Study "Leadership / Mentoring" Essays 166-220

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Leadership Self-Assessment Quiz Shows Research Paper

… The skill-building exercise 2-4 is related to my leadership portfolio. I was asked to choose five traits, motives, and characteristics that I have exhibited in the past and discuss examples of how these traits manifested in my life. The five traits, motives, and characteristics that I have chosen are as follows.

1. Open mindedness: I cherish having an open mind, something that I believe all good leaders have. An open mind makes us able to think critically because we are willing to see a situation from multiple points-of-view. We are less likely to become biased, and more willing to be honest with ourselves and others when we have an open mind. Open-mindedness is especially important in a diverse organization because we are sensitive to the needs of others.

2. Creative thinker: Sometimes the best answer or solution is not the most obvious one. The creative thinker explores a problem from multiple angles, and then discovers new and sometimes radical ways of looking at the situation. Creative thinking means welcoming new ideas, and being willing to use the imagination when coming up with solutions.

3. Loyalty: Most of the people who I have worked with in the past define me as a loyal person. I can be loyal to the company I work for in the sense that I can envision myself working with the same team over the course of many years, developing trust and enjoying the benefits of having a long-term vision. I am also loyal to people, and will not violate trust.

4. Honesty: It can be difficult to remain honest in a cutthroat world, but I believe that it is important to be as honest as possible when dealing with people. The trust we build with others when we are honest is far more important than any short-term gain from lying.

5. Good listener: Others have told me that I am a good listener. I make eye contact frequently, and stay silent while the other person is talking. This is especially important when working as a leader.… [read more]

Leadership Case Study

… 30).

Third, Todman has revolutionized operations in a way that suited current Whirlpool goals. He integrated Maytag into the product line fully, cut costs by closing inept plants, and managing brands. Todman's brand management strategy is international in scope, requiring a deft understanding for language and cultural communications. He also has the foresight and awareness to understand logistical issues including time zone constraints in communications that may impact the global operations management at the Whirlpool Company.

3. Todman shows a good balance between strategic thinking and focusing on people. Strategic thinking was required to fully integrate the Maytag product line, reducing redundancy and cutting costs associated with defunct plants. Likewise, Todman addressed problems associated with introducing the new product lines to staff members around the world, minimizing miscommunications and related conflicts. This required strategic thinking, because each region would have different needs in terms of marketing and communication, and also in terms of operations. Streamlining global operations, and encouraging more efficient communications was another component of Todman's strategic thinking initiatives at Whirlpool. Furthermore, Todman understood the importance of empowering employees in strategic ways.

Focusing on people remains one of Todman's core strengths. Todman's cultural competence and communications savvy highlight the president's people-oriented approach. His calling extra board meetings shows that he understands that communication is the key to effective company operations and overall success. Finally, Todman balances strategic thinking with focusing on people by running the customer service operations in Europe.


"Leadership Case Problem A: Mike Todman Makes a Splash at Whirlpool."

"Recommended Approach for… [read more]

Organizational Transformation and Leadership Research Paper

… These people see the leader as someone who gives orders, and they confuse leading people with managing people. Many leaders are managers, but not all managers are true leaders. In other words, when a person is really a leader, he… [read more]

Poor Leadership in Healthcare Identifying Capstone Project

… These basic management systems provide for quality review, incident reporting, performance management and consciousness of these systems as components. Other components of this approach or plan are increased collaboration between managers and clinicians, coherent clinical leadership, introduction of new values and attitudes across all levels, and a sense of empowerment in both the staff and patients (Walshe & Shortell).

IV. Outline of the Plan

The manager should require periodic quality reviews of performances and resources in all levels and base all upgrading efforts on these. All clinician and non-clinician staff and even patients will be asked to report incidents. All subordinates will be rates for performance periodically. Management and staff training programs will be regularly conducted on proper work values and attitudes, specifically openness, cooperativeness, willingness to learn and to become updated, sensitiveness to occurrences and professional as well as personal empowerment.


Firth-Cozenz, J. And Mowbray, D. (2001). Leadership and the quality of care. Vol 10

Issue Supplement 2, Quality Health Care: BMJ Publishing Company. Retrieved on February 24, 2014 from

Walshe, K. And Shortell, S.M. (2004). When things go wrong: how health care organizations deal with major failures. Vol. 23 # 3, Health Affairs: Project Hope.

Retrieved on February 24, 2014 from [read more]

Community Leadership / Diverse Term Paper

… Leaders who are not willing to compromise will not get far when it comes to doing things for their community, because they will not be flexible enough to know when they are getting the best deal they are going to get (Barry, 2002). Something is often better than nothing, and some improvements are better than no improvements at all. That is valuable information for leaders to keep in mind, even when they have good persuasive skills (Barry, 2002). They are not going to win every battle or get everything they ask for, but if they know how to collaborate well they will still provide much for their community.


Anderson L., O'Loughlin P., & Salt A. (2001). Community leadership programs in New South Wales, UTS Shopfront, for the Strengthening Communities Unit, NSW Premier's Department, Australia.

Barry, B. (2002). Culture and equality: An egalitarian critique of multiculturalism. NY: Harvard University Press.

Barzilai, G. (2005). Communities and law: Politics and cultures of legal identities. NY: University of Michigan Press.

Baumann, G. (1999). The multicultural riddle: Rethinking national, ethnic, and religious identities. NY: Psychology Press.

Caravantes, E. (2010). From melting pot to witch's cauldron: how multiculturalism failed America. NY: Government Institutes.

Cnann, R.A. & Milofsky, C. Handbook of community movements and local organizations. NY: Springer.

Fortier, A.M. (2008). Multicultural horizons: Diversity and the limits of the civil nation. NY: Taylor & Francis.

Gauntlett, E., Hugman, R., Kenyon, P. & Logan, P. (2000), A meta-analysis of community-based prevention and early intervention action, Policy Research Paper 11, Department of Family and Community Services, Western Australia.

Goldberg, D.T. (1994). Multiculturalism: A critical reader. NY: Blackwell Publishers.

Gottfried, P. (2004). Multiculturalism and the politics of guilt: Toward a secular theocracy. MO: University of Missouri Press.

Hacker, V. (2011), Building medias industry while promoting a community of values in the globalization: From quixotic choices to pragmatic boon for EU Citizens. Politicke Vedy-Journal of Political Science: 64-74.

Hasmath, R. (2011). Managing ethnic diversity: Meanings and practices from an international perspective. NY: Ashgate.

Hesse, B. (2000). Un/settled multiculturalisms: Diasporas, entanglements, "transruptions." NY: Zed Books.

Kymlicka, W. (1995). Multicultural citizenship: A liberal theory of minority rights. NY: Oxford University Press.

Miller, M.A. (2009). community organizer's tale: People and power in San Francisco. Social Policy: 15-21.

Modood, T.… [read more]

Leadership Creative Writing

… As healthcare professionals were are constantly involved in problem solving, hence, learning management theories and skills was a huge positive for me. I have a far deeper understanding of leadership issues than before. Leadership is not limited to management concepts where a leader sets the course of action for others. What did I do to help myself meet the outcome? I became very familiar with the bigger picture of leadership: that is, doing an exemplary job on my shift -- showing how the consummate professional handles crises and day-to-day routines -- means that I am modeling how it should be done for others. I know that I am a role model, and that is leadership outside of any specific tasks that a manager might be is still important leadership when I am modeling for younger, less experienced nurses.

What could the SON have done better? I would have liked to have had a chance to hear lectures from managers in other fields discuss leadership and how they solve problems. It would have been instructive to hear from a manufacturing executive, or a CEO from a big energy company, or even a city council member, discussing leadership in a management context. Also I would have gained from more field work in hospitals and clinics where problem solving, leadership, research and role modeling were a part of the organizational make up.

What could I have done better to become more proficient? I did work hard to complete all my assignments and I even went deeper into research strategies than the instructor had asked us to do. I would have gained from more outside sources, as mentioned, but frankly I did everything I could to get the most out of the MSN program. What I might have done better was to visit some of the professors during their office hours and asked questions that were raised in my mind by the instruction and the materials we were asked to acquire as part of the MSN program.

Works Cited

Baker, C.M., McDaniel, A.M., Pesut, D.J., and Fisher, M.L. (2007). Learning Skills Profiles of Master's Students in Nursing Administration: Assessing the Impact of Problem-Based

Learning. Nursing Education Perspectives,… [read more]

Improving Global Leadership Today Term Paper

… ¶ … Improving Global Leadership

Today, an increasingly globalized marketplace demands an informed and timely global leadership response in the public as well as the private sector. To identify the main problems that leaders typically encounter when attempting to assess the demands of a global operating environment, and what approaches have been determined best practices, this paper provides a review of the relevant peer-reviewed and scholarly literature, followed by a summary of the research in the conclusion.

Definition of the main problems leaders encounter in a global role

The adage introduced in the 1970s to, "Think globally, act locally" is increasingly being replaced with the more ambitious advice to, "Think globally, act globally." This shift in thinking has begged the question, "Do we focus our efforts at the local level, or do we have a greater responsibility to act globally?" (Edginton, 2006, p. 6). Global leadership is achieved when people expand their conceptualizations of responsibilities to the community to include the larger environment in which they live and compete, a process that has been facilitated by computer-mediated forums and communities of professional interest. In this regard, Edgington reports that, "As we live our professional and personal lives, we have the opportunity to apply our influence beyond the sphere of ourselves into increasingly broader forums" (2006, p. 7). For some leaders, this outcome is part of their self-actualization. For example, Edgington adds that, "Furthermore, as people gain greater professional maturity, their focus often moves from a self-oriented perspective to one that increasingly and progressively concentrates on family, community, region, state, nation, and perhaps even the world" (p. 7). In fact, Edgington argues that in order for there to be true equity in the world, "We have to think globally, beyond our local conditions, to see and react to the world in its totality" (2006, p. 7).

