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Unknown Citizen by Wh Auden

Poetry and the Unknown Citizen - by W.H. Auden Introduction to Poetry: The late Stanley Kunitz received just about every prestigious award and appointment that a poet could achieve. He was named "United States Poet Laureate" in 200; he was designated "State Poet of New York"; he was "Chancellor Emeritus of The Academy of American Poets"; he won the "National…

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American Poet Laureate Robert Hass

Hass views English language as a device to explore and analyze his innermost feelings and doesn't use it for its own sake. This is something extremely important to remember. Hass viewed language as a weapon, which helps him express his sentiments on various subjects, some of them having a very haunting quality about them. For example in the poem titled Interrupted Meditation, the poet uses words and language, which not only flow easily but also manage to grasp every emotion that the poet feels with incredible ease. Reading the following lines from the poem indicate that Hass was more interested in accurate expression of emotions than anything else. Thus he seems to view English language as a tool, which helps him reach the very core of his heart. We live half our lives in fantasy and words... I'm a little ashamed that I want to end this poem singing, but I want to end this poem singing the wooly closed-down buds of the sunflower to which, in English, someone gave the name, sometime, of pearly everlasting." Interrupted Meditations) In the Sun Under Wood for example, Hass used his views on English language to express the emotions of various men and women and explored their psyche using simple everyday American terms. This is an effort worth praising as Gail Wronsky (1997) writes, "...what is profoundly revolutionary than the giving up of space on the page to these female voices is the fact that Hass has given the anima psychic space as well - has explored, as a poet, subject matters and emotions traditionally the provinces of women writers; he risks sentiment, for crying out loud! In "Regalia for a Black Hat Dancer," for example, among so many other things, we find "children's crayon drawings on the wall." Hass has probably learned more about his language when he took up the task of translating Japanese haiku in English. This must have been an experience of profound impact because it taught him the importance of simplification of words in poetry. We notice that most Japanese Haikus are so simple they appear to have been falsely translated. But it is true that Japanese haiku poets use much simpler language than European poets who are responsible for heavily influencing American poets. In his collection of Japanese translation known as The Essential Haiku: Versions of Basho, Busan, and Issa, we notice how simplicity of Japanese language…

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Fred D'aguiar's Surreal Poems Like

Contemplating death in light of race-related murders, Nichols notes that black and white commingle at funerals. "The dead / beside the white candles / will not be offended," (13-15). What attracts scorn and hatred from the community as skin color becomes a requisite article of clothing. Black on fabric does not offend. Yet as skin color, black is a detriment, a drawback, an insult. It is far from being "the number in which she comes into her own power," (8-10). Quite the opposite: black skin indicates a total lack of power, even a lack of life. Black skin weakens whoever wears it; black skin adorned with "amber earrings" or a "scarf of pink" does not rise to any occasion as the black dress does (16-17). While the little black dress imparts prestige and wardrobe success, the same shade of skin denotes degradation. As long as it is not skin, black becomes associated with respect, tradition, and conformity. When black is race, it connotes otherness. Nichols' references are both straightforward and metaphoric, but in "Black" the poet hints at the seriousness of black's plight. Invoking the Klu Klux Klan highlights the physical reality of racism, contrasted with abstract poetic prejudice. It's not just about the merits of black clothes vs. white. The Klan's white robes were wielded as weapons of oppression; their whiteness signified power. Beneath the cloth, white skin gleamed proudly as it murdered black flesh. Black, therefore, symbolizes death. It is the other side of life, the lack of respect and light. Black does not reflect light, it "absorbs everything," (20). Black skinned people absorb cruelty, torture, and suffering. Nichols notes that although a black dress at a party acts as "sensual catalyst," possessing black skin will garner "those sudden inexplicable hostile glances," (23; 26). Black is absolute other, as night is to day. In "White," Nichols provides the other side's story. White signifies light, dawn, day, and color. In contrast to the obliteration of blackness, white reflect life over death, wakefulness over sleep. Yet Nichols refers to somnambulism in a subtle stab at white's inherent weakness: "a sleepwalker," (9). White, though proud reflector of consciousness, conveniently forgets "the memories of ancestors, / all that blackness / against whiteness," (13-15). White-washed "walls of vanilla," those "great solid slabs" are metaphors for the sturdy dominant culture, which was built on the blood of blacks (10-11). False justifications for social and…

