Study "Literature / Poetry" Essays 1-55

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Unknown Citizen by Wh Auden Term Paper

… Poetry and the Unknown Citizen - by W.H. Auden

Introduction to Poetry: The late Stanley Kunitz received just about every prestigious award and appointment that a poet could achieve. He was named "United States Poet Laureate" in 200; he was… [read more]

Fred D'aguiar's Surreal Poems Term Paper

… Contemplating death in light of race-related murders, Nichols notes that black and white commingle at funerals. "The dead / beside the white candles / will not be offended," (13-15). What attracts scorn and hatred from the community as skin color becomes a requisite article of clothing. Black on fabric does not offend. Yet as skin color, black is a detriment, a drawback, an insult. It is far from being "the number in which she comes into her own power," (8-10). Quite the opposite: black skin indicates a total lack of power, even a lack of life. Black skin weakens whoever wears it; black skin adorned with "amber earrings" or a "scarf of pink" does not rise to any occasion as the black dress does (16-17). While the little black dress imparts prestige and wardrobe success, the same shade of skin denotes degradation. As long as it is not skin, black becomes associated with respect, tradition, and conformity. When black is race, it connotes otherness. Nichols' references are both straightforward and metaphoric, but in "Black" the poet hints at the seriousness of black's plight. Invoking the Klu Klux Klan highlights the physical reality of racism, contrasted with abstract poetic prejudice. It's not just about the merits of black clothes vs. white.

The Klan's white robes were wielded as weapons of oppression; their whiteness signified power. Beneath the cloth, white skin gleamed proudly as it murdered black flesh. Black, therefore, symbolizes death. It is the other side of life, the lack of respect and light. Black does not reflect light, it "absorbs everything," (20). Black skinned people absorb cruelty, torture, and suffering. Nichols notes that although a black dress at a party acts as "sensual catalyst," possessing black skin will garner "those sudden inexplicable hostile glances," (23; 26). Black is absolute other, as night is to day.

In "White," Nichols provides the other side's story. White signifies light, dawn, day, and color. In contrast to the obliteration of blackness, white reflect life over death, wakefulness over sleep. Yet Nichols refers to somnambulism in a subtle stab at white's inherent weakness: "a sleepwalker," (9). White, though proud reflector of consciousness, conveniently forgets "the memories of ancestors, / all that blackness / against whiteness," (13-15). White-washed "walls of vanilla," those "great solid slabs" are metaphors for the sturdy dominant culture, which was built on the blood of blacks (10-11). False justifications for social and political oppression are "starched religiousness": racism cloaked in white robes (16). Nichols' imagery pits black against white, depicting the symbolic otherness of race through the world of physical objects. Her two poems "Black" and "White" overtly demonstrate the difference between these opposites in concrete and metaphorical manners.


D'Aguiar, Fred. "Mama Dot." Other: British and Irish Poetry since 1970. Ed. Caddel, Richard and Quartermain. Hanover: Wesleyan University Press, 1999. 45.

D'Aguiar, Fred. "Airy Hall Iconography." Other: British and Irish Poetry since 1970. Ed. Caddel, Richard and Quartermain. Hanover: Wesleyan University Press, 1999. 48.

Leonard, Tom. "100 Differences Between Poetry and… [read more]

American Poet Laureate Robert Hass Term Paper

… Hass views English language as a device to explore and analyze his innermost feelings and doesn't use it for its own sake. This is something extremely important to remember. Hass viewed language as a weapon, which helps him express his sentiments on various subjects, some of them having a very haunting quality about them. For example in the poem titled Interrupted Meditation, the poet uses words and language, which not only flow easily but also manage to grasp every emotion that the poet feels with incredible ease. Reading the following lines from the poem indicate that Hass was more interested in accurate expression of emotions than anything else. Thus he seems to view English language as a tool, which helps him reach the very core of his heart.

We live half our lives in fantasy and words...

I'm a little ashamed that I want to end this poem singing, but I want to end this poem singing the wooly closed-down buds of the sunflower to which, in English, someone gave the name, sometime, of pearly everlasting."

Interrupted Meditations)

In the Sun Under Wood for example, Hass used his views on English language to express the emotions of various men and women and explored their psyche using simple everyday American terms. This is an effort worth praising as Gail Wronsky (1997) writes, "...what is profoundly revolutionary than the giving up of space on the page to these female voices is the fact that Hass has given the anima psychic space as well - has explored, as a poet, subject matters and emotions traditionally the provinces of women writers; he risks sentiment, for crying out loud! In "Regalia for a Black Hat Dancer," for example, among so many other things, we find "children's crayon drawings on the wall."

Hass has probably learned more about his language when he took up the task of translating Japanese haiku in English. This must have been an experience of profound impact because it taught him the importance of simplification of words in poetry. We notice that most Japanese Haikus are so simple they appear to have been falsely translated. But it is true that Japanese haiku poets use much simpler language than European poets who are responsible for heavily influencing American poets. In his collection of Japanese translation known as The Essential Haiku: Versions of Basho,

Busan, and Issa, we notice how simplicity of Japanese language has left an indelible mark on Hass's use of language. Verses like: "It's not like anything they compare it to - the summer moon. / Lighting one candle with another candle - spring evening / New Year's Day - everything is in blossom! I feel about average" are beautiful examples of unfussiness of Japanese haiku. This simplicity is then highly evident from verses, which appeared in his collection Sun Under Wood.

Light a fire, thin smoke, not an ambitious fire, and sit before it and watch it till it burns to ash and the last gleam is gone from it,… [read more]

Power of Goodness in 1001 Research Paper

… Since everything happens because of his will it is safe to say that everything that happens is just. In other words, when something bad happens to a character, then the event is either a punishment or something which will have a long-term positive effect. It seems that the power of goodness is absolute (Richard, 63).

