Study "Leadership / Mentoring" Essays 221-275

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David Mollish and Diane Landers Article Review

… Leaders do not have subordinates, they have followers. Leadership inspires, motivates and sets the direction to achieve goals; leaders focus on people. Both people and organizations want leaders. People want leaders to assist them in accomplishing their goals. Organizations want leaders to not only motivate, but to provide organizational direction for employees to follow. According to Kouzes and Posner (1994), five key behaviors for what is wanted of leaders from both people and organizations are: "(a) challenge the process, (b) inspire a shared vision, (c) enable others to act, (d) model the way, and (e) encourage the heart" (p. 960).

These theories of leadership seem to confirm the idea of a LDP. It seems to this writer that in all the elements there are two that are critical for this program to be successful: executive (Board or organizational) commitment and the ego relationships of top management. Clearly, the board must be committed because of the lengthy and somewhat substantial fiscal commitment necessitated by this type of program. In addition, though, top managers must be able to accept, appreciate, and mentor a continual group of divergent level employees who may require, at times, a significant commitment. They must also be prepared for a generation of polite dissent, those who feel comfortable rocking the boat, shifting the paradigm, and generally asking "why" so many times it might become annoying. This, then, is the commitment to the organization's future leaders, who can grow and develop under the best possible conditions.


Brown, L.M. And B.Z. Posner. (2001). "Exploring the Relationship Between Learning and Leadership," Leadership and Organizational Development. May, 2001: 274-80.

Kouzes, J., and Posner, B., (1994). "An extension of the leadership practices inventory to individual contributors." Educational and Psychological Measurement, (54) 4, 959-966.

Mollisn, D. And Landers, D. (April 30, 2012). Establishing Staff Development as a High Priority Relies on Interaction, Tenacity and an Enthusiastic Executive-Level Champion.… [read more]

Identification of the Motivations to Mentor and to Be Mentored Discussion Chapter

… Mentor/Mentee Relationship Research Discussion

The overall perspective towards mentoring was highly positive among both mentors and mentees, with most participants in both groups listing several specific areas of their lives in which the mentoring relationship had a direct beneficial effect.… [read more]

Personal Leadership Outline Give Respect Term Paper


The future is different than anything we've experienced in the past. This is why I very much appreciate the way that I had the chance to be involved in different cultures and experience the fierce perfection of competitive sports. It has prepared me for the ever-changing way that technology challenges me and keeps me feeling part of a team that is truly interconnected. I never thought that the skills of working from a young age on fixing things at home would play into what is expected as I turn my attention to professional construction and sustainability training. But because both count heavily on what nature offers us about being good people, I shouldn't be surprised that I can use it to help me work toward a better tomorrow!


Adams, C. What business analysts can learn from competitive sports: The power of consistency. March 22, 2011. Viewable at

Miller, C. 5 of my core business philosophies and values. Adventures in Entrepreneurship. Posted Jan. 7, 2010. Viewable at

The Transformational Leadership Report. Developing tomorrow's transformational leaders today. 2007. Viewable at [read more]

Leadership Vision Research Paper

… The way that this is taking place, is they will serve as a go between for the different parties in a dispute. During the process of understanding these views, they will objectively listen to both sides of the argument and make suggestions for dealing with the challenges. This will involve each side giving up something in order to create a compromise that is acceptable for everyone. (Baker, 2010, pp. 157 -- 180)

When this happens, the organization is effectively addressing challenges that could have an impact on the ability of a firm to provide a host of products and services. This prevents negative attitudes and perceptions from adversely impacting productivity and costs. Instead, the leadership is able to create a set of common goal and ideas. During the course of the workday, this will shape how everyone views their jobs and their roles inside the organization. Once someone is able to have a favorable image of the firm, is the point that they are willing to do more for stakeholders. This is because, they feel that they are respected and appreciated for the contributions that they make. It is at this point that the organization will have sense of higher purpose and unity about reaching the larger objectives. Therefore, the role of leaders during this process is to serve as: a confidant, supervisor and objective third party. This is when they will be seen as someone who has a balanced approach when dealing with everyone. (Baker, 2010, pp. 157 -- 180)


Baker, T. (2010). Effective Leadership. Flushing, NY: Loose Leaf Law.

Chait, J. (2007). The Big… [read more]

Leadership Change Article Review

… Leadership in a (Permanent) Crisis

Leadership Change

This article by Ronald Heifetz, Alexander Grashow, and Marty Linsky, deals with managing change and the barriers that leaders face when solving problems in today's unique economic climate. The authors assert that because of intensifying global competition, energy constraints, climate change, and political instability, that once the current economic crisis has passed, which will happen after policy makers implement technical adjustments, we will face "a sustained crisis of serious and unfamiliar challenges." Simply put the times are changing and yesterday's solutions will not be enough to fix tomorrow's problems.

Leaders in tomorrow's business world must have the capacity to lead during this sustained crisis. The author's assert crisis leadership has two distinct phases. The emergency phase deals with stabilizing the situation and buying time, in other words protecting assets. The second phase is the adaptive phase when underlying causes of the crisis are addressed and capacity is built "to thrive in a new reality." The author's warn that this adaptive phase is especially treacherous for leaders because there is pressure to alleviate uncertainty with authoritative certainty, even if this means "overselling what you know and discounting what you don't." People are naturally resistant to change, especially if the change knocks them out of their comfort zone. This creates a paradox, people want direction but as they are required to make the necessary but uncomfortable changes necessary during the adaptive phase, they may turn against the very leadership that is trying to facilitate the change. There is often much uncertainty during this phase which creates anxiety.

There is much merit in this observation. People's natural resistance to change has been an issue for as long as there have been leaders and followers. When negaholics or individuals addicted to negative thinking and behaviors assert, "It can't be done," "it won't work," or "it will never happen," and spread this negativity unchecked in the workplace, morale plummets, motivation vanishes, and productivity slows. Conversely if leaders do "oversell" they face loss of credibility… [read more]

Gregory Reyes, Corporate Director Mentor-Protege Essay

… I have developed core competencies in procurement, scheduling, budgeting, and supervision that have direct application to procurement processes and policy positions development. I wish to emphasize that my oversight experience in the military was based on my ability to resolve… [read more]

Leadership Skills Sources Cited APA Essay

… This objective is reaching by controlling and directing information towards the situation in case, when the leader interacts with the persons that must be influenced. Charismatic leaders use impression management also in order to improve the image of their company. There are several reasons that determine behaviors based on impression management. In the case of charismatic leaders, they use impression management in order to build their personal identity, and to develop a presentation of the leader that is in accordance with the image that the leader intends to develop (Maxwell, 2008). This is the case of Bill Clinton, Donald Trump, Richard Branson that focus on impression management in order to develop positive images to the public and to develop people's interest in their projects.

C) The charismatic leadership style has advantages and disadvantages. The popularity of such leaders can determine team members to set aside their beliefs and values in order to follow the values of the leader. In certain situations, these team members can agree with an incorrect strategy of their leader. Teams of charismatic leaders can develop certain levels of dependence of their leader. This is because they focus on supporting the personality and image of the leader instead of supporting the development of the team.

Another disadvantage observed in the case of charismatic leaders is that they can focus too much on their ego, which determines less focus on the needs of the team. In addition to this, people working with charismatic leaders can be determined to think that the leader in case is the company and that the success of the company is significantly influenced by the personality of the leader. In other words, they focus on the personality of the leader rather than on the strategy of the company. Therefore, it is important to understand the characteristics of this leadership style in order to ensure that leaders and their teams focus on developing productivity.