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Power of Goodness in 1001

Since everything happens because of his will it is safe to say that everything that happens is just. In other words, when something bad happens to a character, then the event is either a punishment or something which will have a long-term positive effect. It seems that the power of goodness is absolute (Richard, 63). But, if everything happens because it is the will of Allah it results that the human freedom is limited. Freedom is therefore another important theme in the book, the freedom of women on the one hand and the one of the human being on the other one. It seems that both a quite limited and from this point-of-view we may consider this a very important philosophical conception which gives insight from an anthropological and cultural point-of-view. Speaking of goodness and its power, it could be stated that Scheherazade, through her own good nature succeeds into transforming the king in a good person as well. Thus we have a series of actions which condition the ones which will follow. The king had been betrayed and became evil in order to turn good after the one thousand and one nights of stories told by his wife (Gerhardt, 63). Reading between the lines we can see that Scheherazade actually wanted to make his husband understand what goodness really is (forgiveness, humility, justice, humanity, etc.). And the means which she has at her disposal is story telling. In this manner the story and the act of story telling become the theme of the tales, while the tone of the narrator is a moralizing one since he is omniscient (Richard, 63). Techniques such framing and patterning are used in other works as well, such ad the Divine Comedy or the Canterbury tales. The "One thousand and one nights" differ through the themes which are approached and the description of such numerous elements from Africa and the Middle East. The unusual things which occur are incarnations of the fight between good and evil and in the end it is goodness which wins. Bibliography: Burton, Richard. "The Arabian nights study guide." Retrieved march 17, 2009 from http://www.bookrags.com/studyguide-arabiannightsburton/sum.html Gerhardt, Mia. "The art of story-telling: a literary study of the Thousand and one nights." 1963 Hovannistan, R., Sabagh, G. (eds.). "The Thousand and one nights in Arabic literature and society," Georgia Review, 34. 1980 Irwin, R. "The Arabian nights: a companion." 1994 Pinault, David.…

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Gender and Sexuality in Society in the Works of Charlotte Bronte

Gender and Sexuality in Society in the Works of Charlotte Bronte The gander roles issue in Charlotte Bronte's writings is one that arises often right from the beginning. Jane Eyre, an autobiographical book is one that comes under the influence of this subject to deeper level than the others because the novel is indeed partly autobiographical. Villette is another novel…

Pages: 11  |  Thesis  |  Style: MLA  |  Sources: 6


Kill Cliches -- "Mending Wall" by Robert

¶ … Kill Cliches -- "Mending Wall" by Robert Frost and "Dulce et Decorum est" by Wilfred Owens. Perhaps one of the most useful aspects of modern poetry as a literary medium is that poetry has the unique ability to take the words of a cliche and can deploy the intense language of the poetic medium and force readers to reconsider that cliche in a new light. Both "Dulce et Decorum est" by Wilfred Owens and "Mending Wall" by Robert Frost take common sense phrases that 'everyone' -- supposedly knows to be true. But both of these poets used language, the poetic speaker's unique perspective on his situation, and powerful images to undercut such accepted moral tropes. In the case of the American New Englander Robert Frost, the cliche his poem "Mending Wall" attacks is "Good Fences make Good Neighbors." The speaker, the poet, is a farmer. He and his neighbor are engaged in what seems to be a common, annual act of mending the fences of their farms. The poem, like Owens' "Dulce et Decorum est," is located in a very specific place and time, that of Boston, 1915 in the case of Frost. But during this common act of a very specific time and place, Frost achieves a new perspective on the life of a terse, New England farmer. The poet wonders if there is something "there is that doesn't love a wall, / That sends the frozen-ground-swell under it, / and spills the upper boulders in the sun, and makes gaps even two can pass abreast." Frost attributes a kind of mysterious power to nature, a power that wishes to attack the artificial walls human beings set up between themselves, to demarcate one area of nature as their and another area as not theirs. Unlike hunters and dogs, the repairs Frost makes, to his fancy, seem inexplicable. Also, the repairs to the fences are ineffectual: "We have to use a spell to make them balance: / 'Stay where you are until our backs are turned!'" Frost writes of the rocks his neighbor and he put up to block the cracks. Yet the neighbor the poet speaks to during this spring mending time stubbornly insists 'Good fences make good neighbors' even though "My apple trees will never get across / and eat the cones under his pines." Clearly, Frost suggests, something deeper is at stake in the clinging…

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Bells' by Edgar Allen Poe.

For example the word tintinnabulation automatically makes one thing about jubilation and merriment. The poem also gives different meanings to the chiming of bells according to the stage in which they appear. In the first stage, which is the happiest period of man's life, certain degree of innocence and spontaneity is connected with ringing of bells. What a world of merriment their melody foretells! In the second stage, bells indicate a rather rapturous time because of love that man has just found. What a world of happiness their harmony foretells! In the third stage, which is that of maturity, fear is evident from the sounds of bells (What a tale of terror, now, their turbulency tells!) while in the last stage, chiming highlights coldness of death (What a world of solemn thought their monody compels!) The four stages have been carefully discussed and many believe that they have a lot to do with Poe's own life. Thus we can safely assume that Poe did not exactly live a very happy contented life. Instead of thinking about the positive side of maturity and wedding, he is focusing on the grimness of the situation. We must give Poe credit for using sound of bells effectively to highlight various states of mind. Bells have been used not only to accentuate emotions; their chiming also mocks man for harboring hopes for his future. In other words, bells do not always indicate the truth; their sound may often deceive people as it did in the early two stages. It is very important to see that the poet has not used the word foretell in the last two stanzas. This indicates that bells predicted something false in the first two stages while they only presented the reality in the last two. In short, the poem is about four important stages of man's life and highlights the difference between reality and perception. RESOURCE Edgar Allen Poe,……

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Chinua Achebe's Fifth Novel, Anthills

Beatrice has drawn praise from Ikem for the "odd short story and poem" she has written. Ikem is an admired poet as well as a journalist, and his prose-poem "Hymn to the Sun" is held in higher regard by his friends than all of his crusading editorials. Only Chris, the former editor of the Gazette, does not produce literature (this…

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19th Century Romanticism in Wordsworth and Delacroix