But, if everything happens because it is the will of Allah it results that the human freedom is limited. Freedom is therefore another important theme in the book, the freedom of women on the one hand and the one of the human being on the other one. It seems that both a quite limited and from this point-of-view we may consider this a very important philosophical conception which gives insight from an anthropological and cultural point-of-view.

Speaking of goodness and its power, it could be stated that Scheherazade, through her own good nature succeeds into transforming the king in a good person as well. Thus we have a series of actions which condition the ones which will follow. The king had been betrayed and became evil in order to turn good after the one thousand and one nights of stories told by his wife (Gerhardt, 63).

Reading between the lines we can see that Scheherazade actually wanted to make his husband understand what goodness really is (forgiveness, humility, justice, humanity, etc.). And the means which she has at her disposal is story telling. In this manner the story and the act of story telling become the theme of the tales, while the tone of the narrator is a moralizing one since he is omniscient (Richard, 63).

Techniques such framing and patterning are used in other works as well, such ad the Divine Comedy or the Canterbury tales. The "One thousand and one nights" differ through the themes which are approached and the description of such numerous elements from Africa and the Middle East. The unusual things which occur are incarnations of the fight between good and evil and in the end it is goodness which wins.


Burton, Richard. "The Arabian nights study guide." Retrieved march 17, 2009 from

Gerhardt, Mia. "The art of story-telling: a literary study of the Thousand and one nights." 1963

Hovannistan, R., Sabagh, G. (eds.). "The Thousand and one nights in Arabic literature and society," Georgia Review, 34. 1980

Irwin, R. "The Arabian nights: a companion." 1994

Pinault, David. "Story telling techniques in the Arabian nights." Brill Publishers. 1992

"The Arabian nights" in Classical and medieval Literature… [read more]

Gender and Sexuality in Society in the Works of Charlotte Bronte Thesis

… Gender and Sexuality in Society in the Works of Charlotte Bronte

The gander roles issue in Charlotte Bronte's writings is one that arises often right from the beginning. Jane Eyre, an autobiographical book is one that comes under the influence… [read more]

Kill Cliches -- "Mending Wall" by Robert Essay

… ¶ … Kill Cliches -- "Mending Wall" by Robert Frost and "Dulce et Decorum est" by Wilfred Owens.

Perhaps one of the most useful aspects of modern poetry as a literary medium is that poetry has the unique ability to… [read more]

Bells' by Edgar Allen Poe Term Paper

… For example the word tintinnabulation automatically makes one thing about jubilation and merriment.

The poem also gives different meanings to the chiming of bells according to the stage in which they appear. In the first stage, which is the happiest period of man's life, certain degree of innocence and spontaneity is connected with ringing of bells. What a world of merriment their melody foretells! In the second stage, bells indicate a rather rapturous time because of love that man has just found. What a world of happiness their harmony foretells! In the third stage, which is that of maturity, fear is evident from the sounds of bells (What a tale of terror, now, their turbulency tells!) while in the last stage, chiming highlights coldness of death (What a world of solemn thought their monody compels!)

The four stages have been carefully discussed and many believe that they have a lot to do with Poe's own life. Thus we can safely assume that Poe did not exactly live a very happy contented life. Instead of thinking about the positive side of maturity and wedding, he is focusing on the grimness of the situation. We must give Poe credit for using sound of bells effectively to highlight various states of mind. Bells have been used not only to accentuate emotions; their chiming also mocks man for harboring hopes for his future. In other words, bells do not always indicate the truth; their sound may often deceive people as it did in the early two stages. It is very important to see that the poet has not used the word foretell in the last two stanzas. This indicates that bells predicted something false in the first two stages while they only presented the reality in the last two.

In short, the poem is about four important stages of man's life and highlights the difference between reality and perception.


Edgar Allen Poe,… [read more]

Chinua Achebe's Fifth Novel Term Paper

… Beatrice has drawn praise from Ikem for the "odd short story and poem" she has written. Ikem is an admired poet as well as a journalist, and his prose-poem "Hymn to the Sun" is held in higher regard by his… [read more]

19th Century Romanticism in Wordsworth and Delacroix Essay

… ¶ … 19th Century

Romanticism in Wordsworth and Delacroix

The Romantic period and movement covers a wide range of themes, styles and perceptions in art and literature. However, while there are divergent themes and approaches, there are also many areas… [read more]

Knight in History by Frances Term Paper

… As a rule, society began to revere these romantic figures in their armor and astride their steeds. By the twelfth century, knightly heroics were being heralded in literature, poetry, and music. In fact, a group of "knightly troubadours" evolved who traveled the countryside reciting vs. Of various knights' escapades. These early oral histories have survived through the centuries and were some of the first records historians had to study regarding the knights and their lives. Of course, most of this literature was highly romanticized and stylized, but they indicate the importance of knights in society. Most importantly, these odes to knighthood resulted in a chivalric code evolving by the 12th century that clearly defined knights and their actions. Chivalry became one of the defining roles of knighthood, and actually defined much of the medieval period. The author notes, "... A knight should be courteous, generous, well-spoken, discreet, faithful in the service of love, he should have 'pretz e valours,' excellence and worth, as well as good sense (Gies 77-78). In turn, society looked to knights as their role models and heroes. This role in society seems far removed from their role as military fighter, but successful knights managed to blend both roles effectively, and this distinguished them throughout the Middle Ages.