Reference list:

1. Tasler, N. (2010). Five Secrets of Charismatic leadership. BusinessWeek. Retrieved March 20, 2012 from

2. Maxwell, J. (2008). Charismatic Leadership. Retrieved March 20, 2012 from [read more]

Leadership in Any Organization, Leadership Is Critical Term Paper

… Leadership

In any organization, leadership is critical; it is the most important way that strategic goals and crucial decisions and aspects of any organization come together to form any sort of productive purpose. However, it is also clear that leadership and management are two very different things. In general, it seems that leaders are strategic, while managers are tactical. There are many types of leaders, and leadership theory -- whether that be from the leader who is charismatic and leads by personal charm and example, to those who are more behind the scenes but employ a style that empowers their colleagues and employees. Managers are given the authority by leaders to handle tactical things, but to fine tune exemplary leadership, the leader must think beyond the tactical and have a broader understanding of how the organization works and how it will be developed into their own vision.

To practice exemplary leadership, one must first have several goals in mind:

Identification of strategic goals and tactical ways to achieve them - Before one can adequately lead, one must have a good understanding of the goals that are necessary for any successful venture. This involves some research, some expertise, and the development of a sound and cogent planning process that is reasonable for both the fiscal and human resources one has within the organization.

Identification and development of staff and colleagues -- to effectively lead, one must understand the human resources that are necessary to attain one's goal. In effect, one must understand the level of expertise of staff and management, and if those skills are transferable into the strategic and tactical planning process. If they are not, then the effective leader will find ways to mitigate this by encouraging training and development, and providing the opportunity for staff to excel and actualize. Effectively, this is… [read more]

Leadership of the Online Course Research Paper

… As well as communicating frequently with team members, the leader should also keep the relevant organizational leaders abreast of the developments of the team, to ensure that all necessary benchmarks are being achieved.

Finally, the team leader should be vigilant in keeping up with his or her practical obligations, such as keeping track of the data recorded by the group, and creating a method through which discussions will take place and store data. Standardized procedures are important and can ensure that the group operates effectively and fairly.

These are all of the characteristics of an ideal leader. But of course, many leaders are less than ideal. When dealing with a group with a weak or retiring leader, proactive members of the team must frequently 'step up' and take on many of these obligations themselves. They must keep in communication with one another; stay focused on the task, rather than on their personal agendas; and operate in an efficient a manner as possible.

For a leader with team members who refuse to cooperate, the team leader must work particularly hard to stay on task and to keep members of the team communicating. Assigning highly specific tasks to members that the leader knows they can perform can help break down the work schedule in a manageable fashion. The leader may have to require virtual and face-to-face meetings on a frequent basis, to ensure that team leaders do not shirk their responsibilities.

Confronting team members who still refuse to perform is better done sooner, rather than later, as deadlines pile up and hostilities begin to fester. But ideally, when leading a team of peers who are cooperating, a democratic or participative approach is preferred. Using this leadership style, the leader accepts input from other group members, even while he or she defines the task in a firm manner. Autocratic methods are frequently counterproductive, and cause the members to subvert the team agenda out of resentment, while 'hands off' leadership approaches are not sufficiently directive in a virtual format to ensure that the members stay focused on their goals. [read more]

Business and Nonprofit Leadership Principles Term Paper

… Principles of Nonprofit Leadership

1. Have a written, clearly defined mission statement that guides the overall aims and activities of the organization. The mission statement should be linked to the values of the organization and its vision for the future.

2. Nonprofit's mission should be reviewed by the board periodically (every two to three years) to consider societal and community changes to address evolving needs of its target constituents and the community at large.

3. Be responsive to community needs and should solicit input from a variety of sources such as staff, board members, clients and other constituents.

4. Consult with other organizations in its field to determine the need for service and the best use of community resources and potential partnerships.

5. Create a written three to five-year strategic plan for implementation of its activities.

6. Establish an annual operational plan that identifies goals, objectives, actions, and responsibility for implementation.

7. Emerge from expressed community needs and periodically confirm that it is addressing changing community needs.

8. Provide opportunities for individuals to extend networking opportunities to expand its ability to serve greater populations and connect community resources.

9. Extend opportunities for individuals and the community as a whole to sharpen and strengthen leadership skills to encourage the development of emerging leaders.

10. Work to build trust between communities and to bridge relationships among diverse constituencies.

11. Be inclusive in its activities by remaining open to new ideas, participants, and external input. It should conduct itself in a way that is transparent, flexible, and responsive to change.

12. Identify its constituents and stakeholders -- the people who benefit from, are affected by, are keys to the success of, and/or share the values implicit in its work.

13. Conduct its activities with procedural fairness to ensure inclusiveness in decision making for constituents and the community.… [read more]

Leadership Strategies Term Paper

… Leadership Strategies

There are a number of very specific, sequential steps Mario can take to both induce a proper assortment of leadership behaviors and to convince the Pizza Club to continue its altruistic endeavors following the graduation of most of its founding members. The key is for Mario to properly plan in advance the particular measures he will use to have the focus of the meeting he is planning be task-related and eventually result in the propagation of the Pizza Club following graduation. By utilizing effective research and facets of critical thinking skills, he should be able to convince the group of his goal and eventually make his goal theirs as well.

The first step Mario can take is to plan an agenda for the meeting. The planning of such an agenda requires an adequate amount of preparation which, in this specific case, will require Mario to outline the specific phases of his meeting. The first phase would ideally involve utilizing Alex's contact information for all of the group members to ask them to bring in a written summary of the specific tasks that they were involved in that the Pizza Club accomplished during its tenure. This summary would help to serve as the introductory phase of Mario's meeting and would allow members to recall all of the various good deeds the club accomplished (such as the dissemination of student health insurance, the building of the neighborhood park, and the election of one of its members to the town council). By having group members recount their involvement in the achievements of the club to start off the meeting, Mario would ensure that the meeting is decidedly goal oriented as opposed to social, demonstrate to other club members that the Pizza Club has accomplished some significant ends, and reinforce his point that the Club has produced too much good to simply disband.

Additionally, Mario's agenda should include his preparation of a power… [read more]

Leadership Styles Functional Research Paper

… Leadership Styles

Functional Leadership

In the functional leadership model, leadership is thought of in regards to a set of behaviors that assist a group to carry out their task or reach their objective and not as an individual person. The model says that the leadership role meets requirements in three different areas: task, team and individual. The functional leadership model places more stress on how a company is being led rather than who has been officially given a leadership position. This permits less time being spent on looking at the person who has been officially assigned power and instead centers on how the leadership function is really playing out (Functional Leadership Theory, 2010).

Situational Leadership

The Situational Leadership model says that managers must use diverse leadership styles depending on the situation. The model permits ones to look at the needs of the situation that they are in, and then use the most suitable leadership style. Depending on workers' competences in their task areas and dedication to their tasks, ones leadership style should vary from person to person. One may even lead the same person one way on occasion and another way on another occasion, again depending on the situation at hand (Situational Leadership by Kenneth Blanchard and Paul Hersey, 2009).

Transformational Leadership

A person with this leadership style is a true leader who motivates their team with a joint image of the future. Transformational leaders are extremely visible, and spend a lot of time communicating with people. They don't automatically lead from the front, as they have a propensity to assign responsibility among members of their team. While their eagerness is frequently infectious, they are often supported by people who are very detailed in nature (Leadership Types, 2008). The main focus of the transformational leadership style is to make change take place in one's self, in other people, in groups and in companies overall (Johannsen, 2011).