An important point made by Ghemawat (2012), though, is that there is no universally accepted definition of a global leader and that the definition could be applied to an enormous wide -- and disparate -- range of practices and activities that transcend the local or regional level, but which have a global impact as a result. In this regard, Ghemawat emphasizes that, "The diversity of roles that fall under the broad category of global leadership argues for substantial customization around that common base" (2012, p. 1). One leader that has operated at the global levels in recent years in both face-to-face and virtual settings is President Barack Obama who has used a White House Twitter account to good effect in keeping his constituency abreast of his ongoing initiatives, especially the Affordable Care Act, as well as other important issues of the day including immigration, the war on terrorism and even his basketball scores with White House aides (pers. obs.).The skill set needed to lead at the global level, though, clearly must be robust regardless of the commercial or public sector that is involved.… [read more]

Leadership Challenge: Leadership Credibility Assessment

… Leadership Challenge: Leadership Credibility

A leader is who one is and a manager is what one does. Dr. Warren Bennis originally made that observation in studying the interaction of leadership characteristics including the level of emotional intelligence (EI) relative to… [read more]

Leadership Research Paper

… ¶ … Leadership

The intent of this analysis is to evaluate the leadership theories of Max Weber, James MacGregor Burns and Daniel Goleman. All three of these leadership theorists have made significant contributions to the field of managerial and leadership behavior, and taken together their theories provide a solid foundation for defining the differences between transactional and transformational leadership.

Analysis of Max Weber's Leadership Theories

The foundational elements of Max Weber's theories of leadership are predicated on the recognition that leadership is not a trait or static in nature, yet must be fluid, agile and highly situational to be effective. His classification of the three dominant types of leaders being bureaucratic, charismatic and traditional is the catalyst many leadership theorists credit with the foundation of transformational leadership (Weber, 1948). Weber was also the first theorist to see that situational awareness and emotional intelligence have a direct effect on how effective leaders are. He was able to succinctly define these differences using the constructs of transactional and transformational leadership (Weber, 1948). A transactional leader concentrates on managerial and leadership styles that are short-term in nature and driven more by the need to get immediate results. A transformational leader is one that seeks to motivate by defining a compelling long-term vision, providing individualized attention, defining unique and highly targeted employee development programs and being accountable to associates (Weber, 1948). Weber believed that all of these qualities were essential for a leader to progress from being transactional to transformational in their leadership styles, and added that the charismatic nature of a leader is critical for their success (Weber, 1948). Weber's theoretical frameworks made contextual sense during the time period he was advising corporations and working in academic, and… [read more]

Diversity in Leadership Education Kearney Journal

… Even though there was a definitive stance about transformational leadership, there were noticeable efforts made to present information with at least moderate objectivity.

This reader agreed with the thesis of the article. This is a style that should continue to prove practical and yield compelling results in the globalized world of the 21st century. Education is becoming significantly more accessible to more and more people around the world in various forms, such as on-campus, online, and integrated models that include both online and in-person coursework. As an effort to keep current, innovative or alternative styles of leadership in the education field should be tested and employed.

Students and teachers are encountering higher or more intense occasions of diversity as part of the educational experience. To become more comfortable and, as the authors reiterate, to maximize the potential of these inevitable experiences in diversity, teams should use transformational leadership. Certainly, there will be some resistance and some failures in the use of this style, of which the authors note the possibility. Productivity and innovation are key to success in the 21st century in the education field, and most other fields in the globalized economy. The advantages of transformational leadership, which promote the positive use (not exploitation) of demographical differences among education staff, are apparent and useful in various ways.


Karanxha, Z. Agosto, V. & Bellara, A. (2013). The hidden curriculum: Candidate diversity in educational leadership preparation. Educational Leadership and Policy Studies Faculty Publications, Paper 12. Available from: 2013 October 20.

Kearney, E., & Gebert, D. (2009). Managing Diversity and Enhancing Team Outcomes: The Promise of Transformational Leadership. Journal of Applied… [read more]

Gender Differences in Leadersdhip Essay

… Owing to this, women have social sensitivity, and have the capacity to handle social ambiguity. This is because women have the capacity to identify facial expressions (Hall and Matsumoto, 2004). Additionally, when reacting to situations, women will more likely involve emotions than men.

Therefore, this suggests that women cannot lead subordinates in the same way as men. This also translates and explains why women are likely to adopt a democratic leadership style. On the other hand, there is a likelihood of gender bias. Unfortunately, women experience this bias, and there is a perception that women do not have the capacity to lead an organization full of men (Hall and Matsumoto, 2004). This will significantly influence the type of leadership the female would apply if they get a chance to lead an organization.


It is apparent that there are gender differences in leadership styles. However, there is no difference in the manner which female and male managers lead their organizations. It is possible that the gender differences will not vanish. In this paper, many studies suggested that women adopted a democratic leadership style. It is also important to note that democratic vs. autocratic approach has a close connection with the transformational leadership approach. There were significant gender variations in the laboratory studies as compared to organizational studies. The identified variations in gender leadership may arise from the fact that women often lead their fellow women, and men often lead their fellow men. However, the confusion arises from the scholar's persistence in the utilization simple approaches while leadership is a sophisticated practice.


Carless, S.A., Wearing, A., J., & Mann, L.A. (2000). A short measure of transformational leadership. Journal of Business and Psychology, 14, 389-405.

Eagly, A.H., & Johnson, B.T. (1990). Gender and leadership style: A meta-analysis.

Psychological Bulletin, 108, 233-256.

Eagly, A.H., Johannesen-Schmidt, M.C., & Van Engen, M. (2003). Transformational,

Transactional, and Laissez-Faire Leadership Styles: A Meta-Analysis Comparing Women and Men. Psychological Bulleting, 95, 569-591.

Hall, J.A., & Matsumoto, D. (2004). Gender Differences in Judgments of Multiple

Emotions from Facial Expressions. Emotion, 4(2), 201-206.

Lynda, A., & Joanne, C.M. (2003). Gender and leadership? Leadership and gender? A

journey through the landscape of theories. Leadership and Organization development Journal, 24 (1/2),… [read more]

Leadership Reflection Final Reflections Journal

… I think if I retook that test, my level of measurable resiliency would have improved greatly.

That desire to improve is one of my greatest advantages, I think. Overall, I have high motivation to succeed and improve. I am constantly striving to do better than I did today and yesterday, which has been a major source of strength in my academic and real world training. That combined with my passion for my work and evidence-based method for critical thinking have made me a better leader, and will continue to become even stronger with more experience.

I know now that to get to that better place, I have to take more calculated risks. Entrepreneurial leadership rests on one's ability to keep one's eyes on the future, without getting caught off guard. It is crucial to still hold the present secure, but not to get too worried about taking the necessary risks in order to truly push your leadership to the next level. This is another aspect that I was less confident at the beginning of this experience. Yet, through studying the successful risks of others and understanding the types of risks that are worth the plunge, I feel like I am more prepared to take on the entrepreneurial spirit within all of my leadership roles.

Mission Statement Reflection

Every strong leader has a solid mission statement to help guide them in their leadership roles. My personal mission statement demands that I be an innovative leader that inspires change and evolution to allow team members under me be more efficient. I have never been one to just follow the status quo because it is the easiest thing to do. Rather, I am the one who uses evidence-based thinking in order to inspire change within the team that will ultimately catapult the team to greater success. Looking back at my module reflection over the course of this experience, I feel that I have embodied this mission statement. There have been some snags along the way, but this is a learning experience, and I have made sure to learn from all the things that could have dragged me down. Being a leader is about embodying a multitude of roles so that the team can lean on you whenever they need assistance. I have learned where my weaknesses were that could have hindered me from embodying my personal mission statement and have spent time developing the skills necessary to overcome them. Through my own experience, I can now use these tools to continue to help inspire others to improve for the good of not only the team, but of themselves as well. Ultimately, in my position with the Army, my leadership could be what saves lives. That is a huge responsibility, one which requires dedication and effort to try to fine tune as best as possible. Through the reflections in this course, I feel that I have met my mission, but have opened up new doors to other possibilities… [read more]

Leadership: Succeeding in the Private Term Paper

… A transformational leader is one that can transform a school from a bland, unproductive place where students are bored, to a school where students are anxious to get into their classrooms and teachers are motivated and energized. The transformational leader plays what Northouse calls "…a pivotal role in precipitating change," and he or she is able to get students, administrators, teachers, board members and parents on the same page. A transformational leader is generally a person with charisma, although that is not necessary. I have had the good fortune to have been led by a transformational leader in an educational environment and this person raised the level of motivation because he knew what was needed and he had the up-tempo, believable personality to make the changes needed in an otherwise sluggish school.