¶ … 19th Century Romanticism in Wordsworth and Delacroix The Romantic period and movement covers a wide range of themes, styles and perceptions in art and literature. However, while there are divergent themes and approaches, there are also many areas of similarity. The Romantic era can best be understood through a clear grasp of the underlying ethos and the 'mood' of this genre in art. The ethos of romanticism, whether in literature or painting, conforms in general terms to certain central concerns. Among these central themes that emerge in Romanticism are the importance of the imagination; a heroic and defiant attitude to life, the belief in wider possibilities and experiences and a reaction to the society of the time. With regard to the last point, many Romantic artists were deeply concerned with the perceived disparity between the beauty and order of nature and the often ugly degradation of the emerging industrial cites and environment in Europe in the 19th Century. Wordsworth is often considered a 'nature poet'; however, the theme of nature in his works should be seen in terms of a reaction to the poverty of life and imagination that he saw in the industrialized cities. Central to all the Romantics is a sense of reality that is greater and more vivid than the ordinary everyday reality. It is this desire for an altered and more idealistic reality that can be seen in many Romantic painters. Delacroix for example paints in vivid and passionate tones and colors and deals with dramatic and larger-than-life subjects, such as great battles and massacres. As stated, one of the central themes found in the Romantic poets and artists is the duality between nature, as an ideal state, and ordinary reality. In Wordsworth's poem "Lines Composed a Few Miles above Tintern Abbey," nature becomes the symbol for the reality of knowledge and life that has been lost. Nature is described in vivid and intense terms and in contradistinction to the mundanity of modern civilization. This juxtaposition can be clearly seen in the following lines from the poem These beauteous forms, Through a long absence, have not been to me As is a landscape to a blind man's eye: But oft, in lonely rooms, and 'mid the din Of towns and cities, I have owed to them in hours of weariness, sensations sweet, Felt in the blood, and felt along the heart; And passing even…

Pages: 4  |  Essay  |  Style: MLA  |  Sources: 2


Knight in History by Frances

As a rule, society began to revere these romantic figures in their armor and astride their steeds. By the twelfth century, knightly heroics were being heralded in literature, poetry, and music. In fact, a group of "knightly troubadours" evolved who traveled the countryside reciting vs. Of various knights' escapades. These early oral histories have survived through the centuries and were some of the first records historians had to study regarding the knights and their lives. Of course, most of this literature was highly romanticized and stylized, but they indicate the importance of knights in society. Most importantly, these odes to knighthood resulted in a chivalric code evolving by the 12th century that clearly defined knights and their actions. Chivalry became one of the defining roles of knighthood, and actually defined much of the medieval period. The author notes, "... A knight should be courteous, generous, well-spoken, discreet, faithful in the service of love, he should have 'pretz e valours,' excellence and worth, as well as good sense (Gies 77-78). In turn, society looked to knights as their role models and heroes. This role in society seems far removed from their role as military fighter, but successful knights managed to blend both roles effectively, and this distinguished them throughout the Middle Ages. The knights' role in society altered as they became more prevalent and accepted in the social order. Just as with most members of society, the knight's role altered from their earliest appearances to their gradual demise in the fifteenth century. Knights were rowdy fighters in the beginning, and by the end of their reign, they had evolved into landed gentry who were central figures in the economic and social areas of society. They were members of the aristocracy, and commanded legions of peasants and vassals underneath them. Sometimes entire towns grew up surrounding the knight's lands and castles. Their status in society grew, and so did their wealth. Perhaps one of the most important points in the book is why the knights disappeared. The author maintains the invention of the gun had much to do with their demise. As warfare modernized, the mounted and armored cavalry soldier became increasingly obsolete. The knights and their ideals became outmoded and unnecessary, and by the sixteenth century, they all but disappeared. The author notes, "The knight was no more vulnerable to gunfire than anyone else, but expensive cannon and gunpowder strongly reinforced…

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Compare Shahnameh and Turkish Literature Effects of the Shahnameh in the Turkish and Ottoman Literature

Turkish Literature Compare Shahnameh with Turkish Literature and Classical Ottoman Poetry The Shahnmeh, which was written by Ferdowsi in the late tenth century and early eleventh century, is probably the most famous literary work ever written in that region. This is perhaps surprising since the poem was completed over one millenium ago. The fact that the poem took so long…

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Tenets in Modernism Literature

Tenets Lawrence and Derek Walcott: Tenets of Modernism David Herbert Richards Lawrence (1885-1930) was an English essayist, literary critic, playwright, novelist and poet who published under the name DH Lawrence. Many of Lawrence's writings reflect his ideology regarding the adverse impact and dehumanization that occurs with industrialization and modernity; describing issues such as instinct, spontaneity, vitality and health (Poplawski 1995).…

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Children's Literature the Genre of Children's Literature