The knights' role in society altered as they became more prevalent and accepted in the social order. Just as with most members of society, the knight's role altered from their earliest appearances to their gradual demise in the fifteenth century. Knights were rowdy fighters in the beginning, and by the end of their reign, they had evolved into landed gentry who were central figures in the economic and social areas of society. They were members of the aristocracy, and commanded legions of peasants and vassals underneath them. Sometimes entire towns grew up surrounding the knight's lands and castles. Their status in society grew, and so did their wealth.

Perhaps one of the most important points in the book is why the knights disappeared. The author maintains the invention of the gun had much to do with their demise. As warfare modernized, the mounted and armored cavalry soldier became increasingly obsolete. The knights and their ideals became outmoded and unnecessary, and by the sixteenth century, they all but disappeared. The author notes, "The knight was no more vulnerable to gunfire than anyone else, but expensive cannon and gunpowder strongly reinforced the trend toward national professional armies" (Gies 197). Thus, the knight had outlived his usefulness, and became an archaic reminder of a romantic past that was no longer viable or functional.

In conclusion, this book is an important documentation of knights in history. It is also a valuable tool for anyone doing further research into the medieval feudal society and how it functioned. Knights played an important role in society, from religious to military, and this book gives the reader a much fuller picture of their role and their motivations.


Gies, Frances. The Knight in… [read more]

Compare Shahnameh and Turkish Literature Effects of the Shahnameh in the Turkish and Ottoman Research Paper

… Turkish Literature

Compare Shahnameh with Turkish Literature and Classical Ottoman Poetry

The Shahnmeh, which was written by Ferdowsi in the late tenth century and early eleventh century, is probably the most famous literary work ever written in that region. This… [read more]

Tenets in Modernism Literature Term Paper

… Tenets

Lawrence and Derek Walcott: Tenets of Modernism

David Herbert Richards Lawrence (1885-1930) was an English essayist, literary critic, playwright, novelist and poet who published under the name DH Lawrence. Many of Lawrence's writings reflect his ideology regarding the adverse… [read more]

Role and Importance of the Poets Essay

… ¶ … role and importance of the poets has changed throughout the history of mankind. Back in the period, the Romantics believed that the poet represented the spiritual guide of the people, who helped the reader identify their most internal… [read more]

Victorian Literature Was Remarkably Concerned Term Paper

… " The constant movement of passion is not troped as an imaginative freedom, but rather as its own form of routine -- like the "ebb and flow / of human misery" in Arnold's "Dover Beach," the tidal image here is… [read more]

Fiction in Comparison to Poetry Term Paper

… The question of what the life insurance check will be spent on drives the conflict between Walter Lee and Mama and is the center of the plot. This debate represents a fight over materialism and integrity. However, the full implications of Walter's desires must be grasped to perceive the deeper levels of the debate. Wilkerson speaks about a restored scene of the play scene "which is key to this understanding. Inserted at the end of Act 11, Scene 2, the scene shows a brief moment between Walter and his young son, Travis. Walter, who has just been entrusted with the remaining $6,500 by his mother and who sees his dream of economic success within his grasp, speaks in a tender tone not heard before from him (Wilkerson, 1986, 445-446)." In this scene, Walter's son understands the motivations behind the conflict and that Walter's fixation was not just upon the physical, but upon deeper things as well. Like the suicidal man in Summer Solstice, we cannot see specifically what is making him tick. As J. Charles Washington notes, there is a prophetic significance to Walter that drives the play and gives us clues as to the deeper meanings (Washington, 1988, 112).

In the opinion of this author, the drama is a stronger genre because it allows a longer and more in-depth examination of the characters. Poetry is very short and can leave the reader grasping for details. However, poetry allows for a more focused "snapshot" of events. A well written poem can convey a lot of information in a short period of time and leaves the reader more room for interpretation. Both genres have narrators and conflict. However, this makes foreshadowing difficult in poetry, although not impossible. The drama allows for much more foreshadowing due to its length and the amount of time that the author can spend on developing the characters.


To sum up, in this short essay, we have conducted an examination of fiction in comparison to poetry and drama by drawing upon specific examples from the poem- "Summer Solstice in New York" by Sharon Olds and of drama from A Raisin in the Sun by Lorraine Hansberry. We have discussed what are features that define the different genres and also examined their different strengths and weaknesses.


Field, E., & Locklin, G. (1992). New geography of poets. (p. xvii). Little Rock, AR: University of Arkansas Press.

Washington, J.C. (1988). A raisin in the sun revisited. Black American Literature Forum, 22(1), 109-

Wilkerson, M. (1986).… [read more]

New African by Andrea Lee Essay

… Human nature

Shows how many behave in specific circumstances

Reading everything but the Bible.

Exercise 5.6C: Evaluative Essay

Directions: Now that you've finished the reading in your textbook, you'll write an evaluative essay offering your well-considered judgment on a piece of literature. Your focus work can be anything you've read during this course or outside.

This essay is not just an opinion though; you offer your evaluation and then support it with reasons and evidence to support your reasons. It should be at least (5) five paragraphs long.

Calculating the value of literature is much like calculating the value of a work of art -- it's mostly personal taste with some somewhat objective criteria (golden ratios and such). So what makes a good book? Mostly, that's up to you. Did you enjoy reading it? Did it meet your objective in reading? Why you read has as much to do with the quality of the work as the work itself. However, in order to equitably evaluate literature, we need to look at why a writer writes, and not just why readers read. If Socrates is to be believed, only the examined life is worth living. Considering how enduring that thought has been, it probably has some merit, and we can apply that to why writers write -- to examine life. A piece of prose or poetry that somehow makes us see -- as writers and readers -- the truth of who we are, good and bad. That's the literature worth reading. James Baldwin's Autobiographical Notes are an enduring piece of literature because they are an examination of his life that teaches us something about our own.