Chapter 10: Servant Leadership (Local Government): Not everyone can become a servant leader, but the concept opens the door to a person who serves first. Before becoming a servant leader, one must first serve in some capacity. In the local government context, a person would start typically as a volunteer perhaps at a homeless shelter or in a church group. Later, upon showing that he or she cares about others first, he may become a school board member and later a city council member who cares urgently that everyone in the community is served. A servant leader has "…a thorough understanding of the organization… [can] recognize others' problems" and is "…willing to take the time to address them" (Northouse). The servant leader is also so sensitive to others' concerns that he will "…exhibit emotional healing" by making himself available to others in order to provide support for them (Northouse).

Works Cited

Northouse, P.G. (2013). Leadership: Theory and Practice. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE


Sims, R.R., and Quatro, S.A. (2005). Leadership: Succeeding in the Private, Public, and… [read more]

Welch Leadership Qualities Term Paper

… The most problematic implication of Welch's leadership is the concern that his dynamic and hands-on style of leadership cannot be replicated. Such is to say that it may not be entirely clear that the system left behind by Welch is conducive to the needs of a successor.

5. Analyze and Criticaly evaluate Welch's Leadership relative to Leader-Memeber Exchange Theory (Northouse Figure 8.1-8.4).

Following the period of major restructuring, Welch would shift his leadership orientation with an emphasis on improving company culture. It would be at this point that he would begin to focus on improving openness and multidirectional exchange within the company. This would be evocative of the Leader-Member Exchange theory, which "conceptualizes leadership as a process that is center on interactions between leaders and followers." (Northouse, p. 161)

Cultivation of these relationships at multiple levels of the organization would come to define the second phase of Welch's tenure. Here within, the CEO would demonstrate a favoritism toward those departemnts, managers and organizational members who were participatory and engaged in the culture shift. Resistance to this change in orientation would place one in Welch's 'out-group.' This would be especially so at the leadership levels throughout the organization, where Welch would personally see to the placement of a generation of 'new vision' leaders who shared his expectations for a large corporate whose internal culture more closely resembled a small business.

Works Cited:

Northouse, P.G. (2013). Leadership: Theory and Practice, 6th Edition. Thousand Oaks,… [read more]

Leadership Essay

… Is charisma necessary?

Charismatic leadership is just one type of leadership. It is not necessary for a leader to be charismatic to be effective. Because charisma can affect motivation, charismatic leadership is often tied to transformational leadership. Overlooked is the role that charismatic leadership can have in transactional leadership. Often, transactional organizations must repeat their actions, ad nauseum sometimes, and it is here where there needs to be some fervency among the followers. A FedEx courier or Wal-Mart greeter engages in incredibly repetitive work, but they believe in the mission of the company and in their role in that mission. Charisma is not necessary a part of this, but a charismatic supervisor can convey the mission of the company and instill a sense of motivation among the workers that makes repetitive work seem meaningful and interesting.

Charismatic leadership is of course valuable during the transformation process. The key is that the charismatic leader inspires, and that inspiration coupled with structures that encourage creativity, will bring about the type of transformational change that is required in the organization. Given the need for secondary leaders to spread the message and execute the plans, a charismatic leader can be valuable simply to inspire the lower-level managers, let alone the rank-and-file.

However, while there is clearly value in charismatic leadership, it is also worth noting that leadership need not be charismatic to be successful. A leader can use a number of different methods, tactics, and techniques to achieve the desired results. Yukl (2010) notes that, for example, formal authority can be just as effective as reverential authority. Systems and structures are almost always required to guide action, regardless of the level of inspiration within the company. Further, charisma of one leader is often subsumed within an organization to fervor for the organization as a whole. If there is reverence and inspiration, it can come from any number of sources. A Pope who is a skilled administrator can be effective in his job, because for members of his organization inspiration is supposed to come from above. There does not need to be a high level of loyalty to the Pope or buy-in to his message, as long as there is a common belief throughout the organization in the overall direction of the organization.

While charisma helps, the traits of leadership effectiveness do not have to include charisma. Being a skilled communicator is important, and can come from a relatively dry leader. Likewise, the abilities to understand, to synthesize, to organize and to delegate do not relate to the charisma of the leader. There are many other ways for leaders with low charisma to achieve the same results, using different techniques and different motivators for their followers. Charisma is a good trait for a leader to have, but it is not entirely necessary.


Conger, J. & Kanungo, R. (1987). Toward a behavioral theory of charismatic leadership in organizational settings. Academy of Management Review. Vol. 12 (4) 637-647.

Criulla, J. (2003). The ethics of leadership. Belmont,… [read more]

Leadership Development the Famous Peter Essay

… For example, being able to complete the required work assigned that is not reliant on others would be a self-sufficiency thing while a task or project that involves multiple departments would absolutely require both self-sufficiency to do the deliverables that the author is responsible for but interaction and interfacing with others is also important.

Fullan made the point that "capacity" is the expansion and improvement of what a management or leadership team is able to absorb and deal with. The unwillingness or inability to deal with daily challenges would represent a lack of capacity while a gung ho and aggressive (yet polite) addressing of daily tasks and challenges would show high capacity. It is all about being prepared, being proactive and showing good leadership skills (Fullan, 2005).


Many people crave leadership and managerial power with an avarice that is unseemly and improper. Other leaders fly by the seat of their pants just a little too much and are caught off guard (or give the appearance that they are) when things come up that must be addressed. Both school and work can manifest this in many ways and the key is to know as much about what is coming before it happens and this allows any good leader, manager or person in general to be well-prepared for what is to come and perform in a sterling and exemplary manner. Setting the example will draw others to you much like moths to the flame and that is almost always a good thing for a firm or organization.


Fullan, M. (2005). Eight Forces for Leaders of Change. Journal of Staff Development, 26(4), 54.

Weinschenk, S. (2013, September 20). Leadership | Psychology Today. Psychology Today: Health, Help, Happiness + Find a Therapist.… [read more]

Leadership in Nursing Excellence Research Paper

… An excellent participative leader also has the ability to generate a very high degree of individualized consideration and gives each subordinate an opportunity to take ownership of their specific area of the department (Rao, 2013). One of the most innate needs of any subordinate is to also have a strong sense that they are needed and their contributions count. Creating a culture of achievement and inspired motivation is also critically important. These leadership attributes show how critical it is to blend the hard and soft skills of leadership (Rao, 2013).


The quote new nurse managers require a solid knowledge base of effective leadership practices to ensure their success (Cohen, 2013) typify the mindset of graduate-level nursing students who will excel in their careers. Seeing nursing leadership as a foundational element of a successful career in healthcare is essentials, as the ability to create and sustain a highly collaborative culture in any workgrou7p is essential for the success of any department (Swearingen, Liberman, 2004). The continual development of leadership skills over the many years of a career is also critically important as well. Great leadership in nursing isn't a destination, it's a journey. Participative leadership styles allow for growth and continually learning over time, aligning with that long-term vision of leadership development.


Cohen, S. (2013). Transitioning new leaders: Seven steps for success. Nursing Management, 44(2), 9.

Rao, M.S. (2013). Smart leadership blends hard and soft skills. Human Resource Management International Digest, 21(4), 38-40.

Swearingen, S., & Liberman, A. (2004). Nursing leadership - serving those who serve others. The Health Care Manager, 23(2), 100-109.

Wong, C., & Cummings, G. (2009). Authentic leadership: A new… [read more]

Military Leadership Essay

… Military leadership is a profound and unique phenomenon that represents how men have courageously led their units in to the most extreme of instances of life known as war. The purpose of this essay is to provide a descriptive analysis of three models of assessment of military leadership to highlight how the art of war has been managed and directed throughout the history of mankind.

The Army Field Manual 6-22 addressed how leadership should be approached with this military branches' ranks. In this work the Army model of leadership is expressed. It is stated "The model's basic components center on what a leader is and what a leader does. The leader's character, presence, and intellect enable the leader to master the core leader competencies through dedicated lifelong learning. The balanced application of the critical leadership requirements empowers the Army leader to build high-performing and cohesive organizations able to effectively project and support land power. "[footnoteRef:1] Balance is the key phrase in this model, as all leaders must be able the extreme conditions that the military presents including the violent struggle for life and death. [1: U.S. Army Field Manual 6-22. Released October 2006. ]

Bartone et al. (2009) suggested that any model of military leadership must incorporate the psychological processes of that leader. The authors use the word "hardiness" to model the success rate of a given personality type. They concluded that "the longer term solution for a volunteer force must include adjusting the mission demands… [read more]

Ethical Leadership Describe Each Study Article Critique

… Ethical Leadership

Describe Each Study

There are some articles that deal with organizational ethical values and the leadership values. These articles are based on research and studies conducted in different areas of the world to find if there is a… [read more]

Distinction Between Leadership and Management Research Paper

… ¶ … Leadership and Management

There is a key distinction between the terms management and leadership. This distinction becomes even more pronounced when it is applied to the roles that individuals fulfill while striving to achieve objectives related to these two concepts. As such, there is a fairly salient difference between a manager and a leader. Essentially, managers may be called upon to lead -- although they do not necessarily have to. Leaders, for the most part, are such regardless of their individual rank within an organization, and have the proclivity to produce behavior that attracts others to follow them.


That said, the key distinction between these two roles within a healthcare organization primarily relates to formality. Managers are individuals who have been given positions of power and authority. They often have the need to delegate and allocate resources towards the achieving of specific objectives that are always in alignment with those of the overarching organization. They do not have to be noted for their charisma or their people-skills, since their position is rooted in authority in which they have copious amounts of control of the processes of a particular organization.


