties selecting the appropriate person for delegation because I allow my general impression of a person to color my choices, rather than looking at what tasks would best suit specific individuals. Another of my strengths is that I am very loyal, but that can actually be a very big weakness in a business environment. My degree of loyalty is so high that I can have a problem identifying when someone that I admire has done something wrong. As a result, I have found myself defending subordinates to people above me, even taking the blame for intentional mistakes. On the other hand, if I have not established a loyalty base with someone, I find that I am too quick to believe that they have erred. While I think it is important for a leader to be loyal to subordinates and authorities, I think that loyalty needs to be tempered with better judgment than I have shown. Finally, I think that my direct style of communication is an asset and a hindrance. When communicating facts and expectations, I think that my direct communication style allows me to get to the point. However, when I am called upon to deliver criticism, my direct communication style often leaves the impression that I am completely dissatisfied with a person's performance, rather than trying to enhance performance.

A iii) the main leadership competency that I need to develop to meet my upcoming challenges is to become more objective. Most of my weaknesses are centered on issues of judgment and judging, and when I try to abandon that stance, I end up being ineffective. Therefore, I need to learn how to objectively approach a problem. This should increase my ability to delegate, because it would permit me to allow tasks to dictate their own delegation. It should also increase my ability to provide constructive… [read more]

Group Dynamics and Leadership Group Work Thesis

Thesis  |  10 pages (3,122 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 4


Group Dynamics and Leadership

Group work is often used in business and educational settings in order to take advantage of the fact that individual excellence can be optimized by working in a team with others. It is however important to recognize that specific group dynamics could adversely affect the optimal functioning of the group. In order to avoid this, an… [read more]

Contrarian's Guide to Leadership Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,050 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3



The objective of this work is to prepare a paper, which takes a supportive position on the applicability of the Contrarian's Guide to Leadership.

The Contrarian's Guide to Leadership was written by Steven B. Sample in October 2001 and was named the lead book of the fall season for John Wiley & Sons' Jossey-Bass Division." Samples defines a contrarian leader as a leader who views situations from a unique view and who discovers solutions that are valid in terms of their newness for challenges the organization faces.


According to Steven B. Sample (2002) the leaders who are the most effective are those who "eschew conventional thinking..." (Frost, 2002) Non-traditional methods are adopted by the best of leaders for expressing "natural creativity and intellectual independence." (Frost, 2002) This can only be accomplished if the leaders is willing "to buck some of the accepted truths about leadership." (Frost, 2002)


Counterintuitive lessons in Sample's work include the following:

Think gray: try not to form firm opinions about ideas or people unless and until you have to;

Think free: train yourself to move several steps beyond traditional brainstorming by considering really outrageous solutions and approaches;

Listen first, talk later; and when you listen, do so artfully;

Experts can be helpful, but they're no substitute for your own critical thinking and discernment;

Beware of pseudoscience masquerading as incontrovertible fact or unassailable wisdom; it typically will do nothing to serve your interests or those of the organization you are leading;

Dig for gold in the supertexts while your competition stays mired down in trade publications and other ephemera; you can depend on your lieutenants to give you any current news that really matters;

Never make a decision yourself that can reasonably be delegated to a lieutenant; and never make a decision today that can reasonably be put off until tomorrow;

Ignore sunk costs and yesterday's mistakes; the decisions you make as a leader can only affect the future, not the past;

Don't unnecessarily humiliate a defeated opponent;

Know which hill you're willing to die on, and realize that your choice may at some point require you to retreat from all the surrounding hills.

Work for those who work for you; recruit the best lieutenants available, and then spend most of your time and energy helping them to succeed.

Many people want to be leader, but few want to do leader; if you're not in the latter group you should stay away from the leader business altogether.

You as a leader can't really run your organization; rather you can only lead individual followers, who then collectively give motion and substance to the organization of which you are the head.

Don't delude yourself into thinking that people are intrinsically better or worse than they really are; instead, work to bring out the best in your followers (and yourself) while minimizing the worst.