Using Situational Leadership

Situational leadership could be used in… [read more]

Transformational Leadership Essay

… In general, this exercise illustrated the significant room for improvement that exists to improve my leadership skills. Most of the scores from my own assessment as well as my co-worker ranked in the middle (e.g. 3's). Further efforts are necessary for me to become the leader that I want to be. In specific, I need to improve my vision and ability to provide innovate thinking in the work place. These values can be transformed into definitive action and behaviors. Vision can be achieved through developing with employees a specific, well-articulated strategy with clear cut small steps to reach it. Furthermore, it is important that I express decisiveness and optimism about the vision and its implementation. In regards to innovate thinking, I should attempt to embrace abstract thought, brain-storming with employees and ultimate thinking, which means keeping the team's focus on the goal while tackling small steps. These tactics will result in improve management skills, employee satisfaction and ultimately improved efficacy.


Carless, S.A., Wearing, A.J., & Mann, L. (2000). A short measure of transformational leadership. Journal of Business and Psychology, 14, 389-405.

Conger, K., et al. (2000).… [read more]

Leadership Theories Essay

… A couple decades ago researchers such as Wright and Stogdull started reviewing more of the types of traits that work together to produce success in leadership (1996, 35). They begin t combine groups of traits related to personality to specific situations. Still this is a very subjective manner to determine what makes a good leader (Wright, 1996, 33-37).

3. In reviewing the various traits that were considered prerequisites for leadership in the mid 20th century attention turned to the actions of leaders vs. their inherent traits. With the shift to behavioral theories. At that time behaviors were documented as styles based on the way a leader functioned within the organization. Some of the most common theories of the 1960s was Blake and Mouton's Manager Grid (1964). There were four main tenets under behavioral theory. The first was Concern for Tasks Style which referred to getting results to preset objectives given by top management. This focus required maximizing productivity and workforce management around meeting the company objectives (Wright, 1996). The next is Concern for People, this style focuses on the people or subordinates and meeting their needs in providing resources to resolve problems. The workforce is not considered a way to get results but are considered a valuable asset to the organization that should be invested in and developed. Directed Leadership Style is the next tenet which is more traditional or top down in approach. Where the manager or leader tells subordinates what to do and when to do it. The subordinates under this style simply follow directions and do what they are told. The next tenet is Participative Leadership Style where decision making is shared between managers or leaders and subordinates who have valuable knowledge about the products, processes, or services of a company (Wright 1996, 36-37). There are times when these styles overlap.

4. With contingency theory, there is no single way of defining leadership. It is contingent on the ability of the leader to adapt and resolve issues based on intrinsic traits and external factor of a situation. When the leader is effective they have a high level of control over the productivity or success of the workforce. The relationship of the leader and the task at hand is the central basis of the contingency theory according to Fieldler (Sacbusiness, 2011).

Even though a leader within this form of leadership may be very successful for a time, this could change simply because the situation or needs of the followers changes and is no longer compatible to the leader's direction. The main contribution to this form of leadership is knowing what type of attributes a leader has and which type of situation is contingent or most productive under this style for a specified time (SacBusiness, 2011).


Aditya, R.N. And House, R.J. (1997). The social scientific study of leadership: quo vadis? Journal of Management. May-June 1997 v23 n3 p409(65).

Fiedler, F.E. (1967). A theory of leadership effectiveness. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Lord, R.G., Foti, R. & DeVader, C.L. (1984). A… [read more]

Leadership Theories and Practical Application as Organizations Research Paper

… Leadership Theories and Practical Application

As organizations continue to face challenges and demands from external environments, effective work relationships will no longer be an option but a critical source of competitive advantage (Luthans, et al. 2008). This is largely due… [read more]

GE's Leadership Program Essay

… GE's Leadership Program

When most people think of General Electric (GE), they will often have ideas surrounding the various products and services that they are selling to consumers. This is because, the company has built its reputation based on what they are marketing and the overall quality of products / services they are delivering. Yet, underneath it all is an outstanding leadership program that is designed to ensure that the various divisions of the firm will have executives who understand the marketplace and can motivate employees to go the extra mile. To fully understand how this helps the firm to meet a host of objectives requires looking at the effectiveness of the program itself. This will be accomplished by: examining what makes it so successful, the different elements that are having an impact on young leaders and how this can help GE to recruit the best college graduates from around the country. Once this occurs, is when we can see how this program is helping to continually address the company's long-term leadership needs.

Why do you think it is so successful?

The reason why GE's leadership program is so successful is because they are allowing trainees to work with experienced managers in the field. This is accomplished by sending them to different locations for select periods of time and having them working in conjunction with skilled executives. These elements help new managers, to understand how to effectively lead and what tools must be utilized to inspire everyone to do something more. Over the course of time, this allows young executives to understand the proper techniques and see the impact of using them in a working environment. This is when everyone will feel as if they are a part of the organization and can use these skills to help make them more successful in the future. ("GE OMLP Job Cast") ("Leadership & Learning")

What aspects of the program did you think have the most impact on young leaders? Why?

The two aspects of the program that will have the greatest impact on young leaders are the real world experience that they are gaining and the time that they are… [read more]

Educational Change Essay

… Levine further recommends the creation of an antagonistic environment. The existing educational literature seems to suggest that curriculum change or innovation is of great importance in the process of implementing change (Kearsley and Lynch, 1992, Yuen et al.,


Transformational leadership has therefore been indicated by Peretomode and Ikoya (2010) to be very crucial for institutional success as well as the implementation of an effective curriculum change. They argue that the success of failure of curriculum innovation is dependent on the school administrator's effectiveness in implementing curriculum reforms. Yulk (2002) argued that leaders can do several things in order to facilitate a successful curriculum change implementation. Yuen (2004) on a similar note believed that a visionary leader is what is needed for a successful curriculum change. Such a leader is what is referred as a transformational leader. A principal with the skills of a transformational leader is one with a leadership skill that effectively inspires a wonderful performance among the entire staff body as well as among the students.

Transformational leadership has been cited to produce a positive change to the curriculum since it appreciates the process of change. This is because it is able to effectively transform employee in order to pursue the goals that are desired by the organization. Transformational leadership has also been shown to leader to innovation and better performance (Howells,2005). The process of successfully using transformational change to instill positive changes to the curriculum involves the building of the appropriate mechanisms that are to be used in supporting change. The mechanisms include careful planning, teacher involvement, students' involvement as well as the involvement of other major stakeholders in the process of making decisions. A climate of mutual trust must also be created as well as one that appreciates the role of respect between the people for the purpose of aiding capacity building. The process must also involve school curriculum implementation well as monitoring committees. A curriculum change agent must also be appointed. The work of Jones (2002) suggested the use of incentives as a method of promoting and sustaining curriculum change.


Curriculum change is one of the best methods of addressing curriculum inadequacy which is rampant in our Elementary schools. The process of curriculum change and innovation must however be guided by positive leadership which at its core should be transformational in style. Situational as well as distributive leadership styles must also be integrated in the process of curriculum change.


Bondi, J. & wiles, J., (1998) Curriculum Development; A Guide to Practice (5TH Edition).

Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River New Jersey.

Burns, J.M. (1978), Leadership, New York: Harper and Row, Publishers

Bryman, A. (1992), Charisma and Leadership in Organisations, Newbury Park, CA: Sage

Evans, R (1996).The human side of school change: Reform, resistance, and the real-life problems of innovation, Jossey-Bass Publishers, San Francisco.