Leaders, on the other hand, do not expressly have positions of power, authority and control that managers have. By definition, of course, all a leader needs to have to stake such a claim is followers. Therefore, one of the key distinctions of a leader is that he or she has a fair amount of influence within an organization -- especially within a health care organization. Such an influence may be based upon position and rank, but it can also be intrinsically related to personality, charisma, and the desire to show to others how to achieve an objective -- which either may or may not be related to those of the organization.


When I first started working in the healthcare industry as a registered nurse, I… [read more]

Educational Leadership Management Effectiveness vs Term Paper

… Educational Leadership

Management Effectiveness vs. Leadership Effectiveness

Just like is the case with the terms management and leadership, effective management and effective leadership are in most cases used synonymously. The two however differ. In seeking to bring out the difference between management effectiveness and leadership effectiveness, it would be prudent to first revisit the terms leadership and management. In the words of Lussier (2008, p.334), "management is broader in scope than leadership." While a leader attempts to influence people towards the accomplishment of certain goals by winning over their trust, a manager largely relies on the existing systems and structures to direct individuals towards the accomplishment of organizational goals and objectives. For this reason, effectiveness from a managerial perspective has got to do with the successful utilization of the existing systems and structures to get people to accomplish organizational goals. On the other hand, effectiveness from a leadership perspective should be seen as the ability to win over the trust of others to the extent where one is able to motivate or influence individuals towards the accomplishment of a given task. Essentially, an effective manager should be an expert when it comes to resource utilization, time management, coordination, etc. Individuals with a deficiency in the said skills cannot make effective managers. On the other hand, an effective leader in addition to being a "people's person" should also be a visionary. People are more likely to follow leaders who inspire them. A leader who is unable to inspire a group towards the accomplishment of a certain task cannot therefore be regarded effective.

Successful Leadership vs. Effective Leadership

A leader could be effective, successful, or both effective and successful. When a leader uses his or her position of leadership (as opposed to his or her persona) to get followers to accomplish certain tasks, that is called successful leadership. However, as Hellriegel and Slocum (2009, p.310) point out, "an effective leader's influence is soft and indirect." Effective leadership is therefore… [read more]

Dr. Kings Leadership Style Research Paper

… Dr. King's Leadership Style

Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., has an enduring legacy in American history as a passionate preacher who was also a very effective Civil Rights leader. He is well-known for his stirring oratory and for his powerful… [read more]

Youth Leadership Training and Development Research Paper

… Survey Population: Youth leaders in volunteer organizations, stratified by area codes and school district distributions throughout the metro area.

Sample Size: Based on the total population of students in the metro area and using a Confidence Interval of 95%, the total sample size is set at 532.

Survey Sampling Technique: Using a random number generation application to choose every nth respondent to ensure representativeness of the entire survey population.

Research Instrument: A survey will be used for data collection, relying on a series of Likert scales for capturing attitudinal assessments and assessments of the dimensions of self-esteem, motivation, moral values and self-confidence.

Research Phases

Phase I -- Initial questionnaire evaluation and testing. Selection of respondents and use of random sampling to define overall sampling frame. Complete parent information sessions and gain approvals and support.

Phase II -- Complete stratified random sample of each audience. Complete second wave of questionnaires. Evaluate and benchmark response rates.

Phase III -- Complete survey analysis and present results, then define strategic improvements to programs.


Creswell, John W. 2009. Research Design: Qualitative, Quantitative, and Mixed

Methods Approaches (3rd… [read more]

Global Leadership Term Paper

… Having a so-called "global mindset" did not enter into the responses.

That having been said, in the journal Leadership Excellence the authors take issue with the focus on competencies alone; instead, they assert that leaders are "…forced by the fires of experience"; leadership development (whether for global expansion or local markets) should zero in on "results, not competencies" because executives become adept at challenges "…through experiences" (McCall, et al., 2007). That point is appropriate because a global leader should (and often does) acquire experience by doing his or her job in more than one venue.

An article in the Journal for Quality & Participation references a recent study with 202 "…high-potential leaders from around the world"; those global leaders were asked to describe how the "ideal leader of the future" would be different from past leaders (Hopen, 2020). The answer: the ideal leader of the future needs to be competent at "…building partnerships inside and outside the organization" (Hopen, 8). Hence, whether the business leader is heading up a global venture or managing a grocery store chain in Alabama, the partnerships he or she is able to build and sustain will have a lot to do with the company's success in that particular market. Nowhere in that survey was a "global mindset" presented; success is about the competencies previously mentioned in this paper and it is about the partnerships that are developed.

Dr. Daniel Vasella has been CEO and chairman of Novartis, a global company worth $60 billion, for 17 years. In an interview with Forbes, Vasella -- clearly a successful global leader -- emphasized that leadership involves creating "…a compelling purpose… [and] articulate clear values and behaviors" (Cashman, 2013). Vasella insists that "…you must engage people, give direction and manage change" while simultaneously "…creating trust, being supportive, developing people" and being a competent communicator. A creative and visionary leader must understand the industry and must be inspirational, according to Vasella. Nowhere in the interview does Cashman discuss anything close to a "global mindset" albeit he's been involved in global management and leadership for 17 years.

In conclusion, Cohen's point about having a "global mindset" is important, especially for that leader whose company is just entering the international marketplace. However, suggesting strongly, as he does, that a global mindset is the most important -- or "key foundational factor" -- attribute for a successful overseas venture is putting all leadership eggs in one basket. It is not the most important attribute -- there are many strategic attributes needed -- and it appears that Cohen is beating his own drum while neglecting some of the other pivotal attributes that go into successful global leadership.


Cappellen, Tineke, and Janssens, Maddy. 2007. 'Global managers' career competencies.' Career Development International, vol. 13, 514-537.

Cashman, Kevin. 2013. 'A Global Leader's Perspective on CEO Leadership: Part One.' Forbes. Retrieved May 16, 2013, from

Cohen, Stephen L. 2010. 'Effective global leadership requires a global mindset.' Industrial and Commercial Training, vol. 21, 3-9.

Hopen, Deborah. 2010. 'The… [read more]

Impacts of Culture on Leadership Style Thesis

… 21st Century Leadership in Japan

Leadership has proved itself to be an interesting topic for researchers. Numerous investigators have studied leadership styles in different cultures, occupations, and organizational settings. While many studies have been developed in the Western contexts, Japan… [read more]

Comparison of a Nurse and Non-Nurse Leader Research Paper

… ¶ … Nurse and Non-Nurse Leader

Leadership does not have a delegated authority. Therefore, the leader has 'power' that comes informally from the people they lead. Leaders do the right thing while managers do things right, hence the difference between… [read more]

Ethical Practices in Mentoring/Coaching Research Paper

… Consideration of ethical principles is a crucial keystone that fosters effective and safe practice. A good coach or mentor must help the client in achieving the greatest good, must prevent harm and uphold autonomy of his/her client. The success of mentoring and coaching is enhanced through establishment of proper relationship between the mentor and mentee, application of regulations and law, and application of codes of conduct. For instance, in Sheena's issue, there was no established relationship between her and her client, and hence the fear of contacting him, and the client feared to contact Sheena. The established relationship besides code of ethics and laws facilitate effective, mentoring and coaching practice.


Connor, M., & Pokora, J (2012). Coaching and mentoring at work: Developing effective practice. London: McGraw-Hill International.

Crawnwell, J. (2004). Mentoring: A Henley review of best practice. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

Hawkins, P., & Smith, N. (2007). Coaching, mentoring and organizational consultancy: Supervision and development. London: McGraw-Hill International, Jan 1, 2007

Moberg, D., & Vekasquez, M. (2004). The Ethics of mentoring. Business Ethics Quarterly, 14 (1), 95-122.

Reinstein, A. (2013). Examining mentoring in public accounting organizations. Review of Business, 33 (1), 40-49.

Western, S. (2012). Coaching and mentoring: A critical… [read more]

Constructing Visions A-Level Outline Answer

… ¶ … personal vision of leadership could best be described as one of 'situational' leadership. I believe that leadership must be suited to the needs of the task at hand and also to the needs of the organization, including its human needs. My leadership vision is flexible, dynamic and ever-changing. One leadership theory that has always resonated with me is that of Hershey-Blanchard Situational leadership theory. According to this conception of leadership, leadership is not a 'cookie cutter' formula that can be applied to all persons indiscriminately. There are four basic methods of leadership, all of which have valid applications. With the leadership style of 'telling,' leaders "tell their people exactly what to do, and how to do it;" with 'selling,' "leaders 'sell' their message to get the team on board;" with 'participating' leadership "leaders focus more on the relationship and less on direction;" and finally 'delegating' leadership is when "leaders pass most of the responsibility onto the follower or group. The leaders still monitor progress, but they're less involved in decisions" (Hershey-Blanchard situational leadership theory, 2013, Mind Tools).

In decisions involving persons such as interns who know little about what they are doing or who are very unmotivated or with tasks that require relatively little finesse, a telling style may be more appropriate. However, in workplaces where workers may be equally untrained, but far more motivated, a 'selling' approach may work best. In another workplace, where the leader can benefit from the expertise of followers, a participatory style may be beneficial. And in some instances, when the leader may actually have less actual expertise than members of a team, delegating is preferred.