From the outset of the Notes, Baldwin states that, "The story of [his] childhood is the usual bleak fantasy, and we can dismiss it with the restrained observation that [he] would certainly not consider living it again." Maybe we don't all come from homes with a plethora of babies, but it's safe to say that we are all disappointed with our childhoods in some way, and the perplexity is why we all feel like we're the only ones. The understated tone with which Baldwin says his childhood sucked makes you examine your own attitudes and see just how silly it is to dwell on the fact that life wasn't sunshine and daisies growing up. Life is how it is -- get over it.

Just moments after you read that, you read that Baldwin read everything he could lay his hands on, "except the Bible, probably because it was the only book [he] was encouraged to read." We can all chuckle at that and remember times when we refused to do something specifically because we were told -- didn't matter if we knew we should or even if we actually wanted to do whatever it was. We wouldn't do it because we were told and we are independent, self-assertive, intelligent beings, by golly, with no need of direction from the inferior intellect of our parents.

Finally,… [read more]

American Literature Comparing and Contrasting Ideas Ralph Essay

… American Literature

Comparing and Contrasting Ideas

Ralph Waldo Emerson and Fredrick Douglas both express their ideas and philosophies on a person's happiness and self-fulfillment. Both of these authors have very strong opinions on what they believe constitutes true self-satisfaction. In… [read more]

American Literature Despite Their Different Backgrounds Essay

… American Literature

Despite their different backgrounds and experiences, Ralph Waldo Emerson and Henry David Thoreau shared a number of ideas. Compare their views on nature, the individual, and conformity.

Ralph Emerson and Henry David Thoreau were both great writers that… [read more]

Children's Literature the Genre Essay

… Children's Literature

The genre of children's literature is not new, in fact, historical records tell us that in the Greek and Roman educational tradition, children were grounded in language and grammar (and one would hope imagination) by reciting poetry and drama. Aesop's Fables have been part of the Western European children's library for at least three hundred years. "And thinkers from Quintilian to John Locke, from St. Augustine to Dr. Seuss, speculated on the ways in which we learn about our langue and our lives from [children"] literature" (Lerer, 2008, 1).

There is some scholarly debate, though, on what actually constitutes "Children's Literature." A broad concept holds that the genre includes books intentionally written for children, "excluding works such as comic books, joke books, cartoon books, and nonfiction works that are not intended to be read from front to back, such as dictionaries, encyclopedias, and other reference material" (Anderson, 2006, 2). The genre could also include books written by children, chosen for children, or chosen by children (A Series of Unfortunate Events, Snow White, and Alice's Adventures in Wonderland). Famous speculative fiction author Orson Scott Card comments, "one can make a good case for the idea that children are often the guardians of the truly great literature of the world, for in their love of story and unconcern for stylistic fads and literary tricks, children unerringly gravitate toward truth and power" (Card, 2001). In addition, though, literacy has changed -- with varying opinions on the efficacy of such -- but many books thought of as adult books when first published are now widely read in primary and secondary schools (e.g. Adventures of Huckleberry Finn). Certainly, the genre is rich with creativity, ideas, and in the contemporary world of multi-culturalism and globalism, ripe for addressing contemporary issues in a variety of innovative ways, albeit typically defined by adults rather than the intended audience.

For the purposes of this essay, though, we will confine ourselves to five major types of children's literature: Realistic, Fantasy, Traditional, Poetry, and Non-Fiction. We will begin with a broad definition of the genre, and then list the appropriate bibliography for that genre organized by grade level. The list is not meant to be comprehensive, but will provide a broad overview and perspective of the individual types of material one might utilize in a classroom.

Realistic Fiction -- Realistic fiction, within children's literature as well as adult, attempts to use situations that are contemporary and part of everyday life and culture to form stories and plot. Instead of an overly romanticized or stylized framework, realistic fiction opts for depictions of typical activities and… [read more]

British and German Trench Poetry Side Research Proposal

… ¶ … British and German trench poetry side by side

Teaching British and German trench war poetry side-by-side

One of the difficulties in teaching World War I is that the memory of World War II is often much sharper in the minds of students. The more ambiguous causes of the First World War, and the complex feelings of both German and British soldiers can be lost if there is too much focus on the British War Poets alone. Examining both nationalities' poetic response to war enables a compassionate cross-comparison of both traditions. It enables students to identify both similarities and differences in the responses of German and British war poets, who were responding to the same experience of bloodshed, albeit from different sides of the front lines. It also shows the importance of literature and poetry in the culture of both nations to respond to national crisis, in a way that may be surprising to students today.

The author makes an interesting point that viewing 'the war' as a kind of common aesthetic culture may be a more fair way to evaluate poets such as Wilfred Owen and Siegfried Sassoon, than comparing… [read more]

Sappho's Poetry: Implications for Classical Greece Research Proposal

… Sappho's Poetry:

Implications for Classical Greece and Modern Times

Throughout history, artists have reflected and offered commentary on the society of which they are a part. Because their works become immortal, people can have an understanding of different societies centuries… [read more]

Middle Eastern Poetry Is Often Peppered Term Paper

… Middle Eastern Poetry is often peppered with honest assessments of the physical and emotional turmoil of conflict. Poetry in the Middle East tends to be a voice of record, in stylistic descriptions of the conflicts of mind, body and spirit… [read more]

Confluence of Prose and Poetry Term Paper

… Confluence of Prose and Poetry

Women, under the auspices of a system of marriage that left this with very little recourse or power to prosper on their own often felt a sense of powerlessness that encompassed their whole mind and… [read more]