Children's Literature The genre of children's literature is not new, in fact, historical records tell us that in the Greek and Roman educational tradition, children were grounded in language and grammar (and one would hope imagination) by reciting poetry and drama. Aesop's Fables have been part of the Western European children's library for at least three hundred years. "And thinkers from Quintilian to John Locke, from St. Augustine to Dr. Seuss, speculated on the ways in which we learn about our langue and our lives from [children"] literature" (Lerer, 2008, 1). There is some scholarly debate, though, on what actually constitutes "Children's Literature." A broad concept holds that the genre includes books intentionally written for children, "excluding works such as comic books, joke books, cartoon books, and nonfiction works that are not intended to be read from front to back, such as dictionaries, encyclopedias, and other reference material" (Anderson, 2006, 2). The genre could also include books written by children, chosen for children, or chosen by children (A Series of Unfortunate Events, Snow White, and Alice's Adventures in Wonderland). Famous speculative fiction author Orson Scott Card comments, "one can make a good case for the idea that children are often the guardians of the truly great literature of the world, for in their love of story and unconcern for stylistic fads and literary tricks, children unerringly gravitate toward truth and power" (Card, 2001). In addition, though, literacy has changed -- with varying opinions on the efficacy of such -- but many books thought of as adult books when first published are now widely read in primary and secondary schools (e.g. Adventures of Huckleberry Finn). Certainly, the genre is rich with creativity, ideas, and in the contemporary world of multi-culturalism and globalism, ripe for addressing contemporary issues in a variety of innovative ways, albeit typically defined by adults rather than the intended audience. For the purposes of this essay, though, we will confine ourselves to five major types of children's literature: Realistic, Fantasy, Traditional, Poetry, and Non-Fiction. We will begin with a broad definition of the genre, and then list the appropriate bibliography for that genre organized by grade level. The list is not meant to be comprehensive, but will provide a broad overview and perspective of the individual types of material one might utilize in a classroom. Realistic Fiction -- Realistic fiction, within children's literature as well as adult, attempts…

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British and German Trench Poetry Side by

¶ … British and German trench poetry side by side Teaching British and German trench war poetry side-by-side One of the difficulties in teaching World War I is that the memory of World War II is often much sharper in the minds of students. The more ambiguous causes of the First World War, and the complex feelings of both German and British soldiers can be lost if there is too much focus on the British War Poets alone. Examining both nationalities' poetic response to war enables a compassionate cross-comparison of both traditions. It enables students to identify both similarities and differences in the responses of German and British war poets, who were responding to the same experience of bloodshed, albeit from different sides of the front lines. It also shows the importance of literature and poetry in the culture of both nations to respond to national crisis, in a way that may be surprising to students today. The author makes an interesting point that viewing 'the war' as a kind of common aesthetic culture may be a more fair way to evaluate poets such as Wilfred Owen and Siegfried Sassoon, than comparing……

Pages: 1  |  Research Proposal  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 0


Sappho's Poetry: Implications for Classical Greece and

Sappho's Poetry: Implications for Classical Greece and Modern Times Throughout history, artists have reflected and offered commentary on the society of which they are a part. Because their works become immortal, people can have an understanding of different societies centuries after civilizations have disappeared. The works of poets, musicians, novelists, essayists, and the like allow readers across time to form…

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Middle Eastern Poetry Is Often Peppered With

Middle Eastern Poetry is often peppered with honest assessments of the physical and emotional turmoil of conflict. Poetry in the Middle East tends to be a voice of record, in stylistic descriptions of the conflicts of mind, body and spirit that demonstrate a life (or many lives) in the turmoil of conflict and change. Middle Eastern writers tend to write…

Pages: 6  |  Term Paper  |  Style: MLA  |  Sources: 5


Confluence of Prose and Poetry

Confluence of Prose and Poetry Women, under the auspices of a system of marriage that left this with very little recourse or power to prosper on their own often felt a sense of powerlessness that encompassed their whole mind and often showed in literature written by them. There are many examples of the kind of powerlessness that brought out within…

Pages: 4  |  Term Paper  |  Style: MLA  |  Sources: 3


American Literature Despite Their Different Backgrounds and

American Literature Despite their different backgrounds and experiences, Ralph Waldo Emerson and Henry David Thoreau shared a number of ideas. Compare their views on nature, the individual, and conformity. Ralph Emerson and Henry David Thoreau were both great writers that had very vivid ideas on nature, the individual, and conformity. They were both outstanding leaders in the transcendentalist movement and…

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American Literature Comparing and Contrasting Ideas Ralph

American Literature Comparing and Contrasting Ideas Ralph Waldo Emerson and Fredrick Douglas both express their ideas and philosophies on a person's happiness and self-fulfillment. Both of these authors have very strong opinions on what they believe constitutes true self-satisfaction. In order to be truly satisfied with not only the way one is living one's life, but with how one carries…

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Fiction in Comparison to Poetry

The question of what the life insurance check will be spent on drives the conflict between Walter Lee and Mama and is the center of the plot. This debate represents a fight over materialism and integrity. However, the full implications of Walter's desires must be grasped to perceive the deeper levels of the debate. Wilkerson speaks about a restored scene of the play scene "which is key to this understanding. Inserted at the end of Act 11, Scene 2, the scene shows a brief moment between Walter and his young son, Travis. Walter, who has just been entrusted with the remaining $6,500 by his mother and who sees his dream of economic success within his grasp, speaks in a tender tone not heard before from him (Wilkerson, 1986, 445-446)." In this scene, Walter's son understands the motivations behind the conflict and that Walter's fixation was not just upon the physical, but upon deeper things as well. Like the suicidal man in Summer Solstice, we cannot see specifically what is making him tick. As J. Charles Washington notes, there is a prophetic significance to Walter that drives the play and gives us clues as to the deeper meanings (Washington, 1988, 112). In the opinion of this author, the drama is a stronger genre because it allows a longer and more in-depth examination of the characters. Poetry is very short and can leave the reader grasping for details. However, poetry allows for a more focused "snapshot" of events. A well written poem can convey a lot of information in a short period of time and leaves the reader more room for interpretation. Both genres have narrators and conflict. However, this makes foreshadowing difficult in poetry, although not impossible. The drama allows for much more foreshadowing due to its length and the amount of time that the author can spend on developing the characters. Conclusion To sum up, in this short essay, we have conducted an examination of fiction in comparison to poetry and drama by drawing upon specific examples from the poem- "Summer Solstice in New York" by Sharon Olds and of drama from A Raisin in the Sun by Lorraine Hansberry. We have discussed what are features that define the different genres and also examined their different strengths and weaknesses. References Field, E., & Locklin, G. (1992). New geography of poets. (p. xvii). Little Rock, AR: University of Arkansas Press. Washington,…