In the 'real world,' I believe this eclectic, situational strategy is always required when leading a team. Yes, a company may have many fine slogans about always listening to its employees. But sometimes, in the day-to-day grind of a business, particularly when workers have minimal training, are very young, or are frankly underpaid, a manager may feel forced to use a 'telling' approach. I can remember this from my first job in a fast food restaurant. I do believe that 'telling' is rarely an ideal, which is why the 'selling' approach is best, if workers at least have some intrinsic motivation to do a good job, even if they do not know what that good job may entail.

Both the telling and the selling approaches to leadership assume that the leader has more knowledge than the workers. But that might not always be the case. A manager of a sales team may benefit from a participatory approach, because the sales… [read more]

Indispensable Leader in the World Today Leadership Term Paper

… ¶ … Indispensable Leader in the World Today

Leadership is one of the most critical fields in the world today. The modernistic styles and implications that are brought by leadership are categorical of the successes and failures that have happened… [read more]

Global Leadership and Building Essay

… Global Leadership and Building Leadership

Global Leadership & Building Leadership

Thank you for giving me this chance to share my thoughts on what I value, believe, and think about leadership. I believe I have an obligation to repay the community for the opportunities I have received. I believe that I have a duty to avoid wronging others, treat people as equals, and promote the good of others. I think one should treat people as an end and not as a means to an end. As human beings we all have a responsibility to keep our promises, compensate others when we harm them, thank those who help us, recognize and acknowledge the value of others, improve the conditions of others, improve our virtue and intelligence, and not to injure others.

Businessman and author Ken Blanchard says, "The key to successful leadership is influence, not authority." I think in order to be an effective leader one must truly care about people. Successful initiatives depend on the efforts of the leader's people; therefore a leader must empower, inspire, enable, encourage, and support subordinates. A leader must communicate the organization's goals, vision's, priorities and strategies in order to gain maximum commitment to organizational success. Leadership… [read more]

Management and Theory Leadership Application Essay

… initial success. But that would leave out other variables like geography, econometrics, type of product or service, technology, timeliness, etc. Strictly speaking, this is one of the difficulties in social science research. The internal validity must show that A caused… [read more]

School Leadership Student Centered Term Paper

… It is mutable, much like the characteristics of leaders themselves. It should be noted that CRT does not exclude persons who are European-American or White from applying its lens. Any person can use his or her identity, even an identity of privilege as a springboard of further reflection upon the nature of leadership and power dynamics.

According to Robinson "building trust in racially and culturally homogeneous communities is easier than in more diverse ones because people have a tendency to trust those who are similar to themselves" (Robinson 2011: 137). When there is a perceived divide between the culture of the administration and the students and the teachers, it is more difficult to build trust and to accomplish the five dimensions of leadership. CRT would not necessarily question this assumption but would ask why does this statement ring true? Why do such barriers exist based upon race and other demographic factors, and how do they negatively impact education? CRT also takes more of a Marxist perspective in seeing socioeconomic divides as resulting from historical injustices that must be challenged in the classroom, rather than as mere failures of human connections like CRT. However, although CRT emphasizes the need for mutual learning and sharing common personal backgrounds, rather than a more impersonal focus on goals like student-centered learning, there are many complementary aspects of the two ideologies, such as the need for professional development and the raising of educators' awareness about the community where they serve.

Student-Centered Learning vs. CRT

Generally applied dimensions vs. Community-specific

Leader seen as in control of change vs. Leader seen as being a part of a community

Little emphasis on race, other than the divisiveness of heterogeneous communities vs. emphasizing 'identity politics'


Airini. (2010). Be true to one's self: Learning to be leaders in Pasifika education strategy. Mai Review, 1, 1-22.

Gronn, P. (2008). The future of distributed leadership. Journal of Educational Administration,

46(2). 141-158

Potaka, P. (2011). Cultural change and moral leadership. In R. Notman (Ed.) Successful

educational leadership in New Zealand: Case studies of schools and an early childhood centre. University of Otago.

Robinson, Viviane. (2011). Student-centered leadership. Jossey-Bass

Santamara, L.J., &… [read more]

Situational Leadership Essay

… ¶ … Leadership

The underlying assumption of servant leadership is that the leader exists to serve the needs of others. The servant leader marshals resources in such a manner as to give his or her employees the best opportunity to succeed. Under the servant leader, people will grow, improve and achieve a higher level of self-actualization as part of their path to superior performance (Greenleaf, 1970). Self-awareness is a critical element of servant leadership. Self-awareness helps the servant leader to understand the ways in which his or her actions are affecting those around him or her. The servant leader must also combine this self-awareness with self-concept. The servant leader must have the self-concept of wanting to serve, and feeling that he or she exists to serve the needs of others. This selflessness translates to servant leadership, but for a person to be an effective servant leader he or she must be aware of this driving need, and seek to cultivate it. That person's actions will then be more aligned with servant leadership, guided by knowing altruism.

Emotional intelligence also plays an important role in servant leadership. Self-awareness is one of the key elements of emotional intelligence, but beyond that people who have a high level of emotional intelligence also have empathy and strong social skills. Servant leaders must have these traits. Empathy is important because the servant leader exists to meet the needs of others; understanding those needs is therefore crucial. Social skills help the servant leader to engage in a free flow of communications with people. Not only does the listening aspect help the servant leader to better understand the needs of others, but it can help him or her to better understand the link between his or her actions and the meeting of those needs. The best servant leaders will have a very high level of emotional intelligence and therefore be able to read and respond to… [read more]

Social Equity Is a Key White Paper

… In addition, public administration has the duty of burdening the responsibility of creating and maintaining a commonwealth. However, in practice the relationship between citizenry and administrators is complex, making matters of government operation, citizen engagement, and design in administration complex… [read more]

Leadership Profile Case Study

… Leadership Profile One: A Rising Star

Summary of the Situation

Over the holidays, I volunteered at the homeless shelter I have been working with for a number of years. I initially started volunteering there because I thought it would look good on my resume and transcript, but I made friends and bonded with some of the people at the organization. Therefore, I continued to work there enthusiastically on three separate occasions. This past occasion, I was called upon to coordinate some events for the homeless people at the shelter. I was entrusted with the opportunity to design programs and create activities for the people, something that I had only before watched other people do.

Outcome of the Situation

I was successful in designing programs that were accepted by people of all ages, genders, and ethnic backgrounds. Many of the shelter members congratulated me. Because the experience gave me confidence, I developed a newfound desire to serve in a leadership position in the future.

Summary of Theories, Approaches, Readings

Unlike trait theories of leadership, behavioral theories of leadership suggest that individuals can learn how to be good leaders. The main methods of learning how to become a good leader are through observational learning, and through rewards and consequences.

Summary of Connections Between Theory and Observation

In this case, I learned how to design the homeless shelter programs by watching and observing. By learning through example, I modeled my leadership behavior after my mentors at the homeless shelter. Therefore, I exhibited behavioral theory when serving as a leader.

Leadership Profile Two: LGBT

Summary of the Situation

My friend Andrea is a lesbian who came out of the closet during her last year in high school, right before leaving for college. Her parents were unsupportive, and so were most of the people she knew because she comes from a conservative community in a small town. At university,… [read more]

Leadership Warren Buffett, a Leading Term Paper

… Seeing his successes and the devotion of those who work for him, I remain convinced that the relevance of influencing people's basic values as well as principles cannot be overstated if one is to accomplish organizational goals. To remain relevant in a highly competitive business environment, a business must be able to truly motivate its employees. In my opinion, employees operating at level one cannot guarantee the firm the vigor it needs to succeed in a truly competitive marketplace. Towards that end, as a leader, I would seek to appeal to people's feelings and thoughts. To be able to do this, I may have to further hone my listening as well as thinking skills.

Buffett has also been able to motivate the employees of Berkshire through the creation of an environment that fosters mutual respect and understanding. Their main motivation to greater performance is not the monthly paycheck. They are really committed to seeing Berkshire achieve its goals. This way, Berkshire continues to maintain extraordinary performance. Studying Buffett's approach to leadership has also made me realize that it is by genuinely addressing the concerns of their followers that leaders get to win the trust of the said followers. In Berkshire's context, followers include both shareholders and employees. As a leader, I would seek to transform the lives of my followers in a meaningful way. This could be through the creation of more value for shareholders as well as through the facilitation of better pay and working conditions for employees.

Being a level three leader cannot be regarded a walk in the park. However, by relying on Warren Buffett's approach to leadership as well as the various level three leadership behaviors outlined by Clawson (2012), I believe I would succeed in this endeavor.


Clawson, J.G. (2012). Level Three Leadership: Getting Below the Surface (5th ed.). New Jersey: Prentice Hall. [read more]

Leadership -- Power and Responsibilities Essay

… It is inexplicable that the narrator would be so rude (perhaps he is jealous that Robert and the narrator's wife are friends and were friends previously when the narrator's wife was a reader for Robert years ago), but Robert ends up being the stronger person. The leadership Robert shows comes clear when Robert asks the narrator to describe what a cathedral looks like; the narrator can't do it and so Robert places his hand on the narrator's hand and in effect is proving tutoring to the narrator vis-a-vis how to experience a cathedral.

Meanwhile John F. Kennedy had his flaws (he reportedly had an affair with Hollywood superstar Marilyn Monroe) in his person life, but in his professional life, as president, he showed great leadership. For example, he set the stage for the United States to become world leader in space exploration. He set a goal when he was first elected to office, to establish NASA and to develop the rockets and technology needed to put a man on the moon. Kennedy's biggest challenge -- and the one in which he showed the responsible use of power -- was during the Cuban Missile Crisis. Kennedy basically told the Soviet Union to pull their missiles out of Cuba or the U.S. would destroy them from the air. He devised a successful blockade around Cuba and Soviet ships that were headed to Cuba to deliver missile hardware were turned back.