Fullan, M (2007)The New Meaning of Educational Change (4th edition) Teachers College Press, New York

Hargreaves, A (1998) 'The emotional practice of teaching', Teaching and Teacher Education, vol. 14, no.… [read more]

Leadership in the School Settings Research Paper

… The work of Spillane (2006) views leadership as a product of a complex interaction of various school leaders, followers as well as their A consideration of the fact that schools operate within an complex system which is very open, it becomes unrealistic for the school principles to be regarded as the "experts" in all of the matters. Distributed leadership therefore involves people leading only in areas in which they are experts. It must also important to point out that leaders are also dependent on their followers (Wright,2008).This is because followers are also important in the creation of teaching practice as well in the understanding of dynamics of leadership. Spillane (2006,p.146) revealed that the interaction of people as opposed to the reciprocal interdependency that exists between the people's actions is what matters. The sole action as well as expertise of their principals is not sufficient in the successful running of schools. Basing his argument on organizational theory, he identified the importance of collective, coordinated and collaborated forms of leadership distribution. It is therefore important for different members of the school to come together and take on various leadership fu

On the other hand the human and capital theory seems to suggest that social relations are enablers of learning, productivity as well as thinking (Wright,2008).Spillane (2006) discussed the role of relational and communal aspects of organizational leadership. The dialogue that ensues is indicated Spillane (2006) to multiply the original act of leadership by an individual through the process of bringing people, organizational structures as well as materials together for a common cause. Via the dielectric engagement, the existing conflict is appropriately validated as method of reaching a more pronounced understanding. The collective inquiry that exists creates a common/shared vision as well as accountability.

Distributed leadership a can also be viewed as a leadership style which is non-hierarchical and yet inclusive leadership approach which fosters ethical and collaborative leadership practices (Wright,2008)

Servant leadership

The concept of servant leadership which is noted by Patterson (2003) as a logical extension to the theory of transformational leadership is an important one in the running of middle level schools (Culver,2008).Servant leaders in this case are according to Patterson (2003), the leaders who lead a given organization by focusing on all of their followers in a manner that their followers become their primary concern while the organizational concerns are deemed peripheral (p.7).

The elements of servant leadership includes being honest, having a vision, being trustworthy, appreciating the service of others as well as empowerment (Sankaran,2011).The relationship between servant leadership and various leadership values like integrity, empathy, agreeableness and competence were examined by Washington et al. (2006).One of the basic tenets of servant leadership as postulated by Greenleaf (1991) is that the followers of the given servant leader must become wiser, healthier, freer and more autonomous as pointed out by Barbuto & Wheeler

(2006). Future research in this regard should adopt amore follower-centric angle in the evaluation of the follower well-being.


An application of servant leadership approach together… [read more]

Leadership Skills and Learning Communities Being Essay

… Leadership Skills & Learning Communities

Being a leader in an educational setting doesn't simply mean being in charge, being the one that organizes activities, or having an advanced degree. Being a leader in a learning community requires important skills that… [read more]

Distributed Leadership According to Harris and Spillane Essay

… Distributed Leadership

According to Harris and Spillane (2008, p. 31), distributed leadership means that the responsibility of leadership is shared among all parties involved in an organization. As such, it focuses on the interactions rather than the actions of all the leadership roles inherent in the organization. Furthermore, the purpose of leadership is at the forefront of this model, where the influence and result of leadership for the improvement of instruction are concerned. Today in schools, the model of leadership has gradually changed, like it has in many companies, where schools now operate under the leadership of teams rather than individuals. In terms of definition, distributed leadership therefore refers to a model of leadership that is not focused upon individuals or even individual entities, but rather on groups and networks, where these interact to create an optimal paradigm of operations throughout a company or system. In the educational setting, this means that all types of leaders at al levels should function in an integrated and interactional way to improve the curriculum for recipients of the educational service.

Burniske and Barlow (2004) provide practical models of shared leadership to address the challenges faced by school principals today. In the traditional model of focused leadership, the school principal is faced with many duties, including ensuring an appropriate standard of education across the school, handling parent grievances, liaising with the Department of Education, working with learners themselves, and so on. This creates job stress and the likelihood of burnout, which in turn creates a problem for the school in general. Possible models of shared leadership offered by the authors then include: co-principalship, partnering with parents, and sharing leadership across the school system.

In the co-principalship model, the principals share all functions of leadership, including working with teachers, parents, and students. The system does have challenges, such as requiring extensive coordination and a focus on effective distribution. Furthermore each principal's strengths and weaknesses should be taken into account when implementing the model to ensure that… [read more]

Leadership Annotated Bib Culver Annotated Bibliography

… Specifically, the document researches the different steps towards larger policy making decisions and implementations of programs. The researcher examined the way distributed leadership affected students in the classroom and determined its effectiveness.

What the researchers finally determined was that it is important for a group of people concerned with education and students create policy. However, Elizabeth Lowham also makes it clear that there is such a thing as too much input and too many insights It is better to limit program decisions to a small committee of expert people rather than give everyone, including people who may or may not be knowledgeable, a say.

McBeth, Mark (2008). The Distributed Leadership Toolbox: Essential Practices for Successful

Schools. Corwin: London, UK. This text explains to the reader the basic components for distributed leadership method and how to bets input this method into the education of their various schools. Before either an individual or a school can begin a program of any formula, whether it be distributed leadership or not, it is important to be completely understanding of the leadership method.

McBeth advocates making an initial analysis of the current distribution of leadership in the school that you are working in. From here, the functionality and success of the current practices can be determined. It is only through understanding how distribution is does organically or innately, according to McBeth that furthering the program can be useful.

Nichols, Joe D. (2011). Teachers as Servant Leaders. Rowman and Littlefield: Lanham, MD.

According to the author of this book, teachers by their very definition are servant leaders.

A servant leader is one who while in the process of being a leader also acts in a capacity where they assist others. What makes this text so compelling is that it is written with the perspective of the current educational moment. Right now, with the economy in such a precarious circumstance, many of the nation's educational facilities are finding themselves underfunded and their budgets cut. The text keeps this in mind and tries to provide some balm to the frustration of the nation's teachers.

This text is useful in research because it has a unique perspective. Nichols believes that all teachers, whether they are aware of it or not are participants in servant leadership.

Sipe, James W. And Don M. Frick (2009). Seven Pillars of Servant Leadership: Practicing the Wisdom of Leading by Serving. Paulist: Mahwah, NJ. This book discusses the basic principles of servant leadership. It allows the reader to understand what this type of leadership means both within its own meaning and within the context of other leadership methodologies. It also provides the reader with important lessons on how to become a more effective leader. Sipe and Frick break down the different components on effective leadership and allow the reader to accept or reject different techniques based upon their individual strengths and weaknesses.

The book can be used as an effective research tool because it acts as a basic guide for those with limited knowledge of… [read more]

Leadership in the Learning Community Essay

… Leadership in the Learning Community

In any organization, the role of a leader is vital. However, it can be even more significant in a school setting, where both staff and students need support. Leaders must take charge, but they also have to show that they are team players who can work with others to get the job done, so that the entire organization can move forward (Yammarino & Bass, 1990). Leaders who cannot work well with others will see their followers move on, or those followers who have no choice but to stay will end up resenting the leader (Yukl, 1989). That is not a good situation, and a principal who finds himself in that situation must make changes quickly in order to help not only himself but his staff and students, as well. Leaders who are transformational in nature can provide support to students and adults, and they can do that in several ways that nurture good relationships with others.