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Role and Importance of the Poets Has

¶ … role and importance of the poets has changed throughout the history of mankind. Back in the period, the Romantics believed that the poet represented the spiritual guide of the people, who helped the reader identify their most internal emotions, intuitions and imaginations. Today, the role of the poet is less certain than during those days and this is…

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Victorian Literature Was Remarkably Concerned

" The constant movement of passion is not troped as an imaginative freedom, but rather as its own form of routine -- like the "ebb and flow / of human misery" in Arnold's "Dover Beach," the tidal image here is one of senseless repetitiveness. In "Dover Beach" it is the senselessness that Arnold emphasizes, where Victorian religious doubts render the…

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New African by Andrea Lee

Human nature Shows how many behave in specific circumstances Reading everything but the Bible. Exercise 5.6C: Evaluative Essay Directions: Now that you've finished the reading in your textbook, you'll write an evaluative essay offering your well-considered judgment on a piece of literature. Your focus work can be anything you've read during this course or outside. This essay is not just an opinion though; you offer your evaluation and then support it with reasons and evidence to support your reasons. It should be at least (5) five paragraphs long. Calculating the value of literature is much like calculating the value of a work of art -- it's mostly personal taste with some somewhat objective criteria (golden ratios and such). So what makes a good book? Mostly, that's up to you. Did you enjoy reading it? Did it meet your objective in reading? Why you read has as much to do with the quality of the work as the work itself. However, in order to equitably evaluate literature, we need to look at why a writer writes, and not just why readers read. If Socrates is to be believed, only the examined life is worth living. Considering how enduring that thought has been, it probably has some merit, and we can apply that to why writers write -- to examine life. A piece of prose or poetry that somehow makes us see -- as writers and readers -- the truth of who we are, good and bad. That's the literature worth reading. James Baldwin's Autobiographical Notes are an enduring piece of literature because they are an examination of his life that teaches us something about our own. From the outset of the Notes, Baldwin states that, "The story of [his] childhood is the usual bleak fantasy, and we can dismiss it with the restrained observation that [he] would certainly not consider living it again." Maybe we don't all come from homes with a plethora of babies, but it's safe to say that we are all disappointed with our childhoods in some way, and the perplexity is why we all feel like we're the only ones. The understated tone with which Baldwin says his childhood sucked makes you examine your own attitudes and see just how silly it is to dwell on the fact that life wasn't sunshine and daisies growing up. Life is how it is -- get over it. Just moments…

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Element of Literature Theme or Conflict

¶ … Conflict The Theme of Freedom in Three Works What is freedom and how does it arrive? This challenging question has been answered in various ways through literature as well as philosophy. It remains a stable concern for every new generation of thinkers and for each new situation tackled in literary works. Narratives and poems have suggested alternative arrangements…

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Assessment on Poetry

¶ … poetry? Why or not? An absolute YES, and for various reasons. From a practical standpoint, poetry allows students to experience the language, to make connections that are otherwise not apparent, and to entertain, get children to talk about language (and not just children), and to make intellectual discoveries that are not necessarily easy. Party of being a teach is motivating children to learn -- what better way to teach reading than to use poetry? Poetry helps in other ways, too: memorization, public speaking, the ability to explain abstract thoughts, and a way to translate words into art. What better way to translate prose into images, and have the students understand and explain such (Paschen, et.al. 2005)? What has been your response to poetry and/or the students in your charge, and what do you think influenced such responses? Clearly, it depends on the poem, and the way it is presented. If poetry is used in regularly to help children understand the emotional response to literature, it can be an enlightening and empowering experience. For instance, using holiday poems, or poems that express a particular sense of the emotion the child is feeling, an event, etc. makes it all the more viable and robust. The real power of poetry, though, is not just reading, but actually allowing the children to write and participate in the learning experience. There are so many different types of poems that children can use to express themselves, and frankly, once they are able to visualize that they can indeed express themselves in ways that are nonsensical, deep, meaningful, emotional, etc., they are often quite comfortable using this medium to help them understand and interact/react with their world (See also: Moore, 1999). Poetry is meant to be seen on the page AND read aloud. Choose a poem from the anthology you read for this class. First, analyze how its look on the page - its font, the layout, the illustrations that accompany it. Then read it aloud, first to yourself and then to someone else, and analyze the effect of the poem? " your response to it - according to how it sounds. (Consider the items authors choose from on the "Lit Techniques and Elements" posted earlier in the term). Source: Always Surprised -- Owl Started This. From Cowing, S. (1996) Fire in the Sea. 1. Page layout -- Childlike drawing of owl in brown tones…