The fifth individual to be discussed, Michael Abrashoff, a former U.S. Navy captain, took over a Navy ship (USS Benfold) that had a terrible reputation and created a whole new legacy for the ship. Abrashoff was very good with his men, as he used his power as captain for positive change on board; rather than just making demands of his crew, he took crew members that had failed elsewhere and trained them to be competent, efficient sailors. When the Sunday barbeque was held on deck (which Abrashoff launched), Abrashoff went to the back of the food line and waited for his turn -- insisting that his officers do the same. When two African-American sailors and a white sailor got into a fight with racial overtones, Abrashoff was obliged as captain to punish all three, but in addition to that, he took the three under his wing and mentored them, and they all three became upstanding, rule-abiding crew members. Abrashoff's integrity shone through by his ability to be a good listener; he had a 15 minute meeting with every one of his crew members (this took several weeks), and when he heard a good suggestion from a sailor, he put it into effect. He talked a good talk but he walked it better, as the saying goes.

In conclusion, Capt. Abrashoff took his responsibilities seriously but creatively, and showed integrity in doing to. Lincoln and Kennedy also knew how to assume and accept responsibility and they used their power with integrity and skill. Robert, while blind, showed that he had leadership qualities, and… [read more]

Organizational Motivation and Leadership Term Paper

… Low morale among employees is commonly caused by stress. Stress levels of workers may be increased by certain factors, but the main cause of employee stress is their relationship with their bosses. Reports indicate that highly authoritarian bosses are the main cause of increasing employee absenteeism (Chance & Chance, 2002). Nonetheless, when the rate of employee absenteeism is high in a company, they should consider the relationship between employees and managers. This issue can be resolved through management training. A proper leadership-training program will enable the authoritarian managers to learn techniques of how to become a facilitating manager. This style will enable managers to motivate employees so that they can forward suggestions and issues and keep employees updated about the company progress. This way, employees will not feel as if the managers will draw penalties on them for mistakes (Fulton & Maddock, 2008).

The role of organizational leadership in your selected situation

The Coca Cola Company has resorted to policies and programs that address employee absenteeism. The company has been successful to address this situation because these policies have focused on absenteeism itself. Rewarding timeliness and punishing violators is one way of solving the issue. In order for the Coca Cola Company to eliminate this problem, it must identify its origin. However, the problem is that the source may not be found where it is thought to be (James, 2008).

The Coca Cola Company is seeking the cause of the problem in the nature of the workers, which may include the generation of employees at work. If the later is addressed, productivity could increase, and absenteeism could reduce. The company has also established that the core cause of employee absenteeism is based on poor morale. This is generated by the company's policies, procedures and the overall style of management and not in the shortcomings of workers. The Coca Cola Company can adjust their policies, regulations, and procedures to facilitate the work of employees. The managers should ensure that there is an exchange of feedback, to and from employees. This system can be fully incorporated into the company's managerial deliberations (Huston & Marquis, 2009

The role of power and influence in the selected situation

Earlier this year, the CEO of Coca Cola pointed out that there has been an increase in employee absenteeism especially when approaching weekends. He put the blame on the company's industrial relation system and demanded for the policy to be changed. High rates of employee absenteeism at the company suggest that employees have not been appropriately engaged (Miner, 2007). Research indicates that when employees are not engaged, it leads to high rates of employee absenteeism. Employees become stressed and fragile when they encounter an uninspiring workplace or crappy leaders confront and will seek some escape route. In order to escape, they will create false excuses such as sickness. Most of them refer to such situations as stress days because they are sick and tired of their bosses and they need to take a break. For the above… [read more]

Leadership - Gates of Fire Essay

… They fought with heart and soul and tried their best to delay the action of Persians so that their home land people get time to ready for the battles of Salamis and Plataea.

This story of 300 Spartans and the leadership set by King Leonydas explored by Pressfield is of important significance for U.S. Army. It portrays what can be done for the sake of humanity and how strong leadership can help in overcoming even the most critical situations. This story gives the true definition of courage to the armies and shows the importance of creating strong bonds among the comrades in arms.

It shows how the good training, guidance, disciplines and proper use of resources can bring desired outcomes. Moreover, it also teaches how the victory achieved by sacrifices gives strength and motivation to others. This historical story narrated by fictional characters has several lessons in it for the U.S. Army who often has to face critical situations for beating the enemies. It not only gives history information but also the lessons of courage, comradeship and teamwork.


Bass, B and Riggio, R. (2008). Transformational Leadership. Second edition. Lawrence Erlbaum


Cohen, W. (2010). Heroic Leadership. Leading with Integrity and Honor. Chapter 7: Put Duty Before

Self. Published by Jossey Bass.

Crandall, D. (2007). Leadership Lessons from WestPoint. The Department of Behavioral Sciences and Leadership. Published by Jossey-Bass. John Willey and Sons Inc.

Mintzberg, H. (1998). Harvard Business Review on Leadership. Harvard Business School Press. Printed in USA.

Parikh, M &… [read more]

Bridge on the River Kwai Essay

… Leadership Styles

Leadership Perceptions from "The Bridge on the River Kwai"


Defining and understanding the different types of leadership is necessary for this article. Leadership could be defined as the art of making a person do something that needed… [read more]

Level 5 Leadership Communication Essay

… "Jobs had a fickle commitment construct -- he fell in and out of love with people much too easily" (Kazenbach 2012:2). He was not willing to listen to others and he "missed the potential contribution of many people who were not yet (and perhaps never would be) so-called A players" (Kazenbach 2012:2). But such was his charisma that "many of the people Jobs abandoned along the way retained a grudging respect for his positive qualities -- and a few even came back for more of his particular brand of abuse" (Kazenbach 2012:).

Jobs was able to cross boundaries as a leader, blending knowledge of human psychology and perception with design -- and fusing it into his sense of technological creativity. Every single product that emerged from Apple had Jobs' recognizable 'stamp' upon it and not simply because of the Apple logo (Kazenbach 2012:3). Towards the end of his life, Jobs was more self-critical of his leadership at Apple and admitted that the company could have been better at partnering with other companies to generate new opportunities for itself in the future. This could have laid the foundation for a more clear succession and direction after Jobs' death. At present, although his successor has presided over an equally successful company in financial terms, it is difficult to see if the succession will be successful, given the extent to which that Apple is still producing items that were given birth to under Jobs' leadership. However, it is hard to call Jobs anything but a successful leader. The market value of Apple's shares grew from $5 billion in 2000 to $351 billion upon Jobs' death, making it one the "biggest publicly listed companies in the U.S., up there with the likes of Exxon Mobil" (McInerney 2011).

Jobs' success seems to confirm the idea that strong leadership is a critical component of organizational performance. Without Jobs, there would be no Apple, and Apple 'was' Steve Jobs. Of course, not all companies are synonymous to their creator to such a great degree, and Jobs' micromanagement may mean that in the future Apple may not be as successful as it was under his guidance. Only time will tell. But Jobs' ability to use his charisma, intelligence and vision to 'break all the rules' of conventional leadership (such as being sensitive and listening to one's followers) shows that leadership is still a very important ingredient in terms of creating a high-quality organization. Without Jobs, the workers at Apple would have still been very talented engineers but Jobs was able to integrate design, technology and an ethos about how human beings should relate to technology in a very unusual and specific way.

While Steve Jobs is an inspiring success story, his model of leadership is not necessarily one which would be advisable to follow for most CEOs. Furthermore, it remains unlikely whether Jobs fulfills the requirements of being a 'Level 5 leader' given his determination to 'go it alone' and not allow for the input of others. However,… [read more]

Leadership Is a Complex Subject to Study Essay

… Leadership is a complex subject to study, in part because there are so many definitions of leadership. As a result of these multiple competing definitions, studying leadership is itself a complex endeavor, and one that will often be driven by one's views on what leadership is. Some of the approaches to the study of leadership are the trait approach, the behavior approach, the power-influence approach, the situational approach and the integrative approach. I personally feel that the integrative approach is the best one. I feel this because I recognize that the world is inherently complex and with a high degree of uncertainty. Leaders in particular must be able to manage in conditions of uncertainty and high complexity, and therefore should not be limited by the constraints that the other leadership approaches place on our understanding of how leaders achieve success. I feel that the integrative approach is more comprehensive, and allows for the flexibility that leaders need in order to achieve their objectives.