One of the best things a principal can do in order to provide leadership to staff and students is to simply make himself available. Staying in one's office, behind closed doors all the time is not a good way to help a staff of teachers and other support personnel. It is also not a good way to help students - especially those who are young and may see the principal as an imposing or even a frightening figure. Transformation leaders are those who are available to their followers (Yammarino & Bass, 1990). They make sure there is time to talk with others, and they go out of their way to make other people feel included. A principal can do that by talking to students and teachers in the hallways and during lunch and recess times, and by being seen around the school to the point where he just becomes a normal fixture there. That will cut down on the nerves that some people experience when they see the principal, and it is not good to get a reputation as only showing up when someone (staff or student) has gotten into trouble for a violation of the rules.

Being available is not always easy for a leader (Yukl, 1989). Some leaders are far more accessible than others,… [read more]

Servant Leadership Applying Distributed Research Paper

… There is a common theme across each, which is the hybrid nature of leadership when applied to distributed leadership models in elementary and secondary school environments which seeks to capitalize on both transactional and transformational approaches to leadership (Hargreaves, Fink,… [read more]

Managers Have to Coach and Mentor Reaction Paper

… ¶ … managers have to coach and mentor at some point in their careers. In order to be successful at coaching and mentoring there are some basic fundamentals that one must remember. Coaching and Mentoring is not the same thing. Mentoring is a power free, mutual jointly beneficial learning situation where the mentor provides recommendations, shares knowledge and experiences, and teaches using a low stress, self-discovery advance. Coaching, on the other hand, is task linked enhancement of knowledge, skills or abilities in order to better execute a given task. A good coach creates the need for conversation and is responsible for follow up and holding others responsible (Starcevich, 2009).

In order for people to be coaches and mentors they must have certain skills. The first is that they must understand the concept of empathy and know how to deploy it when necessary. To show empathy is to recognize another's feelings. It is to emotionally put oneself in the place of another. The capability to empathize is directly reliant on one's ability to feel their own feelings and recognize them. People with a good level of innate emotional intelligence usually do very well with this. A person who has actually experienced the widest range and variety of feelings is the one who is most able to empathize with the greatest number of people from all walks of life. Conversely, when one says that someone can't relate to other people, it is likely because they haven't experienced, recognized or accepted many feelings of their own (Empathy, n.d.).

A second basic skill is that of having diversity. There is a basic strength in knowing what diversity is and how to use it. Not everyone is the same. Every person is an individual and must be treated as such. When it comes to coaching and mentoring in order to be successful each person has to be dealt with on an individual basis. It is important that managers avoid the one-size-fits all approach. No two people are alike and… [read more]

Leadership Concepts Fundamental Leadership Skills Contemporary Essay

… Leadership Concepts

Fundamental Leadership Skills

Contemporary concepts of leadership outline numerous attributes and skills that are desirable in leaders. Among the most important are: (1) Communications Skills, (2) The Ability to Influence Others by Inspiring their Trust and Confidence, and (3) Strategic Vision (Maxwell, 2007). Arguably, communication skills are the single most important of all leadership skills because leadership is, at its core, the ability to communicate ideas and values to others and to cultivate followership. Organizational leaders must be able to share their beliefs, values, and their ideas for the success of their organizations in a manner that enables their followers to understand those concepts and in a manner that achieves their cooperation.

Renowned corporate leader John Maxwell (Maxwell, 2007) explains that the single most defining characteristic of effective leaders is their ability to establish a climate of honesty and trust in their relationships with others because those elements are the foundation of their ability to earn the trust of their followers and inspire their confidence and loyalty. In that regard, Maxwell (2007) also explains that effective leadership requires that leaders demonstrate integrity to their statements, beliefs, and values and that followers naturally trust leaders with integrity and doubt leaders who fail to do so.

Maxwell (2007) also emphasizes the importance of strategic vision in organizational leaders because that is the most important skill upon which the long-term success of organizations depends. In essence, the ability of organizational leaders to communicate effectively and establish and maintain the trust of their subordinates allows them to maintain their influence over them. Meanwhile, it is their ability to think and plan strategically that allows leaders to make productive use of those relationships (Maxwell, 2007).

The Relationship between Leadership Skills and Technical Competence… [read more]

Leadership in Order to Effective Essay

… Leadership style in the internal sense is authoritative, centralized and with not delegation.[footnoteRef:4] [4: All subsequent references to the matrix refer to the document attached by the customer, which is the basis of analysis.]

With regards to the external component, here, a leader focuses on achieving goals as well but through attaining some sort of legitimization from the outside environment and thus the style is also authoritative and centralized, but also on expanding organizational domain and ability to compete in a larger forum.

With regards, to CAS, it is important to have both external and internal components to the leadership forum, due to the fact that cooperation is vital for all organs to function smoothly, as due to the fact that authority needs to take the organization at a larger level in order to help more and more children.

People Oriented Leadership

The matrix also describes people oriented leadership from the external and internal points-of-view. With regards to the latter, this means focusing on people as the forefront goal. This is, of course, a vital leadership skill in heading CAS, due to the fact that the organization focuses on children and on helping children first and foremost.

However, it is also important to note the external aspect, which states that leadership focuses upon forming alliances and coalitions with various elements and on placing pressures on interests groups, as well as alleviating pressures from coalitions. This is of utmost importance to CAS, as the organization constantly strives to bring partners together in order to fulfill its mandate.


As stated in the introduction, the leadership style of an organization depends upon that company's mission and needs. The styles analyzed above were mentioned in reference to CAS, a Child Advocacy Service that helps children receive various benefits and assistance. The results found were quite interesting, and it was noted that with regards to CAS a certain leadership is necessary; thus, both internal, external, task oriented and people oriented leadership is valued and necessary, though to various extents. [read more]

Leadership Term Paper

… Leadership

A Leader Is Who You Are

The Scenario

It had been a quiet night, up to about 2am when an 911 dispatcher rang our station and said a middle aged man had a vein laceration in his thigh, losing… [read more]

Humor and Leadership (Journal Peer Reviewed Journal

… Specifically, all of the study subjects indicated that the use of humor by military leaders in the field has a positive effect on troop morale and increases the achievement of operational organizational objectives. There was consensus among the subjects that humor used by leaders reduces vocational stress workplace stress but that it is equally important to know when to use humor and when not to because the use of humor inappropriately can have negative consequences in terms of the confidence level of subordinates rather than any positive benefits. All of the subjects described having relied on humor to "break the ice" or to reduce tension in meetings and presentations delivered to a group audience.

The subjects also agreed that that the use of humor by leaders is more likely to be effective when it is practiced and planned in advance in a deliberate fashion but that it is not necessary to study the use of humor in any formal way. Their comments suggested (by inference rather than directly) that humor need not necessarily be spontaneous to be effective and they provided examples of the ways they had deliberately planned how to use humor at the start of meetings as well as in specific places in presentations.

In principle, one of the themes that emerged from the data was that all of the subjects had made deliberate attempts to improve their general ability to use humor and that they perceived their effectiveness as leaders to have improved significantly by virtue of having learned how to incorporate humor into their personalities for the purpose of using humor in their leadership roles. The subjects provided anecdotes about other leaders and mentors of theirs whose leadership skills and styles they admired and tried to emulate in general as well as more specifically in relation to the use of humor in leadership functions.

None of the subjects indicated a belief that the ability to use humor is necessarily a natural gift; rather, it is a skill capable of being learned. In that regard, the subjects all indicated that they had taken deliberate steps to increase their ability to use humor, such as by reading funny books, magazines, and Internet sites to improve their humorous repertoires. Finally, all of the subjects recognized that humor has an appropriate time, place, tone, and context. In that respect, they acknowledged concern that attempting to rely on humor inappropriately could have decidedly negative consequences, such as undermining… [read more]

Leadership the Essence Application Essay

… Leadership

The Essence of Leadership

It is often said a manager is what one does and leader is who one is. One of my core values is continually seeking insight, intelligence and knowledge to excel at the tasks I've taken on. In turn, I rely on these skills learned to better serve those around me, better support and strengthen those that rely on me including my beloved children, and seek to elevate the groups I belong to by contributing as much as possible. I believe a great leader needs to concentrate just as much on preparing themselves to serve others as they invest in improving themselves.