You can't copy your way to excellence; rather, true excellence can only be achieved through original… [read more]

Understanding Leadership Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,494 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1


¶ … Leadership Gayle Avery attempts to create a concise understanding of the often confusing concept of leadership through a progression of leadership issues and then a collection of case studies that apply leadership in different contexts. The base of the work attempts to effectively answer some long standing questions about the nature of leadership and its study and in… [read more]

Nature of Leadership Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,707 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1


¶ … Nature of Leadership written and edited by Antonakis, Ciamciolo and Sternberg is a compilation work containing a group of essays that explore the breadth and depth of leadership research and development and effectively introduces the reader/student to concepts and language specific to the leadership field of study. In the work the authors have carefully chosen leadership studies and… [read more]

Leadership Theories Change in Response to Changes Book Review

Book Review  |  4 pages (1,242 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1


Leadership theories change in response to changes in the business environment and organizations within it. Leadership styles that worked in the past, are no longer a valid means for meeting the needs of today's organizations. Many leadership theories exist today, which can appear to be confusing for the business student as they attempt to sort out the appropriate leadership style. Gayle Avery attempts to integrate this hodgepodge of theory into a coherent whole that can be applied to today's organizations.

Avery provides a framework to build upon in the development of a consistent and coherent theoretical basis for modern leaders to utilize in their professions. "Understanding Leadership" provides a clarification on the poorly defined area of leadership theory. The first part of the book lays out the foundation of Avery's theory. The second part consists of 10 case studies that integrate this knowledge and provide an example of its practical application.

Any student in pursuit of a career that involved leadership is presented with the many current leadership theories that exist. One must agree with Avery that the field of leadership lacks cohesion, as far as theory is concerned. Therefore, her presentation of the first part of the material is essential. One of the most difficult aspects of understanding leadership theory is how to apply it to the situations that one will encounter in their field. The second half of the book provides examples from Europe, Australia, and the United States. Her examples demonstrate how diverse leadership and leadership styles can be in different organizations. Her examples demonstrate that there is more than one way to look at a specific problem from a leadership perspective. Avery's presentation integrates theoretical knowledge with practical knowledge.

Avery uses simple language and explains the theories presented in such a manner that anyone, regardless of their background, could understand them. The discussion is not in-depth and could be considered an overview of the topic. Her purpose was not to present a detailed exploration of any specific topic, but rather, delve into each theory just enough to provide the reader with a basic understanding of leadership principles. Although, Avery intended the book to be targeted towards the MBA or advanced undergraduate, its simplistic approach is geared more towards the undergraduate. However, it could be useful for the Graduate student that needs a summary of leadership theory.

Avery compares and contrasts the four types of leadership categories; classical, transactional, visionary, and organic. She compares them on fourteen different points that are used to define leadership roles within an organization. This is a logical approach to the subject matter. The organization of the text is easy to understand and leads easily from one topic to the next.

As one reads the theoretical portion of the book, it is difficult to see how the author will tie the concepts together as a whole. One does need to understand the theories before they will be able to absorb the full impact of the case studies. Her last chapter in Part… [read more]

Leadership Analysis on Lord Charles Cornwallis as Portrayed in the Road to Guilford Courthouse Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (929 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3


Leadership as Seen through Cornwallis
Organizational leadership requires a sensible balance between
commitment to the strategic interests of a business and to the human
interests of the business. Indeed, research and experiential evidence will
tend to demonstrate that there is a symbiotic relationship between these
aspects of organizational orientation which suggests that effective
strategy must inherently consider the implications of the experience of the
personnel who will implement said strategy. Using the lessons denoted by
James Buchanan's unique historical narrative on the subject of the American
War for Independence and underscoring these with expected core competencies
associated with leadership in the perspective of the United States, we will
draw conclusions regarding the quality of leadership as derived from
vision, culture, communication and team orientation. Ultimately, this will
contribute to a discussion on the recommended needs for leadership to
remain abreast of a fast changing and unendingly rigorous challenges of
military service. A focus on the life and service of British counter-
independence General, Lord Charles of Cornwallis as discussed by Buchanan
will show that the core competencies offered by Army Field Manual 6-22 (FM6-
22), entitled Army Leadership are somewhat timeless and universal in
nature. The cross-section found in these two sources will help to fulfill
a need for recommendations for the military leadership scenario.
Buchanan's text is a remarkable take on a story often told, honing a
sharp focus on a significant campaign waged by the British during the
American War for Independence. With a specific attention paid to the
leaders who alternatively served to benefit or obstruct the British efforts
at preventing American independence, Buchanan relays the events transpiring
by sea and land in the Carolinas. Here, under the mutual but ultimately
deeply conflictive relationship between Generals Cornwallis and his
immediate superior officer in Commander in Chief, Sir Henry Clinton, the
British army would engage one of its most tenacious and decisive attempts
at swaying American fortunes. As the Buchanan text articulately details
the characters and conflicts which consumed the faltering British army, it
also succeeds in relaying concepts of leadership that resonate in the
discourse on army leadership today.
As Buchanan expresses of Cornwallis and his ilk, "there is an inborn
subtlety to leadership that those who do not possess it never understand."
(Buchanan, 79) Perhaps it is in this unique distinction that we may find
the definitive interest of military personnel determination. In those whom
leadership is naturally occurring such as our discussion subject, there is
a drive and an instinct which together vibrate in unison with military
tactical and philosophical aims.
The unique orientation of the military allows for the evaluation of
leadership according to the balance which one is able to achieve in
"balancing the care of followers against mission requirements so they are a
productive resource." (DoA,…… [read more]