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Poetry Anthology Project

Power of Imagery Explored in Poetry David Ignatow William Wordsworth Maurice Kenny Denis Levertov Robert Frost Joy Harjo Elizabeth Bishop Komunyakaa William Shakespeare Louise Gluck Poetry's best friend is the imagination. Without the ability to imagine, poets and readers would cease to exist. Poets utilize many elements to ignite imagination, with imagery being one of their most popular devices. From…

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Children's Literature Author Study

Children's Literature: Author Study Most children are well acquainted today with the series the Narnia Chronicles, written by CS Lewis. Born on November 29, 1898, in Belfast Ireland, Clive Staples Lewis is a world renowned writer whose fame goes well beyond the aforementioned series. For his contemporaries, especially for the American and British public, as well as for his students,…

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Postcolonial Literature How Do Factors of Race and Gender Further Complicate the Relations of Class

Postcolonial Literature "Everytime I think I have forgotten, / I think I have lost the mother tongue, / it blossoms out of my mouth. / Days I try to think English: / I look up, / paylo kallo kagdo / oodto jai, huhvay jzaday pohchay / ainee chanchma kaeek chay / the crow has something in its beak." -- Sujata Bhatt The immigrant is defined by his language; it is entangled with the "very roots" of his being (Kumar 17). As an immigrant struggles to find his identity in the world, there is one element that will always define him -- his language. "Those of us who do use English do so in spite of our ambiguity towards it…To conquer English may be to complete the process of making ourselves free" (17). This is clearly illustrated in A.K. Ramanujan's poem entitled "Self-Portrait," in which we meet a person who is writing in English thus obviously influenced by Western culture, however, when he sees himself in a shop window, his "self-portrait," he sees himself as the product of his racial ethos and nation. "I resemble everyone / but myself," he says. Here we seen an obsession with private ancestral memories, leading to a search for racial roots (Rukhaiyar & Prasad 125). Likewise, China Achebe's Things Fall Apart was written in English, suggesting that he wrote it not for his Nigerian people, but he wrote it for the West. In the work, he critiques and attempts to correct the vision of Africa that was created by other writers of the colonial period. Achebe tackles the problem with communication between the Igbo and the missionaries. "Among the Igbo the art of conversation is regarded very highly, and proverbs are the palm-oil with which words are eaten" (5). This sentence shows the reader how the formality in the Igbo language caused confusion when dealing with the Europeans. The Europeans are direct and efficient in their dealings, but the Igbo value the art of rhetoric and incorporate metaphors and imagery, which, to the missionaries, seems highly inefficient. Achebe writes Things Falls Apart from a peacemaking position. He is desperately trying to understand his past as a way of finding his identity. Rather than coming from a place of absolute pessimism, Achebe, in fact, is able to make the search for his identity in a postcolonial world a positive quest. He is using education, incorporating the…

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Children's Literature Picture Books Allard,

One evening she transforms her parents and her little sister for a life on the town. The book is designed for a primary level audience. Swanson, Susan. The House in the Night. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company. 2008. Print. A young girl is offered a golden key to a house. A giant bird leads her on a fantastic journey that begins small and is confined within the house but grows and takes on celestial proportions as the repetitive story continues. This book will most appeal to preschoolers and early primary level children. Weisner, David. Flotsam. New York: Clarion Books. 2006. Print. A young beachcomber is searching the beach for anything that has washed up when he finds a rare treasure, a Melville underwater camera. He develops the film and as he looks at the pictures, he finds amazing fantastic shots of underwater mechanical fish, civilizations living on the backs of starfish, and most amazingly, a picture of a girl holding a picture of a boy holding a picture, and so on. As he looks through the magnifying class, he discovers that the pictures continue back to the very first pictures ever taken. After taking a picture of himself with the amazing camera, he tosses it back into the water for the next beachcomber to find. This book is designed for a primary audience. Willems, Mo. Don't Let the Pigeon Drive the Bus! New York: Hyperion Books for Children. 2003. Print. The bus driver has to leave his post for a moment, and as he leaves, he instructs the readers not to let the pigeon drive the bus. The pigeon starts out sweetly requesting to drive, and he becomes more and more demanding as the readers tell him no, until finally he begins screaming. The bus driver returns and the pigeon leaves, only to find a tractor trailer where he begins the whole process over again. The book is geared towards preschoolers. Zelinsky, Paul. Rapunzel. New York: Dutton Children's Books. 1997. Print. This picture book is a retelling of the story of Rapunzel. Richly illustrated in Renaissance-like artwork, the Caldecott Award book adds a new twist: in this version, Rapunzel is pregnant with the Prince's baby and celebrates a hasty wedding in the tower after he manages the long climb up to the window via her reddish-gold locks. The book is appropriate for early readers and up. Fiction for Middle-Elementary Grades Clements,…

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Family:' Familial Love in Literature While Romantic,