An Analysis of My Leadership Strengths

Of the many galvanizing moments in my career, the greatest were serving in the U.S. Navy, completing a tour of duty in Iraq, in addition to case management and counseling for battered women earlier in my career. These positions required me to grow as a leader much faster than a typical progression that others experience. I had to find approaches to keep motivation high in Iraq, and with lives on the line for battered women, had to be creative in finding solutions fast. These experiences, along with my educational background, served as a crucible that reshaped who I am as a person and what my values are.

Moving beyond myself and thinking more about my teams in Iraq, in case work and on help lines for battered women, all taught me to value others and serve them not only in the moment, but also to guide them to their goals as well. Leadership is as much about sharing new intelligence and information, helping others to succeed as it is about succeeding on ones' own. These are… [read more]

Leadership Theory Analysis Essay

… Not only does a good leader need drive in a typical workday but they also need to be good at communicating their vision. Communication skills are another aspect of leadership that was shared among the various leaders viewed. It is necessary for leader in a typical work day maintain effective communications with a multitude of different types of people and groups. No leader would be successful without a team supporting them. Therefore they have to be able to influence and motivate the team members to meet organizational objectives in order to ensure success. The leaders that can provide the highest levels of motivation among subordinates are often the most successful.

All of the leaders all have the experience of working with teams on an everyday basis and they all realize how important a dedicated team is in helping the company gain success. (AIEIS, 2009) Another example, Gina Haverstock who is a Wine Maker for the Gaspereau Vineyards, prefers the leadership style of being a team player. During her interview she states there are three of us at Gaspereau Vineyards in leadership roles who take on shared responsibility. There is the Vineyard manager, there's the store manager, and there is the wine maker who all have to make sure that they are all in sync and work together effectively to meet their goals (Haverstock, 2009). Shared leadership offers advantages from having more minds and skills available and can be very effective as long as the team maintains a high level of coordination.

Every day at the work place can always bring the unexpected challenges. Another aspect to being an effective leader means that you are always ready to overcome a new obstacle. No leader has every skill, resource, or tool they need to overcome the things thrown at them. Therefore, maybe the most important skill that a leader may possess is flexibility and adaptability. Although all leaders have different personalities, they are dedicated, communicate well, and know how to overcome obstacles when they present themselves. Although, it is very hard to put together a definition leadership, the idea of what being a leader entails becomes clearer when familiarizing yourself with other individuals who know how to meet organizational objectives.


Acadia International Executive Insight Series (AIEIS), (2009), Management Interview Series

Video Database,

Business Strategy Review, (2005). The real thing. An interview with Rob Goffee and Gareth Jones,

Haverstock Gina. (2009) Interview with Management Interview Series Video Database. Acadia University.

McDonald, Jack. (2009) Interview with Management Interview Series Video Database. Acadia University. [read more]

Leadership for Organizations Term Paper

… 3). Emerging and existing practitioners can seek guidance from this framework for leadership development from immature stage of organization. They can also get basic tools that can be useful for them in practical life.

Transformational Leadership

Transformational approach is one… [read more]

Management Leadership and Administration Evaluating the Normative Focus of Leadership Theories Essay

… Mainstream leadership has received abundant attention within the last few decades. Categories of leaders that have been discussed extensively include leadership by those in policy positions as well as those working in community-settings. Unfortunately, administrative leadership within organizations has received… [read more]

Selfless Service and Servant Leadership Term Paper

… Selfless Service and Servant Leadership

The experiences that have helped shape my life and my philosophy of life took place during the years I spent working on a large ranch. The ranch is a place where work needs to be done every day of the year, including weekends. I realize that a lot of college students have never seen a ranch let alone work on one. I'm not saying that makes me any better than others. I am saying that the experiences that I have been involved with have taught me the value of hard work, and also the importance of leadership.

Disciple and structure are important parts of living on a ranch, because no matter whether there is snow or rain, wind or heat, the animals need to be cared for, and at the end of the day the hard work pays off because the crops, the livestock, and the ranch has been well tended. I remember cutting school to watch our veterinarian artificially inseminate our cattle, and in the process I was learning about the world of reproduction. In Future Farmers of American (FFA) and 4H I learned a lot about how to speak in public, how to interact and team up with others to complete important tasks. The friends I met in FFA and 4H have become friends for life.

QUESTION TWO: When you help someone, you are serving that person of course, but you are also serving society. When you offer time and energy as a volunteer to an organization, like an animal rescue center or an ASPCA location, you are a servant, in the best tradition of Servant Leadership. Robert Greenleaf explained that Servant Leadership begins first with the "natural feeling that one wants to serve" and I have always had that desire to serve. In my case I have provided years of service for the benefit of animals; many of them were abandoned, or abused, or just didn't fit with the particular family and were brought to a shelter where I volunteer. At the beginning I was far more interested in serving than leading, but I do know that I am showing leadership by becoming a servant first. I… [read more]

Leadership There Are Several Definitions Essay

… ¶ … Leadership

There are several definitions used in describing leadership. The most frequently used definition states that leadership refers to organizing a group of individuals towards achieving common goals and objectives. Other theories refer to leadership as the process… [read more]

Management and Leadership Concepts Essay

… Management Concept Application

Leadership is a concept to which considerable academic focus is devoted within contemporary business management education and training programs. In theory and in some contexts, leadership is distinct from management and entails different responsibilities and roles. However, there is also reason to believe that contemporary teaching about leadership provides an excessive focus on personality and style apart from substance (McCormack, 2009). More specifically, it suggests that everyone should strive to become a leader and that team and organizational success are more tied to leadership than to other foundational elements of important variables and business practices.

On the other hand, there is no doubt that leadership style (and organizational culture more generally) do greatly affect the motivation, productivity, and long-term vocational and professional satisfaction of employees within organizations (Ismail, Zainuddin, & Ibrahim, 2010). In that regard, leadership style is important to the success in that it can be the source of employee satisfaction and empowerment in optimal circumstances or, alternatively, contribute to the failure of the organization in less than optimal circumstances.

Meanwhile, leadership styles and management approaches cannot be optimized in a vacuum, such as outside of the context of the real-world external environment in which organizations operate (Melville-Ross, 2010). In general, the nature of the industry and the external factors and potential barriers to success that face organizations must always play a role in identifying the types of leaders who are most appropriate choices for those organizations, as well as the specific management practices and leadership styles relied upon within those organizations (Melville-Ross, 2010).

Three Most Important Concepts

The three most important topics outlined in the readings are: (1) the extent to which leadership can be… [read more]

Leadership Theory Every Organization Goes Term Paper

… Leadership


Every organization goes through a period in which they initiate and manage change within the company. In order for change to go smoothly the leaders in a company must be effectual and ethical in nature. They must know… [read more]

Leadership Challenges Social Problems Essay

… '

Conversely, enabling a young, African-American man to be involved in a mentoring program where he is exposed to positive role models allows him to gain a different sense of self and possibility. It is not enough to merely educate… [read more]

Utilizing Intrinsic Motivation and Transformational Leadership in Professional Services Organizations Research Paper

… Professional services organizations of all types and sizes are faced with some significant challenges in an increasingly globalized and competitive marketplace, but properly managed, these challenges can be translated into opportunities for growth providing that the right blend of intrinsic… [read more]

Servant Leadership Redo Assign Research Proposal

… The University expresses its concerns with leaders and states they must be able to make an optimistic divergence in humanity, are they unswerving to facilitate the followers grow and nurture, and do their groups experience a strapping prudence of the… [read more]

Personal Refection of on Leadership Book Report

… Personal Reflection "On Leadership."