Nature of Leadership by John Antonakis Anna T. Cianciolo and Robert J. Sternberg Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,242 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1


¶ … Nature of Leadership written by John Antonakis, Anna T. Cianciolo, and Robert J. Sternberg. Specifically it will contain a book review that addresses the major themes, concepts, and critiques (positive or negative) as they pertain to public administration, policy, and/or decision-making. "The Nature of Leadership" defines and enhances the roles of leaders in society, and gives some excellent examples of key leadership development. This is not a light reading "self-help" volume; it is a serious look at leadership and its place in the modern workplace.

Early in this leadership text, the authors define leadership and its history. They write, "The study of leadership rivals in age the emergence of civilization, which shaped its leaders as much as it was shaped by them" (Antonakis, Cianciolo, and Sternberg 3).

The text covers a short history of leadership, including several different schools of leadership that have developed and evolved throughout the last few decades. This is a reference book, rather than a quick-fix type of self-help book and it is more scholarly in its nature. It is the kind of book a leader might keep on a reference shelf, to turn to during times of difficulty or simply for inspiration. It is not a simple read, but the information it contains is worth the effort of concentration and comprehension.

It is important to note that the terms "leadership" and "management" are not interchangeable. In fact, the authors tend to agree that leadership is one of the roles of a manager, but they are not the same. Essentially, they believe managers help make their operations run more smoothly, while leaders produce change (Antonakis, Cianciolo, and Sternberg 27). This is important for just about every sector of business and industry, because change is the most constant aspect of any successful enterprise. It must be able to recognize change and adapt to it to remain successful in a changing marketplace, and this applies to public administration, as well, since there is always change in the dynamics of the public sector, from budgeting to growth, as well.

Perhaps one of the most interesting and helpful areas of this book are the sections which define the characteristics of a leader. The authors discuss the new wave of personality testing, such as the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI), to define the personality of a leader, but they also discuss other characteristics throughout the book, helping the reader to define a leader's characteristics while analyzing if they embody those characteristics, as well. The four characteristics they define as the most important are 1)Emotional maturity, 2) Integrity, 3) Cognitive ability, intelligence, and social intelligence, and 4) Task-relevant knowledge (Antonakis, Cianciolo, and Sternberg 33). All of these characteristics are clearly visible in many of the world's most well-known and admired leaders, and they exist in America's corporate leadership, as well. They all make sense, but sometimes it is easier to identify with characteristics and information when it is presented in black and white like this, which is one of the things… [read more]

Leadership Model Critique Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (464 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 0


Leadership Model agree that the characteristics you cite were to some degree present in the characters of most of the best leaders I have served under, including self-knowledge, technical competency, seeking input from others, having a moral core, playing by one's own rules ("walking the walk"), striving to bring out the best in subordinates, taking a moderate approach to risk-taking, not fearing failures, and having a sense of humor. Self-knowledge is an often overlooked component of leadership -- for example, a leader might be an extrovert, but not really know this consciously, and thus overlook the gifted but more reticent and introverted members of an organization. Ethics are important as well -- given the recent ethical scandals at many corporations, finding out that a leader has defrauded his or her employees can be devastating to the morale of the organization for years, and even small transgressions can make people mistrustful of a leader's honesty.

I think there needs to be further clarification, however, as to what sort of input is solicited from subordinates, and how -- is it in a participatory fashion, where the subordinates are more equal to the leader, regardless of position, or does the leader shape subordinates' opinions more, to achieve a larger goal? Vision in general I think should be a greater component of the model -- you talk about pushing people to achieve more, but what is…… [read more]

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