If there is a downside to the integrative approach, it is that there are times when it may overcomplicate a situation -- leaders cannot afford to be bogged down by detail. However, I feel that a good leader recognizes that complexity and uncertainty can and should be managed, so that even when multiple approaches are being utilized that the leader does not become bogged down or lose focus on the task at hand. It is also possible that the study of leadership is inherently geared towards single-variable theories. This is more a reflection of the nature of academia than of leadership itself. No academic wants to approach a study with an unwieldy number of variables, especially when those variables interact with each other. This might be true, but the issues that have constrained academic study of an integrative approach to leadership are not issues with the integrative approach in the real world. I am more interested in the integrative approach precisely because it reflects real world conditions of complexity and… [read more]

Relationship Between Personality and Transformational Leadership Essay

… ¶ … Personality and Transformational Leadership

Most of the time, it is really not that difficult for some people to easily recognize differences of the other people. Others' working ways can be totally different from one's own. At times they… [read more]

Leadership Chapter 10 Addresses Power Essay

… Conflict is defined as "a process in which one party perceives that his or her interests are being opposed or negatively affected by another party," (p. 328). Conflict is not necessarily a bad thing within an organization, as it can be used to leverage positive change. An emerging view on conflict is that constructive conflict can be healthy; whereas relationship conflict is generally detrimental to productivity. Constructive conflict occurs "when people focus their discussion on the issue while showing respect for people with other points-of-view," (p. 330). Relationship conflict focuses more on people than the issues, and refers to personality clashes. Three strategies that can be used to minimize personality conflict include promoting emotional intelligence, building a cohesive team, and supporting team norms.

It can be helpful to work with models of conflict. One conflict model identifies the sources of conflict, traces the escalation of the conflict, determines manifest conflict, and then analyzes conflict outcomes. Six main conditions that cause organizational conflict include incompatible goals, differentiation, interdependence, scarce resources, ambiguous roles, and communication problems. There are several conflict management styles, each of which has its merits in certain situations. Those styles include problem solving, avoiding, forcing, yielding, and compromising. The primary structural approaches to managing conflict include emphasizing superordinate goals, reducing differentiation, improving communication, reducing task interdependence, increasing resources, and clarifying rules.

Chapter 12 is about leadership in organizational settings. There are several theories and perspectives of leadership, including the competency perspective, the behavioral perspective, the contingency perspective, the transformational perspective, and the implicit leadership perspective. Organizations need to be aware of cross-cultural and gender differences in leadership.


McShane, S.L. & von Glinow, M.A. Organizational… [read more]

Strategic Management Leadership and Competitive Term Paper

… Competitive Strategy PetSmart vs. Petco

What is PetSmart's competitive strategy, and how does their strategy relate to the company's internal assessment? Give an example from the case.

Making the company's large stores feel homier is PetSmart's competitive strategy. The company has achieved this by reducing the size of their stores, and changing the shelves stocking layout from the warehouse format that was not working for the company. These changes plus the addition of other services, which their competitor was not providing gave the company a competitive advantage. As postulated in the case study, these additional services would generate $450 million of sales, which would represent 10% of PetSmart's $4.5 billion total. Since the strategy was developed in 2000 this figure would represent a 26% increment in annual growth. These value adding services provide the pet owners an opportunity to visit the stores, and this boosts the stores sales, as the owners will buy other products.

How does Petco compete with PetSmart and other pet food stores, and how does the company's competitive strategy relate to its internal analysis? Give an example from the case.

To remain competitive in the market, Petco has adopted a different strategy than the one adopted by PetSmart. Petco not only caters for cats, and dogs, but it has included products for other animals. The company also holds events in its stores, where it has competitions, and useful demonstrations for the pet owners. The case study shows that, Petco recently in its 200 stores had a Reptile Rendezvous event. During this event, there were demonstrations like new clay which owners of reptiles can use to mound caves and hills. Petco stores are relatively small, thus they cannot provide overnight stays, but they do have a day care in some locations. The company is also privately owned and this would make it difficult to… [read more]

Leadership Essay

… Don't be easy. Be fair and consistent." One thing that employees are always seeking is consistency. They want to be able to come to work and find things running smoothly and they want their boss to be consistently fair. The boss that is given to mood shifts that are sudden and inexplicable will cause emotional stress among his group of employees. The boss who is fair with the attractive women on his watch but is rude and pushy with the men is not going to have a loyal following -- and is not likely to get the most out of his crew. The supervisor that is always the same when training or critiquing his employees -- who is fair-minded but firm -- is the one that will get the respect and loyalty of his employees.

And the teacher in high school that is firm but fair, who insists that all students turn work in on time and those that don't -- no matter what the excuse is or how good their grades have been -- are docked for tardiness, is a good leader in that position.

Another idea that Henderson presents that is positive is #6, "Lead by Example." Not every foreman or middle manager is going to get his or her hands dirty on the assembly line or in another workplace environment. But "lead by example" means that the supervisor or manager is seen to be working hard, pressing for a better product, constantly encouraging others to be the best they can possibly be. Those that lead by example come in early, double-check their work, and are the last to leave the building.

Question #3

Honestly I have learned a great deal about leadership in this class, and I know now that a leader doesn't have to be the person with the most powerful voice or with the best personality. The Dale Carnegie book may be out of date to some people, but I was fascinated reading the part about "praise and honest appreciation." One doesn't have to make bold pronouncements and demands to show leadership. It's really about being kind and fair to your underlings. Being humble is part of leadership and giving praise to others is vital in terms of showing that the leader really cares and is paying attention to what is going on around him or… [read more]

Leadership in Nursing Peer Reviewed Journal

… The study examined the two different views of leadership and how the are effective in motivating employee behaviors. In the research, 4,670 coworkers rated their 421 senior managers based on the two concepts of leadership. Each manager was rated by a small number of employees, with an average of around 11 each. According to the research, "ratings were collected with the Leadership Versatility Index version 3.0 (LVI) multirater assessment instrument" (Kaiser, McGinnis, & Overfield, 201 p 125). There was a scale which included 12 dimensions of behavior. In these twelve, there were behaviors meant to enable and enforce, representing the two types of leadership strategies. This would then enable the researchers to understand what characteristics were valued highest. Regression analysis was then used to statistically analyze the results. The research clearly found that elements of both styles of leadership were rated as crucial within a business context. Thus, Kaiser, McGinnis, and Overfield, (2012) state that "the interpersonal how and the organizational what represent important and complementary components of effective leadership" and that "variables representing both the how and the what were weighted heavily in evaluations of overall effectiveness" (Kaiser, McGinnis, & Overfield, 2012, p 130). Essentially, from a real-world perspective, a true effective leader needs elements of both in order to find success in their leadership practices.

The core concepts of the article can be used in modern healthcare practice as well. A 2006 study conducted by Chen and Baron (2006) shows how leadership was evaluated by Taiwanese nurses. It was clear that nurses in a leadership position were utilizing elements mainly from a transformational leadership perspective, and tending to neglect elements that worked with different strategies. This means that nursing leaders were favoring the psychological and interpersonal perspective of leadership, while often neglecting to use elements of the more business oriented perspective. What resulted was only moderate satisfaction being reported by Taiwanese nurses. This clearly shows that elements of the organizational function style of leadership is still needed within a healthcare setting, as the nurses examined felt that the leadership was not as strong as it could be by using elements from only one of the two strategies.

Good leaders are crucial within nursing and healthcare staff. Yet, healthcare facilities also have the stress of the leadership divide that can create problems in training leaders to properly execute strategies for greater efficiency and productivity. Essentially, "there is nothing inherently antagonistic about these two perspectives" and as such nurses in advanced practices and education can utilize concepts from both perspectives in order to lead most effectively within a modern healthcare setting (Kaiser, McGinnis, & Overfield, 2012, p 125). As such, leaders within the nursing field, both in clinical practice and in educational fields, need to embody both the interpersonal elements and the organizational drive seen in combining both perspectives of leadership for a more streamlined approach to meeting healthcare needs within a contemporary healthcare system. Still, it is clear that within a healthcare field, the results may not be as… [read more]

Martin Luther King Junior Term Paper

… As he died, the non-violent movement appeared to dwindle away without him, which deepened the sense that he was, in fact, the movement essential leader. King's leadership, on the other hand, has never been out of the limelight due to the inroads he was able to make for the African-American community (Jackson, 2006).

This recognition that King's non-violent approach only agreed to be one inclination inside a bigger movement - which is that he was produced through the movement, instead of being the creator from it - has turned into a staple of latest scholarship. It wasn't King but numerous supporting local leaders, for example, who planned the famous Montgomery bus boycott of 1955 (Jackson, 2006).

In conclusion, independently, King's supporters understood that non-violence wasn't an outlook everybody shared, and once a follower amused King by telling him of the methods of one black Virginian who had taken care of a whitened bus driver who wanted him to go in his bus through the back door. An enormous figure, the guy grabbed the bus driver by his collar and spoke candidly that the bus driver should know a couple of things: 1) he can break the driver's neck without flinching and 2) he was not one of "Martin Luther King's non-violent Negroes" (Ling, 2003).


Charismatic Leadership. (2007). Retrieved on September 15, 2012 from:

Gardner, Howard. Leading Minds. 1995. New York. Basic Books.

Jackson, Thomas F. (2006). From Civil Rights to Human Rights: Martin Luther King, Jr., and the Struggle for Economic Justice. University of Pennsylvania Press.