British Poetry of the 19Th Century Essay

… ¶ … narrative technique in poetry of the nineteenth century is to discuss the various meanings and symbols written in the words of that era. Victorian poetry, including Romantic poetry, included an eclectic mix. The authors of these kinds of… [read more]

Chinese Literature Is Always Rooted Essay

… Chinese Literature

Literature is always rooted in its historical, cultural, and political context. This is true for modernist literature, which comments on various issues ranging from post-colonial identities, post-colonial governments, and shifting gender norms. In "Love in a Fallen City,"… [read more]

Didacticism in English Literature Research Paper

… Didacticism in English Literature

From whichever, standpoint writers formulate and present their literary works thereemerges a myriad of lessons for the audience to learn from (Stock36). This occurs, not only from the character's perspective but alsofrom the viewpoint of the… [read more]

Drama Poetry Essay

… Whereas, the Robert Frost poem, is leaving this open to interpretation and the experiences of the person. These contrasting factors will influence how they comprehend what is taking place and the meanings that are tied to them. ("Macbeth," 2013) (Frost, 1920)

What of the set direction and the dialogue?

The set direction in Macbeth is occurring through a more contemporary view. This is happening by having the characters dress and look like they are part of something which happened in the last 50 years. However, the dialogue is following the traditional script that was written by William Shakespeare in the 16th century. This is different from the Robert Frost poem, with these ideas being set in the time frame it was written and leaving it open to the interpretation of the person who is reading it. ("Macbeth," 2013) (Frost, 1920)

Some found the set direction distracting; some found it significantly enhanced the dialogue?

The set distraction enhanced the dialogue. This is taking place through having everyone using the language and lines of William Shakespeare's time in conjunction with specific actions the characters are involved in. This improves the dialogue and it enhances the audiences understanding of what was happening. It is at this point, when they can relate to these ideas and the lasting impact they are having on everyone. While Robert Frost, is using language from the 20th century and has a certain amount of rhythm to his lines. However, for the individual reading it, this will have an effect on how they interpret what is happening and the lasting impact on everyone. This is illustrating how the set of Macbeth, is improving the audience's comprehension and interpretation of what is happening (versus leaving it open). ("Macbeth," 2013) (Frost, 1920)


Macbeth. (2013). PBS. Retrieved from:

Frost, R. (1920). The Road Not Taken. Bartleby. Retrieved from: [read more]

Hammad Poetry Essay

… Regardless, a poem's form must suit its content but there is no one 'correct' way to write a poem. I do not think that more modern poetry is 'better' than older poetry, or even necessarily enjoy it more. I do think that the art form must shift and change constantly if it is to reveal its ultimate aim, which is to speak truth and to use language economically and effectively. Regardless of the length of the poem, what distinguishes poetry from prose is that every word counts. In prose, words are occasionally used to simply get the reader from Point A to Point B, as in a prosaic description of a room. In poetry, there is always a particular significance given to the examples and images crafted by the poet that transcends surface meanings. [read more]

American Poetry Is Dependent Essay

… There is no background provided on this poem other than it investigates the "martyrdom of a 16th century Dominican friar," which does not really tell the reader if and how this poem addresses issues of democracy, or if it is a contemporary American poem. One of the most frustrating parts of this section is the lack of clarity on the author's behalf. For instance, I was constantly questioning who Giordano Bruno is because he is not introduced anywhere in the paper and the author begins talking about him assuming the reader will know what is being referenced. One of the arguments about Bruno that creates cognitive dissonance, and is somewhat illogical is the sentence: "This is how Bruno strikes us as both a familiar and foreign character, for his ideas are readily assimilated to the inclusive patchwork of the American intellect, while his persecution for such ideas by the state seems totally incongruent with the spirit of the Constitution." I have the most issues with the last part of the sentence, that "his persecution for such ideas by the state seems totally incongruent with the spirit of the Constitution" because there is no explanation given about how Bruno relates to the Constitution.

Overall, the premise of this paper is promising, however, the author needs to work on several issues in order to make it better. The author needs to have a concrete thesis and detail exactly what the paper will cover in the introduction. Additionally, there are many several sentence structures that make the paper difficult to read; simplicity is key when writing so that the reader does not become confused or lost. Also, people -- such as McHugh and Bruno -- need to be introduced properly; the author should never assume that the reader knows what he or she is talking about. The paper also needs to be better organized with body paragraphs focusing on a single aspect of the author's argument. I believe this paper can be strengthened through these… [read more]

Representation of Death Term Paper

… When God asks him why, he mocks Almighty God by saying essentially that any man could stand to see his son in pain and could stand there with pride as he took the whip and nails. He says with sarcasm… [read more]

Mongolian Poet Galsan Tschinag Essay

… Poetry therefore provides the world with a sacred vehicle for self-expression. It allows the ego to express itself as it must, and in so doing ironically transform its self-centered nature to one that is focused on the transcendent. Peace is a prevailing motif in the poetry of Tschinag and Goethe, both of whom equate nature with peace. For Goethe, that peace is literally stillness and silence. "There is a stillness / On the tops of the hills." Tschinag writes, "For a long time I've been aiming / At the pinnacle / From which I / Shall rise up / As a storm." A space deliberately added between the penultimate and ultimate lines offers a full stop -- so that the phrase "I shall rise up" can be taken to mean an egotistical ambition or a spiritual one. Thus, poetry bridges the needs of the ego with the needs of the spirit.