Leadership is a concept that has many associations. For most, leadership might be seen as a position of power, where the manager functions as the decision-maker with subordinates who carry out decisions. In today's leadership paradigm, however, this type of autocratic leadership is no longer regarded as optimally effective. Instead, leadership can only be effective when it is surrounded by certain conditions. This is something that John Gardner refers to in his book On Leadership. For the author, leadership entails that leaders and followers should work as a team that fulfills specific roles to fulfill the purpose of the team and leader.

One specific thing that struck me about Gardner's writing is the fact that the purpose of leadership is not so much to solve problems that arise as it is creating a company or team that can solve problems that the future will bring. Problems will arise regardless of the excellence of a particular leader's problem solving skills. A truly good leader will ensure that the company or team will be able to survive after the leader has left.

To accomplish this, the author notes that motivation and confidence are primarily important qualities. While effective leaders heighten both these qualities, it is difficult to set up such effective leadership in environments where they are absent to begin with. However, even in such circumstances, I feel that an effective leader can build the confidence and motivation required to make a success of the venture. The most important component of successful leadership is the leader him- or herself should start with the necessary qualities to be effective. Leaders cannot be effective if they do not themselves have motivation and confidence.

Motivation and confidence should be focused upon more than one thing. The leader should, for example, have confidence in him- or herself, while also having confidence in the company and its employees. Employees, in turn, should have confidence in the leader and the company. This confidence can then be used to… [read more]

Leadership Analysis Imagine Studying Your Strengths Essay

… Leadership Analysis

Imagine studying your strengths. What will you discover? How will this influence the way you treat others in the workplace? Will you become a better leader because of it? I will describe to you my strengths, and how… [read more]

Sociology -- Human Services Leadership Essay

… Transformational leadership encourages implementation of inventive concepts and tasks. The usefulness of transformational leadership as it fosters personalization, possession of work, cleverness, originality, and experimentation, leading to high output and quality performance in service delivery. The foundation of transformational leadership is in the personal values and beliefs of the leaders themselves (Haeseler, 2007).

The outcomes of good transformational leadership in regards to the area of domestic violence include the following:

Well-trained leaders and managers working to stop violence against women.

Stable and successful service and advocacy programs, more alternatives in service provision, reduced staff turnover, and organizations that become better agents for change in their neighborhoods. Improved family violence services, policymaking and advocacy in the country.

A vehicle through which survivors, direct service professionals, and public policy advocates can achieve the skills and credentials essential to thrive at leadership positions.

Local domestic violence programs across the nation with effective and innovative strategies to ending violence (Transforming Leadership through Education, 2008).

Transformational leadership is needed in the area of domestic violence in order to not only help the individuals involved but to aid in changing the system in order to give more protection and aid to those who are involved. The gap between how things should be and how things currently are needs to be closed and these are just the leaders to do it.


Cherry, K. (2011). Transformational Leadership. Retrieved from

Haeseler, L.A. (2007). Contributions of meaning by service professionals to the phenomenon of the experience of coping for women in the spectrum of domestic violence abuse: A

leadership perspective. Duquesne University. ProQuest Dissertations and Theses,

Retrieved from

Transforming Leadership through Education. (2008). Retreived from

omesticViolence/About/Pages/TransformingLeadership.aspx [read more]

Charismatic and Transformational Leadership Essay

… Charismatic and Transformative Leadership

The challenges of transformative leadership:

President Obama's campaign -- and afterwards

Even President' Obama's harshest critics admit that his 2008 campaign for the White House mobilized a new generation of young people to become involved in… [read more]

Authentic Leadership Research Paper

… Authentic Leadership

Throughout history, effective leadership has been playing a major role in determining the underlying amounts of motivation and clarity that an organization will have. This is because everyone will look at the management, to determine the most appropriate… [read more]

Leadership as a Term Essay

… Leadership as a term has been described variously. In basic terms, leadership as a process can be said to be a situation whereby an individual or group of individuals organize and seek support of others so as to accomplish a particular task or a given set of goals in an orderly and well coordinated manner. In this text, I come up with a description of a recent situation where leadership was exemplified in a proper or deficient manner.

On the 2nd of May 2011, the U.S. president issued an executive order for an operation that saw the killing of Osama Bin Laden who until his death was of one of the most wanted men in recent times. Until his death, Osama had been hiding in the Pakistani town of Abbottabad. The operation, carried out by Navy SEALs, sparked a heat of debate with Pakistani officials claiming they came to know of the secretive operation only after its completion. This in the view of many Pakistanis was an assault on the sovereignty of their nation. Based on these facts, it is possible to examine and analyze the leadership approach as well as style involved in the run-up to the operation that saw the killing of the man on the most wanted list of FBI.

Though the war on terror has been touted as an all inclusive undertaking bringing together like minded partners, claims by Pakistan that it was not consulted over the raid could be constructed to mean that the U.S. was keen to control all the major decisions involving the operation with minimal input from the former. If this was the case, the leadership exemplified in this scenario can be taken to be autocratic leadership. According to Daft and Lane (2007), an autocratic leader basically derives power from the position he or she holds. In that regard, it can be noted that the U.S. could have based its actions or lack of consultation thereof on its position as a superpower. Autocratic leaders largely make decisions on their own… [read more]

Social Change, Leadership, and Advocacy Essay

… Being able to resolve conflict and manage dispute effectively is essential[footnoteRef:3]. Advocacy allows marginalized groups to speak and be heard so that a broader collection of people can be represented. In this way social change and social justice can not only be seen but experienced by all those involved. The true meaning of advocacy is to plead the cause of another individual's plight and to represent them to all those that can influence that individual's (or group's) life[footnoteRef:4]. Advocating for another can facilitate fairer social change in a broader context, because those that are marginalized or exist on the outskirts of society are brought forward and integrated so that any change that occurs in brought about with these people in mind. [3:] [4:]

Social change may be considered similar to leadership and to advocacy in the sense that it is an advancement on what is the current social situation. Both advocacy and leadership direct this change and support it and so in this way, all three concepts work in harmony. Conversely though they can work against one another if the social change that is needed is not what society is being led towards and what the leader supports. Advocating for those that are in need of change does not necessarily mean that those agencies that can facilitate these changes will listen, and act. Social change may equally be brought about by the people rather than the agencies that lead them in the case of a revolt or uprising.

What these comparisons show us is that social change is not an event that can occur spontaneously without leadership or advocacy, but it can occur aided by only one. Perhaps the most positive, fair, and holistic social change can only be brought about if the views and feelings of all are considered and to do this, both leadership and advocacy must work in tandem. [read more]

Situational Approach to Leadership Research Paper

… ¶ … leadership is the approach used by the managers wherein they use different approaches to different people at different situations. 'Situational leaders are able to adapt their leadership style to fit their followers and situations in which they are working' (Erven 2001). It promotes a varied and realistic view of the problems in the business organization. Real problems are analyzed, interpreted and evaluated under values consideration. Managers using situational approach choose between directive and supportive behaviors in dealing with the problem. In 'directive behavior, they are relying in providing structure, control and close supervision for the people with whom they are working while supportive behavior rely on praise and two-way communication in facilitating the work of their employees and co-workers' (Erven 2001).