¶ … family:' Familial love in literature While romantic, erotic, and even platonic (friendly) love may vary in their significance across cultures, it is difficult to name a society that does not give great significance to familial love. The genetic bond between family members is completely involuntary, and chosen by biology and circumstance, rather than the individual human will. However, despite the fact that it is almost impossible to survive without some sort of family ties, the subject of family love is almost invariably linked to violence, as in the case of Theodore Roethke's "My Papa's Waltz," "A Good Man is Hard to Find" by Flannery O'Connor, and Hamlet by William Shakespeare. The uncomfortable closeness of family love -- sometimes wonderful, sometimes terrible -- brings discord, tension, and even death in these tales. "My Papa's Waltz" by Roethke depicts an intense, almost violent scene: the speaker's father arrives home after drinking, and begins to dance with the boy. The boy evidently admires his father despite the smell of whisky on the father's breath. And despite the fact the father beats the time of the waltz on the boy's head, the boy is still "clinging" to his father's shirt as the child is waltzed off to bed. The father is powerful yet undisciplined and the boy his absolutely no control over the relationship: "But I hung on like death:/Such waltzing was not easy." To experience his father's love, the boy must go along with his father's moods and whims. Yet the child loves his father enough that he allows himself to be swept up by the joy of the experience. The father is slightly dangerous, as is evidenced by the alcohol he has been drinking and the dizziness of the boy. The father is not tender, or orderly, like the mother who is frowning at the father for being out drinking so late. The mother is obviously the everyday caretaker and discipliner, relegated to a world of pots and pans that rattle and slide from the shelves, rather than the subject of the boy's filial loyalty. The boy cannot resist feeling love for his father, and ignoring his mother even though: "The hand that held my wrist / Was battered on one knuckle; / At every step you missed / My right ear scraped a buckle." In contrast, the family of "A Good Man is Hard to Find" by Flannery O'Connor…

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Postmodernism in American Literature Death of a

Postmodernism in American Literature Death of a Salesman is, a play written by Arthur Miller, can be loosely considered as postmodern literature by virtue of its being written in 1949, after World War II when most critics supposed the postmodern era began. Looking at Miller's play on a deeper level and analyzing its elements, one can see that it indeed adheres to the postmodern movement. The play is told from the perspective of the main character, Willy Loman who is a 63-year-old salesman. Willy Loman is a rather unsuccessful salesman, only receiving small commission. He is obsessed with achieving the American Dream of being materially successful and in the process, he loses his mind. There are a few times when the play focuses on the other characters such as Biff, Happy, Linda, and Charley and the perspective shifts from Willy's point-of-view to these characters' points-of-view. These shifts in perspective are characteristic of postmodern works as Tamara Ponzo Brattoli pointed out in her article about postmodernism. In Death of a Salesman, when the perspective shifts from Willy Loman to the other characters, time, as well as place, does not change. This is in contrast to Willy Loman's perspective where the story is discontinuous and fragmented. This is illustrated in the breaks in continuity characterized by Willy Loman's daydreams. There are shifts in time when these breaks occur. A scene starts with the present time and as the scene is disrupted by Willy Loman's daydreams wherein shifts in time occur. The present day drifts to memories from the past or to imagined conversations with other characters. Take one scene for example, when Willy comes home from an unsuccessful sales trip and he complains to his older son, Biff. When Biff and his younger brother, Happy, reminisce their adolescence, Willy engages in a daydream where he commends his sons for washing his car. In this scene, Willy's sons are shown to be young.……

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Elizabethan Love Poetry Is Laden With Themes

Elizabethan love poetry is laden with themes related to morality, such as in relation to sexual relations. Many Elizabethan poems also address morality in the general context of ethics and social grace. Morality is sometimes referred to in a political context as well. William Shakespeare's Sonnet #29 is one such poem that addresses morality within the context of politics and social norms. Sonnet #29 displays the poet's remarkable ability to convey moral meaning without being pedantic. Moreover, the sonnet reveals a secular set of morals. Alternatively, a set of religious Christian morals is addressed in Mary Sidney Herbert, Countess of Pembroke's Psalm 51. Simply calling her poems psalms reveals Herbert's religiosity. The poem also reads like a guilt-ridden confessional and therefore has a different tone than Shakespeare's Sonnet #29. Shakespeare and Herbert demonstrate the distinction between secular and religious moral attitudes that emerged in Elizabethan England. One of the differences between secular and religious morality is that secular morality refers simply to being in conflict with mundane social norms, whereas religious morality refers to a state of sin. In other words, Herbert suggests that following social norms is insufficient; a person must be in tune with God. Shakespeare, on the other hand, implies that social norms define morality. For example, the narrator of Shakespeare's Sonnet #29 begins by stating he or she is "in disgrace with fortune and men's eyes," (l 1). Shakespeare's sonnet completely lacks any reference to God in the context of moral righteousness. The narrator is concerned about his or her social standing and of being an outcast but not necessarily about angering God or facing spiritual perdition. Mary Sidney Herbert, on the other hand, describes moral virtue only within the context of a relationship with God. The narrator of Herbert's Psalm 51 places moral transgression squarely within the framework of spiritual sin and implores, "wipe, O Lord, my sins from sinful me," (l 4). Another difference between secular and religious morality is the preferred method of absolution. When the narrator of Shakespeare's Sonnet #29 seeks absolution he or she does not petition the Lord. In fact, the narrator does not seem remorseful at all. The last line of the sonnet reads, "I scorn to change my state with kings," which suggests that the narrator feels morally justified for whatever action led to his being a pariah (l 14). On the other hand, Herbert's narrator in Pslam…