Kirk, John A. (2005). Martin Luther King, Jr. Pearson Longman

Ling, Peter. Martin Luther King's Style of Leadership. 2003. Retrieved on September 15, 2012 from:

Transformational Leadership. (2007). Retrieved on… [read more]

Leadership Guide Transformational A-Level Coursework

… They were uncountable slaves, there were many reformers and other lawyers who joined the noble cause and turned the tables in USA. Abraham Lincoln passed away in 1865, but he will always remain alive in the hearts of all the… [read more]

Nursing Leadership Theories Term Paper

… g. hunger, thirst), (b) safety needs (i.e., bodily safety), (c) need for love and sense of belongings (e.g. friendship) affection, (love), and (d) need for self-esteem (e.g. recognition, appreciation, self-respect) and (e) self-actualization (e.g. developing one's whole potential)." (Cherie and Gebrekida, 2005) This theory is used frequently in nursing to explain human behavior." (Cherie and Gebrekida, 2005 )

Two Factor Theories (Hertzberg's Theory of Job Satisfaction)

Hertzberg's is reported to have expanded Theory Y by "dividing the needs that affect a person's motivation to work into two sets of factors: those that affect dissatisfaction and those that affect satisfaction. The first set, called hygiene factors are those factors that meet a person's need to avoid pain, insecurity, and discomfort. If not met, the employee is dissatisfied. The second set, called motivation factors are those that meet needs to grow psychologically, when met, the employee feels satisfied. These are distinct and independent factors according to Hertzberg. Meeting hygiene needs will not increase satisfaction, and meeting motivation needs will not reduce dissatisfaction. " Hygiene factors are reported to include: (1) adequate pay; (2) appropriate supervision; (3) interpersonal relationships that are good; (4) working conditions that are safe; (5) work that is meaningful; advancement opportunities; (6) responsibility that is appropriate and (7) recognition of an adequate nature. (Cherie and Gebrekida, 2005) From this view, the role of the nurse leader is to "…ensure that both sets of needs are met, some directly and others by providing opportunities to meet them in a conducive work environment." (Cherie and Gebrekida, 2005)

Summary and Conclusion

This work has examined various theories associated with leadership theory and has explained their formulation and the application of these theories in the work environment. While the theories covered in this brief does not comprise an all inclusive list of the theories available provided is a brief overview of some of the theories that are applicable in the role of nursing… [read more]

Leadership Management Assessment of Transformational A-Level Coursework

… Leadership Management

Assessment of Transformational Leadership

The purpose of this analysis is to provide insights into the transformational leadership skills of Bruce Marlow, former CEO of 21st Century Insurance. Mr. Marlow has shown a consistent level of emotional intelligence (EI) and transformational leadership skills when faced with the many of the challenges inherent in operating a large-scale healthcare provider and insurer. The healthcare industry continues to be dominated by increasing calls for compliance at both the state and federal levels, creating significantly greater levels of uncertainty in the process (Health Research and Educational Trust, 2007). For CEOs to be effective in their roles in any area of the healthcare industry, it is critical they be as effective in leading change as they are in managing strategic planning and long-term development (Health Research and Educational Trust, 2007). Further, exceptional CEOs are also transformational leaders who have an ability to use situationally-driven logic and insight to ensure the highest performance (Fitzgerald, Schutte, 2010). The leadership expertise of Bruce Marlow is also analyzed using the ten core competencies of leadership as identified by the Baptist Leadership Institute. These include a leader who is a goal achiever, people developer, communicator, team-oriented, innovator, has a strong service commitment, is resourceful, rewards & recognizes, has personal mastery, and is organized around priorities.

Assessing Bruce Marlow on the Ten Core Competencies

Bruce Marlow's expertise as a leader emanates from his ability to quickly ascertain which specific leadership skill is best suited for the given needs of a situation or challenge. This is one of the most effective skills a leader can have in a keeping a complex, highly distributed organization aligned to its goals (Mindtools, 2012). The ten core competencies as defined by the Baptist leadership Institute are each used for evaluating the leadership skill of Bruce Marlow. First, his ability as a goal achiever is defined by the ability to set challenging, long-term goals and attain them through the coordination fo departments and divisions in the company. This has been seen first-hand. Second, the core competency of being a people developer is also evident in hwo Bruce Marlow often acts as a developmental leader in creating opportunities for personal growth. Third, the role of being a communicator is evident in how Bruce Marlow chooses the best possible communications channel for a given message, in addition to defining which specific series of steps need to be taken in each communication. Bruce Marlow uses communication to show not only future plans but why they are necessary. Fourth, his team-oriented leadership skill is outstanding, as he seeks to be all-inclusive in his work with everyone in the company. Fifth, the role of innovator is evident in how he manages the continuing adoption… [read more]

Manager's Likeability Literature Review

… ¶ … Manager's Likeability

on Leadership Success

Assessing the Impact of a Manager's Likeability on Leadership Success

The likeability of a manager will determine how effective they are on transactionally-oriented tasks while also being a very accurate predicator of hwo… [read more]

Leadership the Role Term Paper

… The strategies and organizational level may rely on leaders and managers within the organization at lower levels developing the tactical operational strategies (Mintzberg et al., 2008).

The implementation of strategy will be aided with the communication of vision by the leader. In many cases a change in strategic direction will require changes within the organization. Models of change such as those proposed by Lewin, Kotter and Senge may or take different approaches, but all agree that the role of a leader and the communication by that leader is key in employees accepting change (Buchanan and Huczynski, 2010). Communication regarding how and why change needs to occur will help to win over employees and gain their support and commitment to the organizational strategy. If a strategies to be successful, it is essential that the employees themselves actively support that change. Commitment by employees will also facilitate the evolution of strategy as incremental changes which may provide for further improvement may be noted throughout the hierarchy as a result of the motivation level.

Overall, leaders may be seen as guiding light within an organization, able to have an initial vision and able to ensure that this vision is communicated to the employees, either directly or through the utilization of other employees within the organization. The leaders are able to ensure that the vision is understood, and motivate those involved in implementing a strategy to ensure that it is put into place. Finally, leaders will also play a role in monitoring the strategy, gathering feedback from their managers and assessing the results in order to determine any changes. These key aspects of strategizing is seen in both Steve Jobs and Howard Schwartz following their return to their roles as CEO in their respective companies, having a vision for the way in which the organization change, and then implementing it with the support of the Board of Directors and employees throughout the organization; clearly demonstrated important role of leadership in terms of the development and implementation of strategy.


Buchanan, D; Huczynski, A, (2010) Organizational Behavior, Harlow, FT/Prentice Hall

Drucker, Peter F, (2006), The Effective Executive: The Definitive Guide to Getting the Right Things Done, Harperbusiness Essentials.

Mintzberg Henry, Ahlstrand Bruce, Lampel Joseph B. (2008), Strategy Safari: The Complete Guide Through the Wilds of Strategic Management, Financial Times / Prentice Hall

NBC News, (2008), Starbucks chairman Schultz returning as CEO, NBC News, retrieved 16th July 2012 from

Stone, B, (2011, October 6), Steve Jobs: The Return, 1997-2011, Business Week, retrieved 16th July 2012 from

Zaleznik A (1977) "Managers and leaders: are they different?," in Mintzberg H, Kotter JP, Zaleznik A (eds), (1977) Harvard… [read more]

Participative Leadership Style Essay

… Participative Leadership Style

Each and every leader exhibits a certain pattern of behavior which dictates the way he or she reacts to people or situations. It is this behavior pattern that further determines the approach a leader adopts in seeking to influence others towards goal accomplishment. This text concerns itself with the participative style of leadership.

The participative style of leadership according to Northouse (2009) "consists of inviting subordinates to share in the decision making." Thus in this case, the leader ensures that subordinates actively participate in the decision making process. When a manager for instance wants to cut costs through the adoption of new production methods, he or she can first seek the input of subordinates before implementing such an idea or go ahead and implement the same without involving subordinates. The latter approach is referred to as autocratic leadership while the former is participative leadership in which case subordinates are actively involved in decision making. It is however important to note that although a participative leader attaches significant value to the opinions and viewpoints of subordinates, the final decision making authority still rests with him or her. When workers are involved in decision making, they feel more appreciated. This leadership style according to Gitman and McDaniel (2007) is common in many successful organizations. Indeed, participative leadership has a unique ability to motivate employees as they can easily identify with the decisions they helped formulate.

Participative leadership is largely effective in a number of scenarios. To begin with, this leadership style is most effective when the leader does not possess all the information needed to solve a certain problem or make an informed decision. In such a case, the input of subordinates can be invaluable. Secondly, this leadership style is also most effective when subordinates are committed to the accomplishment of organizational goals. Further, the participative leadership style can also be said to be highly effective in a… [read more]

Leadership Style Being Employed Essay

… An even further extended finding by the same study showed that there was "empirical support for a more refined conception that casts leadership for student learning as a process of mutual influence in which school capacity both shapes and is shaped by the school's collective leadership" (p. 96). In other words, the use of collaborative leadership can have an even more positive impact of the participants than what was initially reasoned.

One of the problems facing the collaborative leader is that this style of management may not be as efficient as it is needed to be. However, since the educational system already displays a high degree of inefficiency, the likelihood that additional inefficiencies will surface are relatively small. Another downside to collaborative leadership is that some of the members of the classroom may not feel up to participating, or may take the opportunity to be lazy, not complete their work or allow someone else to finish the vast majority of the 'project'. Students who are not up to the classroom expertise can also be left behind rather quickly.

I would not change a whole lot of what is already taking place, except to perhaps institute a more formal structure to the ongoing collaboration. Introducing additional structure can assist in classroom and school management to a high degree.

As a leader in this type of school and program, I would definitely be out and about as much as possible, communicating with students, teachers, other administrators and parents in an ongoing and consistent manner.


Hallingera, P. & Heck, R.H.; (2010) Collaborative leadership and school improvement: Understanding the impact on school capacity and student learning, School Leadership & Management, Vol. 30, Issue 2, pp. 95 -- 110

Steinheider, B. & Wuestewald, T.; (2008) From the bottom-up: Sharing leadership in a police agency,… [read more]

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