The reader gains value from poetry from revisiting poems, studying them, and then writing poetry as well. To revisit a poem is to gain the genuine and deep insight into the deeper meanings behind the surface imagery and metaphors. The essence of the poem is embedded beyond the words. Studying poetry is like exercising an organ in the human body; one cannot expect to complete a marathon on first try. Returning to poetry and contemplating the intention of the poet enhances one's understanding and allows the poet to accomplish the goal of helping to connect the individual with the universal. Finally, to write poetry is to participate fully in the healing of humanity. Poetry can be a buffer against the stresses of modernity, or it can enhance an already peaceful existence. As Tschinag puts it, poetry is "the highest-developed organ in the body of human life."

Works Cited

Bly, Robert. "A Meditation on a Poem by Goethe." In News of the Universe. University of California Press, 1995.

Hacken, Richard. "Images of Migration and Change in the German-Language Poetry of Galsan Tschinag." Retrieved online:

Tschinag, Galsan. "Defense of Poetry." Retrieved online: [read more]

Defense of Poetry Essay

… In Tschinag's poem, though, the love between the narrator and the object of desire is almost secondary to the overarching theme and imagery of nature.

The first line reads, "Now I stood behind you within range." The word "range" has a double meaning, signifying mountains as well as "within range" of hearing or vision. Thus, the poet immediately establishes the connection between man and nature; or, as Tschinag puts it, the "interrelation between Nature and Man." The following line in the poem reads, "a load of storm your new hunter." Here, the storm is the natural metaphor and it represents the desire of the narrator for the beloved. "With the first snow I came to you," the narrator then states. As Tschinag states in "Defense of Poetry," snow and other elements of the Mongolian landscape are inextricably entwined with the Mongolian psyche. Thus, imagery of snow is indispensible in poetic verse. The narrator continues, "and in your presence I swore to heaven / to blow away all the traces of foreign winds on you." Ironically, the narrator reverts to the egotistical "I" point-of-view, by does not break the connection between man and nature. After all, the reference to heaven shows that the narrator has developed a sense of animistic power, feeling that heaven is skyward but immanent in all natural objects. This sense echoes Goethe's sentiment in "Wanderers Nachtlied II," in which the narrator uses the second person point-of-view to convey a sense of spiritual wonder at nature. The narrator is present, and yet the poem is not necessarily about the narrator's state of mind but about reconnecting the reader with ancient roots.

Works Cited

Bly, Robert. "A Meditation on a Poem by Goethe." In News of the Universe. University of California Press, 1995.

Hacken, Richard. "Images of Migration and Change in the German-Language Poetry of Galsan Tschinag." Retrieved online:

Tschinag, Galsan. "Defense of Poetry." Retrieved online: [read more]

Father Figures Arabian Asian Literature Essay

… He would never give up his morals, no matter how pressing the issue. Nabil is obviously irked by his father's righteousness, but even he cannot deny the fact that his father, in his irksome ways, is beyond respectable. The reader… [read more]

Multi-Ethnic Literature Term Paper

… It is noted by Ferguson:

"This was the first little magazine of the depression that sought to bridge the divisions among the older aesthetes like Alain Locke and James Weldon Johnson, her own bohemian Renaissance circle, and the emerging social… [read more]

Multicultural Literature Research Paper

… 1: many different + culture = multicultural. Therefore just about all cultures or perhaps a wide array of cultures should be integrated with no discrimination. 2nd: several think that multicultural literature has been about diversity as well as inclusion towards… [read more]

Modernism, and How the Literature Term Paper

… Both writers are products of minority race and their race and experiences influenced their writing. Morrison was African-American. Her books, famously The Bluest Eye, Sula, Song of Solomon and Beloved, deal with the struggles of growing up debased and disadvantaged in a humiliated sector of America. The novels detail the characters' travails as victims of child molestation; outcasts of society due to differences in race and gender; ravages of slavery (e.g. "Beloved"); and the difficulty of being different ("Sula"). Roth, on the other hand, filled his books (that include Goodbye, Columbus, Portnoy's Complaint, and Everyman) with his Jewish experience; Portnoy's Complaint deals with Jewish identity in America whilst Everyman describes the hardships of growing old in America.

Morrison deals with feminism and the experiences of living in America as an African-American. Roth describes old age and living in America as a Jew.

Aspects of Contemporary literature are similar to that of Modernism. For instance, Roth's Portnoy's Complaint reminds me of Lawrence's Lady Chatterley's Lover (amongst other works) for a sexual reality that borders on pornography as well as description of fruition in reachignone's goals (and inherent meaninglessness of life). It is also created in the obsessively introspective style that is representative of Kafka and Joyce. Roth's connections to psychology are evident. He also blurs distinction between reality and fiction and leaves one with the same disturbing reflections on existence as one gain after reading the books of Joyce, Kafka and Laurence. The novels of Morrison, too, touch on the pain and agony of being different.

On the other hand, "Portnoy's complaint" touches on topics that are completely new to the Modernist era such as, predominantly, the identity of the assimilated Jew within American society and their relationship with Israel. Even the sexual component is less in sync with Lawrence's lust for life as it is one that is filled with political overtones of the Sexual Revolution, whilst Morrison's books detail subjects such as feminism, slavery, strive to succeed in an increasingly capitalistic and detached world, and African-American persecution.

The contrast between Modernist and Contemporary literature is vast. Both reflect the particular ages that they were created in. Modernism was authored in the late 19th to early 20th centuries when psychodynamics was on its rise; existentialist philosophy was the philosophy of the moment, and man, emerging from one World War was attempting to understand his way in the world and was disillusioned with existence. Religion, too, was supplanted by influential philosophers such as Nietzsche, and break in fall ways was conducted with the past. Modernism and post-modernism, represented by chaos, new experimental forms of style and creation, was the trend of the moment. Much of it was disjointed (as in the style of Joyce) and subversive.