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Romantic Modern Post Modern Literature

Romantic, Modern and Postmodern Literature There is a great deal of debate about the demarcation points or the areas of transition between romanticism, modernism and postmodernism. On the one hand, many see the modernist movement in art and literature as being, in some senses, an extension of the themes and the intentions of the late romantics like W.B. Yeats; and…

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Explication of Poetry

¶ … Art Elizabeth Bishop's poem, "One Art," is a study on the ironies we encounter when as we move through life. While many of us strive to be masters of our art, or talent, we rarely desire to become a master at losing things. While this may be true, the poet demonstrates how this art can be easily achieved almost on a daily basis. Bishop illustrates how the art of losing is not difficult to mater through examples in her own life. She moves from seemingly unimportant things to perhaps extremely significant things and then to extremely important personal things that she lost to prove her point. In the fist lines of the poem, the poet introduces us to her theory, that the art of loss "isn't hard to master / so many things seem filled with the intent / to be lost that their loss is no disaster" (Bishop 1-3). These first few lines are painfully honest and ironic in that no one sets out to be a master at the art of loss - it just happens in out lives. With this notion, the poet continues in the same vein by focusing on some things that she has lost without meaning to have lost them. For example, she points out that many of us lose something every day - from keys to time when we waste an hour doing something worthless. In this respect, we can see how losing can become an art without much effort at all. The second stanza, the poet elaborates on her theory by focusing on "places, names, and where it was you meant / to travel" (8-9). By doing these things, the poet points out, one is not actually involved in so much of a disaster as the art of losing. In the fourth stanza, the poet turns to more personal losses, as she begins speaking in first person. She begins with seemingly small items of not much interest, including her "mother's watch" (10) and moves quickly to larger more significant items, such as her "next-to-last" (11) house. It is interesting to note that the poet draws attention to things that are lost and things that simply do……

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Responding to Literature

¶ … people view metaphysical poetry as contrived, but I tend to find this view flawed. The poetry is not a plot to confuse the audience, but it is more of a deeper meaning of a connection between two previously unrelated objects that the poet sees himself. Just because the reader might not understand that connection, does not mean that it is not there. I personally believe that there are some connections in metaphysical poetry which truly do work. A more obvious example of the conceits of this type of poetry as successful is in the work of George Herbert's "Easter Wings." Not only does Herbert make metaphysical connections with the words of the poem, he does so with the visual structure as well. The actual stanzas look like wings, and the rise and fall of the action coincides with the angles of the wing shape. This is a connection which brings the religious ideals into the visual frame of the reader. John Donne's famous work "Death Be Not Proud," personifies death in a much different way than the normal idea of death as scary and fearful. In fact, Donne does the exact opposite, and strips death of all its fearful images saying that the act of taking life is not up to him, and that he is a……

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American Literature: From Colonialism to Realism Some

American Literature: From Colonialism to Realism Some of the first American literature was authored in the Colonial period. Both European visitors and Colonists authored pamphlets and brochures explaining life in the colonies during this period. Captain John Smith is thus considered to be the first American author. Other major writers from this period include George Percy, William Penn, and John Lawson. Central to the Colonists' concern were the religious disputes that had prompted them to re-locate to America. John Winthrop describes the founding of the Massachusetts Bay Colony in great detail in a journal. Chief among the early American poets were Michael Wigglesworth and Anne Bradstreet. After the Revolution, the Federalist papers - essays penned by James Madison, Alexander Hamilton, and John Jay - would become a classic of American political literature. Thomas Jefferson is also considered to be one of the most talented and prolific authors of this era, having penned the Declaration of Independence, Notes on the State of Virginia, and countless letters. The post-Revolutionary period produced more than just political writing, however. It also gave birth to the first American novel - the Power of Sympathy by Hill Brown. American writers had yet to discover a distinctly American style, though. Many of the earliest American novels are heavily derivative of the Gothic style that was popular in England at this time. It was not until the early 19th century that a distinctly American style of writing emerged in the works of such prolific authors as Edgar Allan Poe, Washington Irving, and James Fennimore Cooper. In the middle……

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American Poetry

Robert Frost's Poetry Robert Frost is America's poet. Living a life dedicated to poetry, Frost wrote some of the best and most-admired poetry in American literature. Frost is famous because his poetry reads well - it seems simple but there is always something else going on if one takes the time to look. Frost is also known for utilizing the…

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Canon Defining African-American Literature

¶ … African-American Literature The African-American Literary Cannon The African-American Literary Canon is not easy to define briefly. Still, the corpus of African-American literature is clearly modeled on a few distinct characteristics. First of all, the roots of African-American Literature have to be taken into consideration. While establishing a canon, the common tie which unites the different writers, over a…

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New Revolution Literature

New Revolution Literature The Literature of the New Republic 1776-1836 The Declaration of Independence of 1776 is probably the most significant moment in American history of all times. This date marks the end of America's War of Independence, when the thirteen colonies existent at that time finally were finally liberated from the dominance of the British Empire. Besides the undoubted…

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American Literature, Like All Other Nationalistic Literature

American Literature, like all other nationalistic literature has had an evolution that marks frequently changing opinions with regard to what are to be included in the voice of literature. What do we consider the "classic" works of American literature and how do such representations display what is American literature? What it means to be American literature has expanded, as the…

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