Situational leaders decide on the issues based on the employees' personalities, types of works, organizational structure, preferences and the influences of higher management. 'Fred Friedler's contingency theory centers on the belief that there is no best way for managers to lead and different situations create different leadership's style requirements for managers' (Staehle 1976). In this case, one style of management may be working in one person or environment but may not be effective in another. 'Friedler added that the three elements that dictate situational control are task structure, leader/member relations and positioning power' (Staehle 1976). Task structure refers to the task or work that is required for the subordinate or the employee. Leader/member relations indicate the severity of loyalty, dependability and support that the subordinate gives to the leader. It is considered favorable relationship when the subordinate performs a highly-formed task structure and the manager rewards and/or punishes employees without any problems. On the other hand, it is called unfavorable relationship when the subordinate poorly performed the task and the leader has a limited authority to impose punishment. Positioning power… [read more]

Leadership in Organizations Case: ACME Manufacturing Company Case Study

… Leadership in Organizations

Case: ACME Manufacturing Company Chapter 2

What specific things did Steve do wrong, and what should have been done in each instance?

The biggest mistake that Steve made was a lack of planning. This became a major… [read more]

Leadership Response to Post Essay

… However, I am not clear what type of leadership Mr. Anastas has used to achieve the goals of his organization. Specifically, I would be curious to know how many of SADD's 350,000 participants joined the organization because of some personal connection to the issues, such as first-hand experience with losses attributable to drug use, poor decision making, and drunk driving. Likewise, I would be curious to know whether the type of leadership used by Mr. Anastas is substantially based on the transactional model since that would seem to be the most natural leadership approach conducive to achieving the goals and long-term strategic objectives of the organization headed by Mr. Anastas.

Response to Post #4

I would completely agree with your post in so far as your explanation of the importance of recognizing the specific objectives of their organizations, their understanding and ability to promote positive change, and the importance of timing with respect to many types of leadership decisions. In principle, the ability to think critically and to project the objectives of the organizations into the future might be critical skills for organizational leaders in their strategic role of charting the course of their organizations.

However, I would be curious to know what type of leadership approach the Mayor relies upon within his organization to achieve those organizational objectives and short-term goals. Since being Mayor of Terre Haute, Indiana obviously entails oversight of many different types of municipal and other functions and services, I would be curious to know whether the Mayor employs different types of leadership approaches within different municipal and organizational components.

Furthermore, I would imagine that in order to maintain organizational effectiveness throughout all areas of his responsibility, the Mayor would have to establish a specific leadership culture throughout his administration and at all levels of local government administration and oversight. In that regard, I would be curious to know what type of training or candidate selection criteria or processes the Mayor uses to promote his desired leadership style throughout city government. Likewise, I would also want to know how the Mayor selected his immediate circle of executive staff and his immediate subordinates in connection with their leadership… [read more]

Nature of Leadership Essay

… Charismatic theory has enjoyed considerable support from a number of studies using a wide variety of methods and samples.

Innovative, enthusiastic, extraordinary, confident, and trustworthy words describe a charismatic leader. As noted the path-goal theory was instrumental in the creation… [read more]

Nature of Leadership Term Paper

… Nature of Leadership

What are the arguments for and against making a distinction between leaders and managers? What is your definition of leadership?

Defining leadership is a challenging enterprise and there remains a lack of a universally agreed upon definition… [read more]

Mandela Leadership Is a Complicated Research Paper

… Modeling the Way as a practice requires a certain amount of emotional control and courage. Having discipline and mental stamina to overcome the often distracting tasks that leaders must always accomplish is prerequisite in this particular approach. Stengel (2008) explored Mandela's eight lessons of leadership which helped define his particular leadership approach. Mandela's eight lessons included the following: "1. Using courage to inspire others to move beyond fear, 2. When leading from the front, don't leave your base behind, 3. Lead from the back and let others believe they are in front, 4. Know your enemy and learn about his favorite sport 5. Keep your friends close and your rivals even closer 6. Appearances matter and remember to smile 7. Nothing is black or white 8. Quitting is leading too." His first role, using courage, is most important in this particular application. Setting the example often requires a leader to rise above criticism and possible risks in order to do what's best for the group. This sacrifice seems essential in any leadership approach. Mandela clearly demonstrated courage as he continually fought against the South African government while he was in prison for many years. After he was duly rewarded after his long and hard battle, we see how leadership styles that include sticking to values in your model of leadership will eventually pay off in huge ways which may be visible in the original concept.

Nelson Mandela's leadership style can be evaluated at a much deeper level and his actions should be celebrated in this manner as well. It is important to understand that his leadership style is based on simple principles and an original concept that can be described as a modeling of the way. Containing this model, the main ingredients of morals and ethics eventually helped develop the examples of leadership that will actually be carried out. When that system is working at its peak performance great changes are capable as seen in the South African example and Nelson Mandela's personal life. In his own words, " There is nothing so rare, or so valuable- as a mature man," and this maturity is all built upon the first and seemingly most important practice of exemplary leadership.


Lieberfeld, D. (2003). Nelson Mandela: partisan and peacemaker. Negotiation Journal July 2003, 239-261. Retrieved from mandela.pdf.

Rooke, D. & Torbert, W. (2005). Seven transformations of leadership. Harvard Business Review, April, 2005, 1-13. Retrieved from Leadership.pdf

Stengel, R. (2008). Mandela; his 8 lessons of leadership. Time July 19,200. Retrieved from,8599,1821467,00.html [read more]

Church Leadership Essay

… Church Leadership

What is leadership? Firstly we could say that it is the act of someone guiding the rest to accomplish particular tasks or to attain certain goals and objectives in a group setting. The person, who does this, is… [read more]

Contingency Theory of Leadership Fiedler Essay

… My leadership style in the non-profit organization Save the Children Federation is most useful, since the organization has good leader-member relations, but is poorly structured in terms of task delegation and accomplishment. Since the organization has good leader-member relations, it is not surprising then that it has a low level of position power. On the overall, taking into account Fiedler's components that comprise the "situational favorableness" of the organization to my leadership style, I would say that my style is a good fit to the organization.

As explicated earlier, I try to keep a balance between relationship- and task-orientation in my leadership style in the organization. Since my style is a good fit to an organization whose priority is establishing good relations with its members, then indeed, the situation is favorable for me as a leader. Although I try to keep a balance between maintaining good relations and ensuring task accomplishment, I recognize that with the type of organization I am in, I would thrive as relationship-oriented leader more than a task-oriented or socioindependent one. Perhaps the challenge for me is not to polarize myself with the leadership style I was identified with, and try to strengthen both my functional and relational roles as a leader for the non-profit organization. While Fiedler's theory and LPC scale are good indicators of leadership styles, it is but one perspective or school of thought from which leadership can be… [read more]

Personal Leadership Platform Henry Fayol Term Paper

… In dissimilarity, an argument has come up in relation to the peoples growth in leadership situations that are dependable model, in that way strengthening headship efficiency is never the logical sphere, but the theoretical, touching, as well as saintly realms as well. These type of leaders tend to be holistic in their leadership style and are liable to be improved well-matched to the headship qualities of present evolution. The triple frameworks of leadership growth brought on board are in a way relevant to every four domains of headship models. theoretical as well as touching realms are further probable to be urbanized in the course of job framework. A supplementary involvement of this piece of writing is to be familiar with the emergent significance of the saintly realm of headship as well as the manner in which it may preeminent be urbanized by undeviating our concentration to supplementary large-scale echelon organizations infrastructure as well as connected HR line of attack .

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Robbins Stephen, Millet Bruce and Waters-Marsh Terry (2009) the Leadership Development… [read more]

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