Contemporary themes, however, were written by writers who lived after the Second World War and were dealing with life in the modern century -- in the examples given, in America. Themes included bigotry, technology, the Cold War; being a misfit, a minority, and despair at… [read more]

American Literature Listen to Sinners Essay

… 9: Read A Dream within a Dream and Israfel. Post to the discussion group.

Poe's "Israfel" might strike a twenty-first century reader as a little odd: Poe has taken a quotation from the Koran, and writes about an Islamic angel. Does that mean Poe is writing an Islamic poem? Poe's quotation from the Koran describes an angel whose "heart-strings are a lute." In other words, there is no difference between emotion and music for Israfel -- which could be seen as just a definition of an ideal form of poetry. The poem that Poe writes about this idea distinguishes our world from Israfel's angelic world -- for us, "flowers are merely flowers," and the brightest sunshine in our world is like a shadow for Israfel. Poe is therefore using religion as a metaphor, even if the poem does contain some Islamic language (such as "Houris"). In some sense, this makes it easier for Poe to describe the poetic distance between a heavenly ideal and an earthly reality, if he can draw upon a religious tradition that he knows his readers will most likely not belong to.

10: Read Bartleby the Scrivener, a Story of Wall Street. Post to the discussion group.

How is Melville's "Bartleby the Scrivener" a "story of Wall Street"? It is worth noting what Bartleby's actual job was. What does a scrivener do? This is someone who is, using 21st [read more]

Diversity of the Different Cultures Annotated Bibliography

… Ages 8 and up


Chapter book

Lin, G. (2003). Dim Sum for Everyone.

This book is about culture of food. The girl in the book interprets the word dim sum as delicious. The story revolves around the whole aren't… [read more]

Assigned Readings Essay

… American Literature Before 1865: Anne Bradstreet

A reaction to the Anne Bradstreet story

Ann Bradstreet holds a critical position in American history of writing art. She qualifies as the first American writer of poets. Her first works of poetry do not have many of her best poems. Some of her early works include "The Tenth Muse Lately Sprung Up in America": the first female literature to be published in America. Her works demonstrate a documented female struggle of a homemaker in opposition to the adversities of colonial life. Anne constantly struggled through out her entire life until her death. Anne had an exemplary faith and she deeply loved her family as shown in her "To My Dear and Loving Husband." Her works are written to reflect the prolonged periods of loneliness while her husband was busy running political errands. She became an inspiration role model because of her spirituality, humility, and her lack of interest on material affluence.

An impression of the story

The story of Anne Bradstreet gives an impression that the most vital qualities were her strong intuition. It is impossible to ignore her constant fascination with her inner guidance, human mind, and spirit. At a time when women could not air their views and ideas, Anne used her rich polyvalent knowledge and vocabulary thus doing so with ease with lines such as, "I prize thy love more than whole mines of Gold." She is deceptively unsophisticated in her writing style, and she gives an impression of a highly intelligent woman who strongly believes in unconditional faith. Even in her writing, the dreams of women were mere "empty wishes," according to her. Through these tactics, she managed to bring lyrical and commonsensical superiority to her works of literature thus making it pleasant for any person who is willing to read.

How the story relates to my life

Just as I use my diary to record key events in my life, Bradstreet recorded her feelings and notable events of her life in her poems. In one of her poems, she writes, "To My Dear and Loving Husband." This shows how she believes in love and how she values her family despite being a strong woman in a society that condemns women. She did not intend to publish… [read more]

Children's Literature Despite Its Name, Literary Nonsense Research Paper

… Children's Literature

Despite its name, literary nonsense plays an important role in the history of culture, and particularly in the case of children's literature. However, while literary nonsense in children's literature has frequently been discussed according to its potential for… [read more]

Why Read Literature Term Paper

… ¶ … value of literature must apply to all human beings alike, not to some group…Men [and presumably women too] ought to value literature for being what it is; they ought to value it in terms and in degrees of… [read more]

Regional Differences in American Research Paper

… " (Frost 10) This is illustrating how everyone will have choices and a sense of personal freedom. These ideas are reflecting the Northern society that Frost came from (with these views impacting how he sees the world). This is when… [read more]

Love and Their Inter-Relations in Manyoshu Research Paper

… ¶ … inter-Relations in Manyoshu

Poetic Wordplay

One of the recurring themes within Manyoshu, a collection of over 4,000 poems (Keene 1955, 33) written by a variety of authors -- some of whom were emperors and their paramours -- is… [read more]

Death and Dying Term Paper

… In "Because I Could Not Stop For Death" (1890), Dickinson personifies Death, much like Donne did in his Holy Sonnet, and sees him, not as a slave or subordinate, but rather as a gentleman caller that accompanies her on her… [read more]

Children's Literature "All Work Essay

… " (18). In other words, Tom has made the activity seem as though it required special talent and insight to do it properly, and to make it enjoyable. But the larger joke is that, of course, Tom's initial capitalist scheme… [read more]

Historical Representations Literature Review

… Sappho and Genji

Sappho and "The Tale of Genji"

Sappho and Genji

For most of history, and over most of the planet, women have had to play a secondary role in society. Whether in politics, the arts, or any other aspect of culture, women have traditionally been relegated to the background, and thus the examples of women artists throughout history have been few and far between. Two exceptions were the ancient Greek female poet, Sappho, and the 11th century Japanese noblewoman and author, Murasaki Shikibu. Because these two artists were women, their works have a unique point-of-view and present women in a way that is unique and refreshing; and while they were separated by thousands of miles and hundreds of years, they have many aspects in common. Both artists used vivid descriptive prose and expressed their personal feelings in their writings. But while they did have some aspects in common, the way women are portrayed in their work is very different.

Sappho was an ancient Greek poet who was born to an aristocratic family and lived sometime around 600 BC on the island of Lesbos in the Aegean Sea. Ancient Greece was a society dominated by men, but Sappho's works are centered on women. Before her time, Greek literature was the domain of the gods and goddesses, and written from their point-of-view. But Sappho steered Greek literature toward a more personal point-of-view; the view of the individual human being. She was one of the very first poets in Greek literature to write from the perspective of the first person, and her writings are her own personal reflections on the love and pain involved in her personal life. For instance, Sappho was involved in a relationship with a young woman named Atthis; and expressed her love for the girl stating, "I loved you, Atthis, once long ago, a little child you seemed to me and graceless." (Sappho "Atthis" [fragment 49]) in accordance with the style of the time, Sappho wrote her poems to be performed with musical accompaniment, and because this music was almost exclusively performed with a lyre, artists who created in this style are called "lyrists." Sappho's work is almost entirely devoted to love, longing, or her personal feelings. As a love poet, her tone is often soft and gentle; filled with erotic imagery and adoration, mainly toward other women.

The best available date for the birth of Murasaki Shikibu is 973 AD, more than fifteen hundred years after the Greek poet Sappho lived. In 11th century Japan, it was the custom to use written Japanese for common communications while all official and literary work was done in classical Chinese. Because Japan was a highly segregated society,… [read more]

Using Children's Literature to Explore Social Issues Essay

… ¶ … Children's Literature to Explore Social Issues

Social Literature for Children

In many ways, the prudent application of children's literature in a classroom environment can be considered one of the most efficacious means of exploring the complexity of social… [read more]

American Literature Exercise 5.1B: Suspense Essay

… American Literature

Exercise 5.1B: Suspense

The author, John Hersey, manages to create suspense by simply revealing what the deadly, life-altering events that were going to occur were. By providing details about this catastrophic immediate future that waited everyone, the reader… [read more]

Romantic Literature 1st Blog Page Essay

… Romantic Literature

1st Blog Page

In the first blog page, this author will summarize the Book of Urizen by Blake as an archetype. This "book" which is a parody of the biblical Book of Genesis is named for the character… [read more]

Derek Walcott the Antilles Fragments of Epic Memory Essay

… Poetry to Walcott is a gloss, a veneer on the original language. One has the phenomena of the original world -- houses, trees, vegetation, all creation let us say -- and then a veneer on this world that makes it… [read more]

American Literature Frederick Douglas' Autobiography "The Narrative Essay

… American Literature

Frederick Douglas' autobiography "The Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglas" and Kate Chopin's short story "A Pair of Silk Stockings" put across accounts from the lives of two African-Americans living in the nineteenth century. Whereas the action… [read more]

Oranges the Purpose of Literature Essay

… These include: "touch," "gloves," "light," and "fire." All these words create a feeling of warmth to combat the prior imagery invoking feelings of cold. However, these are all pleasantly warm things. The fire at the end of the poem is not one of violent destruction, but imagery of a burning that saves a frozen body. By contrasting the two types of imagery, the writer forces the reader to remember what it felt like the first time that they fell in love, or at least the first time they had a crush. The cold is symbolic of the isolation a person feels when he or she is alone in the world. The warm images are designed to parallel the comfort and happiness a person feels when he or she has the love of another person.

Finally, it is interesting that Gary Soto uses a first-person narrator for his poem. Poetry, because of its very form, is a personal form of literature. To place the narration in a first-person, Soto is identifying heavily with the person who is narrating the story. A first-person narrator provides the text with authority. Instead of being told a story of a young boy who felt his first emotions of love and attraction, the reader is placed inside the mind of this young man and is allowed to feel what he felt in the same ways that he did.

These three components of poetry (tone, imagery, and narration) work together to force the reader to feel more strongly with the narrator of the work than if other literary devices were utilized. The aspects Gary Soto chose to focus on were intentionally used to ensure that the reader would have a personal reaction to the story of the poem. Soto does everything possible to have the reader placed in the mindset of the young man who is feeling his first love. He provides a tone of nostalgia which immediately asks the reader to think back upon their own youths to times when they also loved foolishly. Everyone has had the feeling of excitement when the person they desired touched their hand for the first time. Soto uses imagery like this to bring out those feelings in his readers. He also uses a first-person narrator rather than a third-person omniscient. This forces the reader to see through the eyes of the narrator and to experience this memory as he does.


Soto, Gary.… [read more]

Poetry Anthology Project Term Paper

… Power of Imagery Explored in Poetry

David Ignatow

William Wordsworth

Maurice Kenny

Denis Levertov

Robert Frost

Joy Harjo

Elizabeth Bishop


William Shakespeare

Louise Gluck

Poetry's best friend is the imagination. Without the ability to imagine, poets and readers would… [read more]

Children's Literature Author Study Term Paper

… Children's Literature: Author Study

Most children are well acquainted today with the series the Narnia Chronicles, written by CS Lewis. Born on November 29, 1898, in Belfast Ireland, Clive Staples Lewis is a world renowned writer whose fame goes well… [read more]

Postcolonial Literature How Do Factors of Race and Gender Further Complicate the Relations of Class Essay

… Postcolonial Literature

"Everytime I think I have forgotten, / I think I have lost the mother tongue, / it blossoms out of my mouth. / Days I try to think English: / I look up, / paylo kallo kagdo /… [read more]

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